INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER MUSIC - Free

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER MUSIC - Free
Serban Nichifor
Composer, Teacher
Roumania, Bucarest
About the artist
http://www.voxnovus.com/composer/Serban_Nichifor.htm
Born: August 25, 1954, in Bucharest, Romania
Married to Liana Alexandra, composer: http://www.free-scores.com/partitions_gratuites_lianaalexandra.htm#
Studies
National University of Music, Bucharest, Doctor in Musicology
Theology Faculty, University of Bucharest
International courses of composition at Darmstadt, Weimar, Breukelen and Munchen
USIA Stipendium (USA)
Present Position
Professor at the National University of Music, Bucharest (Chamber Music Department);
Member of UCMR (Romania), SABAM (Belgium), ECPMN (Holland)
Vice-president of the ROMANIA-BELGIUM Association
Cellist of the Duo INTERMEDIA and co-director of the NUOVA MUSICA CONSONANTE-LIVING MUSIC
FOUNDATION INC.(U.S.A) Festival, with Liana ALEXANDRA
Selected Works
OPERA, SYMPHONIC, VOCAL-SYMPHONIC AND CONCERTANTE MUSIC:
Constellations for Orchestra (1977)
Symphony I Shadows (1980)
Cantata Sources (1977)
Cantata Gloria Heroum Holocausti (1978)
Opera Miss Christina (libretto by Mircea ELIADE,1981... (more online)
Qualification:
PROFESSOR DOCTOR IN COMPOSITION AND MUSICOLOGY
Personal web:
http://romania-on-line.net/whoswho/NichiforSerban.htm
Associate:
SABAM - IPI code of the artist : I-000391194-0
About the piece
Title:
Composer:
Licence:
Instrumentation:
Style:
Serban Nichifor on free-scores.com
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER MUSIC
Nichifor, Serban
Copyright (c) Serban Nichifor
Music theory
Contemporary
http://www.free-scores.com/Download-PDF-Sheet-Music-serbannichifor.htm
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First added the : 2008-11-28
Last update : 2008-11-28 11:16:55
Thank you so much for sending me your updated Introduction to
Computer Music. It is a great achievement, and will be of much use to
your students and people working in the field. Congratulations.
BARRY SCHRADER
Professor - CALARTS: California Arts School of Music
Dear Serban,
Thank you very much for sending your book. I appreciate it very
much.
BEN BIERMAN
Professor - Center for Computer Music at Brooklyn College
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INTRODUCERE IN COMPUTER MUSIC
Compendium
Conf.univ.Dr.Serban NICHIFOR
Facultatea de Interpretare Muzicala
Universitatea Nationala de Muzica din Bucuresti
[email protected] ; [email protected] ;
http://romania-on-line.net/whoswho/NichiforSerban.htm
Copyright © UCMR-ADA, SABAM - 2005
CUPRINS
- INTRODUCERE
- Cap. A – EVOLUTIA MIJLOACELOR DE PRELUCRARE A INFORMATIEI, CU
APLICATIE IN ARTA SUNETELOR
(Mijloace manuale si mecanice in sistem zecimal; Calculatoarele din generatia O;
Calculatoare electronice in sistem binar; generatia I; generatia II; generatia III; generatia IV;
generatia V)
- Cap. B – ELABORAREA AUDIO-NUMERICA
- 1.) Prolegomene; - 2.) Sinteza sunetului digital; - 3.) Tipuri de fisiere digitale audio; - 4.)
Principalele fisiere digitale audio; - 5.) Programe de convertire utilizate in acest curs;
- 6.) Programe muzicale;
- Programe audio in sistemul de operare LINUX
- Programe audio in sistemul de operare MACINTOSH
- Programe audio in sistemul de operare WINDOWS (functii)
- a.) Programe MIDI de redactare muzicala - „Mozart 6“; „Finale 2003“; „Sibelius 2“;
„NoteWorty Composer 1.75“; „Lime 8.00“; „Encore 4.5.5“; „Score“;
- b.) Programe WAV de editare muzicala - „Sound Forge 4.5“; „Audacity 1.2.0-pre2“;
„Pro Tools 5.0.1.471“;
- c.) Convertere
- WAV-MP3-WMA: „MusicMatch Jukebox 6.00“; „ Shuffler 4.2“;
- WAV in MIDI: „AmazingMIDI 1.70“;
- MIDI in WAV (sau MP3) : „Acid Pro 4.0“;
- Imaginea partiturii in sunet: „SharpEye 1.15“;
- Text scris in sunet (voce): „River Past Talkative 1.5.1.31216“;
- Imaginea fotografica in sunet: „MIDImage 2.4.4.1“;
- d.) Programe de editare multi-tracks
- „Acid Pro 4.0“;
- e.) Programe complementare
- „KB Piano 1.1“; „Praat 4.1.12“; „Fractal Tune Smithy 2.21“;
- Cap. C – MUZICA DE CAMERA ASISTATA DE CALCULATOR
- 1.) Aspecte intonationale
- 2.) Interpretarea comparata
- 3.) Politempia structurala
- 4.) Efectul de intarziere in practica ansamplurilor – cu aplicatie la proiectul
„Sound WIRE“
- 5.) Configurarea toposului acustic (de la spatiul arhitectonic la spatiul virtual)
- 6.) Configurarea acusticii instrumentale
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- 7.) Alte domenii abordate la IRCAM
- 8.) Procedee de sinteza si transformare digitala a sunetului utilizate si in aplicatii camerale
live-electronice („Phase Shifting“, „The Phase Vocoder“, „Convolution“, „Sampling“,
„Localizare/Spatializare“, „Prelucrari grafice“, „Sinteza aditiva“, „Filtrari“, „Waveshaping“,
„Amplitude Modulation“, „Frequency Modulation“, „Morphing“, „Sinteza granulara“)
- Cap. D - MUZICA FRACTALA (ALGORITMICA, GENERATIVA)
- Cap. E - LIVE COMPUTER MUSIC – O NOUA IPOSTAZA A ARTEI INTERACTIVE - BIBLIOGRAFIE GENERALA SELECTIVA
- APPENDIX: „Principalele comenzi in sistemul de operare PS-DOS INTRODUCERE
Adresat in principal studentilor Universitatii Nationale de Muzica din Bucuresti, dar si tuturor
celor interesati in investigarea complexului fenomen „COMPUTER MUSIC“, acest compendium
incearca sa surprinda, intr-o imagine eminamente sintetica, coordonatele unui nou gen muzical
aflat in plina evolutie - cu consecinte majore in prezentul, dar mai ales viitorul artei sunetelor.
Nascut, ca si jazz-ul, in atat de fecundul spatiu cultural nord-american (ponderea muzicienilor
din U.S.A fiind de peste 90 % !), genul „Computer Music“ reprezinta acum o dimensiune unanim
recunoscuta – dinamica dezvoltarii sale fiind impresionanta, mai ales printr-o perpetua
expansiune in cele mai inedite domenii ale cunoasterii, determinand si elaborarea unor proiecte
inter-disciplinare – in planurile creatiei, interpretarii si cercetarii - imposibil de realizat cu
mijloacele traditionale. De aceea, prezentul compendiu nu poate avea un caracter exhaustiv – el
reflectand in mod pragmatic, din perspectiva practicii muzicale, doar trei elemente constitutive,
ce sunt structurate in capitolele: (A) „Evolutia mijloacelor de prelucrare a informatiei, cu aplicatie
la arta sunetelor“, (B) “Elaborarea audio-numerica“ si (C) „Muzica de camera asistata de
calculator“. Avand o configuratie interactiva (determinata si de evolutia extraordinar de rapida a
genului, in multiplele lui ipostaze), compendium-ul evidentiaza in acest sens si o serie de legaturi
(„links“-uri) cu unele dintre cele mai documentate surse de informare accesibile prin Internet.
Dedic aceasta lucrare mamei mele, Dr. Livia NICHIFOR si sotiei mele, distinsei compozitoare si
profesoare Liana ALEXANDRA (http://romania-on-line.net/whoswho/AlexandraLiana.htm ).
- Capitolul A EVOLUTIA MIJLOACELOR DE PRELUCRARE A INFORMATIEI, CU APLICATIE IN
ARTA SUNETELOR
- I.)– a.) Mijloace manuale in sistem zecimal: 1.) Abacul (inventat in China antica si preluat de
cultura greco-romana); 2.) Instrumentele de navigatie;- b.) Mijloace mecanice in sistem zecimal:
1.) Rigla de calcul (1620, William OUGHTRED, logaritmi); 2.) Masina de calcul inventata de
Leonardo DA VINCI (sec.XV, operationala cu numere pana la 13 cifre); 3.) “Arca
Musarithmica”- sintetizorul pneumatic (cu partitura montata pe un tambur-program) imaginat in
1640 de Athanasius KIRCHER (teoretician al manieristilor si autor al primei enciclopedii) in
“Musurgia Universalis”; 4.) Masina de calcul inventata de Blaise PASCAL (1642 – bazata pe
adunare si scadere); 5.) Aritmometrul inventat de Gottfried VON LEIBNITZ (1671 – cu cele 4
operatii aritmetice) si perfectionat de Xavier THOMAS (1820) si Charles BABBAGE (1822 –
“Analytical Engine” - masina diferentiala cu cartele perforate, operationala pana la 8 secimale si
capabila sa genereze structuri muzicale, asa cum remarca in 1847 Lady Ada LOVELACE) evoluand pana la diferitele masini de calcul mecanice si electromecanice utilizate inclusiv in a
doua jumatate a sec. XX (bazate pe principiul rotilor Odhner si pe stocarea informatiei pe banda
de hartie perforata); 6.) “Würfelspiel” (“Joc de zaruri”) de Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART
(1756-1791) – primul experiment de aleatorism controlat in muzica (Appendix 3); 7.) Sisteme
mecanice cu program: a.) Razboiul de tesut cu cartele perforate (1802, Joseph JACQUARD); b.)
Echipamentul mecanografic cu cartele perforate inventat de americanul Herman HOLLERITH
si folosit in 1890 la prelucrarea datelor referitoare la recensamanatul populatiei din S.U.A.;
- II.) Calculatoarele din generatia 0 (1931-1944), cu program si in sistem zecimal: 1.)
calculatoarele electromecanice Z1 – Z3 (1931-1941, Konrad ZUSE); 2.) calculatorul “Colossus”
(cu 2000 de tuburi electronice, realizat in 1943 la British Intelligence Establishement si utilizat in
descifrarea codului secret german “Enigma”); 3.) calculatorul cu relee electromagnetice si
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cartele perforate ASCC (Automatic Sequence Controller Computer) realizat in 1937, la
Universitatea Harvard, de Howard AITKEN si perfectionat cu sprijinul IBM in 1944, prin
calculatorul “Mark 1 Harvard” (primul calculator electromecanic complet automatizat si dirijat
prin program – operational pana in 1949).
- III.) Calculatoare electronice in sistem binar:
- 1.) Calculatoarele electronice din generatia 1 (1946-1958), bazate pe o arhitectura sintetizata
de americanul John VON NEUMANN (in sistem binar si logica booreana): a.) ENIAC/Electronic
Numerical Integrator and Calculator (1946, U.S.A., John V. MANCHLY, J. Presper ECKERT,
John VIN NEUMANN – Universitatea Pennsylvania – operational pana in 1955); in anul 1957
Departamentul Apararii din S.U.A. organizeaza initiaza proiectul ARPA, reprezentand prima
retea cibernetica de comunicatii; b.) UNIVAC-1/Universal Automatic Computer (1950, U.S.A. –
primul calculator electronic comercializat); c.) MANCHESTER MARK 1 (1948, Marea Britanie
– cu program memorat): d.) EDSAC/Electronic Digital Sequential Automatic Computer (1949,
Universitatea din Cambridge – folosind efectiv primul sistem de operare); e.) apar primele
studiouri de computer music – in 1957 la Bell Laboratories din Murray Hill (New Jersey), iar in
1958 la Illinois University, unde este elaborata prima compozitie muzicala pe computer – “Illiac
Suite” for string quartet (1956) de Lejaren HILLER si Leonard ISAACSON; apar primele programe
din seria “MUSIC” realizate de Max MATTHEWS la Bell Labs; f.) in Romania –
CIFA/Calculatorul Institutului de Fizica Atomica, 1957), MECIPT (Institutul Politehnic din
Timisoara) si DACICC 1 (Institutul de Calcul din Cluj);
- 2.) Calculatoarele electronice din generatia a II-a (1959-1963) - bazate pe tranzistori (in locul
tuburilor electronice) si pe limbajele de nivel inalt COBOL si FORTRAN – au fost realizate de
companiile americane Honeywell, IBM, Burroughs si Univac; in 1962, US Air Force realizeaza
prima retea decentralizata (prin fragmentarea informatiilor trimise, ce sunt reasamblate, in
ordine, la receptor) ; in 1959 sunt infiintate “The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music
Center”(dotat cu un RCA Mark II Synthsizer si coordonat de Vladimir USSACHEVSKY, Otto
LUENING si Milton BABITT) si “The San FranciscoTape Music Center” (fondat de Morton
SUBOTNICK, Ramon SENDER, Pauline OLIVEROS si Terry RILEY – studioul fiind echipat cu
sistemul electronic “100-series” proiectat de Donald BUCHLA); experimentele sonore realizate de
Max MATHEWS la Bell Labs (cu RCA Mark II si IBM 7090) sunt gravate pe discul “Music from
Mathematics” (Decca DL 79103); apar noi compozitii generate pe calculator - “Stochastic Quartet”
de James TENNEY (1963, Bell Labs) si “Computer Cantata” de Lejaren HILLER si Robert BAKER
(1963, Illinois University); in Romania apar computerele MECIPT II (Institutul Politehnic
Timisoara), CET 500 5I.P.A. Bucuresti) si DACICC 200 (Institutul de Calcul din Cluj);
- 3.) Calculatoarele electronice din generatia a III-a (1964-1970) – bazate pe circuite integrate,
pe limbajele de nivel foarte inalt PASCAL, LISP si pe limbajele cu interfata grafica – au fost
produse in S.U.A. de firmele IBM (International Business Machines) si DEC (Digital Equipment
Corporation); la Princeton Studio apare “Quartets in Pairs” (1964) de J.K. RANDALL – o lucrare
muzicala ce trateaza computerul ca instrument in timp real; la Bells Lab este elaborata – in baza
programului “MUSIC V” – lucrarea “Mutations I” (1969) de Jean-Claude RISSET (relationand
frecventa si timbrul sonor), iar la”San FranciscoTape Music Center” sunt realizate 3 piese
antologice semnate de Morton SUBORNICK: “Silver Apples if the Moon” (1966), “The Wild Bull”
(1967) si “Touch” (1968) – toate beneficiind de oportunitatile echipamentului Buchla; programul
“MUSIC 360”, creat de Barry VERCOE la Princeton Studio, va determina si aparitia unor noi si
importante compozitii – “Synthesism” de Barry VERCOE (1969) si “Earth’s Magnetic Field” de
Charles DODGE (1970 – lucrare bazata pe “diagrama Bartels”, ce ilustreaza schimbarile activitatii
magnetice a Pamantului); in aceasta perioada apar si sintetizatoarele analogice concepute de Paolo
Ketoff (“Syn-Ket” – utilizat de John EATON) si Robert A. MOOG (introdus de Walter/Wendy
CARLOS in muzica populara) – sistemele acestora fiind ulterior comercializate pe scara larga de
firmele ARP, Korg/Unicord, Oberheim,Roland si EML; in 1969 UCLA organizeaza reteaua
ARPANET (precursoarea INTERNET-ului), la care se conecteaza principalele universitati
americane; este infiintat – in cadrul Stanford University – renumitul Center for Computer Research
in Music and Acoustics, sub coordonarea lui John CHOWNING (compozitor si inovator in
domeniile modulatiei de frecventa si spatializarii); in cadrul cercetarilor efectuate la acest prestigios
centru, compozitorul Prof.Emeritus Leland SMITH creeaza “SCORE”, primul program de
redactare a partiturilor muzicale, ce este utilizat si astazi la cele mai importante edituri din lume; in
Franta se infiinteaza in anul 1970, sub coordonarea compozitorilor Françoise BARRIERE si
Christian CLOZIER, celebrul “Groupe de Musique Expérimentale de Bourges” (GMEB), devenit
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mai tarziu “Institut International de Musique Electroacoustique de Bourges” (IMEB), cu o
prodigioasa activitate in difuzarea muzicii electronice (festivaluri, concursuri, concerte, cursuri de
specializare, editare de discuri, etc.); in Romania au aparut calculatoare foarte performante,
precum FELIX C-256 (1971, realizat, dupa licenta franceza IRIS-50, la Fabrica de Calculatoare
Electronice Felix din Bucuresti), CORAL- 4011 (minicalculator dupa licenta americana DEC,
realizat de F.C.E.Felix-Bucuresti) si INDEPENDENT-I-100 (minicalculator proiectat integral la
Institutul de Tehnica de Calcul din Bucuresti si realizat de F.C.E. Felix-Bucuresti); in domeniul
interferentelor informaticii cu arta, se remarca contributiile extrem de pretioase datorate
matematicienilor romani Grigore C. MOISIL si Solomon MARCUS, ce au colaborat in aceasta
directie si cu importanti compozitori, precum Anatol VIERU si Aurel STROE;
- 4.) Calculatoarele electronice din generatia a IV-a (1971-prezent) – bazate pe microprocesoare
(procesoare integrate intr-un circuit integrat – CIP, inventat in 1971 de americanul Marcian Ted
Hoff si realizat de firma INTEL) – se numesc microcalculatoare, utilizand memoriile cu bule
magnetice, discurile optice, programe de tip ADA si programe orientate pe obiecte; in 1971, la
Bell Labs se experimenteaza sinteza digitala a vocii umane – printr-o tehnica originala aplicata
pentru prima data in compozitia “Speech Songs” de Charles Dodge; in 1972, compozitorul Jon
APPLETON impreuna cu inginerii Sydney ALONSO si Cameron JONES construiesc primul
sintetizor digital – DDS (Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer) – perfectionat in 1976 prin seria
“Synclavier”, dezvoltata in paralel cu “Con Brio ADS 200”, “Fairlight Computer Music
Instrument”, “Crumar General Development System” si “Alpha Syntauri” – toate aceste
instrumente oferind importante facilitati in travaliul componistic, dar si in domeniul performantei in
timp real (“live/electronic music”); pionier al muzicii interactive, renumitul compozitor american
Rodney OAKES initiaza o serie de experimente extrem de interesante cu “MIDI-Trombonul”;
la Paris este infiintat – dupa redutabilul model
oferit de catre
Stanford-CCRMA
(www.ccrma.stanford.edu/planetccrma/) – mult apreciatul IRCAM (Institut de Recherche et
Coordination Acoustique/Musique – www.ircam.fr ) condus, sub patronaj american, de compozitorul
francez Pierre BOULEZz; deosebit de active sunt si institutiile similare din Belgia (renumitul
Instituut voor Psychoacustica en Elektronische Muziek-IPEM din Gent, precum si nu mai putin
notoriul Institut « Musiques & Recherches” din Bruxelles coordonat de compozitoarea Annette
VANDE GORNE - www.musiques-recherches.org ), Olanda (Institute of Sonology din Utrecht),
Anglia (BBC Studio), Italia (RAI Studio), Polonia (Studio of Polish Radio), Ungaria (Studio of
Radio Budapest), Germania (NWDR Studio din Köln) si Japonia (NHK Studio) – ce au urmat cu
consecventa modelul american, ilustrand adevarata avangarda si in acest domeniu; marele
matematician american Benoit MANDELBROT (cercetator la IBM’ s Watson Research Center si
profesor la Yale University) elaboreaza providentiala Teorie a Fractalilor, expusa pentru prima data
in “Les objets fractals, forme, hasard et dimension” (1975) – cu deosebit de fecunde aplicatii si in
domeniul muzicii, unde se remarca aparitia ulterioara a unor numeroase programe de compozitie
fractala (algoritmica, generativa) implementate pe toate sistemele de operare; in perioada
1972-1979, “Working Group” din S.U.A. (coordonat de Vinton Cerf) sintetizeaza fundamentele
protocoalelor TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) si IP (Internet Protocol) referitoarele la
transferurile de fisiere intre grupurile de dialog (“newsgroups”) si la posta electronica; din 1983
ARPANET-ul (la care s-au conectat institutiile guvernamentale, universitatile, bibliotecile si
muzeele americane) ramane o retea exclusiv civila - Pentagonul utilizand propria retea MILNET;
in perioada 1987-1993, INTERNET-ul (coordonat de MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY, de IBM si de
MCI) se extinde catre Europa si apoi in intreaga lume – prin aparitia WORLD WIDE WEB
(www), ca sistem unanim recunoscut de navigare cu ajutorul unor programe speciale (MOSAIC,
NETSCAPE, INTERNET EXPLORER); tot in S.U.A se dezvolta principalele sisteme de operare
pentru supercalculatoare (UNIX, cu extensiile Berkeley-1986 si cu programul derivat LINUX;
realizat in 1991 de studentul Linus Torvalds), pentru mainframe-uri (IMB OS/400), pentru
minicalculatoare (RSX11M, cu versiunea romaneasca MIX), pentru microcalculatoare IBM-PC
(MICROSOFT-DISC OPERATING SYSTEM/MS-DOS, din care a derivat seria WINDOWS) si
Apple MacIntosh (Mac OS) si pentru calculatoarele portabile miniaturizate (WINDOWS CE);
apar in U.S.A. doua lucrari teoretice de referinta in domeniul muzicii electro- acustice: “Electronic
Music. Systems, Techniques, and Controls” de Allen STRANGE si
“Introduction To
Electro-Acoustic Music” de Barry SCHRADER; in U.S.A., disciplina “Computer Music” este
inclusa in programele curente de studiu ale celor mai importante universitati si colegii, precum:
- Stanford University-CCRMA www-ccrma.stanford.edu/planetccrma/;
- MIT Media Lab http://sound.media.mit.edu ;
- Brooklin College Center for Computer Music www.brooklyn.cuny.edu ;
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- Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center http://www.columbia.edu ;
- Cal State Univ/Northridge Music http://www.csun.edu/~dwh50750/tech_classes/MUS191/;
- Northwestern University http://faculty-web.at.nwu.edu/music/webster/D34/;
- Rutgers University http://mmlweb.rutgers.edu/imtmw.html;
- Furman University http://www.furman.edu/~dkoppelm/Tech/17/mus17.html;
- Dartmouth College - Bregman Electronic Music Studio http://music.dartmouth.edu ;
- University of Northern Colorado http://arts.unco.edu/musictech/mus209/index.html;
- SUNY Plattsburgh http://faculty.plattsburgh.edu/richard.davies/courses/mus_305syl.htm;
- Univ of Southern Cal http://www-rcf.usc.edu/~kds/courses/mued_452.pdf;
- Southwest Texas State http://147.26.106.74/tech/MusTechsyllabus.html;
- Lebanon Valley College http://csunix1.lvc.edu/~snyder/mme803/mtfesyl.htm;
- Louisiana Tech Univ. http://performingarts.latech.edu/music/MusicTechnology/TechnologySyllabusLankford.html;
- Metropolitan State College of Denver http://clem.mscd.edu/~worster/mtech1/1900syl.html;
- Unversity of Washington http://depts.washington.edu/smccweb/courses/400/syl.html;
- Kennesaw State University http://ksumail.kennesaw.edu/~lsherr/2100syllabus.html;
- Palomar College http://www.palomar.edu/performingarts/midilab/music180.html;
- University of Illinois,Champaign-Urbana http://www-camil.music.uiuc.edu/classes/210/syllabus/syllabus.html;
- Brown University http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Music/Music11/syllabus.html;
- University of Texas at San Antonio http://music.utsa.edu/technology/mat/;
- University of South Carolina http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/mued/mued554/syllabus.html;
- University of Wisconsin at Whitewater http://facstaff.uww.edu/craggsj/techsyl.html;
- Northern State University (Aberdeen, SD) http://lupus.northern.edu:90/wieland/mus321.htm;
- Eastern Kentucky University http://www.music.eku.edu/faculty/davis/Mus584Syllabus.html;
- Cal State, Chico http://www.csuchico.edu/~seppanen/103/syllabus103.pdf;
- Auburn University http://www.auburn.edu/~wallski/CTM650/CTM650syllabus.html;
- Radford University http://www.runet.edu/~rscohen/Music127/syllabus.htm;
- McMurray http://cs1.mcm.edu/~dshea/comped.html;
- Case Western Reserve University http://www-midischool.cwru.edu/MUSC308/syllabus.html;
- Dordt College (IA) http://homepages.dordt.edu/~hduitman/musicstudent/musictechnology.html;
- Alma College http://www.alma.edu/academics/music/mus215/syllabus.htm;
- Youngstown State University http://www.fpa.ysu.edu/music/crist/came.pdf;
- Georgia State University http://www.trombonelessons.com/syllabus.html;
- East Carolina State http://www.music.ecu.edu/courses/6300/6300syllabus.html;
- University of North Carolina, Greensboro http://www.uncg.edu/~vltrolli/courses.html;
- Elmhurst College (IL) http://www.elmhurst.edu/~markh/musicedtech/;
- Central Michigan State http://blackboard.cmich.edu:80/bin/common/course.pl?course_id=_39_1&frame=;
- University of Delaware http://amy.music.udel.edu/faculty/mmorgan/index.html;
- Berklee School of Music http://classes.berklee.edu/mbierylo/mtec111.html;
- Flordia State University http://otto.cmr.fsu.edu/%7Emus2360/Schedules/Syllabus.html;
- James Madison University http://www.lib.jmu.edu/users/cockbuba/mus150/;
- Peabody http://mambo.peabody.jhu.edu/%7Emdboom/itc/;
- University of Montevallo http://www.cfa.montevallo.edu/mtech/Su2000/mu676/syllabus.htm;
- SUNY at Stonybrook http://www.sinc.sunysb.edu/Class/lta208/syllabus.html;
- University of California at Irvine http://www.arts.uci.edu/music/mzed/Music_51/M51_syllabus.html;
- University of Central Florida http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~jgardner/m&t.html;
- University of Michigan http://www-personal.umich.edu/~msimoni/Sp98PAT201.html;
- Alma College http://academics.alma.edu/music/mus214/syllabus.html;
- Penn State University Music http://www.courses.psu.edu/courseweb/courses/index.cgi?course=music497d_meb26;
- University of Hawaii at Manoa http://www.outreach.hawaii.edu/programs/2001/EVENT-L04269.htm;
- Dakota State University http://www.homepages.dsu.edu/mortensd/MUS_600/MUS600syl.htm;
- St. Cloud State http://www.stcloudstate.edu/~slmiller/101syllabus.htm;
- St. Olaf College http://www.stolaf.edu/people/hamlin/elmus/em99/syllabus.htm;
- Univ. of Texas San Antonio http://multimedia.utsa.edu/index-mp.html;
- New York University http://www.nyu.edu/classes/gilbert/cai/ ;
- University of Michigan http://www-personal.umich.edu/~msimoni/F97PAT441.html;
- UC Berkeley http://media2.bmrc.berkeley.edu/classes/m198/;
- Northwestern http://www.northwestern.edu/musicschool/classes/webAuthoring/;
- University of Utah http://www.finearts.utah.edu/artstech/FA3000/index.html;
- Loyola New Orleans http://music.loyno.edu/cd/mugnm450.pdf;
- University of Houston http://www.uh.edu/~tkoozin/techseminar.html;
compozitorul Dwight WINENGER infiinteaza in U.S.A
renumita “LIVING MUSIC
FOUNDATION” (http://www.e-universe.com/lmfhome/ ) - unul dintre cele mai importante centre
internationale de promovare a muzicii noi (inclusiv in genul “Computer Music”) , ce este coordonat
actualmente de catre compozitorul si profesorul Charles Norman MASON; dintre membrii L.M.F.
mentionam pe Liana ALEXANDRA, Charles ARGERSINGER, Christy BANKS, Rusty BANKS,
Heskel BRISMAN, Madeline BYRNE, Barry L. COHEN, Dinos CONSTANTINIDES, George
CRUMB, Greg D´ALESSIO, David DEL TREDICI, Aurelio DE LA VEGA, Carlos DELGADO,
Emma Lou DIEMER, Violeta DINESCU, Donna Kelly EASTMAN, Grant FLETCHER, Lukas
FOSS, Orlando GARCIA, David McGUIRE, Dorothy HINDMAN, Craig HULTGREN, Ladislav
7
KUBIK, Dennis KAM, Hye Kyung LEE, David LIPTAK, Tom LOPEZ, Serban NICHIFOR, Rodney
OAKES, Pauline OLIVEROS, Aaron J. RABUSHKA, Bruce REIPRICH, Wieslaw RENTOWSKI,
Andrew RINDLFLEISCH, Elliott SCHWARTZ, Nicolas SLONIMSKY, Gregg SMITH, Erich H.
STEM, Augusta READ THOMAS, Catherine TOWBIN, Mary Jeanne VAN APPLEDORN, David
VAYO, Rob VOISEY, Olly WILSON, Paul WITNEY, Scott WYATT; in anul 1984 se infiinteazanu
mai putin celebra SOCIETATEA DE MUZICA ELECTRO-ACUSTICA DIN STATELE
UNITE/THE SOCIETY FOR ELECTRO-ACOUSTIC MUSIC IN THE UNITED
STATES-SEAMUS (http://seamus.Isu.edu ), avand ca presedinte fondator pe compozitorul Barry
SCHRADER, profesor la California Institute of the Arts; sunt dezoltate noi programe speciale de
redactare a partiturilor (CAKEWALK, ENCORE, FINALE, NOTE WORTHY, MUSIC WRITE,
MUSIC PUBLISHER si INTELLISCORE – printre altele - in S.U.A.; MOZART si SIBELIUS in
Anglia; PIZZICATO in Belgia), precum si numeroase programe de editare muzicala, in baza
sistemelor de operare WINDOWS (ca de pilda bogata serie a aplicatiilor elaborate de firmele
americane SONIC FOUNDRY, REAL, DIGIDESIGN si ADOBE, precum si de firma germana
MUSICMATCH) si APPLE (in aceasta directie recentul program american “MetaSynth” ilustrand
noi modalitati de convertire a imaginii in sunet); in Noiembrie 2003 se desfasoara in Romania
primul festival de COMPUTER MUSIC, coordonat de compozitorii Liana ALEXANDRA si Serban
NICHIFOR in cadrul Universitatii Nationale de Muzica din Bucuresti, sub genericul “NUOVA
MUSICA CONSONANTE-LIVING MUSIC FOUNDATION” – fiind prezentate lucrari apartinand
unor compozitori din U.S.A. (Ben BIERMAN, George BRUNNER, Madelyne BYRNE, Chris
CHAFE, Douglas COHEN, Bob FANELLI, Matthew HAY, John J.A. JANNONE, Peter KIRN,
Tom LOPEZ, Miguel MACIAS, Charles Norman MASON, David McGUIRE, Rodney OAKES,
Marco OPPEDISANO, Udi PLADOTT, Mark PRIEST, Patricia REPAR, Barry SCHRADER,
Martin SIMON, Dirk Johan STROMBERG, Robert VOISEY, Dwight WINENGER, Amnon
WOLMAN), Belgia (Kris DE BAEDERMACKER, Joris DE LAET, Raoul DE SMET, Todor
TODOROFF, Dick VEVLEMANS, Wilfried WESTERLINCK), Anglia (David WEBBER), Italia
(Gianluca CANGEMI) si Romania (Liana ALEXANDRA, Octavian NEMESCU, Serban
NICHIFOR, Livia TEODORESCU, Sever TIPEI, Dan VOICULESCU); apare pe Internet primul
curs interactiv in domeniul “MUSIC AND COMPUTERS”, conceput la Darmouth College (U.S.A.)–
sub coordonarea compozitorului si profesorului Jon APPLETON – de catre Phil BURK, Larry
POLANSKY,
Douglas
REPETTO,
Mary
ROBERTS
si
Dan
ROCKMORE
(http://eamusic.dartmouth.edu/~book/MATCpages/tableofcontents.html ); Prof. Diana S. DABBY
(de la Massachusetts Institute of Technology) aplica in 1994, cu ajutorul computerului, o serie de
coordonate ale “Lorenz Attractor” la Preludiul I (in Do Major) din Caietul I al “Clavecinului Bine
Temperat” de J.S. BACH, pentru a compune “Bach to Chaos: Chaotic Variations on a Classical
Theme”; Facultatea de Interpretare Muzicala din cadrul Universitatii Nationale de Muzica din
Bucuresti initiaza, in anul universitar 2003-2004, primul curs de Computer Music din Romania;
- 5.) Calculatoarele electronice din generatia a V-a se bazeaza pe dezvoltarea -incepand din
1981, in S.U.A. si in Japonia - a inteligentei artificiale dupa modelul uman (interfata vocala,
sensibilitate vizuala, auditiva, tactila) - ele fiind inca in faza experimentala. O alta dimensiune
este determinata de perspectivele fascinante ale
INTERNET-ului. In prezent, redutabilul
compozitor si profesor Chris CHAFE – director al Stanford- CCRMA – a initiat impresionantul
experiment SoundWIRE, utilizand o serie de aplicatii originale ale sistemului LINUX in realizarea
pe INTERNET a unor legaturi audio complexe (permitand, de pilda, interpretilor sa cante impreuna
in timp real, de la mari distante, in conditii acustice ideale – realizandu-se astfel un proces de
audio-teleportare !). In acest context, aplicandu-se standardul ping (ca metoda de testare a
conectivitatii computerelor, ce consta in masurarea RTT=round trip time), s-a observat ca reteaua
(respectiv, INTERNET-ul) reactioneaza la fluxul (traficul) variabil de mesaje ca o coarda muzicala
(avand lungimea direct proportionala cu distanta dintre cele doua computere conectate) – aceasta
coarda virtuala producand (la excitarea ei prin mijloace specifice tehnicii SoundWIRE) diferite
sunete (waves) in functie de “modul de atac” prin ping-uri in real-time. Inaltimea (deci frecventa=f)
acestor sunete este invers proportionala cu RTT-ul ping-ului:
f = 1/sR’ , unde s = {1 : R<5ms k : R>5ms} k = 0,025.
(cf. Chris CHAFE and Randal LEISTIKOW – Levels of Temporal Resolution in Sonification of
Network Performance, CCRMA,Music Department,Stanford University,Stanford, CA USA
8
94305, [email protected] [email protected] )
Reteaua (INTERNET-ul) devine astfel si un autentic instrument muzical ce executa o partitura
conceputa prin conectarea specifica a doua computere aflate la o distanta cat mai mare (pentru a
se sintetiza o coarda virtuala cat mai ampla ca spectru armonic) – compozitia rezultata fiind
difuzata public in timp real. Totodata, tehnica SoundWIRE reprezinta si o confirmare a
viabilitatii perceptiei holistice quasi-acustice a Universului – demonstrand o data in plus
caracterul cosmogonic al Vibratiei Transcendentale.
- Capitolul B ELABORAREA AUDIO-NUMERICA
1.) PROLEGOMENE
- Ciclul creatiei prin analogie (in perspectiva panenteista si prin reductie fenomenologica):
DUMNEZEU (« LOGOSUL CREATOR », « MARELE ARHITECT AL UNIVERSULUI ») >
Continuumul realitatii informational-energetice (« Panarmonios Kosmou Sintaxis », « Musica
Caelestis » - cf. Appendix 2) > Creatia Muzicala (componistica si interpretativa) > Creatia
Instrumentala > Creatia Electro-Acustica > Computer Music.
- Definirea Informatiei : a.) ontologic (sub aspect existential) = componenta a traidei
« informatie-energie-materie » ( ca principiu universal) ; b.) cibernetic (matematic, prin analogie
formala) = cantitatea de noutate (dependenta si de gradul de interes al receptorului) ;
epistemologic (prin cunoastere stiintifica) = componenta a dihotomiei « realitate-informatie »
(realitatea manifestandu-se prin informatie in procesul delimitarii « adevar/eroare ») ; semiotic
(sub aspectul logicii simbolice) = un ansamblu logic de semne (sau « semnificanti ») purtatoare de
sensuri (sau « semnificati »), in contextul comunicarii.
- Comunicarea Muzicala : DUMNEZEU – CREATORUL >[comunicarea unui Sens Mistic,
soterilogic –exprimat prin Semn Divin]> Compozitor >[a.) decodificarea quasi-hermeneutica a
Semnului Divin prin descoperirea « irationala » (pnevmatologica) a Sensului Mistic
(« mysterium tremendum »); 2.) codificarea Sensului Mistic in semn grafic muzical (partitura),
prin procesul de « creatie componistica »; 3.) comunicarea partiturii (in manuscris sau prin
intermediul editorului)]> Interpret [a.) decodificarea partiturii (rationala la nivel formal,
intuitiva/« irationala » la nivel conceptual) si decelarea Sensului Mistic-muzical; b.) codificarea
Sensului Mistic-muzical in semn acustic (sunet), prin procesul de « creatie interpretativa » ; c.)
comunicarea interpretarii (prin concert sau inregistrare)] > Public [a.) decodificarea individuala
(in functie de cultura muzicala, dar si de intuitie) a semnului acustic in Sens Mistic ; b.)
asimilarea personala dar si in comuniune (« ab alio in alis ») a Sensului Mistic al muzicii in
procesul soteriologic al perfectionarii spirituale, conform Planului Divin].
- Dimensiuni sonore : 1.) fizice (obiective) : spatiul sonor [frecventa (audibilila la om : 16
20000Hz) x amplitudine (perceptibila/suportabila la om : de la 10 la puterea –16 W/cm² pana la
12 W/cm²) x structura spectrala (« naturala » si « artificiala » - acustica/electroacustica) x
locatie (inchisa/deschisa)] x timpul fizic-infinit (‘’, ’, h, d, m, y, etc.) ; 2.) muzicale (subiective) :
spatiul muzical [inaltime (netemperata - in sistemele extraeuropene si in cele europene de
sorginte pitagoreica ; temperata in sistemul european occidental, incepand din sec.al XVIII-lea) x
intensitate (relativa : ppppp-fffff, valorile depinzand de sursa, stil, acustica topos-ului, etc.) x
timbru (vocal, instrumental-acustic/electroacustic, mixt) x topos (amplasamentul sursei :
scenic/extra-scenic,
mono-/stereo-/qudrofonic/panoramic/multi-dimensional)]
x
timpul
9
muzical-finit : ritm, agogica, forma [evolutiva/non-evolutiva ; repetitiva/non-repetitiva ; catenata
(mono-/bi-/tri-/tripentapartite/rondo/suita/forma
“mozaic”)/contrastanta
(sonata)
;
variationala/meta-(ana-)morfotica ; monodica/polifonica/heterofonica;
omogena/mixta
;
inchisa/deschisa;
supra-/juxtapusa
; determinista/stochastica
(aleatorie
controlata/necontrolata) ; micro-/macrostructurala (de la celula, motiv, fraza, perioada,
sub-sectiune si sectiune la parte si intreg) ].
- Evolutia Muzicii Electro-Acustice: 1.) Tape Music (Musique Concrète; Electronic (Acousmatic)
Music (Synthesizer Music: - analog-RCA, Buchla, Moog, Korg, etc.; - digital-Synclavier,
Yamaha, etc.)]; 2.) Live-Electronic Music (Tape and Instruments; Electronics and Instruments);
3.) Computer Music (Bell Labs, Princeton Studio, CCRMA, IRCAM, etc.)]; 4.) Cyber-Art
(Digital Music; Computer Animation/Audio-Visual Effects; Interactive Art; Net Vision
(SoundWIRE Project-CCRMA, etc.).
- Calculul algoritmic in sinteza audio-numerica :
1.) Daniel CUMMEROW: „The Sound of Mathematics“ [combinari (triunghiul lui Pascal),
constante (e, pi, omega, numarul lui Ramanujan), functii (phi-Euler, mu-Möbius, functii
trigonometrice), numere (Niven, prime, tripletii primitivi ai lui Pitagora), siruri (fluturele lui
Lorenz, sirul lui Fibonacci, sectiunea de aur)] (www.geocities.com/Vienna/9349/ ;
[email protected]);
2.)
Chris
K.
CALDWELL
:"Prime
Number
Listening
Guide"
(www.utm.edu/research/primes/programs/music/listen/);
3.) Ivars PETERSON: Dancing chaos (MAA Online, Jan. 11, 1999), Prime listening (MAA
Online, June 22, 1998) –The Mathematical Association of America ([email protected] ,
[email protected] );
4.)
José
Oscar
MARQUES:
"The
Strange
Beauty
of
Fractal
Music"
(www.midiworld.com/c/jmarques.htm);
-
2.) SINTEZA SUNETULUI DIGITAL
~
- Tipuri de sunete electro-acustice (waveforms/waveshapes): sinusoidal (sine - ), “dinti de
ferastrau” (sawtooth – I\), rectangular (square – I_I) si triunghiular (triangle - /\) .
- Anvelopa sunetului: Attack-Decay-Sustain-Release (ADSR).
- Conversia sunetului: ADC sau A->D = “Analog to Digital Conversion” [transformarea imaginii
acustice in imagine numerica binara (0 si 1)]; DAC sau D->A = “Digital to Analog Conversion”
[transformarea imaginii numerice binare (0 si 1) in imagine acustica]. Sunetul analog are un
caracter continuu, iar cel digital este gradual, format din “trepte” succesive de informatii (numite
“samples”) - a caror viteza este direct proportionala cu fidelitatea (calitatea) reproducerii; astfel,
“Teorema Nyquist” a stabilit ca respectiva viteza (“sampling rate” sau “sampling frequency” masurata in Hz) trebuie sa aiba o valoare cel putin dubla in raport cu cea mai inalta frecventa
cuprinsa in semnalul sonor.
- Sampling frequency: Unitatea de masura a informatiei in teoria statistica a comunicatiei este
“BIT”-ul (ca prescurtare a “Binary digIT”). [Considerand doua evenimente cu probabilitati
egale de realizare, BIT-ul reprezinta informatia obtinuta asupra unui eveniment prin realizarea
sa, sau incertitudinea asupra evenimentului inlaturata prin realizarea sa.] Multiplii BIT-ului
sunt: 4 bits = 1 nibble; 8 bits = 2 nibbles = 1 byte; 16 bits = 2 bytes = 1 word; 1024 bits = 1
kilobyte (K) ; 1000 K = 1 megabyte (MB) ; 1000 MB = 1 gigabyte (GB) ; 1000 GB = 1 terabyte
(TB) . Formula standard de reproducere sonora (utilizata si in realizarea CD-urilor audio) este
aceea a unei viteze (“sampling frequency” sau “sampling rate”) de 44100 Hz la 16 bits [conform
“Teoremei Nyquist” enuntate mai sus, “sampling frequency” de 44100 Hz este raportata la pragul
auditiv superior (la om), ce este situat la cca 20000 Hz]. NB - data fiind constitutia exclusiv
numerica a sunetului digital, imaginea sonora este perfect conservata, eliminandu-se zgomotele
complementare ce apar in cazul inregistrarilor analoge.
- Dimensiunile audio si compresia digitala: o secunda de muzica reprodusa in formatul standard
“audio-CD Stereo” este alcatuita din doua “samples” (cate unul pentru fiecare canal) de 16-bit (=
2 bytes) totalizand asadar 4 bytes derulati cu viteza de 44100 Hz – consumand in consecinta un
spatiu de 176.400 bytes (= 176,4 kilobytes). Un minut va consuma asadar 10. 584 kilobytes (=
10,584 MB), iar o ora – 635,04 MB. In aceste conditii, necesitatile transmiterii muzicii pe
Internet au determinat realizarea unor noi formate audio ce sunt comprimate dupa algoritmi
10
specifici. De pilda, aplicand principiul de codificare “mu-law” (conform caruia auzul uman este
mult mai sensibil la schimbarile joase de amplitudine decat la cele inalte), formatul MP3 reduce
spatiul ocupat de fluxul sonor “citindu-l” printr-o grila cu numai 256 de elemente.
-
3.) TIPURI DE FISIERE DIGITALE AUDIO
ACID Project Files (acd, acd-bak), ACID Projekt With Embedded Media (acd-zip), Ad Lib
Sample (smp), Amigo SVX (svx, iff), Audacity projects (aup), Audition Loop (cel), CAKEWALK
Files (wrk, bun), CD Audio (cda), Covox V8 (v8), Creative Labs VOC (voc), Dialogic VOX
ADPCM (vox), Gravis Patch (pat), ENCORE File (enc),FINALE Coda Notation File (mus),
FINALE ENIGMA Transportable File (etf), FINALE Coda Template File (ftm), InterVoice
(ivc),IRCAM Files (snd), Main Concept MPEG 1 (mpg, mpeg, m1a), Main Concept MPEG 2
(mpg, mpeg, m2a), Macintosh Audio Interchange File Format/AIFF (aif, snd), Macintosh
Resource (snd), Macromedia Flash (swf),MIDI SDS (sds), MIDI Files – Format 1 [all instruments
saved to separate tracks] si Format 2 [all instruments saved into a single track] (mid, smf, rmi),
MidiScan File (mnd), MOZART File (mz), MP3 Audio (mp3), Mp3PRO FhG (mp3), OggVorbis
(ogg), Music Write 2000 File (mwk), NeXT/Sun (Java) File (au, snd), NoteWorthy Composer
(nwc), PIZZICATO File (piz), QuickScore File (qsd), Quick Time (mov, qt, dv, gif), Raw File
(raw),RealMedia (rm, ra), RealNetwork G2 (rm), RHAPSODY File (rhp), Sample Vision (smp),
SmartScore File (fin), SCORE File (pge, pag, mus), SIBELIUS File (sib), SIBELIUS Scorch Web
Page (htm), Sonic Foundry (sfr), Sound Designer 1 (dig, sd), Sounder/Sound Tool (snd), Video for
Windows (avi), Tune Smithy Fractal Tunes (ts),TwinVQ ver 2.0 format (vqf), Windows Media
Audio (wma), Windows Media Format (asf), NIFF (Notation Interchange File Format - format
standard pentru notatia muzicala).
- 4.) PRINCIPALELE FISIERE DIGITALE AUDIO UTILIZATE IN ACEST CURS:
- MIDI [Musical Instrument Digital Interface] (mid) a aparut in 1983 (lansarea sa a avut
loc la Los Angeles – The First North American Manufacturers Show) si cuprinde: (1)
Protocolul de comunicatii (limbajul codificat in forma binara), (2) Conectorul (interfata
hardware – ce este de tipul „5 pins DIN MIDI“) si (3) Formatorul de distributie „Standard
MIDI Files“ ( SMF sau „mid“), ce contine „Status Byte“ (format din „Note On“, „Note
Off“, „System Exclusive“/„SysEx“ si „Path Change“) configurat in „Chains“ si „Loops“
distribuite pe cele 16 canale – „MIDI Chanels 0-15“ – fie in forma mixata intr-un singur
traiect („MIDI O“), fie in cea spatializata pe 16 voci separate („MIDI 1“). Fisierul este
foarte redus, iar celelalte coordonate (dinamica, timbrul, panoramarea) sunt mobile,
putand fi precizate de catre utilizator – aceste aspecte constituind principalele diferente in
raport cu celelalte tipuri de fisiere audio (wav, mp3, aiff, rm, etc.), ce sunt cu mult mai
voluminoase (deci mai greu de transmis prin Internet) si au toti parametrii inamovibili.
Formatul MIDI are numeroase aplicatii: instrumente muzicale electronice, sintetizoare
digitale, sequencers, programe de redactare muzicala („MIDI Notation Software“ – ca de
pilda „MOZART“, „FINALE“, „CAKEWALK“, „SIBELIUS“, etc.), „MIDI Show
Control“ (in spectacole), „MIDI Machine Control“ (in studiourile de inregistrari) – toate
putand fi interconectate prin noile protocoale „GENERAL MIDI 1“ (GM1 din 1991) si
„GENERAL MIDI 2“ (GM2 din 1999) stabilite de catre „MIDI Manufacturers
Association Incorporated“ din Los Angeles.
- WAVE (wav) – formatul standard audio-digital necomprimat CD-DA [aplicat in
realizarea CD-urilor – format CD-Audio (cda)], ce a fost asimilat in sistemele de operare
MICROSOFT WINDOWS. Este formatul cel mai voluminos (1 minut = 10 MB –
contraindicat asadar in transmisiile prin Internet), dar si cel mai fidel sub aspect acustic –
fiind singurul format utilizat in procesul de editare a CD-urilor.
In sistemul Macintosh, formatul standard necompresat (deci echivalentul formatului
“Wave” din Windows) este “AIFF” (Audio Interchange File Format).
- MP3 [MPEG I – layer 3 Audio Codec] (mp3, mpeg, mpg) este unul dintre cele mai
eficiente si mai populare fisiere de compresie audio - “compresia Hoffman” utilizata
implicand analizarea muzicii prin grila pragurilor de audibilitate umana (2 Hz – 20 KHz)
si eliminarea elementelor inaudibile. Marimea fisierului este determinata de numarul de
kilobiti per secunda (8, 16, 18, 20, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128, 160, 192, 224, 256,
11
320 kbps – configuratia optima - in raportul fidelitate/dimensiune - fiind cea de 128 kbps).
Acest tip de fisier este format din milioane de cadre, fiecare cadru continand titlul (de
identificare a punctelor de reper), eticheta (cu informatii despre muzica respectiva) si
datele propriu-zise (compresate si inregistrate sub forma de biti).
O alternativa free la MP3 este reprezentata de formatul “Ogg Vorbis”
(marcat prin sufixul “ogg”).
- 5.) PROGRAME DE CONVERTIRE UTILIZATE IN ACEST CURS:
-
MIDI-WAV (Midi2Wav Demo - www.midi2wav.com );
WAV-MIDI (IntelliScore Poliphonic Demo – www.intelliscore.net;
AmazingMIDI Demo - www.pluto.dti.ne.jp/~araki/amazingmidi/);
-
WAV-MP3-WMA (Shuffler Music Convertor – www.illustrate.org ; MusicMatch Jukebox
Demo - http://mmjb.musicmatch.com ; Sound Forge 4.5 Demo - www.sonicfoundry.com ;
ACID Pro 4.0 Demo - http://sonicfoundry.com/acid ; Adobe Audition 1.0 Demo www.adobe.com/audition );
-
WAV-AIFF si WAV-OggVorbis-WAV (Audacity 1.2.0.-pre2 Free Digital Audio Editor –
www.sourceforge.net )
1 minut de muzica stereo = 10 MB WAV = 10 MB AIF = 973 KB OGG = 950 KB WMA (128
kbps) = 937 KB MP3 (128 kbps) = 253 KB AUD (Audacity Projects) = 122 KB RM (16 kbps).
1’ WAV = 1’ AIF = 10,27’ OGG = 10,53’ WMA (128 kbps) = 10,67’ MP3 (128 kbps) = 39,53’
AUD = 82’ RM (16 kbps) = 1100,1’ MIDI (format 0) = 10 MB.
- 6.) PROGRAME MUZICALE
NB - Prezentul compendium are un caracter strict didactic. Programele de calculator analizate fac obiectul dispozitiilor
legale (interne si internationale) in materie de copyright – utilizarea lor impunand respectarea conditiilor specificate de
producatori pe site-urile indicate la fiecare software.
- a.) Programe de redactat partituri (Music Notation Programs):
ABC, Braeburn Software products (Noteworthy 2, Music Publisher, Music Publisher 32),
Brahms (Koobase), Cakewalk family, Capella, CodaMusic products (Finale, Finale Allegro,
PrintMusic), CSound, CuBase, Graphire, Music Press , GVOX products (Encore, MusicTime
Deluxe), Igor , LilyPond , Lime , Melody Assistant , MidiScore , Mosaic , Mozart , MTX , MUP ,
Muse , Musicator , MusicEase , MusicWrite , MusiXTeX , NIFF , Nightingale , Noteworthy
Composer , Object Composer , Opcode products (Fermata, Studio Vision Pro 4.5.1, Vision DSP
4.5.1 – pentru Macintosh -, la www.opcode.com) , OpusTeX , Personal Composer , PMX ,
Rosegarden , Sibelius, Sionsoft (QuickScore Elite 9.0, Copyst 6.0).
(cf. http://www.mulveyfamily.com/Katy/Music/Notation/contents.html)
Site-urile principalelor programe: Mozart (www.mozart.co.uk), Finale (www.codamusic.com),
Sibelius (www.sibelius.com), Score (www.scoremus.com , http://ace.acadiau.ca/score si adresa
autorului Prof. Leland SMITH [email protected]), Encore (www.gvox.com), Pizzicato (
www.arpegemusic.com), Sion QuickScore Elite(www.sionsoft.com), Nightingale Music Notation
Software for Macintosh Entrance (www.ngale.com), MusEdit Powerful Notation Software
(www.musedit.com)
,
Music
Publisher
(www.braeburn.co.uk),
NoteWorthy
(www.braeburn.demon.co.uk),
MusicWrite
Professional
(www.voyetra-turtle-beach.com),
NoteWorthy Composer (www.noteworthysoftware.com) , Opcode (www.opcode.com), Sionsoft
(www.sionsoft.com ), OpusTeX (ftp://ftp.tex.ac.uk/incoming/opustex/arwork), Csound, Rosegarden si
SNDAN (www.csound.com), NIFF (Notation Interchange File Format) Notation File Standard
(www.musitek.com/niff.html), Lime Notation Software (www.cerlsoundgroup.org )
- b.) Programe audio de fonotecare (Music Editors):
AudioEdit Deluxed , Digitonix Element, DubIt, FruityLoops , Midi Quartet , Midi Works,
Mobius, Music Publisher 32, QUARTET X2 Music Studio, Song Writer, TablEdit Tablature
12
Editor, XG-Gold, Blaze Media Pro, ezMP3edit, MP3 Audio Mixer,MP3 File Editor, Advanced
MP3 Cutter, AAA Wave , Ace of WAV 2.6, Acoustic Labs Mixer 2.5 , Adobe Audition , All
Editor 2.2 , Anvil Studio 2003 , Audio Edit 3.4 , AudioEdit Deluxe , AVI Splitter , AVS Audio
Utilities , Blaze Audio RipEditBurn , Blaze Media Pro , BlazeAudio Wave Creator , BPS Audio
Converter Pro , Cakewalk, Claudio Complete luxury audio recorder with MP3 , Cool Edit 2000
1.1 , Cool Edit Pro 2.0 , DART XP, Digidesign, GoldWave, MagicScore, n-Track Studio, Wave
Splitter, Midi Tracker, Sound Forge, Native Instruments, Propellerhead, Steinberg, etc.
(cf. http://www.freefunfiles.com)
Site-urile principalelor programe: Sound Forge (www.sonicfoundry.com), Pro Tools
(www.digidesign.com),
Audacity (http://audacity.sourceforge.net), MusicMatch Jukebox
(http://www.musicmatch.com), Real (www.real.com), Cakewalk (www.cakewalk.com), Voyetra
Digital Orchestrator Pro (www.voyetra.com),
Adobe Audition (www.adobe.com), Magix (www;magix.com).
Alte site-uri
cu
programe
muzicale
: www.rocketdownload.com,
www.zdnet.com,
www.hitsquad.com, www.sonicspot.com,
www.asp-shareware.org, www.square1music.com,
http://garbo.uwasa.fi, www.freefunfiles.com , www.simplythebest.net/shareware/music .
PROGRAME AUDIO IN SISTEMUL DE OPERARE LINUX
(Audio software for LINUX)
Majoritatea sunt prezentate pe site-ul http://linux-sound.org/ , cele mai utilizate fiind :
- Ardour (free software multi-channel – http://ardour.sourceforge.net/ ) ;
- FinalScratch (generator de sunete ce ruleaza atat pe Linux cat si pe MacOS X –
www.finalscratch.com/fs4 / ) ;
- MusE (sequencer MIDI/Audio pe Red Hat, ce proceseaza date MIDI controland device-urile
de sunet - realizat la Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) Department
of
Music,
Stanford
University
(USA)
www.ccrma.stanford.edu/planetccrma/software/ ) ;
- Rosegarden 4 (editor de partituri, de tip KDE3 – bazat pe bibliotecile « kdelibs3 » www.all-day-breakfast.com/rosegarden/ ) ;
- Sweep (editor de sunet - inclus in distributia « SuSE 8.2 » - utilizat pentru post-procesarea
inregistrarilor
digitale
prin
lectorul
virtual
«
Scrubby » www.metadecks.org/software/sweep );
- NoteEdit (editor de partituri si sintetizor de instrumente muzicale virtuale – inclus in
distributia « SuSE » - http://rnvs.informatik.tu-chemnitz.de/~jan/noteedit/noteedit.html );
- FluidSynth (sintetizor software bazat pe samples/ «wavetable synthesis » - www.fluidsynth.org
);
- AlsaModularSynth [sintetizorul software ALSA (« Advanced Linux Sound Architecture »)
utilizeaza module pre-definite, precum MCV (« MIDI Controlled Voltage Supply » - ce
converteste timbrele MIDI in valori de tensiune), VCO (« Voltage Controlled Oscillator » generator de sunete determinate de valorile de tensiune), PMC (« Pulse Code Modulation » converter analog/digital si digital/analog, ca interfata pentru difuzoare) si VCA (« Voltage
Controlled Amplifier » - amplificator bazat pe valorile de tensiune)
http://alsamodular.sourceforge.net/
- NB – revista « LINUX MAGAZIN » (www.linux-magazin.ro ) Nr.4/Decembrie 2003 (pag.21-35)
include o prezentare amanuntita a acestor noi programe audio.
PROGRAME AUDIO IN SISTEMUL DE OPERARE MACINTOSH
(Apple MacIntosh – Mac OS Audio Software)
Numeroase programe specifice pot fi procurate pe Internet, ca de pilda pe site-ul
www.hitsquad.com/smm/mac , atat in categoria « Music Notation » (Cubase Score 5 ; Lime Music
Notation Software 8.08 ; NoteAbility Pro v.1.996 ; ScoreWriter 2 ; Sibelius 3.1 ; Finale 2003 ;
Vivaldi Gold Mac ; Sonata 4.0, etc.), cat si in categoria « Audio Editors » [Ableton Live 3.0.2
(real-time audio production) ; Amadeus II 3.6.1 (direct-to-disk sound editor and analyser with
MP3 support) ; Audacity 1.1.1 for Mac (free cross-platform miti-track sound editor) ; Sound
Sculptor
II
(multi-track
sound
editor),
Peak
(http://eamusic.darmouth.edu/masters.courses/Music24/software.htmp ), etc.].
13
PROGRAME AUDIO IN SISTEMUL DE OPERARE WINDOWS
(Windows Audio Software)
NB- Sunt prezentate doar programe disponibile in versiunile „Free“ si „Demo“
- a.) PROGRAME MIDI DE REDACTARE MUZICALA
„MOZART VIRTUOSO 6“ THE MUSIC PROCESSOR BY DAVID WEBBER
© David WEBBER 1994-2004
http://www.mozart.co.uk
[email protected]
484 Warrington Rd., Culcheth, Warrington, WA3 5RA, UK
FUNCTIILE PROGRAMULUI „MOZART 6“
I.
GENERALE
- File: New (+ Template: None, Alto Sax Jazz Quartet, Brass Band, Brass, Quintet, Clarinet and
Piano, Clarinet Choir, Clarinet Jazz Quartet, Clarinet Quartet, Crumhorn Quartet, default
Part., Fake Book, Flute and Piano, Flute Jazz Quartet, Guitar, Jazz Band 1, Jazz Band 2, Oboe
and Piano, Orchestra [2 Fl., 2 Ob., 1 C:I:, 2 Cl., 1 Cl.B., 2 Fg., 4 Hr., 3 Trbe, 3 Trbn., Tuba,
Timp., 2 Perc., Archi = 29 staves], Piano solo, Recorder Consort, Recorder Quartet, Sax Quartet,
Solo bass clef, Solo treble cleff, Song Sheeet, Soprano Sax Jazz Quartet, String Quartet, Tenor
Sax Jazz Quartet, Trombone and Piano, Trumpet and Piano, Trumpet Jazz Quartet, Viola and
Piano, Violin and Piano, Voice and Piano, Wind Band, Wind Octet, Wind Quintet), Open ,
Import (Open clipboard,Play in new piece, Re-import played-in piece, Import MIDI), Print Setup,
Stop playing, Exit.
- View: Tool bars, Keyboard shortcuts, Colour scheme, Global preferences: Metronome,Chord
symbols,Autosave,Settings,Music,Playback,MIDI echo, MIDI port.
- Help:
Mozart help topics, Search for help, Lesing help,Command list,Editing
commands,Getting started,Tip of day,Optaining support,About Mozart.
II.) SPECIALE
- File: New, Open, Close, Save, Save as, Import (Open clipboard,Play in new piece, Re-import
played-in piece, Import MIDI)), Export (Save MIDI, Save MIDI as, Save Template),
Duplicate, Print, Print preview, Print setup, Play (Play & track, Play, Play & track forword,
Play forword), Send, Exit.
- Edit: Undo, Redo, Cut Copy, Paste, Copy image, Copy print image, Insert bars, Delate bars, Cut
bars, Insert beat, Delate beat, Select all staves, ,Select whole piece, Go to bar.
- View: Music font, Zoom in, Zoom out, Tool bars, Keyboard shorcuts, Visible music items,
Colour scheme, Global preferences, MIDI options, Swing, MIDI in connection, MIDI out
connection, Tune properties, Refresh.
- Item: Note (Enter note, Enter rest, Sharpen, Flatten, Accidental, Enharmonic, Enharmonic
default, Dot, Double dot, Octave up, Octave down, Pitch, Convert to note, Convert to rest),
Partition (Merge notes, Split note (#), Split note (‘), Split note (\), Multiplet, Triplet, Soublet,
Remove multiplet), Tails (Joint, Invert, Default direction, Flip note head), Accents (Accent,
Attack, Staccato, ,Tenuto, Open, Closed, Pause, Accent below, Attack below, Staccato stem,
Tenuto stem, Pause below), Ornaments (Trill, Mordent, Inverted Mordent, Turn, Inverted
Turn, Appoggiatura, Grace note, Reiteration-0,1 /, 2 //, 3 ///), Phrasing (Phrase mark, Phrase
mark below, Tie, Tie…, Invert Tie), Bar lines (Bar line, Repeat, Final bar line, Line break,
Music break, Number, Rehearsal mark, First time. Second time), Dynamics (fz, fff, ff, f, mf,
mp, p pp ppp, cresc., dim., swell, fade), Symbol (Chord symbol, Chord repeat, Text, Down
bow, Up bow, Pedal, Pedal off, Break, Tempo), Control (Mute, Unmute), Properties (Offset,
Hide/Show, Properties), Spacing (Insert, Compress end).
- Bar: Joint Tails, Invert Tails, Default Tails direction, Accidents, Enharmonic default, Octave
up, Octave down, Compress bar, Whole bar repeat (./.), Whole bar rest, n bar rest, Pad with
rests.
- Score: Transpose piece, Key, Time signature, Tempo, Stave, Clef, Instrument, Concert octave
(up, down), Combine strands, Separate strands, Score layout, Lyric lines (Add lyric line, Remove
lyric line, Move lyric line up, Move lyric line down), Style options (Chord symbols, Clefs),
Written pitch.
- Layout: Titles, Page format, Music font, Bar numbering, Print empty stave, Justify.
14
-
Window: New window, Cascade, Title, Arrange items, Close all, Next window, Previous
window, n Mozart n.
Help: Mozart help topics, Search for help, Lesing help,Command list,Editing
commands,Getting started,Tip of day,Optaining support,About Mozart.
OPERATII CURENTE
1.) O noua lucrare:
File-New- precizand Template/Formatul de solist sau ansamblu pre-existent, Key/Tonalitate,
Time/Masura, Tempo -OK; apoi:
Layout Titles (precizand Title/Titlu, Composer/Compozitor, Reference/Denumirea si/sau
caracterul Tempo-ului);
- sau:
File-New- precizand Template <None>, Staves (Portative) “n” (de la 1 la 64)-OK; apoi
Score-Clef/Cheie,Instrument,Score layout (precizand Score si Style), eventual Lyric lines; apoi:
Layout Titles (precizand Title/Titlu, Composer/Compozitor, Reference/Denumirea si/sau
caracterul Tempo-ului);
2.) O lucrare pre-existenta:
File-Open; sau File-Import MIDI.
3.) Redactarea textului muzical:
Scrierea efectiva a notelor implica urmatoarele trei operatii: precizarea duratei (longa = 0, nota
intraga = 1, doimea = 2, patrimea = 3, optimea = 4, saisprezecimea = 5, etc.), precizarea inaltimii
cu butonul stang al mouse-ului (sau cu tastele de orientare sus/jos/stanga/dreapta, sau cu
claviatura virtuala ce apare in imaginea programului) si fixarea notei prin apasarea tastei de
spatiu a keyboard-ului. Pentru stergerea rapida a unei note se utilizeaza tastele de orientare si
apoi tasta Delete, iar pentru stergerea mai multor note, acestea se selecteaza cu mouse-ul, dupa
care se apasa aceeasi tasta Delete. Pentru anularea unei/unor masuri se utilizeaza comanda
Edit-Delete bars, iar pentru adaugarea unei/unor masuri - comanda Edit-Insert bars.
4.
Alte operatii frecvente:
ItemPartitionMultiplet (pentru formule ritmice exceptionale), ItemTails (pentru orientarea
“cozilor”), ItemAccents (pentru accente), Item Ornaments (pentru ornamente), ItemPhrasing
(pentru indicarea legaturilor de frazare), ItemBarline (pentru barele de masura, de repetitie,
precum si pentru bara finala), ItemDynamics (pentru nuante), ItemSymbolText (pentru textele
integrate in partitura, ca de pilda indicatiile de expresie), ScoreTranspose (pentru transpunerea
lucrarii). Schimbarile de tonalitate, masura, tempo si chei se realizeaza cu comenzile din Score:
Key, Time signature, Tempo si, respectiv, Clef.Transpunerile la octava superioara sau la cea
inferioara - prin comenzile din Bar: Octave up si Octave down, numerotarea masurilor - prin
comanda Layout - Bar numbering, repetarea masurilor ("lenesii") - prin Bar-Whole bar repeat,
extragerea stimelor - prin File-Duplicate, iar tiparirea – prin File-Print.Explicatii suplimentare
se pot obtine prin activarea functiei Help, sau prin accesarea site-ului www.mozart.co.uk
Functiile programului
FINALE 2003
The Art of Music Notation
© 2002 by MakeMusic! Inc
Coda Music Technologies
www.codamusic.com
“Keyboard Shortcuts and Special Mouse Clicks”
(material extras din “Finale User Manual”)
- File Menu:New (Ctrl-N),Open (Ctrl-O),Close (Ctrl-W),Save (Ctrl-S),Import (Ctrl-I),Print
Score (Ctrl-P),Quit (Alt-F4);
- Edit Menu:Undo )Ctrl–Z),Redo (Ctrl–Y),Undo List (Ctrl-shift–Z),Cut (Ctrl–X),Cut-create
15
Clip file (Press ctrl when choosing Cut),Cut-display Items to Clip dialog box (Press shift when
choosing Cut),Cut-create Clip file and specify items (Press ctrl-shift when choosing Cut),Copy
(Ctrl–C),Copy-create Clip file (Press ctrl when choosing Copy),Copy-display Items to Clip dialog
box (Press shift when choosing Copy),Copy-create Clip file and specifyitems (Press ctrl-shift when
choosing Copy),Insert-insert from a Clip file (Press ctrl when choosing Insert),Replace Entries
Ctrl-V),Replace Entries-paste from a Clip file (Press ctrl when choosing Replace Entries
Select All Ctrl-A),Update Layout (Ctrl–U),Update Layout and remove measure groupings (Press
shift when choosing Update Layout);
- View Menu:Page View (Ctrl-E),Scroll View (Ctrl-E),Home Position (Home key),End Position
(End key),Redraw Screen (Ctrl–D),View at 400% (Ctrl–4),View At 200% (Ctrl–2),View At 100%
(Ctrl–1),View At 75% (Ctrl–7),View At 50% (Ctrl–5),View At X % (Ctrl–0),View At Last Size
(Double-right-click on the score),Define a Staff Set (Press Ctrl when choosing Staff Set-in Scroll
View only),Change layers (Alt-Shift-layer number 1-4);
- General Keyboard Shortcuts: OK all open dialog boxes (Ctrl-click the OK button),Cancel all
open dialog boxes (Ctrl-click the Cancel button), Redraw Interrupt (Esc),Apply a Metatool (Press
a number or letter and click the score),Program a Metatool (Press shift-number or
shift-letter),Program a keyboard equivalent for a tool (Press shift-Function key F2-F12),Switch
to a tool you’ve programmed (Press Function key F2-F12),Select Yes or No in dialog boxes
(Type N for “no” and Y for “Yes”),Move to top of page/score (Page Up),Move to bottom of
page/score (Page Down),Next or Previous Page (Ctl-PageUp or Ctl-PageDown),Change layers
(Alt-Shift-layer number);
- Articulation Tool:Display the Articulation Selection dialog box (Click on, above, or below a
note or rest that doesn’t have an articulation attached, or click on a note whose articulation
handles are visible,OR drag-enclose a group of notes),Display articulation handle (Click a note to
which an articulation has been attached),Select an ( Click, or shift-click the handle),Move an
articulation (Drag the handle -ctrl-drag the handle to move without using dynamic
drawing),Delete an articulation (Select the handle and press delete, or right-click the handle and
select Delete from the contextual menu. Drag-enclose a group of notes while holding delete to
delete articulations on all the notes),Display the Articulation Designer dialog box (Double-click
an articulation handle, or right-click the handle and select Edit Articulation Definition from the
contextual menu);
- Chord Tool:Display positioning arrows (Click the staff - but not on a note or rest),Display the
Chord Definition dialog box (Click a note with no chord symbol attached - with Manual Input
selected in the Chord Menu -, or double-click a chord symbol handle,or right-click the handle
and select Edit Chord Definition from the contextual menu),Display a handle on chord symbols
(Click a note with a chord symbol attached or select Show All Chord Handles from the Chord
Menu -when Manual Input is selected in the Chord Menu), Delete a chord symbol (Select the
handle and press delete, or right-click the handle and select Delete from the contextual
menu),Move a chord symbol
(With Manual Input selected in the Chord Menu, drag the
symbol handle or ctrl-drag the handle to move without using dynamic drawing),Input chord
symbols using MIDI keyboard (With MIDI Input selected click a note and play chord on the
MIDI keyboard),Analyze chord in one or two staves (With One- or Two-Staff Analysis selected
in the Chord Menu, click on a note in the chord);
- Clef Tool:Display the Change Clef dialog box (Click a measure without a mid-measure clef),
Display handles in mid-measure clefs (Click a measure with a mid-measure clef),Adjust the
mid-measure clef position (Drag the handle of the mid-measure clef),Delete a mid-measure clef
(Select the handle and press delete, or right-click the handle and select Delete from the contextual
menu),Change a mid-measure clef to another clef (Double-click the mid-measure clef’s handle
and drag left or right, or right-click the handle and select Edit Clef Definition),To insert another
mid-measure clef (Double-click in the measure),Display the mid-measure clef dialog box
(Ctrl-click a mid-measure clef’s handle, or right-click the handle and select Edit Clef Definition
from the contextual menu);
- Expression Tool:Display the Expression Selection dialog box (Double-click on, above, or
below a measure or note that doesn’t have an expression attached),Display an expression handles
(Click on a measure or note with an xpression attached - when show all handles is not
selected);Select an expression handle (Click, or shift-click to select multiple handles or press
ctrl-A to select all available handles),Move selected expressions (Drag the selected handles),Move
selected expressions without using dynamic drawing (Ctrl-drag the selected handles),Delete
16
selected expressions (Press delete, or right-click the handle and select Delete from the contextual
menu),Resize a shape expression (Double-click an expression handle, or right-click the handle
and select Edit Score Shape Expression Graphically from the contextual menu),Display the Text
Expression Designer dialog box (Double-click an expression handle - text expression -, or
right-click the handle and select Edit Text Expression Definition from the contextual
menu),Display the Shape Expression Designer dialog box (Ctrl-double-click an expression handle
- shape expression -, or rightclick the handle and select Edit Shape Expression Definition from
the contextual menu),Display the Measure or Note Expression Assignment dialog box
(Shift-double-click an expression handle, or right-click the handle and select Edit Expression
Assignment from the contextual menu);
- Graphics Tool:Align Left (Ctrl-Shift- [ -left square bracket),Center Horizontally (Ctrl-Shift' -apostrophe), Align Right Ctrl-Shift- ] -right square bracket),Align Top (Ctrl- -minus),Center Vertically (Ctrl-Shift- = -equals),Align Bottom Ctrl-Shift- - -minus),Place a
graphic in the Shape Designer (Click in the Shape Designer display area, the Place Graphics
dialog box appears),Select a graphic or graphics (Click a graphic or drag-enclose graphics,
shift-click a graphic),Display the Graphic Attributes dialog box (Ctrl-Shift- T or double-click a
graphic),Place a graphic in the score (Double-click in the score, the Place Graphics dialog box
appears),Select a region containing the musical example to Export (Double-click and drag to
enclose a region in Page View),Delete the selected graphics (Press delete for one or more selected
graphics),Adjust the graphic’s position in the score (Drag a selected graphic),Resize the graphic
horizontally or vertically (Drag a graphic’s bounding handle);
- Hand Grabber Tool:Temporarily switch to Hand Grabber Tool (Press the right-button);
- HyperScribe Tool:Indicate where to begin transcription (Click a measure), End HyperScribe in the
middle of measure (Ctrl-click anywhere on the score);
- Transription Tool:Display the Transcription window (Click a measure or ctrl-click a measure if you
had Transcribe in Measures selected while transcribing),Transcribe a measure at a time (Click a measure
with Transcribe in Measures selected);
- Lyrics Tool:Click Assign lyrics one syllable at a time (Click within the staff lines at the
position of the note),Click Assign lyrics all at once (Ctrl-click within the staff lines at the position
of the first note),Display a Word Extension handle(Click within the staff lines at the position of
the sustained syllable With), Edit Word Extension selected from the Lyric Menu),Move Syllables
Click within the staff lines at the position of the syllable with Adjust Syllables selected from the
Lyric Menu),Move to the previous or next verse, chorus or section(“up arrow” or “down arrow”
using Type into Score),Left Justify syllable (Ctrl- [ -left square bracket),Right Justify syllable
(Ctrl- ] -right square bracket), Center Justify syllable (Ctrl- ' -apostrophe),Align syllable block to
the Left (Ctrl-Shift- [ -left square bracket),Center syllable block Horizontally (Ctrl-Shift- '
-apostrophe),Align syllable block to the Right Ctrl-Shift- ] -right square bracket);
- Mass Edit Tool:Display the Fit Measures dialog (Ctrl- M -with measures selected in Page
View),Lock currently selected systems (L),Unlock currently selected systems (U),Select a measure
or measures (If “Select Partial Measures” is selected in the Edit Menu, doubleclick a measure; If
“Select Partial Measures” is off, a single click selects a measure; drag-enclose a region),Extend a
selection of measures vertically (Double-click a selected measure to include the entire vertical
measure “stack” -that measure in all staves; If “Select Partial Measures”is turned on, the first
double-click selects a single full measure, and the second double-click selects the measure stack;
Shift-click a measure or a beat within a measure),Extend a selection of measure horizontally to
end or beginning(While holding down Shift, press”right arrow” or “left arrow”. If “Select
Partial Measures”is turned on, Shift-“right arrow” or Shift-“left arrow” selects the end or
beginning of the measure, then to the end or beginning of the score),Select a staff or staves Click
to the left of a staff; Shift-click to the left of a staff to extend the selection),Move or Copy a
selected section of music (Drag the region so it is superimposed on the beginning of an unselected
region, which elements and whether you are moving or copying are selected in the Mass Edit
Menu before you drag; Ctrl-shiftclick the place where the selected elements should be copied or
moved to),Display the Items to Clip dialog box (Press ctrl or shift while choosing Cut or Copy
from the Edit Menu),Display the Paste dialog box (Press ctrl while choosing Insert or Replace
Entries in the Edit Menu),Delete selected music (Press delete),Move selected measures to the
previous or next staff system(“up arrow” or “down arrow”),Erase selected music (Press
backspace),Cancel a Mass Edit operation (Press esc), Implode Music -displays the Implode Music
dialog box(Select the measures you want to affect, then press 1 on your computer
17
keyboard),Drag-Implode Music for multiple staves -displays the Implode Music dialog box(Press
I while dragging selected measures to their destination),Drag-Explode Music for multiple staves
-displays the Explode Music dialog box (Select the measures you want to affect, then press 2 on
your computer keyboard),Explode Music -displays the Explode Music dialog box(Press E while
dragging selected measures to their destination),Respace notes, lyrics, and accidentals -Apply
Beat Spacing command - using the settings in Document Options-Music Spacing (Select the
measures you want to affect, then press 3 on your computer keyboard),Respace notes, lyrics, and
accidentals - Apply Note Spacing command - using the settings in Document Options-Music
Spacing (Select the measures you want to affect, then press 4 on your computer keyboard),Show
elapsed time based on current tempo –displays the Elapsed Time dialog box(Select the measures
you want to affect, then press 5 on your computer keyboard),Transpose –programmable(Select
the measures you want to affect, then press any number between 6 and 9 on your computer
keyboard),Select or deselect the SmartFind Source Region (Control-F),Display the Apply
SmartFind and Paint dialog box (Control-Shift-F);
- Measure Tool:Display the Add Measures dialog box (Ctrl-click the Measure Tool, or
right-click the Measure Tool and select Add Measures from the context menu), Add single blank
measure to the score (Double-click the Measure Tool, or right-click the Measure Tool and select
Add One Measure from the context menu),Display the Measure Attributes dialog box
(Double-click the top barline handle or measure, or right-click the handle -or upper handle- and
select Edit Measure Attributes from the contextual menu),Make the Measure wider or narrower
(Drag the top barline handle right or left),Display a beat chart Click the second barline -or
middle if there are three- handle, or rightclick the handle and select Edit Beat Chart from the
contextual menu),Display a split-point bar (Click the third –bottom- barline handle, or right-click
the handle and select Edit Split Points from the contextual menu),Move a beat horizontally in all
staves (Drag one of the lower handles in the beat chart), Move a beat and all subsequent beats
horizontally in all staves(Shift-drag one of the lower handles in the beat chart),Add another pair
of beat positioning handles (Double-click between two upper handles of a beat chart),Display the
Beat Chart Element dialog box (Double-click an upper handle in the beat chart),Delete a beat
chart pair from the beat chart (Click on an upper handle to select it and press delete),Change a
barline (Right-click the handle and select the desired barline type -Normal, Double, Final, Solid,
Dashed, Invisible, Tick- from the contextual menu),Display a handle on every measure number
(Click the Measure Tool),Reset measure number positioning (Press backspace, or right-click the
handle and select Restore Default Position from the contextual menu),Delete a measure number
(Press delete, or right-click the handle and select Delete from the contextual menu),Move a
measure number Drag the measure number’s handle Display the Enclosure Designer dialog box
(Double-click a measure number’s handle, or right-click the handle and select Edit Enclosure
from the contextual menu),Force a measure number to appear (Ctrl-click a measure without a
measure number),Force measure numbers on a measure in all staves of a staff
system(Ctrl-shift-click on a measure • Break a multimeasure rest (Right-click the handle and
select Break a multimeasure rest from the contextual menu);
- Mirror Tool:Display Mirror and Placeholder icons (Click the Mirror Tool),Display the
Placeholder dialog box (Click a measure with notes or with a Placeholder icon),Display the
Tilting Mirror dialog box (Click an empty measure or a measure with a Mirror icon),Display the
Mirror Attributes dialog box (Shift-click a measure with a Mirror icon);
- Note Mover Tool:Display a handle on every notehead in the measure (Click a measure);
Select a handle or handles (Click, shift-click, drag-enclose or shift-drag-enclose the
handles),Delete selected notes -still in their original measure (Press delete, or right-click the
handle and select Delete from the contextual Menu),Move or Copy notes to another measure
(Drag a note or a group of notes to the end of the measure and the selected action in the Note
Mover Menu will take place),Copy notes to the beginning of a measure (Drag a note or a group
of notes to the beginning of the measure –if the measure isn’t rhythmically full);
- Ossia Tool:Display handles on every ossia measure (Click the Ossia Tool in Page
View),Display a handle on a measure-assigned ossia measure (Click the Ossia Tool in Scroll View
and click the measure to which the Ossia measure is attached),Display the Ossia Measure
Designer dialog box (In Page View, double-click anywhere on the document; In Scroll View click
a measure with no ossia measure attached, or double-click a measure with an ossia measure
attached; Double-click a floating measure’s handle, or right-click the handle and select Edit Ossia
Definition from the contextual menu),Select an ossia measure (Click the ossia measure’s handle);
18
Move a selected ossia measure (Drag the handle),Delete a selected ossia measure (Press delete, or
right-click the handle and select Delete from the contextual menu),Display the Page Assignment
for Ossia Measure dialog box (Shift-double-click a page-assigned floating measure’s handle, or
right-click the handle and select Edit Ossia Assignment from the contextual menu -in Page
View),Display the Measure Assignment for Ossia Measure dialog box (Shift-double-click a
measure-assigned floating measure’s handle, or right-click the handle and select Edit Ossia
Assignment from the contextual menu);
- Page Layout Tool:Display Page and System margins (Click the Page Layout Tool), Resize
page, margins or system (Drag a handle in Page View), Move a system (Drag the system in Page
View), Move a system without moving other systems( Hold down Ctrl and drag the center of a
staff system), Select handles (Drag-enclose to select handles),Select all handles (Ctrl-A);
- Repeat Tool:Display the Repeat Selection dialog box (Click a measure without a repeat or
double-click a measure with a repeat), Display handles on a repeat (Click a measure with a
repeat), Delete a text repeat, repeat barline (Click on the handle and press delete, or right-click
the handle and select Delete from the contextual menu), Move a text repeat (Select the handle and
drag), Change the size of a repeat barline’s bracket (Drag the repeat bracket handle up or down,
left or right), Display the Repeat Designer dialog box (Double-click a text repeat handle, or
right-click the handle and select Edit Repeat Definition from the contextual menu), Display the
Backward Repeat Bar Assignment dialog Box (Double-click a repeat barline handle, or
right-click the handle and select Edit Repeat Assignment from the contextual menu), Display the
Ending Repeat Bar Assignment dialog box (Double-click a repeat ending number handle, or
right-click the handle and select Edit Repeat Assignment from the contextual menu), Display the
Repeat Assignment dialog box (Shift-double-click a text repeat handle, or right-click the handle
and select Edit Repeat Assignment from the contextual menu);
- Resize Tool:Reduce or enlarge a notehead (Click on the notehead or right-click and select
Resize Notehead from the contextual menu),Reduce or enlarge an entire note or beam group
(Click on the note stem or right-click and select Resize Note or Rest from the contextual menu),
Reduce or enlarge a staff (In Page View, click to the left of the staff or right-click and select
Resize Staff from the contextual menu), Reduce or enlarge a system (In Page View, click between
any two staves in the system or rightclick and select Resize System from the contextual menu),
Reduce or enlarge a page, or a range of pages (In Page View, click the upper-left corner of the
page or right-click and select Resize Page from the contextual menu);
- Selection Tool:Switch to Selection Tool (Ctrl-Shift-A),Select an item (Click on the item),
Select the appropriate tool to edit item With item selected, double-click or press enter), Select
between overlapping items (Click on the item then press plus or minus to cycle through
overlapping items);
- Simple Entry Tool:128th Note through Double Whole ( 0-8 )• 128th Rest through Double
Whole Rest(Shift and a number key (0–7) or Enter-0 through Enter-8 on the Number Keypad) •
Switch Tools and clear other selections (Double-click tool or quickly repeat tool selection
keyboard shortcut) • Erase selected Note or Rest or select the Eraser Tool to delete accidentals,
ties, dots or tuplets (Delete) • Make a selected note sharp or select the Sharp Tool (S or + plus) •
Make a selected note flat or select the Flat Tool (F or - minus) • Make a selected note natural or
select the Natural Tool (Shift-8 or N or * asterisk) • Add double-flat to selected note(V) • Add
double-sharp to selected note (X) • Lower selected note by half step or select the Half Step Down
Tool (Shift-F or Enter- -minus With selection,”down arrow”• Raise selected note by half step or
select the Half Step Up Tool (Shift-S or Enter-+ plus With selection,”up arrow”• Change selected
note to a rest or toggle between Note and Rest Tools ® • Add an augmentation dot to the selected
note or select the Dot Tool (. period) • Tie selected note to the next note or select the Tie Tool (T
or = equals or Enter-/ )• Tie selected note to the previous note or select the Tie Tool (Shift-T) •
Toggle grace note state of selected note or select the Grace Note Tool (G or / backslash) • Toggle
tuplet state (create new one or erase existing tuplet) of selected note or select the Tuplet Tool (9) •
Access Simple Entry Tuplet Definition dialog box for duplet, septuplets or other tuplets (With the
Tuplet Tool, shift-click the staff )• Show/Hide a courtesy accidental on selected note (A) •
Break/Join Beam on selected note (B) • Restore default beaming (Shift-B) • Show/Hide selected
note or rest (H) • Flip stem on selected note (L) • Restore stem direction to “floating” status on
selected note (Shift-L) • Flatten beams for selected note (M) • Add or remove parentheses around
accidentals for selected note (P) • Select a note or rest (Control-click the note or rest) • Select a
note or rest within a chord without clearing previous selection (Control-shift-click the note or
19
rest)• Move selection one note/rest to the left If no selection, select the last edited note/rest (“left
arrow”) • Move selection one note/rest to the right(“right arrow”) • Move selection one note up,
if chord selected Control -”up arrow”)• Move selection one note down, if chord selected
Control-“down arrow”) • Select all notes in selected chord (Ctrl-A-click the chord) • Clear
selection (Escape or Backspace);
- Smart Shape Tool:Flip a selected Slur (Ctrl- F), Change a selected Slur back to Automatic
(Ctrl-Shift- F), Display handles on all smart shapes (Click the Smart Shape Tool, Edit or Delete a
Smart Shape Click the handle of the Smart Shape) • Control-A (Select all Smart Shapes on the
page) • Drag or nudge an endpoint handle Change the slur’s ending or starting note • Drag or
nudge a center curve handle Change the slur’s arc height • Shift-drag a center curve handle
Change the slur’s arc height and angle • Drag or nudge an inner curve handle (Change the slur’s
arc and inset asymmetrically) • Control-drag an inner curve handle (Change the slur’s arc and
inset symmetrically) • Control-double-click and drag (Create an inverted bracket with the hook
pointing away from the staff instead of toward the staff. It will also change the text for an 8va or
15ma below the staff or 8vb or 15mb above the staff), Display the Smart Line Style Selection
dialog box (Ctrl-click the Custom Line Tool), Add a slur (S) • Add a dashed slur (V), Add a
crescendo (<),Add a decrescendo (>) • Add a trill (T) • Add a trill extension (E) • Add an 8va or
8vb marking (8) • Add a 15ma or 15mb marking (1) • Add a double-ended bracket (O) • Add a
dashed double-ended bracket (H) • Add a bracket (K) • Add a dashed bracket ® • Add a line (L) •
Add a dashed line (D) • Add a glissando (G) • Add a bend (N) • Add a tab slide (A) • Add a
custom line (C);
- Speedy Entry Tool:Display the Edit Frame dialog box (Ctrl-click any measure that contains
music), Remove note, rest or chord (delete),Hide/show note or rest (letter O or H), Add or
remove accidental parentheses (P), Jump to previous measure ([ -left square bracket- or shift
“left arrow”), Jump to next measure (] -right square bracket- or shift “right arrow”), Flip stem
in opposite direction (L),Restore stem direction to “floating” status (Ctrl-L) • Change to/from a
grace note (; -semicolon- or G) • Change to/from a slashed flagged grace note (` -accent- or ;
-semicolon- or G), Voice 1/2 (' -apostrophe) Switch to next layer (shift–' -apostrophe) Move
editing frame down a staff (shift “down arrow”), Move editing frame up a staff (shift “up
arrow”), Add or change note 64th–double whole note (1–8), Add or change 128th note (ctrl-0
-zero) Insert 64th note–whole note (shift-1 through shift-7 -on keyboard only-with MIDI, while
playing note) Insert 128th note -without MIDI (ctrl-0 –zero-in insert mode only),Add 64th
rest–whole rest -with MIDI (shift-1 through shift-7 without pressing note). Add rest -with or
without MIDI (ctrl-shift-1-7 on keyboard only) Add 128th rest with MIDI (ctrl-0 -zero) Add a
rest with Hands-Free MIDI(play any three note cluster), Toggle Insert mode (insert or shift-0
-zero) Constrain dragging a note horizontal/vertical(shift-drag),Begin a tuplet
-duplet–octuplet(ctrl-2 through ctrl-8), Define a tuplet (ctrl-1) • Raise by a half step (+ plus or
shift-S)• Lower by a half step (– minus or shift-F), Raise by a half step for entire measure(ctrl- +
plus) Lower by a half step for entire measure(ctrl- – minus) • Flat note (F) • Sharp note (S) •
Natural note (N )• Double-sharp (X) • Double-flat (V),Previous note(“left arrow),Next note(“right
arrow”),Move to first note or rest in measure (ctrl-“left arrow”), Move just beyond last note or
rest in measure (ctrl-“right arrow”), Down a step(“down arrow”),Up a step(“up
arrow”),Remove note from chord (backspace) • Change single note to rest (backspace or R) •
Tie/untie to next note (= equals or T) • Tie/untie to previous note (ctrl = equals or shift-T), Flip a
tie (ctrl-F),Restore tie direction to automatic (ctrl-shift-F) • Break/join beam from previous note
(/ -backslash or B) • Restore default beaming (Shift-B) • Flatten a beam (\ -forward slash or M),
Show/hide any accidental (* asterisk) • Show/hide a courtesy accidental (A), Restore courtesy
accidental to optional status (ctrl-* asterisk) Return a rest to its default position (* asterisk), Exit
measure and redraw/re-enter measure (0 zero) Flip a note to its enharmonic equivalent (9), Flip
enharmonic throughout measure (ctrl-9 - cursor on first note in measure), Add a dot (. period)
Add a note to a chord (enter), Change a rest to a note (enter) • Specify a pitch, high C–B without
MIDI (Q-W-E-R-T-Y-U - with Caps Lock) • Specify a pitch, middle C–B without MIDI
(A-S-D-F-G-H-J - with Caps Lock) • Specify a pitch, low C–B without MIDI (Z-X-C-V-B-N-M with Caps Lock) • Raise all pitch keys an octave (, comma with Caps Lock) • Lower all pitch keys
an octave(I -letter I with Caps Lock) • Restore all pitch keys to normal register(K with Caps
Lock);
- Special Tools Tool:Display handles in the measure (Click the Special Tool you want to use
and click on the measure), Select a handle or handles (Click, shift-click or drag-enclose, or
20
ctrl-A), Reset the note to its original state (Press delete or backspace), Move selected items very
slightly (Use the arrow keys), Flip a selected tie (Ctrl-F), Restore tie direction to automatic
(Ctrl-shift-F);
- Staff Tool: Display the Staff Menu and handles (Click the Staff Tool), Select a staff or
staves(Click a staff or a staff handle, or drag-enclose staff handles), Add the staff to the selection.
If a staff is already selected, remove the staff from the selection (Shift-click a staff or a staff
handle), Display the Staff Attributes dialog box(Double-click a staff or a staff handle, or
double-click a full or abbreviated staff name handle, or right-click the handle and select Edit
Staff Attributes from the contextual menu), Add a staff without repositioning the lower staves to
make room for the new staff. (Double-click in the score in Scroll View), Insert a staff between
staves, repositioning the lower staves to make room for the new staff(Shift-double-click below a
staff in the score in Scroll View), Display the Group Attributes dialog box(Double-click a group
handle, or double-click a bracket handle, or right-click the group or bracket handle and select
Edit Group Attributes from the contextual menu. right-click the staff handle and select Add
Group and Bracket from the contextual menu),Delete the selected staves without repositioning
the remaining staves(Press delete for selected staves, or right-click the handle and select Delete
Staves from the contextual menu),Delete the selected staves and reposition the remaining
staves(Press shift-delete for selected staves, or right-click the handle and select Delete Staves and
Reposition from the contextual menu).Adjust the staff’s position in Scroll View only. The
placement of staves remains unchanged in Page View. When you choose Special Part Extraction
from the Edit Menu, Finale removes the checkmark by the command, and displays the full score
using the new positioning in Scroll View.(Drag a staff or a staff handle in Scroll View -when
Special Part Extraction is selected in the Edit Menu), Adjust the staff’s position in every staff
system in Page View and the position of the staff in Scroll View. When the top staff is adjusted,
Finale adjusts the distance between staves, as well as staff systems(Drag a staff or a staff handle
in Page View -when Special Part Extraction is not selected in the Edit Menu. Note: If two handles
appear on a staff, drag the top handle),Adjust the staff’s position in every staff system in Page
View; leave the position of the staff unchanged in Scroll View. Finale adjusts the distance
between staves, as well as staff systems(Drag a staff or a staff handle in Page View -when Special
Part Extraction is selected in the Edit Menu. Note: If two handles appear on a staff, drag the top
handle), Adjust the staff’s position only in the current staff system -drag the top handle to adjust
the position of the staff in all staff systems in Page View(Drag the staff’s lower handle in Page
View. Note: If a staff system has been optimized using the Page Layout Tool, two handles will
appear on each staff in the optimized staff system), Select a group or groups(Click a group
handle, or drag-enclose group handles),Add the group to the selection. If a group is already
selected, remove the group from the selection(Shift-click a group handle), Edit a full or
abbreviated group name using the Edit Text window.(Ctrl-click a group handle, or right-click the
handle and select Edit Full Group Name or Edit Abbreviated Group Name from the contextual
menu.), Position a group name using the Position Full Group Name or Position Abbreviated
Group Name dialog box. (Ctrl-shift-click a group handle, or right-click the handle and select
Position Full Group Name or Position Abbreviated Group Name from the contextual menu.),
Revert the position of the group names to their default position.(Press backspace for selected
groups), Remove the selected group definitions.(Press delete for selected groups, or right-click the
handle and select Delete Group from the contextual menu.), Adjust the position of a group name.
(Drag a group handle), Select a staff name or names. (Click a staff name handle, or drag-enclose
staff name handles), Add the staff name to the selection. If a staff name is already selected,
remove the staff name from the selection. (Shift-click a full or abbreviated staff name handle),
Edit a full or abbreviated staff name using the Edit Text window. (Ctrl-click a full or abbreviated
staff name handle, or right-click the handle and select Edit Full Staff Name or Edit Abbreviated
Staff Name from the contextual menu), Position the selected staff name using the Position Full
Staff Name or Position Abbreviated Staff Name dialog box. (Ctrl-shift-click a full or abbreviated
staff name handle, or right-click the handle and select Position Full Staff Name or Position
Abbreviated Staff Name from the contextual menu.), Revert the position of the full or
abbreviated staff name to its default position.(Press backspace for a selected staff name handle),
Adjust the position of the selected staff name. (Drag a full or abbreviated staff name handle),
Select a bracket or brackets (Click a bracket handle, or drag-enclose several bracket handles),
Add the bracket to the selection. If a bracket is already selected, remove the bracket from the
selection.(Shift-click a bracket handle), Remove the selected brackets. (Press delete for selected
21
brackets, or right-click the handle and select Delete from the contextual menu.), Revert the
selected brackets to their default length. (Press backspace for selected brackets), Make a bracket
taller or shorter. (Drag a bracket handle vertically), Move a bracket closer to or away from
bracketed staves.(Drag a bracket handle horizontally) Select a clef for the staff. (Right-click the
staff handle and select Select Clef from the contextual menu.), Remove Staff Styles from selected
region. (Backspace);
- Text Tool: Left Justify text in a text block (Ctrl- [ left square bracket), Right Justify text in a
text block (Ctrl- ] right square bracket), Center Justify text in a text block (Ctrl- ' apostrophe),
Full Justify text in a text block (Ctrl- ; semicolon), Forced Full Justify text in a text block
(Ctrl-Shift- ; semicolon), Bold (Ctrl-Shift- B), Italic (Ctrl-Shift- I), Underline (Ctrl-Shift- U),
Increase Point Size by one (Ctrl-Shift- . period), Decrease Point Size by one (Ctrl-Shift- , comma),
Page Number Text Insert (Ctrl-Shift- P), Sharp sign Text Insert (Ctrl-Shift- S), Flat sign Text
Insert (Ctrl-Shift- F), Natural sign Text Insert (Ctrl-Shift- N), Display Character Settings dialog
box (Ctrl-T Display), Line Spacing dialog box (Ctrl-Shift-L), Align Text block to the Left
(Ctrl-Shift- [ left square bracket), Center Text block Horizontally (Ctrl-Shift- ' apostrophe),
Align Text block to the Right (Ctrl-Shift- ] right square bracket), Align Text block to the Top
Ctrl- - minus), Center Text block Vertically (Ctrl-Shift- = equals), Align Text block to the Bottom
(Ctrl-Shift - minus), Display the Standard Frame dialog box (Ctrl- M), Display the Custom
Frame dialog box (Ctrl-Shift- M), Display the Frame Attributes dialog box (Ctrl-Shift- T or
shift-double-click a text block handle, or right-click the handle and select Edit Frame Attributes
from the contextual menu.), Display the Text Menu (Click the Text Tool), Display handles on text
blocks (/Click the Text Tool), Select a text block or text blocks (Click a text block handle or
drag-enclose text block handles, shiftclick a text block handle), Create an unbounded frame that
expands as you enter text (Double-click in the score),Create a bounded, fixed-size frame for text
(Double-click and drag in the score), Edit the text block (Double-click a text block handle, or
right-click the handle and select Edit Text from the contextual menu.), Delete the selected text
blocks (Press delete for one or more selected text blocks, or right-click the handle and select
Delete from the contextual menu.),Adjust the text block’s position in the score (Drag a selected
text block handle);
- Tuplet Tool:Display positioning handles (Click the first note of a tuplet), Position tuplet
(Drag a positioning handle),Position tuplet without dynamic drawing (Ctrl-drag a positioning
handle), Delete tuplet (Press delete for selected tuplet, or right-click the handle and select Delete
from the contextual menu.), Display the Tuplet Definition dialog box (Double-click a positioning
handle or the first note in a group that you want to define as tuplets, or right-click the handle and
select Edit Tuplet Definition from the contextual menu.), Display the Default Tuplet Visual
Definition dialog box(Ctrl-click the Tuplet Tool, or right-click the Tuplet Tool and select Edit
Default Tuplet Visual Definition from the drop-down list);
-Zoom Tool:Zoom in - enlarge 2x, if tool is selected(Click the score), Zoom out -reduce by 1/2,
if tool is selected (Ctrl-click the score), Temporary switch to Zoom Tool: enlarge (Shift-click the
right-button), Temporary switch to Zoom Tool: reduce (Ctrl-Shift-click the right-button), Fill the
screen with the selected area (Drag-enclose an area);
- Playback:Begin/Pause playing -Playback Controls open(Alt-D-P or Alt-D-O), Begin playing
from the measure clicked (Spacebar–click in staff), Begin playing from the clicked measure in the
clicked staff only (Shift-spacebar–click in staff), Begin playing from the clicked measure in all
staves (Spacebar–click in between staves), Begin playing from measure one in all staves
(Spacebar–click to the left of a staff system), Begin playing from measure 1 for the clicked staff
(Spacebar-shift-click to the left of staff), “Scrub” onscreen music - all staves (Ctrl-spacebar -and
drag across music), “Scrub” onscreen music - clicked staff only (Ctrl-Shift-spacebar -and drag
across music).
Functiile programului
SIBELIUS
Versiunea 2
© 1987-2001 by Sibelius Software Limited
www.sibelius.com
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File: New (Type of manuscript paper, Instruments, Play using the device), Open [All
Music Files (sib, mid, opt, mus, etf, tmp, pag, pge, s7), Sibelius (sib), MIDI (mid), Photo
Score (opt), Finale/Allegro/PrintMusic (mus), Finale ENIGMA (etf), SCORE File
(tmp)/Page (mus, pag, pge), Sibelius 6/7 (s7)], Append Score (sib), Close, Close All, Save,
Save As [Sibelius (sib), Scorch Web Page (htm), MIDI (mid)], Save As Graphics (EPS,
BMP, EMF), Save As Manuscript Paper, Save All [Sibelius (sib), Scorch Web Page (htm),
MIDI (mid)], Print, Extract Parts, Publish on SibeliusMusic.com, Score Info, Plug-ins
[Batch Processing (Apply House Style to Folder of Files, Convert: Folder of Acorn Sibelius
Files/Folder of Files to Graphics/Folder of Finale Files/Folder of MIDI Files; Print Folder
of Scores), Composing Tools (Double Notes Values, Finf Motif, Find Range, Halve Notes
Values, Invert, Pitch Mapping, Retrograde), Notation (Add: Brass Fingering/Cautionary
Accidrentals,/Chord Symbols/Ficta Above Note/Note Names/String Fingering/Tonic
Sol-Fa; Make Layout Uniform/Pitches Constant, Number Beats, Remove Dangling
Ties/Rests, Respell Flats as Sharps/Sharps as Flats, Split Dotted Quarter Rests), Playback
(Copy Dinamics, Cresc./Dim. Playback, Quarter-tone Playback), Proof-reading (Check:
Clefs/for Parallel 5ths-8ves/Harp Pedaling/Pizzicatos/Repeat Barlines; Proof-read), Edit
Plug-ins, Show Plug-in Trace Window], Preferences (General, Keyboard Shorcuts, Word
Menus), Register/Transfer (Register Sibelius, Transfer SavingOut/In), Exit.
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Edit: Undo, Redo, Undo/Redo History, Cut, Copy, Paste, Repeat, Delete, Flip, Voice (1-4; All;
Swap 1-2/1-3/1-4/2-3/2-4/3-4), Hide or Show (Hide, Show, Show in Score/in Parts), Select
(All/More/System Passage/None), Filter [Advanced Filter, Chord Symbols, Dynamics,
Expression Tool, Guitar Frames, Hairpins, Lyrics, Notes and Chords, Slurs, Tuplets, Voice
1-4, Voice 1-4 Only, Top/2nd/3rd/Bottom Note, Top Note/2-nd Note/3rd Note/bottom Note
or Single Notes, Player 1-2 (for Delation)], Find, Find Next, Go to Bar/Page;
-
View: Attachment, Breacks and Locks, Hidden Objects, Highlights, Note Colors (Note out of
Range, Pitch Spectrum, Voice Colors, None), Page Margins, Textures, Selection/Object/Staff
Rulers, Full Screen, Scroll Bars, Toolbar, Zoom (Zoom, Zoom In/Out);
-
Create: Bar, Barline, Clef, Graphic, Guitar Frame, Highlight, Instruments, Key Signature,
Line, Rehearsal Mark, Symbol, Text [Expression, Technique, Lyrics, Lyrics verse 3-5,
Chord symbol, Other Staff Text (Plain text, Lyrics verse 3-5, Figured bass, Fingering,
Boxer text, Small text, Lyrics above staff, Nashville chord numbers, Footnote, Technique 2,
Note flags 2, Small Text 2), Title, Subtitle, Composer, Lyricist, Dedication, Tempo,
Metronome mark, Other System Text (Copyright, Header, Header – after first page,
Footer – outside edge/inside edge, Rit./accel., Title 2, Header 2, Footer 3, Footer, Footer 2),
Special Text (Bar numbers, Guitar frame fret, Instrument name at top left, Instrument
names, Multirests, Page numbers, Rehearsal marks, Time signatures-huge/large, Tablature
letters/numbers, Tuplets)], Bar Numbers Change, Bracket or Brace (Bracket, Sub-bracket,
Brace), Extra Slur Arc, Extra Staff (Above, Below, Ossia Above/Below), Staff Type Change
[Pitched (1-5 lines, No lines, etc.), Tab (Standard guitar, Bass guitar, etc.), Percussion (1-5
lines)], Transposition Change;
-
Play: Play or Pause, Stop, All Notes Off, Mixer, Performance, Dictiuonary, Devices,
Substitute Devices, Playback Options;
-
Notes: Flexi time, Flexi-time Options, Arrange, Edit Arrange Styles, Transpose, Transposing
Score, Add Interval (2-9 Above/Below, Unison), Add Interval (A-B-C-D-E-F-G + Shift),
Cross-Staff Notes (Move Up/Down a Staff), Respell Accidental, Reset Beam Groups/Stems
and Beam Angles;
-
Layout: Document Setup, Break (System/Page Break, Split System/Multirest), Format
(Make Into System/Page, Lock/Unlock Format), Align: in a Row/in a Column/Staves;
Hide/Show Empty Staves; Reset: Portion/Design/Note Spacing/Space Above Staff/Space
23
Below Staff;
-
House Style: Engraving Rules, Note Spacing Rule, System Object Positions, Default
Positions, Timecode, Edit: Lines/Noteheads/Staff Types/Symbols/Text Styles; Use:
Multirests/“Show in Part“; Import/Export House Style;
-
Window: New Window, Title Horizontaly/Verticaly, Cascade, Mixer, Navigator, Properties,
Keypade (separate);
-
Help: Sibelius Help, Tip of the Day, Help Center, Sibelius.com, Sibelius.com Education Area,
SibeliusMusic.com Internet Publishing, Sibelius Magazine, PhotoScore Professional, Sibelius
Teaching Tools, About Sibelius.
-
Comenzile operative (ce apar suprapuse partiturii in lucru): General, Text, Lines, Bars,
Staves, Notes, Keypad;
-
Comenzi rapide uzuale: A/B/C/D/E/F/G (LA/SI/DO/RE/MI/FA/SOL), 1-6 pe keypad
(TREZECIDOIME-NOTA INTREAGA), 7-9 pe keypad (BECAR,DIEZ,BEMOL), Ctrl + 3
(TRIOLET), Ctrl + 2-9 (ALTE DIVIZIUNI EXCEPTIONALE), P (PLAY), Esc (STOP),
Ctrl + F/M/P (f/m/p – ca expresie), Ctrl + Shift + C/D (CRESC./DIM.).
Functiile programului
NoteWorthy Composer v. 1.75
© 2002 NoteWorty Software. Inc www.notewortysoftware.com
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File: New, Open (NWC Files, MIDI Files, Song Files) Save, Save As (Standard NWC File,
Type 1 Midi File, Type 0 Midi Files, Uncompressed NWC File), Revert, Close, Info [Title,
Author, Copyright Notice 2 (All Rights Reserved), Comments], Page Setup, Printer Setup,
Print Preview, Print, History, Exit;
Edit: Undo Page Setup, Redo, Cut, Copy, Copy Special, Paste, Clear, Select All, Remove
Chord Note, Beam, Triplet, Find, Find Next, Go to, Lyrics, Properties;
View: Zoom In/Out, Zoom, Refresh Score, Status Bar, Toolbars;
Staff: New Staff, Import Recording, Delete Staff, Move Staff, Move Staff Up/Down, Mute
Staff, Staff Properties;
Insert: Note, Rest, Chord Member, Bar Line, Bar Line (Decorated), Clef, Dynamic,
Dynamic Variance, Flow Direction, Key Signature, Performance Style, Special Ending,
Sustain Pedal, Tempo, Tempo Variance, Text, Time Signature, Instrument Patch,
Multi-point Controller;
Notes: Whole, Half, Quarter, Eight, Sixteenth, Thirty-second, Sixty-fourth; Natural, Flat,
Sharp, Double Sharp, Double Flat; Accent, Dotted, Double-Dotted, Grace, Slur, Staccato,
Tenuto, Tied, Stem Up/Down;
Tools: Record, Staff Play, Play, Stop; Score Review, Mute List, MIDI Input Active,
Persistent Note Tools; Automatic Beam, Transpose Staff, Force Accidentals; Audit Bar
Lines/Accidents/Enharmonic Spelling/Note Stems; Options;
Window: Cascade, Title, Arrange Icons, Close All;
Help: Contents, Search for Help on, Did you know, Getting Started, Command Reference,
Keyboard Reference, Benefits of Registering, How to Order, Support, Go to NoteWorthy
Software.com, Check for Web Updates, About.
Functiile programului
LIME 8.00
© January 2003 by Lippold HAKEN and Dorothea BLOSTEIN
www.cerlsoundgroup.org
lime, 1906 Augusta, Champaign, IL-61821, USA
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File: New, Open, Import NIFF, Import MIDI, Close, Save, Save As (Lime Fle – lim),
24
-
-
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Export NIFF, Export MIDI, Revert, Layout, Print Setup, Print, Print Multiple, About
Lime, Exit;
Edit: Undo, Redo, Cut, Copy, Copy Music, Paste, Clear (Note, Text, Annotation, At Each
System, On Each Page, In Every Context, Staff/Chord/Accident Drag, Invisible Notes),
Copy Measures, Align Annotations, Duplicate, Extend Line to Here, Allow Any Alt-click,
Enable Duration Edits, Shortcut Keys, Options:
Context: Previous Notation Context, Next Notation Context, Part Extraction, Score;
Page: Previous/Next Page, Go to Page/Bar, Split Page/System, Add to Next Page/System,
Systems, Insert/Delete Measures, Correct Measure;
Voice: Previous/Next Part or Voice, Record, Note Entry, Parts and Voices, Voice to Staff
Above/Bellow, Staff Drag, Hightlight Voice, Voice on Channel;
Note: Previous/Next Note, Show Accidental, Default/Special Accidentals, Transpose,
Notehead Color, Tablature String/Thumb, Hide Tuplet/Rest, Don’ t Combine Rest, Chord
Drag, Internal Fields;
Stem: Stem Up/Down, No Stem, Slashed Stem, Stem Between Staves, Continue/End Beam,
Continue/End Subbeam, Default Beaming, Beaming Rule, Tremolo Beam, Swing Eight
Beam, Modify Slur/Tie;
Hear: Hear, Tuning, Dynamic Levels, Default Playback, Modify Playback (Softer, Louder,
Level, Lower, Higher, Pitch, Shorter, Longer, Earlier, Later), Recompute Playback, Play
Octave Higher/Lower, Keyboard Shift (3-1 Octaves Up, Normal, 1-3 Octaves Down),
MIDI Input/Output;
Symbol: Clef, Key/Time Signature, Bar Line, Align Bars, System Bracket, Parameters,
Hidden Test;
Annotation: Preview/Next Annotation, Text Category, Font, Size, Style, Text Assistant,
Line, Curve, Line and Curve Style, Horizontal/Vertical Lock, All Notation Context, Only
In Score, Not In Score, This Notation Context Only;
Window: Previous/Next Window, Arrange Icons, Close All.
Functiile programului
ENCORE - The Musician’s Choice for Composing & Publishing
Version 4.5.5
© 1993-2003 Interactive Music, Passport Designs, Inc.
www.gvox.com
PO Box 2755, NJ 07091, USA
-
-
-
File: New (Page Layout: Staves per system, Systems per page, Measures per system, Staff
Format), Open [Scores (enc, mus, mto, rhp), MIDI (mid, miff), MT Pro (mts)], Close, Save,
Save As [Encore Files (enc), MIDI Files (mid), MT Pro Files (mts)], Revert to Saved,
Extract Part, Score Settings/Page Setup (Score Window Title; Enlarge or Reduce Score;
Margin Setting), Print, Export to ESP, Exit;
Edit: Undo Guess Durations, Cut, Copy, Paste, Clear, Select All, Nudge
Left/Right/Up/Down;
Notes: Attributes (Notes, Beams, Rests), Voice (Set to Voice 1-8), Accidents to
(Enharmonics, Sharps, Flats), Stems (Up, Down, Normalize), Marks (Add, Remove), Tie
Notes, Slur Notes, Beam Notes (Beam Group, Beam on Beat, Sub Group, Flatten Beams),
Change – Pitch, Duration, Velocity; Make-Chord, Tab, Grace/Cue; Revert to Raw, Guess
Durations;
Measures: Add/Delete Measure, Tempo, Time/Key Signature, Barline Types, Endings,
Coda Phrases, Measure Numbers, Compressed Rests, Align/Swing Playback, Align
Spacing;
Score: Text Elements, Add/Delete Page, Add/Delete Staff, Split this Staff, Tablature Staff,
Percussion Staff, Conect/Center Staves, Center Systems, Measure per System, Systems per
Page;
View: Show/Hide Score Colors, Guitar Frets, Show/Hide Staves, Refresh Score, Linear
View, Hide Floating Windows;
Windows: Palette (Notes, Clefs, Graphics, Tools, Dynamics, Marks 1, Marls 2, Symbols,
25
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Guitar, Expressions, Color), Keyboard, Tempo, Toolbar, Staff Sheet, Tile, Cascade,
Arrange Icons, Close All;
Setup: MIDI Setup, Record Setup, Transcription Setup, Spacing Defaults, Click Setup,
Toolbar Setup, Click On, Follow Playback, Auto Guess/Beam, Auto Space, Save
Preferences;
Help: Topics, Current Topic, Help on Help, Link to Web Site, About Encore.
Prezentarea generala a programului
SCORE
Computer Music Typography System
Written by Leland SMITH
Programers: Leland SMITH, Perry DEVINE
© 1977-1992 by Leland SMITH
© 1986-1992 by Passport Designs, Inc.
© 1995-2004 by San Antonio Press, PO Boc 60247, Palo Alto, CA-94306, USA
www.scoremus.com
http://ace.acadiau.ca/score
[email protected]
- Complex de programe [SCORE Version 4.01, Midiscor (SCORE to MIDI),
MIDISCORWRITE (MIDI to SCORE), FINALSCORE (Finale to SCORE)] realizate la Center
for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) - Department of Music, Stanford
University (USA) de Prof. Leland SMITH – toate operand pe MS-DOS (drive: floppy
-cf.”Appendix 1”) si avand urmatoarele coordonate: 1100 items, 11000 parameters, 29000 graphic
vectors.
- b.) PROGRAME WAV DE EDITARE MUZICALA
Functiile programului
SOUND FORGE 4.5
http://www.sonicfoundry.com
GENERALE
- File: New, Open (All Types), Work space (open), Exit;
- Edit: Paste to New;
- View: Full Screen, Toolbars, Clipboard (Contents, Play), Region List, Playlist/Cutlist,
Keyboard, Mixer, Time Display, Video Preview, Play Meters, Undo/Redo History;
- Special: Record;
- Tools: Batch Convertor, Preset Manager;
- Options: MIDI Input Sync/Trigger, MIDI Output Sync, MIDI Triggers, Preferences;
- Window: New Window;
- Help: Contents, Search for Help, Keyboard Shortcuts, Troubleshooting, Tip of Day, Sonic
Foundry on Web (Product News, Frequently Asked Questions, Online Support, Sound Forge
Home Page, Send Feedback, Sonic Foundry Home Page), About Sound Forge.
SPECIALE
- File: New, Open (All Tzpes), Close, Workspace, Save, Save As (asf, smp, svx, iff, v8, voc, vox,
pat, ivc, aif, snd, sds, au, snd, rm, ra, smp, sfr, dig, sd, snd, avi, wav, wma), Save All,
Properties, Send, Exit;
- Edit: Can`t Undo, Can`t Redo, Can`t Reper, Cut, Copy, Copy Object Link, Paste, Paste
Special (Crossfade, Mix, Overwrite, Replicate, Paste to New), Trim/Crop, Delete (Clear),
Select All, Preview Cut/Cursor, Pre-roll Cursor, Tool (Edit, Magnify, Pencil), Go To,
Selection (Snap to Time, Snap Edge to Time, Snap to Yero, Snap Edge to Yero, Set), Undo
All, Disable Undo/Redo;
- View: Maximize Width, Full Screen, Clipboard (Contents, Play), Zoom Level (Out Full,
26
-
-
-
-
Window, Selection), Zoom Time (In Full, Normal, Out Full, Selection), Focus to Data
Window, Region List, Playlist/Cutlist, Keyboard, Mixer, Time Display, Video Preview, Play
Meters, Undo/Redo History, Loop Tuner;
Special: Transport (Record, Play All, Play, Pause, Stop, Go to Start, Rewind, Forward, Go to
End, Play Normal Mode, Play Looped Mode, Play as Sample/Cutlist Mode), Region list
(Add, Delete, Edit, Replicate, Split, Update, Clear, Markers to Regions, Open, Save As, Copy
onto Clipboard), Playlist/Cutlist (Add, Delete, Edit, Replicate, Clear, Stop Point, Pre-roll
Playback, Open, Save As, Copy onto Clipboard, Convert to New, Treat as Cutlist, Delete Cut
Regions), ASF Markers/Commands (Save As, Import, Add Command), ACID Looping Tools
(Halve Selection, Double Selection, Shift Selection Left, Shift Selection Right, Rotate Audio),
Edit ACID Properties, Edit Sample, Edit Frame Rate, Edit Tempo, Center Cursor, Drop
Marker, Create Region, Create Sample Loop, Mark In, Mark Out, Toggle Selection,
Undo/Redo History (Clear, Clear All), Rebuild Peak Data;
Process: Audio Trim/Crop, Channel Concertor, Convert to 8-Bit, DC Offset, EQ (Graphic,
Paragraphic, Parametric), Fade (Graphic, In, Out), Insert Silence, Invert/Flip, Mute,
Normalize, Pan/Expand, Resample, Reverse, Smooth/Enhance, Time Compress/Expand,
Volume;
Effects: Amplitude Modulation, Chorus, Delay/Echo (Multi-Tap, Simple), Distorsion,
Dynamics (Graphic, Multi-Band), Envelope, Flage/Wah-Wah, Gapper/Snipper, Noise Gate,
Pitch (Bend, Shift), Reverb, Vibrato;
Tools: Auto Region, Batch Converter, Crossfade Loop, Extract Regions, Find, Preset
Manager, Run Batch Script, Sampler, Spectrum Analysis, Statistics, Synthesis (DTMF/MF
Tones, FM, Simple);
DirectX : Audio Plug-In Chainer, CW, SF, etc.;
Options: Status Format (Samples, Time, Seconds, Time& Frames, Absolute Frames,
Measures & Beats, SMPTE - Non-Drop, Drop, EBU, Film Sync), Annotations (Marker Names, Lines; Region - Names, Lines; Loop – Region, Lines), Play Meters (Reset Clip, etc.),
Time Display (Position, Sync/Trigger Status, Playlist Position, Passive Update), Video
(Passive Update, etc.), Scroll Playback, Scroll Smoothy, Drag and Drop Snapping, Lock
Loop/Region Length, Past Events, Selection Grid Lines, Auto Snap - to Time, to Yero, MIDI
– Input Sync/Trigger, Output Sync, Pre-Queue for SMPTE/MTE, MIDI Triggers,
Preferences;
Window: New Window, Cascade, Title – Horizontally, Vertically, Arrange Icons, Minimize
All, Restore All, Close All:
Help: Contents, Search for Help, Keyboard Shortcuts, Troubleshooting, Tip of Day, Sonic
Foundry on Web (Product News, Frequently Asked Questions, Online Support, Sound Forge
Home Page, Send Feedback, Sonic Foundry Home Page), About Sound Forge.
Functiile programului
Audacity 1.2.0-pre2
http://audacity.sourceforge.net
- File : New , Open (Audacity Projects-aup, WAV-wav, AIFF-aif, AU-au, MP
-mp3, OggVorbis-ogg, List of Files-lof), Close, Save Project (aup), Save Project As (aup) Export As
WAV, Export Selection As WAV, Export As MP3, Export Selection As MP3 (NB-functia mp3 este
viabila doar prin adaugarea « lame_enc.dll », ce poate fi obtinut la mitiok.free.fr sau la
www.jthz.com/~lame/ ), Export As OggVorbis, Export Selection As OggVorbis, Export Labels,
Preferences, Exit ;
- Edit : Undo, Redo, Cut, Copy, Paste, Trim, Delete, Silence, Split, Duplicate, Select (All, Start, to
Cursor, Cursor to End) , Find O Crossing, Selection Save, Move Cursor (to Track Start, to Track
End, to Selection Start, to Selection End), Snap-To (On, Off) ;
- View : Zoom In, Zoom Normal, Zoom Out, Fit in Window, Fit Vertically, Zoom to Selection, Set
Selection Format (min :sec, sec, ho :min :sec, film , PAL, NTSC, cdda, samples, etc.), History, Plot
Spectrum, Float Control Toolbar, Float Edit Toolbar, Float Mixer Toolbar ;
- Project : Import Audio, Import Labels, Import MIDI (NB-doar vizualizat), Import Raw Data, Edit
ID3 Tags, Quick Mix, New Audio Track, New Stereo Track, New Label Track, New Time Track,
Remove Tracks, Align Tracks (with Zero, with Cursor, with Selection, Together), Align and move
27
cursor (with Zero, with Cursor, with Selection), Add Label Art Selection ;
- Generate : Silence, Tone, White Noise ;
- Effect : Amplify, BassBoost, Change Pitch, Change Speed, Change Tempo, Compress, Echo,
Equalization, Fade In, Fade Out, FFT Filter, Invert, Noise Removal, Normalize, Nyquest Prompt,
Phaser, Repeat, Reverse, Wahwah ;
- Analyse ;
- Help : About Audacity, Online Help.
NB – Acest performant program este utilizat si in experimentele efectuate la CCRMA – Stanford
University.
Functiile programului
PRO TOOLS Free
version 5.0.1.471
© 1991-2000 digidesign – A divios of Avid
http://www.digidesign.com
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-
-
-
-
File: New Session, Open Session, Close Session, Save Session, Save Session As, Save Session
Copy In, Revert to Saved, Bounce to Disk, New Track, Rename Selected Tracks, Group
Selected Tracks, Delete Selected Tracks, Import Audio/Track, Import MIDI/Track, Import
MIDI, Get Info, Exit;
Edit: Can´t Undo, Cut, Copy, Paste, Merge Paste, Clear, Duplicate, Repeat, Shift, Select
All, Trim, Capture Region, Separate Region, Heal Separation, Quantize Regions,
Mute/Unmute Region, Lock/Unlock Region, Consolidate Selection, Identify Sync Point,
Identify Beat, Identify Silence, Strip Silence, Insert Silence, Fades (Create/Delete Fades,
Fade To Start/End), Thin Automation;
AudioSuite: DeEsser, Compressor, Limiter, Expander-Gate, Gate, 1-Band EQ II, 4-Band
EQ II, Invert, Duplicate, short delay, slap delay, medium delay, long delay, Normalize,
Gain, Reverse, DC Offset Removal, Time Compression Expansion, Pitch Shift;
MIDI: Change Tempo, Change Meter, Quantize, Change Velocity, Change Duration,
Transpose, Select Notes, Split Notes, Input Quantize, Click, Click Options, MIDI Beat
Clock, Input Filter, MIDI Thru, All Notes Off;
Operations: Destructive Record, Loop Record, QuickPunch, Auto Input Monitor, Input
Only Monitor, Online, Pre/Post-Roll Playback, Loop Playback, Scroll Options,(No
Auto-Scrolling, Scroll After Playback, Page Scroll During Playback), Link Edit and
Timeline Selection, Play Edit Selection, Active In Background, Pre-Fader Metering;
Display: Show Edit Window, Narrow Mix Window, Mix Window Shows (Comment View,
1/0 View, Insert View, Sends View, All, None), Edit Window Shows (Comment View, 1/0
View, Insert View, Sends View, All, None), Transport Window Shows (Counters, MIDI
Controls, Expanded), Sends View Shows (Bars:Beats, Minutes:Seconds, Samples,
Markers, Tempo, Meter, All, None), DSP Usage Window Shows, Disk Space Window
Shows, Display Time In Regions (None, Current Time, Original Time Stamp, User Time
Stamp), Display Name In Regions,
Display Auto-Created Regions, Bars:Beats,
Minutes:Seconds, Samples;
Windows: Show/Hide Mix; Show Edit, MIDI Operations, Tempo/Meter; 1-9 on numeric
keypad only – show: Transport, Session Setup, Big Counter, Automation Enable, Memory
Locations, Disk Space;
Help: Pro Tools Reference Guide, DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide, MIDI Controllers Guide,
Keyboard Shortcuts, About Pro Tools.
- c.) CONVERTERE
- WAV-MP3-WMA -
28
Functiile programului
MusicMatch Jukebox 6.00
http://www.musicmatch.com
-
File : Open [All Song Files (cda, epcx, mp2, mp3, saf, wav, wma)], Convert [din wav in wma
(5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 22, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 64, 80, 96, 128, 160 kbps), sau in mp3CBR (8, 16,
18, 20, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128, 160, 192, 224, 256, 320 kbps), sau in mp3VBR
(1-100%) ; din mp3 in wav, sau in wma (5-160 kbps), sau in mp3CBR (8-320 kbps), sau in
mp3VBR (1-100%) ; din wma doar in wma (5-160 kbps)], Add New Track(s) to Music Library,
Open Music Library, Print, Export Play List Tracks, Create CD from Playlist, Exit ;
- Edit : Playlist Track Tag(s), Select All in Playlist, Clear Playlist, Copy Art to Clipboard,
Paste/Tag Art from Clipboard ;
- View : Small Player View, Full Player View, My Library, MusicMatch Radio, Music Guide,
NowPlaying, Recorder, Media Window, Buy CD Site, Visualizations (Select, Start, Configure),
Sound Enhancement (Select, Enable, Show UI), Auto Arrange Components, Always on Top ;
- Options : Player [Play Control (Previous, Record, Play, Pause, Stop, Next, Seek
backward/forward, Skip back songs/forward songs, Increase Volum, Decrease Volum, Mute),
Play Cycle (Once, Repeat), Play Reording (Reorder by Album/Track, Shuffle), Equalizer,
Settings], Playlist [Open Music, Auto DJ, Save Playlist, Clear Playlist], Music Library
[New/Open/Save/Clear/Export/Import/Add New Track(s) to Music Library, Delete/Edit/Find
Track(s), Search and Add Track(s) from All Drives, Music Library Settings], Recorder
[Control (Start, Stop, Cancel, CDDB Refresh, Select All/None), Source (E:/CD, Line In, Mic
In, System Mixer), Quality (MP3-160, 128, 96, 64 kbps ; WMA-128, 96, 64 kbps ; WAV ;
Custom VBR-6% ; Custom CBR-48 kbps ; Custom WMA-5 kbps), Send Album Info to
CDDB,
Settings
–
NB-pentru
auto-configurare
Settings/Recorder/Advanced/Autoconfig/medium], Add New Features, Get Miusic
Recommendations, Update Software, Change Skin, Download Skins, Change Text Size,
Settings ;
Help : MusicMatch Jukebox Help, Getting Started, Tip of Day, Additional Help Online,
Purchase UpdateRegistration, Request Technical Support, Online Satisfaction Survey, About
MusicMatcj Jukebox.
Functiile programului
Shuffler Music Converter 4 r2
http://www.ilustrate.org
-
-
Convert (From): Mp3 File(s), Wave File(s), WMA File (s);
Next – Convert to Audio Format: Wave (Quality 44.100 Hy, 16 Bit, Stereo), MP3 (Quality 56,
64, 96, 128, 160, 192, 256, 320 Kbps, Stereo/Mono), WMA (Quality 32.000 Khz – 36, 48, 64,
Kbps Stereo; 44.100 Khz – 48, 64, 96, 128, 160 Kbps Stereo); Save Converted File(s): Same
Folder as Original/This Folder-Browse;
Back/Convert;
Exit;
Help;
About.
- WAV in MIDI Functiile programului
AmazingMIDI v1.70
Copyright © 1998-2003 arakisoftware
http://www.pluto.dti.ne.jp/~araki/amazingmidi/
-
File : Specify Tone File (piano0, piano1, pulse, sample, sine), Specify Input File (wav),
Specify Output File (mid), Exit ;
Play : Play Tone File, Play Input File, Play Output File ;
:
29
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Transcribe : Transcribe ;
View : Zoom In Horizontally, Zoom Out Horizontally, Zoom In Vertically, Zoom Out
Vertically ;
Help: Contents, About AmazingMIDI.
-
MIDI in WAV (sau MP3) –
ACID Pro 4.0
http://sonicfoundry.com/acid
– Prin activarea functiilor File/Open/MIDI Files si apoi File/ Render As/Save as type WAV (sau
MP3) [NB - toate functiile acestui complex program de editare sunt prezentate mai jos].
-IMAGINEA PARTITURII IN SUNET Functiile programului
SharpEye Music Reader
version 1.15 (Mar 18 2000)
© 1999-2000 Graham Jones
www.visiv.co.uk
-
Image: Display Image, Open (TIFF, BMP), Zoom (25%, 50%, 100%), Edit (Rotate
Left/Right/By 180, Invert), Delete Zone, Read, Batch process, Exit ;
Music: Save, Save As, Open ;
MIDI: Save, Save As ;
NIFF: Save, Save As ;
Options: MIDI Options, Save window positions ;
Help: Content, About SharpEye.
NB – Acest interesant program transforma imaginile partiturilor editate (dar nu si manuscrisele)
- scanate in prealabil (in formatele BMP si TIFF) - in fisiere audio (MIDI si NIFF/Notation
Interchange File Format).
- TEXT SCRIS IN SUNET (VOCE) Functiile programului
River Past Talkative
Version 1.5.1.31216
© 2003 River Past Corporation
www.riverpast.com
-
File: New, Open [Text File (txt), Rich Text Format (rtf)], Save As [Text File (txt), Rich
Text Format (rtf)], Open Settings [River Past Talkative Settings 8sts)], Save Settings
[River Past Talkative Settings 8sts)], Exit;
Edit: Undo, Redo, Cut, Copy, Paste, Clear, Select All;
Speech: Start, Pause, Stop, Record (WAV, PM3, WMA, AVI; Stereo/Mono; Resolution
8/16 bits, Sample Rates 8-48 khy, Bitrqte 352, 8 kb/sec.);
Download: Latest DirectX, Windows Media Format runtime, Text-to-Speech Engine
(SAPI 5.1);
Try: Audio: Capture/CD Ripper/Converter; Screen Recorder, Video Cleqner, Video
Perspective, Web Slides;
Help: Contents, Buy Now, Register, Go to River Post Website, About River Past Talkative.
NB – Acest converter necesita si instalarea unor programe complementare (DirectX, SAPI 5.1
Text-to-Speech Engine, etc.), ce sunt descarcate automat de pe Internet prin activarea functiei
30
“Download”.
- IMAGINEA FOTOGRAFICA IN SUNET (pixels in MIDI)
Functiile programului
MIDImage – The Loxound Musical Pixelator
Version 2.4.4.1
(conceput cu “Borland Delphi v.5”)
© 2003 Brute Force Programming,
© by Daniel J. Wojcik, Landstuhlerstr.2,Ramstein-Miesenbacg 66877 Germany
[email protected]
www.genjerdan.com
- File: New Project [Project Files (Iprj), MIDI Files (mid), Configuration Files (Impc),
WAVE Files (wav)], Open Project [Project Files (Iprj), Images (bmp, jpg, gif), MIDI Files
(mid), Configuration Files (Impc), Patches (bank)], Save Project, Add Image to Project
(jpg, jpeg, bmp, gif), Create Web Page, Save Settings As (mid, Iprj, Impc, wav), Load
MIDI, Print Composition Settings, Exit;
- Configure: Pathes & Note Ranges, Select MIDI Device, Configure Scales, Bank Settings,
Load Additional Patches (Banks);
- Options: Track 10 is Percussion, Boost Dynamics, Show Flyover Hints, Overwrite Image
on Save, Strict Bank Control;
- Tools: Create Bank Patch List, Autoload SoundFonts, Go to Position, Track Editor;
- Help: Help, Program Info, Registration, Credits, MIDImage Homepage.
- d.) PROGRAME (WAV, MP3, MIDI) DE EDITARE MULTI-TRACKS
Functiile programului
ACID Pro 4.0
http://sonicfoundry.com/acid
-
-
File: New, Open [All Project and Media Files – incl. ACID Project Files (acd, acd-bak), MIDI
Files (mid, smf, rmi), CD Audio, MP3 Audio (cda), Audio Interchange File Format (aif),
OggVorbis (ogg), Quick Time (mov, qt, dv, gif), Sonic Foundry Audio (sfa), Sonic Foundry
Perfect Clarity Audio (pca), Sonic Foundry Wave64 (w64), Wave Microsoft (wav), Windows
Media Audio V8 (wma), Windows Media Video V8 (wmv)], Save, Save As [ACID Project
File (acd), ACID Project File With Embedded Media (acd-zip], Export Loops [AIFF (aif),
MP3 Audio (mp3), OggVorbis (ogg), Sonic Foundry Perfect Clarity Audio (pca), Wave
Microsoft (wav)], Render As [AIFF (aif) Main Concept MPEG1 (mpg), Main Concept
MPEG2 (mpg), MP3 Audio (mp3), OggVorbis (ogg), Quick Time (mov), Real Media (rm),
Sonic Foundry Perfect Clarity Audio (pca), Sonic Foundry Wave64 (w64), Video for
Windows (avi), Wave Microsoft (wav), Windows Media Audio V8 (wma), Windows Media
Video V8 (wmv)], Extract Audio from CD, Get Media from Web, Publish Setup, Publish,
Properties (Summary (Title, Artist, Engineer, Copyright, Comments), Audio (Master bus
mode Stereo/5.a Round, Number of additional stereo busses, Sample rate-Hz., Bit
depth-8/16/24)], Exit;
Edit: Undo Draw Event, Redo, Cut, Copy, Paste, Delete, Select All, Paste Repeat, Paste Insert,
Trim, Split, Join, Fit to Time, Editing Tool (Draw, Selection, Paint, Erase, Envelope, Time
Selection, Next Tool, Previous Tool), Undo All, Clear Undo History;
View: Toolbar, Status Bar, Focus to Track View, Explorer, Chooper (vizualizeaza in detaliu
fisierul deschis), Mixer, Video, Audio Plug-In (introduce EQ), Track Properties (descrie
fisierul deschis), Surround Panner, Soft Synth Properties, Show Video Track, Show Bus Track,
Zoom (Normal, Edit, Overview), Time Rules [Show Time Ruler, Samples, Seconds, Time &
Frames, Absolute Frames, Feet and Frames 16 mm (40 fpf) si 35 mm (16 fpf), SMPTE Film
31
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Sync (24 fps), SMPTE EBU (25 fps, Video), SMPTE Non-Drop (29.97 fps, Video), SMPTE
Drop (29.97 fps, Video), SMPTE 30 (30 fps, Audio), Set Time at Cursor], Show Envelopes
(Volume, Pan), Minimize All Tracks;
Insert: Marker, Region, Time Marker, Tempo/Key/Time Signature Cnage, Command MIDI
Track, Assignable FX, Bus, Soft Synth (DLS Soft Synth, Sonic Foundry Inc.), Time, Envelopes
(Volume, Pan);
Tools: Render to New Track, Burn Track-at-Once Audio CD, Start AC-3DVD Burner, Reset All
MIDI Ports, Edit in Sound Forge;
Options: Snapping (Enable, Grid Only), Grid Spacing (Ruler Marks, Measures, Half Notes,
Quarter Notes, Quarter Notes Triplets, 8th Notes, 8th Notes Triplets, 16th Notes, 16th Notes
Triplets, , 32th Notes, 32th Notes Triplets, 64th Notes, 64th Notes Triplets), Ripple Edits,
Lock Envelopes to Events, Loop Playback, Enables Real-Time MIDI, Timecode (Generate
MIDI Timecode, Generate MIDI Clock, Trigger from MIDI Timecode), Customize Toolbar,
Preferences;
Help: Contents and Index, What`s This ?, Keyboard Shorcuts, ACIDplanet.com, Sonic Foundry
on the Web, About ACID Pro.
Comenzi Mouse-dreapta: Select in Chopper, Select All on Track, Select Events to End, Cut, Copy,
Paste, Delete, Split at Cursor, Join, Pitch Shift (Up Semitone, Down Semitone, Reset),
Insert/Remove Envelope (Volum, Pan, Bus A,B,C, FX Automation), FX Automation Envelopes
(FX Automation), Quick Fade Edges, Properties, Zoom to Loop Region;
Add Point: Cut, Copy, Paste, Delete, Linear Fade, Fast Fade, Slow Fade, Smooth Fade, Sharp Fade,
Hold, Select All, Reset All;
Comenzi incluse in Track (de la stanga la dreapta): Minimize/Restore, Nume Track, Microsoft
Sound Mapper, Track FX, Mute, Solo.
OPERATII CURENTE CU „SAMPLES“ SI „LOOPS“
Acest program bazat pe tehnica buclelor sonore („loops based music creation“) implica
combinarea mai multor scurte fragmente muzicale pre-inregistrate („samples“), ce sunt ordonate
intr-un folder special, reprezentand o banca de esantioane sonore (de obicei in formatele wav, mp3
sau midi). Prin comanda „File/Open“ acestea pot fi inserate in track-uri (linii temporale), prin
trasarea lor cu „creionul“ digital activat prin comanda „Draw Tool button“. Esantioanele mai
lungi de 30“ se pot sincroniza prin „Beatmapper Wizard“, ce determina precizarea unui tempo
comun tuturor track-urilor (in BPM = bits per minute, primul timp din prima masura fiind
considerat „Downbeat“). Tempourile si inaltimile acestor esantioane sonore („samples“) pot fi
ulterior reformulate la diferite scari („rates“) de durate si frecvente, prin operatia „resample“. De
asemenea, in cadrul track-urilor se pot efectua operatiile curente, (cut, copy, paste, delete, split,
etc.), precum si cele referitoare la configurarea dinamicii si a micro- structurii sonore („envelope“).
Compozitia rezultata prin suprapunerea mai multor track-uri poate fi salvata (“Save“, „Save As“) in
formatele specifice programului (acd, acd-zip), precum si in celelalte formate uzuale – ca bucla
sonora („File/Export loops“ – aif, mp3, ogg, pca, wav) sau ca lucrare definitivata („File/Render As“
– aif, mp3, ogg, mov, rm, pca, wwav, wma, etc.). Acest program bazat pe bucle sonore („loops“)
reprezinta o cale foarte eficienta de sinteza a structurilor muzicale de factura repetitiva.
- e.) PROGRAME COMPLEMENTARE
Functiile programului
KB PIANO Version 1.1
© 2003 Gabriel Fernandez
http://www.qfsoftwqre.com
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File: New, Open (KBPiano Files – kbp), Save, Save As (kbp), Export to MIDI File (mid),
Properties (Title, Author, Comment), Exit;
Channel: Delete Events, Remove Vol Messages, Remote Pan Messages, Clear channel;
Options: Tuning, Show notes, Mem used, Midi devices, Restart Device;
Metronome: Set up (Milliseconds, Sound number, Volume), Enabled;
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Help: Contents, KB Shortcuts, Quick Help, Support the author, About;
Alte comenzi: Patch, QChord, Play, Rec (Rec Over, Solo), Stop, Undo, Pan, Octave (1-6),
Channel [1-12, + (13-15), Name], Channel Volume, Master Volume.
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NB – Prin comanda “Rec”, programul transforma tastatura (keyboard-ul) computerului intr-o
claviatura muzicala: prima linie de taste alfabetice in sistemul anglo-american
(QWERTYUIOP[]) devine o claviatura cu un ambitus diatonic de o duodecima (C2-G3),
cromatizabil prin adaugarea accidentilor (linia de taste numerice “2356790=” de deasupra) si
extensibil la 6 octave (C2-G8), prin comanda “Octave 1-6” (sau F1 – F6); de asemenea, prin
activarea liniei IV de taste alfabetice (ZXCVBNM) se pot obtine trisonuri diatonice pe ambitusul
C2-G3, extensibil la 6 octave prin tastele F7 – F12 (configuratia acordurilor putand fi setata
prin comanda QChord). Liniile de taste alfabetice monodice (tastele diatonice
“QWERTYUIOP[]” – la care se adauga tastele cromatice “2356790=”) si acordice
(ZXCVBNM) se pot utiliza simultan; astfel, programul permite inregistrarea unor linii
monodice (“Rec/Solo”), cat si omofonice, polifonice sau eterofonice (prin suprapuneri
consecutive - “Rec/Rec Over”) pe toate cele 15 canale disponibile – canalul 9 fiind rezervat
percutiei. Compozitia rezultata poate fi salvata (prin “Save” sau “Save As”) in formatul specific
“KBPiano File” (kbp – ce nu este insa recunoscut de alte programe) sau in formatul MIDI
(prin “Export to MIDI File”) – format universal ce poate fi ulterior convertit intr-o partitura
muzicala (de pilda, prin programul “MOZART 6” - comanda “File/Import MIDI”), sau
integrat ca mostra (“sample”) sau bucla (“loop”) in programul “ACID Pro 4.0”.
Functiile programului
PRAAT doing phonetics by computer
Version 4.1.12
© 1992-2003 by Paul Boersma and David Weenink
© 1992-1998 Summer Institute of Linguistics
- 1.) PRAAT objects
- Control: Statistics, New Praat script, Open Praat script, Goodies (Calculator, Stop playing
sound, Report floating point properties), Preferences (Buttons, Sound input prefs, Sound
output prefs), Quit;
- New: Record mono sound, Record stereo sound, Sound (Create sound, Create sound from:
tone complex, gamma tone, Shepard tone), Matrix (Create Matrix, Create simple Matrix),
Tables [Create Table, Create TableOfReal, Create formant table (Pools & Van Nierop
1973), Create formant table (Peterson & Barney, 1952), Create TableOfReal (Pols 1973)],
Tiers (Create: empty PointProcess, Poisson process, PitchTier, FormantTier, IntensityTier,
DurationTier,AmplitudeTier), Create TextGrid, Create Strings as file list, Optimaly Theory
(OT learning tutorial, Create: NoCoda grammar, place assimilation grammar, place
assimilation distribution, tongue-root grammar, metrics grammar), Articulatory synthesis (AS
tutorial, Create: Articulation, Speaker, Artword, Vocal Track from phone), Polynomial
(Create: Polynomial, LegendreSeries, ChebyshevSeries, MSpline, Ispline), Multidimensional
scaling (MDS tutorial, Create: letter R example, INDSCAL Carrol Wish example,
Configuration; Draw splines and MDS class relations), Neural nets (FFNet tutorial, Create:
Freedforward Net, Pattern with zeroes, empty Categories, iris example);
- Read: Read from file, Open long sound file, Read two Sounds from stereo file, Read from
special sound file (raw Alaw file, 16-bit Little Endian file, 16-bit Big Endian file), Read
Mattrix from raw text file, Read Strings from raw text file, Read TableOfReal from headerless
spreadsheet file, Read Table from table file, Read from special tier file (Text Tier from Xwaves,
Interval Tier from Xwaves);
- Write;
- Help: Object window, Intro, FAQ, What’s new, Types of objects, Editors, Acknowledgments,
Formulas tutorial, Scripting tutorial, Programming, Go to manual page, Search Praat manual,
About Praat.
- 2.) PRAAT picture
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File: Read from praat picture file, Write to praat picture file, Write to Windows metafile, Copy to
clipboard, PostScript setting, Write to EPS file, Write to fontless EPS file, Print;
Edit: Undo, Erase all;
Margins: Draw inner box; Text-left, right, top, bottom; Marks-left every, right every, bottom
every, top every; One mark-left, right, bottom, top; Marks (left, right, bottom, top); Logarithmic
marks (left, right, bottom, top), One logarithmic mark (left, right, bottom, top); Axes;
World: Text; Text special; Draw-line, arrow, two-way arrow; Draw/Paint rectangle; Draw:Paint
sounded rectangle; Draw arc; Draw/Paint ellipse; Draw/Paint circle; Draw/Paint circle (mm);
Axes; Measure [Horizontal-mm to wc, wc to mm; Vertical-mm to wc, wc to mm; Text width
(wc, mm), PostScript text width (wc, mm)];
Select:
Plain/Dotted/Dashed
line;
Line
width,
Black/White/Red/Green/Blue/Yellow/Cyan/Magenta/Maroon/Lime/Navy/Teal/Purple/Olive/Silve
r/Grey;
Font: 10/12/14/18/24; Font size; Times/Helvetica/New Century Schoolbook/Palatino/Courier;
Help: Picture window help, About special symbols, About text styles, Phonetic symbol chart,
Search manual.
NB – Acest foarte specializat program este dedicat analizei, sintezei si prelucrarii sunetelor
(cuvintelor), precum si generarii unor imagini grafice complexe ale fenomenului sonor. Programul
PRAAT este utilizat si in experimentele efectuate la CCRMA – Stanford University.
Principalele functii ale programului
Fractal Tune Smithy v.2.21
© Robert Walker 2000
www.tunesmithy.co.uk
[email protected]
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NB – Programul genereaza melodii fractale in baza unor moduri prefigurate, dar
sintetizeaza si noi moduri, precum si noi configuratii ale desenelor melodice fractale
imaginate de utilizator. Structurile melodice rezultate pot fi salvate in mai multe formate
audio - inclusiv in formatul MIDI, ce poate fi convertit ulterior in partituri, inclusiv prin
programele de redactat mentionate mai sus: “Mozart” (functia “Import MIDI”), “Finale”,
“Sibelius”, “NoteWorthy Composer”, “Lime”, “Encore”,etc.
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Functiile de baza : Chose a View (la lansarea programului – cu optiunile: Tune Smithying,
Play Fractal Tunes, Scales Work, etc.), File (New, Open, Save, Save As, etc.), Out (Midi
default, Play Control, etc.), In (Options, etc.), Voices (configurarea timbrelor MIDI), Parts,
Pitch, Bs. (Play, Stop, Pause/Continue, Record, Arpeggio & Scale Playback, etc.), View (Tune
Smithying, Play Fractal Tunes, Scales Work, etc.), Help (Help, About, etc.).
Cele mai importante arhetipuri modale incluse in program:
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1 n(1/7) ! 7 tone modes:1 1 2 1 2 Thai mode 1;+1 2 1 2 1 Thai mode 2;2 1 1 2 1 Thai mode 6.
Modes_for_default_scales.lmd Alternate notes: 1 122 cents 271 cents 571 cents 677 cents 785 cents 947 cents ! Typical 7
note Pelog scale;[2] 1 1 2 3 Slendro Alit;+[1] 1 2 2 2 Jegog;1 3 1 1 1 Dangsoe;1 1 1 3 1 Manyura;1 1 2 1 2 Patet
Lima, Patet Nem, Jawar, Selisir;[1] 1 2 1 1 2 Patet Barang;1 2 1 1 2 Patet Lima, Nem with Pelog;[1] 1 1 2 1 2 Patet
Barang with Pelog, Manangis, Slendro Gede, Pergenter 2;[2] 1 1 2 1 2 Liwung, Pergenter 1, Pengenter Alit;[3] 1 1 2
1 2 Tembung;[4] 1 1 2 1 2 Nyorog, Sunaren;[5] 1 1 2 1 2 Nyorog handap, Baro;2 1 1 2 1 Pelog;1 2 1 2 1 Bem,
Pengenter;2 1 2 1 1 Miring, Slendro 2;[4] 2 1 2 1 1 Slendro 1;[1] 2 1 2 1 1 Slendro 3;[3] 2 1 2 1 1 Slendro 4;1 1 1 1 1
1 1 Lebeng.
Modes_for_default_scales.lmd Alternate notes:1 n(1/12) ! 12 tone modes;10 2 Warao ditonic: South America;+5 7
Honchoshi: Japan;7 5 Niagari: Japan;6 1 5 Raga Ongkari;3 7 2 Ute tritonic;5 2 5 Raga Sarvasri, Warao tritonic:
South America;5 5 2 Sansagari: Japan;3 4 5 Peruvian tritonic 2;4 3 5 Raga Malasri, Peruvian tritonic 1;1 5 1 5
Messiaen truncated mode 5;5 1 5 1 Messiaen truncated mode 5 inverse;2 1 7 2 Warao tetratonic: South America;2 4
5 1 Raga Sumukam;1 4 3 4 Raga Lavangi;2 2 3 5 Eskimo tetratonic (Alaska: Bethel);2 3 2 5 Genus primum;5 2 3 2
Genus primum inverse;2 4 2 4 Messiaen truncated mode 6;4 2 4 2 Messiaen truncated mode 6 inverse;2 3 4 3 Raga
Bhavani;4 3 3 2 Raga Mahathi;3 4 3 2 Bi Yu: China;1 6 1 3 1 Raga Deshgaur;1 3 1 6 1 Raga Megharanji;1 1 4 1 5
Raga Nabhomani;1 5 1 1 4 Raga Saugandhini, Yashranjani;5 2 1 3 1 Raga Devaranjani (Devaranji);2 1 4 1 4
Hira-joshi, Kata-kumoi: Japan:=1 4 2 1 4 Hon-kumoi-joshi, Sakura, Akebono II: Japan, Olympos Enharmonic,
Raga Salanganata, Saveri, Gunakri (Gunakali), Latantapriya;1 4 1 4 2 Iwato: Japan:4 2 1 4 1 Raga
Amritavarshini, Malashri, Shilangi;4 1 4 2 1 Raga Bhinna Shadja, Kaushikdhvani, Hindolita;1 2 4 1 4 Balinese
Pelog, Raga Bhupalam, Bhupala Todi, Bibhas;4 1 2 4 1 Raga Gambhiranata, Ryukyu: Japan;1 4 2 4 1 Raga
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Gauri;4 1 4 1 2 Raga Khamaji Durga;2 4 1 4 1 Raga Vaijayanti, Hamsanada;4 1 2 1 4 Raga Zilaf;4 1 3 3 1
Bacovia: Romania, Raga Girija;1 4 3 3 1 Raga Kshanika;1 3 1 3 4 Raga Megharanjani, Syrian pentatonic;3 3 1 4 1
Raga Multani;1 3 3 1 4 Raga Reva, Revagupti, Ramkali, Vibhas (bhairava);2 2 2 5 1 Raga Kumurdaki
(Kumudki);5 2 2 1 2 Raga Kuntvarali;2 5 2 1 2 Raga Matha Kokila (Matkokil);2 2 5 2 1 Raga Neroshta;2 1 2 2 5
Raga Purnalalita, Chad Gadyo: Jewish, Ghana Pentatonic 1;5 2 2 2 1 Raga Puruhutika, Purvaholika;2 3 2 1 4
Han-kumoi: Japan, Raga Shobhavari;1 4 2 3 2 Kokin-joshi, Miyakobushi, Han-Iwato: Japan, Raga Vibhavari
(Revati), Bairagi, Lasaki
1 4 2 2 3 Altered Pentatonic, Raga Manaranjani II: 2 1 2 4 3 Raga Abhogi;2 1 2 3 4 Raga Audav Tukhari;2 2 3 1 4
Raga Bhupeshwari, Janasammodini;3 2 4 2 1 Raga Chandrakauns (modern), Marga Hindola, Rajeshwari;3 2 4 1 2
Raga Chandrakauns (kafi), Surya, Varamu;1 2 3 2 4 Raga Chhaya Todi;2 3 2 4 1 Raga Desh;4 2 1 2 3 Raga
Dhavalashri;2 2 3 4 1 Raga Hamsadhvani (Hansadhvani);3 2 1 4 2 Raga Jayakauns;3 2 2 1 4 Raga Kokil
Pancham;4 3 2 2 1 Raga Mamata;4 1 2 2 3 Raga Nagasvaravali, Raga Mand;3 2 2 4 1 Raga Nata,
Udayaravicandrika, Madhuranjani;4 2 3 2 1 Raga Hindol (Sunada Vinodini), Sanjh ka Hindol;2 3 4 2 1 Raga
Rasranjani;2 1 4 2 3 Raga Sivaranjini (Shivranjani), Akebono I: Japan, Dorian Pentatonic;3 4 1 2 2 Raga
Shailaja;2 4 1 2 3 Raga Shri Kalyan;4 3 2 1 2 Raga Valaji;4 1 2 3 2 Mixolydian Pentatonic, Raga Savethri;3 2 3 3 1
Raga Chandrakauns (kiravani);1 3 3 3 2 Raga Manaranjani I;3 1 3 2 3 Raga Mohanangi;2 3 3 3 1 Raga
Priyadharshini;1 3 3 2 3 Raga Rasika Ranjani, Vibhas (marva), Scriabin;3 3 1 3 2 Raga Samudhra Priya,
Madhukauns (pentatonic);2 3 2 2 3 Ritusen, Ritsu (Gagaku): Japan, Zhi, Zheng: China, Raga Devakriya, Durga,
Suddha Saveri, Arabhi, Scottish Pentatonic, Ujo: Korea, Major complement;2 2 3 2 3 Major Pentatonic, Ryosen:
Japan, Man Jue, Gong: China, Raga Bhopali (Bhup), Mohanam, Deskar, Bilahari, Kokila, Jait Kalyan, Peruvian
Pentatonic 1, Ghana pent.2;2 3 2 3 2 Yo: Japan, Suspended Pentatonic, Raga Madhyamavati, Madhmat
Sarang;gyptian;Rui Bin, Jin Yu, Qing Yu: China;2 3 3 2 2 Chaio: China;2 2 2 3 3 Kung: China;3 2 2 3 2 Minor
Pentatonic, Raga Dhani (Suddha Dhanyasi), Abheri, Udhayaravi Chandrika, Qing Shang, Gu Xian, Jia Zhong, Yu:
China, P’yongjo-kyemyonjo: Korea, Minyo: Japan, Peruvian Pentatonic 2, Blues Pentatonic;3 3 2 2 2 Raga
Harikauns, Chin: China;3 2 3 2 2 Raga Malkauns (Malakosh), Raga Hindola, Man Gong, Quan Ming, Yi Ze, Jiao:
China;2 2 3 3 2 Dominant Pentatonic, Shang: China;3 2 2 2 3 Minor added sixth Pentatonic, Kyemyonjo: Korea;1 1
4 1 4 1 Raga Vijayasri;1 1 4 1 1 4 Messiaen mode 5;4 1 1 4 1 1 Messiaen mode 5 inverse;2 2 1 1 1 5 Raga Dipak;2 1
3 1 4 1 Raga Amarasenapriya;1 1 4 1 2 3 Raga Chandrajyoti;1 3 2 1 1 4 Raga Dhavalangam;1 3 1 2 4 1 Raga
Gaula;1 4 2 1 1 3 Raga Kalakanthi;2 4 1 3 1 1 Raga Malarani (Hamsanada);1 3 2 1 4 1 Raga Mandari,
Gamakakriya, Hamsanarayani;1 4 2 1 3 1 Raga Padi;4 1 2 1 3 1 Raga Paraju, Ramamanohari, Simhavahini,
Sindhu Ramakriya, Kamalamanohari;1 3 1 2 1 4 Raga Purna Pancama, Malahari, Geyahejjajji, Kannadabangala;3
1 2 1 4 1 Raga Rasamanjari;1 3 1 4 1 2 Raga Rudra Pancama;4 1 2 1 1 3 Raga Saravati (Sharavati);2 1 3 1 1 4
Raga Syamalam;4 1 2 3 1 1 Raga Tilang, Savitri, Brindabani Tilang;1 3 1 4 2 1 Raga Vasanta, Chayavati;4 2 1 3 1
1 Raga Vijayavasanta;1 3 3 1 3 1 Raga Bauli;3 3 1 3 1 1 Raga Jivantini, Gaurikriya;1 3 3 1 1 3 Raga Kalagada;1 3
1 3 3 1 Raga Lalita, Sohini, Hamsanandi, Lalit Bhairav;1 1 3 3 1 3 Raga Suddha Mukhari;1 3 1 3 1 3 Messiaen
truncated mode 3, Prometheus (Liszt);3 1 3 1 3 1 Messiaen truncated mode 3 inverse, Major Augmented, Genus
tertium.
2 1 4 2 2 1 Hawaiian:2 1 2 4 1 2 Raga Bagesri, Sriranjani, Kapijingla;2 2 2 1 4 1 Raga Caturangini;2 2 1 4 2 1 Raga
Hamsa Vinodini;4 1 2 2 2 1 Raga Hari Nata, Genus secundum;2 4 1 1 2 2 Raga Jaganmohanam;1 4 2 2 2 1 Raga
Jivantika;4 2 1 1 2 2 Raga Jyoti;4 1 2 1 2 2 Raga Kamalamanohari;4 1 2 2 1 2 Raga Khamas, Baduhari;2 1 4 2 1 2
Raga Manavi;2 2 1 2 4 1 Raga Nalinakanti, Kedaram;1 4 2 1 2 2 Raga Phenadyuti, Insen, Honchoshi, Niagari:
Japan;1 2 2 1 4 2 Honchoshi plagal form: Japan;2 2 1 4 1 2 Raga Rageshri (Rageshwari), Nattaikurinji;1 4 2 2 1 2
Raga Rasavali;1 2 4 2 1 2 Raga Salagavarali;2 4 1 2 1 2 Raga Sarasvati;2 1 2 2 4 1 Raga Sindhura Kafi;1 2 2 2 1 4
Raga Suddha Simantini;2 1 4 1 2 2 Raga Trimurti;4 2 1 2 1 2 Raga Vutari;1 3 2 3 1 2 Prometheus Neapolitan;3 2 1
1 3 2 Blues scale I;2 1 2 1 3 3 Pyramid Hexatonic;1 2 2 1 3 3 Double-Phrygian Hexatonic;3 1 1 2 3 2 Raga
Bhanumanjari, Jog;2 3 2 1 3 1 Raga Bhinna Pancama;2 1 2 3 3 1 Raga Ghantana, Kaushiranjani (Kaishikiranjani).
1 2 3 2 3 1 Raga Gurjari Todi:1 3 2 3 2 1 Raga Hamsanandi, Marva, Pancama, Puriya;1 3 2 2 1 3 Raga Hejjajji;1 3 1 2
2 3 Raga Kalavati, Ragamalini;2 2 3 1 3 1 Raga Latika;3 3 1 2 1 2 Raga Madhukauns (hexatonic);1 3 3 2 1 2 Raga
Malayamarutam;2 1 3 3 2 1 Raga Ranjani, Rangini;2 3 2 3 1 1 Raga Brindabani Sarang, Megh (Megh Malhar);2 2
1 3 3 1 Raga Sarasanana;2 1 3 1 3 2 Raga Simharava (Sinharavam);3 2 2 1 3 1 Raga Takka;1 3 1 3 2 2 Raga
Vasantabhairavi;2 1 3 1 2 3 Raga Vijayanagari;1 2 2 3 3 1 Raga Viyogavarali;1 2 3 1 2 3 Messiaen truncated mode
2;1 3 2 1 3 2 Messiaen truncated mode 2;2 3 2 2 1 2 P’yongjo: Korea, Yosen: Japan, Raga Darbar, Narayani,
Suposhini, Andolika, Gorakh Kalyan, Mixolydian Hexatonic;2 2 2 3 1 2 Prometheus, Raga Barbara;1 2 2 3 2 2
Ritsu: Japan, Raga Suddha Todi;2 2 1 2 2 3 Arezzo Major Diatonic Hexachord, Raga Kambhoji, Devarangini,
Scottish Hexatonic;2 1 2 2 3 2 Minor Hexatonic, Raga Palasi, Manirangu, Nayaki, Yo: Japan, Eskimo Hexatonic 1
(Alaska: King Island);2 2 2 2 3 1 Eskimo Hexatonic 2 (Alaska: Point Hope);1 2 3 2 2 2 Raga Bhavani;1 2 2 2 3 2
Raga Gandharavam;3 2 2 1 2 2 Raga Gopikavasantam, Desya Todi, Phrygian Hexatonic;2 2 3 2 2 1 Raga Kumud,
Sankara (Shankara), Lydian Hexatonic;3 2 2 2 1 2 Raga Manohari;2 2 2 3 2 1 Raga Mruganandana;2 3 2 2 2 1
Raga Nagagandhari;2 3 2 1 2 2 Raga Navamanohari;2 2 1 2 3 2 Raga Siva Kambhoji, Vivardhini;2 1 2 2 2 3 Raga
Suddha Bangala, Gauri Velavali;2 2 2 1 2 3 Raga Yamuna Kalyani, Kalyani Keseri, Ancient Chinese;2 2 2 2 2 2
Whole-tone, Messiaen mode 1, Raga Gopriya, Anhemitonic Hexatonic.
1 1 4 1 1 1 3 Mela Salaga:1 1 4 1 1 3 1 Mela Jhalavarali, Raga Varali, Jinavali;1 1 4 1 3 1 1 Mela Raghupriya, Raga
Ravikriya, Ghandarva;1 1 4 1 1 2 2 Mela Jalarnava;1 1 4 1 2 1 2 Mela Navanitam, Raga Nabhomani;1 1 4 1 2 2 1
Mela Pavani, Raga Kumbhini;2 2 1 4 1 1 1 Raga Ragesri;4 1 2 2 1 1 1 Raga Madhuri;1 1 3 1 1 3 2 Chromatic
Mixolydian;1 3 1 1 3 2 1 Chromatic Lydian, Raga Lalit, Bhankar;3 1 1 3 2 1 1 Chromatic Phrygian;1 1 3 2 1 1 3
Chromatic Dorian, Mela Kanakangi, Raga Kanakambari;1 3 2 1 1 3 1 Chromatic Hypolydian, Purvi That, Mela
Kamavardhani, Raga Shri, Pantuvarali, Basant, Kasiramakriya, Suddharamakriya, Puriya Dhanashri, Dhipaka;3 2
1 1 3 1 1 Chromatic Hypophrygian, Blues scale III;2 1 1 3 1 1 3 Chromatic Hypodorian, Raga
Dvigandharabushini;2 3 1 1 3 1 1 Chromatic Mixolydian inverse;1 1 2 3 1 1 3 Chromatic Phrygian inverse;1 1 3 1 1
2 3 Chromatic Hypophrygian inverse;3 1 1 3 1 1 2 Chromatic Hypodorian inverse;1 1 3 2 1 3 1 Mela Ganamurti,
Raga Ganasamavarali;1 1 3 2 3 1 1 Mela Tanarupi, Raga Tanukirti;1 3 1 1 2 3 1 Raga Lalita, Chromatic
Hypolydian inverse, Raga Suddha Pancama;1 3 1 2 1 1 3 Mela Gayakapriya, Raga Kalakanti, Gipsy Hexatonic;1 3
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1 2 1 3 1 Major Gipsy, Persian, Double Harmonic Major, Bhairav That, Mela Mayamalavagaula, Raga Paraj,
Kalingada, Second Byzantine mode, Hitzaskiar: Greece, Maqam Zengule, Hijaz Kar, Suzidil;1 3 1 2 3 1 1 Mela
Hatakambari, Raga Jeyasuddhamalavi;3 1 1 2 1 1 3 Mela Yagapriya, Raga Kalahamsa;3 1 1 2 1 3 1 Mela
Gangeyabhusani, Raga Gangatarangini, Sengah: Greece;3 1 1 2 3 1 1 Mela Calanata, Raga None, Chromatic
Dorian inverse;1 2 3 1 1 1 3 Mela Gavambodhi, Raga Girvani;1 2 3 1 1 3 1 Todi That, Mela Shubhapantuvarali,
Raga Multani, Gamakasamantam, Chromatic Lydian inverse.
1 2 3 1 3 1 1 Mela Divyamani:1 3 2 1 1 1 3 Mela Dhavalambari, Foulds’ Mantra of Will scale;1 3 2 1 3 1 1 Mela
Visvambhari, Raga Vamsavathi;1 3 1 3 2 1 1 Verdi’s Enigmatic descending;2 1 3 1 1 1 3 Mela Syamalangi, Raga
Shyamalam;2 1 3 1 1 3 1 Minor Gipsy, Mela ;imhendramadhyama, Raga Madhava Manohari, Maqam Nawa Athar,
Hisar, Double Harmonic Minor, Hungarian Minor, Niavent: Greece;2 1 3 1 3 1 1 Mela Nitimati, Raga Nisada,
Kaikavasi;3 1 2 1 1 1 3 Mela Sucaritra, Raga Santanamanjari;3 1 2 1 1 3 1 Mela Dhatuvardhani, Raga Dhauta
Pancama, Devarashtra;3 1 2 1 3 1 1 Mela Rasikapriya, Raga Rasamanjari, Hamsagiri;1 3 1 1 3 1 2 Oriental, Raga
Ahira-Lalita, Minor Gipsy inverse;2 1 2 2 1 3 1 Harmonic Minor, Spanish gipsy, Mischung 4, Pilu That, Mela
Kiravani, Raga Kiranavali, Kirvani, Kalyana Vasantha, Deshi(3), Maqam Bayat-e-Esfahan, Zhalibny Minor;1 3 1 2
2 1 2 Harmonic Minor inverse, Mela Cakravaka, Raga Ahir Bhairav, Bindumalini, Vegavahini, Makam Hicaz,
Zanjaran;2 2 1 2 1 3 1 Harmonic Major, Mela Sarasangi, Raga Haripriya, Mischung 2, Ethiopian;1 2 1 3 1 2 2
Makam Huzzam, Phrygian flat 4;2 2 1 3 1 2 1 Ionian sharp 5;1 2 2 1 3 1 2 Locrian natural 6, Maqam Tarznauyn;2
1 2 1 2 3 1 Locrian no.2;1 2 1 2 2 1 3 Ultra Locrian, Mixolydian sharp 1;1 2 2 1 2 1 3 Locrian double-flat 7;2 3 1 2 1
2 1 Nohkan Flute scale: Japan;2 1 1 3 1 2 2 Sambah (Sabach): Greece;2 1 2 1 3 1 2 Makam Karcigar, Dorian flat 5,
Kiourdi ascending: Greece;2 1 2 1 3 2 1 Jeths’ mode;1 1 3 2 1 2 2 Mela Ratnangi, Raga Phenadyuti;1 1 3 2 2 1 2
Mela Vanaspati, Raga Bhanumati;1 1 3 2 2 2 1 Mela Manavati, Raga Manoranjani;1 2 2 2 1 1 3 Mela Senavati,
Raga Senagrani, Malini;1 2 2 2 1 3 1 Neapolitan Minor, Mela Dhenuka, Raga Dhunibinnashadjam, Maqam
Shahnaz Kurdi.
1 2 2 2 3 1 1 Mela Rupavati:1 3 1 2 1 2 2 Mela Vakulabharanam, Alhijaz: Arabic, Raga Jogiya, Vativasantabhairavi,
Ahava Rabba: Jewish, Maqam Humayun, Hitzaz: Greece, Dorico Flamenco: Spain, Harmonic Major inverse, Phrygian
Dominant;1 3 1 2 2 2 1 Mela Suryakanta, Bhairubahar That, Raga Supradhipam, Sowrashtram.
2 1 2 1 1 3 2 Modified Blues:2 1 2 2 1 1 3 Mela Jhankaradhvani, Raga Jhankara Bhramavi;2 1 2 2 3 1 1 Mela
Varunapriya, Viravasantham;2 2 1 2 1 1 3 Mela Mararanjani, Raga Keseri;2 2 1 2 3 1 1 Mela Naganandini, Raga
Nagabharanam, Samanta;3 1 1 2 1 2 2 Mela Ragavardhani, Raga Cudamani;3 1 1 2 2 1 2 Mela Vagadhisvari, Raga
Bhogachayanata, Nandkauns, Ganavaridhi, Bluesy R&R;3 1 1 2 2 2 1 Mela Sulini, Raga Sailadesakshi, Raga
Trishuli, Houzam: Greece;1 2 3 1 1 2 2 Mela Bhavapriya, Raga Bhavani, Kalamurti;1 2 3 1 2 1 2 Mela
Sadvidhamargini, Raga Sthavarajam, Tivravahini;1 2 3 1 2 2 1 Mela Suvarnangi, Raga Sauviram;1 3 2 1 1 2 2
Mela Namanarayani, Raga Narmada, Pratapa;1 3 2 1 2 1 2 Mela Ramapriya, Raga Ramamanohari, Romanian
Major, Petrushka chord;1 3 2 1 2 2 1 Marva That, Mela Gamanasrama, Raga Partiravam, Puriya, Puriya Kalyan,
Sohani, Peiraiotikos: Greece.
1 3 2 2 2 1 1 Verdi’s Enigmatic ascending:;2 1 3 1 1 2 2 Mela Sanmukhapriya, Raga Camara, Chinthamani;2 1 3 1 2 1 2
Mela Hemavati, Raga Desisimharavam, Maqam Nakriz, Tunisian, Hedjaz, Misheberekh: Jewish, Souzinak (Peiraiotiko
Minore): Greece, Dorian sharp 4, Kaffa;2 1 3 1 2 2 1 Lydian Diminished, Mela Dharmavati, Raga Arunajualita,
Dumyaraga, Madhuvanti, Ambika.
2 2 2 1 1 1 3 Mela Kantamani, Raga Kuntala, Srutiranjani:2 2 2 1 1 3 1 Mela Latangi, Raga Gitapriya, Hamsalata;2 2 2
1 3 1 1 Mela Citrambari, Raga Chaturangini;2 3 2 2 1 1 1 Raga Sorati, Sur Malhar;3 1 2 1 1 2 2 Mela
Jyotisvarupini, Raga Jotismatti;3 1 2 1 2 1 2 Hungarian Major, Mela Nasikabhusani, Raga Nasamani;3 1 2 1 2 2 1
Mela Kosalam, Raga Kusumakaram, Lydian sharp 2;;3 1 2 2 1 2 1 Aeolian flat 1;1 2 2 1 2 2 2 Gr.Mixolydian,
Gr.Hyperdorian, Med.Hypophrygian, Med.Locrian, Pien chih: China, Makam Lami, Yishtabach: Jewish;2 2 1 2 2 2
1 Gr.Lydian, Med.Ionian, Med.Hypolydian, Major, Bilaval That, Mela Shankarabharanam, Ghana Heptatonic,
Peruvian major, 4 th plagal Byzantine, Ararai: Ethiopian, Makam Cargah, Ajam Ashiran, Dastgah Mahur, Dastgah
Rast Panjgah;2 1 2 2 2 1 2 Gr.Phrygian, Med.Dorian, Med.Hypomixolydian, Kafi That, Mela; araharapriya, Raga
Bageshri, Sriraga, Bhimpalasi, Mischung 5, Gregorian nr.8, Eskimo Heptatonic, Yu: China, Hyojo, Oshikicho,
Banshikicho: Japan;1 2 2 2 1 2 2 Gr.Dorian, Med.Phrygian, Gr.Med.Hypoaeolian, Bhairavi That, Mela
Hanumatodi, Raga Asavari (Asaveri), Raga Bilashkhani Todi, In: Japan, Makam Kurd, Gregorian nr.3, Ousak:
Greece, Major inverse;2 2 2 1 2 2 1 Gr.Hypolydian, Med.Lydian, Kalyan That (Yaman), Mela Mecakalyani, Raga
Shuddh Kalyan, Ping, Kung: China;2 2 1 2 2 1 2 Gr.Hypophrygian, Gr.Ionian (Iastian), Med.Mixolydian,
Gr.Med.Hypoionian, Khamaj That, Mela Harikambhoji, Raga Harini, Janjhuti, Surati, Mischung 3, Ching, Shang:
China, Gregorian nr.7;2 1 2 2 1 2 2 Gr.Med.Hypodorian, Gr.Med.Aeolian, Gr.Hyperphrygian, Natural Minor,
Asavari That, Mela Natabhairavi, Raga Jaunpuri, Raga Adana, Se, Chiao: China, Gregorian nr.2, Makam Buselik,
Nahawand, Peruvian minor, Geez, Ezel: Ethiopian, Kiourdi descending: Greece;2 1 2 2 2 2 1 Melodic Minor
ascending, Jazz Minor, Minor-Major, Mela Gaurimanohari, Raga Patdip, Velavali, Deshi(2), Mischung 1,
Hawaiian.
2 2 2 2 1 2 1 Lydian Augmented, Lydian sharp 5:2 2 1 1 2 2 2 Major Locrian;2 1 2 1 2 2 2 Minor Locrian, Half
Diminished, Locrian sharp 2, Minor flat 5;1 2 1 2 2 2 2 Super Locrian, Altered, Diminished Whole-tone, Locrian
flat 4, Pomeroy, Ravel;1 2 2 2 2 2 1 Neapolitan Major, Phrygian Major, Mela Kokilapriya, Raga Kokilaravam;1 2 2
2 2 1 2 Mela Natakapriya, Jazz Minor inverse, Phrygian-Mixolydian, Raga Natabharanam, Ahiri Todi;2 2 1 2 1 2 2
Mischung 6, Mixolydian flat 6, Major-Minor, Mela Carukesi, Raga Charukeshi, Tarangini
2 2 2 1 1 2 2 Lydian Minor, Mela Risabhapriya, Raga Ratipriya;2 2 2 1 2 1 2 Lydian Dominant, Mela Vacaspati, Raga
Bhusavati, Overtone, Lydian-Mixolydian, Bartok;2 2 2 2 2 1 1 Leading Whole-tone;1 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 Raga Ramkali
(Ramakri)
1 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 Messiaen mode 4:3 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 Messiaen mode 4 inverse;1 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 Raga Bhatiyar;2 1 3 1 1 1 1 2
Raga Cintamani;1 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 Raga Saurashtra;1 2 2 1 1 1 3 1 Half-diminished Bebop;1 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 Verdi’s Scala
enigmatica;1 1 1 2 2 1 3 1 Harmonic and Neapolitan Minor mixed;1 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 Maqam Hijaz;1 2 1 1 1 3 1 2
Maqam Shadd’araban;2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 Raga Mian Ki Malhar, Bahar, Sindhura;2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 Raga Mukhari,
Anandabhairavi, Deshi, Gregorian nr.1, Dorian/Aeolian mixed;2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 Minor Bebop, Raga Zilla,
Mixolydian/Dorian mixed;2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 Genus diatonicum, Dominant Bebop, Raga Khamaj, Desh Malhar, Alhaiya
36
Bilaval, Maqam Shawq Awir, Gregorian nr.6, Major/Mixolydian mixed, Chinese Eight-Tone, Rast: Greece
2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 Major Bebop, Altered Mixolydian:2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 Blues scale II;1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 Spanish Phrygian;1 2 1 1 1
2 2 2 Espla’s scale, Eight-tone Spanish;2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 Diminished, Modus conjunctus, Messiaen mode 2 inverse,
Whole-Half step scale;2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 Ishikotsucho: Japan, Raga Yaman Kalyan, Chayanat, Bihag, Hamir Kalyani,
Kedar, Gaud Sarang, Genus diatonicum veterum correctum, Gregorian nr.5, Kubilai’s Mongol scale, Major/Lydian
mixed;2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 Zirafkend: Arabic;1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 Adonai Malakh: Jewish;1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 Magen Abot:
Jewish;2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 Maqam Nahawand, Raga Suha (Suha Kanada), Gregorian nr.4, Utility Minor;1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
Octatonic, Messiaen mode 2, Dominant Diminished, Diminished Blues, Half-Whole step scale
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 Messiaen mode 6:2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 Messiaen mode 6 inverse;1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 Van der Horst Octatonic;1 1 2 1
1 2 1 1 2 Messiaen mode 3, Tsjerepnin;2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 Messiaen mode 3 inverse;2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Raga Pilu, Full
Minor;2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 Raga Malgunji, Ramdasi Malhar;2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Raga Pahadi;2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 Blues
Enneatonic;;2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 Kiourdi: Greece;2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 Taishikicho: Japan, Ryo: Japan, Raga Chayanat;1 2
1 1 2 1 1 2 1 Genus chromaticum;1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 Moorish Phrygian;1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 Youlan scale: China;1 1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 Chromatic and Diatonic Dorian mixed;1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 Chromatic and Permuted Diatonic Dorian mixed;2 1
1 1 2 1 1 1 2 Modes of Major Pentatonic mixed;1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 Messiaen mode 7;2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Messiaen
mode 7 inverse;2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Major/Minor mixed;2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 Minor Pentatonic with leading tones;1 1 1
1 1 2 1 2 1 1 Raga Sindhi-Bhairavi;1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 Symmetrical Decatonic;1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Twelve-tone
Chromatic
Modes_for_default_scales.lmd Alternate notes-1 3^(1/13) ! Bohlen-Pierce scale:+3 1 2 1 3 2 1 Prooijen Major;2 1 3 1 2 3
1 Prooijen Minor;2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 Delta, Moll I;1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 Dur I, Delta inverse;1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 Gamma;1 2 2
1 1 2 1 2 1 Gamma inverse;2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 Dur II;2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 Lambda;=1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 Harmonic, Lambda
inverse;1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 Pierce, Moll II;1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Walker A;1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 Walker B;2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1
Walker I;2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 Walker II.
1 n(1/15) ! 15 tone equal modes:4 1 4 1 4 1 Blackwood Hexatonic;+3 1 2 3 1 4 1 Fifteen-tone Harmonic Minorl3 2 1 3 1 4
1 Fifteen-tone Harmonic Majorl3 2 1 3 2 3 1 Fifteen-tone “Major”l3 1 2 3 1 3 2 Fifteen-tone “Minor”, Natural
Minorl3 1 2 3 2 3 1 Fifteen-tone Melodic Minorl2 2 2 3 2 2 2 Fifteen-tone Miller’s Porcupine-7l2 3 2 2 2 2 2
Fifteen-tone Miller’s Porcupine-7 Majorl=3 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 Fifteen-tone Major/Minor mixedl1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
Blackwood Decatonicl1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 Twelve-tone ChromaticlModes_for_default_scales.lmd Alternate notesl.
1 n(1/17) ! 17 tone equal modes:3 3 4 3 4 Seventeen-tone Major Pentatonic;+4 3 3 4 3 Seventeen-tone Minor
Pentatonic;;=3 4 3 4 3 Seventeen-tone Suspended Pentatonic;3 1 3 3 1 5 1 Seventeen-tone Harmonic Minor;3 3 1 3 1
5 1 Seventeen-tone Harmonic Major;3 3 1 3 3 3 1 Seventeen-tone Major;3 1 3 3 1 3 3 Seventeen-tone Natural
Minor;3 1 3 3 3 3 1 Seventeen-tone Melodic Minor;2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 Twelve-tone Chromatic (2/11-comma
positive).
Modes_for_default_scales.lmd Alternate notes-Arabic 17-tone pythagorean ! Arabic 17-tone Pythagorean (Arp.): 3 3 1 3
3 1 3 Safi al-Din’s maqam ‘Ussaq;+3 1 3 3 1 3 3 Safi al-Din’s maqam Nawa;1 3 3 1 3 3 3 Safi al-Din’s maqam Abu
Salik;3 2 2 3 2 2 3 Safi al-Din’s maqam Rast;3 2 2 2 3 2 3 Safi al-Din’s maqam Zangulah;2 3 2 2 2 3 3 Safi al-Din’s
maqam Rahawi;2 2 3 2 2 3 3 Safi al-Din’s maqam Husaini;2 2 3 2 3 2 3 Safi al-Din’s maqam Higazi;2 3 2 2 3 2 2 1
Safi al-Din’s maqam ‘Iraq;3 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 Safi al-Din’s maqam Isfahan;2 2 3 2 2 1 3 2 Safi al-Din’s maqam
Zirafkand;2 3 2 2 1 3 2 2 Safi al-Din’s maqam Buzurk;1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 Ishaq al-Mausili’s mode;1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
1 1 1 1 2 al-Kindi’s mode.
Modes_for_default_scales.lmd Alternate notes-1 n(1/19) ! 19 tone modes:5 4 5 5 Four out of 19;+3 3 5 3 5 Nineteen-tone
Major Pentatonicl5 3 3 5 3 Nineteen-tone Minor Pentatonic;3 5 3 5 3 Nineteen-tone Suspended Pentatonic;4 4 4 4 3
Five out of 19;4 4 3 4 4 Quasi-equal Pentatonic;3 3 3 3 3 4 Yasser’s Hexad;5 1 5 1 1 5 1 Oljare Augmented;=4 1 4 1
4 1 4 Oljare Diminished;1 2 5 1 2 5 3 Ratio 1:2 Chromatic Mixolydian;2 5 1 2 5 3 1 Ratio 1:2 Chromatic Lydian;5 1
2 5 3 1 2 Ratio 1:2 Chromatic Phrygian;1 2 5 3 1 2 5 Ratio 1:2 Chromatic Dorian;2 5 3 1 2 5 1 Ratio 1:2 Chromatic
Hypolydian;5 3 1 2 5 1 2 Ratio 1:2 Chromatic Hypophrygian;3 1 2 5 1 2 5 Ratio 1:2 Chromatic Hypodorian;3 2 3 3
2 4 2 Nineteen-tone Harmonic Minor;3 3 2 3 2 4 2 Nineteen-tone Harmonic Major;3 3 2 3 3 3 2 Nineteen-tone
Major;3 2 3 3 2 3 3 Nineteen-tone Natural Minor;3 2 3 3 3 3 2 Nineteen-tone Melodic Minor;2 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 Oljare
Octatonic;1 3 1 3 3 1 3 1 3 Oljare Pentaenharmonic;2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 Negri’s Ten Plus Nine;3 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 3 1 1
Keenan eleven out of 19;3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 McLaren eleven out of 19;2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 Krantz eleven out of 19;1
2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 Meantone Chromatic (1/3-comma);2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 Genus diatonico-chromaticum;2 1 2 1 2
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Yasser’s Supradiatonic.
Modes_for_default_scales.lmd Alternate notes-1 n(1/22) ! 22 tone equal modes (Paul Erlich):
+5 ; 4 5 4 Septimal Minor Pentatonic;6 3 1 3 6 3 Blues;4 3 3 4 4 4 Harmonic Whole-Tone;4 3 4 4 3 4 “9-limit”
Consonant Whole-Tone;4 4 1 4 4 4 1 Twenty-two tone Major;4 1 4 4 1 4 4 Twenty-two tone Minor;4 2 3 4 2 5 2
Twenty-two tone Harmonic Minor;4 3 2 4 2 5 2 Twenty-two tone Harmonic Major;4 3 2 4 3 4 2 Twenty-two tone
“Just” Major;4 2 3 4 2 4 3 Twenty-two tone Natural Minor;4 2 3 4 3 4 2 Twenty-two tone Melodic Minor;4 3 3 3 3 3
3 Major quasi-equal Heptatonic;3 3 3 4 3 3 3 Minor quasi-equal Heptatonic;2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 Rezsutek’s Percussion
scale;2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 Standard Pentachordal Major;2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 Static Symmetrical Major;2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2
2 Alternate Pentachordal Major;2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 Dynamic Symmetrical Major;2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 Standard
Pentachordal Minor;2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 Static Symmetrical Minor;2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 Alternate Pentachordal
Minor;2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 Dynamic Symmetrical Minor;3 1 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 1 3 1 Twelve-tone Chromatic (1/3-comma
positive).
1/1 256/243 16/15 10/9 9/8 32/27 6/5 5/4 81/64 4/3 27/20 45/32 729/512 3/2 128/81 8/5 5/3 27/16 16/9 9/5 15/8 243/128 2 !
Indian shruti 22 tone scale:
2 7 4 1 8 Raga Saveri;+1 6 6 3 6 Raga Vibhas (marva);4 3 6 7 2 Raga Hamsadhvani;3 4 6 3 6 Raga Deskar;6 3 6 3
4 Raga Malkauns;3 6 4 3 6 Raga Suddha Malhar;4 3 6 4 5 Raga Bhupali;4 5 4 4 5 Raga Durga;1 4 6 3 7 1 Raga
Gurjari Todi;7 2 4 5 2 2 Raga Tilang;2 5 6 2 5 2 Raga Bauli;6 3 4 2 5 2 Raga Takka;4 3 2 4 3 6 Raga Kambhoji;1 4
7 1 1 7 1 Todi That;1 6 2 4 1 7 1 Bhairav That;2 4 6 1 1 7 1 Raga Multani;1 4 7 1 1 6 2 Raga Varali;1 4 4 4 1 7 1
Raga Rampurmat Pilu;1 6 2 2 3 7 1 Raga Lalita;1 4 4 4 1 5 3 Raga Asavari;1 4 4 4 1 4 4 Raga Bilashkhani Todi;4 1
4 4 1 4 4 Raga Jaunpuri;4 4 4 1 4 4 1 Raga Yaman;2 5 5 1 2 5 2 Purvi That, Raga Shri;2 5 5 1 3 4 2 Raga Puriya
Kalyan;4 3 2 4 4 1 4 Khamaj That;2 5 4 2 4 3 2 Raga Marva;4 3 2 4 4 3 2 Shadja Grama, Murchhana
37
Uttaramandra, Shuddha Swara Saptaka;[20] 2 4 3 2 4 4 3 Murchhana Rajani;[17] 3 2 4 3 2 4 4 Murchhana
Uttarayata;4 3 2 4 3 2 4 Murchhana Suddhasadja, Raga Harikambhoji, Palaiyazh;4 4 3 2 4 3 2 Murchhana
Asvakranta;3 2 4 4 3 2 4 Murchhana Abhirudgata, Kafi That, Raga Bageshri;4 3 2 4 3 4 2 Madhyama Grama,
Bilaval That, Murchhana Suddhamadhya;[20] 2 4 3 2 4 3 4 Murchhana Margavi;3 4 2 4 3 2 4 Murchhana
Hrishyaka;4 3 4 2 4 3 2 Murchhana Sauviri, Kalyan That;2 4 3 4 2 4 3 Murchhana Harinasva, Bhairavi That;[4] 3
2 4 3 4 2 4 Murchhana Kalopanata;3 2 4 3 2 4 4 Gandhaara Grama (Sarngadeva der. ma-grama);4 2 4 3 2 4 3
Gandhaara Grama (Narada der. ma-grama), Murchhana Pauravi;4 2 3 4 2 4 3 Gandhaara Grama (Damodara),
Raga Darbari, Darbari Kanada;2 4 4 3 2 4 3 Gandhaara Grama (Popley), Murchhana Matsarikrita;4 2 3 4 2 3 4
Asavari That;3 4 2 4 3 4 2 Raga Jogiya;2 3 4 4 2 3 4 Raga Kanakangi;4 2 3 4 4 2 3 Raga Kharaharapriya,
Bhimpalasi;3 2 4 3 3 3 4 Gandhaara Grama (Sarngadeva der. sa-grama);4 2 4 3 3 3 3 Gandhaara Grama (Narada
der. sa-grama);2 4 3 3 3 4 3 Gandhaara Grama (Somanatha);1 6 2 1 3 1 6 2 Raga Ramkali;1 6 2 4 1 2 4 2 Raga
Saurashtra;4 3 2 3 1 3 5 1 Raga Yaman Kalyan;4 3 2 3 1 4 4 1 Raga Bihag;2 5 2 3 1 3 4 2 Raga Bhatiyar;4 2 3 4 4 2
2 1 Raga Mian Ki Malhar;3 2 4 4 2 1 2 4 Raga Mukhari;4 3 2 3 1 4 3 2 Raga Gaud Sarang;4 3 2 4 3 2 3 1 Raga
Khamaj;4 2 3 4 2 2 2 3 Raga Anandabhairavi;4 3 2 2 2 3 4 2 Raga Suddha Kalyan;4 2 2 1 4 4 2 2 1 Raga Ramdasi
Malhar;4 3 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 Raga Chayanat;3 2 1 1 2 3 1 3 2 1 1 2 Old Indian gamut;2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 Modern
Indian gamut.
Modes_for_default_scales.lmd Alternate notes - 1 n(1/27) ! 27 tone equal modes:
+1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 15-Tone MOS;1 n(1/31) ! 31 tone equal modes:10 10 10 1 Genus quartum;+5 8 5 13
Genus primum;13 6 6 6 Genus decimum;6 6 7 6 6 Quasi-equal Pentatonic;5 7 6 7 5 1 Genus quintum;6 6 6 1 6 6
Genus octavum;8 2 8 3 7 3 Genus tertium;4 6 9 6 4 2 Genus nonum;10 3 5 5 5 3 Genus secundum;4 6 5 6 4 6 Genus
septimum;1 2 10 1 2 10 5 Enharmonic Mixolydian;2 10 1 2 10 5 1 Enharmonic Lydian;10 1 2 10 5 1 2 Enharmonic
Phrygian;1 2 10 5 1 2 10 Enharmonic Dorian;2 10 5 1 2 10 1 Enharmonic Hypolydian;10 5 1 2 10 1 2 Enharmonic
Hypophrygian;5 1 2 10 1 2 10 Enharmonic Hypodorian;5 2 2 9 2 2 2 Hemiolic Chromatic Hypodorian;2 2 9 2 2 9 5
Hemiolic Chromatic Mixolydian;2 9 2 2 9 5 2 Hemiolic Chromatic Lydian;9 2 2 9 5 2 2 Hemiolic Chromatic
Phrygian;2 2 9 5 2 2 9 Hemiolic Chromatic Dorian;2 9 5 2 2 9 2 Hemiolic Chromatic Hypolydian;9 5 2 2 9 2 2
Hemiolic Chromatic Hypophrygian;2 3 8 2 3 8 5 Ratio 2:3 Chromatic Mixolydian;3 8 2 3 8 5 2 Ratio 2:3 Chromatic
Lydian;8 2 3 8 5 2 3 Ratio 2:3 Chromatic Phrygian;2 3 8 5 2 3 8 Ratio 2:3 Chromatic Dorian;3 8 5 2 3 8 2 Ratio 2:3
Chromatic Hypolydian;8 5 2 3 8 2 3 Ratio 2:3 Chromatic Hypophrygian;5 2 3 8 2 3 8 Ratio 2:3 Chromatic
Hypodorian;2 5 6 2 5 6 5 Soft Diatonic Mixolydian;5 6 2 5 6 5 2 Soft Diatonic Lydian;6 2 5 6 5 2 5 Soft Diatonic
Phrygian;2 5 6 5 2 5 6 Soft Diatonic Dorian;5 6 5 2 5 6 2 Soft Diatonic Hypolydian;6 5 2 5 6 2 5 Soft Diatonic
Hypophrygian;5 2 5 6 2 5 6 Soft Diatonic Hypodorian;5 3 5 5 3 7 3 Thirty-one tone Harmonic Minor;5 5 3 5 3 7 3
Thirty-one tone Harmonic Major;5 5 3 5 5 5 3 Thirty-one tone Major, Intense Diatonic Lydian, M.Ionian;5 3 5 5 3 5
5 Thirty-one tone Natural Minor, Intense Diatonic Hypodorian, Aeolian;5 3 5 5 5 5 3 Thirty-one tone Melodic
Minor;5 5 3 5 3 5 5 Thirty-one tone Major-Minor;3 5 5 3 5 5 5 Intense Diatonic Mixolydian, M.Locrian;5 3 5 5 5 3
5 Intense Diatonic Phrygian, M.Dorian;3 5 5 5 3 5 5 Intense Diatonic Dorian, M.Phrygian;5 5 5 3 5 5 3 Intense
Diatonic Hypolydian, M.Lydian;5 5 3 5 5 3 5 Intense Diatonic Hypophrygian, M.Mixolydian;4 4 5 4 4 5 5 Neutral
Diatonic Mixolydian;4 5 4 4 5 5 4 Neutral Diatonic Lydian;5 4 4 5 5 4 4 Neutral Diatonic Phrygian;4 4 5 5 4 4 5
Neutral Diatonic Dorian;4 5 5 4 4 5 4 Neutral Diatonic Hypolydian;5 5 4 4 5 4 4 Neutral Diatonic ;Hypophrygian;5
4 4 5 4 4 5 Neutral Diatonic Hypodorian;4 5 4 4 5 4 5 Neutral Mixolydian;5 4 4 5 4 5 4 Neutral Lydian;4 4 5 4 5 4 5
Neutral Phrygian;4 5 4 5 4 5 4 Neutral Dorian;5 4 5 4 5 4 4 Neutral Hypolydian;4 5 4 5 4 4 5 Neutral
Hypophrygian;5 4 5 4 4 5 4 Neutral Hypodorian;4 6 2 6 4 3 3 3 Genus sextum;5 5 3 5 5 3 2 3 Genus diatonicum;5 3
5 3 5 2 5 3 Modus conjunctus;3 5 2 5 3 5 3 5 Octatonic;5 2 6 5 2 5 6 “ Natural Minor;3 5 2 3 5 3 2 5 3 Genus
chromaticum;5 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 3 Rothenberg Generalized Diatonic;3 3 4 3 5 3 4 3 3 Hahn symmetric pentachordal;3 4
3 3 5 3 4 3 3 Hahn pentachordal;4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 Thirty-one tone Orwell;4 1 4 4 4 1 4 4 1 4 Breed 10-tone;4 2 4 2 4
2 4 3 3 3 Lumma Decatonic;5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 1 de Vries 11-tone;5 2 1 2 5 3 2 1 4 1 2 3 Genus bichromaticum;3 4 3
3 2 1 4 1 4 1 2 3 Genus enharmonicum vocale;2 2 4 2 2 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 Genus enharmonicum instrumentale;2 3 3 2 3 2
3 2 3 3 2 3 Meantone Chromatic (53/220-comma);3 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 Genus diatonico-chromaticum;3 2 2 3 3 2 3 3
2 2 3 3 Fokker 12-tone.
Modes_for_default_scales.lmd Alternate notes-1 100 cents !Equal Temperament (M)-12 Default 12 tone list...:
+10 2 Warao ditonic: South America;5 7 Honchoshi: Japan;7 5 Niagari: Japan;6 1 5 Raga Ongkari;3 7 2 Ute
tritonic;5 2 5 Raga Sarvasri, Warao tritonic: South America;5 5 2 Sansagari: Japan;3 4 5 Peruvian tritonic 2;4 3 5
Raga Malasri, Peruvian tritonic 1;1 5 1 5 Messiaen truncated mode 5;5 1 5 1 Messiaen truncated mode 5 inverse;2
1 7 2 Warao tetratonic: South America;2 4 5 1 Raga Sumukam;1 4 3 4 Raga Lavangi;2 2 3 5 Eskimo tetratonic
(Alaska: Bethel);2 3 2 5 Genus primum;5 2 3 2 Genus primum inverse;2 4 2 4 Messiaen truncated mode 6;4 2 4 2
Messiaen truncated mode 6 inverse;2 3 4 3 Raga Bhavani;4 3 3 2 Raga Mahathi;3 4 3 2 Bi Yu: China;1 6 1 3 1
Raga Deshgaur;1 3 1 6 1 Raga Megharanji;1 1 4 1 5 Raga Nabhomani;1 5 1 1 4 Raga Saugandhini, Yashranjani;5
2 1 3 1 Raga Devaranjani (Devaranji);2 1 4 1 4 Hira-joshi, Kata-kumoi: Japan=1 4 2 1 4 Hon-kumoi-joshi, Sakura,
Akebono II: Japan, Olympos Enharmonic, Raga Salanganata, Saveri, Gunakri (Gunakali), Latantapriya.
1 4 1 4 2 Iwato: Japan:4 2 1 4 1 Raga Amritavarshini, Malashri, Shilangi;4 1 4 2 1 Raga Bhinna Shadja,
Kaushikdhvani, Hindolita;1 2 4 1 4 Balinese Pelog, Raga Bhupalam, Bhupala Todi, Bibhas;4 1 2 4 1 Raga
Gambhiranata, Ryukyu: Japan;1 4 2 4 1 Raga Gauri;4 1 4 1 2 Raga Khamaji Durga;2 4 1 4 1 Raga Vaijayanti,
Hamsanada;4 1 2 1 4 Raga Zilaf;4 1 3 3 1 Bacovia: Romania, Raga Girija;1 4 3 3 1 Raga Kshanika;1 3 1 3 4 Raga
Megharanjani, Syrian pentatonic;3 3 1 4 1 Raga Multani;1 3 3 1 4 Raga Reva, Revagupti, Ramkali, Vibhas
(bhairava);2 2 2 5 1 Raga Kumurdaki (Kumudki);5 2 2 1 2 Raga Kuntvarali;2 5 2 1 2 Raga Matha Kokila
(Matkokil);2 2 5 2 1 Raga Neroshta;2 1 2 2 5 Raga Purnalalita, Chad Gadyo: Jewish, Ghana Pentatonic 1;5 2 2 2 1
Raga Puruhutika, Purvaholika;2 3 2 1 4 Han-kumoi: Japan, Raga Shobhavari;1 4 2 3 2 Kokin-joshi, Miyakobushi,
Han-Iwato: Japan, Raga Vibhavari (Revati), Bairagi, Lasaki.
38
- Capitolul C MUZICA DE CAMERA ASISTATA DE CALCULATOR
1.) Aspecte intonationale
-
Acordajul, precum si intonatia – individuala si de ansamblu -, pot fi verificate si corectate
prin programul « In-Tune Multi-Instrument Tuner ».
Functiile programului
In-Tune Multi-Instrument Tuner v. 1.8
© 2001-2002 Joseph Heimiller by Aspire Software
www.MusicMasterWorks.com
-
Options : Auto-String Select, Tuning Options ;
Source : Default Windows Input, Wave Out Mix, Yamaha Audio Microphone/CD
Audio/Line in ;
Help ; Unlock ;
Configurari : Instrument Type, View (Graph ; Gauge), Pitch Range, Strings, Pitch Indicator,
Pitch Graph, Frequency, Average Frequency, Target Frequency, View Microphone Input
(Yellow=too low, Green=good, Red=too high) .
2.) Interpretarea comparata
- Se utilizeaza programul Acid Pro 4 , inserandu-se pe track-uri separate versiunile
interpretative analizate, prin comenzile: File-Open-anularea functiei sincronizatoare
Beatmapper Wizart (cu „No“ si „Finish“)-trasarea desenului sonor (Mouse-Stanga tinut apasat).
Programul vizualizeaza toate configuratiile spatio-temporale specifice, iar versiunile inserate pot
fi audiate separat prin comanda Solo (X). Prin aceasta metoda pot fi analizati toti parametrii
sonori, iar imaginea grafica a operatiei (ce este edificatoare – inclusiv in realizarea unor studii
teoretice) poate fi conservata prin comenzile: Save As-ACID Project File (acd)/sau ACID Project
File With Embedded Media (acd-zip).
3.) Politempia structurala
-
-
-
Elaborata de dirijorul, compozitorul si matematicianul roman Mihai BREDICEANU, teoria
timpului polimodular (apud Mihai BREDICEANU, Timpul polimodular si artele vizuale,
Bucuresti, Ed.Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, 1982, si Music and Polymodular Time/Structural
Polytempi Music. Lecture given at New York University, January 5, 1985 – curs universitar)
analizeaza fenomenul politempiei (reliefat de pilda in lucrarile lui Mahler si Ives) si descrie
evolutia unui numar finit de evenimente sonore desfasurate simultan in “ceasuri” (masuri de
timp) diferite – sau, cu alte cuvinte, proiectarea simultana a mai multor SISTEME DE
PULSATII REALE (SPR) reductibile fenomenologic la un SISTEM REFERENTIAL DE
TIMP (SRT). Fiecare SPR are proprii MODULI TEMPORALI (M) ce se reflecta la nivelul
SPR in tempouri specifice, induse interpretilor sau grupurilor de interpreti prin semnale
vizuale sau sonore (“beeps”) – ultimele fiind receptionate prin casti. In acest sens, autorul a
inventat un aparat special denumit “Polytimer” si brevetat inca din 1970 in Romania, USA
si Franta.
Computerul permite amplificarea acestor interesante experimente sonore, ce au reprezentat
in primul rand o aplicare a teoriei einsteiniene a relativitatii (miscarea relativa a obiectelor
si observatorului), dar si o confirmare a teoriei bergsoniene referitoare la perceptia
subiectiva a timpului (in functie de varsta si stare emotionala) - asa cum remarca si
eminentul muzicolog roman Prof.univ.Dr.Victor GIULEANU (Tratat de Teoria Muzicii,
Bucuresti, Editura Muzicala, 1986, pag.745-752).
Astfel modulii temporali pot fi realizati si multiplicati cu programul “MOZART” – ulterior
ei fiind difuzati prin “computere paralele” corespunzatoare “muzicilor paralele” ce se
39
suprapun. In prealabil se analizeaza evolutia temporala a fiecarei muzici si se elaboreaza cate
o partitura a “beeps”-urilor (cu variatiile de tempouri specifice fiecarei muzici). Aceste
partituri de “beeps”-uri (configurate exclusiv pe timbre percutante – de pilda 2
Wood-Block-uri: cel grav pentru timpii principali iar cel acut pentru timpii secundari) sunt
difuzate prin casti interpretilor, ce isi adapteaza executia tempourilor respective.
“Computerele paralele” sunt eventual subordonate unui server avand functia de a controla
(la nivelul “hiperpulsatiei”- ca factor comun al politempiei) evolutia intregului proces, ce
poate fi amplificat si prin utilizarea Internetului - de pilda in sensul experimentelor efectuate
prin proiectul “SoundWIRE” mentionat mai sus.
4.) Efectul de intarziere in practica ansamblurilor – cu aplicatie la proiectul “Sound WIRE”
O analiza pertinenta a acestui aspect a fost realizata in studiul-pilot “The Effects of Latency on
Ensemble Performance” elaborat in Mai 2002 de Nathan SCHIETT, sub coordonarea lui Chris
CHAFE, directorul CCRMA din cadrul Universitatii Stanford (USA). Aceasta ampla cercetare
sponsorizata de prestigioasa National Science Foundation a implicat efectuarea unor experimente
bazate pe scenarii muzicale inedite desfasurate in real-time, ca de pilda cantatul in ansamblu prin
transmisii pe Internet la distante continentale. Sub aspect teoretic, s-au luat in considerare
urmatoarele elemente: intarzierea de < 7 msec nu este perceptibila; intarzierile tolerabile in
convorbirile telefonice sunt de 100-300 msec; intarzierile tolerabile in concerte publice sunt de
cca 40 msec pentru ansamblurile simfonice (situate pe scene ce depasesc 40 ft – distanta parcursa
in aer de unda sonora in 40 msec) si de cca 5 msec pentru formatiile camerale (motiv pentru care
distanta
maxima
intre
muzicieni
este
de
2
m
!
–
cf.
http://ww2.mcgill.ca/icc/canarie/learnWare/milestone1/App1.htm )
Prin masurarea diferitelor nivele ale coordonatei EPT (Ensemble Performance Thereshold) s-au
stabilit limitele (in msec) ale LDS (Latency Design Spec), sintetizandu-se totodata o serie de
concluzii referitoare la: (1) relatia dintre intarziere (delay, latency) si tempo (daca intarzierea
este mai mare de 30 msec, tempoul are tendinta sa scada; EPT-ul muzicii ritmice este de cca
20-30 msec); (2) aplicarea strategiei de tip “leader-subordonat” pentru mentinerea unui tempo
uniform chiar si in conditiile unei intarzieri mari (de 50-70 msec) a determinat aparitia unor
severe desincronizari; EPT-ul variaza in functie de specificul muzicii (viteza, stil, timpul de atact
al instrumentelor, etc.); (3) nivelul optim al intarzierii este de 10-20 msec (si nu de 0 msec); (6)
EPT-ul determinat prin intarziere electronica este cu mult mai scazut decat in cazul EPT-ului
determinat in mediul acustic natural, ce include fenomene complementare de reverberatie si
variatie de amplitudine.
- Acest important studiu poate fi obtinut pe site-ul www-ccrma.stanford.edu , sau la adresa
[email protected]
5.) Configurarea Toposului Acustic
(de la spatiul arhitectonic la spatiul virtual)
Precizare terminologica : notiunea de « TOPOS » ( >gr. ô ï ð ï ò = loc) desemneaza in domeniul acusticii muzicale spatiul
fizic in care evolueaza sursa sonora (sala de concert). Toposul Acustic impreuna cu Inaltime(Frecventa),
Volumul(Amplitudinea) si Timbrul(Structura Spectrala) reprezinta parametrii Spatiului Sonor – proiectiile acestuia in
Timp definind Sunetul [ce se clasifica in Sunet muzical (cu Frecventa regulata) si Zgomot (cu Frecventa neregulata)].
Asadar,
Sunetul = Spatiu Sonor x Timp
in care :
Spatiul Sonor = Frecventa x Amplitudine x Structura Spectrala x Topos Acustic.
Edificatoare in aceast sens sunt cercetarile complexe efectuate la celebrul EXPERIMENTAL
MUSIC STUDIOS al Universitatii din Illinois-U.S.A. (http://ems.music.uiuc.edu/ems/index.html )
de catre Scott WYATT - in domeniul difuzarii/proiectiei sonore (« Investigative Studies on Sound
Diffusion/Projection at the University of Illinois : a report on an explorative collaboration ») -,
precum si cele initiate de Sever TIPEI (compozitor american de origine romana), impreuna cu
matematicianul Hans G. KAPER - in directia proiectarii, intr-un mediu imersiv al realitatii
virtuale, a compozitiilor multiple, a vizualizarii muzicii si a sonificarii stiintifice (« Manifold
Compositions, Music Visualization, and Scientific Sonification in an Immersive Virtual-Reality
40
Environment »). Astfel, in introducerea pertinentului sau studiu compozitorul Scott WYATT
afirma ca primele investigatii in planul spatializarii sonore s-au concretizat, intre altele, prin
muzica concreta elaborata de Pierre SCHAEFFER, prin creatiile lui Edgard VARESE (”Poème
Electronique”), John CAGE (ciclul “Imaginary Landscape”), Earle BROWN (“Octet”), Joji
YUASA (“Icon”), Morton SUBOTNICK (“Touch”), John CHOWNING (“Turenas”), Salvatore
MARTIRANO (“Sal-Mar Construction”), Ben JOHNSTON si Herbert BRUN (ultimii trei
creatori activand in cadrul “University of Illinois Experimental Music Studios”), precum si prin
experimentele facute la G.M.E.B. (Bourges) cu “Gmebaphone”-ul si cu “Acousmonium”-ul
utilizat de François BAYLE. In prezent, echipa de acusticieni a IRCAM-Paris (www.ircam.fr )
coordonata de Olivier WARUSFEL are ca domeniu de cercetare controlul propagarii sunetului
in spatiu – considerat in dimensiunea sa arhitectonica, sau mediatizat prin mijloace
electro-acustice. Aceste investigatii – ce au ca finalitate sintetizarea unor modele de integrare a
spatializarii sonore ca parametru constitutiv al unor noi creatii componistice – sunt ordonate (in
dimensiunile fundamentale, de natura obiectiva si perceptiva) prin urmatoarele proiecte:
caracterizarea obiectiva a fenomenelor acustice ; modelarea fizica (« physivcal modeling ») si
perceptiva a acestora ; simularea lor pe computer prin crearea unor interfete de comanda a
aplicatiilor acustice virtuale cu ajutorul Spatializatorului digital, ce opereaza - in sistem
« MacIntosh » - cu un ansamble de algoritmi bazati pe modele geometrice, oferind diferite ipoteze
de propagare si reflexie sonora: difractia, absorbtia in incidenta razanta, reflexia speculara sau
ideal difuza. Aceste experimente au dus si la elaborarea unei noi metode de determinare exacta a
dimensiunii reverberatiei in salile de concert. Spatializatorul este compus din module logice de
prelucrare a semnalului si de comanda in timp real – generand sinteza locatiei surselor si cea a
efectului de sala (reverberatia artificiala). Modulul de prelucrare poate fi configurat pentru
sisteme individuale de reproducere tridimensionala (la casca sau prin doi transductori), precum
si pentru sisteme «multi-tracks » (cu reproduceri « stereo » si « stereo-3/2 »). In coordonata
« scenei sonore virtuale », modulul de comanda permite controlul prelucrarii audio-numerice a
semnalelor intr-o maniera accesibila, adaptata – prin functii « simbolice » - procesului de
elaborare muzicala. In paralel, prin proiectul « Design Sonore », s-a experimentat si fenomenul
legat de perceptia si controlul iradiatiei surselor sonore instrumentale – in scopul realizarii unor
surse sonore artificiale capabile sa reproduca caracteristicile celor naturale si totodata sa induca
directivitatea sunetului, printr-un sistem de transductori (difuzoare) ce compun « imaginea de
directivitate » a semnalelor prelucrate « prin sinteza aditiva » (in modul si in faza-filtrat),
urmarindu-se efectele fizice si psiho-fizice ale fenomenului. S-au sintetizat astfel, cu putine surse
sonore, « imagini de directivitate » fascinante prin noutatea si complexitatea lor. Asa cum
subliniaza si cercetatorii de la IRCAM, aplicatiile studiului sunt numeroase : « dincolo de
simularea caracteristicilor spatiale ale instrumentelor pentru sunete pre-inregistrate sau pentru
sunetelor de sinteza, acest procedeu de reproducere permite optimizarea directivitatii ansamblurilor
de difuzoare, corectia ecoului in sistemele de teleconferinta, controlul in timp real a orientarii
directiei in fluxurile sonore, precum si multe alte efecte ». Un alt program deosebit de important
in domeniul interactiunii timp-real/spatializare este « Max/MSP - version 4.3.1» (aplicabil atat pe
«
Mac » cat
si
pe
«
Windows XP
» si
disponibil
la
adresa
http://www.cycling74.com/products/download.html ), utilizat de asemena la IRCAM in combinatie
cu programele « AudioSculpt », « Modalys » si « Diphone », ce sunt axate pe analiza/sinteza
sonora.
6.) Configurarea Acusticii Instrumentale
Tot la IRCAM-Paris (www.ircam.fr – proiect coordonat de Rene CAUSSE) – dar si la alte
importante centre de cercetare acustica din U.S.A. , precum Bregman Electronic Music
Studio/Dartmouth College (http://eamusic.darmouth.edu – proiect coordonat de Charlie
SULLIVAN) - s-au efectuat si o serie de experimente dedicate studierii functionalitatii
instrumentelor traditionale (in scopul perfectionarii lor prin « grefe acustice »), precum si
realizarii unor noi instrumente reale sau virtuale. Caracterul eterogen al domeniului organologic
a impus initierea unor cercetari fundamentale multidisciplinare (acustica, botanica, mecanica
vibratiilor, mecanica fluidelor), in colaborare cu institutii de specialitate. Un proiect important se
refera la modelare fizica (« physical modeling ») a instrumentelor si a vocii – in aceasta directie
continuandu-se experimentele ce au condus, inca de acum doua decenii, la stabilirea
« algoritmului Karplus-Strong » (K.KARPLUS and A.STRONG - Digital Synthesis of
41
Plucked-String and Drum Timbres, Computer Music Journal, 7(2), 1983. [bibtex-entry]
http://www.cmi.univ-mrs.fr/HASSIP/hassipbib/Author/KARPLUS-K.html )
pentru unele instrumente cu corzi ciupite (chitara, banjo, koto) si de percutie, prin analizarea
elementelor constitutive (sunet, vibratie, aer, coarda, etc.) si prin reconstituirea timbrelor
originale cu ajutorul unor sisteme speciale (« building blocks »), bazate pe « delays », filtre,
« feedbacks loops » si mai ales pe « buffers » (unitati de memorie cu acces aleatoriu – tip RAM, ce
acumuleaza si totodata elibereaza permanent informatii, intr-un proces repetitiv generand –
prin periodicitate - frecvente sonore). S-au elaborat astfel, prin multiple analize si simulari, si
alte esantioane (« semnaturi acustice ») caracteristice instrumentelor cu ancie simpla (clarinet,
saxofon), cu ancie dubla (oboi, fagot), cu jet de aer (Blockflöte, flaut transversal, tub de orga) si
cu ancii libere (acordeon – in acest caz evidentiindu-se faptul ca o miscare sinusoidala a anciei
poate genera un timbru foarte bogat, compus din peste 30 de armonice) ; in prezent la IRCAM
sunt analizate sunetele pianului (studiindu-se diferentele observate in dubla-diminuare, intre
diferitele partiale), precum si cele ale instrumentelor de coarde (in special in zona zgomotelor
complementare produse prin contactul arcusului cu coarda). Rezultatele acestor atat de
pertinente cercetari sunt ulterior implementate in programele originale (ruland pe sistemul de
operare « MacIntosh ») « Resonans » si « Modalys-ER » (ex « Mosaïc ») – ultimul oferind o
descriere uniforma a modelelor. Aplicatiile sunt multiple : de la cele mai traditionale (ca de pilda
notarea calitatii trompetelor), pana la determinari ale raportului psiho-fizic in utilizarea unor
instrumente traditionale modificate partial sau total, ca de pilda flautul cu sfert de ton si sisteme
micro-intervalice, arcusul de vioara construit din materiale sintetice, Mundstück-ul cu volum
variabil pentru clarinet (permitand schimbarea frecventei in timp real), noul dispozitiv
electronic de acordaj al timpanului sau surdina wawa pentru corn. In acest context trebuie
subliniata si contributia esentiala adusa de compozitorul american Rodney OAKES (profesor
emerit la Los Angeles Harbor College si fondator al « Journal SEAMUS ») in impunerea
midi-trombonului ca instrument de importanta majora pentru creatia muzicala live-electronica.
In paralel, la Institutul International de Muzica Electroacustica de la Bourges – IMEB
(www.imeb.asso.fr ) coordonat de Françoise BARRIERE si de Christian CLOZIER se utilizeaza
in mod curent doua instrumente digitale originale (atat in coordonata « hard », cat si in cea
« soft »), deosebit de utile in plan pedagogic (« Cybersongosse 7 ») si interpretativ
(« Cybernéphone 7 »). Referitor la sinteza vocala, mentionam cercetarile efectuate la Princeton
University din U.S.A. de Perry R. COOK, ce s-au finalizat si prin programul de modelare fizica
« SPASM singing voice software » (http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~prc/NewWork.html ) , precum
si inovatiile in domeniul emisiei vocale prelucrate audio-numeric reliefate in creatiile realizate la
prestigiosul « Brooklyn College Center for Computer Music » de compozitorul Robert VOISEY,
director al societatii « Vox Novus » din New York
7.) Alte domenii abordate la IRCAM
(apud www.ircam.fr )
- Cercetarea psihoacustica (Asociatia PECA, Coordonator Stephen McADAMS) –
proiectele „Perceptia si memorizarea timbrului muzical“ (analiza parametrilor
acustico-auditivi; perceptia proprietatilor fizice ale obiectelor sonore; caracterizarea verbala a
timbrului muzical si a relatiilor dintre timbre); „Procesul organizarii auditive“ (organizarea
simultana si cea secventiala); „Perceptia structurilor muzicale contemporane“ (perceptia
inarmonicitatii in agregatele de inaltimi si a progresiei in secvente de agregate – cu Tristan
MURAIL; evolutia atentiei in structuri cu straturi multiple - cu Antoine BONNET; relatia
perceptiva intre micro- si macro-structuri in sunetele si secventele sintetizate – cu Marco
STROPPA); programe originale: „PsiExp“ si „FTS“;
- Compozitia asistata de ordinator – CAO (Echipa „Representations Musicales“,
Coordonator Gerard ASSAYAG) – activitate curenta: aplicatii ale programelor originale
“PatchWork”, “Sympatos” si “OpenMusic” in cadrul „Forumului utilizatorilor“, implicand
colaborari sistematice cu compozitori si muzicologi interesati in elaborarea unor proiecte
avansate de informatica muzicala;
- Analiza/sinteza sonora (Echipa coordonata de Xavier RODET) – proiecte: „Sinteza
aditiva“ (aplicarea algoritmului de sinteza „FFT-1“ in studiul anvelopei spectrale); „Sinteza
sursa-filtru“ (producerea unor variate sunete instrumentale si detectarea inaltimii si analizei
42
zgomotului complementar); „Sinteza SINOLA“ (bazata pe suprapuberea si juxtapunerea
formelor elementare de unda, determinand modificarea inaltimii si a duratei sunetelor emise
vocal – vorbit sau cantat); „Sinteza modelelor fizice“ (analizarea in timp real a modelelor
matematice si informatice ale instrumentelor acustice din clasele clarinet, trompeta si voce;
studiul oscilatiilor periodice si haotice); „Caracterizarea semnalelor sonore - diferite de
cuvinte“ (extragerea parametrilor constitutivi, separarea de surse, segmentare, identificare si
recunoastere, reprezentarile unor scene reale si ale sintezei intr-un limbaj hieratic legat in
continut, prelucrari si transformari ale obiectelor sonore, codificarea selectiva a continutului);
„Farinelli“ (fuziunea timbrelor – cu aplicatie la reconstituirea vocii celebrului cantaret castrat,
pentru filmul realizat de Gerard CORBIAU); programe originale: „Super VP“,
„AudioSculpt“, „Diphone Studio“, „Chant“ (sinteza granulara), „Xspect“.
8.) Procedee de sinteza si transformare digitala a sunetului
utilizate si in aplicatii camerale live-electronice
NB – Se disting 2 categorii de muzici live-electronice : cea pentru interpreti in timp real si banda
electronica preinregistrata – numita si «tape and instruments music», precum si cea in care banda
este inlocuita cu sunete electronice produse ad-hoc sau cu sunetele interpretilor prelucrate chiar
in momentul producerii lor (asadar in timp real) - aceasta a doua categorie formand genul
« electronics and instruments music ». In muzica electro-acustica analoga se utilizau sisteme
complexe de prelucrare (incluzand mai multe magnetofoane, mixere, filtre, ring-modulatoare,
amplificatoare, difuzoare – procedeele fiind exemplar analizate de Allen STRANGE in tratatul
Electronic Music. Systems, Techniques, and Controls. WM.C.Brown Company Publishers , 1972,
ISBN 0-697-03612-X, p.126-137). Tehnica digitala a inlocuit insa – cu rezultate acustice net
superioare - aceste sisteme analoge prin programe si module specializate in sinteza si prelucrarea
numerica a sunetului . Dat fiind faptul ca noile aplicatii sunt in plina evolutie, prezentarea de mai
jos nu este (si nici nu ar putea fi !) exhaustiva, ea limitandu-se doar la unele dintre cele mai
importante aspecte relevate pana la data elaborarii acestei lucrari – ce sunt expuse concentrat, dar
cu trmiteri directe la principalele surse de informatie ce pot oferi celor interesati detalii
suplimentare.
- a.) « Phase Shifting » - procesul sonor de tip « phasor » este dedus din « Teorema lui
Fourier » (toate functiile periodice pot fi exprimate prin suma – pana la Infinit – a sinusoidelor
componente) si se bazeaza pe baleierea (« sweep ») uniforma si continua (intr-un « perpetuum
mobile » ascendent-descendent) a partialelor (armonicelor) unui sunet, implicand trecerea
semnalului initial printr-o serie de filtre speciale (generand un « phase-lag » asemanator unui
« time delay ») si suprapunerea semnalului astfel prelucrat cu semnalul originar ; vor rezulta o
serie de intersectii (« notches ») in spectrul tonal, determinate de filtrarile combinate (« comb
filter response »). Functiile principale de control in modulul « MXR Phase 100 » sunt : (1) Speed
(referitoare la viteza ratei « sweep » intre limitele 0.1 – 10 Hz) si (2) Intensity (actionand - in
patru pozitii caracteristice - asupra celor doua coordonate fundamentale ale procesului « phase
shifting » - amplitudinea dimensiunii « sweep » si profunzimea dimensiunii « notch »).
- b.) “The Phase Vocoder” – prin analizarea/resintetizarea sunetelui [conform “reprezentarilor
Fourier”
- DFT (“Discrete Fourier Transform”), FFT (“Fast Fourier Transform”
–reprezentarea cea mai frecvent utilizata) si IFFT (“Inverse Fast Fourier Transform”)] se poate
schimba atat inaltimea unui sunet fara a-i modifica lungimea (“pitch shifting”), cat si lungimea
unui sunet fara a-i altera inaltimea (“time stretching”). Ambele tipuri de transformari pot fi
operate cu ajutorul programului “Audacity 1.2.0-pre2”: “pitch shifting” prin comenzile
“Edit-Select-All“ + „Effect-Change Pitch without Changing Tempo“, iar „time stretching“ prin
comenzile “Edit-Select-All“ + „Effect-Change Tempo without Changing Pitch“.
- c.) „Convolution“ – convolutia reprezinta un caz particular de utilizare a „phase vocoder“
prin realizarea unei „sinteze incrucisate“ („cross-synthesis“) implicand impunerea unei
coordonate a unui sunet (numit „impulse response“) altui sunet. Reverberatia digitala ofera un
exemplu concludent de convolutie: rezonanta caracteristica a unei sali este inregistrata (formand
43
un „impulse response“) si impusa unui alt sunet. Programul „Sound Forge“ ofera posibilitatea
unui astfel de proces prin comanda „Effects-Reverb“ – specificandu-se tipul de „impulse record“
prin „Reverberation mode“: Rich hall, Wide open hall, Concert hall, Deep hall, Long hall, Warm
ambience, Metal tank, etc. Prin convolutie pot fi insa generate si noi sunete, ca de pilda sinteza
dintre zgomot si respiratie – realizata cu programul „Soundhack“ creat de Tom ERBE (apud
BURK, Phil. POLANSKY, Larry. REPETTO, Douglas. ROBERTS, Mary. ROCKMORE, Dan.
Music
and
Computers
–
an
interactive
web-text.
(http://eamusic.dartmouth.edu/~book/MATCpages/tableofcontents.html ). Aceeasi autori semnaleaza un aspect
deosebit de interesant: reverberatia simpla poate fi simulata si prin convolutia “zgomotului alb”
(“whitenoise”) cu orice alt sunet.
- d.) „Sampling“ – acest foarte popular procedeu (in special in genurile„rap“, „dance“ si
„beat“ ) consta in selectarea unor mici esantioane sonore din muzici pre-existente, sau in crearea
unor esantioane originale si in recontextualizarea lor prin mijloace digitale – cu eventuale
modificari ale frecventelor si ale duratelor initiale. In acest sens au fost realizate - ca „hardware“
- instrumente digitale specifice („Samplers“ si „Drum Machines“) , iar in domeniul „software“ au
aparut, in principalele sisteme de operare (Windows, Mac si Linux) noi programe de tip „Digital
Audio Workstations“ -DAW (incluzand functiile:
analog/digital-input/output, sound
recording/editing/playback/multi-track mixer/amplifier, etc.) - ca de pilda „Pro Tools“, „Acid“,
„Cakewalk“, „The Matk of the Unicorn-MOTU“ (cu „FireWire interface“), etc.
- e.) „Localizare/Spatializare“ – Localizarea sursei sonore prin auzul „cyclaural“ este
determinata de mai multi factori: intensitatea sunetului (ce este mai puternica la urechea mai
apropiata de sursa), diferentele de perceptie („Interaural Time Delay“-ITD – aspect determinat
de distantele inegale dintre sursa si fiecare dintre urechi, marcate printr-o mica intarziere a
perceptiei la urechea mai indepartata) si cele de frecventa (asa-numitele „Head Realated
Transfer Functions“-HRTF - generate de obstacolele fonice plasate pe traseul sonor, ce produc
un efect de „low-pass filter“ specific fiecarei urechi). In consecinta, spatializarea sonora poate fi
simulata - in doua dimensiuni - prin diferentierile de intensitate, ecou si filtraj dintre cele doua
canale audio (de pilda, localizarea sursei in partea stanga impune cresterea intensitatii pe canalul
„Left“ si totodata adaugarea unui mic ecou si filtrarea frecventelor inalte pe canalul „Right“). In
acest sens s-au efectuat experimente relevante cu „Binaural Dummy Head Recording“ – o
instalatie de inregistrare ce reconstituie cutia craniana, avand amplasate microfoanele in
orificiiile auditive. Solutiile descrise mai sus se pot aplica si intr-o proiectie audio „3-D“ (ce ia in
considerare si coordonata verticala a perceptiei auditive). Multe dintre procedeele aplicate au
fost utilizate si in „epoca analoga“, fiind pertinent descrise de Allan STRANGE in tratatul
Electronic Music. Systems, Techniques, and Controls. WM.C.Brown Company Publishers , 1972,
ISBN 0-697-03612-X, Cap. 9 “Location Modulation”, p.75-85).
- f.) „Prelucrari grafice“ – operatii ce determina convertirea imaginilor vizuale in imagini sonore,
cu ajutorul unor instrumente si, respectiv, programe speciale: de la aparatul „Spectrogram“
(creat de High LeCaine in 1950) si de la „UPIC“ (sistem inventat de Iannis XENAKIS si utilizat
la CEMAMu-Paris), pana la aplicatiile software „MetaSynth“ , „Hyperupic“,
„SoundHack/QT-coder“, „AudioSculpt“ , „Squiggy“ (in „Mac“) si „MIDImage“ (in
„Windows“). Dintre toate acestea, „Squiggy“ (creat Douglas REPETTO la renumitul „Darmouth
College“ din S.U.A.) este cel mai performant program „graphics-to-sound“ avand ca finalitate
interpretarile live-electronice.
- g.) „Sinteza aditiva“ - conform „Teoremei lui Fourier“ (“toate functiile periodice pot fi
exprimate prin suma – pana la Infinit – a sinusoidelor componente”), un sunet complex poate fi
creat prin insumarea unor sunete simple – ca de pilda prin aditia de armonice, prin reconstruirea
anvelopei ADSR (Attack-Decay-Sustain-Release), prin asa-numitul “Shepard Tone Effect” (bazat
pe perceptia “chroma” referitoare la circularitatea frecventelor distantate la o octava – adica
inmultite cu 2), sau prin sinteza formantilor (adica a acelor frecvente fixe, ireversibile ce definesc
un anumit timbru vocal sau instrumental).
- h.) „Filtrari“ - tratarea sunetelor cu filtre fixe (formand „filter bank“) si variabile –
aceasta ultima categorie incluzand filtrele: „High-pass“ (ce elimina frecventele joase), „Low-pass“
44
(ce elimina frecventele inalte), „Band-pass“ [ce selecteaza doar o anumita banda de frecvente,
definita prin „bandwidth“ – adica prin diferenta dintre „cutoff frequencies“ (cea mai inalta si cea
mai joasa frecventa la amplitudine maxima) – si prin „center frequency“ (frecventa medie)] si
„Band-reject“ (ce elimina o anumita banda de frecvente). Prin „EQ.Graphic Equalizers“ (variind
de obicei intre – 10 si + 12 dB) se pot realiza amplificari si/sau atenuari ale mai multor benzi de
frecventa. De asemenea, anumite situatii sonore impun utilizarea filtrelor „Finite Impulse
Response“-FIR (incluzand „delays“ ale unor fragmente sonore anterioare) si „Infinite Impulse
Response“ –IIR (incluzand efectul „feedback“).
- j.) “Waveshaping” - operatie constand in transformarea sunetelor simple in sunete
complexe printr-o “functie de transfer” [y = f(x)] – ca de pilda in cazul transformarii formei
sinusoidale a unui sunet intr-una triunghiulara. Functia de transfer poate avea si configuratia
unui “Polynomial Chebyshev” – asa cum demonstreaza si autorii admirabilului tratat “Music and
Computers
–
an
interactive
web-text”
(http://eamusic.dartmouth.edu/~book/MATCpages/tableofcontents.html ).
- j.) “Modulatia de Amplitudine” – “Amplitude Modulation” (AM) este un proces de prelucrare
timbrala (analog unui efect de tremolo, implicand varieri periodice ale volumului sonor), ce
consta in modificarea amplitudinii semnalului sonor initial (numit “carrier signal”) printr-un
semnal de modulatie (numit “modulating signal”) inducand - prin coordonatele sale de
amplitudine, frecventa si forma (“waveshape”) – nivelul, viteza si, respectiv, configuratia
(“pattern”) modulatiei de amplitudine; amplitudinea sunetului initial va deveni amplitudinea
medie a sunetului modulat. De pilda, dintr-un sunet initial (“carrier signal” – pe care il numim
“x”) de 700 Hz sinus modulat in amplitudine cu un sunet (“modulating signal” – pe care il numim
“y”) de 5 Hz sinus va rezulta un sunet sinus cu amplitudinea medie de 700 Hz si cu variatii de
amplitudine intre 705 Hz (x + y) si 695 Hz (x – y), la o viteza de 5 cicluri/secunda. Daca sunetul de
modulatie este de peste 20 Hz, viteza schimarilor va fi imperceptibila in planul amplitudinii
(volumului) – in aceasta situatie ea percepandu-se ca doua noi frecvente (numite “sidebands”)
reprezentand suma (x + y) si diferenta
(x – y) dintre sunetul original si cel de modulatie, ce se suprapun peste sunetul original.
Astfel, daca x = 700 Hz sinus si y = 20 Hz sinus, vor rezulta 3 sunete cu frecventele de 700 Hy
sinus (x), 720 Hz sinus (x + y) si 680 Hz sinus (x – y). In programul “Sound Forge” AM se
realizeaza prin functia “Effects-Amplitude Modulation”. [apud SCHRADER, Barry. Introduction
To Electro-Acoustic Music. Published by Pretince-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. – p. 88-90;
STRANGE, Allen. Electronic Music. Systems, Techniques, and Controls. WM.C.Brown Company
Publishers , 1972, ISBN 0-697-03612-X, p.9-11].
- k.) “Modulatia de Frecventa” - “Frequncy Modulation” (FM) este de asemenea un proces de
prelucrare timbrala (dar analog unui efect de vibrato, implicand varieri periodice ale inaltimii
sonore), ce consta in modificarea frecventei semnalului sonor initial (numit “carrier signal”)
printr-un semnal de modulatie (numit “modulating signal”) inducand - prin coordonatele sale de
amplitudine, frecventa si forma (“waveshape”) – nivelul, viteza si, respectiv, configuratia
(“pattern”) modulatiei de frecventa; frecventa sunetului initial va deveni frecventa medie a
sunetului modulat. Procesul FM este asemanator cu procesul AM – primul actionand insa in
planul frecventei sonore (adica al inaltimii), iar cel de al doilea in planul amplitudinii sonore
(adica al volumului). Ca si in AM, o modulatie de frecventa cu un sunet de modulatie de peste 20
Hz va produce doua noi frecvente (“sidebands”) reprezentand suma (x + y) si diferenta (x – y)
dintre sunetul original si cel de modulatie, ce se suprapun peste sunetul original. In plus, in FM,
“peak frequncy deviation” ilustreaza o functie a amplitudinii semnalului modulat in frecventa si
indica diferenta dintre maxima/minima sunetului modulat si sunetul initial (de pilda, avand un
“carrier signal” de 700 Hz, ce este modulat in sus la 900 Hz si in jos la 500 Hz, valoarea “peak
frequncy deviation” va fi de 200 Hz). In programul “Sound Forge” FM se realizeaza prin functia
“Tools-Synthesis-FM”. Tot in acest domeniu, se remarca si faptul ca frecventele emise sub
pragul auditiv uman inferior (de 20 Hz) sunt percepute ca durate – acest fenomen deschizand
perspectivele unor interesante transformari ale coordonatelor “spatiu sonor” si “timp muzical”,
cu aplicatii directe in practica componistica - asa cum am demonstrat in studiul meu “Mistica lui
Debussy si revelatia universului supratonal” [ Revista "Muzica" Nr.3/1999, Bucuresti
(pag.61-72)]. In sfarsit, “Ring Modulation” reprezinta un caz particular de FM si consta in
45
realizarea sumei si a diferentei dintre doua frecvente cu ajutorul unui aparat (initial analog)
numit “Ring Modulator”; acest efect a fost insa transpus si in mediul digital (de pilda in
programul “Csound” dezvoltat de Barry VERCOE la MIT). [apud SCHRADER, Barry.
Introduction To Electro-Acoustic Music. Published by Pretince-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. –
p.50-51 si 90-92; CHOWNING, John M. The Synthesis of the Complex Audio Spectra by Means of
Frequency Modulation. in Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, vol.21,no.7 (1973);
STRANGE, Allen. Electronic Music. Systems, Techniques, and Controls. WM.C.Brown Company
Publishers , 1972, ISBN 0-697-03612-X, p.12-20 ; BURK, Phil. POLANSKY, Larry. REPETTO, Douglas.
ROBERTS, Mary. ROCKMORE, Dan. Music and Computers – an interactive web-text.
(http://eamusic.dartmouth.edu/~book/MATCpages/tableofcontents.html )].
- l.) “Morphing” – preluat din artele vizuale (domeniu in care “anamorfoza” reprezinta o
tehnica descoperita inca din antichitate), acest procedeu de transformare a unei imagini in alta aparent total diferita de prima - a fost aplicat pentru prima data in arta sunetelor in 1976, in
Cvartetul meu de Coarde “Anamorphose” [© 1977 by Edition Modern München – Germany], ce
a fost distins cu Premiul I la Concursul International de Compozitie “GAUDEAMUS” din
Olanda (1977).
Ulterior, in studiul “Anamorfoza Sonora” (publicat in revista
“Muzica”-Bucuresti, Nr.6/Iunie 1985, p.18-21) - pe care l-am prezentat de asemenea in
conferintele sustinute la “Cursurile Internationale de Muzica Noua” de la Darmstadt-Germania
(1980), precum si la Michigan University-USA (1982) – am aratat ca “doua (sau mai multe)
structuri muzicale aparent disjuncte pot coexista functional, fara a constitui un colaj, daca raspund
conditiei de a avea cel putin un element constitutiv comun. Astfel, intre multimile sonore A, A’ si B,
avand proprietatile: A intersectat cu B = 0, si A intersectat cu A’ = diferit de 0, se poate exprima
relatia de colaj prin A><A’ si cea de anamorfoza prinA<>B.” Ulterior, in studiul “Anamorfozele
Timpului Muzical” (publicat in revista “Muzica”-Bucuresti, Nr.3/1991, p.100-107), precum si in
tratatul
“MUSICA CAELESTIS – Anamorfozele Sacrului in Arta Sunetelor”(Editura
UNMB,2000, ISBN 973-0-02102-3), am dezvoltat cercetarea muzicologica in acest domeniu
aplicat, de altfel, in majoritatea creatiilor mele componistice (de pilda, in opera “Domnisoara
Christina” (1981), conceputa dupa un libret de Mircea ELIADE, in care am extins utilizarea
tehnicii anamorfotice din domeniul sonor in cel multi-media. In prezent, posibilitatile practic
nelimitate ale sistemelor digitale au determinat aparitia unor programe specializate in
anamorfoza muzicala /“music morphing”, precum “Diphone” (promovat la IRCAM-Paris,
www.ircam.fr ), “Cendroid” (creat, in baza programului “SoundHack”, de compozitorii Douglas
I. REPETTO si Larry POLANSKY de la Dartmouth College - Bregman Electronic Music
Studio http://music.dartmouth.edu/~douglas/cendroid.sit.hqx ) si de “PROSONIQ morph VST PC –
Realtime Audio Morphing Plugin” (http://products.soniq.com ), “Voicechanger Software”
(www.voicechanger.biz ) si deja mentionatul “crusherX” (www.crusher-x.de – ce poate fi descarcat
la adresa : www.stelkens.de/bs/download ). Practic, exista doua modalitati de realizare a efectului
“morphing” in arta sunetelor: prin substitutie (sau “replacement morph”, adica prin inlocuirea
treptata a fiecarui sunet din prima imagine cu un sunet din imaginea a doua) si prin interpolare
(sau “interpolation morph”, adica prin compararea/definirea valorilor specifice celor doua
imagini si prin intercalarea unei imagini intermediare, ce este bazata pe elementele comune ale
imaginilor principale). Toate aceste aspecte expuse in Capitolul 5_6 “Morphing” din recentul
tratat Music and Computers – an interactive web-text (2003 – http://eamusic.darmouth.edu/~book/ )
reprezinta de fapt o confirmare – formulata in baza cercetarilor efectuate cu mijloace tehnice de
ultima ora - a teoriei anamorfozei sonore, definite si aplicate intuitiv de mine incepand din anul
1976.
m.) “Sinteza granulara” – “Granular Synthesis” se refera la procedee specifice de generare a
“norilor de sunete” (“sound clouds”), ca elemente de natura stochastica introduse in limbajul
muzical contemporan inca din 1971 de catre marele compozitor grec Iannis XENAKIS (nascut in
Romania si stabilit in Franta). Aceste complexe imagini sonore globale sunt alcatuite din multimi
– sau “regiuni schimbatoare de energie sonora” (“shifting regions of sound energy”) - cuprinzand
mii de sunete (de obicei sinusoidale, ce pot fi insa si “sampled sounds”) extrem de scurte (cu
durate mai mici de 100 de milisecunde), ce isi metamorfozeaza permanent configuratiile de
frecventa si amplitudine – comportandu-se (conform principiilor probabilistice) ca niste picaturi
de ploaie, transformabile (in anumite conditii meteorologice) in fulgi de zapada… La randul lor,
“norii de sunete” (proveniti, de pilda, atat de la un ansamblu cameral, cat si de la un computer)
-
46
se pot intersecta, generand noi fenomene sonore absolut inedite! Cercetarile lui Iannis
XENAKIS au fost dezvoltate si de compozitorul canadian Barry TRUAX, ce a elaborat, in
1986, un sistem in real-time (PODX, realizat la Simon Fraser University). Actualmente sunt
aplicate o serie de programe speciale, precum “Chant” (utilizat, in sistem “Mac”, la
IRCAM-Paris, www.ircam.fr ), “KTGranulator” (www.smartelectronix.com/~koen ) si “crusherX”
(www.crusher-x.de ) – ultimul avand, pe langa functia de “vapor synthesis”, si pe aceea de
“morphing system”.
- Cap. D
MUZICA FRACTALA (ALGORITMICA, GENERATIVA)
Motto:
„Les images algorithmiques conduisent à une nouvelle forme d`art“
(Benoit MANDELBROT – „Les fractales, l´art algorithmique et le test de Turing“, in „La science et
la métamorphose des arts“-Textes réunis par R. Daudel, Paris, PUF, 1994, p.39-52)
- 01.) Definitia Fractalilor: figuri geometrice ce se genereaza prin auto-similaritate (ca forma de
armonie interna) si auto-referentialitate, avand anumite dimensiuni fractionale specifice, numite
si „fractale“ (termenul derivand din limba latina: „fractus“ = participiul trecut al verbului
„frangere“, ce se traduce prin „a frange“).Auto-similaritatea asigura asadar o forma cantitativa
fara a schimba structura arhetipala, ideea generatoare. Fractalii au fost descoperiti in natura si
analizati in doua lucrari de referinta - : „Les objets fractals, forme, hasard et dimension” (1975)
“The fractal geometry of nature” ( 1982) - de catre ilustrul matematician Benoit MANDELBROT
(n.20 Nov. 1924 la Varsovia si stabilit din anul 1958 in U.S.A.; cercetator la IBM‘ s Watson
Research Center si profesor la institutii de invatamant superior de inalt prestigiu, precum Yale
University Harvard University si Einstein College of Medicine; laureat al “Barnard Medal for
Meritorious Service to Science”, “Franklin Medal”, “Alexander von Humboldt Prize”, “Nevada
Medal”, “Steinmetz Medal”). MANDELBROT a definit fractalul drept un obiect ale carui
elemente constitutive reproduc macro-structura in micro-structura (apud “Les inattendus des
fractales”, in “Pour la Science” No 234, Aprilie 1997, p. 10-12).
Astfel, aceste structuri geometrice se pot multiplica - prin dilatare (augmentare) sau prin
reductie (diminuare) - la scari simetrice, in cadrul unui proces recursiv (reiterativ) numit „haos
ordonat“ (intermediar – din perspectiva euclidiana - intre „ordine“ si „haosul total“), ce
genereaza noi forme si suprafete reductibile fenomenologic la structura initiala.
„Teoria Haosului“ (sintetizata in 1961 de meteorologul Edward LORENZ) este de factura
determinista si defineste drept „haotice“ sistemele dinamice non-lineare si aperiodice (cu
perioade infinite), ce sunt foarte sensibile la conditiile initiale. Aceste sisteme implica doua
fenomene (cu configuratii distincte - „neteda“ si, respectiv, „franta“) ale caror interferente
marcheaza o regiune bine definita in spatiul fazelor, numita „Lorenz Attractor“ (sau „Strange
Attractor“), ce are si o dimensiune fractala proprie. In acest domeniu, este extrem de interesant
si experimentul initiat de Prof. Diana S. DABBY (de la Massachusetts Institute of Technology), ce
a aplicat cu ajutorul computerului o serie de coordonate ale “Atractorului Lorentz” la Preludiul
I (in Do Major) din Caietul I al “Clavecinului Bine Temperat” de J.S.BACH, pentru a compune
“Bach to Chaos: Chaotic Variations on a Classical Theme” (“Science News”, 24 Dec.1994).
Mentionez de asemenea faptul ca, in studiul “Anamorfozele Timpului Muzical” (publicat in
revista “Muzica”-Bucuresti, Nr.3/1991, p.100-107), precum si in tratatul “MUSICA CAELESTIS
– Anamorfozele Sacrului in Arta Sunetelor”(Editura UNMB,2000, ISBN 973-0-02102-3), am
analizat o serie de transformari de tip fractal operate in sfera imagisticii muzicale anamorfotice.
De altfel, aplicabilitatea teoriei fractalilor este cu-adevarat universala, existand numeroase
programe specifice in domeniile matematicii, fizicii, biologiei, medicinei, geneticii, chimiei,
psihologiei, sociologiei,
stiintelor strategice, ecologiei, economiei, tehnologiei, educatiei,
lingvisticii, si, nu in ultimul rand, in cel artistic in general si muzical in special (cf.
http://www.calresco.org/applicat.htm ).
Fractalii se „traduc“ matematic prin algoritmi (formule aplicate in informatica, reprezentand
seturi de instructiuni/operatii/comenzi, ce - pornind de la un set de valori din domeniul de
definitie - produc in timp finit un alt set de valori) – expresia „fractalului Mandelbroit“ („The
47
Mandelbrot Set“) fiind ( Z => Z ^ 2 + C ) / sau <z . z + c>, cea a „fractalului Julia“ („The Julia
Set“ – dupa numele matematicianului francez Gaston JULIA) fiind identica, dar procesata
diferit, iar cea a „fractalului Feigenbaum“ fiind reprezentata prin ecuatia: x(n+1) = rx(n) (1 –
x(n) ). Dintre principalele formule proto-fractale, mentionam: multimea lui Cantor, curbele lui
Peano si Hilbert, Curba lui Koch, Triunghiul lui Sierpinski si „Buretele“ lui Menger (apud
„Música Fractal: El Sonido del Caos“ de Juan Antonio Pérez Ortiz, Departamento de Lenguajes
y Sistemas Informáticos, Universidad de Alicante, Mayo 2000, [email protected] )
- 02) Alti algoritmi aplicati in geometria fractala (formule ale Teoriei Haosului):
(apud: - xxx , Winfract (Fractint for Windows) , Copyright (C) 1990-93 The Stone Soup Group;
- Gustavo Diaz Jerez, FractMus, [email protected] , [email protected] , FractMus 2000 Webpage at:
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Haven/4386;
- Arnold Reinders, a Musical Generator 3.0 (Beta 7) Copyright © 1997-2002 Arnold Reinders, Copyright ©
1997-2002 MuSoft Builders , http://www.musoft-builders.com/ . Email: [email protected] ,FAX: +1 510 652 6589,
Kagi,1442-A Walnut Street #392-Q97A,Berkeley, California, 94709-1405,USA.):
barnsleyj1
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = (z-1)*c if real(z) >= 0, else
z(n+1) = (z+1)*modulus(c)/c
Two parameters: real and imaginary parts of c
barnsleyj2
z(0) = pixel;
if real(z(n)) * imag(c) + real(c) * imag(z((n)) >= 0
z(n+1) = (z(n)-1)*c
else
z(n+1) = (z(n)+1)*c
Two parameters: real and imaginary parts of c
barnsleyj3
z(0) = pixel;
if real(z(n) > 0 then z(n+1) = (real(z(n))^2 - imag(z(n))^2 - 1)
+ i * (2*real(z((n)) * imag(z((n))) else
z(n+1) = (real(z(n))^2 - imag(z(n))^2 - 1 + real(c) * real(z(n))
+ i * (2*real(z((n)) * imag(z((n)) + imag(c) * real(z(n))
Two parameters: real and imaginary parts of c.
barnsleym1
z(0) = c = pixel;
if real(z) >= 0 then
z(n+1)
= (z-1)*c
else
z(n+1)
= (z+1)*modulus(c)/c.
Parameters are perturbations of z(0)
barnsleym2
z(0) = c = pixel;
if real(z)*imag(c) + real(c)*imag(z) >= 0
z(n+1)
= (z-1)*c
else
z(n+1)
= (z+1)*c
Parameters are perturbations of z(0)
barnsleym3
z(0) = c = pixel;
if real(z(n) > 0 then z(n+1) = (real(z(n))^2 - imag(z(n))^2 - 1)
+ i * (2*real(z((n)) * imag(z((n))) else
z(n+1) = (real(z(n))^2 - imag(z(n))^2 - 1 + real(c) * real(z(n))
+ i * (2*real(z((n)) * imag(z((n)) + imag(c) * real(z(n))
Parameters are pertubations of z(0)
bifurcation
Pictoral representation of a population growth model.
Let P = new population, p = oldpopulation, r = growth rate
The model is: P = p + r*p*(1-p).
Two parameters: Filter Cycles and Seed Population.
48
bif+sinpi
Bifurcation variation: model is: P = p + r*sin(PI*p).
Two parameters: Filter Cycles and Seed Population.
bif=sinpi
Bifurcation variation: model is: P = r*sin(PI*p).
Two parameters: Filter Cycles and Seed Population.
biflambda
Bifurcation variation: model is: P = r*p*(1-p)P.
Two parameters: Filter Cycles and Seed Population.
bifstewart
Bifurcation variation: model is: P = (r*p*p) - 1.
Two parameters: Filter Cycles and Seed Population.
circle
Circle pattern by John Connett
x + iy = pixel
z = a*(x^2 + y^2)
c = integer part of z
color = c modulo(number of colors)
cmplxmarksjul
A generalization of the marksjulia fractal.
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = (c^exp)*z(n) + c.
Four parameters: real and imaginary parts of c and exp.
cmplxmarksmand
A generalization of the marksmandel fractal.
z(0) = c = pixel;
z(n+1) = (c^exp)*z(n) + c.
Four parameters: real and imaginary parts of
perturbation of z(0) and exp.
complexnewton, complexbasin
Newton fractal types extended to complex degrees. Complexnewton
colors pixels according to the number of iterations required to
escape to a root. Complexbasin colors pixels according to which
root captures the orbit. The equation is based on the newton
formula for solving the equation z^p = r
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = ((p - 1) * z(n)^p + r)/(p * z(n)^(p - 1)).
Four parameters: real & imaginary parts of degree p and root r
diffusion
Diffusion Limited Aggregation. Randomly moving points
accumulate. One parameter: border width (default 10)
fn+fn(pix)
c = z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = fn1(z) + p*fn2(c)
Six parameters: real and imaginary parts of the perturbation
of z(0) and factor p, and the functions fn1, and fn2.
fn(z*z)
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = fn(z(n)*z(n))
One parameter: the function fn.
fn*fn
z(0) = pixel; z(n+1) = fn1(n)*fn2(n)
Two parameters: the functions fn1 and fn2.
fn*z+z
z(0) = pixel; z(n+1) = p1*fn(z(n))*z(n) + p2*z(n)
Six parameters: the real and imaginary components of
p1 and p2, and the functions fn1 and fn2.
49
fn+fn
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = p1*fn1(z(n))+p2*fn2(z(n))
Six parameters: The real and imaginary components of
p1 and p2, and the functions fn1 and fn2.
formula
Formula interpreter - write your own formulas as text files!
gingerbread
Orbit in two dimensions defined by:
x(n+1) = 1 - y(n) + |x(n)|
y(n+1) = x(n)
Two parameters: initial values of x(0) and y(0).
henon
Orbit in two dimensions defined by:
x(n+1) = 1 + y(n) - a*x(n)*x(n)
y(n+1) = b*x(n)
Two parameters: a and b
Hopalong
Hopalong attractor by Barry Martin - orbit in two dimensions.
z(0) = y(0) = 0;
x(n+1) = y(n) - sign(x(n))*sqrt(abs(b*x(n)-c))
y(n+1) = a - x(n)
Parameters are a, b, and c.
IFS
Barnsley IFS fractals.
julfn+exp
A generalized Clifford Pickover fractal.
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = fn(z(n)) + e^z(n) + c.
Three parameters: real & imaginary parts of c, and fn
julfn+zsqrd
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = fn(z(n)) + z(n)^2 + c
Three parameters: real & imaginary parts of c, and fn
julia
Classic Julia set fractal.
z(0) = pixel; z(n+1) = z(n)^2 + c.
Two parameters: real and imaginary parts of c.
julia4
Fourth-power Julia set fractals, a special case
of julzpower kept for speed.
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = z(n)^4 + c.
Two parameters: real and imaginary parts of c.
julibrot
'Julibrot' 4-dimensional fractals.
julzpower
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = z(n)^m + c.
Three parameters: real & imaginary parts of c, exponent m
julzzpwr
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = z(n)^z(n) + z(n)^m + c.
Three parameters: real & imaginary parts of c, exponent m
kamtorus, kamtorus3d
Series of orbits superimposed.
3d version has 'orbit' the z dimension.
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x(0) = y(0) = orbit/3;
x(n+1) = x(n)*cos(a) + (x(n)*x(n)-y(n))*sin(a)
y(n+1) = x(n)*sin(a) - (x(n)*x(n)-y(n))*cos(a)
After each orbit, 'orbit' is incremented by a step size.
Parameters: a, step size, stop value for 'orbit', and
points per orbit.
lambda
Classic Lambda fractal. 'Julia' variant of Mandellambda.
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = lambda*z(n)*(1 - z(n)^2).
Two parameters: real and imaginary parts of lambda.
lambdafn
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = lambda * fn(z(n)).
Three parameters: real, imag portions of lambda, and fn
lorenz, lorenz3d
Lorenz two lobe attractor - orbit in three dimensions.
In 2d the x and y components are projected to form the image.
z(0) = y(0) = z(0) = 1;
x(n+1) = x(n) + (-a*x(n)*dt) + (
a*y(n)*dt)
y(n+1) = y(n) + ( b*x(n)*dt) - (
y(n)*dt) - (z(n)*x(n)*dt)
z(n+1) = z(n) + (-c*z(n)*dt) + (x(n)*y(n)*dt)
Parameters are dt, a, b, and c.
lorenz3d1
Lorenz one lobe attractor - orbit in three dimensions.
The original formulas were developed by Rick Miranda and Emily Stone.
z(0) = y(0) = z(0) = 1; norm = sqrt(x(n)^2 + y(n)^2)
x(n+1) = x(n) + (-a*dt-dt)*x(n) + (a*dt-b*dt)*y(n)
+ (dt-a*dt)*norm + y(n)*dt*z(n)
y(n+1) = y(n) + (b*dt-a*dt)*x(n) - (a*dt+dt)*y(n)
+ (b*dt+a*dt)*norm - x(n)*dt*z(n) - norm*z(n)*dt
z(n+1) = z(n) +(y(n)*dt/2) - c*dt*z(n)
Parameters are dt, a, b, and c.
lorenz3d3
Lorenz three lobe attractor - orbit in three dimensions.
The original formulas were developed by Rick Miranda and Emily Stone.
z(0) = y(0) = z(0) = 1; norm = sqrt(x(n)^2 + y(n)^2)
x(n+1) = x(n) +(-(a*dt+dt)*x(n) + (a*dt-b*dt+z(n)*dt)*y(n))/3
+ ((dt-a*dt)*(x(n)^2-y(n)^2)
+ 2*(b*dt+a*dt-z(n)*dt)*x(n)*y(n))/(3*norm)
y(n+1) = y(n) +((b*dt-a*dt-z(n)*dt)*x(n) - (a*dt+dt)*y(n))/3
+ (2*(a*dt-dt)*x(n)*y(n)
+ (b*dt+a*dt-z(n)*dt)*(x(n)^2-y(n)^2))/(3*norm)
z(n+1) = z(n) +(3*x(n)*dt*x(n)*y(n)-y(n)*dt*y(n)^2)/2 - c*dt*z(n)
Parameters are dt, a, b, and c.
lorenz3d4
Lorenz four lobe attractor - orbit in three dimensions.
The original formulas were developed by Rick Miranda and Emily Stone.
z(0) = y(0) = z(0) = 1;
x(n+1) = x(n) +(-a*dt*x(n)^3
+ (2*a*dt+b*dt-z(n)*dt)*x(n)^2*y(n) + (a*dt-2*dt)*x(n)*y(n)^2
+ (z(n)*dt-b*dt)*y(n)^3) / (2 * (x(n)^2+y(n)^2))
y(n+1) = y(n) +((b*dt-z(n)*dt)*x(n)^3 + (a*dt-2*dt)*x(n)^2*y(n)
+ (-2*a*dt-b*dt+z(n)*dt)*x(n)*y(n)^2
- a*dt*y(n)^3) / (2 * (x(n)^2+y(n)^2))
z(n+1) = z(n) +(2*x(n)*dt*x(n)^2*y(n) - 2*x(n)*dt*y(n)^3 - c*dt*z(n))
Parameters are dt, a, b, and c.
lsystem
Using a turtle-graphics control language and starting with
an initial axiom string, carries out string substitutions the
specified number of times (the order), and plots the resulting.
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lyapunov
Derived from the Bifurcation fractal, the Lyapunov plots the Lyapunov
Exponent for a population model where the Growth parameter varies between
two values in a periodic manner.
magnet1j
z(0) = pixel;
/ z(n)^2 + (c-1) \
z(n+1) = | --------------------- | ^ 2
\ 2*z(n) + (c-2) /
Parameters: the real and imaginary parts of c
magnet1m
z(0) = 0; c = pixel;
/ z(n)^2 + (c-1) \
z(n+1) = | --------------------- | ^ 2
\ 2*z(n) + (c-2) /
Parameters: the real & imaginary parts of perturbation of z(0)
magnet2j
z(0) = pixel;
/ z(n)^3 + 3*(C-1)*z(n) + (C-1)*(C-2)
\
z(n+1) = | ---------------------------------------------------------- | ^ 2
\ 3*(z(n)^2) + 3*(C-2)*z(n) + (C-1)*(C-2) - 1 /
Parameters: the real and imaginary parts of c
magnet2m
z(0) = 0; c = pixel;
/ z(n)^3 + 3*(C-1)*z(n) + (C-1)*(C-2)
\
z(n+1) = | --------------------------------------------------------- | ^ 2
\ 3*(z(n)^2) + 3*(C-2)*z(n) + (C-1)*(C-2) - 1 /
Parameters: the real and imaginary parts of perturbation of z(0)
mandel
Classic Mandelbrot set fractal.
z(0) = c = pixel;
z(n+1) = z(n)^2 + c.
Two parameters: real & imaginary perturbations of z(0)
mandel4
Special case of mandelzpower kept for speed.
z(0) = c = pixel;
z(n+1) = z(n)^4 + c.
Parameters: real & imaginary perturbations of z(0)
mandelfn
z(0) = c = pixel;
z(n+1) = c*fn(z(n)).
Parameters: real & imaginary perturbations of z(0), and fn
Martin
Attractor fractal by Barry Martin - orbit in two dimensions.
z(0) = y(0) = 0;
x(n+1) = y(n) - sin(x(n))
y(n+1) = a - x(n)
Parameter is a (try a value near pi)
mandellambda
z(0) = .5; lambda = pixel;
z(n+1) = lambda*z(n)*(1 - z(n)^2).
Parameters: real & imaginary perturbations of z(0)
manfn+exp
'Mandelbrot-Equivalent' for the julfn+exp fractal.
z(0) = c = pixel;
z(n+1) = fn(z(n)) + e^z(n) + C.
Parameters: real & imaginary perturbations of z(0), and fn
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manfn+zsqrd
'Mandelbrot-Equivalent' for the Julfn+zsqrd fractal.
z(0) = c = pixel;
z(n+1) = fn(z(n)) + z(n)^2 + c.
Parameters: real & imaginary perturbations of z(0), and fn
manowar
c = z1(0) = z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = z(n)^2 + z1(n) + c;
z1(n+1) = z(n);
Parameters: real & imaginary perturbations of z(0)
manowarj
z1(0) = z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = z(n)^2 + z1(n) + c;
z1(n+1) = z(n);
Parameters: real & imaginary perturbations of z(0)
manzpower
'Mandelbrot-Equivalent' for julzpower.
z(0) = c = pixel;
z(n+1) = z(n)^exp + c; try exp = e = 2.71828...
Parameters: real & imaginary perturbations of z(0), real &
imaginary parts of exponent exp.
manzzpwr
'Mandelbrot-Equivalent' for the julzzpwr fractal.
z(0) = c = pixel
z(n+1) = z(n)^z(n) + z(n)^exp + C.
Parameters: real & imaginary perturbations of z(0), and exponent
marksjulia
A variant of the julia-lambda fractal.
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = (c^exp)*z(n) + c.
Parameters: real & imaginary parts of c, and exponent
marksmandel
A variant of the mandel-lambda fractal.
z(0) = c = pixel;
z(n+1) = (c^exp)*z(n) + c.
Parameters: real & imaginary perturbations of z(0), and exponent
marksmandelpwr
The marksmandelpwr formula type generalized (it previously
had fn=sqr hard coded).
z(0) = pixel, c = z(0) ^ (z(0) - 1):
z(n+1) = c * fn(z(n)) + pixel,
Parameters: real and imaginary pertubations of z(0), and fn
newtbasin
Based on the Newton formula for finding the roots of z^p - 1.
Pixels are colored according to which root captures the orbit.
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = ((p-1)*z(n)^p + 1)/(p*z(n)^(p - 1)).
Two parameters: the polynomial degree p, and a flag to turn
on color stripes to show alternate iterations.
newton
Based on the Newton formula for finding the roots of z^p - 1.
Pixels are colored according to the iteration when the orbit
is captured by a root.
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = ((p-1)*z(n)^p + 1)/(p*z(n)^(p - 1)).
One parameter: the polynomial degree p.
pickover
Orbit in three dimensions defined by:
x(n+1) = sin(a*y(n)) - z(n)*cos(b*x(n))
y(n+1) = z(n)*sin(c*x(n)) - cos(d*y(n))
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z(n+1) = sin(x(n))
Parameters: a, b, c, and d.
plasma
Random, cloud-like formations. Requires 4 or more colors.
A recursive algorithm repeatedly subdivides the screen and
colors pixels according to an average of surrounding pixels
and a random color, less random as the grid size decreases.
Three parameters: 'graininess' (.5 to 50, default = 2), old/new
algorithm, seed value used.
popcorn
The orbits in two dimensions defined by:
x(0) = xpixel, y(0) = ypixel;
x(n+1) = x(n) - h*sin(y(n) + tan(3*y(n))
y(n+1) = y(n) - h*sin(x(n) + tan(3*x(n))
are plotted for each screen pixel and superimposed.
One parameter: step size h.
popcornjul
Conventional Julia using the popcorn formula:
x(0) = xpixel, y(0) = ypixel;
x(n+1) = x(n) - h*sin(y(n) + tan(3*y(n))
y(n+1) = y(n) - h*sin(x(n) + tan(3*x(n))
One parameter: step size h.
rossler3D
Orbit in three dimensions defined by:
x(0) = y(0) = z(0) = 1;
x(n+1) = x(n) - y(n)*dt - z(n)*dt
y(n+1) = y(n) + x(n)*dt + a*y(n)*dt
z(n+1) = z(n) + b*dt + x(n)*z(n)*dt - c*z(n)*dt
Parameters are dt, a, b, and c.
sierpinski
Sierpinski gasket - Julia set producing a 'Swiss cheese triangle'
z(n+1) = (2*x,2*y-1) if y > .5;
else (2*x-1,2*y) if x > .5;
else (2*x,2*y)
No parameters.
spider
c(0) = z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = z(n)^2 + c(n);
c(n+1) = c(n)/2 + z(n+1)
Parameters: real & imaginary perturbation of z(0)
sqr(1/fn)
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = (1/fn(z(n))^2
One parameter: the function fn.
sqr(fn)
z(0) = pixel;
z(n+1) = fn(z(n))^2
One parameter: the function fn.
test
'test' point letting us (and you!) easily add fractal types via
the c module testpt.c. Default set up is a mandelbrot fractal.
Four parameters: user hooks (not used by default testpt.c).
tetrate
z(0) = c = pixel;
z(n+1) = c^z(n)
Parameters: real & imaginary perturbation of z(0)
tim's_error
A serendipitous coding error in marksmandelpwr brings to life
an ancient pterodactyl! (Try setting fn to sqr.)
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z(0) = pixel, c = z(0) ^ (z(0) - 1):
tmp = fn(z(n))
real(tmp) = real(tmp) * real(c) - imag(tmp) * imag(c);
imag(tmp) = real(tmp) * imag(c) - imag(tmp) * real(c);
z(n+1) = tmp + pixel;
Parameters: real & imaginary pertubations of z(0) and function fn
unity
z(0) = pixel;
x = real(z(n)), y = imag(z(n))
One = x^2 + y^2;
y = (2 - One) * x;
x = (2 - One) * y;
z(n+1) = x + i*y
No parameters.
(apud Winfract (Fractint for Windows), Copyright (C) 1990-93 The Stone Soup Group)
Morse-Thue Sequence The Morse-Thue sequence comes from number theory and has many interesting mathematical
properties. It can be generated in many ways, one of the simpler ones is starting from 0 and adding its binary
complement, as follows: 01
10 10 01 10 01 01 10 ...
One of the most interesting properties of the sequence is that if you remove every even number, you get back the same
sequence !! This self-similarity gives the sequence fractal properties.How do you make music out of this sequence?.
Very simply.
First you choose a Base in which to count (the original sequence is in base 2). Second, you choose a number by which the
counters will be multiplied (Multiplier).Now, this is what happens: The number shown in the Start Counter is multiplied
by the Multiplier, then the result is converted to the base you have chosen, for example:
base 3 mult 3 (counter 17) = 3*17 = 51 -> 3 = 1220.
The digits of this number are then added:
1+2+2+0 = 5
and made the modulo operation with the number of notes in the scale times the number of octaves . Assuming C major
(7 notes) and 1 octave, this yields:
5%(7*1)
= 5,
which is then is added to the starting note in MIDI values (middle C is No. 60). Since the mapping starts at 0, then the
resulting note is an A above middle C.
Some base-multiplier combinations yield an amazing variety, while others are boringly static. The result depends in the
right combination of base, multiplier and scale.
These are some interesting combinations:
base:
n multiplier: n^p ± 1
base:
nm (n,m integers) multiplier: mn, where both nm and mn are primes.
The best teacher is experimenting, your only limit is your imagination.
Earthworm Sequence "Earthworm" algebra was first discussed by Clifford A. Pickover in his book Computers and the
imagination. While digging up in his garden Clifford accidentally severed an earthworm. It is known that both parts of
a severed earthworm generally continue growing, so Mr. Pickover did not worry to much about the fate of the
earthworm. However, he devised a method of multiply-and-severe which he called "Earthworm algebra". It works as
follows: take any whole number A, a constant multiplier B and a number which will be the maximum number of digits
allowed, C. Next, multiply A and B. Take the result and multiply it again by B. Repeat this process until the number of
digits in the result get past C. Now, severe the result by truncating it to the its rightmost C digits. Multiply again by B
and severe again to C digits, and so forth. It turns out that all earthworms (mathematically speaking) eventually enter a
cycle, an infinite loop of repeating values. A simple example: lets take 2 as our first number, 3 as the multiplier and 2 for
the maximum number of digits. The sequence will go as follows: 6 18 54 62 (severed 162) 86 58 74 22 66 98 94 82 46 38
14 42 26 78 34 2 6 18...This particular combination gives a cycle of 20 different values. Some combinations generate
"worms" that are thousands of values long. Initial value of X, Multiplier and Max. number of digits in the dialog box
must be positive whole numbers greater than 1. Max. number of digits is 10. This simple procedure yields great
complexity. The generated sequences seem to be almost random, but if you listen to them you'll notice hidden patterns.
I believe that aural inspection of these algorithms reveals information that would otherwise go unnoticed.
Wolfram one-dimensional Cellular Automata The mathematician Stephen Wolfram created a one-dimensional variation
of von Neumann's cellular automata which develops on a one-dimensional universe (a line). In this type of CA, each cell
is sorrounded by only two other cells, its two immediate neighbors on either side. Each succeeding generation is
represented by a line underneath the preceding one. A cell in generation 2 determines its state (dead or alive) by looking
at the state of the cell directly above it (that is, in generation 1) and at that cell's two neighbors. There are only eight
possible combinations of the states of those 3 cells, ranging from "AAA" (all alive) to "DDD" (all dead).
Since there are only eight possible states for the ancestors of any given cell, and these states may result in one of two
states for the new cell (dead or alive), there are 256 (2 to the 8th power) possible rulesets for this type of cellular
automata. Wolfram classified all 256 rules in four different "classes":
· Class
I are rules that generate boring configurations, such as all dead or all alive cells.
· Class
II includes "frozen" configurations, where all initial activity eventually settles down to stable structures.
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· Class
III rules generate chaotic configurations, resembling noise patterns.
· Class
IV rules display complex but not random behavior. The output is highly sensitive on initial conditions
(cell configuration).
In the Rules group box you can select which rule you want to use. This can be done either by entering the rule number
directly in the edit box or selecting the state of the cells by clicking on the check boxes. A checked box means the cell will
live if the 3-cell configuration above it (the cell and its two neighbors) is met in the previous generation, an unchecked
box means the cell will die. Initial configuration is a number between 1 and 1410065408, representing the initial state of
cells in generation 1 (encoded as a 32-bit integer). Universe size is the length of the cellular automaton in cells. This
universe is a one-dimensional torus, that is, the last cell connects with the first cell. Allowed values range from 128 to
512. It is remarkable how the aural representation resembles the graphical output of these CA. You can very clearly
hear the differences between all four classes and how they match perfectly with their graphical counterpart.
3n+1 numbers Take any whole number greater than 1. If it is even, divide it by two, if odd, multiply by 3 and add 1;
continue with this process until you reach the number 1. This is the procedure to generate 3n+1 number sequences,
a.k.a. hailstone numbers. Take for example the number 7. It generates the following sequence: 7, 22, 11, 34, 17, 52, 26,
13, 40, 20, 10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 4, 2, 1, 4, 2, 1...It is conjectured that all numbers "fall" to 1 after a finite number of
iterations. Some numbers generate extraordinarily long sequences before falling to 1. 27 is one of the smallest examples.
Very little is known about these simple but mysterious sequences. Although seemingly chaotic, there is an hidden order
in these sequences, and you can easily tell when you listen to the music they generate.
Logistic Map The Logistic Map is one of most studied non-linear equations in chaotic dynamics. It models very well the
behavior of many natural phenomena, such as predator-prey ecosystems, food-population, etc. It is defined as follows:
X(n+1)
= X(n)*µ*(1-X(n)),
where µ is any real value in the interval [0, 4]. The iteration of this formula gives back values between [0, 1]. For µ
values less than 3.5 the iteration quickly stabilizes into one value. But at higher values of µ the solutions bifurcate,
stabilizing in 2 values then 4, 8, 16... until total chaos is reached.
This is call period doubling. Surprisingly, among this sections of total chaos there are others that have a stable number
of values. For a µ value of 4, the behavior is totally unpredictable, random. The logistic map is an example of
deterministic chaos.
How the Logistic Map is transformed into notes is a very simple matter:
The Start Counter is used as an iteration control. The formula will be iterated until the number shown there. The
result (between 0, and 1) is then multiplied by the number of notes in the scale and by the number of octaves . The
result of adding this value to the starting note is the final note that will be played.
Since the sequence of values is deterministic, for a given value of µ you always get the same
sequence of values, thus the same melodies.
1/f noise 1/f noise ("one-over-f-noise", occasionally called "flicker noise" or "pink noise") is a type of noise whose power
spectra P(f) as a function of the frequency f behaves like: P(f) = 1/f^a, where the exponent a is very close to 1 (hence the
name "1/f noise"). 1/f noise appears in nature all over the places, including traffic flow, radioactive decay, chemical
systems, granular flow, ecological systems, human speech...and music!! Extensive spectral analysis of "pleasing" pieces
of music, such as Bach's Brandenburg Concerti, Vivaldi's four seasons, etc, etc, show the same spectrum as the 1/f noise.
The music derived from the 1/f noise is the most pleasing to the human ear: it does not have the unpredictability and
randomness of "white noise" (the power spectrum of the Logistic Map for a µ value of 4) nor the predictability of
"brown noise" (derived from brownian motion).The 1/f noise is simulated with the following non-linear equation (for
more information see Fractals, Chaos, Power Laws ):
X(n+1) = (X(n)*þ)+(sqr(1-þ^2)*r),
where þ is a real number between [0, 1] and r is any random value. The user has to specify only the þ parameter.
Instead of using a truly random value for r, the program uses the Logistic Map algorithm with a µ value of 4, which
generates random but deterministic values. This is necessary so that your melodies are the same for the same set of
parameters, otherwise you would never know what will come next.As with the Logistic Map , the Start Counter is used
as an iteration control.
Try using values of þ that are not to much to the extremes (0 and 1), for the music gets
"brownish". Best values are between .4 and .9.
Henon The Henon attractor is a two-dimensional chaotic map defined by the following equations:
X(n+1)
= 1 + Y(n) - a*X(n)^2
Y(n+1)
= b*X(n)
This attractor is named after its discoverer, Michel Henon, an astronomer at the Nice Observatory in France. Although
it is composed entirely of lines, orbits on this fractal do not flow continuously, but jump from one location to another in
the attractor. This is a chaotic attractor: all seed values that converge do so in different ways. Single points that are
initially separated (even by the most minuscule gap) eventually diverge. The Henon attractor also has an infinite amount
of structure. Successive magnifications prove an ever increasing degree of detail. Any cross-section made through an
arm of the Henon attractor forms a Cantor middle-thirds set.Two parameters: initial values of a and b. Range of both
variables is [1, 2]. Classical attractor parameters are X(0)=1.4, Y(0)=0.3.
Hopalong This two-dimensional chaotic map, proposed by Barry Martin, is defined by the following equations:
X(n+1)
= Y(n) - sign(X(n))*sqrt(|sin(a)*X(n)-cos(a)|)
Y(n+1)
= a - X(n)
One parameter: value of the angle a in radians. Range of a is from -2pi to 2pi.
Martin This two-dimensional chaotic map was proposed by Barry Martin (see also Hopalong). It is defined by the
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following equations:
X(n+1)
= Y(n) - sin(X(n))
Y(n+1)
= a - X(n)
One parameter: value of the angle a in radians. Range of a is from -2pi to 2pi.
Gingerbread man This two-dimensional chaotic map, although very easy to generate, is still very poorly understood. It
was proposed by R. Devaney in 1988. It is defined by the following equations:
X(n+1)
= 1 - Y(n) + |X(n)|
Y(n+1)
= X(n)
Two parameters: initial values of X and Y. Valid range for both variables is [-20, 20].
For more information on this fractal refer to "The Science of Fractal Images" .
Lorenz This algorithm uses a chaotic equation proposed by Lorenz in 1976 as part of his research in climatology. The
equation is defined as follows: X(n+1) = a(3X(n) - 4X(n)^3)
One parameter: value of a. Valid range is [0, 1]. Range with best results is [0.65, 1].
Random This algorithm uses a pseudo-random number generator to produce values between 0 and 1. The music
generated with this algorithm is always unpredictable and does not show any discernible pattern. You can choose the
range of the numbers generated. Minimum and Maximum must be in the range [0, 1]. Minimum must be less than
Maximum.
These algorithms come from number theory, such as the Morse-Thue algorithm, noise simmulation (1/f noise), chaotic
dynamics (Logistic Map), fractals (Henon, etc.) and cellular automata (Wolfram). All algorithms' dialog boxes include a
visualize button which shows a graphical representation of the data. For a more in-depth discussion of these algorithms
refer to any of the great number of books written on the subject.
(apud Gustavo Diaz Jerez, FractMus, [email protected] , [email protected] , FractMus 2000 Webpage at:
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Haven/4386)
Build your own fractals The most exciting thing (in my opinion) is trying to build your own fractals, but you must have
some idea of common mathematics. Fractals are based on self referencing. That means that expressions like:
x = a - sin (y)
y = sin (x) - cos (y)
z=x*y
are quite common. The X before the equals sign denotes the newly to be computed X. Note that in this example the X and
Y after the equals sign refer to the current X and Y values. So in the expression y = sin (x) - cos (y), the current X is used,
even when a new X was computed in the former equation.
A Musical Generator iterates the equations from 1 to N. N is a value you can provide. The iteration value is assigned to
the variable T. So you have four variables: T (the iteration variable) and X, Y, Z: the variables for each dimension. The
equation computed for Z is used for the color, you may omit this equation. An equation for Y must be supplied. If you
omit the equation for X, the value for T will be assumed. That means that if you provide only the equation: y = sin (x), y
will assume the value sin (1), sin (2) .. sin (N).
Apart from the variables you may provide up to five parameters: A .. E. These do not change during the computation of
the formula, you can set these when you edit the formulas.
How to create your own fractal? Select the Dynamic Sytems tab and click the button Your own fractal The user editor
comes up, and you can supply the formulas, starting values of the fractal and the values for the parameters.
(apud Arnold Reinders, a Musical Generator 3.0 (Beta 7) Copyright © 1997-2002 Arnold Reinders, Copyright ©
1997-2002 MuSoft Builders , http://www.musoft-builders.com/ . Email: [email protected] ,FAX: +1 510 652 6589,
Kagi,1442-A Walnut Street #392-Q97A,Berkeley, California, 94709-1405,USA)
- 03.) Generarea fractalilor prin L-Systems:
(apud Jason Stredwick, MSU 2004 - L-Systems, Lindenmayer Systems, algorithmicbotany.org)
L-System Overview
Goals (Plant modeling)
Structural
Developmental
Chemical
Parallel replacement grammar
Representative of multicellular growth
Other types of parallel replacement systems
Open polygon by Koch
Cellular automata by Wolfram
Game of Life by Conway
L-System grammar interpretations
LOGO (graphical modeling of plants)
Pure math
Jordan Pollack’s Golem project
D0L-System Notation
57
0 stands for context free
D stands for deterministic
V is the alphabet
V* is the set of all words over V
V+ is V* excluding the empty word
is the word in V+ that is the seed of the system, called the axiom
P is the set of production rules, explained later
0L-System is defined as G=<V, ,P>
D0L-System Product Rules
Production rule is defined as P V x V*
Alternate notation ( , ) or
is called the predecessor
is called the successor
can only be a single character
can be any word, which includes letters
If no production rule is given for a predecessor, it is assumed to be
Determinism
A system is considered deterministic if and only if for each predecessor, , there exists exactly one production rule, or
more simply each letter in the alphabet can map to exactly one word in V*.
Example: D0L-System
Alphabet: {a,b}
Words: {a,b,ab}
Production Rules:
a ab
ba
(seed): b
Recursion Depth 5
String Depth
b0
a1
ab 2
aba 3
abaab 4
abaababa 5
LOGO Language
Used to graphically model plants
F move forward while drawing a line
f move forward without drawing a line
+ rotate left
- rotate right
3-D instructions are also available, using Euler rotations
n=4
= 90
= -F
P: F F+F-F-F+F
n=2
= 90
= F-F-F-F
P: F F+FF-FF-F-F+F+F
n=2
= 90
= F+F+F+F
P: F F+f-FF+F+FF+Ff+FF-f+FF-F-FF-Ff-FFF
f ffffff
Context Sensitive L-System
Non-deterministic
Types: 1, 2, and I, written 2L-System
Uses neighbor information as a condition to use a production rule
> Right of predecessor
< Left of predecessor
Example:
1. > F Type 1
2. + < > F Type 2
++F < > F+F Type I
Context
Sensitive
Example
Signal Propagation
: baaaaa
p1: b < a b
p2: b a
baaaaa
abaaaa
aabaaa
58
aaabaa
aaaaba
aaaaab
aaaaaa
Non-deterministic
Each predecessor,
Multiple production rules
Each rule has a probability of use
Probabilities must sum to one
Example:
F
FF
FFF
Stochastic L-System
0.1
0.2
0.7
Bracketed L-System
[ push current state onto a stack
] pop current state onto a stack
Used to create tree like structures
n=5
= 25.7
=F
P: F F[+F]F
[-F]F
n=5
= 20
=F
P: F F[+F]F
[-F][F]
n=4
= 22.5
=F
P: F FF-[-F+F+F]+
[+F-F-F]
n=7
= 20
=X
P: F FF
X F[+X]F[-X]+X
n=7
= 25.7
=X
P: F FF
X F[+X][-X]FX
n=5
= 22.5
=X
P: F FF
X F-[[X]+X]+F
[+FX]-X
Parameterized L-System
V is the alphabet
is the set of formal parameters, , real numbers
is the axiom, seed, (V x *)+
E( ) represent math operations
C( ) represent logic operations, conditional
is the predecessor, (V x *)
is the successor, (V x E( ))*
P x C( ) x
G = <V, , , P> defines a parametric 0L-System
Parameterized 0L-System Example
: B(2)A(4,4)
p1: A(x,y) : y<=3 A(x*2, x+y)
p2: A(x,y) : y>3 B(x)A(x/y, 0)
p3: B(x) : x<1 C
p4: B(x) : x>=1 B(x-1)
B(2)A(4,4)
B(1)B(4)A(1,0)
B(0)B(3)A(2,1)
59
CB(2)A(4,3)
CB(1)A(8,7)
CB(0)B(8)A(1,0)
Hornby/Pollack
Multiple applications
Considers there system generic by simply replacing the alphabet.
Uses Parameterized Bracketed D0L-System
Constrain conditions to compare with a constant
Additional feature: {…}(n) block repeat
Table Language
Forward(n)
Backward(n)
Up(n)
Down(n)
Left(n)
Right(n)
Clockwise(n)
Counter-clockwise(n)
[]
{ block }(n)
[{[forward(6)]left(1)}(4)]
up(1)forward(3)down(1)
[{[forward(4.5)]left(1)}(4)]
Neural Network Language
decrease-weight(n)
duplicate(n)
increase-weight(n)
loop(n)
merge(n)
next(n)
output(n)
parent(n)
reverse(n)
set-function(n)
Mutation
Original:
P0(n0, n1) : n0 > 5.0 { a(1.0)b(2.0) }(n1)
n0 > 2.0 [ P1(n1 - 1.0, n0 / 2.0) ]
Mutate condition:
P0(n0, n1) : n0 > 7.0 { a(1.0)b(2.0) }(n1)
n0 > 2.0 [ P1(n1 - 1.0, n0 / 2.0) ]
Mutate arguement:
P0(n0, n1) : n0 > 5.0 { a(1.0)b(2.0) }(n1)
n0 > 2.0 [ P1(n1 - 2.0, n0/2.0) ]
Mutation
Original:
P0(n0, n1) : n0 > 5.0 { a(1.0)b(2.0) }(n1)
n0 > 2.0 [ P1(n1 - 1.0, n0 / 2.0) ]
Mutate symbol:
P0(n0, n1) : n0 > 7.0 { c(1.0)b(2.0) }(n1)
n0 > 2.0 [ P1(n1 - 1.0, n0 / 2.0) ]
Mutate random symbol (removed b(2.0)):
P0(n0, n1) : n0 > 5.0 { a(1.0) }(n1)
n0 > 2.0 [ P1(n1 - 2.0, n0/2.0) ]
Mutation
Original:
P0(n0, n1) : n0 > 5.0 { a(1.0)b(2.0) }(n1)
n0 > 2.0 [ P1(n1 - 1.0, n0 / 2.0) ]
Insert random symbol:
P0(n0, n1) : n0 > 7.0 { a(1.0)b(2.0) }(n1)c(3.0)
n0 > 2.0 [ P1(n1 - 1.0, n0 / 2.0) ]
Encapsulate a block of characters:
P0(n0, n1) : n0 > 5.0 { P2(n0, n1) }(n1)
n0 > 2.0 [ P1(n1 - 2.0, n0/2.0) ]
P2(n0, n1) : n0 > 5.0 a(1.0)b(2.0)
n0 > 2.0 a(1.0)b(2.0)
Recombination
Original:
P3(n0, n1) : n0 > 5.0 { a(1.0)b(2.0) }(n1)
n0 > 2.0 [ P1(n1 - 1.0, n0 / 2.0) ]
P3(n0, n1) : n0 > 3.0 b(3.0)a(2.0)
n0 > 1.0 P1(n1 - 1.0, n0 - 2.0)
60
Replace condition-successor pair
P3(n0, n1) : n1 > 3.0 b(3.0)a(2.0)
n0 > 2.0 [ P1(n1 - 1.0, n0 / 2.0) ]
Original:
P3(n0, n1) : n0 > 5.0 { a(1.0)b(2.0) }(n1)
n0 > 2.0 [ P1(n1 - 1.0, n0 / 2.0) ]
P3(n0, n1) : n0 > 3.0 b(3.0)a(2.0)
n0 > 1.0 P1(n1 - 1.0, n0 - 2.0)
Replace successor
P3(n0, n1) : n1 > 3.0 b(3.0)a(2.0)
n0 > 2.0 P1(n1 - 1.0, n1 - 2.0)
Original:
P3(n0, n1) : n0 > 5.0 { a(1.0)b(2.0) }(n1)
n0 > 2.0 [ P1(n1 - 1.0, n0 / 2.0) ]
P3(n0, n1) : n0 > 3.0 b(3.0)a(2.0)
n0 > 1.0 P1(n1 - 1.0, n0 - 2.0)
Replace one block with another
P3(n0, n1) : n1 > 3.0 b(3.0)a(2.0)
n0 > 2.0 [ b(3.0)a(2.0) ]
References
Algorithmicbotany.com
Prusinkiewicz, P and Lindenmayer, A. The Algorithm Beauty of
Plants, 1996
Hornby, Gregory S. and Pollack, Jordan B. (2001). The advantages
of Generative Grammatical Encodings for Physical Design
Hornby, Gregory S. and Pollack, Jordan B. (2001). Body-Brain
Co-evolution Using L-systems as a Generative Encoding
Hornby, Gregory S., Lipson, Hod, and Pollack, Jordan B. (2001).
Evolution of Generative Design Systems for Modular Physical
Robots
Hornby, Gregory S. and Pollack, Jordan B. (2001). Evolving L-Systems to Generate Virtual Creatures
-
04) - PRINCIPALELE PROGRAME MUZICALE FRACTALE (ALGORITMICE,
GENERATIVE)
Universal Music Machine (UMM) v.0.5.7 , Free compositional software tool developed by
Steve Ricks and Morgan Quigley http://www.universalmusicmachine.com/ , [email protected]
, [email protected] , [email protected] . Acest important program algoritmic este
extrem de util in asistarea procesului componistic – de pilda in sintetizarea diferitelor tipuri de
texturi in zona sonoritatilor globale. Utilizarea programului implica trei etape: 1.) se stabilesc
pentru fiecare pista (“track”) setarile, adica coordonatele de baza (“Pitch”, “Rhythm”,
“Dynamics”), tipul de algoritm (“Random”, “Sequential”, “Bottle” sau “Persistent Sequence”),
“Track Size”, “Beat Offset”, “MIDI Patch”, “Tempo”; 2.) se actioneaza comanda “Generate
Sequence”; 3.) produsul sonor – ce poate fi salvat atat in formatul MIDI (“Export MIDI file”),
cat si in formatul specific programului (“ssn”/ “Session File”) prin succesiunea de comenzi
“File-Save” - poate forma si un “Sample” utilizabil in viitoare aplicatii. Prin suprapunerea mai
multor piste (“tracks”) se pot obtine texturi sonore deosebit de complexe, ce pot fi integrate in
partituri, prin convertirea formatului MIDI in formatul programului utilizat pentru elaborarea
partiturii (de pilda prin comanda “Import MIDI” in programule “Mozart”, “Finale” sau
“Sibelius”). UMM poate rula atat in sistemul de operare Windows (XP/2000/Me/98), cat si in
Mac OS X v10.2 "Jaguar" si v10.3 “Panther.
-
-
a Musical Generator 3.0 (Beta 7) Copyright © 1997-2002 Arnold Reinders Copyright © 1997-2002 MuSoft
Builders http://www.musoft-builders.com/ Email: [email protected] ,FAX: +1 510 652 6589 Kagi,1442-A Walnut
Street #392-Q97A,Berkeley, California, 94709-1405,USA
-
Abominaclavia si Abhorreghasty ,
http://www.wizardmaster.com/bludgeonsoft/abominaclavia/ ,
[email protected]
-
AL and ERWIN , AL ... gorithmic Compositional Environment by Rajmil Fischman ,
[email protected] , http://www.keele.ac.uk/depts/mu/staff/rajmil.htm
-
Algorithmic Composer Software, Copyright © by Angelo Fraietta [email protected]
http://www.users.bigpond.com/angelo_f/AlgorithmicComposer/download.html
61
-
ArborRhythms Music Processor version 3.1 Beta (c.1995,98,TM) Copyright Alec M. Rogers,
3945 SE Cora Street, Portland, OR, 97202, USA,
http://www.teleport.com/~mantr. Email: [email protected]
-
ArtSong , Copyright © 1993-1997 by Paul A. Messick, [email protected] , http://www.artsong.org
Digital Expressions W6400 Firelane 8 Menasha, WI 54952 USA
-
AudioMulch ©1997-2005 Ross Bencina, 9 Wonga
http://www.audiomulch.com/ [email protected]
-
AutoGam ,Thierry Bachmann [email protected] http:\\autogam.free.fr
-
Automated Composing System by Tetsuji Katsuda, http://www.fin.ne.jp/~yokubota/index.shtml
-
Bio2Midi I is copyright © 1998-2004 John Dunn & Alogrithmic Arts. All Rights Reserved. Algorithmic Arts web
site: http://algoart.com
-
CAMUS Cellular Automata MUSic generator , By Eduardo Reck Miranda, http://website.lineone.net/
-
Chaos von Eschenbach , Written
http://www.cisnet.or.jp/home/magari/
-
CyberMozart , For Macintosh Computers, http://www.xs4all.nl/~yavelow/CyberMoz.html
-
DiceGame
-
Expression Tone Generator , www.voicesync.org
-
Fractal Music Generator FMusic Copyright 1997 - 2000 David H.Singer Wesite Design Copyright 1999 - 2000
Phil Jackson Page Created July 9, 2000 -- Last Updated July 9, 2000 http://www.fractal-vibes.com/fm/
-
Fractal Tune Smithy 2.21 Copyright © Robert Walker 2000 [email protected]
-
FractMus
[email protected]
[email protected]
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Haven/4386
-
Gingerbread v2.0 Copyright © 1998, 1999 Cenobyte Software Design Ltd. Designed by written by Phil
Thompson http://fractalmusician.com
-
Gingerbread v3.0 (The Return) Copyright © 1998, 1999 Cenobyte Software Design Ltd. Designed by written by
Phil Thompson http://fractalmusician.com
-
KeyKit version 7.3d Copyright 1996 by Tim Thompson,
[email protected] http://nosuch.com/keykit/
-
Koan Pro Version 2.70.2 , Copyright © 1991-2001 by SSEYO Ltd. http://www.sseyo.com/
-
LMUSe v0.7b 12/24/98 (DOS version) Copyright by David Sharp [email protected]
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/8764/lmuse/lmusej.html
-
Make-Prime-Music 98 version 1.1.3.2b Armand Turpel: [email protected] 1998 copyrights Armand
Turpel [email protected]
or [email protected] Download the latest release at:
http://members.tripod.de/Latrodectus98/index.html
http://www2.vo.lu/homepages/armand/index.html
http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hangar/7291/
-
,
by
Rd,
Ringwood,
3134,
Mag.(mailto:[email protected]),
Victoria,
Copyright
http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~HB9T-KTD/music/mus1te.html
,
FractMus
Australia
Mag.
Katsuda,
2000
Webpage
1999,
Tetsuji
at:
AT&T Corp., San Jose, California, USA ,
[email protected]
Mandelbrot Composer , http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~HB9T-KTD/music/mus1te.html
-
MusiNum
–
The
Music
in
the
Numbers
http://reglos.de/musinum/1o.midhttp://reglos.de/musinum/1o.mid
-
Oblivion - Chaotic Music Generator [email protected]
by
, Katsuda, Tetsuji
Lars
Kindermann
62
-
poodles & flan
E-Mail & Web Site Paul Whalley (the author) can be contacted by e-mail at:
[email protected] You can also visit the poodles & flan web site at: poodlesandflan.com
-
QuasiFractal Composer Version 2.0 Copyright 1999, Paul Whalley. All rights reserved. e-mail:
[email protected] URL: http://members.tripod.com/~paulwhalley
-
Saccara – SA 01 – Ambience Synthesizer, Version 07.02.MFC, Copyright © 1999-2001
Visiomedia Software Corporation, http://www.visiomedia.com
-
Symbolic Composer 5.0 Modular , www.symboliccomposer.com
-
Tangent 1.0 Copyright 1999, Paul Whalley. All rights reserved. e-mail: [email protected]
-
Venharis - An Adventure in Sound Copyright © 1998, 1999 Cenobyte Software Design Ltd. Designed by written
by Phil Thompson http://fractalmusician.com
-
The Well Tempered Fractal v. 2.0 Copyright 1993 By Robert Greenhouse, 3401 Hillview Ave, Palo Alto, CA,
94304, USA, [email protected]
Ultra Fractal v.3.05 , program de sinteza a imaginilor fractale statice (a fotogramelor algoritmice),
www.ultrafractal.com , [email protected]
Fractal eXtreme v.1.902 , program de sinteza a imaginilor fractale dinamice (filmice)
Copyright ©1997-2003 by Cygnus Software http://www.cygnus-software.com
Bibliografie Specifica Domeniului:
Barnsley, M., Fractals Everywhere, 2. a edici on, Academic Press, 1993.
Calonge, J. Barrallo, Geometrica fractal: algoritmica y representacion, Anaya Multimedia, 1993.
Bennett,
Gerald,
Chaos,
sel-similarity,
musical
phrase
and
form,
http://www.computermusic.ch/files/articles/Chaos,Self-Similarity/Chaos.html.
Blanc Talon, J., Inference of grammars from fractal sets: the inner structure, en Grammatical Inference , L. Erlbaum
Assoc.Publisher, 1994, Simon Lucas Ed.
Briggs, J. and F. D. Peat (1989). Turbulent Mirror.New York. Harper & Row.
Casti, J. L. (1994). Complexification. New York. Harper Collins.
Degazio, Bruno, Nikola Tesla and Joseph Schillinger: the music of NT, the man who invented the twentieth century,
http://www-ks.rus.uni-stuttgart.de/people/schulz/fmusic/tesla.html.
Bulen, Shawn, Self-similarity: theories, musings and observations, http://ourworld.cs.com/shawnbulen/SelfSimi.htm.
Elert, Glenn, The chaos hypertext book, http://hypertextbook.com/chaos.
Glass, L. and D. Kaplan (1995). Understanding non linear dynamics.New York. Springer.
Gleick, James, (1987). Chaos. New York. Penguin Books.
Greenhouse,
Robert,
manualul
programului,
1995,
The
Well-Tempered
Fractal
3.0,
http://www-ks.rus.uni-stuttgart.de/people/schulz/fmusic/wtf.
de Guzman, Miguel, Martin, Miguel Angel, Moran, Manuel , Reyes, Miguel, Estructuras fractales y sus aplicaciones,
Labor, Barcelona, 1993.
Kindermann, Lars, MusiNum 2.08: the music in the numbers, documentatia programului, 2000,
http://www.forwiss.uni-erlangen.de/~kinderma/musinum/musinum.html.
Leung, Tac, The music makers,
http://www.discovery.com/stories/technology/fractals/musicmakers.html .
Lorenz, E. N. (1963). Nondeterministic Theories of Climatic Change. Quaternary Research 6.
Mandelbrot, Benoit, Los objectos fractales: forma, azar y dimension, 2. a edici_ on, Tusquets, 1988.
Martin, Miguel Angel, Moran, Manuel , Reyes, Miguel, Iniciacion al caos: sistemas dinamicos, Sintesis, Madrid, 1995.
McCauley, J. L. (1993). Chaos, Dynamics and Fractals New
York. Cambridge University Press.
Mucherino,
Nicholas,
Recursion:
a
paradigm
for
future
music?,
http://www-ks.rus.uni-stuttgart.de/people/schulz/fmusic/recursion.html.
Nelson, Gary Lee, Wind, sand and sea voyages: an application of granular synthesis and chaos to musical composition,
http://www.timara.oberlin.edu/people/~gnelson/papers/Gola/gola.htm.
Nelson,
Gary
Lee,
Real
time
transformation
of
musical
material
with
fractal
algorithms,
http://www.timara.oberlin.edu/people/~gnelson/papers/fractal/GNfract.htm.
Peak, D. (1994). Chaos Under Control. New York. Freeman & Co.
Peitgen, H-O. and D. Saupe (eds). (1988). The Science of Fractal Images.Berlin. Springer.
Ranada, Antonio, Dinamica clasica, Alianza Editorial, 1990.
Perez Ortiz, Juan Antonio, Musica Fractal: El Sonido Del Caos, Departamento de Languajes y Sistemas Informaticos,
Universidad de Alicante, Mai 2000, Email: [email protected]
63
Salomon, Larry, The fractal nature of music, http://community.cc.pima.edu/users/larry/fracmus.htm.
Schillinger, Joseph, The Schillinger system of musical composition, Da Capo, Nueva York, 1978.
Schroeder, M. (1991). Fractals, Chaos, Power Laws. New York. Freeman & Co.
Sharp,
David,
manualul
LMuse
0.7
documentation,
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/8764/lmuse/lmuse.html.
Stewart, Ian, Does God Play Dice?
Thompson,
Phil,
Gingerbread:
the
Mandelbrot
music
generator,
documentatia
http://www.organised-chaos.com/oc/ginger/ginger.html.
Williams, P. G. (1997). Chaos Theory Tamed. Washington DC. Joseph Henry Press.
***, Hearing the Mandelbrot set, http://members.aol.com/dshp3/mandelmaps.html.
***, How to compose Mandelbrot music, http://www.fin.ne.jp/~yokubota/composee.shtml.
programului,
programului,
- Cap. E
LIVE COMPUTER MUSIC – O NOUA IPOSTAZA A ARTEI INTERACTIVE
Interactivitatea ilustreaza relatia individului cu mediul ambiant. Acest fenomen este
cuantificabil, avand o configuratie spectrala (ce variaza de la pasiv la interactiv). El reprezinta
totodata si o coordonata esentiala a artei sunetelor in general si a muzicii de camera in special. In
acest context, domeniul « computer music » include si genul « live computer music » (cel mai
simplu exemplu fiind ilustrat prin tehnica « karaoke »). « Live electronic music » s-a dezvoltat in
a doua jumatate a secolului XX in zona avangardei americane, urmand directia cercetarii
fascinantelor relatii interactive stabilite in timp real intre om (performer) si masina (ordinator)
prin intermediul unei interfete speciale, conform schemei : performer(s) – controllers (sensors) –
computer (cu programe specifice, precum « MidiLive », « pCM », « Kyma », « Max », « Sonar
3 », etc.) – generator/sintetizator (analog sau digital) – amplificator – difuzoare.
In aceasta ordine de idei, celebrul compozitor Rodney OAKES, ce este si un important pionier
al genului , imi marturisea urmatoarele : « utilizez curent MX4, un program-sintetizor produs de
MOTU, ce ruleaza in combinatie cu Digital Performer; eu comand computerul cu trombonul,
prin intermediul unui Yamaha G50 pitch to MIDI controller si al unei pedale Yamaha MFC10 .
Partea electro-acustica complementara este inregistrata pe CD. In ultimii doi ani am folosit
programele MetaSynth , Digital Performer si, ocazional, Reason . MetaSynth mi-a oferit
posibilitatea de a sintetiza imagini sonore din fotografii digitale, astfel incat in acesti ani am
compus trei DVD-uri : Homage to Chopin, Matise si The Blue Bridge . Toate aceste lucrari au
fost create prin transformarea unor fotografii realizate de mine. »
Mentionam de asemenea si experimentele initiate la Illinois University in perioada 1972-1975
de catre compozitorul Joseph PINZARRONE, ce a imaginat – impreuna cu inginerul Thomas
NOGGLE si cu coregrafa Debra LOEWEN – un interesant sistem de transformare a miscarii in
sunet (« Interactive Woman-Machine Improvisations ») bazat pe un proces de tip bio-feedback
implicand conectarea a 64 de senzori instalati pe corpul dansatoarei la un sintetizor analog, prin
intermediul
unui
program
special
instalat
pe
computer.
(http://www.atariarchives.org/bcc3/showpage.php?page=81 )
Tot in aceasta perspectiva reliefam si recentul « computerART project » - coordonat de
compozitorul
Leonello TARABELLA in cadrul
« Computer Music Laboratory of
CNUCE-CNR”din Pisa, Italia – ce consta in transformari ale miscarii mainilor in structuri
sonore, prin intermediul unor senzori cu raze IR (“TwinTowers” si “PalmDriver”) ale caror
semnale sunt transformate de computer (in baza programului “pureC MUSIC LANGUAGE”) in
coduri acustice preluate in final de lantul
“generator-amplificator-difuzor”. (
http://tarabella.isti.cnr.it )
Un reprezentant de frunte al genului “live computer music” este si compozitorul american
Carl STONE, ce foloseste curent tehnica “sampling” (ce consta in combinarea libera a unor mici
fragmente sonore preinregistrate) in conjuctie cu imagini sonore sintetizate live.
(http://redcat.org )
In acelasi spirit, compozitoarea si violoncelista Joan JEANRENAUD – autoare si a
interesantului studiu “Reinventing Chamber Music” (publicat in « NewMusicBox »
lasso.euge.net/ar.nmbx) - isi propune ca, prin intermediul acestui nou gen cultivat in lucrari
64
precum Metamorphosis pentru violoncel si computer, sa realizeze inedite structuri sincretice
compuse “in real time” din variate elemente de factura audio-vizuala. (http://www.jjcello.org )
O coordonata esentiala in anumite circumstante este ilustrata prin capacitatea improvizatorica a
interpretului – aceasta calitate fiind determinata de o serie de factori strict individualizati
(cunostintele muzicale, creativitatea, stilul personal, comunicativitatea, posibilitatile tehnice
instrumentale, conexiunea cu ceilalti interpreti – ca element definitoriu al performantei
camerale), in conjunctie cu feed-back-ul acustic (incluzand caracteristicile mediului ambiant) si
cu modul de reactie a publicului. In acest context, o situatie des intalnita in muzica
contemporana este reprezentata prin asa-numita “improvizatie controlata” (aspect analizat si la
IRCAM - Paris – http://smc04.ircam.fr/ProgWorkshop.html ) , ce implica un amplu proces
analitic/generativ desfasurat in mai multe faze: “ascultarea” fondului sonor, segmentarea,
extragerea “pattern”-urilor, automatizarea compozitiei modulare, adaptarea la conditiile
specifice ale elementului “interfata” si ale programelor audi/midi rulate pe computer (conform
studiului “Composing & Performing Interactive Music” de Bruce PENNYCOOK, DMA, Dept.
of Composition – School of Music, Dept. of Radio Television Film – College of Communication –
University
of
Texas
at
Austin,
McGill
University
at
Montreal
http://www.music.mcgill.ca/~ko/610/BPSeminarSlides/sld001.htm ).
Gratie programelor de analiza si sinteza digitala - ce pot reduce fenomenologic orice domeniu
la ordinea arhetipala a numerelor in sistem binar, recompunandu-l apoi algoritmic, intr-o noua
perspectiva holistica -, in lumea virtuala a computerului nici o transformare nu este imposibila,
nici o asociere nu este irealizabila ! De aceea, proiectarea lumii reale in “oglinda anamorfotica” a
lumii virtuale create de computer poate oferi imagini tulburatoare, cu profunde si inedite valente
artistice.
In fond, acesta este si sensul artei interactive, asa cum s-a demonstrat recent si cu prilejul
festivalului
“New
Sound,
New
York”
(30
Martie
–
16
Mai
2004
http://www.timeoutny.com/nsny/), ce a fost dedicat exclusiv relatiilor interactive dintre muzica,
arhitectura si artele vizuale – impresionanta manifestare incluzand concerte experimentale in aer
liber si instalatii multi-media subsumate urmatoarelor teme (NB – cu scurte prezentari
originale): „the interactive project - activated environments and hybrid instruments” (presentations
about responsive environments and new technologies), “resonating frequencies - dialogues on
architecture & music” (prominent architects and composers are paired to reflect on architecture
and music),„architects design music” (Michael J.Schumacher´s computer-based matrix)“,
„feedback” (sound innovators explore the use of feedback to create sonic environments),
“anyware” (a real-time concert in "networked" collaboration with colleagues worldwide:
Ljubjana, Berlin, Munich, Barcelona, Montreal, London, Canary Islands, Vienna, Amsterdam,
Prague), “tune(in))) the kitchen” (this sound installation/event is designed for a virtually silent
environment in which listeners hear live performances through individual radio headsets),
“amnon wolman & carl stone” (a sound installation by Israeli composer Amnon Wolman and a
new, erythroblastic remix of the Tokyo urban soundscape by pioneer of live computer music Carl
Stone), “The Morrow Sound CubeTM “ (a multi-channel, playback environment providing an
immersive, 3D audio experience), “christopher janney: sonic forest '04” (a free-standing,
interactive sound/light installation composed of sixteen 4-foot aluminum "electronic trees," each
set with audio speakers, lights and photo-electric sensors. As passersby walk between columns,
the sensors are triggered to produce an ever-changing "score" of melodic tones, environmental
sounds and spoken text, accompanied by varying light effects. If participants solve the "riddle,"
they may also activate pre-programmed patterns from a flock of birds to a swarm of fireflies at
night), “listening room” (two compilation CD´s featuring highlights from the 1979 “New Music,
New York” concerts – Philip Glass, Steve Reich, Meredith Monk, Pauline Oliveros, Tony Conrad
-"One of the most important records ever of the history of minimal music."/Tom Johnson, The
Village Voice ), “rock's role (after ryoanji)” (sound works by artists responding to John Cage's
musical transliterations of the famed Japanese Zen rock garden, Ryoanji; the works are
arranged spatially and temporally so that they can be heard both in isolation and
simultaneously), “o+a (bruce odland and sam auinger): blue moon” (an installation that
transforms the ambient soundscape of the Hudson River waterfront at the World Financial
Center into a resonant environment; tuning tubes wired with microphones and suspended over
the harbor harmonize the local acoustic happenstance, from waves to helicopters overhead; five
cube loudspeakers play back this real-time data and serve as street furniture on which listeners
can experience Blue Moon 's shifting sonic bricolage), “shirazeh houshiary: breath (2004)” (this
65
twenty-foot tall enameled brick tower emits a low sequence of vocal tracks from Buddhist,
Christian, Jewish, and Islamic traditions. Breath is the fourth installment in “Art on the Plaza”),
“treble” (exploring the practices that fall between "sound art" and "visual art," this group
exhibition seeks to locate moments when sound inhabits and informs drawing, sculpture, and
architecture).
Pe plan european, remarcam pretioasa contributie adusa de “Ars Electronica Center” din
Linz/Austria (www.aec.at , [email protected] ) in promovarea consecventa a artei interactive, in
multiplele ei forme de manifestare.
Alte links-uri:
Interactiv Art
www.teatron.org/forum/post.php?action=reply& fid=10&tid=202&repquote=3423
www.italiq-expos.com/actualites,95.html
lists.indymedia.org/pipermail/ imc-cleveland/2004-January/002348.html
netzspannung.org/.../archiventry.xsp?tab=personen& name=netzkollektor-42204&letter=t&lang=en
netzspannung.org/version1/cast01/classic/index9.html Ein Alter Freund mit neuem Gameplay
www.domfree.de/ziba/features.htm
www2.arnes.si/~uljff4/reprezentacija.htm
www2.arnes.si/~uljff4/septemal/gledanjeupodabljanje.htm
www.kulturkontakt.or.at/ KulturKontakt.aspx?target=119110
www.minotaurusverlag.de/deu/autoren/aut_nicolai.htm
www.big.or.jp/~dj-roshi/garage/link.cgi
www.big.or.jp/~dj-roshi/garage/link.cgi?task=num
www.kulturrad.no/.../$FILE/ Evaluering%20av%20nettverk%20for%20elektronisk%20kunst.pdf
www.glu-sg.si/saso/skatle.htm
archives.lists.indymedia.org/ imc-cincinnati/2004-January/000008.html
www.anoca.org/http/org/interactive_art.html
Interactiv Music
www.interactive-music.be
www.noodleheaven.net
www.arobance.com/dimc.html
www.arobance.com/atelier.html
www.kisinis.ch/arobance/edito.html
rd.grame.fr/~carat/inclassables.html
www.kyushu-id.ac.jp/~snlab/j/DVD-collection.shtml
www1.keyboards.de/magazine/gv1998.htm
www.diskob.com/etc/events/sarajevo/sarajevo.html
www.design.kyushu-u.ac.jp/~snlab/j/DVD-collection.shtml
www.comasweden.se/konserter/kons_info_ e.asp?linkID=3&linksubID=1&page=sasong&id=96
www.fitnessmusic.pl/modules. php?name=News&file=print&sid=4
hsfkf.ld.infoseek.co.jp/soft.htm
bodylife.com.pl/index.php?id=139
members.chello.at/edgar.renate.peer/ attenzione/attenzione.html
www.underground.pcdome.hu/magazin.php?pos=32
www.kapaza.be/results/userid/27KZF4RBA6/
www.kapaza.be/subcat/index.cfm?id=584&
www.all-forums.co.uk/forum/showthread.php?t=192787
www.mixradio.ro/index.php?oldal=15&vsz=17
www.element-music.com/fr/sister.php
www.interactive-music.no/omoss.htm
thehacker.free.fr/afp/index. php3?m=independants&start=300&t=1
spark.cla.umn.edu/archive2005/SPro_sec3.pdf
www.design.kyushu-u.ac.jp/~sn/critic/shiftcontrol.html
www.morph.dk/misc.html
archiv.transponder-news.de/sat-stefan-1999/160.html
www.undergroundmagazin.hu/cikk.php?id=2174
www.meceoo.fr/search?kw=streaming%20music& stype=web&searchzone=local
digital.tinusi.com/fr/search/page11/digital.html
finance.euroclips.com/music_15_1.html
www.meceoo.fr/search?kw=streaming%20music& stype=web&searchzone=local
digital.tinusi.com/fr/search/page11/digital.html
Live Computer Music
www.atariarchives.org/bcc3/showpage.php?page=81
www.onds.com/hvega/music/events.php
artscilab.org/~david/scores/Pleroma1.pdf
nagasm.suac.net/ASL/profile/
66
nagasm.suac.net/ASL/kassel/
arcana.dartmouth.edu/~eric/Lyon_resume.html
bibserv.isti.cnr.it/Dienst/UI/2.0/Describe/ cnr.isti/2003-A2-101?tiposearch=ercim&langver=
www.cnmat.berkeley.edu/Research/ NIME2002/NIME02WesselWrightSchottPr.html
www.artifact.com/catalog.php
www.berkowski.net/cv.php
www.music.columbia.edu/~alessi/pianorecitals.html
www1.pacific.edu/~rcoburn/music.htm
www.ercim.org/publication/ Ercim_News/enw37/tarabella.html
www.o-art.org/history/80s&90s/ Mills/LPolansky/PolCVita-2.html
www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/pageitems/ document/cda_downloaddocument/0,10900,0-0-45-110264-0,00.pdf
www.newmusicbox.org/article.nmbx?id=4187
www.japansociety.org/events/ event_detail.cfm?id_event=1702597446
cmr.soc.plymouth.ac.uk/publications/ CMW%20Music%20Leaflet.pdf
www.music.buffalo.edu/faculty/lippe/pdfs/liege.pdf
artscilab.org/~david/Index1.htm
cmr.soc.plymouth.ac.uk/event.htm
www.lovely.com/bios/bischoff.html
www.ultrasound.ws/showcase.html
www.spjc.edu/spg/music/emit98-99.html
arcana.dartmouth.edu/~eric/LyonMP3/
www.zakros.com/mica/iMesp01/iMesp01.html
www.informatik.uni-trier.de/ ~ley/db/conf/cmmr/cmmr2003.html
www.doctornerve.org/nerve/pages/schubertstatement.shtml
smc04.ircam.fr/scm04actes/P30.pdf
www.sukothai.com/X.SA.14/X.14.Uehara.html
depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/music/special.html
www.cnmat.berkeley.edu/Research/ NIME2002/NIME02WesselWrightSchottDm.html Softsynth Spins Out Polyphonic
www.tmcnet.com/usubmit/2003/Dec/1022045.htm
www.sequenza21.com/2005/ 08/teaching-20th-century-music.html
www.acma.asn.au/chroma_pdf/chroma33.pdf
www.spectrumpress.com/miranda-news-and-concerts.html
www.symbolicsound.com/ cgi-bin/bin/view/Community/WebHome
music.calarts.edu/~hpark/links.html
mitpress2.mit.edu/e-journals/ Leonardo/lmj/lmj9intro.html
cec.concordia.ca/econtact/ Harvest_Moon/electro/bios/lyon.html
Integrarea computerului in arta muzicala interactiva este esentiala, aparatul oferind creatorilor o
extraordinara libertate in transgresarea frontierelor dintre sunet si imagine, dintre concret si
abstract, dintre “lumea reala” si “realitatea virtuala”. In consecinta, putem afirma ca “live
computer music” este un gen in plina evolutie, conducand spre noi spatii ale cunoasterii artistice.
Bucuresti, 25 August 2005
BIBLIOGRAFIE GENERALA SELECTIVA
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Nationale de Muzica din Bucuresti, 1999.
- ALEXANDRA, Liana. Tehnici de Orchestratie. Editura Universitatii Nationale de Muzica din Bucuresti, 2000. ISBN
973-0-02115-5.
- ARNELL, Billy. McScope: System. Music, Computers, and Software, April 1988: 58-60.
- BERENDT, Joachim. The Jazz Book. 1953, 1959, 1968, 1973 Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main.
Lawrence Hill & Company, New York, Westport. Independent Publishers Group, N.Y.,N.Y.10022.
- BERGER, Wilhelm Georg. Muzica Simfonica moderna-contemporana 1930-1950. Vol.IV. Editura Muzicala, Bucuresti,
1976.
- BOWELS, Edmund A. Musicke’s Handmaiden: Or Technology in the Service of the Arts. in The Computer and Music.ed.
Harry B. Lincoln, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1970.
- BREDICEANU, Mihai Timpul polimodular si artele vizuale, Bucuresti, Ed.Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, 1982, si Music
and Polymodular Time/Structural Polytempi Music. Lecture given at New York University, January 5, 1985 – curs
universitar.
- BURK, Phil. POLANSKY, Larry. REPETTO, Douglas. ROBERTS, Mary. ROCKMORE, Dan. Music and Computers –
an interactive web-text. (http://eamusic.dartmouth.edu/~book/MATCpages/tableofcontents.html )
- CHADABE, J. 1997. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
- CHAFE Chris and LEISTIKOW, Randal. Levels Of Temporary Resolution In Sonification Of Network Performance.
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) Department of Music, Stanford University , Stanford,
California 94305. ([email protected]) ([email protected])
- CHAFE, Chris ; WILSON, Scott ; WALLING, Daniel. Physical Model Synthesis With Application To Internet
Acoustics. Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) Department of Music, Stanford University ,
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Stanford, California 94305. (cc, rswilson, [email protected])
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Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) Department of Music, Stanford University , Stanford, California 94305.
([email protected])
- CHOWNING, John M. The Simulation of Moving Sound Sources. in Journal of the Audio Engineering Society,
vol.20,no.6 (1971).
- CHOWNING, John M. The Synthesis of the Complex Audio Spectra by Means of Frequency Modulation. in Journal of
the Audio Engineering Society, vol.21,no.7 (1973).
- CHOWNING, John M, GREY John M., MOORER, James A., RUSH, Loren. Computer Simulation of Music
Instrument Tones in Reverberant Spaces. Department of Music, Stanford University, Technical Report STAN-M-1, 1975.
- CONGER, Jim. C Programming for MIDI. Redwood City: M & T Books, 1988.
_ COOPER, Jim. Mind Over MIDI: Information Sources and System-exclusive Data Formats. Keyboard October, 1986:
110-111.
- DODGE, Charles and THOMAS A. Jerse. Computer Music : Synthesis, Compositions and Performance. Second Edition.
New York : Macmillan Library, 1997.
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ISBN 0-87288-744-8.
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1989.
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- GIBSON, Bill. Audio Pro Home Recording Course, Volume I and II. Hal Leonard Corporation.
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-HAMM, Charles. Music In The New World. W. W. Norton and Company, 1983. ISBN 0-393-95193-6.
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University Press, 1970.
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-JOHNSON, ROGER. SCORES: An Anthology of New Music. Schirmer Books, A Division of Macmillan Publishing Co.,
Inc., New York, 1981, ISBN 0-02-871190-4.
-LEOPOLDSEDER, Hannes and SCHÖPF, Christine. “PRIXARS ELECTRONICA 2003 CyberArts”, Katje Cantz
Verlag, Ostfildern-Ruit – D.A.P., Distributed Art Publishers, Inc., New York, 2003.
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Computing Center Newsletter, "Benchmarks".
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Pretince-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 07632.
- MANCINI, Henry. A Practical Guide To Professional Orchestration. 1973, Northridge Music Inc., Cherry Lane Music
Co., Inc. ISBN 0-89524-060-2.
- MARCUS, Solomon. Semne despre semne. Editura Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1979.
- MATZKIN, Jonathan. A MIDI Musical Offering. PC Magazine 29 Nov. 1988: 229+; MIDI Manufacturers Association
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- MOORE, F.R. 1990. Elements of Computer Music, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey .
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*** . Revista “LINUX MAGAZIN” Nr.4/Decembrie 2003, pag.21-35 (www.linux-magazin.ro ).
- www.fractalmusiclab.com/default.asp - “Quasi Fractal Composer” by Paul WHALLEY; “Music In The
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-
APPENDIX
PRINCIPALELE COMENZI IN SISTEMUL DE OPERARE MS-DOS
[apud http://www.butterwick0.freeserve.co.uk/tutor/Answers_2.html ]
Internal commands: Internal commands are built into the operating system as part of a file called
COMMAND.COM . They are loaded into memory whenever you switch on your computer. When you type an
internal command, MS-DOS performs it immediately. The MS-DOS internal commands are listed below. The
synonyms of some command names which you can use in place of their official names are shown in
brackets.
BREAK,
DEL (ERASE), PATH,
SHIFT,
CALL,
DIR,
PAUSE,
TIME,
CHCP,
ECHO,
PROMPT,
TYPE,
CHDIR (CD), EXIT,
REM,
VER,
CLS,
FOR,
REN(RENAME), VERIFY,
COPY,
GOTO,
RMDIR (RD), VOL,
CTTY,
IF,
SET,
DATE,
MKDIR(MD).
External Commands: Files with extension COM or EXE are external commands. Because these commands
are files, they are not built into the operating system ( these are the commands that alter between versions
of MS-DOS) . The MS-DOS external commands may contain SOME or all of the following,
APPEND,
EDLIN,
KEYB,
RESTORE,
ASSIGN,
EXE2BIN,
KEYBXX,
SETVER,
ATTRIB,
FASTOPEN,
LABEL,
SHARE,
BACKUP,
FC,
MODE,
SORT,
CHKDSK,
FDISK,
MORE,
SUBST,
COMMAND,
FIND,
NLSFUNC,
SYS,
COMP,
FORMAT,
PRINT,
TREE,
DELTREE,
GRAFTABL,
RECOVER,
XCOPY,
DISKCOMP,
GRAPHICS,
REPLACE,
DISKCOPY,
JOIN.
When you type an external command, MS-DOS looks for the command in the current directory. If it is not there, you
must guide MS-DOS to the relevant directory with the PATH command.
Adding Parameters to a command: A parameter is a letter typed after a command, that tells the command to carry out
an extra task.
For instance, a command that you will find later in this section is the COPY command. This command copies files from
one disk to another. The command with a parameter might look like this:
COPY A:MEMO.TXT C:\ /v
This part
Tells MS-DOS to
COPY
A:MEMO.TXT
C:\
/v
Make a copy ...
.. of the file MEMO.TXT on drive A: ...
... and put it on drive C:
and at the same time verify that
the file is recorded correctly on C:
Most parameters are optional, however you will discover, over time, ones that you use frequently.
Everyday MS-DOS Activities: This section provides a brief introduction to the MS-DOS activities that you are
likely to perform most often.
Activity
Formatting a diskette
Command needed
FORMAT
69
Copying a diskette
Comparing two diskettes
Checking the condition of a disk
Copying a file
Displaying the contents of a file
Renaming a file
Printing a file
Deleting a file
Listing the files in a directory
Making a new directory
Changing from one directory to another
Removing a directory
Setting a command search path
Assign a name to a disk
DISKCOPY
DISKCOMP
CHKDSK
COPY
TYPE
REN (RENAME)
PRINT
DEL (ERASE)
DIR
MD
CD
RD
PATH
LABEL
Wildcards are symbols that enable you to perform an MS-DOS operation on more than one file at a time. A file
specification that contains wildcards can refer to more than one file because it gives MS-DOS a pattern to match.
MS-DOS searches for any file whose filename or extension matches the pattern. There are two wildcard characters:
?
A question mark in a filename or extension means that up to a maximum
of ONE character/letter/number can occupy that position.
*
An asterisk in a filename or extension means that any number of
characters/letters/numbers, (up to maximum of EIGHT before the dot,
and up to a maximum of THREE after the dot) can occupy that position.
NOTE:- There can be LESS than the maximum number of characters/letters/numbers.For example suppose you had a
directory containing the following files: A.DOC, AA.DOC, AAA.DOC, B.DOC,A. TXT,B.TXT.The following command
and file patterns match some or all the above files:DIR *.DOC
Is the equivalent to DIR ????????.DOC and matches the first
four files (those with the DOC extension)
DIR *.*
Is the equivalent to DIR ????????.??? and matches ALL files.
Use *.* with care e.g. DEL *.* deletes ALL files in the
current directory, regardless of extension!!
DIR ?.DOC
Matches A.DOC and B.DOC
DIR ?.*
Matches A.DOC, B.DOC, A.TXT and B.TXT
DIR A?.DOC
Matches A.DOC and AA.DOC
DIR A*.DOC
Matches A.DOC, AA.DOC and AAA.DOC
Formatting a Diskette: It may be an advantage from this point if you have access to a computer. You use the FORMAT
command to format a diskette. Formatting a diskette you have previously used erases any data on the diskette, so only
reformat a diskette if you are very sure you don't need any of the data on it.
1.
Type
FORMAT A:
{ENTER}
Note: To put the MS-DOS operating system files onto the diskette you are
formatting, add the /S switch to the command
FORMAT A: /S {ENTER}
Putting the operating system on the diskette enables you to BOOT-UP the computer from
the diskette. This disk is now known as a SYSTEM DISK.
2.
When this prompt appears on the screen.
Insert new diskette for drive A: and strike ENTER when ready
insert the diskette you want to format into drive A:
Press the {Carriage Return } or { ENTER } key.
3. When formatting is complete, and this prompt appears:
Format another (Y/N) ?
Type Y (for yes) to format another diskette, N (for no) to exit from the FORMAT
command.
Copying a Diskette: You use the DISKCOPY command to make a copy of a diskette. Before you run DISKCOPY bear in
mind:
·
Diskcopy only works if both diskettes are EXACTLY the same type.
·
The diskette you are copying FROM is the SOURCE diskette. The diskette you are copying TO is the
TARGET diskette.
·
You don't need to format the target diskette - DISKCOPY does it for you.
·
DISKCOPY erases any information you already had on the target diskette.
If your computer has only one diskette drive ( this is normal! )
1. Type
DISKCOPY A: A: {ENTER}
2. When this message appears:
Insert SOURCE diskette in drive A:
Press any key when ready...
Insert the source diskette and press any key when ready!
3. When this message appears:
70
Insert TARGET diskette in drive A:
Press any key when ready...
Remove the SOURCE diskette and insert the TARGET diskette into drive A:
and press any key again.
4. When copying is complete this prompt appears:
Copy another diskette (Y/N) ?
Type Y (for yes) to copy another diskette, N (for no) to exit from the DISKCOPY
command.NOTE:- Later versions of MS-DOS may ask if you wish to make another copy of the diskette, this makes
another copy WITHOUT having to insert the SOURCE diskette again.
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Serban NICHIFOR
Nascut la Bucuresti in anul 1954, a absolvit ca sef de promotie pe tara Universitatea Nationala de
Muzica din Bucuresti (1977) si Facultatea de Teologie a Universitatii din Bucuresti (1994). A
urmat cursuri de specializare la Munchen (cu Sergiu Celibidache), Darmstadt, Weimar,
Breukelen si Amsterdam. A fost bursier USIA (1982), laureat al Premiilor Academiei Romane
(1982), UCMR (1980, 1982, 1989), precum si al Concursurilor Internationale de Compozitie de la
Amsterdam (Premiul I Gaudeamus - 1977), Tours (1977), Evian (1978), Atena (ISCM-1979),
Toledo (1980), Urbana-Illinois (1983), Trento (1984, 1994), Roma (1985), Bydgoszcz (1986), Hong
Kong (ISCM-1988), Jihlava (19959, Karlsruhe (1996), Koln (1997), Newtown-Wales (1998),
Birmingham-Alabama (1999). Este Comandor al Ordinului National Pentru Merit (2000). Doctor
in Muzicologie (1994), este autor al tratatului “Musica Caelestis - anamorfoza Sacrului in arta
sunetelor” (UNMB-2000) si al cursului universitar “Introducere in Computer Music”. Este
conferentiar la Universitatea de Muzica din Bucuresti (Facultatea de Interpretare Muzicala,
Catedra Muzica de Camera), membru in juriile internationale ale Concursurilor de Compozitie
de la Trento (1985) si Pescara (1998), fondator si vicepresedinte al Asociatiei Romania-Belgia,
membru titular al UCMR, al SABAM (Belgia) si al Fundatiei “Living Music” (SUA). Creatia sa
componistica cuprinde trei opere - “Domnisoara Christina” (dupa Mircea Eliade), “Talaria”
(dupa Etienne De Sadeleer) si “Le Martyre de Saint Claude Debussy” (pe un libret propriu,
bazat pe corespondenta marelui muzician francez), sapte simfonii (Simfonia Nr. I “Umbre”,
Simfonia Nr. II “Via Lucis”, Simfoniile Americane Nr. III si IV, Simfonia Nr. V "Pro Patria",
Simfonia Nr. VI “Arcuri in Timp”, Simfonia Nr. VII pentru violoncel si orchestra), piese
simfonice (“Constelatii”, "American Air", “Turkish Bolero”,s.a.), une Requiem dedicat Tinerilor
Martiri ai Revolutiei Anticomuniste din 1989, un Oratoriu de Craciun, cantatele “Izvoare 2050”,
“Gloria Heroum Holocausti” si “Remember” (dupa un poem de Victor Barladeanu), lucrari
concertante (Concerto GRIEGoriano pentru pian si orchestra), camerale, vocale, corale si
electroacustice - parte din ele publicate la Bucuresti, New York, Munchen, Tours, Metz, Koln,
Roma si Pescara si Palermo. Ca violoncelist, activeaza in duo-ul “Intermedia”, alaturi de
compozitoarea si pianista Liana Alexandra, impreuna cu care a organizat la Bucuresti mai multe
manifestari
de
muzica
contemporana,
sub
genericul
“NUOVA
MUSICA
CONSONANTE-LIVING MUSIC FOUNDATION”.
81
Serban NICHIFOR
Born in Bucharest (Romania), 25.08.1954. Studies: National University of Music - Bucharest,
Doctor in Musicology; University of Bucharest (Theology Faculty). International courses at
Darmstadt, Weimar, Breukelen and Munchen; USIA Stipendium (USA). At present: Professor at
the National University of Music - Bucharest (Chamber Music Department);Member of UCMR
(Romania), SABAM (Belgium), ECPMN (Holland); Vice-president of the ROMANIA-BELGIUM
Association; Cellist of the Duo INTERMEDIA and co-director of the NUOVA MUSICA
CONSONANTE-LIVING MUSIC FOUNDATION Festival - with Liana ALEXANDRA.
Composition prizes at: Amsterdam, Tours, Athens, Urbana-Illinois, Evian, Toledo, Trento,
Roma, Bydgoszcz, Köln, Karlsruhe, Newtown-Wales, Birmingham-Alabama. Comandor of the
“Merit National Order” (2000). Works published at: Editura Muzicala (Bucharest), Edition
Modern (Munchen), "Pro musica Studium"(Roma), "Quadrivium Music Press" (New York),
“Mnemes” (Palermo). Principal works: "Postludium" per Org. (1975); "Sorcova" per Coro
Misto a capella (1995);Quartetto per Archi I - "Anamorphose" (1976); "Constellations" for
Orchestra (1977); Symphony I "Shadows" (1980); Cantata "Sources" (1977); "Carols" per
Trombone e Percussione (1978); Cantata "Gloria Heroum Holocausti" (1978); Opera "Miss
Christina" (libretto by Mircea ELIADE, 1981); "Canto di Speranza" per Fl., Vn, Vn, Vlc. e Pf.
(1981); "Onirophonie" per Fl., Vn.e Pf. (1982);"Chanson d'Antan" per Vn.e Pf.(1983); "Aprite
le porte di questo castel" per Coro Maschile (1984); "Carnyx" per Clarinetto (1984); "Tango for
Yvar" per Pf.(1984); Quartetto per Archi II - "Vallons de l'Oubli" (1984); Symphony II "Via
Lucis" (1985); "6 Melodies Irlandaises d'Amerique" per 2 Ob.,C.i. e 2 Fg. (1985); "Horn Call
Rag" per Corno e Pf. (1986); "Czarna Rosa" per Mezzo-Soprano e Pf. (1986); "7 Canti Rumeni
di Natale" per 4 Tbe, 4 Tni ed Org. (1986); Symphony III "American Symphony - I" (1986);
Symphony IV "American Symphony - II" (1987); Symphony V "Pro Patria" (1987); "AVE
MARIA" per Soprano ed Organo (1987); "Isola di Euthanasios" per Pianoforte (1988);
Symphony VI "Time Archways" (1988); Cantata "Remember" (1988); "Transgressio" per
Fl.,Ob. e Fg. (1989); "Battuta" per Percussione (1989); "Missa da Requiem" (1990); Missa
"Actio Gratiarum Oecumenica" per Coro Misto (1991); "NATALIS DOMINI" per Coro Misto
(1992); "Isihia" per Vlc. (1992); "Epiphania" per Cello e Pianoforte (1993); “Musica Caelestis” –
treatise (1994); "Rorate Caeli" per Soprano ed Orchestra (1994); Chamber-Opera "Talaria"
(libretto by Etienne DE SADELEER, 1994); "Medium per Arpa" (1995); "Medium per Flauto"
(1995); Cantata "Per CHRISTUM" (1997); "Concerto GRIEGoriano" for Piano and Orchestra
(1997); "3 Christmas German Chorals" for Organ (1997); "Hommage a DEBUSSY" per 2 Pf. ossia Pf. e Nastro Magnetico (1998); "La Nuit Obscure" per Orchestra da Camera (1998);
Chamber-Opera "Le Martyre de Saint Claude DEBUSSY" (libretto after Claude DEBUSSY and
E.A.POE, 1999); “Turkish Bolero” for 4 Cellos and Orchestra (2002); Symphony-Concerto for
Cello and Orchestra (2003-2004); “Introduction to Computer Music” – handbook (2003-2005);
Symphony No. VII for Cello and Orchestra (2004); "Sounds of Mars" (computer music, 2004);
"American Air" for Orchestra (2005); "Tribute to Joseph Smith, The American Prophet"
(computer music, 2005).
.-------------------------------.
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