Automatic discovery of metadata

Automatic discovery of metadata
US008140570B2
(12) United States Patent
I II
(54)
(10) Patent N0.2
rassiae t a.
l
US 8,140,570 B2
360 fPt
aen:
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AUTOMATIC DISCOVERY OF METADATA
.
6,407,750 B1
6,418,330 B1
.
6,487,663 B1
(75) Inventors: Michael IngrassIa, San Jose, CA (US);
Jeffery Lee, Sunnyvale, CA (Us); Dave
6,510,210 B1
6,516,466 B1
Rempel, San Jose, CA (US)
6,526,335 B1
M ar. 20,2012
6/2002 GiOSCia et a1~
7/2002 Lee
11/2002
J ' 'mh
t
V2003 gglsllghaie a
2/2003 Jackson
l.
2/2003 TreyZ et a1.
(Continued)
(73) Assignee: Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA (US)
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
( * ) Notice:
Subject' to any disclaimer, the term of this
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
EP
0744839
1 H1996
(Continued)
U.S.C. 154(b) by 182 days.
(21) Appl. No.: 12/722,327
OTHER PUBLICATIONS
Jane Greenberg, “Metadata Extraction and Harvesting: A compari
son of Two Automatic Metadata Generation Applications”, Journal
of Internet Cataloging, 2004*
(22)
Filed:
Mar. 11, 2010
(65)
Prior Publication Data
US 2011/0225178 A1
Sep. 15, 2011
(51)
Int- Cl-
(Continued)
Primary Examiner * Hung Le
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Kramer Levin Naftalis &
G06F 17/30
(52)
Frankel LLP
US. Cl. ...... .. 707/770; 707/600; 707/610; 707/661;
707/706; 707/736; 707/758; 706/10; 706/15;
(57)
709/291; 799/217; 709/246; 715/733; 725/37
This is directed to processing stored data to automatically
Field of ‘Classi?cation Search ............. ..: ...... .. None
generate metadata for the stored data In particular, this is
See apphcanon ?le for Complete Search hlstory'
directed to identifying metadata associated With stored data,
_
(58)
(2006.01)
_
(56)
and identifying other data that relates to the stored data from
one or more sources. A processing module can identify other
data sharing some of the identi?ed metadata, and can extract
References Cited
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6,401,085 B1
ABSTRACT
additional metadata associated With the identi?ed other data.
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902
)/900
Identify metadata
P904
associated with data
906
Identify application data
P’
corresponding to identified metadata
Extract additional metadata
from identilied application data
and social network stream
'“
US 8,140,570 B2
Page 2
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Generation Applications) Project, University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill, 2005.*
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&DATE ), originally retrieved Jan. 5, 2000.
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* cited by examiner
US. Patent
Mar. 20, 2012
Sheet 1 0110
US 8,140,570 B2
100 \
Data
_/102
j/110
Metadata
Sensor-based ~/'112
Content
/’114
Content based
User entered
FIG. 1
'
/"116
US. Patent
Mar. 20, 2012
200\
212
\"
214
\—~
216
218\._
\~
220
\222
\~
210
Sheet 2 0f 10
240
/
Fiel ol
2/30 /
/ Metadata
Event
Joe's birthday
Location
-/242
Golden Gate Park J
244
J246
People
248
Time
Motion
US 8,140,570 B2
12:43PM
/
250
0.12, 0.56, 2.82 J
Color palette
224\_/~e o o
J252
o o o
22a Sensor-based
~/256 FIG 2
302
@ilrlmal
Metadata
ovie data
310~/'\
Event
On
Location
On
Orientation
People
FIG. 3
/
Off
On
Colors
Off
Motion
Off
Description
Off
Tag 1
O"
/
US. Patent
Mar. 20, 2012
Sheet 3 0f 10
400\
410M
Storage
430
402~
Processing Module
432
Input/Output Interface
420/”
FIG. 4
US 8,140,570 B2
US. Patent
500
Mar. 20, 2012
Sheet 4 0f 10
US 8,140,570 B2
\
502
\
?oe's Birthday Party
51 O—/*|ocation Golden Gate Park
all day [I
520
from 02l14/201011:0 AM
to 02l14l20104=00PM
timezone Paci?cTime¢
repeat None;
show as Busy :
calendar III Home:
530
alarm None:
\
wvitees Joe; Sam; Mike
attachments Add File...
url None
note None
Done
FIG. 5
US. Patent
Mar. 20, 2012
Sheet 5 or 10
US 8,140,570 B2
600
602
Joe's Feed
610
\- 2/14, 5:12 PM: Too bad @Jenn couldn't
be here
2/14, 11:24AM: @Ron showed up! 71;
2/14, 10:22 AM: @Sam and | grabbing
picnic
2/14, 9:00 AM: Time to run with @Joe
620\
2/13, 11 :42 PM: Great bar!
2/13, 9:32 PM: Going out tonight
FIG. 6
700
\
Metadata Selection
710
712
\\
_
Location
San
Francisco
/722
Central Park,
NY
714_/_
Ron
People
Sam
Jenn
I: IG. 7
,724
US. Patent
Mar. 20, 2012
US 8,140,570 B2
Sheet 6 0f 10
800
Retrieve stored data
806
V
Review metadata
associated with stored data
810
808
Empty metadata
812
fields?
Yes
Identify empty metadata
fields
V
Extract metadata from local
resources
8
820
\
Extract metadata from
l
Identify social network streams
of interest
remote resources
822
v
V
Extract metadata from
identified social network
streams
r”
Select from extracted
metadata for stored data
if
810
End
FIG.
US. Patent
Mar. 20, 2012
Sheet 7 0f 10
US 8,140,570 B2
902
900
z
Start
,
)
"
904
Identify metadata
associated with data
»-/
"
906
Identify application data
/
corresponding to identified metadata
.
.
"
908
Identify social network stream
/
corresponding to identified metadata
‘i
910
Extract additional metadata
from identified application data
and social network stream
0
End
FIG. 9
912
"J
US. Patent
Mar. 20, 2012
Sheet 8 0f 10
US 8,140,570 B2
1000\
Content from event
101\O
Data 1
1012,‘, Local data
Data 2
R
1
1014~/ em 8 Source
1022
’"_’
Social
Network 1
Social
Network 2
Internet
FIG. 10
*~—/1024
US. Patent
Mar. 20, 2012
Sheet 9 0f 10
1100\
1102
1104
Receive a selection of a
user's data
1106\
i
Retrieve metadata
associated with the
selected data
1108\
$
Identify other data
associated with the
retrieved metadata
1110\
l
Provide the identified other
data to the user
1112
FIG. 11
US 8,140,570 B2
US. Patent
Mar. 20, 2012
Sheet 10 0f 10
1 200
Electronic Device
1202
\—~
Processor
1204i _‘
Storage
1203
'_
Memory
1208
\_
Input/Output interface
1210
\""
Communications circuitry
FIG. 12
US 8,140,570 B2
US 8,140,570 B2
1
2
AUTOMATIC DISCOVERY OF METADATA
An electronic device can generate or access data for a user.
To assist the user in classifying and managing the data, the
BACKGROUND
data can be associated With metadata. While some metadata
can be automatically associated With the data When the data is
This is directed to tagging stored data, such as media, With
initially generated (e.g., When an image is captured), some
automatically discovered metadata. Metadata can be auto
matically discovered based on known or available metadata
be used to generate ?les containing different types of infor
metadata may be typically added manually, Which can be a
burdensome task.
To automate the metadata association process, a processing
module can revieW the initial metadata associated With data,
and identify other information related to the initial metadata.
For example, a processing module can revieW data used by
applications of an electronic device, and extract metadata
mation (e. g., media ?les, data ?les, documents, spreadsheets,
from the application data. In particular, a processing module
or presentations). To assist the user in classifying or organiZ
ing the data, or to assist the user or others in searching for the
data (e.g., if the data is later stored in a remote location),
different metadata can be associated With the data. The meta
can retrieve event information from a calendar, and apply
metadata extracted from the event information to data having
a time stamp corresponding to the event time.
In some embodiments, the processing module can identify
for the stored data by identifying other data also associated
With the knoWn metadata.
Electronic devices can generate, capture, store or access
different types of data. For example, an electronic device can
data can include, for example, information providing the
identity of the user generating or editing the data, the content
of the data, the location or time at Which the data Was gener
ated to edited, user-de?ned tags, or other attributes of the data.
Different metadata can be associated With stored data using
any suitable approach. In some embodiments, some metadata
can automatically be associated With data When the data is
entries in one or more social netWorks that relate to the data.
20
For example, the processing module can identify social net
Work streams associated With the user accessing the data, or
With friends of the user accessing the data and extract meta
data from the social netWork streams. In particular, the pro
cessing module can identify people Who could be in the data
25
initially generated. For example, metadata associated With an
application used to generate the data, the person oWning a
content (e. g., event attendees), the event location, or any other
metadata that can be extracted from the social netWork
streams. In some embodiments, the processing module can
license to use the application, the date and time at Which the
instead or in addition search for data from remote sources as
application Was used, various settings describing the format
a Whole (e. g., search some or all of the Internet), and extract
additional metadata from the search data that shares at least
some metadata With the user’s data.
In some embodiments, the electronic device can instead
start from the user’s data, and search a social netWork or a
larger remote source (e.g., the internet) for some or all of the
of the data (e.g., the font and paragraph information of a text
30
document), or an Internet address of a device used to generate
the data can be automatically generated and associated With
the data by the device used to generate the data. In some
embodiments, metadata can be associated With stored data at
a later time. For example, metadata providing a time stamp,
35
a particular user, or other such metadata can be automatically
associated With stored data When the data is accessed or
data that corresponds to the user’s data. For example, the
electronic device can identify the particular set of metadata
associated With the user’ s data, and search for other data that
edited.
shares some or all of the metadata With the user’s data.
the identity of a user editing data, a listing of changes made by
In some embodiments, a user can instead or in addition 40
manually modify metadata associated With stored data. For
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
example, a user can access a menu or display associated With
The above and other features of the present invention, its
nature and various advantages Will be more apparent upon
the stored data, and remove, add, or change metadata listed in
the menu. In some cases, a user can add a neW metadata ?eld.
As another example, a user can remove all metadata associ
45
ated With data prior to sending the data to another user (e.g.,
scrub a ?le before sending it via email). As still another
FIG. 1 is a schematic vieW of illustrative data that can be
generated, accessed, or edited by an electronic device in
accordance With one embodiment of the invention;
example, a user can select several data ?les, and simulta
neously change the metadata for the collection of data ?les
(e. g., so that they all have the same or different metadata).
When an electronic device automatically associates meta
data With a media item, hoWever, the electronic device may
only be able to provide metadata for a limited number of
50
FIG. 3 is a schematic vieW of an illustrative interface for
55
de?ning a set of essential metadata ?elds in accordance With
one embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic vieW of an illustrative system for
managing metadata in accordance With one embodiment of
the invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic vieW of an illustrative calendar entry
an electronic device that does not include a clock may not be
able to provide time stamp metadata.
FIG. 2 is a schematic vieW of illustrative metadata associ
ated With data in accordance With one embodiment of the
invention;
?elds. In particular, the speci?c metadata automatically pro
vided for stored data can be constrained by the capabilities of
the electronic device generating the data. For example, a
device that does not include positioning circuitry may not be
able to provide location-based metadata. As another example,
consideration of the folloWing detailed description, taken in
conjunction With the accompanying draWings in Which:
60
SUMMARY
used for extracting metadata in accordance With one embodi
ment of the invention;
FIG. 6 is a schematic vieW of an illustrative social netWork
ering other data sharing characteristics With the stored data,
ing stream used to extract metadata for data in accordance
With one embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 7 is a schematic vieW of an illustrative display for
selecting metadata to apply to a ?eld in accordance With one
and applying metadata of the other data to the stored data.
embodiment of the invention;
This is directed to automatically identifying metadata to
apply to stored data. In particular, this is directed to discov
65
US 8,140,570 B2
4
3
for example text, numerical, image, video, audio, or combi
FIG. 8 is a ?owchart of an illustrative process for automati
cally identifying metadata to associate With stored data in
nations of these. In one implementation, data 100 can include
accordance With one embodiment of the invention;
media played back by a device, or media captured by a device.
Content 102 can include image, video or audio tracks that can
FIG. 9 is a ?owchart of an illustrative process for associ
be played back separately or simultaneously, or can be edited
or modi?ed independently or simultaneously. Each track can
ating additional metadata With data in accordance With one
embodiment of the invention;
be encoded using any suitable approach, including for
FIG. 10 is a schematic vieW of an illustrative display for
example using primary frames (e.g., I-frames) and secondary
identifying other data corresponding to selected data in accor
dance With one embodiment of the invention;
frames (e. g., P or B-frames), or a sequence of full frames (e. g.,
ing data from disparate sources to provide a comprehensive
individual audio sequences).
To provide a complete and functional classi?cation system,
collection of data corresponding to an event in accordance
With one embodiment of the invention; and
data 100 can be associated With different metadata 110 that
can be catalogued, indexed, and searched. Metadata 110 can
FIG. 12 is a schematic vieW of an illustrative electronic
be associated With content 102 using any suitable approach.
device for playing back media in accordance With one
embodiment of the invention.
For example, metadata can be stored as part of data 100 that
includes the content (e.g., metadata 110 forms a header in a
?le). As another example, metadata 110 can be stored in a
FIG. 11 is a ?oWchart of an illustrative process for compil
separate location from the content. In particular, metadata
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
110 can be stored in a metadata ?le (e.g., one ?le for each
An electronic device can be operative to generate or receive
20
data. The data can include, for example, text, numbers,
spreadsheets, presentations, images, audio, video, or combi
location. If the metadata is stored separately from the content,
nations of these. For example, the data can include media
stored or accessed by the device. In particular, media can
include images, photographs, video, voice or audio record
ings, text (e. g., blogging or micro-blogging streams), location
25
streams, or combinations of these. For the simplicity of the
folloWing discussion, hoWever, different embodiments of the
invention Will be described in the context of the management
of media and the association of metadata to the media.
As electronic devices become more adept at capturing
media, as purchasing media becomes easier, and as remote
30
the metadata can be associated With the content using any
suitable approach, including for example one or more refer
ences in the metadata and/or content, pointers, links, or other
combinations of these.
Metadata 110 can include any suitable type of metadata.
For example, metadata 110 can include sensor-derived meta
data 112. Such metadata can include, for example, the output
of one or more sensors or sensing mechanisms of an elec
tronic device used to capture or generate the data (e.g., the
media). The sensors can include, for example, motion detec
sources of media become easily accessible, many users can
?nd that they have access to or manage a large media library.
To enhance the users’ ability to navigate through, locate, and
instance of content), a database (e. g., metadata database
Within an electronic device or Within a particular application),
remote location (e.g., a remote server), or any other suitable
35
share speci?c media items, many users use metadata to tag
and classify the media items. It may be dif?cult and time
tion components (e.g., an accelerometer), location sensing
components (e.g., GPS or cellular tower-triangulation cir
cuitry), cameras (e. g., or other image capturing sensors),
clock, or combinations of these.
consuming, hoWever to individually or collectively tag dif
In some embodiments, metadata 110 can instead or in
ferent media items by hand. Some metadata can be automati
cally associated With media items by the device used to gen
erate the media item or by a device used to vieW the media
addition include content-based metadata 114. For example,
40
for example, color analysis or pro?le, voice recognition out
item. For example, some metadata can be identi?ed based on
the output of sensors associated With the device used to gen
erate the media item. Such metadata can include, for example,
location, orientation, time, temperature, or vibration/move
puts, facial recognition outputs, object recognition outputs,
information describing landmarks in the data, stabiliZation
45
ment metadata. Other metadata can include, for example,
metadata retrieved from the content of the media item. Such
metadata can include, for example, color, texture, face detec
tion, image recognition output, and voice recognition meta
data.
This metadata, hoWever, is limited or restricted by the
sensors available to the device, and the information knoWn to
the device about the user’s library (e.g., Who a particular
detected face is, or Whose voice is selected). The provided
metadata can therefore be enhanced by augmenting it With
an electronic device can analyZe the content of data, and
extract attributes of the content. Such metadata can include,
50
information, or any other information extracted from the con
tent of the data (e.g., the media content). The content-based
metadata can be generated at any suitable time and using any
suitable device. For example, some content-based metadata
can be generated after post-processing data (e. g., using a
device used to access the data) and later associated With the
data. In some cases, the electronic device generating the data
can analyZe data as it is captured to extract content-based
metadata.
In some embodiments, metadata 110 can instead or in
55
addition include metadata entered or de?ned by the user. For
additional metadata from remote sources (e.g., cloud-based
example, a user can add metadata in one or more ?elds asso
sources). In addition, metadata tags retrieved from remote
ciated With data. As another example, a user can modify an
automatically generated metadata ?eld. The user can enter
sources can be prioritized such that only a subset of metadata
identi?ed from a remote source is selected, Where the
remotely identi?ed metadata most closely matches the spe
ci?c metadata that a user Would provide for media in the
user’ s library.
FIG. 1 is a schematic vieW of illustrative data that can be
generated, accessed, or edited by an electronic device in
accordance With one embodiment of the invention. Data 100
can include content 102 and metadata 110 associated With the
data. Data 100 can include any suitable type of data, including
any suitable metadata for stored data, including for example
60
tags or notes of interest or use only to the user (e.g., a “print
these” tag for pictures, or “process” tag for media that has
been captured but not yet revieWed or sorted).
When an electronic device accesses data, the electronic
device can revieW the metadata associated With the data. For
65
example, the electronic device can identify the types of meta
data that are associated With data by determining the catego
ries or ?elds of metadata for Which metadata is available. In
US 8,140,570 B2
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6
some embodiments, it may be desirable to have metadata in at
least a threshold or minimum set of metadata categories. For
the location or people shoWn in an image or video. As another
instance of data, for each type of data (e.g., based on a meta
data type ?eld, or based on a ?le type), or for each device used
to capture or access data. In some embodiments, display 300
can include title 302 depicting the type of data or device to
example, it may be desirable to include metadata used for
Which the display corresponds.
classifying the data (e.g., location, people, event, or timing
Any suitable component, process, or module of the elec
tronic device can manage the association of metadata With
data. FIG. 4 is a schematic vieW of an illustrative system for
managing metadata in accordance With one embodiment of
example, it may be desirable to include metadata depicting
metadata). FIG. 2 is a schematic vieW of illustrative metadata
associated With data in accordance With one embodiment of
the invention. Metadata structure 200 can include different
categories of metadata. For example, metadata structure 200
the invention. System 400 can include processing module 402
operative to control the association of metadata With data. For
example, processing module 402 can de?ne links or pointers
betWeen metadata and data. Processing module can be imple
mented as part of any suitable electronic device component,
can include categories or ?elds of metadata 210 and corre
sponding metadata 240 associated With some or all of the
?elds.
Any suitable ?eld can be provided in ?elds 210. For
example, structure 200 can include event ?eld 212, location
including for example as part of processing circuitry,
?eld 214, people ?eld 216, and time ?eld 218. In addition,
memory, storage, or combinations of these. In some embodi
structure 200 can include motion ?eld 220, color palette ?eld
222, and tag ?eld 226. Structure 200 can have any suitable
ments, processing module 402 can direct other electronic
number of ?elds, including for example more ?elds than
shoWn (e.g., as depicted by dots 224). Structure 200 can
tions for retrieving metadata.
Processing module 402 can retrieve speci?c data from
storage 410 via communications path 430. Storage 410 can
device components to perform one or more speci?c opera
20
include metadata in column 240 in Which metadata can be
stored for some or all of ?elds 210. In the example of structure
200, metadata may be available for metadata blocks 242, 244,
248 and 250, but not available for blocks 246, 252 and 256
corresponding to ?elds 210 to 226, respectively.
include any suitable local or remote storage, including for
example storage accessed over a netWork (e.g., Web-based
storage or storage provided as part of a social netWork).
25
Any suitable information can be stored as metadata 240.
For example, individual metadata can include text (e.g., one
or more Words), numbers, images or icons, links to other
embodiments, the communications path can be selected
information (e.g., hyperlinks), or any other suitable informa
tion. In some embodiments, metadata can be formatted in a
30
manner corresponding to the ?eld. For example, metadata
related to location can be provided as coordinates (e.g., lati
tude and longitude), a GPS input, an address, or a landmark.
As another example, motion metadata can be provided as the
raW output of an accelerometer (e.g., a voltage along three
different axes), a measure of acceleration (e.g., in N/m2 or G),
Communications path 430 can include a communications
path over any suitable Wired or Wireless netWork. In some
based on communications circuitry available to the device.
In some embodiments, processing module 402 can receive
speci?c instructions from a user regarding Which metadata to
associate With particular data. For example, a user can enter
metadata associated With one or more speci?c ?elds. Process
ing module 402 can receive user instructions, and provide
information to display (e.g., menus shoWing metadata for
35
particular data) using input/output interface 420. Input/ output
interface 420 can include any suitable combination of hard
Ware and softWare, including for example one or more dis
or as a threshold value indicating the orientation of the device
(e. g., portrait or landscape). In some embodiments, metadata
plays, audio output interfaces, input interfaces, or combina
can include several distinct instances of information corre
tions of these. In some embodiments, one or more elements of
sponding to a particular ?eld (e.g., a list of people or land
marks in an image).
40
nicate With input/output interface 420 using communications
In some embodiments, a subset of ?elds 210 can be iden
path 432, Which can have some or all of the properties of
ti?ed as more important or more relevant to the user. For
communications path 430.
example, the ?elds of set 230 (With bold outlines) can be
identi?ed as a minimum set of ?elds for Which metadata is to
be provided for a user to have a suitable experience interact
45
de?ned using any suitable approach. For example, the ?elds
may not have the capabilities required for generating meta
50
selected as part of a minimum or essential set for different
types of data (e. g., different metadata for media and for text
documents). In some embodiments, a user can de?ne the
particular set of metadata that is most important for stored
55
data. FIG. 3 is a schematic vieW of an illustrative interface for
de?ning a set of essential metadata ?elds in accordance With
one embodiment of the invention. Display 300 can include
listing 310 of metadata ?elds, and corresponding options 320
for each of the ?elds. A user can toggle options 320 to select
the speci?c metadata ?elds to serve as essential ?elds for a
device or for particular data. Listing 310 can include any
suitable metadata ?eld, including for example all of the ?elds,
a default set of ?elds, or a subset of the ?elds. In some
embodiments, a user can add ?elds to listing 310, for example
by calling a secondary display or pop-up menu. In some
implementations, a display 300 can be called up for each
While some of this metadata can be automatically gener
ated by the device capturing the data or by a device used to
access the data, some devices may not have the capabilities
required to generate the metadata. In particular, some devices
ing With the data. The particular ?elds of set 230 can be
can be automatically selected by a particular electronic
device, or for a particular type of data. In one implementation,
different sets of metadata (e.g., different ?elds) can be
input/output interface 420 can be remote from the device of
processing module 402. Processing module 402 can commu
60
data in all of the essential ?elds corresponding to the data. It
may therefore be desirable for a processing module to auto
matically add the metadata for at least the minimum or essen
tial set of metadata ?elds (e.g., as de?ned by default or by the
user using a display such as display 300, FIG. 3).
Once the electronic device has identi?ed the essential
metadata ?elds that are empty for particular data, or other
metadata ?elds for Which it Would be desirable to acquire
metadata to associate With data, the processing module can
identify different sources from Which to retrieve the metadata.
In some embodiments, the processing module can go through
a progression of sources for ?nding additional metadata. For
example, the processing module can ?rst look at information
available from the user’s electronic device or from other
electronic devices used by the user. As another example, the
65 processing module can connect to one or more social net
Works used by the user to retrieve information from the one or
more social netWorks (e.g., from metadata associated With
US 8,140,570 B2
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Once the processing module has extracted metadata from
data provided by the user’s friends on the social network). As
still another example, the processing module can connect to
the local resources available from one or more of the user’s
electronic devices (e.g., available from a cellular telephone, a
communications device such as an iPad available from Apple
Inc., and a notebook computer), the processing module can
one or more remote sources and search for other data that may
be related to the particular data for Which additional metadata
is desired.
expand the search for metadata to one or more social net
As a ?rst step, a processing module can determine some
Works. In particular, the processing module can identify one
more social netWorks used by the user or by the user’s friends,
attributes of data based on the available metadata. For the
simplicity of the following discussion, the data Will be cap
tured video, though it Will be understood that features of the
description can apply to any other type of data. The process
ing module can revieW the available metadata provided With
and revieW the data made available on the social netWorks.
For example, the processing module can revieW feeds or other
information provided by one or more of Facebook, ?ickr,
yelp, 4-square, loopt, goWalla, tWitter, linked-in, or other
a video, and compare the available metadata With other infor
mation available to the electronic device to extract, from the
social netWorking, blogging, or micro-blogging service. The
processing module can initially revieW the social netWorking
streams of the user accessing or creating the data, and identify
other information, additional metadata for the video.
The processing module can extract additional metadata
from any suitable application or application data of the
device. For example, the processing module can determine a
location and people Who may be in the video from a calendar
entry identi?ed from date and time metadata. As another
example, the processing module can analyZe one or more
entries provided by the user that are Within a time frame
corresponding to the data. If one or more entries correspond
to data, the electronic device can revieW the content of the
20
frames of the video to detect faces, and compare the detected
faces With knoWn faces of a photo or video management
application (e.g., iPhoto available from Apple Inc.). As still
another example, the processing module can analyZe one or
more frames to detect a particular landmark, displayed text
(e.g., part of a business card, a street sign, or a store sign), or
associated With other people. In particular, the processing
25
other recogniZable content. The detected text or landmark can
be compared to addresses, business names, or contact infor
mation (e.g., telephone numbers) knoWn to the device, for
example from an address book or history of addresses entered
entries, or metadata associated With the entries (e. g., location
metadata) to extract additional metadata to associated With
the data.
In some embodiments, the processing module can expand
the revieW of social netWorking streams to identify streams
30
module can revieW streams associated With other people iden
ti?ed in the data (e.g., identi?ed from the content of a captured
video). For example, a processing module can retrieve the
identity of a particular person from an image or video man
agement application (e.g., a face detection output), retrieve a
social netWorking handle associated With the identi?ed per
in a mapping application (e.g., a map Website). As still yet
another example, the processing module can process and
networking streams associated With the retrieved handle. The
analyZe audio in the video to extract voice prints that can be
compared to a library of knoWn voice prints associated With
processing module can then extract additional metadata from
the content of one or more entries provided by the particular
son from an address book, and revieW one or more social
contacts of a user’s address book.
35 person. For example, the processing module can identify the
FIG. 5 is a schematic vieW of an illustrative calendar entry
name of another person present With the particular person
from a social netWorking entry indicating Who Was present,
and tag the video With both people’s name.
used for extracting metadata in accordance With one embodi
ment of the invention. Calendar entry 500 can include event
title 502, location 510, and time 520. When the processing
module determines that a captured video Was created during
or near time 520, the processing module can conclude that the
captured video took place in the context of event 502. The
processing module can then tag the video With the event title
FIG. 6 is a schematic vieW of an illustrative social netWork
40
With one embodiment of the invention. Stream 600 can be
associated With a particular person, for example a person
identi?ed in title bar 602 (e.g., Joe). In this example, stream
(Which Was not included as metadata When the video Was
captured) and the location (Which may not have been included
as metadata if the capturing device did not include positioning
circuitry). In some embodiments, calendar entry 500 can
include guests or invitees 530 indicating those present at the
vent. For example, entry 500 can indicate that Joe, Sam and
Mike Were scheduled to attend, but that Vinnie and Jenn (not
shoWn in invitee ?eld 530) turned doWn the invitation to
attend the event. The processing module can then tag the
captured video With the names of Joe, Sam and Mike.
In some embodiments, the processing module can instead
or in addition extract additional metadata by comparing the
metadata of several captured videos. For example, the pro
cessing module can identify tWo distinct videos captured
using different devices Within a maximal interval (e.g., cap
tured Within a feW hours of each other), Where only one of the
videos includes location information (e.g., due to the absence
ing stream used to extract metadata for data in accordance
45
600 can be associated With another user Who the processing
module knoWs, from a calendar entry, Was With the user
during a calendar event. Stream 600 can include entries 610,
612, 614, 616, 618 and 620 corresponding to entries provided
50
by Joe. Each entry can be tagged With a date and time, such
that the processing module can revieW the stream and identify
the particular entries that Were provided during the calendar
event (e. g., betWeen 1 1 AM and 4 PM on February 14), as Well
as events that Were provided Within a duration before or after
the event (e. g., 2 hours before and one and a half hours after).
Using this criteria, the processing module can disregard
55
60
entries 616, 618 and 620 as being outside of the time con
straints.
The processing module can revieW entries 610, 612 and
614 to identify metadata from the entries. For example, the
processing module can identify references to other people
(e.g., @Sam, @Ron and @Jenn) as Well as adjectives or verbs
of location sensing circuitry in the other electronic device).
qualifying the references. In particular, the processing mod
The processing module can then apply the same location
metadata to both of the videos. In some embodiments, the
processing module can ?rst determine Whether a color pro?le
of the videos is similar, Whether a same voice is on both vides,
ule can determine from entry 614 that Sam Was at the event
(consistent With the calendar entry), and from entry 612 that
or any other information to ensure that both videos Were
Ron attended as Well (in contrast With the calendar entry). The
processing module can also determine from entry 610 that
Jenn did not attend the event (also consistent With the calen
captured in the same general area.
dar entry). In some embodiments, one or more entries can
65
US 8,140,570 B2
10
data ?elds at the local level). In other embodiments, hoWever,
include an image, video, audio, link to other content, or any
other link for augmenting the entry. The additional content
the processing module can determine that several different
metadata is available for a single metadata ?eld. In particular,
can be accessed by selecting a corresponding link, for
example option 613. If the option is provided as part of a
potentially relevant entry, the processing module can retrieve
metadata associated With the content of the link (e.g., retrieve
some of the different metadata can be exclusive such that at
least one instance of the different metadata is incorrect.
The processing module can determine Which of several
different metadata to associate With the captured video using
any suitable approach. In some embodiments, the processing
module can automatically select speci?c metadata for each
metadata associated With a photo of Ron at the event identi
?ed by option 613) and associate the metadata With the data.
To retrieve additional metadata, the processing module can
craWl through several layers of social netWorking streams.
Returning to the example of FIG. 6, the processing module
metadata ?eld. The processing module can use any suitable
can initially revieW the user’s streams, then move to the
streams of the user’s friends Within the social netWork that
Were identi?ed in metadata for the data, such as Joe’s stream.
example the number of times the particular metadata Was
extracted, the source (e.g., locally identi?ed metadata has a
criteria for selecting particular metadata, including for
higher priority that globally identi?ed metadata), the delay
Subsequently, the processing module can revieW the streams
of friends of Joe that Were identi?ed in relevant entries of
betWeen the time of capture and the time the metadata Was
Joe’s stream (e.g., Ron and Sam’s streams). The processing
module can craWl through any suitable number of layers of
social netWorking streams, including for example a ?xed
number, up to a maximum number, until particular metadata
has been found for speci?c metadata ?elds, or combinations
metadata, or When the underlying data from Which the meta
identi?ed (e.g., When the processing module extracted the
data Was extracted Was published), previous sources from
Which metadata Was extracted, the closeness of a source in a
20
of these. In some embodiments, the processing module can
limit the streams revieWed to those of people knoWn or
believed to be at the event (e.g., people identi?ed from the
calendar event, people mentioned in social netWorking
social netWork, or combinations of these. In some embodi
ments, the processing module can average several different
metadata, or use any other operation to de?ne a composite
metadata from several different metadata.
In some embodiments, the processing module can provide
25
some or all of the extracted metadata to the user for selection.
streams, or people Whose faces Were detected in one or more
For example, the processing module can provide extracted
videos or images, including images incorporated in social
metadata for the essential metadata ?elds. As another
netWorking streams).
example, the processing module can provide extracted meta
In some embodiments, the processing module can instead
or in addition search for metadata from one or more remote 30
sources. For example, the processing module can connect to
a search engine and search for data related to particular meta
data associated With a video. The processing module can use
any metadata as a search term. In one implementation, the
processing module can select some or all of the available
metadata. For example, the processing module can use meta
35
data that is knoWn or expected to be accurate (e. g., metadata
data for ?elds Where there are at least tWo or three different
metadata. FIG. 7 is a schematic vieW of an illustrative display
for selecting metadata to apply to a ?eld in accordance With
one embodiment of the invention. Display 700 can include
listing 710 of metadata ?elds for Which several different
metadata are available. For example, listing 710 can include
location ?eld 712 and people ?eld 714. Each ?eld can be
associated With several different metadata 722 and 724
respectively, from Which a user can select one or more meta
provided by the electronic device that captured the video). As
data (e.g., select several people that are present in the captured
another example, the processing module can use some meta
video). Once the user has selected one or more of the
data identi?ed from the user’s electronic devices (e.g.,
locally-identi?ed metadata) or metadata identi?ed from
40
social netWorks used by the user. In some embodiments, the
metadata retrieved from each source can have different pri
orities or Weights.
For example, the processing module can analyZe the con
tent of a captured video and detect a speci?c color pro?le. In
In some embodiments, the metadata provided to the user in
display 700 can include initially processed metadata (e.g.,
metadata pre-selected by the processing module). For
45
particular, the processing module can identify large amounts
of orange corresponding to banners displayed in the knoWn
location (Golden Gate Park), or the processing module can
identify a combination of purple and blue in the video corre
sponding to clothing Worn by people at the event. The pro
threshold level of reliability. Display 700 can include an
option for displaying more or the entirety of the extracted
50
metadata if a user Wishes to vieW all of the metadata.
In some embodiments, the processing module can repeat a
particular search for metadata associated With a captured
video at several different times. For example, the processing
module can search for metadata each time the video is
55
and location to a search engine, and determine from the
results that a particular event took place at that time and
accessed or played back, at regular intervals, at varying inter
vals (e. g., intervals that increase), until particular metadata is
identi?ed (e.g., metadata for a particular ?eld), until a user
directs the processing module to stop, or until the processing
location (e.g., Valentine’s day cook-off). The event informa
tion can be used as metadata for the captured video.
Once the processing module has retrieved metadata from
example, the processing module can only present to the user
the metadata having been identi?ed in at least a threshold
number of different sources, or in at least a source having
cessing module can search one or more remote sources for
other images from the same general location having similar
color pro?les, and retrieve metadata from those images. As
another example, the processing module can provide a date
extracted metadata, the processing module can associate the
selected metadata With the captured video.
60
module cannot ?nd neW metadata for the video.
FIG. 8 is a ?owchart of an illustrative process for automati
some or all of the different sources (e.g., local, social netWork,
cally identifying metadata to associate With stored data in
and global sources), the processing module may need to
accordance With one embodiment of the invention. Process
manage the retrieved metadata to associate only the most
800 can begin at step 802. At step 804, a processing module
can retrieve stored data. For example, a processing module
can capture data. As another example, a processing module
relevant or mo st correct metadata With the captured video. In
some embodiments, the processing module can provide only
a single metadata value for each ?eld (e.g., if the processing
module identi?ed adequate metadata for the essential meta
65
can retrieve data from storage (e.g., remote storage). At step
806, the processing module can revieW metadata associated
US 8,140,570 B2
11
12
With the stored data. For example, the processing module can
retrieve metadata associated With the stored data, and deter
mine Whether metadata is stored in all of the metadata ?elds.
At step 808, the processing module can determine Whether
there are empty metadata ?elds. For example, the processing
application data of an electronic device that corresponds to
identi?ed metadata. For example, the processing module can
revieW calendar, contact, and media information correspond
module can determine Whether one or more metadata ?elds
more social netWork streams corresponding to the identi?ed
do not have any metadata. In some embodiments, the process
metadata. For example, the processing module can identify a
social netWork stream provided by the user Who captured or
created the data. As another example, the processing module
ing to the identi?ed metadata.
At step 908, the processing module can identify one or
ing module can instead determine Whether essential, impor
tant or more relevant metadata ?elds include metadata. For
example, the processing module can determine Whether
metadata is available for metadata ?elds associated With loca
can identify a stream associated With a user that appears in the
that none of the metadata ?elds are empty, process 800 can
move to step 810 and end.
data (e.g., a user captured in an image). At step 910, the
processing module can extract metadata from the identi?ed
application data and social netWork stream, and associate the
extracted metadata With the data. For example, the processing
tion, people and time. If the processing module determines
If, at step 808, the processing module instead determines
module can extract metadata from a calendar entry. As
that there are empty metadata ?elds, process 800 can move to
another example, the processing module can revieW entries
step 812. At step 812, the processing module can identify
empty metadata ?elds. For example, the processing module
from the social netWork stream and extract metadata from the
relevant entries. Process 900 can then end at step 912.
can determine the speci?c metadata ?elds for Which metadata
is required. At step 814, the processing module can extract
metadata from local resources. For example, the processing
module can revieW applications and application data for
In some embodiments, an electronic device can instead or
20
in addition be used to gather some or all data not created or
oWned by a user based on metadata associated With data
created or oWned by the user. In particular, the electronic
applications available on a user’s electronic device, and
device can connect to a remote source (e.g., directly or via a
retrieve application data corresponding to available metadata
associated With the stored data. For example, the processing
host device) to retrieve other data corresponding to the user’ s
25
module can identify a calendar event corresponding to a date
and time at Which an image Was captured. The processing
images or video accessed or created by the user.
The electronic device can determine Which data to gather
from other sources using any suitable criteria. In some
module can extract metadata from the application data corre
sponding to the stored data. In some embodiments, process
800 can move directly from step 814 to step 822.
30
At step 816, the processing module can identify social
network streams of interest for the stored data. For example,
the processing module can identify social netWork streams
associated With the user that generated or is accessing the
stored content. As another example, the processing module
35
can identify social netWork streams associated With one or
more people knoWn or found to have been present When the
stored data Was generated (e.g., When a video Was captured).
At step 818, the processing module can extract metadata from
the identi?ed social netWork streams. For example, the pro
cessing module can revieW speci?c entries in the social net
Work streams that correspond to the stored data, and extract
metadata for the stored data from the speci?c entries. In some
embodiments, process 800 can move directly from step 818 to
step 822.
At step 820, the processing module can extract metadata
from remote resources. For example, the processing module
embodiments, the electronic device can identify other data
based on metadata of similar data of interest oWned by the
user. FIG. 10 is a schematic vieW of an illustrative display for
identifying other data corresponding to selected data in accor
dance With one embodiment of the invention. Display 1000
can include listing 1012 of local data oWned or created by the
user to serve as a search term. The user can select one or more
instances of data 1022, including for example individual data
items, collections of data (e.g., an event that includes several
images and video clips), or combinations of these. In some
40
embodiments, data 1022 can instead or in addition include
speci?c metadata associated With data of interest. This
approach can alloW a user to select a subset of the metadata
45
associate With particular data. In some embodiments, the
electronic device can Weigh or prioritize different metadata
associated With the selected data (e.g., use a higher priority
for metadata that is shared betWeen the data 1022).
Display 1000 can include listing 1014 of sources of data to
search. For example, display 1000 can include one or more
can use extracted or knoWn metadata as search terms for
additional resources available from a remote source (e. g., the
Internet). The processing module can extract speci?c meta
data from the additional resources. At step 822, the process
data. For example, a user can direct an electronic device to
retrieve images and video that are similar to one or more
50
sources 1024, including for example speci?c sources (e.g., a
speci?c social netWork, or a speci?c social netWork stream
corresponding to a particular person), or more general
ing module can select from the extracted metadata to associ
sources (e.g., the Internet as a Whole). The user can select one
ate With the stored data. For example, the processing module
can apply a Weighing or averaging algorithm to select par
ticular metadata. As another example, the processing module
or more sources using any suitable approach, including for
example by selecting sources from a list, or by entering infor
55
can prompt the user to select particular metadata. Process 800
can then end at step 810.
FIG. 9 is a ?owchart of an illustrative process for associ
ating additional metadata With data in accordance With one
embodiment of the invention. Process 900 can begin at step
902. At step 904, a processing module can identify metadata
mation identifying a speci?c source.
In some embodiments, display 1000 can include one or
more options for specifying the type of data to retrieve from
the remote sources. For example, display 1000 can include an
option de?ning a data type (e.g., media or images). In some
60
embodiments, the display can include one or more options for
limiting the scope of the retrieved data. For example, the
display can include an option requiring retrieved data to have
associated With stored data. For example, the processing
module can identify the particular metadata ?elds having
tant or more relevant metadata ?elds, do not include any
been generated or captured Within a particular time period
(e.g., during an event). As another example, the display can
include an option for requiring that the data include speci?c
content (e.g., retrieve all images that shoW the user and
metadata. At step 906, the processing module can identify
another person).
metadata. In some embodiments, the processing module can
determine that some metadata ?elds, including more impor
65
US 8,140,570 B2
14
13
Once the user has de?ned the search parameters, the elec
or several instances of the components shown in FIG. 12. For
tronic device can connect to a remote source and identify data
the sake of simplicity, only one of each of the components is
that corresponds to the search terms. For example, the elec
tronic device can retrieve, from the Internet, all images and
video that were captured in Golden Gate Park during the
shown in FIG. 12.
Processor 1202 may include any processing circuitry or
control circuitry operative to control the operations and per
birthday event shown in FIG. 5. By retrieving images and
video captured by other people unknown to the user (e. g., not
formance of electronic device 1200. For example, processor
1202 may be used to run operating system applications, ?rm
in the user’s social networks), the user can review additional
ware applications, media playback applications, media edit
images that may show some or all of the user’ s event. This can
allow the user to de?ne and share a master or global catalogue
of data for an event
ing applications, or any other application. In some embodi
ments, a processor may drive a display and process inputs
received from a user interface.
FIG. 11 is a ?owchart of an illustrative process for compil
Storage 1204 may include, for example, one or more stor
ing data from disparate sources to provide a comprehensive
age mediums including a hard-drive, solid state drive, ?ash
memory, permanent memory such as ROM, any other suit
able type of storage component, or any combination thereof.
collection of data corresponding to an event in accordance
with one embodiment of the invention. Process 1100 can
begin at step 1102. At step 1104, the electronic device can
Storage 1204 may store, for example, media data (e.g., music
receive a selection of a user’s data. For example, the elec
and video ?les), application data (e.g., for implementing
tronic device can receive a selection of one or more instances
functions on device 1200), ?rmware, user preference infor
of data. As another example, the electronic device can receive
a selection of particular metadata. At step 1106, the electronic
device can retrieve metadata associated with the selected
data. For example, a processing module can provide a listing
of metadata associated with the selected data. The electronic
device can process the retrieved metadata to identify the most
mation (e.g., media playback preferences), authentication
relevant metadata, or the most common metadata for the
identi?ed data. In some embodiments, step 1106 can be
20
information (e. g. libraries of data associated with authoriZed
users), lifestyle information (e.g., food preferences), exercise
information (e. g., information obtained by exercise monitor
ing equipment), transaction information (e.g., information
25
skipped if metadata is provided directly at step 1104.
At step 1108, the electronic device can identify other data
associated with the retrieved metadata. For example, the elec
such as credit card information), wireless connection infor
mation (e.g., information that may enable electronic device
1200 to establish a wireless connection), subscription infor
mation (e.g., information that keeps track of podcasts or tele
vision shows or other media a user subscribes to), contact
information (e.g., telephone numbers and email addresses),
tronic device can perform a search on one or more remote 30 calendar information, and any other suitable data or any com
sources for data that is also associated with the retrieved
metadata. The remote sources can include, for example, a
bination thereof.
Memory 1206 can include cache memory, semi -permanent
social network, a blogging or micro-blogging network, the
memory such as RAM, and/ or one or more different types of
Internet, or combinations of these. In some embodiments, the
electronic device can identify speci?c types of data to retrieve
35
(e.g., only retrieve images or video). For example, the elec
tronic device can retrieve data that is of the same type as the
user selected data. At step 1110, the identi?ed other data can
be provided to the user. For example, the electronic device can
provide a display having a listing of identi?ed data originat
ments, memory 1206 and storage 1204 may be combined as a
40
ing from other users. Process 1100 can end at step 1112.
The electronic device used to perform some or all of the
features described above can include any suitable combina
single storage medium.
Input/output interface 1208 may provide inputs to input/
output circuitry of the electronic device. Input/ output inter
face 1208 may include any suitable input interface, such as for
example, a button, keypad, dial, a click wheel, or a touch
tion of hardware, ?rmware and software for performing
of?ine transactions. FIG. 12 is a schematic view of an illus
memory used for temporarily storing data. In some embodi
ments, memory 1206 can also be used for storing data used to
operate electronic device applications, or any other type of
data that may be stored in storage 1204. In some embodi
45
screen. In some embodiments, electronic device 1200 may
include a capacitive sensing mechanism, or a multi-touch
trative electronic device for playing back media in accor
dance with one embodiment of the invention. Electronic
device 1200 can include any suitable type of electronic device
capacitive sensing mechanism. In some embodiments, input
operative to play back media items. For example, electronic
can include an analog to digital converter for converting
interface can include a microphone or other audio input inter
face for receiving a user’s voice inputs. The input interface
device 1200 can include a media player such as an iPod® 50 received analog signals corresponding to a voice input to a
available by Apple Inc., of Cupertino, Calif., a cellular tele
digital signal that can be processed and analyZed to identify
phone, a personal e-mail or messaging device (e. g., a Black
berry® or a Sidekick®), an iPhone® available from Apple
speci?c words or instructions.
In some embodiments, input/output interface 1208 can
Inc., pocket-siZed personal computers, personal digital assis
tants (PDAs), a laptop computer, a desktop computer, a music
recorder, a video recorder, a camera, radios, medical equip
instead or in addition include one or more interfaces for
55
output (e.g., odor, taste or haptic output). For example, input/
ment, and any other device capable of playing back media
output interface 1208 can include one or more speakers (e. g.,
mono or stereo speakers) built into electronic device 1200, or
an audio connector (e.g., an audio jack or an appropriate
items.
Electronic device 1200 may include processor 1202, stor
age 1204, memory 1206, input/output interface 1208, and
providing an audio output, visual output, or other type of
or more of electronic device components 1200 may be com
Bluetooth connection) operative to be coupled to an audio
output mechanism. Input/output interface 1208 may be
operative to provide audio data using a wired or wireless
bined or omitted (e.g., combine storage 1204 and memory
1206). In some embodiments, electronic device 1200 may
include other components not combined or included in those
example, input/output interface 1208 can include display cir
cuitry (e.g., a screen or projection system) for providing a
60
communications circuitry 1210. In some embodiments, one
connection to a headset, headphones or earbuds. As another
65
shown in FIG. 12 (e.g., location circuitry, sensing circuitry
display visible to the user. The display can include a screen
detecting the device environment, a power supply, or a bus),
(e.g., an LCD screen) that is incorporated in electronic device
US 8,140,570 B2
15
16
1200, a movable display or a projecting system for providing
netWork stream, Wherein the additional metadata corre
sponds to metadata ?elds other than the at least one
metadata ?eld.
a display of content on a surface remote from electronic
device 1200 (e.g., a video projector), or any other suitable
display. Input/output interface 1208 can interface With the
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
searching for data associated With the identi?ed metadata
input/output circuitry (not shoWn) to provide outputs to a user
from a remote source; and
of the device.
Communications circuitry 1210 can be operative to create
extracting additional metadata from the searched data.
3. The method of claim 1, Wherein:
or connect to a communications network. Communications
identifying application data further comprises identifying
circuitry 1210 can be capable of providing Wireless commu
nications using any suitable short-range or long-range com
information used by an application that corresponds to
the identi?ed metadata.
4. The method of claim 3, Wherein the application com
prises at least one of:
a calendar application;
an address book;
munications protocol. For example, communications cir
cuitry 1210 can support Wi-Fi (e.g., a 802.11 protocol),
Bluetooth (registered trademark), radio frequency systems
(e.g., 1200 MHZ, 2.4 GHZ, and 5.6 GHZ communication
systems), infrared, protocols used by Wireless and cellular
phones and personal email devices, or any other protocol
supporting Wireless communications. Communications cir
cuitry 1210 may instead or in additionbe capable of providing
Wired communications, for example using any suitable port
a photo management application;
a video management application; and
an audio management application.
5. The method of claim 1, Wherein identifying a social
20
on one or both of the devices (e.g., 30-pin, USB, FireWire,
Serial, or Ethernet).
In some embodiments, electronic device 1200 may include
a bus operative to provide a data transfer path for transferring
data to, from, or betWeen control processor 1202, storage
25
1204, memory 1206, input/output interface 1208, communi
cations circuitry 1210, and any other component included in
the electronic device.
Although many of the embodiments of the present inven
tion are described herein With respect to personal computing
devices, it should be understood that the present invention is
30
identifying a person from the identi?ed metadata; and
identifying content of the social netWork stream related to
the identi?ed person.
6. The method of claim 5, further comprising:
retrieving a handle associated With the identi?ed person;
and
identifying content of the social netWork stream associated
With the retrieved handle.
7. The method of claim 6, Wherein retrieving the handle
further comprises:
retrieving the handle from an address book entry of the
identi?ed person.
8. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
not limited to personal computing applications, but is gener
ally applicable to other applications.
Embodiments of the invention are preferably implemented
by softWare, but can also be implemented in hardWare or a
combination of hardWare and softWare. Embodiments of the
netWork further comprises:
capturing data; and
35
associating metadata With the captured data based on at
least one of:
invention can also be embodied as computer readable code on
the output of electronic device sensors; and
a computer readable medium. The computer readable
medium is any data storage device that can store data Which
can thereafter be read by a computer system. Examples of the
computer readable medium include read-only memory, ran
analysis of the content of the captured data.
9. A non-transitory computer readable media for automati
40
dom-access memory, CD-ROMs, DVDs, magnetic tape, and
optical data storage devices. The computer readable medium
can also be distributed over netWork-coupled computer sys
tems so that the computer readable code is stored and
executed in a distributed fashion.
lnsubstantial changes from the claimed subject matter as
vieWed by a person With ordinary skill in the art, noW knoWn
or later devised, are expressly contemplated as being equiva
lently Within the scope of the claims. Therefore, obvious
for:
identifying metadata associated With data, the metadata
45
sponding to the identi?ed metadata;
identi?ed metadata; and
automatically extracting additional metadata from the
50
10. The non-transitory computer readable media of claim
55
1. A method for automatically associating metadata With
sponding to the identi?ed metadata;
identifying a social netWork stream corresponding to the
identi?ed metadata; and
automatically extracting additional metadata from the
identi?ed application data and from the identi?ed social
9, further comprising additional computer program logic
recorded thereon for:
searching for data associated With the identi?ed metadata
from a remote source; and
data, comprising:
corresponding to at least one metadata ?eld;
identifying application data of an electronic device corre
identi?ed application data and from the identi?ed social
netWork stream, Wherein the additional metadata corre
sponds to metadata ?elds other than the at least one
metadata ?eld.
What is claimed is:
identifying metadata associated With data, the metadata
corresponding to at least one metadata ?eld;
identifying application data of an electronic device corre
identifying a social netWork stream corresponding to the
substitutions noW or later knoWn to one With ordinary skill in
the art are de?ned to be Within the scope of the de?ned
elements.
The above described embodiments of the invention are
presented for purposes of illustration and not of limitation.
cally associating metadata With data, the computer readable
media comprising computer program logic recorded thereon
60
extracting additional metadata from the searched data.
11. The non-transitory computer readable media of claim
9, further comprising additional computer program logic
recorded thereon for:
identifying a person from the identi?ed metadata; and
identifying content of the social netWork stream related to
the identi?ed person.
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