petition

petition
UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE
____________
BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD
____________
Unified Patents Inc.
Petitioner
v.
PanTaurus, LLC.
Patent Owner
IPR2014- _____
Patent 6,272,533
____________
PETITION FOR INTER PARTES REVIEW
Mail Stop PATENT BOARD, PTAB
Commissioner for Patents
P.O. Box 1450
Alexandria, VA 22313-1450
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................1 II. MANDATORY NOTICES .............................................................................2 A. Real Party in Interest .............................................................................2 B. Related Matters......................................................................................4 C. Identification of Lead and Back-Up Counsel........................................5 D. Service Information ...............................................................................5 III. PAYMENT OF FEES .....................................................................................6 IV. REQUIREMENTS FOR INTER PARTES REVIEW ......................................6 V. VI. A. Grounds for Standing ............................................................................6 B. Statement of Precise Relief Requested (37 C.F.R. § 42.22(a))
and Identification of Challenges (37 C.F.R. § 42.104(b)) ....................6 C. How the Construed Claims are Unpatentable under the
Statutory Grounds identified in 37 C.F.R. § 42.104(b)(2) and
Supporting Evidence Relied upon to Support the Challenge................7 D. Threshold Showing of Reasonable Likelihood That Petitioner
Would Prevail With Respect To At Least One Challenged
Claim (35 U.S.C. § 314(a)) Has Been Met ...........................................8 FACTUAL BACKGROUND..........................................................................8 A. Declaration Evidence ............................................................................8 B. The State of the Art as of 1999 .............................................................9 C. The Challenged ‘533 Patent ................................................................12 D. Prosecution History .............................................................................13 CLAIM CONSTRUCTION (37 C.F.R. § 42.104(B)(3)) ..............................13 ii
A. Support for Claim Construction ..........................................................14 B. Said First Memories of Claim 43 Cannot be Construed .....................18 VII. THE GROUNDS SHOWING THAT PETITIONER HAS A
REASONABLE LIKELIHOOD OF PREVAILING ....................................19 A. B. Holtey II and Holtey I Disclose Each Limitation of Claims 29,
31-34, 38, 39, 42, and 43 .....................................................................19 1. The Combination of Holtey II and Holtey I .............................19 2. Reasons to Combine Holtey II and Holtey I .............................23 3. The Storage Device of Holtey II and Holtey I ..........................24 4. Claim 42 – First and Second Processors Include First and
Second Memories ......................................................................24 Holtey II, Holtey I, and Shafe Disclose Each Limitation of
Claims 35 and 36 .................................................................................27 1. The Combination of Holtey II, Holtey I, and Shafe .................27 2. Reasons to Combine Holtey II and Holtey I with Shafe ..........32 C. Claim Chart Demonstrating How Holtey II and Holtey I Render
Claims 29, 31-34, 38, 39, 42, and 43 Obvious ....................................33 D. Claim Chart Demonstrating How Holtey II, Holtey I, and Shafe
Render Claims 35 and 36 Obvious......................................................55 VIII. CONCLUSION..............................................................................................57 iii
I.
INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to the provisions of 35 U.S.C. §§ 311-319, Unified Patents Inc.,
(“Unified” or “Petitioner”) hereby petitions the Patent Trial and Appeal Board to
institute inter partes review of claims 29, 31-36, 38, 39, 42, and 43 of U.S. Patent
No. 6,272,533 to Browne (“the ‘533 Patent,” Ex. 1001).
In short, the ‘533 Patent describes a computer architecture that selectively
disables the alteration of data residing on a storage device for security purposes.
The architecture utilizes two buses with corresponding processors and a switch that
is used to disable writing to the storage device to maintain data integrity on the
device. This architecture, however, was well known as of the ‘533 Patent’s earliest
priority date as demonstrated by two related patents: U.S. Pat. No. 5,491,827 to
Thomas O. Holtey (“Holtey II”) and U.S. Pat. No. 5,442,704 to Thomas O. Holtey
(“Holtey I”).
The Petitioner relies upon Holtey II and Holtey I to demonstrate that all but
two of the challenged claims are unpatentable as being obvious. For the remaining
two claims, the Petitioner relies upon Holtey II and I in combination with U.S. Pat.
No. 6,035,429 to Shafe (“Shafe”) to demonstrate that those claims are unpatentable
as being obvious. Holtey II, Holtey I, and Shafe were never considered by the
Office and teach the exact architecture covered by the challenged claims. As such,
1
the Petitioner respectfully requests institution of an inter partes review of the
challenged claims.
II.
MANDATORY NOTICES
Pursuant to 37 C.F.R. § 42.8(a)(1), Unified Patents provides the following
mandatory disclosures.
A.
Real Party in Interest
Pursuant to 37 C.F.R. § 42.8(b)(1), Petitioner certifies that Unified Patents is
the real party-in-interest, and further certifies that no other party exercised control
or could exercise control over Unified Patents’ participation in this proceeding, the
filing of this petition, or the conduct of any ensuing trial.
Unified Patents was founded by intellectual property professionals over
concerns with the increasing risk of non-practicing entities (NPEs) asserting poor
quality patents against strategic technologies and industries. The founders thus
created a first-of-its-kind company whose sole purpose is to deter NPE litigation
by protecting technology sectors, like cloud storage, the technology against which
the ‘533 Patent is being asserted. Companies in a technology sector subscribe to
Unified’s technology specific deterrence, and in turn, Unified performs many
NPE-deterrent activities, such as analyzing the technology sector, monitoring
patent activity (including patent ownership and sales, NPE demand letters and
litigation, and industry companies), conducting prior art research and invalidity
2
analysis, providing a range of NPE advisory services to its subscribers, sometimes
acquiring patents, and sometimes challenging patents at the United States Patent
and Trademark Office (USPTO). Since its founding, Unified is 100% owned by its
employees; subscribers have absolutely no ownership interest.
Unified has sole and absolute discretion over its decision to contest patents
through the USPTO’s post-grant proceedings. Should Unified decide to challenge
a patent in a post-grant proceeding, it controls every aspect of such a challenge,
including controlling which patent and claims to challenge, which prior art to apply
and the grounds raised in the challenge, and when to bring any challenge.
Subscribers receive no prior notice of Unified’s patent challenges. After filing a
post-grant proceeding, Unified retains sole and absolute discretion and control over
all strategy decisions (including any decision to continue or terminate Unified’s
participation). Unified is also solely responsible for paying for the preparation,
filing, and prosecution of any post-grant proceeding, including any expenses
associated with the proceeding.
In the instant proceeding, Unified exercised its sole discretion and control in
deciding to file this petition against the ‘533 Patent, including paying for all fees
and expenses. Unified shall exercise sole and absolute control and discretion of
the continued prosecution of this proceeding (including any decision to terminate
3
Unified’s participation) and shall bear all subsequent costs related to this
proceeding. Unified is therefore the sole real-party-in-interest in this proceeding.
B.
Related Matters
PanTaurus LLC (“PanTaurus”) has asserted the ‘533 Patent against thirty
companies in the Eastern District of Texas. The following cases were all filed on
April 23, 2014. An “*” indicates that the case has terminated.
 PanTaurus LLC v. Samsung Electronics America, Inc., 1-14-cv-00237
 PanTaurus LLC v. Fuhu, Inc., 1-14-cv-00231
 PanTaurus LLC v. Toshiba America, Inc., 1-14-cv-00240
 PanTaurus LLC v. Symantec Corporation, 1-14-cv-00239*
 PanTaurus LLC v. Code42 Software, Inc., 1-14-cv-00229
 PanTaurus LLC v. Salesforce.com, Inc., 1-14-cv-00236
 PanTaurus LLC v. Carbonite, Inc., 1-14-cv-00228*
 PanTaurus LLC v. Best Buy Purchasing, LLC, 1-14-cv-00234*
 PanTaurus LLC v. Brightpearl, Inc., 1-14-cv-00227
 PanTaurus LLC v. Seagate Technology LLC., 1-14-cv-00238
 PanTaurus LLC v. Dropbox, Inc., 1-14-cv-00230
 PanTaurus LLC v. Microsoft Corporation, 1-14-cv-00235
 PanTaurus LLC v. Hisense USA Corporation, 1-14-cv-00233
 PanTaurus LLC v. Google Inc., 1-14-cv-00232
 PanTaurus LLC v. Amazon.com, Inc., 1-14-cv-00226
The following cases were all filed on September 3, 2013 and all have
terminated.
4
 PanTaurus LLC v. Apricorn, Inc., 1-13-cv-00540
 PanTaurus LLC v. Hewlett-Packard Company, 1-13-cv-00546
 PanTaurus LLC v. Verbatim Americas LLC, 1-13-cv-00552
 PanTaurus LLC v. Sony Electronics Inc., 1-13-cv-00551
 PanTaurus LLC v. Imation Corp., 1-13-cv-00547
 PanTaurus LLC v. Fujitsu America, Inc., 1-13-cv-00545
 PanTaurus LLC v. Data Locker Inc., 1-13-cv-00544
 PanTaurus LLC v. Global Silicon Electronics, Inc., 1-13-cv-00543
 PanTaurus LLC v. ASUS Computer International, 1-13-cv-00541
 PanTaurus LLC v. Acer America Corp., 1-13-cv-00538
 PanTaurus LLC v. Lenovo (United States) Inc., 1-13-cv-00548
 PanTaurus LLC v. Lexar Media, Inc., 1-13-cv-00549
 PanTaurus LLC v. Apple, Inc., 1-13-cv-00539
 PanTaurus LLC v. BlackBerry Corporation, 1-13-cv-00542
 PanTaurus LLC v. Sandisk Corporation, 1-13-cv-00550
C.
Identification of Lead and Back-Up Counsel
Pursuant to 37 C.F.R. § 42.8(b)(3), Petitioner provides the following
designation of counsel: Lead counsel is Michael L. Kiklis (Reg. No. 38,939) and
back-up counsel is Scott A. McKeown (Reg. No. 42,866).
D.
Service Information
Pursuant to 37 C.F.R. § 42.8(b)(4), papers concerning this matter should be
served on the following:
5
Address:
Michael L. Kiklis
Oblon Spivak
1940 Duke Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
Email:
[email protected]
Telephone: (703) 413-2707/(703)413-3000 (main)
Fax:
(703) 413-2220
III.
PAYMENT OF FEES
The undersigned authorizes the Office to charge the required fees as well as
any additional fees that might be due to Deposit Account No. 15-0030.
IV.
REQUIREMENTS FOR INTER PARTES REVIEW
As set forth below and pursuant to 37 C.F.R. § 42.104, each requirement for
inter partes review of the ‘533 Patent is satisfied.
A.
Grounds for Standing
Petitioner certifies pursuant to 37 C.F.R. § 42.104(a) that the ‘533 Patent is
available for inter partes review and that Petitioner is not barred or estopped from
requesting inter partes review challenging the patent claims on the grounds
identified herein.
B.
Statement of Precise Relief Requested (37 C.F.R. § 42.22(a)) and
Identification of Challenges (37 C.F.R. § 42.104(b))
Petitioner requests inter partes review and cancellation of claims 29, 31-36,
38, 39, 42, and 43 of the ‘533 Patent as being obvious under 35 U.S.C. § 103 in
6
view of the following U.S. Patents, each of which is prior art pursuant to 35 U.S.C.
§§ 102(b) and/or 102(e):
1. U.S. Pat. No. 5,491,827, issued Feb. 13, 1996 (“Holtey II”) (Ex.
1002);
2. U.S. Pat. No. 5,442,704, issued Aug. 15, 1995 (“Holtey I”) (Ex.
1003); and
3. U.S. Pat. No. 6,035,429, priority date of Dec. 23, 1994 (“Shafe”) (Ex.
1004).
Specific Challenges
1) Claims 29, 31-34, 38, 39, 42, and 43 are challenged as being obvious under
35 U.S.C. § 103 in view of Holtey II and Holtey I; and
2) Claims 35 and 36 are challenged as being obvious under 35 U.S.C. § 103 in
view of Holtey II, Holtey I, and Shafe.
C.
How the Construed Claims are Unpatentable under the Statutory
Grounds identified in 37 C.F.R. § 42.104(b)(2) and Supporting
Evidence Relied upon to Support the Challenge
The challenged claims are to be construed as indicated in Section VI, below.
Pursuant to 37 C.F.R. § 42.104(b)(4), an explanation of how the challenged claims
are unpatentable under the statutory ground identified above, including the
identification of where each element of the claim is found in the prior art, is
provided in Section VII, below, in the form of two claim charts. Pursuant to 37
C.F.R. § 42.104(b)(5), the appendix numbers of the supporting evidence relied
7
upon to support the challenges and the relevance of the evidence to the challenges
raised, including identifying specific portions of the evidence that support the
challenges, are provided in Section VII, below, in the form of two claim charts.
D.
Threshold Showing of Reasonable Likelihood That Petitioner
Would Prevail With Respect To At Least One Challenged Claim
(35 U.S.C. § 314(a)) Has Been Met
The information and evidence presented in this Petition, including
unpatentability grounds detailed in Section VII, below, establishes a reasonable
likelihood that Petitioner will prevail with respect to at least one of the challenged
claims. See 35 U.S.C. § 314(a). Indeed, that section, supported by the Kaeli
declaration (Ex. 1005) demonstrates that the challenged claims are obvious in view
of the relied upon prior art.
V.
FACTUAL BACKGROUND
A.
Declaration Evidence
This Petition is supported by the declaration of Professor David R. Kaeli,
Ph.D. from Northeastern University (attached as Ex. 1005). Dr. Kaeli offers his
opinion with respect to the skill level of one of ordinary skill in the art (Ex. 1005,
¶¶ 21 and 22), the content and state of the prior art (Ex. 1005, ¶¶ 23-30), the
teachings and suggestions that one of ordinary skill would understand based on
Exs. 1002-1004 (Ex. 1005, pps. 15-55), how one of ordinary skill in the art would
understand various claim terms (Ex. 1005, at ¶¶ 12-17), the reasons for combining
8
the teachings from Exs. 1002-1004 (Ex, 1005, ¶¶ 33-41), and the manner in which
one of ordinary skill would combine those teachings (Ex. 1005, pps. 19-55). Dr.
Kaeli is Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at
Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts and is Director of the
Northeastern University Computer Architecture Laboratory. He has over twenty
years of experience in computer architecture. See Ex. 1005.
B.
The State of the Art as of 1999
Multi-bus and multi-processor systems were common prior to 1999.
Specifically, IBM and other mainframe manufacturers were producing
multiprocessor systems. For example, in 1978, IBM introduced the IBM
System/370 model 3033 that included a dual-processor with independent buses to a
shared disk drive subsystem. Ex. 1005, at ¶ 23.
The ability to enable/disable access to hard drives was also well known prior
to 1999. For example, U.S. Patent 6,052,781 (Ex. 1006) discloses:
Access by one system user to another system user's hard disk drive
and attendant files is absolutely denied thereby preventing corruption
of one user's hard disk drive files by another user's carelessness or
malicious intent, or through unique setup adaptation of one user's
program files which may otherwise interact with and impose
unwanted changes on another's program file's operational
performance. Ex. 1005, at ¶ 24; Ex. 1006, at Abstract.
9
The ability to utilize a switch to disable reading or writing to disk was well
known to those of ordinary skill in 1999. For example, U.S. Patent 5,268,960 (Ex.
1007) discloses:
A hard disk protection device comprising a decoding circuit which
receives signals from the address and data buses of a personal
computer to decode the signals associated with hard disk write actions
and generating a signal to suppress the signal of IOW line so as to
disable the write function of the hard disk. A switch is provided for a
user to disconnect the decoding circuit from the hard disk so as to
allow the hard disk to be operated as a conventional hard disk. Ex.
1005, at ¶ 25; Ex. 1007, at Abstract.
Further, U.S. Patent 4,912,633 (Ex. 1009) by NCR Corporation discloses
master/slave bus configurations, with the ability of processors to have “mastery”
over their own buses:
A modular and hierarchical multiple bus computer architecture in
which the master bus and slave bus are substantially identical, and
communicate through a combination of an interface controller and a
shared dual port RAM responsive to a shared RAM controller.
Processor engine modules including a bus, a processor, an interface
controller, a shared dual port RAM, and a shared RAM controller are
horizontally and/or vertically integrated at multiple levels without
major restructuring of the composite system control operations by
having each slave processor engine module interface as a peripheral
upon the bus of its master. The modularity of the architecture allows
10
the use of standard peripherals and platform processor engines to
expand memory or increase functionality without burdening the
master bus processor engine. Each slave bus processor engine is fully
functional as an independent processor with mastery over its own bus.
Ex. 1005, at ¶ 27; Ex. 1009, at Abstract. Ex. 1005, at ¶ 27.
Finally, although the challenged claims purport to claim as new “a switch
operable to selectively enable and disable at least one of said operating modes, said
switch controllable by means distinct and separate from at least one of said
processors whereby said one processor is inhibited from controlling said operation
of said switch,” this same switching mechanism–and indeed the rest of the
limitations of the challenged claims–is disclosed by a pair of related patents:
Holtey II and Holtey I. These patents disclose the same switching mechanism used
for the same purpose as the ‘533 Patent: protecting a storage device from
corruption from malicious software. Ex. 1005, at ¶ 28.
Holtey I describes the design of a secure memory card that plugs into a host.
The security mechanism described uses a non-volatile random access memory for
storing a security key value. Each block of protected memory includes a lock bit.
The key and the lock bit are used together to protect storage elements on the card.
The microprocessor associated with the memory card utilizes a set of special
instructions to validate the key value and the lock bits. If the validation procedure
11
is successful, access is granted to the data on the memory card. Holtey I can
selectively grant either read or write access to the storage elements on the card.
Ex. 1005, at ¶ 29.
Holtey II, related to Holtey I, describes the design of a secure application
card or Smart Card that also plugs into a host. One purpose of Holtey II is to
protect application memory. The security mechanism described in Holtey II uses
multiple microprocessors and multiple buses to control access to non-volatile
memory chips, the claimed “storage device.” Access to the non-volatile memory is
under control of one of the two microprocessors. The secure application card also
contains an access discrimination logic circuit that considers the access type that
can be made by each microprocessor for the purpose of protecting stored
information in the non-volatile memory. Holtey II’s Fig. 1 shows the exact
architecture of the contested claims, as discussed below. Ex. 1002, at Fig. 1;
Ex.1005, at ¶ 30.
C.
The Challenged ‘533 Patent
Although the ‘533 Patent discloses both a single-bus architecture and a dualbus architecture, the challenged claims cover only the dual-bus architecture. Each
bus is connected to a processor and each bus is connected to a storage device that
selectively operates in a plurality of “operating modes,” such as read or write
access. Lastly, the challenged claims include a switch “operable to selectively
12
enable and disable at least one of said operating modes, said switch controllable by
means distinct and separate from at least one of said processors whereby said one
processor is inhibited from controlling said operation of said switch.” Ex. 1001, at
claim 29. As Dr. Kaeli testifies, all the features of the contested claims were well
known to one of ordinary skill in the art as of the earliest priority date of the ‘533
Patent. Ex. 1005, at ¶¶ 10-11.
D.
Prosecution History
During prosecution, the applicant was unable to obtain claims directed to the
single-bus embodiment. Instead, the claims had to be amended to require a dual-bus
architecture to gain allowance. See Ex. 1010, at 18-32. Nevertheless, this dual-bus
architecture is exactly what is disclosed by Holtey II and Holtey I.
VI.
CLAIM CONSTRUCTION (37 C.F.R. § 42.104(B)(3))
Pursuant to 37 C.F.R. § 42.204(b)(3), the claims subject to inter partes review
shall receive the “broadest reasonable construction in light of the specification of
the patent in which [they] appear[].” See 42 C.F.R. § 100(b). For the purposes of
this petition, the Petitioner adopts the plain meaning for all claims terms. The
Petitioner proposes a specific construction for several terms below:
Claim Term
Data storage device (claims 29, 32, 35,
36, and 38)
Operating modes (claims 29, 31, 33,
and 34)
Proposed construction
“any device that retains information”
“any state of operation of a device”
13
Switch (claims 29 and 31)
“a control mechanism”
A. Support for Claim Construction
Data storage device (claims 29, 32, 35, 36, and 38) – One of ordinary skill in the
art would understand this term to mean “any device that retains information.” The
‘533 Patent states the following about the storage device, using the term broadly,
thus supporting this claim construction:
According to another feature of the invention, the storage device may
include a magnetic media and comprise a disk drive or a magnetic
tape. The storage device may alternatively include a non-volatile
electronic memory device, such as an EEPROM. Ex. 1001, at 40-44.
According to still a further feature, the storage device may include an
optical storage device such as a CD-ROM or an electro-optical source
device such as CD-RW. Ex. 1001, at 45-47.
In this configuration, the two processors are isolated from each other .
. . the other providing remote access to the mass storage devices
including hard disk drives. Ex. 1001, at 8-12.
The doctrine of claim differentiation also supports this construction.
Specifically, claims 35-42 depend indirectly from claim 29 and further define the
“storage device” to be a magnetic media, a disk drive, a magnetic tape, a nonvolatile electronic memory device, an EEPROM, an optical storage device, and an
14
electro-optical storage device, respectively. Ex. 1005, at ¶ 14. Thus, the term
“data storage device” must be construed broadly.
Operating modes (claims 29, 31, 33, and 34) – One of ordinary skill in the art
would understand this term to mean “any state of operation of a device.” Although
the ‘533 Patent refers to a non-secure and secure mode of operation, this refers to
whether writing to the storage device is disabled, which is different than the
broader notion of “operating modes.” See Ex. 1001, at Abstract. Claims 32-34,
which depend from claim 29, clarify that “operating modes” include at least a
“read-only” mode and a “write-only” mode. With respect to “operating modes,”
the ‘533 Patent states:
The storage device is responsive to the processor for selectively
operating in a plurality of operating modes including a read mode of
operation for retrieving previously stored data and a write mode of
operation for storing data. Ex. 1001, at 6:19-22.
At least one of the operating modes may be a read mode of operation
and, alternatively, may be a write mode of operation. Ex. 1001, at
6:34-36.
For example, the mode limiting switch is applicable to other storage
devices and media and to other devices where selection and control of
operating modes must be restricted. For example, a restricted user
may be limited by the switch to monitoring the output of a device
such as a video camera, while a local user may additionally control
15
the camera. Similarly, the switch may be used in-line with a printer to
allow limited printing capabilities for certain users while providing
full capabilities to local users of the system. Ex. 1001, at 12:18-28.
In the quote reproduced immediately above at 12:18-28, the ‘533 Patent
attempts to expand the term “operating mode” to cover other concepts beyond
merely read and write access, such as printing capabilities. One of ordinary skill in
the art would thus understand the term “operating mode” to mean any state of
operation of a device. Therefore, in the context of a storage device, an operating
mode can include not only read-only access and write-only access, but can also
include read/write access and other modes, such as execute access. Ex. 1005, at ¶
15.
Switch (claims 29 and 31) – One of ordinary skill in the art would understand this
term to mean “a control mechanism,” and within the context of claim 29, it means
a control mechanism “operable to selectively enable and disable one of said
operating modes.” One of ordinary skill in the art would understand this control
mechanism to include either a manual or an automatic switch. Since claim 30
specifically restricts the switch to a manually operated switch, the doctrine of claim
differentiation dictates that claim 29 should be construed broader, including not
only a manual switch but also an automatic switch. Furthermore, the switch could
16
be implemented using hardware and/or software. This analysis is supported by the
‘533 Patent:
A system and method according to the invention limit access to
computer system storage media by providing a locally operable switch
which selectively prevents alteration to the local storage media. The
switch may be a manually operable mechanical device or may be
electronic, so long as its operation is isolated from the system being
protected, and may be entirely self contained. Ex. 1001, at 3:59-66.
The switch is operable to selectively enable and disable at least one of
the operating modes, the switch being controllable by means distinct
and separate from the processor so that the processor is inhibited from
controlling the operation of the switch. According to a feature of the
invention, the switch may be manually operated to selectively make
and break an electrical conducting path connecting the processor with
the storage device. Ex. 1001, at 6:23-29.
FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a computer system according to the
invention including a switch for inhibiting a hard disk drive from
operating in a write mode of operation and segmented main memory.
Ex. 1001, at 7:9-12.
FIG. 5 is a flow diagram for a software implemented switch for
restricting operation of designated peripheral devices to programmed
modes of operation. Ex. 1001, at 7:19-21.
17
Alternatively, switch 202 may include appropriate hardware and
software to monitor signals transmitted by controller 108 to hard disk
drive 110. Write (or other inhibited actions such as read, erase, etc.)
commands to one or more designated devices would be recognized
and intercepted, switch 202 generating an appropriate error message
back to controller 108. Permissible operations would be transmitted
through to disk drive 110 without impediment. In this software
implementation of switch 202, predetermined portions of disk drive
202 may be designated as secure so that write commands are
selectively inhibited only to designated tracks, sectors, clusters, etc.
Ex. 1001, at 8:43-54.
Further, by placing hard disk drive 110b in a “Write only” mode of
operation using switch 202b, data uploaded to the drive by remote
users of the system cannot be accessed by other remote users thereby
enhancing system security. Ex. 1001, at 10:37-40.
For example, the mode limiting switch is applicable to other storage
devices and media and to other devices where selection and control of
operating modes must be restricted. Ex. 1001, at 12:18-22.
Ex. 1005, at ¶ 15; see also, Ex. 1001, at 4:34-44; 4:61-64; 7:60-65; 6:4-10;
10:59-63; 8:62-9:2.
B. Said First Memories of Claim 43 Cannot be Construed
Claim 43’s “said first memories” is not defined in any of the claims from
which it depends, rendering it impossible for one of ordinary skill to understand
18
the meaning of this term. Ex. 1005, at ¶ 17. If the PTAB decides not to institute
trial on this claim, the Petitioner respectfully requests this Board state in its
Institution Order that this term cannot be construed. Otherwise, for the purposes of
this Petition, the Petitioner and Dr. Kaeli will assume that claim 43 depends from
claim 42 and demonstrate below that it is obvious.
VII. THE GROUNDS SHOWING THAT PETITIONER HAS A
REASONABLE LIKELIHOOD OF PREVAILING
A. Holtey II and Holtey I Disclose Each Limitation of Claims 29, 31-34,
38, 39, 42, and 43
1. The Combination of Holtey II and Holtey I
Holtey II teaches all elements of claims 29, 31-34, 38, 39, 42, and 43.
Nevertheless, Petitioner relies upon both Holtey II and Holtey I to further bolster
the analysis regarding operating modes. See Ex. 1005, at ¶ 31.
Holtey II discloses the architecture of the ‘533 Patent. It teaches dual buses,
each connected to a processor, and a shared storage device and switch that operate
in the same way as the ‘533 Patent, as annotated Fig. 1 of Holtey II demonstrates:
19
Ex. 1002, at Fig. 1; Ex. 1005, at ¶ 30. This architecture is the same as the ‘533
Patent’s:
Claim 29 Claim Term
Holtey II
First system bus
Bus 106
First processor connected to first
Host micro processor
system bus
Second system bus
Bus 105
Second processor connected to the
Application microprocessor
second system bus
Data storage device
Flash memory 103a through 103n
Switch
Discrimination logic unit/access
20
control microprocessor
In the combination of Holtey II and Holtey I, Dr. Kaeli relies upon the flash
memory for the claimed “data storage device.” Ex. 1005, at ¶ 30. Holtey II
describes using Intel 28F001BX flash memory chips as an example embodiment.
Ex. 1002, at 5:19-25. Holtey II describes a plurality of operating modes, including
“Execute, read and write control signals generated by any one of the
microprocessors.” Ex. 1002, at 5:34-36. Holtey II does not provide too much
explicit details of the flash memory because “such circuits can be considered
conventional in design” and consequently are only “described to the extent
necessary.” Ex. 1002, at 6:50-52. Thus, Holtey II does not provide too much
express disclosure of the write-only operating mode. Nevertheless, one of ordinary
skill in the art would recognize that the write-only mode is inherently disclosed, if
not explicitly disclosed, and that Holtey II’s storage device could be used for
providing write-only access. One of ordinary skill would use a write-only
capability with Holtey II for the appropriate application, such as for various
administrative functions like statistic gathering, monetary receipt collection, or
compiling financial data, which is explicitly disclosed in Holtey II at 13:40-60.
Ex. 1005, at ¶ 31.
Moreover, Holtey I explicitly discloses write-only access:
21
As shown in FIG. 3, the flash memory circuits receive a plurality of
input address signals A0-A16, data signals D00-D07 and control
signals consisting of chip enable, write enable, output enable, power
down and erase/program power supply signals CE, WE, OE, PWD,
and VPP respectively. The functions performed by these signals are
described in Appendix I. Ex. 1003, at 7:39-45.
OE
OUTPUT ENABLE: Gates the device’s outputs through the
data buffers during a read cycle.
OE is active low.
WE WRITE ENABLE: Controls writes to the command register and
array blocks. WE is active low. Addresses and data are latched
on the rising edge of the WE pulse.
Vpp ERASE/PROGRAM POWER SUPPLY
for erasing blocks of the array or programming bytes of each
block. Note: With Vpp < VPPI Max, memory contents cannot
be altered. When Vpp is at a high level, programming can take
place; if Vpp is at a low level, the memory array 54 functions as
a read only memory. Ex. 1003, at 15:25-37.
Ex. 1005, at ¶ 32.
Holtey I describes using, as an example, the same flash memory as Holtey
II, Intel’s 28F001BX 1M. Since both Holtey II and I use the same flash memory,
the teachings of Holtey I are applicable to and are necessarily present in Holtey II.
22
Thus, Holtey I’s teaching of the write-only operating mode means that the writeonly mode is necessarily present in Holtey II. Nevertheless, the combination of
Holtey II and I certainly discloses the write-only operating mode, and Petitioner
relies upon both Holtey II and Holtey I for claims 29, 31-34, 38, 39, 42, and 43.
2. Reasons to Combine Holtey II and Holtey I
One of ordinary skill in the art would be led to combine Holtey I with Holtey
II for many reasons. First, Holtey II specifically identifies Holtey I in the
“RELATED APPLICATIONS” section. Ex. 1002, at 1:14-18. In fact, Holtey II
expressly indicates that its secure application card should be operated in
conjunction with the host system microprocessor of Holtey I:
The above and other objects of the present invention are achieved in
the preferred embodiment of a secure application card which is
operated in conjunction with one of more host systems such as the
host system microprocessor described in the above reference related
patent application to Thomas O. Holtey, et al. Ex. 1002, at 2:55-60.
Thus one or ordinary skill when looking at Holtey II would necessary be led to
consider the teachings of Holtey I. Second, both Holtey I and II list the same
inventor, Thomas O. Holtey, and were filed on the same day by the same assignee.
Third, the Holtey patents are directed to the same problem as the ‘533 Patent–
defending against malicious software attack–as indicated by the field of the
23
invention and the primary object of the invention of both patents, which are
identical:
This invention relates to the field of portable personal computers and
more particularly to systems for maintaining data security in a
portable digital information environment. Ex. 1002, at 1:21-25; Ex.
1003, at 1:19-24.
Accordingly, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide
a portable digital system with a secure memory subsystem.” Ex.
1002, at 2:42-44; Ex. 1003, at 2:42-44.
Lastly, Holtey II and Holtey I appear to be descriptions of the same security
device that merely focus on different aspects. This is demonstrated by the
dramatic overlap of design details. There are therefore many reasons why one of
ordinary skill in the art would be led to combine the teachings of Holtey II and I.
Ex. 1005, at ¶ 33; see also Id., at ¶¶ 31-32.
3. The Storage Device of Holtey II and Holtey I
Holtey II and Holtey I describe a flash memory, which Dr. Kaeli uses in his
analysis as the storage device of the claims. As Dr. Kaeli testifies, one of ordinary
skill in the art recognizes that flash memory is a form of non-volatile memory
(claim 38) and is also a form of EEPROM (claim 39). Ex. 1005, at ¶ 34.
4. Claim 42 – First and Second Processors Include First and
Second Memories
24
Claim 42 requires a first and second processor that include “a first memory
for storing program instructions and a second memory, separate and distinct from
said first memory, storing data.” Holtey II explicitly shows that the host processor
(the first processor) has a first memory that stores program instructions in a ROM:
The host microprocessor is a simple device which operates the
peripheral devices but has minimum functionality of its own. For
example, the microprocessor can be constructed using an Intel 8051
chip. It has its own read only memory (ROM) which contain start up
and self test code only. Thus, the host device can be viewed as a
“shell” with all of the significant functionality contained within the
application card 3. Ex. 1002, at 8:2-9.
As Dr. Kaeli notes, since ROM is read only, this quote satisfies the limitations of
claim 43. Ex. 1005, at ¶ 35.
Holtey II also explicitly shows that the application processor (the second
processor) includes a first memory storing program instructions:
The application microprocessor A1 is contained in the application
card and is programmed to perform all operation functions required
for running a given application. In the preferred embodiment, the
microprocessor may be constructed using an Intel 80286
microprocessor chip. The application microprocessor A1 also has a
random access memory which is uses to perform certain intermediate
25
calculations in running specific applications. Ex. 1002, at 7:55-62
(emphasis added).
Holtey II does not explicitly disclose that the host processor and the
application processor have a separate memory that stores data. However, such is
necessarily present in these processors because Holtey II describes the application
processor as being an Intel 80286 chip and describes the host processor as being an
Intel 8051 chip. Dr. Kaeli is familiar with both architectures, and testifies that
these processors store program instructions and data in separate memories. For
example, in the Intel 80286 chip, program instructions are stored in a local RAM
memory (as the above quote indicates) that is directly accessed by the chip and
also has an on-chip, separate memory that stores data (descriptor registers used for
addressing memory). See Ex. 1011. In the Intel 8051 processor, the program
instructions and data are stored in separate memories. See Ex. 1012. Moreover,
many processor architectures at the time of the ‘533 Patent stored data in a separate
memory from program instructions. The decision of whether to store program
instructions and data in a single or separate memories therefore is an obvious
matter of design choice well within the skill level of one of ordinary skill in the art.
Ex. 1005, at ¶ 36.
26
B. Holtey II, Holtey I, and Shafe Disclose Each Limitation of Claims 35
and 36
1. The Combination of Holtey II, Holtey I, and Shafe
The combination of Holtey II and Holtey I suggest using a magnetic media
(claim 35) and/or a disk drive (claim 36) rather than flash memory, but
nevertheless the Petitioner relies upon the combination of Holtey II, Holtey I, and
Shafe for claims 35 and 36 for explicit support. Shafe adds a suitable hard disk
that is on a PCMCIA compatible card to the Holtey II and Holtey I combination.
See Ex. 1004; Ex. 1005, at ¶ 37.
One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize that the invention of Holtey
II and I is applicable to non-volatile memory generally (see e.g., Ex. 1002, at
13:25-30), and could easily be applied to hard disks. Moreover, one of ordinary
skill in the art would recognize that magnetic disks and flash memory are fungible
in many respects. Even Holtey II refers to how one of ordinary skill in the art
would recognize that flash memory and magnetic disks are fungible. See Ex. 1002,
at 2:7-12; 2:23-33; Ex. 1005, at ¶ 38.
It would therefore be an obvious matter of design choice to one of ordinary
skill in the art to implement the security methodology of Holtey II and I using a
hard disk drive (magnetic media) rather than flash memory. One of ordinary skill
in the art would recognize the need for such a modification for applications that
27
utilize more memory than flash memory provided at the time of the ‘533 Patent’s
filing date. Examples of such applications may include those mentioned at 13:3959 of Holtey II. Ex. 1005, at ¶ 38.
Any one of these applications could easily exceed the flash memory limits of
that time frame. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize that the security
methodology of Holtey II and I would accommodate hard disks. Such a
modification would be readily accommodated by using the standard PCMCIA
interface, or another suitable interface, to the host (Ex. 1002, at 3:56-60) as well as
the application microprocessor, access discrimination logic and access control
microprocessor of Holtey II. See Ex. 1002, at Fig. 1; 5:10-17. One of ordinary
skill in the art would therefore recognize the desirability and ease with which a
hard drive could be used with the invention of Holtey II and Holtey I. Ex. 1005, at
¶ 39.
One such hard disk is provided by Shafe (U.S. Pat. No. 6,035,429). In
fact, Shafe’s hard disk is embodied in a PCMCIA compatible card, just like
Holtey II and Holtey I, providing one of ordinary skill in the art with
motivation for the combination:
28
FIG. 4 is representative of a card enclosure for an electronic circuit,
adapted to be plugged into a compatible computer slot at connector
64. It may, for example, be a PCMCIA card type I, II or III having a
predefined length 64, width 63, and height 62. The card thickness 62
is generally the most critical dimension of a card enclosure. Ex. 1004,
at 6:22-27.
29
FIG. 5 illustrates generally the preferred embodiment of the electronic
circuit apparatus of the present invention. The circuit implements a
discrete, component sized disk drive 74 for local storage and resides
in a card enclosure such as a PCMCIA type II or type III format,
although it will be understood that the circuit apparatus of the present
invention may also be enclosed in other card formats, or may
comprise the electronic circuit of an electronic device and reside
within the device enclosure rather than within a card enclosure (e.g. a
camera). Ex. 1004, at 6:28-37.
30
Shafe recognizes, as does one of ordinary skill in the art, that for
applications where more data is required, it is advantageous to use magnetic
disk drives rather than solid state memory:
State-of-the art portable message devices that rely on solid state
memories are limited in the amount of information they can store,
making them impractical for receiving large documents, electronic
mail, pictures and video images. This limitation is overcome by
replacing the memory with a component disk drive. Ex. 1004, at
8:51-56.
Unfortunately, the cost of solid state memory increases almost linearly
with its storage capacity. Moreover, since there are physical
limitations to known solid state technologies, an increase in the
storage capacity of memory corresponds to an increase in its physical
size. These limitations present a foreseeable problem with the growing
demand for small, sophisticated, portable, and inexpensive devices
with substantial storage requirements.
One area in which the limitations of solid state memory are becoming
apparent is card-based electronic circuits. For example, circuits
embodying or controlling fax machines, modems, cellular phones,
printers, cameras, disk drives, and other devices are presently being
housed in credit-card sized formats of predefined dimensions that plug
into a compatible socket of a laptop computer, PC, or other electronic
device. Three standard formats that have emerged for such credit-
31
card-type applications are the PCMCIA formats. . . .
In contrast to solid state memories, magnetic disk drives in general are
becoming smaller, and their cost per megabyte is decreasing. It is
therefore advantageous to provide a magnetic disk drive small enough
to replace solid state memory in electronic devices, such as printers,
and in card-based electronic circuits, e.g. PCMCIA formats.
Furthermore, magnetic disk drives are ideal for many of the
applications discussed above because they provide modifiable, high
density, nonvolatile storage. Ex. 1004, at 1:32-62.
Shafe also recognizes the prevalence of small disk drives and recognizes the need
for security of the data on the disk. Ex. 1004, at 2:8-19; 9:39-41; Ex. 1005, at ¶ 40.
2. Reasons to Combine Holtey II and Holtey I with Shafe
One of ordinary skill in the art would combine Shafe’s disk drive with the
application card of Holtey II and I for many reasons, some of which are discussed
supra at VII(A)(1). For example, for applications that require large amounts of
data, the cost of solid state memory “increases almost linearly,” and the more solid
state memory that is required only serves to increase the size of the device. Ex.
1004, at 1:31-39; 9:51-56. Some of these applications are mentioned in Holtey II.
Ex. 1002, at 13:39-59. At the time of the invention, hard disks had become
prevalent, offering a cheaper, more cost-effective alternative. Ex. 1004, at 2:8-19.
Replacing solid state memory with a hard disk was both well-known and well-
32
motivated by the storage limitations of solid state memory. Ex. 1004, at 8:51-56.
Moreover, the well-recognized fungibility of hard disk drives with flash memory at
the time of the invention would lead one of ordinary skill in the art to look to hard
disk drives depending upon their particular design goals, storage requirements, cost
constraints, and application. Ex. 1002, at 2:7-33; Ex. 1004, at 1:32-59. Also, one of
ordinary skill in the art would recognize the suitability for Shafe’s hard disk on the
application card of Holtey II because Shafe’s card is PCMCIA compatible and
Schafe recognizes the need to secure the data on its storage device. Ex. 1004, at
9:39-41. One of ordinary skill in the art would consider it an obvious matter of
design choice to combine Shafe’s disk drive with the security application card of
Holtey II and I and would be led to form such a combination. Ex. 1005, at ¶ 41.
C. Claim Chart Demonstrating How Holtey II and Holtey I Render
Claims 29, 31-34, 38, 39, 42, and 43 Obvious
The following claim chart demonstrates, on a limitation-by-limitation basis,
how claims 29, 31-34, 38, 39, 42, and 43 of the ‘533 Patent are rendered obvious
by Holtey II in view of Holtey I. This claim chart is directly supported by Dr.
Kaeli’s declaration and includes his testimony. Ex. 1005, at pp. 30-51. That is,
Dr. Kaeli’s declaration provides a claim chart that corresponds directly to the one
below, claim-by-claim and element-by-element. Id.
33
U.S. Patent No.
6,272,533
29. A digital
computer system
comprising:
Holtey II (U.S. Pat. No. 5,491,827) and Holtey I (U.S.
Pat. No. 5,442,704)
Holtey II teaches a digital computer system comprising a
“secure application card” (also called an “application
memory card”) connected to a “host system.”
[57]
ABSTRACT
An application memory card system includes a
secure memory card which can be operatively
connected to communicate with a host mainframe
microprocessor or hand held device host
microprocessor via a standard interface. The secure
memory card contains an application processor and
an access control microprocessor (ACP), each of
which connect through an internal bus to a number
of non-volatile addressable memory chips, each
organized into a plurality of blocks. (Ex. 1002, at
Abstract)
The above and other objects of the present invention
are achieved in the preferred embodiment of a
secure application card which is operated in
conjunction with one of more host systems such as
the host system microprocessor described in the
above reference related patent application to
Thomas O. Holtey, et al. (Ex. 1002, at 2:55-60)
Holtey II references related application bearing Ser. No.
08/181,691 that issued as patent 5,442,704 (Holtey I).
a first system bus;
2. The patent application of Thomas O. Holtey
entitled, “A Secure Memory Card with Programmed
Controlled Security Access Control,” filed on
Jan. 14, 1994, bearing Ser. No. 08/181,491, which
is assigned to the same assignee as this patent
application. (Ex. 1002, at 1:14-18)
Holtey II teaches the host processor is connected to an
internal bus 106 (first system bus).
The host processor 5 includes a micro-processor 5-6
which connects to bus 102 via an internal bus 106
34
and the interface logic circuits of block 5-10. (Ex.
1002, at 4:55-57)
(Ex. 1002, at Fig. 1)
a second system
bus;
Each of the buses 102, 105, and 106 include a data
bus, a control bus and an address bus and provide
continuous signal paths through all like buses. (Ex.
1002, at 5:5-7)
Holtey II teaches the application microprocessor is
connected to an internal bus 105 (second system bus)
which is a different bus from internal bus 106 (first system
bus).
As shown, in FIG. 1, the application card 3 of the
present invention includes an access control
microprocessor (ACP) 10 which couples to bus 105,
a plurality of CMOS flash memory chips designated
as 103a through 103n which couple to internal bus
105, an application microprocessor A1 which
couples to bus 105 and an access discrimination
logic unit A3 which couples to bus 105 and to flash
memories 103a through 103n as shown. (Ex. 1002,
at 5:10-17)
35
(Ex. 1002, at Fig. 1)
a first processor
connected to said
first system bus;
Each of the buses 102, 105, and 106 include a data
bus, a control bus and an address bus and provide
continuous signal paths through all like buses. For
(Ex. 1002, at 5:5-7)
Holtey II teaches a host microprocessor (first processor)
connected to internal bus 106 (first system bus).
The host processor 5 includes a micro-processor 5-6
which connects to bus 102 via an internal bus 106
and the interface logic circuits of block 5-10. (Ex.
1002, at 4:55-57)
(Ex. 1002, at Fig. 1)
The host microprocessor is a simple device which
operates the peripheral devices but has minimum
functionality of its own. For example, the
microprocessor can be constructed using an Intel
8051 chip. (Ex. 1002, at 8:2-5)
Each of the buses 102, 105, and 106 include a data
36
a second processor
connected to said
second system bus;
bus, a control bus and an address bus and provide
continuous signal paths through all like buses.
(Ex. 1002, at 5:5-7)
Holtey II teaches an application microprocessor (second
processor) connected to internal bus 105 (second system
bus).
According to the teachings of the present invention,
the secure application card further includes an
application microprocessor which also connects to
the internal bus. (Ex. 1002, at 3:14-16)
(Ex. 1002, at Fig. 1)
As shown, in FIG. 1, the application card 3 of the
present invention includes an access control
microprocessor (ACP) 10 which couples to bus 105,
a plurality of CMOS flash memory chips designated
as 103a through 103n which couple to internal bus
105, an application microprocessor A1 which
couples to bus 105 and an access discrimination
logic unit A3 which couples to bus 105 and to flash
memories 103a through 103n as shown. (Ex. 1002,
at 5:10-17)
The application microprocessor A1 is contained in
the application card and is programmed to perform
all operation functions required for running a given
application. In the preferred embodiment, the
microprocessor may be constructed using an Intel
80286 microprocessor chip. (Ex. 1002, at 7:55-59)
Each of the buses 102, 105, and 106 include a data
bus, a control bus and an address bus and provide
continuous signal paths through all like buses.
37
(Ex. 1002, at 5:5-7)
Holtey II teaches a secure application card containing a
a data storage
device connected to plurality of flash memory chips 103a through 103n (data
said first and second storage device).
system buses for
The secure application card of the preferred
selectively
embodiment includes an access control
operating in a
microprocessor (ACP) on a single semiconductor
plurality of
chip and one or more non-volatile addressable
operating modes so
memory chips which serve as main memory. (Ex.
as to access said
1002, at 2:62-66)
data storage device;
and
As in the case of the related patent application, the
present invention melds the “Smart Cart” and
“memory card” technologies which is key to
allowing the protection of large amounts of data
made possible by flash memory technology in the
“security harsh” environments created by electronic
miniaturization. Also, the present invention also
retains the features of the secure card of the related
patent application relative to being capable of
operating in secure and non-secure modes,
eliminating the need for encrypting and decrypting
data, and protecting memory contents if the card or
its host processor is lost, stolen, powered off or left
unattended. In the event of theft, the memory
contents is protected from access even if the
memory card is opened and probed electronically or
the memory chips are removed and placed in
another device. (Ex. 1002, at 4:12-26)
The CMOS flash memories 103a through 103n may
take the form of flash memory chips manufactured
by Intel Corporation. For example, they may take
the form of the Intel flash memory chips designated
as Intel 28F001BX 1M which includes eight
128Kilobyte×8-bit CMOS flash memories. Thus, a
4 Megabyte flash memory card could include 32
such flash memories (i.e. n=32). (Ex. 1002, at 5:19-
38
25)
Holtey II teaches the flash memory chips (data storage
device) are connected to the first and second system buses.
Holtey II teaches the flash memory chips are connected to
the internal bus 105 (second system bus).
As shown, in FIG. 1, the application card 3 of the
present invention includes an access control
microprocessor (ACP) 10 which couples to bus 105,
a plurality of CMOS flash memory chips designated
as 103a through 103n which couple to internal bus
105, an application microprocessor A1 which
couples to bus 105 and an access discrimination
logic unit A3 which couples to bus 105 and to flash
memories 103a through 103n as shown. (Ex. 1002,
at 5:10-17)
(Ex. 1002, at Fig. 1)
Holtey II teaches the flash memory chips (data storage
device) are connected to internal bus 106 (first system
bus).
In the preferred embodiment, each host
microprocessor couples to the application card
39
through a standard interface such as one of the
interfaces which conforms to the Personal
Computer Memory Card International Association
(PCMCIA) standards. More specifically, the
particular PCMCIA interface selected is one which
has the so-called “Execute-in-Place” (XIP)
functionality which can be used in conjunction with
card processors which provide bus mastering and
intercard communications capabilities. (Ex. 1002,
at 3:56-64)
The connection between the application card 3 and
host microprocessor 5 is established through a
standard bus interface. In the preferred embodiment,
the bus 102 conforms to the Personal Computer
Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA)
standard which includes an “Execute-in-Place”
(XIP) capability. The interface 102 provides a path
for transferring address, control and data
information between host processor 5 and the
application card system 3 via a standard interface
chip 104 and an internal bus 105. Each of the buses
102, 105, and 106 include a data bus, a control bus
and an address bus and provide continuous signal
paths through all like buses. (Ex. 1002, at 4:63-67 to
5:1-7)
(Ex. 1002, at Fig. 1)
40
The host processor 5 includes a microprocessor 5-6
which connects to bus 102 via an internal bus 106
and the interface logic circuits of block 5-10. (Ex.
1002, at 4:55-57)
Holtey II teaches a plurality of operating modes to access
the data storage device using an access control
microprocessor for controlling the “access by type
memory” on the application memory card.
According to the present invention, as seen from
FIG. 1, the control portion of internal bus 105 as
well as external bus 102, contains a plurality of
control signal lines which apply Execute, Read and
Write control signals generated by any one of the
microprocessors 5-6, 10 or A1. More specifically,
each of the microprocessors include means for
initiating Execute, Read and Write cycles of
operation. through the different states of various
control lines. (Ex. 1002, at 5:31-39)
The access control microprocessor includes an
addressable non-volatile memory for storing
configuration information including a number of
key values and program instruction information for
controlling the transfer of address, data and control
information on the internal bus. In the preferred
embodiment, a portion of the configuration
information serves as the content for the access by
type memory which is loaded at power-up. This
data is protected by the ACP and can be modified
via the host processor only with proper permissions
(ala changing passwords). (Ex. 1002, at 3:3-13)
Associated with the application processor is an
access discrimination logic unit included on the
same chip as the access control microprocessor
which controls access to the non-volatile memory
41
chips. The access discrimination logic unit includes
an access by type random access memory (RAM)
having a plurality of word locations, each location
associated with a different block of the addressable
memory chips and having a number of access
control bits coded for defining different types of
access as a function of the specific application being
run.
(Ex. 1002, at 3:23-32)
Holtey I teaches that the storage device operates in a
plurality of operating modes:
As shown in FIG. 3, the flash memory circuits
receive a plurality of input address signals A0-A16,
data signals D00-D07 and control signals consisting
of chip enable, write enable, output enable, power
down and erase/program power supply signals CE,
WE, OE, PWD, and VPP respectively. The
functions performed by these signals are described
in Appendix I. (Ex. 1003, at 7:39-45)
OE
OUTPUT ENABLE: Gates the device’s
outputs through the data buffers during a read
cycle.
OE is active low.
WE WRITE ENABLE: Controls writes to the
command register and array blocks. WE is
active low. Addresses and data are latched on
the rising edge of the WE pulse.
Vpp ERASE/PROGRAM POWER SUPPLY
for erasing blocks of the array or
programming bytes of each block. Note: With
Vpp < VPPI Max, memory contents cannot
be altered. When Vpp is at a high level,
programming can take place; if Vpp is at a
low level, the memory array 54 functions as a
read only memory.
(Ex. 1003, at 15:25-37)
42
Holtey II teaches that the type of access required by the
processors such as data read access or execute access is a
type of memory access and that the access discrimination
logic and access control microprocessor selectively
operate in a plurality of operating modes to control access
to the data storage device.
In the preferred embodiment, the states of the
“Execute” and “Off Board” signal lines define
several different types of memory access. These are:
Data Read Access from the host microprocessor,
Data Read access from the application card’s
microprocessor, Execute Access from the host
microprocessor, and Execute Access from the
application card’s microprocessor. (Ex. 1002, at
3:42-49)
In accordance with the present invention, these
signals define four different types of memory
access, These are: Data Read Access from Host
Microprocessor 5-6, Data Read Access from the
Application Microprocessor A1, Execute Access
from the Host Microprocessor 5-6, and Execute
Access from the Application Microprocessor A1.
(Ex. 1002, at 5:55-60)
See also the analysis for claim 32 below.
a switch operable to
selectively enable
and disable at least
one of said
operating modes,
said switch
controllable by
means distinct and
separate from at
least one of said
Holtey II teaches access discrimination logic unit and
access control microprocessor (switch) operable to
selectively enable and disable at least one of said
operating modes. Holtey II teaches memory blocks may
have read, write, or execute permissions applied.
Associated with the application processor is an
access discrimination logic unit included on the
same chip as the access control microprocessor
which controls access to the non-volatile memory
43
processors whereby
said one processor
is inhibited from
controlling said
operation of said
switch.
chips. The access discrimination logic unit includes
an access by type random access memory (RAM)
having a plurality of word locations, each location
associated with a different block of the addressable
memory chips and having a number of access
control bits coded for defining different types of
access as a function of the specific application being
run.
(Ex. 1002, at 3:16-32)
The access discrimination logic unit A3 as
discussed in greater detail in connection with FIG. 3
includes an Access by Type Random Access
Memory (RAM) array containing a plurality of
word locations, one location for each block of the
memory chips 103a through 103n and input selector
circuits connected to the “Execute” and “Off Board”
control signal lines indicating the nature and source
of the memory access. In accordance with the
present invention, these signals define four different
types of memory access, These are: Data Read
Access from Host Microprocessor 5-6, Data Read
Access from the Application Microprocessor A1,
Execute Access from the Host Microprocessor 5-6,
and Execute Access from the Application
Microprocessor A1. The Access Discrimination
Logic Unit A3 performs the task of applying the
output enable control to the memory chips 103a
through 103n. That is, it determines which type of
enable control signal is to be applied to the memory
chips 103a through 103n as a function of the state
of the selected prestored access control bits of the
location associated with the block being addressed.
(Ex. 1002, at 5:48-67)
For example, in the application card of the preferred
embodiment, as discussed above, there are four
different types of accesses. These accesses are
designated by bit positions 0 through 3 of each
44
word. As indicated, bit positions 0 and 1 are used to
control application microprocessor access to data
and programs respectively. Bit positions 2 and 3 of
each word are used to control host microprocessor
access to data and programs respectively. When,
any bit position is preset to a binary ONE state, this
indicates that access is permitted. When a bit
position is preset to a binary ZERO state, this
indicates that access is not allowed. (Ex. 1002, at
8:20-31)
In the preferred embodiment, the discrimination
logic A3 and access control microprocessor are
contained microprocessor are contained on a single
chip A5. (Ex. 1002, at 8:47-50)
Holtey II teaches that the switch is controllable by means
distinct and separate from at least one of said processors
whereby said one processor is inhibited from controlling
said operation of said switch.
The access control microprocessor includes an
addressable non-volatile memory for storing
configuration information including a number of
key values and program instruction information for
controlling the transfer of address, data and control
information on the internal bus. In the preferred
embodiment, a portion of the configuration
information serves as the content for the access by
type memory which is loaded at power-up. This
data is protected by the ACP and can be modified
via the host processor only with proper permissions
(ala changing passwords). (Ex. 1002, at 3:3-13)
The access control microprocessor writes the
contents of the access by type RAM in a
conventional manner during power-up. As
indicated, the host or application processor is
allowed to modify the contents of this RAM only
45
under the control of the ACP thereby maintaining
security.
(Ex. 1002, at 3:50-55)
Holtey II teaches access discrimination logic unit and
access control microprocessor (digital controller) which
may be contained on a single chip (switch comprises a
digital controller).
31. The digital
computer system
according to claim
29 wherein said
switch comprises a
In the preferred embodiment, the access
digital controller, an
discrimination logic A3 and access control
operation of which
microprocessor are contained microprocessor are
is independent of
contained on a single chip A5. (Ex. 1002, at 8:47said second
50)
processor for
selectively enabling
and disabling said at Holtey II teaches the access control microprocessor
(digital controller) operates independently of the
least one of said
application processor (second processor).
operating modes.
Associated with the application processor is an
access discrimination logic unit included on the
same chip as the access control microprocessor
which controls access to the non-volatile memory
chips. The access discrimination logic unit includes
an access by type random access memory (RAM)
having a plurality of word locations, each location
associated with a different block of the addressable
memory chips and having a number of access
control bits coded for defining different types of
access as a function of the specific application being
run.
(Ex. 1002, at 3:16-32)
The access control microprocessor includes an
addressable non-volatile memory for storing
configuration information including a number of
key values and program instruction information for
controlling the transfer of address, data and control
information on the internal bus. In the preferred
embodiment, a portion of the configuration
46
information serves as the content for the access by
type memory which is loaded at power-up. This
data is protected by the ACP and can be modified
via the host processor only with proper permissions
(ala changing passwords). (Ex. 1002, at 3:3-13)
The access control microprocessor writes the
contents of the access by type RAM in a
conventional manner during power-up. As
indicated, the host or application processor is
allowed to modify the contents of this RAM only
under the control of the ACP thereby maintaining
security.
(Ex. 1002, at 3:50-55)
The combination of Holtey II & I teaches the flash
32. The digital
memory chips (data storage device) may operate in a readcomputer system
only mode.
according to claim
29 wherein said data The combination of Holtey II & I teaches a secure system
that has memory “access type” controls. The combination
storage device is
teaches permission controls for read, write and execute
operable in (i) a
memory access where “read-only mode” is the “Data Read
read-only mode of
access” of the preferred embodiment where the write
operation for
enable control signal does not permit writing to flash
retrieving
memory and/or the Vpp signal is in a state that forces the
previously stored
data and (ii) a write- memory array to function as read only memory.
only mode of
As shown in FIG. 3, the flash memory circuits
operation for storing
receive a plurality of input address signals A0-A16,
data.
data signals D00-D07 and control signals consisting
of chip enable, write enable, output enable, power
down and erase/program power supply signals CE,
WE, OE, PWD, and VPP respectively. The
functions performed by these signals are described
in Appendix I. (Ex. 1003, at 7:39-45)
OE
OUTPUT ENABLE: Gates the device’s
outputs through the data buffers during a read
cycle.
OE is active low.
47
WE WRITE ENABLE: Controls writes to the
command register and array blocks. WE is
active low. Addresses and data are latched on
the rising edge of the WE pulse.
Vpp ERASE/PROGRAM POWER SUPPLY
for erasing blocks of the array or
programming bytes of each block. Note: With
Vpp < VPPI Max, memory contents cannot
be altered. When Vpp is at a high level,
programming can take place; if Vpp is at a
low level, the memory array 54 functions as a
read only memory.
(Ex. 1003, at 15:25-37)
These are: Data Read Access from the host
microprocessor, Data Read access from the
application card’s microprocessor, Execute Access
from the host microprocessor, and Execute Access
from the application card’s microprocessor.
The access control microprocessor writes the
contents of the access by type RAM in a
conventional manner during power-up. As
indicated, the host or application processor is
allowed to modify the contents of this RAM only
under the control of the ACP thereby maintaining
security.
(Ex. 1002, at 3:45-54)
The combination teaches the flash memory chips (data
storage device) may operate in a write-only mode. Holtey
II teaches an embodiment for flash memory being the Intel
28F001BX which has both CE (chip enable) and OE
(output enable) control signals.
The CMOS flash memories 103a through 103n may
take the form of flash memory chips manufactured
by Intel Corporation. For example, they may take
the form of the Intel flash memory chips designated
as Intel 28F001BX 1M which includes eight
48
128Kilobyte×8-bit CMOS flash memories. Thus, a
4 Megabyte flash memory card could include 32
such flash memories (i.e. n=32). (Ex. 1002, at 5:1925)
Holtey II teaches the access control memory bits inhibit
the output buffer of the flash memory by gating the OE
control line.
As seen from FIG. 3, section 103S includes a
security access control unit 30 and a volatile access
control memory 43 interconnected as shown. The
output of the access control memory 43 is applied as
an enabling input to output buffer 52 during each
memory read cycle when the contents of a byte
location of any block of memory array 53 is being
read out. That is, a read cycle may occur, however,
the data read out is inhibited from passing through
output buffer 52 in the absence of the appropriate
block’s access control memory gating signal.
(Ex. 1002, at 7:25-34)
(Ex. 1002, at Fig. 3)
Holtey I teaches that the access control memory bits do
not inhibit the CE control signal and therefore both read or
execute access may be disabled but not the write access
which therefore provides a write-only mode.
As shown in FIG. 3, the flash memory circuits
receive a plurality of input address signals A0-A16,
data signals D00-D07 and control signals consisting
of chip enable, write enable, output enable, power
down and erase/program power supply signals CE,
49
WE, OE, PWD, and VPP respectively. The
functions performed by these signals are described
in Appendix I. (‘Ex. 1003, at 7:39-45)
OE
OUTPUT ENABLE: Gates the device’s
outputs through the data buffers during a read
cycle. OE is active low.
WE WRITE ENABLE: Controls writes to the
command register and array blocks. WE is
active low. Addresses and data are latched on
the rising edge of the WE pulse.
Vpp ERASE/PROGRAM POWER SUPPLY
for erasing blocks of the array or
programming bytes of each block. Note:
With Vpp<VPPI Max, memory content
cannot be altered. When Vpp is at a high
level, programing can take place; if Vpp is at
a low level, the memory array 54 functions as
a read only memory.
(Ex. 1003, at 1525-37)
See claim 32 read-only mode.
33. The digital
computer system
according to claim
32 wherein said at
least one of said
operating modes is
said read-only mode
of operation.
See claim 32 write-only mode.
34. The digital
computer system
according to claim
32 wherein said at
least one of said
operating modes is
said write-only
mode of operation.
38. The digital
See supra at VII(A)(3); Ex. 1005, at ¶ 34.
computer according
to claim 32 wherein Holtey II teaches the use of a flash memory that is a non50
said data storage
device comprises a
non-volatile
electronic memory
device.
volatile electronic memory.
The CMOS flash memories 103a through 103n may
take the form of flash memory chips manufactured
by Intel Corporation. For example, they may take
the form of the Intel flash memory chips designated
as Intel 28F001BX 1M which includes eight
128Kilobyte×8-bit CMOS flash memories. Thus, a
4 Megabyte flash memory card could include 32
such flash memories (i.e. n=32). (Ex. 1002, at 5:1925)
FLASH MEMORIES 103a through 103n
FIG. 3 shows in block diagram form, flash memory
103a which is identical in construction to the
remaining flash memories 103b through 103n. As
shown, memory 103a includes two sections, a
memory section 103M organized according to the
present invention and a security logic section 103S
containing the security access control circuits of the
present invention. (Ex. 1002, at 6:32-39)
(Ex. 1002, at Fig. 1)
The recent emergence of the flash memory and
removable “memory cards” have allowed major
reductions in size and power requirements of the
portable of the portable computer. The flash
memory combines the flexibility of random access
memories (RAMs) with the permanence of disks.
51
39. The digital
computer according
to claim 38 wherein
said electronic nonvolatile electronic
memory device
comprises an
EEPROM.
42. The digital
computer according
to claim 32 wherein
each of said first
and second
processors include a
central processing
unit, a first memory
storing program
instructions and a
second memory,
separate and distinct
from said first
memory, storing
data.
(Ex. 1002, at 2:23-27)
See claim 38. See supra at VII(A)(3); Ex. 1005, at ¶ 34.
See supra at VII(A)(4); Ex. 1005, at ¶¶ 35-36.
Holtey II teaches a first processor (host processor) that
includes a central processing unit (microprocessor) and a
first memory storing program instructions (ROM which
contain start up and self test code).
The host microprocessor is a simple device which
operates the peripheral devices but has minimum
functionality of its own. For example, the
microprocessor can be constructed using an Intel
8051 chip. It has its own read only memory (ROM)
which contain start up and self test code only. Thus,
the host device can be viewed as a “shell” with all
of the significant functionality contained within the
application card 3. (Ex. 1002, at 8:2-9)
Holtey II teaches a second processor (application
processor) that includes a central processing unit
(microprocessor) and a first memory storing program
instructions.
The application microprocessor A1 is contained in
the application card and is programmed to perform
all operation functions required for running a given
application. In the preferred embodiment, the
microprocessor may be constructed using an Intel
80286 microprocessor chip. The application
microprocessor A1 also has a random access
memory which is uses to perform certain
52
intermediate calculations in running specific
applications. (Ex. 1002, at 7:55-62)
Holtey II teaches a secure system that controls memory
access type permissions that includes “Execute”
permissions and therefore teaches the memory for storing
program instructions is separate from memory storing
data.
These accesses are designated by bit positions 0
through 3 of each word. As indicated, bit positions 0
and 1 are used to control application microprocessor
access to data and programs respectively. Bit
positions 2 and 3 of each word are used to control
host microprocessor access to data and programs
respectively. When, any bit position is preset to a
binary ONE state, this indicates that access is
permitted. When a bit position is preset to a binary
ZERO state, this indicates that access is not
allowed.
(Ex. 1002, at 8:22-31)
The piece of data which would be not changed, is
the program code for the application microprocessor
itself. An important part of that code is the
algorithms and encryptions that allow messages to
be sent over the credit network via the
communications link of FIG. 4 which includes the
information describing how the hand held device is
to access that network. That is, it includes the
information which properly identifies the requester
used for establishing that the transaction is a
legitimate transaction to make a charge against a
given account. This is highly secure information
that is kept in the application card. (Ex. 1002, at
10:65-11:8)
From the above, it is seen how the application card
constructed according to the principles of the
53
present invention provides a secure environment for
both data and programs. It allows sharing of such
information stored within a non-volatile memory
between a plurality of microprocessors. Further, it
enables application software to be packaged with its
own application processor making such systems
more economical to produce and use. (Ex. 1002, at
13:25-32)
Holtey II teaches storing program instructions stored
separately and in distinct memory from data.
For example, the table given below illustrates
further examples of memory 103a for sample
applications.
(Ex. 1002, at 37-59)
43. The digital
computer according
to claim 33 wherein
at least one of said
first memories is
operable in a readonly mode of
operation in which
It is assumed that this claim depends from claim 42.
See claim 42 above; See supra at VII(A)(4); see Ex. 1005,
at ¶¶ 35-36.
54
said program
instructions are
protected from
alteration and
erasure by a
corresponding one
of said central
processing units.
D. Claim Chart Demonstrating How Holtey II, Holtey I, and Shafe
Render Claims 35 and 36 Obvious
The following claim chart demonstrates, on a limitation-by-limitation basis,
how claims 35 and 36 of the ‘533 Patent are rendered obvious by Holtey II, Holtey
I and Shafe. This claim chart is directly supported by Dr. Kaeli’s declaration and
includes his testimony. Ex. 1005, at pp. 51-54. That is, Dr. Kaeli’s declaration
provides a claim chart that corresponds directly to the one below, claim-by-claim
and element-by-element. Id.
U.S. Patent No.
6,272,533
35. The digital
computer according
to claim 32 wherein
said data storage
device comprises a
magnetic media.
Holtey II (U.S. Pat. No. 5,491,827), Holtey I (U.S. Pat.
No. 5,442,704), and Shafe (U.S. Pat. No. 6,035,429)
See Ex. 1005, at ¶¶ 37-40.
Holtey II teaches the use of a memory consisting of a
conventional disk that is constructed from a magnetic
media.
The recent emergence of the flash memory and
removable “memory cards” have allowed major
reductions in size and power requirements of the
portable of the portable computer. The flash memory
combines the flexibility of random access memories
(RAMs) with the permanence of disks. Today, the
combining of these technologies allows up to 20
55
million bytes of data to be stored without power, in a
credit card size removable package. This data can be
made to appear to a host system either as if it were
stored on a conventional disk drive or if it were
stored in an extension of the host system’s memory.
(Ex. 1002, at 2:23-33)
Holtey II’s invention relates to non-volatile memory
generally, of which magnetic disk is one:
From the above, it is seen how the application card
constructed according to the principles of the present
invention provides a secure environment for both
data and programs. It allows sharing of such
information stored within a non-volatile memory
between a plurality of microprocessors. (Ex. 1002,
at 13:25-30).
Shafe teaches a PCMCIA card with an on-board magnetic
disk (disk drive) as an alternative to costlier solid state
memory.
FIG. 5 illustrates generally the preferred embodiment
56
of the electronic circuit apparatus of the present
invention. The circuit implements a discrete,
component sized disk drive 74 for local storage and
resides in a card enclosure such as a PCMCIA type II
or type III format, although it will be understood that
the circuit apparatus of the present invention may
also be enclosed in other card formats, or may
comprise the electronic circuit of an electronic
device and reside within the device enclosure rather
than within a card enclosure (e.g. a camera). (Ex.
1004, at 6:28-37)
The disk 11 is preferably magnetic and includes one
recording surface 42 with a substantially planar
region 45 at its center. (Ex. 1004, at 4:51-53)
The present invention relates generally to electronic
devices implementing local storage, and in particular
to an electronic circuit that incorporates a component
level disk drive in lieu of costlier solid state memory.
(Ex. 1004, at 1:8-11)
See also, Ex. 1004, at Abstract; Fig. 4; 1:32-62; 2:819; 6:22-27; 8:51-56; 9:39-41.
36. The digital
computer according
to claim 32 wherein
said data storage
device comprises a
disk drive.
See claim 35. See Ex. 1005, at ¶¶ 37-40.
VIII. CONCLUSION
For the reasons set forth above, Petitioner has established a reasonable
likelihood of prevailing with respect to at least one claim of the ‘533 Patent.
57
Therefore, Petitioner respectfully requests that the Patent Trial and Appeal Board
institute an inter partes review and then proceed to cancel claims 29, 31-36, 38, 39,
42, and 43.
Respectfully submitted,
OBLON SPIVAK
Dated: August 29, 2014
/Michael L. Kiklis/
Michael L. Kiklis
Reg. No. 38,939
Customer Number
22850
Tel. (703) 413-3000
Fax. (703) 413-2220
(OSMMN 02/10)
58
Petitioner’s Exhibit List (August 29, 2014)
PETITIONER’S EXHIBIT LIST
August 29, 2014
Exhibit
Description
Ex. 1001 U.S. Patent No. 6,272,533
Ex. 1002 U.S. Patent No. 5,491,827 to Holtey (“Holtey II”)
Ex. 1003 U.S. Patent No. 5,442,704 to Holtey (“Holtey I”)
Ex. 1004 U.S. Patent No. 6,035,429 to Shafe (“Shafe”)
Ex. 1005 Declaration of David R. Kaeli, Ph.D.
Ex. 1006 U.S. Patent No. 6,052,781 to Weber
Ex. 1007 U.S. Patent No. 5,268,960 to Hung, et al.
Ex. 1008 U.S. Patent No. 5,263,139 to Testa, et al.
Ex. 1009 U.S. Patent No. 4,912,633 to Schweizer, et al.
Ex. 1010 Selected pages from the prosecution of U.S. Patent No. 6,272,533
Ex. 1011 Intel 80286 Hardware Reference Manual, 1987
Ex. 1012 Intel MCS 51 Microcontroller Family User’s Manual, Feb. 1994
59
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
The undersigned certifies service pursuant to 37 C.F.R. §§ 42.6(e) and
42.105(b) on the Patent Owner by UPS Next Day Air of a copy of this Petition for
Inter Partes Review and supporting materials at the correspondence address of
record for the ‘533 Patent:
ROBERT J KOCH
FULBRIGHT & JAWORSKI
801 PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE NW
WASHINGTON DC 20004
Dated: Aug. 29, 2014
By:
/Michael L. Kiklis/
Michael L. Kiklis
Reg. No. 38,939
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement