MSP430x1xx Family User`s Guide (Rev. F)
 User’s Guide
2006
Mixed Signal Products
SLAU049F
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Copyright  2006, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Related Documentation From Texas Instruments
Preface
About This Manual
This manual discusses modules and peripherals of the MSP430x1xx family of
devices. Each discussion presents the module or peripheral in a general
sense. Not all features and functions of all modules or peripherals are present
on all devices. In addition, modules or peripherals may differ in their exact
implementation between device families, or may not be fully implemented on
an individual device or device family.
Pin functions, internal signal connections and operational paramenters differ
from device-to-device. The user should consult the device-specific datasheet
for these details.
Related Documentation From Texas Instruments
For related documentation see the web site http://www.ti.com/msp430.
FCC Warning
This equipment is intended for use in a laboratory test environment only. It generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and has not been tested
for compliance with the limits of computing devices pursuant to subpart J of
part 15 of FCC rules, which are designed to provide reasonable protection
against radio frequency interference. Operation of this equipment in other environments may cause interference with radio communications, in which case
the user at his own expense will be required to take whatever measures may
be required to correct this interference.
Notational Conventions
Program examples, are shown in a special typeface.
iii
Glossary
Glossary
ACLK
Auxiliary Clock
See Basic Clock Module
ADC
Analog-to-Digital Converter
BOR
Brown-Out Reset
See System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
BSL
Bootstrap Loader
See www.ti.com/msp430 for application reports
CPU
Central Processing Unit
See RISC 16-Bit CPU
DAC
Digital-to-Analog Converter
DCO
Digitally Controlled Oscillator See Basic Clock Module
dst
Destination
See RISC 16-Bit CPU
FLL
Frequency Locked Loop
See FLL+ in MSP430x4xx Family User’s Guide
GIE
General Interrupt Enable
See System Resets Interrupts and Operating Modes
INT(N/2) Integer portion of N/2
I/O
Input/Output
ISR
Interrupt Service Routine
LSB
Least-Significant Bit
LSD
Least-Significant Digit
LPM
Low-Power Mode
MAB
Memory Address Bus
MCLK
Master Clock
MDB
Memory Data Bus
MSB
Most-Significant Bit
MSD
Most-Significant Digit
NMI
(Non)-Maskable Interrupt
See System Resets Interrupts and Operating Modes
PC
Program Counter
See RISC 16-Bit CPU
POR
Power-On Reset
See System Resets Interrupts and Operating Modes
PUC
Power-Up Clear
See System Resets Interrupts and Operating Modes
RAM
Random Access Memory
SCG
System Clock Generator
SFR
Special Function Register
SMCLK
Sub-System Master Clock
See Basic Clock Module
SP
Stack Pointer
See RISC 16-Bit CPU
SR
Status Register
See RISC 16-Bit CPU
src
Source
See RISC 16-Bit CPU
TOS
Top-of-Stack
See RISC 16-Bit CPU
WDT
Watchdog Timer
See Watchdog Timer
iv
See Digital I/O
See System Resets Interrupts and Operating Modes
See Basic Clock Module
See System Resets Interrupts and Operating Modes
Register Bit Conventions
Register Bit Conventions
Each register is shown with a key indicating the accessibility of the each
individual bit, and the initial condition:
Register Bit Accessibility and Initial Condition
Key
Bit Accessibility
rw
Read/write
r
Read only
r0
Read as 0
r1
Read as 1
w
Write only
w0
Write as 0
w1
Write as 1
(w)
No register bit implemented; writing a 1 results in a pulse.
The register bit is always read as 0.
h0
Cleared by hardware
h1
Set by hardware
−0,−1
Condition after PUC
−(0),−(1) Condition after POR
v
vi
Contents
1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1
Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2
Flexible Clock System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3
Embedded Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4
Address Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.1 Flash/ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.2 RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.3 Peripheral Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.4 Special Function Registers (SFRs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.5 Memory Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1
1-2
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-5
1-5
1-5
2
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.1
System Reset and Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
2.1.1 Power-On Reset (POR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
2.1.2 Brownout Reset (BOR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
2.1.3 Device Initial Conditions After System Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
2.2
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
2.2.1 (Non)-Maskable Interrupts (NMI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
2.2.2 Maskable Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
2.2.3 Interrupt Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
2.2.4 Interrupt Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
2.3
Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
2.3.1 Entering and Exiting Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
2.4
Principles for Low-Power Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
2.5
Connection of Unused Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
vii
Contents
3
RISC 16-Bit CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1
CPU Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3.2
CPU Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3.2.1 Program Counter (PC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3.2.2 Stack Pointer (SP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
3.2.3 Status Register (SR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
3.2.4 Constant Generator Registers CG1 and CG2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
3.2.5 General−Purpose Registers R4 - R15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
3.3
Addressing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
3.3.1 Register Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
3.3.2 Indexed Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
3.3.3 Symbolic Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
3.3.4 Absolute Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
3.3.5 Indirect Register Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
3.3.6 Indirect Autoincrement Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
3.3.7 Immediate Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
3.4
Instruction Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
3.4.1 Double-Operand (Format I) Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
3.4.2 Single-Operand (Format II) Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
3.4.3 Jumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.4.4 Instruction Cycles and Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-72
3.4.5 Instruction Set Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-74
4
Basic Clock Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.1
Basic Clock Module Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
4.2
Basic Clock Module Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.2.1 Basic Clock Module Features for Low-Power Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.2.2 LFXT1 Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
4.2.3 XT2 Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4.2.4 Digitally-Controlled Oscillator (DCO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4.2.5 DCO Modulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.2.6 Basic Clock Module Fail-Safe Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
4.2.7 Synchronization of Clock Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
4.3
Basic Clock Module Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
5
Flash Memory Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.1
Flash Memory Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
5.2
Flash Memory Segmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5.3
Flash Memory Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
5.3.1 Flash Memory Timing Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
5.3.2 Erasing Flash Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
5.3.3 Writing Flash Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.3.4 Flash Memory Access During Write or Erase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
5.3.5 Stopping a Write or Erase Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
5.3.6 Configuring and Accessing the Flash Memory Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
5.3.7 Flash Memory Controller Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
5.3.8 Programming Flash Memory Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
5.4
Flash Memory Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
viii
Contents
6
Supply Voltage Supervisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1
SVS Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2
SVS Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1 Configuring the SVS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.2 SVS Comparator Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.3 Changing the VLDx Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.4 SVS Operating Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3
SVS Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-1
6-2
6-4
6-4
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
7
Hardware Multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1
Hardware Multiplier Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2
Hardware Multiplier Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1 Operand Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.2 Result Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.3 Software Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.4 Indirect Addressing of RESLO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.5 Using Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3
Hardware Multiplier Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-6
7-7
8
DMA Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.1
DMA Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
8.2
DMA Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
8.2.1 DMA Addressing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
8.2.2 DMA Transfer Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
8.2.3 Initiating DMA Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
8.2.4 Stopping DMA Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14
8.2.5 DMA Channel Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14
8.2.6 DMA Transfer Cycle Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15
8.2.7 Using DMA with System Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
8.2.8 DMA Controller Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
8.2.9 Using the I2C Module with the DMA Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17
8.2.10 Using ADC12 with the DMA Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17
8.2.11 Using DAC12 With the DMA Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17
8.3
DMA Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18
9
Digital I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1
Digital I/O Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2
Digital I/O Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1 Input Register PnIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.2 Output Registers PnOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.3 Direction Registers PnDIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.4 Function Select Registers PnSEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.5 P1 and P2 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.6 Configuring Unused Port Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3
Digital I/O Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-1
9-2
9-3
9-3
9-3
9-3
9-4
9-5
9-6
9-7
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Contents
10 Watchdog Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1 Watchdog Timer Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 Watchdog Timer Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.1 Watchdog Timer Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.2 Watchdog Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.3 Interval Timer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.4 Watchdog Timer Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.5 Operation in Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.6 Software Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 Watchdog Timer Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-1
10-2
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-5
10-6
10-6
10-7
11 Timer_A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
11.1 Timer_A Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
11.2 Timer_A Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
11.2.1 16-Bit Timer Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
11.2.2 Starting the Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
11.2.3 Timer Mode Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
11.2.4 Capture/Compare Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11
11.2.5 Output Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
11.2.6 Timer_A Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17
11.3 Timer_A Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19
12 Timer_B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
12.1 Timer_B Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
12.1.1 Similarities and Differences From Timer_A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
12.2 Timer_B Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
12.2.1 16-Bit Timer Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
12.2.2 Starting the Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
12.2.3 Timer Mode Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
12.2.4 Capture/Compare Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
12.2.5 Output Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
12.2.6 Timer_B Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-18
12.3 Timer_B Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-20
13 USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
13.1 USART Introduction: UART Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
13.2 USART Operation: UART Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
13.2.1 USART Initialization and Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
13.2.2 Character Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
13.2.3 Asynchronous Communication Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
13.2.4 USART Receive Enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
13.2.5 USART Transmit Enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
13.2.6 UART Baud Rate Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
13.2.7 USART Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-17
13.3 USART Registers: UART Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21
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Contents
14 USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
14.1 USART Introduction: SPI Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
14.2 USART Operation: SPI Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
14.2.1 USART Initialization and Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
14.2.2 Master Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5
14.2.3 Slave Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6
14.2.4 SPI Enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-7
14.2.5 Serial Clock Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-9
14.2.6 SPI Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-11
14.3 USART Registers: SPI Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-13
15 USART Peripheral Interface, I2C Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
15.1 I2C Module Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
15.2 I2C Module Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
15.2.1 I2C Module Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5
15.2.2 I2C Serial Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
15.2.3 I2C Addressing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
15.2.4 I2C Module Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
15.2.5 The I2C Data Register I2CDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15
15.2.6 I2C Clock Generation and Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16
15.2.7 Using the I2C Module with Low Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-17
15.2.8 I2C Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18
15.3 I2C Module Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-20
16 Comparator_A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.1 Comparator_A Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2 Comparator_A Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2.1 Comparator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2.2 Input Analog Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2.3 Output Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2.4 Voltage Reference Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2.5 Comparator_A, Port Disable Register CAPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2.6 Comparator_A Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2.7 Comparator_A Used to Measure Resistive Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3 Comparator_A Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16-1
16-2
16-4
16-4
16-4
16-5
16-5
16-6
16-6
16-7
16-9
17 ADC12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
17.1 ADC12 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
17.2 ADC12 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
17.2.1 12-Bit ADC Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
17.2.2 ADC12 Inputs and Multiplexer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
17.2.3 Voltage Reference Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
17.2.4 Auto Power-Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
17.2.5 Sample and Conversion Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-7
17.2.6 Conversion Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-10
17.2.7 ADC12 Conversion Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-10
17.2.8 Using the Integrated Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-16
17.2.9 ADC12 Grounding and Noise Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-17
17.2.10 ADC12 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-18
17.3 ADC12 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-20
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Contents
18 ADC10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
18.1 ADC10 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
18.2 ADC10 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4
18.2.1 10-Bit ADC Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4
18.2.2 ADC10 Inputs and Multiplexer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5
18.2.3 Voltage Reference Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6
18.2.4 Auto Power-Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6
18.2.5 Sample and Conversion Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7
18.2.6 Conversion Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-9
18.2.7 ADC10 Data Transfer Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-15
18.2.8 Using the Integrated Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-21
18.2.9 ADC10 Grounding and Noise Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-22
18.2.10 ADC10 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-23
18.3 ADC10 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-24
19 DAC12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
19.1 DAC12 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
19.2 DAC12 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-4
19.2.1 DAC12 Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-4
19.2.2 DAC12 Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-5
19.2.3 Updating the DAC12 Voltage Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-5
19.2.4 DAC12_xDAT Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-6
19.2.5 DAC12 Output Amplifier Offset Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7
19.2.6 Grouping Multiple DAC12 Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-8
19.2.7 DAC12 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9
19.3 DAC12 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-10
xii
Chapter 1
This chapter describes the architecture of the MSP430.
Topic
Page
1.1
Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
1.2
Flexible Clock System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
1.3
Embedded Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
1.4
Address Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Introduction
1-1
Architecture
1.1 Architecture
The MSP430 incorporates a 16-bit RISC CPU, peripherals, and a flexible clock
system that interconnect using a von-Neumann common memory address
bus (MAB) and memory data bus (MDB). Partnering a modern CPU with
modular memory-mapped analog and digital peripherals, the MSP430 offers
solutions for demanding mixed-signal applications.
Key features of the MSP430x1xx family include:
- Ultralow-power architecture extends battery life
J
0.1-µA RAM retention
J
0.8-µA real-time clock mode
J
250-µA / MIPS active
- High-performance analog ideal for precision measurement
J
12-bit or 10-bit ADC — 200 ksps, temperature sensor, VRef
J
12-bit dual-DAC
J
Comparator-gated timers for measuring resistive elements
J
Supply voltage supervisor
- 16-bit RISC CPU enables new applications at a fraction of the code size.
J
Large register file eliminates working file bottleneck
J
Compact core design reduces power consumption and cost
J
Optimized for modern high-level programming
J
Only 27 core instructions and seven addressing modes
J
Extensive vectored-interrupt capability
- In-system programmable Flash permits flexible code changes, field
upgrades and data logging
1.2 Flexible Clock System
The clock system is designed specifically for battery-powered applications. A
low-frequency auxiliary clock (ACLK) is driven directly from a common 32-kHz
watch crystal. The ACLK can be used for a background real-time clock self
wake-up function. An integrated high-speed digitally controlled oscillator
(DCO) can source the master clock (MCLK) used by the CPU and high-speed
peripherals. By design, the DCO is active and stable in less than 6 µs.
MSP430-based solutions effectively use the high-performance 16-bit RISC
CPU in very short bursts.
- Low-frequency auxiliary clock = Ultralow-power stand-by mode
- High-speed master clock = High performance signal processing
1-2
Introduction
Embedded Emulation
Figure 1−1. MSP430 Architecture
ACLK
Clock
System
SMCLK
Flash/
ROM
RAM
Peripheral
Peripheral
Peripheral
RISC CPU
16-Bit
JTAG/Debug
MCLK
MAB 16-Bit
MDB 16-Bit
Bus
Conv.
MDB 8-Bit
JTAG
ACLK
SMCLK
Watchdog
Peripheral
Peripheral
Peripheral
Peripheral
1.3 Embedded Emulation
Dedicated embedded emulation logic resides on the device itself and is
accessed via JTAG using no additional system resources.
The benefits of embedded emulation include:
- Unobtrusive
development and debug with full-speed execution,
breakpoints, and single-steps in an application are supported.
- Development is in-system subject to the same characteristics as the final
application.
- Mixed-signal integrity is preserved and not subject to cabling interference.
Introduction
1-3
Address Space
1.4 Address Space
The MSP430 von-Neumann architecture has one address space shared with
special function registers (SFRs), peripherals, RAM, and Flash/ROM memory
as shown in Figure 1−2. See the device-specific data sheets for specific
memory maps. Code access are always performed on even addresses. Data
can be accessed as bytes or words.
The addressable memory space is 64 KB with future expansion planned.
Figure 1−2. Memory Map
Access
0FFFFh
Interrupt Vector Table
Word/Byte
Flash/ROM
Word/Byte
RAM
Word/Byte
0FFE0h
0FFDFh
0200h
01FFh
16-Bit Peripheral Modules
Word
8-Bit Peripheral Modules
Byte
Special Function Registers
Byte
0100h
0FFh
010h
0Fh
0h
1.4.1
Flash/ROM
The start address of Flash/ROM depends on the amount of Flash/ROM
present and varies by device. The end address for Flash/ROM is 0FFFFh.
Flash can be used for both code and data. Word or byte tables can be stored
and used in Flash/ROM without the need to copy the tables to RAM before
using them.
The interrupt vector table is mapped into the upper 16 words of Flash/ROM
address space, with the highest priority interrupt vector at the highest
Flash/ROM word address (0FFFEh).
1.4.2
RAM
RAM starts at 0200h. The end address of RAM depends on the amount of RAM
present and varies by device. RAM can be used for both code and data.
1-4
Introduction
Address Space
1.4.3
Peripheral Modules
Peripheral modules are mapped into the address space. The address space
from 0100 to 01FFh is reserved for 16-bit peripheral modules. These modules
should be accessed with word instructions. If byte instructions are used, only
even addresses are permissible, and the high byte of the result is always 0.
The address space from 010h to 0FFh is reserved for 8-bit peripheral modules.
These modules should be accessed with byte instructions. Read access of
byte modules using word instructions results in unpredictable data in the high
byte. If word data is written to a byte module only the low byte is written into
the peripheral register, ignoring the high byte.
1.4.4
Special Function Registers (SFRs)
Some peripheral functions are configured in the SFRs. The SFRs are located
in the lower 16 bytes of the address space, and are organized by byte. SFRs
must be accessed using byte instructions only. See the device-specific data
sheets for applicable SFR bits.
1.4.5
Memory Organization
Bytes are located at even or odd addresses. Words are only located at even
addresses as shown in Figure 1−3. When using word instructions, only even
addresses may be used. The low byte of a word is always an even address.
The high byte is at the next odd address. For example, if a data word is located
at address xxx4h, then the low byte of that data word is located at address
xxx4h, and the high byte of that word is located at address xxx5h.
Figure 1−3. Bits, Bytes, and Words in a Byte-Organized Memory
xxxAh
15
14
. . Bits . .
9
8
xxx9h
7
6
. . Bits . .
1
0
xxx8h
Byte
xxx7h
Byte
xxx6h
Word (High Byte)
xxx5h
Word (Low Byte)
xxx4h
xxx3h
Introduction
1-5
Chapter 2
This chapter describes the MSP430x1xx system resets, interrupts, and
operating modes.
Topic
Page
2.1
System Reset and Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
2.2
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
2.3
Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
2.4
Principles for Low-Power Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
2.5
Connection of Unused Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
2-1
System Reset and Initialization
2.1 System Reset and Initialization
The system reset circuitry shown in Figure 2−1 sources both a power-on reset
(POR) and a power-up clear (PUC) signal. Different events trigger these reset
signals and different initial conditions exist depending on which signal was
generated.
Figure 2−1. Power-On Reset and Power-Up Clear Schematic
VCC
VCC
VCC
Brownout
Reset‡
POR
Detect
Detect#
POR
Delay#
0V
0V
~ 50us
S
S
R
POR
Latch
POR
0V
SVS_POR§
RST/NMI
WDTNMI†
WDTSSEL†
WDTQn†
WDTIFG†
EQU†
KEYV
(from flash module)
Delay
S
S
Resetwd1
Resetwd2
S
PUC
S Latch
S
PUC
R
MCLK
† From watchdog timer peripheral module
‡ Devices with BOR only
# Devices without BOR only
§ Devices with SVS only
A POR is a device reset. A POR is only generated by the following three
events:
- Powering up the device
- A low signal on the RST/NMI pin when configured in the reset mode
- An SVS low condition when PORON = 1.
A PUC is always generated when a POR is generated, but a POR is not
generated by a PUC. The following events trigger a PUC:
- A POR signal
- Watchdog timer expiration when in watchdog mode only
- Watchdog timer security key violation
- A Flash memory security key violation
2-2
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
System Reset and Initialization
2.1.1
Power-On Reset (POR)
When the VCC rise time is slow, the POR detector holds the POR signal active
until VCC has risen above the VPOR level, as shown in Figure 2−2. When the
VCC supply provides a fast rise time the POR delay, t(POR_DELAY), provides
active time on the POR signal to allow the MSP430 to initialize.
On devices with no brownout-reset circuit, If power to the MSP430 is cycled,
the supply voltage VCC must fall below Vmin to ensure that a POR signal occurs
when VCC is powered up again. If VCC does not fall below Vmin during a cycle
or a glitch, a POR may not be generated and power-up conditions may not be
set correctly. In this case, a low level on RST/NMI may not cause a POR and
a full power-cycle will be required. See device-specific datasheet for
parameters.
Figure 2−2. POR Timing
V
VCC
VCC(min)
V POR
POR
POR
No POR
Vmin
Set Signal for
POR circuitry
t(POR_DELAY)
t(POR_DELAY)
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
2-3
System Reset and Initialization
2.1.2
Brownout Reset (BOR)
Some devices have a brownout reset circuit (see device-specific datasheet)
that replaces the POR detect and POR delay circuits. The brownout reset
circuit detects low supply voltages such as when a supply voltage is applied
to or removed from the VCC terminal. The brownout reset circuit resets the
device by triggering a POR signal when power is applied or removed. The
operating levels are shown in Figure 2−3.
The POR signal becomes active when VCC crosses the VCC(start) level. It
remains active until VCC crosses the V(B_IT+) threshold and the delay t(BOR)
elapses. The delay t(BOR) is adaptive being longer for a slow ramping VCC. The
hysteresis Vhys(B_ IT−) ensures that the supply voltage must drop below
V(B_IT−) to generate another POR signal from the brownout reset circuitry.
Figure 2−3. Brownout Timing
VCC
Vhys(B_IT−)
V(B_IT+)
V(B_IT−)
VCC(start)
Set Signal for
POR circuitry
t
(BOR)
As the V(B_IT−) level is significantly above the Vmin level of the POR circuit, the
BOR provides a reset for power failures where VCC does not fall below Vmin.
See device-specific datasheet for parameters.
2-4
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
System Reset and Initialization
2.1.3
Device Initial Conditions After System Reset
After a POR, the initial MSP430 conditions are:
- The RST/NMI pin is configured in the reset mode.
- I/O pins are switched to input mode as described in the Digital I/O chapter.
- Other peripheral modules and registers are initialized as described in their
respective chapters in this manual.
- Status register (SR) is reset.
- The watchdog timer powers up active in watchdog mode.
- Program counter (PC) is loaded with address contained at reset vector
location (0FFFEh). CPU execution begins at that address.
Software Initialization
After a system reset, user software must initialize the MSP430 for the
application requirements. The following must occur:
- Initialize the SP, typically to the top of RAM.
- Initialize the watchdog to the requirements of the application.
- Configure peripheral modules to the requirements of the application.
Additionally, the watchdog timer, oscillator fault, and flash memory flags can
be evaluated to determine the source of the reset.
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
2-5
System Reset and Initialization
2.2 Interrupts
The interrupt priorities are fixed and defined by the arrangement of the
modules in the connection chain as shown in Figure 2−4. The nearer a module
is to the CPU/NMIRS, the higher the priority. Interrupt priorities determine what
interrupt is taken when more than one interrupt is pending simultaneously.
There are three types of interrupts:
- System reset
- (Non)-maskable NMI
- Maskable
Figure 2−4. Interrupt Priority
Priority
High
Low
GMIRS
GIE
CPU
NMIRS
PUC
Module
1
Module
2
1 2
1 2
Bus
Grant
PUC
Circuit
OSCfault
Flash ACCV
Reset/NMI
WDT Security Key
Flash Security Key
MAB − 5LSBs
2-6
WDT
Timer
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
Module
m
1
2
Module
n
1 2
1
System Reset and Initialization
2.2.1
(Non)-Maskable Interrupts (NMI)
(Non)-maskable NMI interrupts are not masked by the general interrupt enable
bit (GIE), but are enabled by individual interrupt enable bits (NMIIE, ACCVIE,
OFIE). When a NMI interrupt is accepted, all NMI interrupt enable bits are
automatically reset. Program execution begins at the address stored in the
(non)-maskable interrupt vector, 0FFFCh. User software must set the required
NMI interrupt enable bits for the interrupt to be re-enabled. The block diagram
for NMI sources is shown in Figure 2−5.
A (non)-maskable NMI interrupt can be generated by three sources:
- An edge on the RST/NMI pin when configured in NMI mode
- An oscillator fault occurs
- An access violation to the flash memory
Reset/NMI Pin
At power-up, the RST/NMI pin is configured in the reset mode. The function
of the RST/NMI pins is selected in the watchdog control register WDTCTL. If
the RST/NMI pin is set to the reset function, the CPU is held in the reset state
as long as the RST/NMI pin is held low. After the input changes to a high state,
the CPU starts program execution at the word address stored in the reset
vector, 0FFFEh.
If the RST/NMI pin is configured by user software to the NMI function, a signal
edge selected by the WDTNMIES bit generates an NMI interrupt if the NMIIE
bit is set. The RST/NMI flag NMIIFG is also set.
Note: Holding RST/NMI Low
When configured in the NMI mode, a signal generating an NMI event should
not hold the RST/NMI pin low. If a PUC occurs from a different source while
the NMI signal is low, the device will be held in the reset state because a PUC
changes the RST/NMI pin to the reset function.
Note: Modifying WDTNMIES
When NMI mode is selected and the WDTNMIES bit is changed, an NMI can
be generated, depending on the actual level at the RST/NMI pin. When the
NMI edge select bit is changed before selecting the NMI mode, no NMI is
generated.
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
2-7
System Reset and Initialization
Figure 2−5. Block Diagram of (Non)-Maskable Interrupt Sources
ACCV
S
ACCVIFG
FCTL1.1
ACCVIE
IE1.5
Clear
Flash Module
PUC
RST/NMI
POR
PUC
KEYV
VCC
PUC
System Reset
Generator
POR
S
NMIIFG
NMIRS
IFG1.4
WDTTMSEL
Clear
WDTNMIES
WDTNMI
WDTQn
EQU
PUC
POR
PUC
NMIIE
S
IE1.4
Clear
WDTIFG
IRQ
IFG1.0
Clear
PUC
WDT
Counter
OSCFault
POR
S
OFIFG
IFG1.1
IRQA
WDTTMSEL
OFIE
WDTIE
IE1.1
Clear
IE1.0
NMI_IRQA
Clear
PUC
IRQA: Interrupt Request Accepted
2-8
Watchdog Timer Module
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
PUC
System Reset and Initialization
Flash Access Violation
The flash ACCVIFG flag is set when a flash access violation occurs. The flash
access violation can be enabled to generate an NMI interrupt by setting the
ACCVIE bit. The ACCVIFG flag can then be tested by NMI the interrupt service
routine to determine if the NMI was caused by a flash access violation.
Oscillator Fault
The oscillator fault signal warns of a possible error condition with the crystal
oscillator. The oscillator fault can be enabled to generate an NMI interrupt by
setting the OFIE bit. The OFIFG flag can then be tested by NMI the interrupt
service routine to determine if the NMI was caused by an oscillator fault.
A PUC signal can trigger an oscillator fault, because the PUC switches the
LFXT1 to LF mode, therefore switching off the HF mode. The PUC signal also
switches off the XT2 oscillator.
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
2-9
System Reset and Initialization
Example of an NMI Interrupt Handler
The NMI interrupt is a multiple-source interrupt. An NMI interrupt automatically
resets the NMIIE, OFIE and ACCVIE interrupt-enable bits. The user NMI
service routine resets the interrupt flags and re-enables the interrupt-enable
bits according to the application needs as shown in Figure 2−6.
Figure 2−6. NMI Interrupt Handler
Start of NMI Interrupt Handler
Reset by HW:
OFIE, NMIIE, ACCVIE
no
no
OFIFG=1
no
ACCVIFG=1
NMIIFG=1
yes
yes
yes
Reset OFIFG
Reset ACCVIFG
Reset NMIIFG
User’s Software,
Oscillator Fault
Handler
User’s Software,
Flash Access
Violation Handler
User’s Software,
External NMI
Handler
Optional
RETI
End of NMI Interrupt
Handler
Note: Enabling NMI Interrupts with ACCVIE, NMIIE, and OFIE
To prevent nested NMI interrupts, the ACCVIE, NMIIE, and OFIE enable bits
should not be set inside of an NMI interrupt service routine.
2.2.2
Maskable Interrupts
Maskable interrupts are caused by peripherals with interrupt capability
including the watchdog timer overflow in interval-timer mode. Each maskable
interrupt source can be disabled individually by an interrupt enable bit, or all
maskable interrupts can be disabled by the general interrupt enable (GIE) bit
in the status register (SR).
Each individual peripheral interrupt is discussed in the associated peripheral
module chapter in this manual.
2-10
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
System Reset and Initialization
2.2.3
Interrupt Processing
When an interrupt is requested from a peripheral and the peripheral interrupt
enable bit and GIE bit are set, the interrupt service routine is requested. Only
the individual enable bit must be set for (non)-maskable interrupts to be
requested.
Interrupt Acceptance
The interrupt latency is 6 cycles, starting with the acceptance of an interrupt
request, and lasting until the start of execution of the first instruction of the
interrupt-service routine, as shown in Figure 2−7. The interrupt logic executes
the following:
1) Any currently executing instruction is completed.
2) The PC, which points to the next instruction, is pushed onto the stack.
3) The SR is pushed onto the stack.
4) The interrupt with the highest priority is selected if multiple interrupts
occurred during the last instruction and are pending for service.
5) The interrupt request flag resets automatically on single-source flags.
Multiple source flags remain set for servicing by software.
6) The SR is cleared. This terminates any low-power mode. Because the GIE
bit is cleared, further interrupts are disabled.
7) The content of the interrupt vector is loaded into the PC: the program
continues with the interrupt service routine at that address.
Figure 2−7. Interrupt Processing
SP
Before
Interrupt
After
Interrupt
Item1
Item1
Item2
TOS
Item2
PC
SP
SR
TOS
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
2-11
System Reset and Initialization
Return From Interrupt
The interrupt handling routine terminates with the instruction:
RETI (return from an interrupt service routine)
The return from the interrupt takes 5 cycles to execute the following actions
and is illustrated in Figure 2−8.
1) The SR with all previous settings pops from the stack. All previous settings
of GIE, CPUOFF, etc. are now in effect, regardless of the settings used
during the interrupt service routine.
2) The PC pops from the stack and begins execution at the point where it was
interrupted.
Figure 2−8. Return From Interrupt
Before
After
Return From Interrupt
Item1
Item1
SP
Item2
PC
SP
SR
Item2
TOS
PC
TOS
SR
Interrupt Nesting
Interrupt nesting is enabled if the GIE bit is set inside an interrupt service
routine. When interrupt nesting is enabled, any interrupt occurring during an
interrupt service routine will interrupt the routine, regardless of the interrupt
priorities.
2-12
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
System Reset and Initialization
2.2.4
Interrupt Vectors
The interrupt vectors and the power-up starting address are located in the
address range 0FFFFh − 0FFE0h as described in Table 2−1. A vector is
programmed by the user with the 16-bit address of the corresponding interrupt
service routine. See the device-specific data sheet for the complete interrupt
vector list.
Table 2−1. Interrupt Sources,Flags, and Vectors
INTERRUPT SOURCE
INTERRUPT
FLAG
SYSTEM
INTERRUPT
WORD
ADDRESS
PRIORITY
Power-up, external
reset, watchdog,
flash password
WDTIFG
KEYV
Reset
0FFFEh
15, highest
NMI, oscillator fault,
flash memory access
violation
NMIIFG
OFIFG
ACCVIFG
(non)-maskable
(non)-maskable
(non)-maskable
0FFFCh
14
device-specific
0FFFAh
13
device-specific
0FFF8h
12
device-specific
0FFF6h
11
0FFF4h
10
device-specific
0FFF2h
9
device-specific
0FFF0h
8
device-specific
0FFEEh
7
device-specific
0FFECh
6
device-specific
0FFEAh
5
device-specific
0FFE8h
4
device-specific
0FFE6h
3
device-specific
0FFE4h
2
device-specific
0FFE2h
1
device-specific
0FFE0h
0, lowest
Watchdog timer
WDTIFG
maskable
Some module enable bits, interrupt enable bits, and interrupt flags are located
in the SFRs. The SFRs are located in the lower address range and are
implemented in byte format. SFRs must be accessed using byte instructions.
See the device-specific datasheet for the SFR configuration.
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
2-13
Operating Modes
2.3 Operating Modes
The MSP430 family is designed for ultralow-power applications and uses
different operating modes shown in Figure 2−10.
The operating modes take into account three different needs:
- Ultralow-power
- Speed and data throughput
- Minimization of individual peripheral current consumption
The MSP430 typical current consumption is shown in Figure 2−9.
Figure 2−9. Typical Current Consumption of 13x and 14x Devices vs Operating Modes
ICC/ µA @ 1 MHz
340
315
270
225
225
VCC = 3 V
VCC = 2.2 V
180
135
90
45
70
65
0
AM
LPM0
17 11
2
LPM2
LPM3
1
0.1 0.1
LPM4
Operating Modes
The low-power modes 0−4 are configured with the CPUOFF, OSCOFF, SCG0,
and SCG1 bits in the status register The advantage of including the CPUOFF,
OSCOFF, SCG0, and SCG1 mode-control bits in the status register is that the
present operating mode is saved onto the stack during an interrupt service
routine. Program flow returns to the previous operating mode if the saved SR
value is not altered during the interrupt service routine. Program flow can be
returned to a different operating mode by manipulating the saved SR value on
the stack inside of the interrupt service routine. The mode-control bits and the
stack can be accessed with any instruction.
When setting any of the mode-control bits, the selected operating mode takes
effect immediately. Peripherals operating with any disabled clock are disabled
until the clock becomes active. The peripherals may also be disabled with their
individual control register settings. All I/O port pins and RAM/registers are
unchanged. Wake up is possible through all enabled interrupts.
2-14
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
Operating Modes
Figure 2−10. MSP430x1xx Operating Modes For Basic Clock System
RST/NMI
Reset Active
VCC On
POR
WDT
Time Expired, Overflow
WDTIFG = 1
WDTIFG = 0
PUC
WDTIFG = 1
RST/NMI is Reset Pin
WDT is Active
RST/NMI
NMI Active
WDT Active,
Security Key Violation
Active Mode
CPU Is Active
Peripheral Modules Are Active
CPUOFF = 1
SCG0 = 0
SCG1 = 0
CPUOFF = 1
OSCOFF = 1
SCG0 = 1
SCG1 = 1
LPM0
CPU Off, MCLK Off,
SMCLK On, ACLK On
LPM4
CPU Off, MCLK Off, DCO
Off, ACLK Off
CPUOFF = 1
SCG0 = 1
SCG1 = 0
LPM1
CPU Off, MCLK Off,
SMCLK On, ACLK On
DC Generator Off if DCO
not used in active mode
SCG1
SCG0 OSCOFF
CPUOFF
CPUOFF = 1
SCG0 = 0
SCG1 = 1
CPUOFF = 1
SCG0 = 1
SCG1 = 1
LPM2
CPU Off, MCLK Off, SMCLK
Off, DCO Off, ACLK On
Mode
DC Generator Off
LPM3
CPU Off, MCLK Off, SMCLK
Off, DCO Off, ACLK On
DC Generator Off
CPU and Clocks Status
0
0
0
0
Active
CPU is active, all enabled clocks are active
0
0
0
1
LPM0
CPU, MCLK are disabled
SMCLK , ACLK are active
0
1
0
1
LPM1
CPU, MCLK, DCO osc. are disabled
DC generator is disabled if the DCO is not used for
MCLK or SMCLK in active mode
SMCLK , ACLK are active
1
0
0
1
LPM2
CPU, MCLK, SMCLK, DCO osc. are disabled
DC generator remains enabled
ACLK is active
1
1
0
1
LPM3
CPU, MCLK, SMCLK, DCO osc. are disabled
DC generator disabled
ACLK is active
1
1
1
1
LPM4
CPU and all clocks disabled
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
2-15
Operating Modes
2.3.1
Entering and Exiting Low-Power Modes
An enabled interrupt event wakes the MSP430 from any of the low-power
operating modes. The program flow is:
- Enter interrupt service routine:
J
The PC and SR are stored on the stack
J
The CPUOFF, SCG1, and OSCOFF bits are automatically reset
- Options for returning from the interrupt service routine:
J
The original SR is popped from the stack, restoring the previous
operating mode.
J
The SR bits stored on the stack can be modified within the interrupt
service routine returning to a different operating mode when the RETI
instruction is executed.
; Enter LPM0 Example
BIS
#GIE+CPUOFF,SR
; Enter LPM0
; ...
; Program stops here
;
; Exit LPM0 Interrupt Service Routine
BIC
#CPUOFF,0(SP)
; Exit LPM0 on RETI
RETI
; Enter LPM3 Example
BIS
#GIE+CPUOFF+SCG1+SCG0,SR ; Enter LPM3
; ...
; Program stops here
;
; Exit LPM3 Interrupt Service Routine
BIC
#CPUOFF+SCG1+SCG0,0(SP) ; Exit LPM3 on RETI
RETI
Extended Time in Low-Power Modes
The negative temperature coefficient of the DCO should be considered when
the DCO is disabled for extended low-power mode periods. If the temperature
changes significantly, the DCO frequency at wake-up may be significantly
different from when the low-power mode was entered and may be out of the
specified operating range. To avoid this, the DCO can be set to it lowest value
before entering the low-power mode for extended periods of time where
temperature can change.
; Enter LPM4 Example with lowest DCO Setting
BIC
#RSEL2+RSEL1+RSEL0,&BCSCTL1
; Lowest RSEL
BIS
#GIE+CPUOFF+OSCOFF+SCG1+SCG0,SR ; Enter LPM4
; ...
; Program stops
;
; Interrupt Service Routine
BIC
#CPUOFF+OSCOFF+SCG1+SCG0,0(SR); Exit LPM4 on RETI
RETI
2-16
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
Principles for Low-Power Applications
2.4 Principles for Low-Power Applications
Often, the most important factor for reducing power consumption is using the
MSP430’s clock system to maximize the time in LPM3. LPM3 power
consumption is less than 2 µA typical with both a real-time clock function and
all interrupts active. A 32-kHz watch crystal is used for the ACLK and the CPU
is clocked from the DCO (normally off) which has a 6-µs wake-up.
- Use interrupts to wake the processor and control program flow.
- Peripherals should be switched on only when needed.
- Use low-power integrated peripheral modules in place of software driven
functions. For example Timer_A and Timer_B can automatically generate
PWM and capture external timing, with no CPU resources.
- Calculated branching and fast table look-ups should be used in place of
flag polling and long software calculations.
- Avoid frequent subroutine and function calls due to overhead.
- For longer software routines, single-cycle CPU registers should be used.
2.5 Connection of Unused Pins
The correct termination of all unused pins is listed in Table 2−2.
Table 2−2. Connection of Unused Pins
Pin
Potential
AVCC
DVCC
AVSS
DVSS
VREF+
Open
VeREF+
DVSS
Comment
VREF−/VeREF− DVSS
XIN
DVCC
XOUT
Open
XT2IN
DVSS
13x, 14x, 15x and 16x devices
XT2OUT
Open
13x, 14x, 15x and 16x devices
Px.0 to Px.7
Open
Switched to port function, output direction
RST/NMI
DVCC or VCC
Pullup resistor 47 kΩ
Test/VPP
DVSS
P11x devices
Test
DVSS
Pulldown resistor 30K 11x1 devices
Open
11x1A, 11x2, 12x, 12x2 devices
TDO
Open
TDI
Open
TMS
Open
TCK
Open
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes
2-17
Chapter 3
!
This chapter describes the MSP430 CPU, addressing modes, and instruction
set.
Topic
Page
3.1
CPU Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3.2
CPU Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3.3
Addressing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
3.4
Instruction Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
RISC 16-Bit CPU
3-1
CPU Introduction
3.1 CPU Introduction
The CPU incorporates features specifically designed for modern
programming techniques such as calculated branching, table processing and
the use of high-level languages such as C. The CPU can address the complete
address range without paging.
The CPU features include:
- RISC architecture with 27 instructions and 7 addressing modes.
- Orthogonal architecture with every instruction usable with every
addressing mode.
- Full register access including program counter, status registers, and stack
pointer.
- Single-cycle register operations.
- Large 16-bit register file reduces fetches to memory.
- 16-bit address bus allows direct access and branching throughout entire
memory range.
- 16-bit data bus allows direct manipulation of word-wide arguments.
- Constant generator provides six most used immediate values and
reduces code size.
- Direct memory-to-memory transfers without intermediate register holding.
- Word and byte addressing and instruction formats.
The block diagram of the CPU is shown in Figure 3−1.
3-2
RISC 16-Bit CPU
CPU Introduction
Figure 3−1. CPU Block Diagram
MDB − Memory Data Bus
Memory Address Bus − MAB
15
0
R0/PC Program Counter
0
R1/SP Stack Pointer
0
R2/SR/CG1 Status
R3/CG2 Constant Generator
R4
General Purpose
R5
General Purpose
R6
General Purpose
R7
General Purpose
R8
General Purpose
R9
General Purpose
R10
General Purpose
R11
General Purpose
R12
General Purpose
R13
General Purpose
R14
General Purpose
R15
General Purpose
16
16
Zero, Z
Carry, C
Overflow, V
Negative, N
dst
src
16−bit ALU
MCLK
RISC 16-Bit CPU
3-3
CPU Registers
3.2 CPU Registers
The CPU incorporates sixteen 16-bit registers. R0, R1, R2 and R3 have
dedicated functions. R4 to R15 are working registers for general use.
3.2.1
Program Counter (PC)
The 16-bit program counter (PC/R0) points to the next instruction to be
executed. Each instruction uses an even number of bytes (two, four, or six),
and the PC is incremented accordingly. Instruction accesses in the 64-KB
address space are performed on word boundaries, and the PC is aligned to
even addresses. Figure 3−2 shows the program counter.
Figure 3−2. Program Counter
15
1
Program Counter Bits 15 to 1
0
0
The PC can be addressed with all instructions and addressing modes. A few
examples:
MOV
MOV
MOV
3-4
RISC 16-Bit CPU
#LABEL,PC ; Branch to address LABEL
LABEL,PC ; Branch to address contained in LABEL
@R14,PC ; Branch indirect to address in R14
CPU Registers
3.2.2
Stack Pointer (SP)
The stack pointer (SP/R1) is used by the CPU to store the return addresses
of subroutine calls and interrupts. It uses a predecrement, postincrement
scheme. In addition, the SP can be used by software with all instructions and
addressing modes. Figure 3−3 shows the SP. The SP is initialized into RAM
by the user, and is aligned to even addresses.
Figure 3−4 shows stack usage.
Figure 3−3. Stack Pointer
15
1
0
Stack Pointer Bits 15 to 1
MOV
MOV
PUSH
POP
2(SP),R6
R7,0(SP)
#0123h
R8
;
;
;
;
0
Item I2 −> R6
Overwrite TOS with R7
Put 0123h onto TOS
R8 = 0123h
Figure 3−4. Stack Usage
Address
PUSH #0123h
POP R8
0xxxh
I1
I1
I1
0xxxh − 2
I2
I2
I2
0xxxh − 4
I3
I3
I3
SP
SP
0123h
0xxxh − 6
SP
0123h
0xxxh − 8
The special cases of using the SP as an argument to the PUSH and POP
instructions are described and shown in Figure 3−5.
Figure 3−5. PUSH SP - POP SP Sequence
PUSH SP
POP SP
SPold
SP1
SP1
The stack pointer is changed after
a PUSH SP instruction.
SP2
SP1
The stack pointer is not changed after a POP SP
instruction. The POP SP instruction places SP1 into the
stack pointer SP (SP2=SP1)
RISC 16-Bit CPU
3-5
CPU Registers
3.2.3
Status Register (SR)
The status register (SR/R2), used as a source or destination register, can be
used in the register mode only addressed with word instructions. The remaining combinations of addressing modes are used to support the constant generator. Figure 3−6 shows the SR bits.
Figure 3−6. Status Register Bits
15
9
Reserved
8
V
7
SCG1
0
OSC CPU
SCG0
GIE
OFF OFF
N
Z C
rw-0
Table 3−1 describes the status register bits.
Table 3−1. Description of Status Register Bits
3-6
Bit
Description
V
Overflow bit. This bit is set when the result of an arithmetic operation
overflows the signed-variable range.
ADD(.B),ADDC(.B)
Set when:
Positive + Positive = Negative
Negative + Negative = Positive,
otherwise reset
SUB(.B),SUBC(.B),CMP(.B)
Set when:
Positive − Negative = Negative
Negative − Positive = Positive,
otherwise reset
SCG1
System clock generator 1. This bit, when set, turns off the SMCLK.
SCG0
System clock generator 0. This bit, when set, turns off the DCO dc
generator, if DCOCLK is not used for MCLK or SMCLK.
OSCOFF
Oscillator Off. This bit, when set, turns off the LFXT1 crystal oscillator,
when LFXT1CLK is not use for MCLK or SMCLK
CPUOFF
CPU off. This bit, when set, turns off the CPU.
GIE
General interrupt enable. This bit, when set, enables maskable
interrupts. When reset, all maskable interrupts are disabled.
N
Negative bit. This bit is set when the result of a byte or word operation
is negative and cleared when the result is not negative.
Word operation:
N is set to the value of bit 15 of the
result
Byte operation:
N is set to the value of bit 7 of the
result
Z
Zero bit. This bit is set when the result of a byte or word operation is 0
and cleared when the result is not 0.
C
Carry bit. This bit is set when the result of a byte or word operation
produced a carry and cleared when no carry occurred.
RISC 16-Bit CPU
CPU Registers
3.2.4
Constant Generator Registers CG1 and CG2
Six commonly-used constants are generated with the constant generator
registers R2 and R3, without requiring an additional 16-bit word of program
code. The constants are selected with the source-register addressing modes
(As), as described in Table 3−2.
Table 3−2. Values of Constant Generators CG1, CG2
Register
As
Constant
Remarks
R2
00
−−−−−
Register mode
R2
01
(0)
Absolute address mode
R2
10
00004h
+4, bit processing
R2
11
00008h
+8, bit processing
R3
00
00000h
0, word processing
R3
01
00001h
+1
R3
10
00002h
+2, bit processing
R3
11
0FFFFh
−1, word processing
The constant generator advantages are:
- No special instructions required
- No additional code word for the six constants
- No code memory access required to retrieve the constant
The assembler uses the constant generator automatically if one of the six
constants is used as an immediate source operand. Registers R2 and R3,
used in the constant mode, cannot be addressed explicitly; they act as
source-only registers.
Constant Generator − Expanded Instruction Set
The RISC instruction set of the MSP430 has only 27 instructions. However, the
constant generator allows the MSP430 assembler to support 24 additional,
emulated instructions. For example, the single-operand instruction:
CLR
dst
is emulated by the double-operand instruction with the same length:
MOV
R3,dst
where the #0 is replaced by the assembler, and R3 is used with As=00.
INC
dst
is replaced by:
ADD
0(R3),dst
RISC 16-Bit CPU
3-7
CPU Registers
3.2.5
General−Purpose Registers R4 - R15
The twelve registers, R4−R15, are general-purpose registers. All of these
registers can be used as data registers, address pointers, or index values and
can be accessed with byte or word instructions as shown in Figure 3−7.
Figure 3−7. Register-Byte/Byte-Register Operations
Register-Byte Operation
High Byte
Low Byte
Unused
High Byte
Low Byte
Byte
Register
Byte
Memory
Example Byte-Register Operation
R5 = 0A28Fh
R5 = 01202h
R6 = 0203h
R6 = 0223h
Mem(0203h) = 012h
Mem(0223h) = 05Fh
ADD.B
ADD.B
R5,0(R6)
Memory
Register
0h
Example Register-Byte Operation
@R6,R5
08Fh
05Fh
+ 012h
+ 002h
0A1h
00061h
Mem (0203h) = 0A1h
R5 = 00061h
C = 0, Z = 0, N = 1
C = 0, Z = 0, N = 0
(Low byte of register)
3-8
Byte-Register Operation
(Addressed byte)
+ (Addressed byte)
+ (Low byte of register)
−>(Addressed byte)
−>(Low byte of register, zero to High byte)
RISC 16-Bit CPU
Addressing Modes
3.3 Addressing Modes
Seven addressing modes for the source operand and four addressing modes
for the destination operand can address the complete address space with no
exceptions. The bit numbers in Table 3−3 describe the contents of the As
(source) and Ad (destination) mode bits.
Table 3−3. Source/Destination Operand Addressing Modes
As/Ad
Addressing Mode
Syntax
Description
00/0
Register mode
Rn
Register contents are operand
01/1
Indexed mode
X(Rn)
(Rn + X) points to the operand. X
is stored in the next word.
01/1
Symbolic mode
ADDR
(PC + X) points to the operand. X
is stored in the next word. Indexed
mode X(PC) is used.
01/1
Absolute mode
&ADDR
The word following the instruction
contains the absolute address. X
is stored in the next word. Indexed
mode X(SR) is used.
10/−
Indirect register
mode
@Rn
Rn is used as a pointer to the
operand.
11/−
Indirect
autoincrement
@Rn+
Rn is used as a pointer to the
operand. Rn is incremented
afterwards by 1 for .B instructions
and by 2 for .W instructions.
11/−
Immediate mode
#N
The word following the instruction
contains the immediate constant
N. Indirect autoincrement mode
@PC+ is used.
The seven addressing modes are explained in detail in the following sections.
Most of the examples show the same addressing mode for the source and
destination, but any valid combination of source and destination addressing
modes is possible in an instruction.
Note: Use of Labels EDE, TONI, TOM, and LEO
Throughout MSP430 documentation EDE, TONI, TOM, and LEO are used
as generic labels. They are only labels. They have no special meaning.
RISC 16-Bit CPU
3-9
Addressing Modes
3.3.1
Register Mode
The register mode is described in Table 3−4.
Table 3−4. Register Mode Description
Assembler Code
MOV
Content of ROM
R10,R11
MOV
R10,R11
Length:
One or two words
Operation:
Move the content of R10 to R11. R10 is not affected.
Comment:
Valid for source and destination
Example:
MOV
R10,R11
Before:
After:
R10
0A023h
R10
0A023h
R11
0FA15h
R11
0A023h
PC
PCold
PC
PCold + 2
Note: Data in Registers
The data in the register can be accessed using word or byte instructions. If
byte instructions are used, the high byte is always 0 in the result. The status
bits are handled according to the result of the byte instruction.
3-10
RISC 16-Bit CPU
Addressing Modes
3.3.2
Indexed Mode
The indexed mode is described in Table 3−5.
Table 3−5. Indexed Mode Description
Assembler Code
MOV
Content of ROM
2(R5),6(R6)
MOV
X(R5),Y(R6)
X=2
Y=6
Length:
Two or three words
Operation:
Move the contents of the source address (contents of R5 + 2)
to the destination address (contents of R6 + 6). The source
and destination registers (R5 and R6) are not affected. In
indexed mode, the program counter is incremented
automatically so that program execution continues with the
next instruction.
Comment:
Valid for source and destination
Example:
MOV
Before:
2(R5),6(R6);
Address
Space
Register
After:
0FF16h
00006h
R5
01080h
Address
Space
0xxxxh
0FF16h 00006h
0FF14h
00002h
R6
0108Ch
0FF14h
00002h
0FF12h
04596h
0FF12h
04596h
01094h
0xxxxh
01094h
0xxxxh
01092h
05555h
01092h
01234h
01090h
0xxxxh
01090h
0xxxxh
01084h
0xxxxh
01084h
0xxxxh
01082h
01234h
01082h
01234h
01080h
0xxxxh
01080h
0xxxxh
PC
0108Ch
+0006h
01092h
01080h
+0002h
01082h
Register
PC
R5
01080h
R6 0108Ch
RISC 16-Bit CPU
3-11
Addressing Modes
3.3.3
Symbolic Mode
The symbolic mode is described in Table 3−6.
Table 3−6. Symbolic Mode Description
Assembler Code
Content of ROM
MOV EDE,TONI
MOV
X(PC),Y(PC)
X = EDE − PC
Y = TONI − PC
Length:
Two or three words
Operation:
Move the contents of the source address EDE (contents of
PC + X) to the destination address TONI (contents of PC + Y).
The words after the instruction contain the differences
between the PC and the source or destination addresses.
The assembler computes and inserts offsets X and Y
automatically. With symbolic mode, the program counter (PC)
is incremented automatically so that program execution
continues with the next instruction.
Comment:
Valid for source and destination
Example:
MOV
Before:
3-12
Address
Space
0FF16h
011FEh
0FF14h
0F102h
0FF12h
04090h
0F018h
0xxxxh
0F016h
0A123h
0F014h
0xxxxh
01116h
0xxxxh
01114h
05555h
01112h
0xxxxh
RISC 16-Bit CPU
EDE,TONI ;Source address EDE = 0F016h
;Dest. address TONI=01114h
Register
PC
0FF14h
+0F102h
0F016h
0FF16h
+011FEh
01114h
After:
0FF16h
Address
Space
0xxxxh
011FEh
0FF14h
0F102h
0FF12h
04090h
0F018h
0xxxxh
0F016h
0A123h
0F014h
0xxxxh
01116h
0xxxxh
01114h
0A123h
01112h
0xxxxh
Register
PC
Addressing Modes
3.3.4
Absolute Mode
The absolute mode is described in Table 3−7.
Table 3−7. Absolute Mode Description
Assembler Code
MOV
&EDE,&TONI
Content of ROM
MOV
X(0),Y(0)
X = EDE
Y = TONI
Length:
Two or three words
Operation:
Move the contents of the source address EDE to the
destination address TONI. The words after the instruction
contain the absolute address of the source and destination
addresses. With absolute mode, the PC is incremented
automatically so that program execution continues with the
next instruction.
Comment:
Valid for source and destination
Example:
MOV
Before:
&EDE,&TONI ;Source address EDE=0F016h,
;dest. address TONI=01114h
Register
Address
Space
After:
0FF16h
01114h
0FF16h
Address
Space
0xxxxh
01114h
0FF14h
0F016h
0FF14h
0F016h
0FF12h
04292h
0FF12h
04292h
0F018h
0xxxxh
0F018h
0xxxxh
0F016h
0A123h
0F016h
0A123h
0F014h
0xxxxh
0F014h
0xxxxh
01116h
0xxxxh
01116h
0xxxxh
01114h
01234h
01114h
0A123h
01112h
0xxxxh
01112h
0xxxxh
PC
Register
PC
This address mode is mainly for hardware peripheral modules that are located
at an absolute, fixed address. These are addressed with absolute mode to
ensure software transportability (for example, position-independent code).
RISC 16-Bit CPU
3-13
Addressing Modes
3.3.5
Indirect Register Mode
The indirect register mode is described in Table 3−8.
Table 3−8. Indirect Mode Description
Assembler Code
MOV
@R10,0(R11)
MOV
@R10,0(R11)
Length:
One or two words
Operation:
Move the contents of the source address (contents of R10) to
the destination address (contents of R11). The registers are
not modified.
Comment:
Valid only for source operand. The substitute for destination
operand is 0(Rd).
Example:
MOV.B
Before:
3-14
Content of ROM
Address
Space
0xxxxh
@R10,0(R11)
Register
After:
0FF16h
0000h
R10
0FA33h
Address
Space
0xxxxh
0FF16h 0000h
0FF14h
04AEBh
PC R11
002A7h
0FF14h
04AEBh
0FF12h
0xxxxh
0FF12h
0xxxxh
0FA34h
0xxxxh
0FA34h
0xxxxh
0FA32h
05BC1h
0FA32h
05BC1h
0FA30h
0xxxxh
0FA30h
0xxxxh
002A8h
0xxh
002A8h
0xxh
002A7h
012h
002A7h
05Bh
002A6h
0xxh
002A6h
0xxh
RISC 16-Bit CPU
Register
PC
R10 0FA33h
R11 002A7h
Addressing Modes
3.3.6
Indirect Autoincrement Mode
The indirect autoincrement mode is described in Table 3−9.
Table 3−9. Indirect Autoincrement Mode Description
Assembler Code
MOV
Content of ROM
@R10+,0(R11)
MOV
@R10+,0(R11)
Length:
One or two words
Operation:
Move the contents of the source address (contents of R10) to
the destination address (contents of R11). Register R10 is
incremented by 1 for a byte operation, or 2 for a word
operation after the fetch; it points to the next address without
any overhead. This is useful for table processing.
Comment:
Valid only for source operand. The substitute for destination
operand is 0(Rd) plus second instruction INCD Rd.
Example:
MOV
Before:
0FF18h
0FF16h
@R10+,0(R11)
Register
Address
Space
0xxxxh
After:
Register
Address
Space
0xxxxh
00000h
R10
0FA32h
0FF18h
0FF16h
0FF14h 04ABBh
PC R11
010A8h
0FF14h 04ABBh
00000h
0FF12h
0xxxxh
0FF12h
0xxxxh
0FA34h
0xxxxh
0FA34h
0xxxxh
0FA32h
05BC1h
0FA32h
05BC1h
0FA30h
0xxxxh
0FA30h
0xxxxh
010AAh
0xxxxh
010AAh
0xxxxh
010A8h
01234h
010A8h
05BC1h
010A6h
0xxxxh
010A6h
0xxxxh
PC
R10 0FA34h
R11
010A8h
The autoincrementing of the register contents occurs after the operand is
fetched. This is shown in Figure 3−8.
Figure 3−8. Operand Fetch Operation
Instruction
Address
Operand
+1/ +2
RISC 16-Bit CPU
3-15
Addressing Modes
3.3.7
Immediate Mode
The immediate mode is described in Table 3−10.
Table 3−10.Immediate Mode Description
Assembler Code
MOV
Content of ROM
#45h,TONI
MOV @PC+,X(PC)
45
X = TONI − PC
Length:
Two or three words
It is one word less if a constant of CG1 or CG2 can be used.
Operation:
Move the immediate constant 45h, which is contained in the
word following the instruction, to destination address TONI.
When fetching the source, the program counter points to the
word following the instruction and moves the contents to the
destination.
Comment:
Valid only for a source operand.
Example:
MOV
Before:
3-16
#45h,TONI
Register
After:
0FF16h
01192h
0FF18h
0FF16h
Address
Space
0xxxxh
01192h
0FF14h
00045h
0FF14h
00045h
0FF12h
040B0h
0FF12h
040B0h
010AAh
0xxxxh
010AAh
0xxxxh
010A8h
01234h
010A8h
00045h
010A6h
0xxxxh
010A6h
0xxxxh
RISC 16-Bit CPU
Address
Space
PC
0FF16h
+01192h
010A8h
Register
PC
Instruction Set
3.4 Instruction Set
The complete MSP430 instruction set consists of 27 core instructions and 24
emulated instructions. The core instructions are instructions that have unique
op-codes decoded by the CPU. The emulated instructions are instructions that
make code easier to write and read, but do not have op-codes themselves,
instead they are replaced automatically by the assembler with an equivalent
core instruction. There is no code or performance penalty for using emulated
instruction.
There are three core-instruction formats:
- Dual-operand
- Single-operand
- Jump
All single-operand and dual-operand instructions can be byte or word
instructions by using .B or .W extensions. Byte instructions are used to access
byte data or byte peripherals. Word instructions are used to access word data
or word peripherals. If no extension is used, the instruction is a word
instruction.
The source and destination of an instruction are defined by the following fields:
src
The source operand defined by As and S-reg
dst
The destination operand defined by Ad and D-reg
As
The addressing bits responsible for the addressing mode used
for the source (src)
S-reg
The working register used for the source (src)
Ad
The addressing bits responsible for the addressing mode used
for the destination (dst)
D-reg
The working register used for the destination (dst)
B/W
Byte or word operation:
0: word operation
1: byte operation
Note: Destination Address
Destination addresses are valid anywhere in the memory map. However,
when using an instruction that modifies the contents of the destination, the
user must ensure the destination address is writable. For example, a
masked-ROM location would be a valid destination address, but the contents
are not modifiable, so the results of the instruction would be lost.
RISC 16-Bit CPU
3-17
Instruction Set
3.4.1
Double-Operand (Format I) Instructions
Figure 3−9 illustrates the double-operand instruction format.
Figure 3−9. Double Operand Instruction Format
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
S-Reg
Op-code
7
6
Ad
B/W
5
4
3
2
0
1
D-Reg
As
Table 3−11 lists and describes the double operand instructions.
Table 3−11. Double Operand Instructions
Mnemonic
S-Reg,
D-Reg
Operation
MOV(.B)
src,dst
ADD(.B)
ADDC(.B)
Status Bits
V
N
Z
C
src → dst
−
−
−
−
src,dst
src + dst → dst
*
*
*
*
src,dst
src + dst + C → dst
*
*
*
*
SUB(.B)
src,dst
dst + .not.src + 1 → dst
*
*
*
*
SUBC(.B)
src,dst
dst + .not.src + C → dst
*
*
*
*
CMP(.B)
src,dst
dst − src
*
*
*
*
DADD(.B)
src,dst
src + dst + C → dst (decimally)
*
*
*
*
BIT(.B)
src,dst
src .and. dst
0
*
*
*
BIC(.B)
src,dst
.not.src .and. dst → dst
−
−
−
−
BIS(.B)
src,dst
src .or. dst → dst
−
−
−
−
XOR(.B)
src,dst
src .xor. dst → dst
*
*
*
*
AND(.B)
src,dst
src .and. dst → dst
0
*
*
*
*
The status bit is affected
−
The status bit is not affected
0
The status bit is cleared
1
The status bit is set
Note: Instructions CMP and SUB
The instructions CMP and SUB are identical except for the storage of the
result. The same is true for the BIT and AND instructions.
3-18
RISC 16-Bit CPU
Instruction Set
3.4.2
Single-Operand (Format II) Instructions
Figure 3−10 illustrates the single-operand instruction format.
Figure 3−10. Single Operand Instruction Format
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
Op-code
6
5
B/W
4
3
2
0
1
D/S-Reg
Ad
Table 3−12 lists and describes the single operand instructions.
Table 3−12.Single Operand Instructions
S-Reg,
D-Reg
Operation
RRC(.B)
dst
C → MSB →.......LSB → C
*
*
*
*
RRA(.B)
dst
MSB → MSB →....LSB → C
0
*
*
*
PUSH(.B)
src
SP − 2 → SP, src → @SP
−
−
−
−
SWPB
dst
Swap bytes
−
−
−
−
CALL
dst
SP − 2 → SP, PC+2 → @SP
−
−
−
−
*
*
*
*
0
*
*
*
Mnemonic
Status Bits
V
N
Z
C
dst → PC
TOS → SR, SP + 2 → SP
RETI
TOS → PC,SP + 2 → SP
SXT
dst
Bit 7 → Bit 8........Bit 15
*
The status bit is affected
−
The status bit is not affected
0
The status bit is cleared
1
The status bit is set
All addressing modes are possible for the CALL instruction. If the symbolic
mode (ADDRESS), the immediate mode (#N), the absolute mode (&EDE) or
the indexed mode x(RN) is used, the word that follows contains the address
information.
RISC 16-Bit CPU
3-19
Instruction Set
3.4.3
Jumps
Figure 3−11 shows the conditional-jump instruction format.
Figure 3−11. Jump Instruction Format
15
14
13
Op-code
12
11
10
9
8
7
C
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
10-Bit PC Offset
Table 3−13 lists and describes the jump instructions.
Table 3−13.Jump Instructions
Mnemonic
S-Reg, D-Reg
Operation
JEQ/JZ
Label
Jump to label if zero bit is set
JNE/JNZ
Label
Jump to label if zero bit is reset
JC
Label
Jump to label if carry bit is set
JNC
Label
Jump to label if carry bit is reset
JN
Label
Jump to label if negative bit is set
JGE
Label
Jump to label if (N .XOR. V) = 0
JL
Label
Jump to label if (N .XOR. V) = 1
JMP
Label
Jump to label unconditionally
Conditional jumps support program branching relative to the PC and do not
affect the status bits. The possible jump range is from − 511 to +512 words
relative to the PC value at the jump instruction. The 10-bit program-counter
offset is treated as a signed 10-bit value that is doubled and added to the
program counter:
PCnew = PCold + 2 + PCoffset × 2
3-20
RISC 16-Bit CPU
Instruction Set
*ADC[.W]
*ADC.B
Add carry to destination
Add carry to destination
Syntax
ADC
ADC.B
Operation
dst + C −> dst
Emulation
ADDC
ADDC.B
Description
The carry bit (C) is added to the destination operand. The previous contents
of the destination are lost.
Status Bits
N: Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Z: Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
C: Set if dst was incremented from 0FFFFh to 0000, reset otherwise
Set if dst was incremented from 0FFh to 00, reset otherwise
V: Set if an arithmetic overflow occurs, otherwise reset
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The 16-bit counter pointed to by R13 is added to a 32-bit counter pointed to
by R12.
ADD
@R13,0(R12)
; Add LSDs
ADC
2(R12)
; Add carry to MSD
Example
The 8-bit counter pointed to by R13 is added to a 16-bit counter pointed to by
R12.
ADD.B
@R13,0(R12)
; Add LSDs
ADC.B
1(R12)
; Add carry to MSD
dst
dst
or
ADC.W
dst
#0,dst
#0,dst
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-21
Instruction Set
ADD[.W]
ADD.B
Add source to destination
Add source to destination
Syntax
ADD
ADD.B
Operation
src + dst −> dst
Description
The source operand is added to the destination operand. The source operand
is not affected. The previous contents of the destination are lost.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
R5 is increased by 10. The jump to TONI is performed on a carry.
ADD.W
src,dst
#10,R5
TONI
; Carry occurred
; No carry
R5 is increased by 10. The jump to TONI is performed on a carry.
ADD.B
JC
......
3-22
or
Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
Set if there is a carry from the result, cleared if not
Set if an arithmetic overflow occurs, otherwise reset
ADD
JC
......
Example
src,dst
src,dst
RISC 16−Bit CPU
#10,R5
TONI
; Add 10 to Lowbyte of R5
; Carry occurred, if (R5) ≥ 246 [0Ah+0F6h]
; No carry
Instruction Set
ADDC[.W]
ADDC.B
Add source and carry to destination
Add source and carry to destination
Syntax
ADDC
ADDC.B
Operation
src + dst + C −> dst
Description
The source operand and the carry bit (C) are added to the destination operand.
The source operand is not affected. The previous contents of the destination
are lost.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The 32-bit counter pointed to by R13 is added to a 32-bit counter, eleven words
(20/2 + 2/2) above the pointer in R13.
or
ADDC.W
src,dst
Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
Set if there is a carry from the MSB of the result, reset otherwise
Set if an arithmetic overflow occurs, otherwise reset
ADD
ADDC
...
Example
src,dst
src,dst
@R13+,20(R13)
@R13+,20(R13)
; ADD LSDs with no carry in
; ADD MSDs with carry
; resulting from the LSDs
The 24-bit counter pointed to by R13 is added to a 24-bit counter, eleven words
above the pointer in R13.
ADD.B
ADDC.B
ADDC.B
...
@R13+,10(R13)
@R13+,10(R13)
@R13+,10(R13)
; ADD LSDs with no carry in
; ADD medium Bits with carry
; ADD MSDs with carry
; resulting from the LSDs
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-23
Instruction Set
AND[.W]
AND.B
Source AND destination
Source AND destination
Syntax
AND
AND.B
Operation
src .AND. dst −> dst
Description
The source operand and the destination operand are logically ANDed. The
result is placed into the destination.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The bits set in R5 are used as a mask (#0AA55h) for the word addressed by
TOM. If the result is zero, a branch is taken to label TONI.
#0AA55h,R5
R5,TOM
TONI
; Load mask into register R5
; mask word addressed by TOM with R5
;
; Result is not zero
or
#0AA55h,TOM
TONI
The bits of mask #0A5h are logically ANDed with the low byte TOM. If the result
is zero, a branch is taken to label TONI.
AND.B
JZ
......
3-24
or AND.W src,dst
Set if result MSB is set, reset if not set
Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
Set if result is not zero, reset otherwise ( = .NOT. Zero)
Reset
MOV
AND
JZ
......
;
;
;
;
;
AND
JZ
Example
src,dst
src,dst
RISC 16−Bit CPU
#0A5h,TOM
TONI
; mask Lowbyte TOM with 0A5h
;
; Result is not zero
Instruction Set
BIC[.W]
BIC.B
Clear bits in destination
Clear bits in destination
Syntax
BIC
BIC.B
Operation
.NOT.src .AND. dst −> dst
Description
The inverted source operand and the destination operand are logically
ANDed. The result is placed into the destination. The source operand is not
affected.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The six MSBs of the RAM word LEO are cleared.
BIC
Example
src,dst
src,dst
or BIC.W src,dst
#0FC00h,LEO
; Clear 6 MSBs in MEM(LEO)
The five MSBs of the RAM byte LEO are cleared.
BIC.B
#0F8h,LEO
; Clear 5 MSBs in Ram location LEO
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-25
Instruction Set
BIS[.W]
BIS.B
Set bits in destination
Set bits in destination
Syntax
BIS
BIS.B
Operation
src .OR. dst −> dst
Description
The source operand and the destination operand are logically ORed. The
result is placed into the destination. The source operand is not affected.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The six LSBs of the RAM word TOM are set.
BIS
Example
or BIS.W
src,dst
#003Fh,TOM; set the six LSBs in RAM location TOM
The three MSBs of RAM byte TOM are set.
BIS.B
3-26
src,dst
src,dst
RISC 16−Bit CPU
#0E0h,TOM
; set the 3 MSBs in RAM location TOM
Instruction Set
BIT[.W]
BIT.B
Test bits in destination
Test bits in destination
Syntax
BIT
Operation
src .AND. dst
Description
The source and destination operands are logically ANDed. The result affects
only the status bits. The source and destination operands are not affected.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
If bit 9 of R8 is set, a branch is taken to label TOM.
src,dst
Set if MSB of result is set, reset otherwise
Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
Set if result is not zero, reset otherwise (.NOT. Zero)
Reset
BIT
JNZ
...
Example
#0200h,R8
TOM
; bit 9 of R8 set?
; Yes, branch to TOM
; No, proceed
If bit 3 of R8 is set, a branch is taken to label TOM.
BIT.B
JC
Example
or BIT.W src,dst
#8,R8
TOM
A serial communication receive bit (RCV) is tested. Because the carry bit is
equal to the state of the tested bit while using the BIT instruction to test a single
bit, the carry bit is used by the subsequent instruction; the read information is
shifted into register RECBUF.
;
; Serial communication with LSB is shifted first:
; xxxx xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
BIT.B
#RCV,RCCTL
; Bit info into carry
RRC
RECBUF
; Carry −> MSB of RECBUF
; cxxx xxxx
......
; repeat previous two instructions
......
; 8 times
; cccc cccc
; ^
^
; MSB
LSB
; Serial communication with MSB shifted first:
BIT.B
#RCV,RCCTL
; Bit info into carry
RLC.B
RECBUF
; Carry −> LSB of RECBUF
; xxxx
xxxc
......
; repeat previous two instructions
......
; 8 times
; cccc
cccc
;|
LSB
; MSB
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-27
Instruction Set
* BR, BRANCH
Branch to .......... destination
Syntax
BR
Operation
dst −> PC
Emulation
MOV
Description
An unconditional branch is taken to an address anywhere in the 64K address
space. All source addressing modes can be used. The branch instruction is
a word instruction.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Example
Examples for all addressing modes are given.
3-28
dst
dst,PC
BR
#EXEC
;Branch to label EXEC or direct branch (e.g. #0A4h)
; Core instruction MOV @PC+,PC
BR
EXEC
; Branch to the address contained in EXEC
; Core instruction MOV X(PC),PC
; Indirect address
BR
&EXEC
; Branch to the address contained in absolute
; address EXEC
; Core instruction MOV X(0),PC
; Indirect address
BR
R5
; Branch to the address contained in R5
; Core instruction MOV R5,PC
; Indirect R5
BR
@R5
; Branch to the address contained in the word
; pointed to by R5.
; Core instruction MOV @R5,PC
; Indirect, indirect R5
BR
@R5+
; Branch to the address contained in the word pointed
; to by R5 and increment pointer in R5 afterwards.
; The next time—S/W flow uses R5 pointer—it can
; alter program execution due to access to
; next address in a table pointed to by R5
; Core instruction MOV @R5,PC
; Indirect, indirect R5 with autoincrement
BR
X(R5)
; Branch to the address contained in the address
; pointed to by R5 + X (e.g. table with address
; starting at X). X can be an address or a label
; Core instruction MOV X(R5),PC
; Indirect, indirect R5 + X
RISC 16−Bit CPU
Instruction Set
CALL
Subroutine
Syntax
CALL
dst
Operation
dst
SP − 2
PC
tmp
−> tmp
−> SP
−> @SP
−> PC
dst is evaluated and stored
PC updated to TOS
dst saved to PC
Description
A subroutine call is made to an address anywhere in the 64K address space.
All addressing modes can be used. The return address (the address of the
following instruction) is stored on the stack. The call instruction is a word
instruction.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Example
Examples for all addressing modes are given.
CALL
#EXEC
; Call on label EXEC or immediate address (e.g. #0A4h)
; SP−2 → SP, PC+2 → @SP, @PC+ → PC
CALL
EXEC
; Call on the address contained in EXEC
; SP−2 → SP, PC+2 → @SP, X(PC) → PC
; Indirect address
CALL
&EXEC
; Call on the address contained in absolute address
; EXEC
; SP−2 → SP, PC+2 → @SP, X(0) → PC
; Indirect address
CALL
R5
; Call on the address contained in R5
; SP−2 → SP, PC+2 → @SP, R5 → PC
; Indirect R5
CALL
@R5
; Call on the address contained in the word
; pointed to by R5
; SP−2 → SP, PC+2 → @SP, @R5 → PC
; Indirect, indirect R5
CALL
@R5+
; Call on the address contained in the word
; pointed to by R5 and increment pointer in R5.
; The next time—S/W flow uses R5 pointer—
; it can alter the program execution due to
; access to next address in a table pointed to by R5
; SP−2 → SP, PC+2 → @SP, @R5 → PC
; Indirect, indirect R5 with autoincrement
CALL
X(R5)
; Call on the address contained in the address pointed
; to by R5 + X (e.g. table with address starting at X)
; X can be an address or a label
; SP−2 → SP, PC+2 → @SP, X(R5) → PC
; Indirect, indirect R5 + X
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-29
Instruction Set
* CLR[.W]
* CLR.B
Clear destination
Clear destination
Syntax
CLR
CLR.B
Operation
0 −> dst
Emulation
MOV
MOV.B
Description
The destination operand is cleared.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Example
RAM word TONI is cleared.
CLR
Example
#0,dst
#0,dst
TONI
; 0 −> TONI
R5
RAM byte TONI is cleared.
CLR.B
3-30
or CLR.W dst
Register R5 is cleared.
CLR
Example
dst
dst
RISC 16−Bit CPU
TONI
; 0 −> TONI
Instruction Set
* CLRC
Clear carry bit
Syntax
CLRC
Operation
0 −> C
Emulation
BIC
Description
The carry bit (C) is cleared. The clear carry instruction is a word instruction.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The 16-bit decimal counter pointed to by R13 is added to a 32-bit counter
pointed to by R12.
#1,SR
Not affected
Not affected
Cleared
Not affected
CLRC
DADD
DADC
; C=0: defines start
@R13,0(R12) ; add 16-bit counter to low word of 32-bit counter
2(R12)
; add carry to high word of 32-bit counter
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-31
Instruction Set
* CLRN
Clear negative bit
Syntax
CLRN
Operation
0→N
or
(.NOT.src .AND. dst −> dst)
Emulation
BIC
Description
The constant 04h is inverted (0FFFBh) and is logically ANDed with the
destination operand. The result is placed into the destination. The clear
negative bit instruction is a word instruction.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The Negative bit in the status register is cleared. This avoids special treatment
with negative numbers of the subroutine called.
SUBR
SUBRET
3-32
#4,SR
Reset to 0
Not affected
Not affected
Not affected
CLRN
CALL
......
......
JN
......
......
......
RET
RISC 16−Bit CPU
SUBR
SUBRET
; If input is negative: do nothing and return
Instruction Set
* CLRZ
Clear zero bit
Syntax
CLRZ
Operation
0→Z
or
(.NOT.src .AND. dst −> dst)
Emulation
BIC
Description
The constant 02h is inverted (0FFFDh) and logically ANDed with the
destination operand. The result is placed into the destination. The clear zero
bit instruction is a word instruction.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The zero bit in the status register is cleared.
#2,SR
Not affected
Reset to 0
Not affected
Not affected
CLRZ
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-33
Instruction Set
CMP[.W]
CMP.B
Compare source and destination
Compare source and destination
Syntax
CMP
CMP.B
Operation
dst + .NOT.src + 1
or
(dst − src)
Description
The source operand is subtracted from the destination operand. This is
accomplished by adding the 1s complement of the source operand plus 1. The
two operands are not affected and the result is not stored; only the status bits
are affected.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
R5 and R6 are compared. If they are equal, the program continues at the label
EQUAL.
R5,R6
EQUAL
MOV
MOV
MOV
CMP
JNZ
INCD
DEC
JNZ
src,dst
; R5 = R6?
; YES, JUMP
#NUM,R5
#BLOCK1,R6
#BLOCK2,R7
@R6+,0(R7)
ERROR
R7
R5
L$1
; number of words to be compared
; BLOCK1 start address in R6
; BLOCK2 start address in R7
; Are Words equal? R6 increments
; No, branch to ERROR
; Increment R7 pointer
; Are all words compared?
; No, another compare
The RAM bytes addressed by EDE and TONI are compared. If they are equal,
the program continues at the label EQUAL.
CMP.B EDE,TONI
JEQ
EQUAL
3-34
CMP.W
Two RAM blocks are compared. If they are not equal, the program branches
to the label ERROR.
L$1
Example
or
Set if result is negative, reset if positive (src >= dst)
Set if result is zero, reset otherwise (src = dst)
Set if there is a carry from the MSB of the result, reset otherwise
Set if an arithmetic overflow occurs, otherwise reset
CMP
JEQ
Example
src,dst
src,dst
RISC 16−Bit CPU
; MEM(EDE) = MEM(TONI)?
; YES, JUMP
Instruction Set
* DADC[.W]
* DADC.B
Add carry decimally to destination
Add carry decimally to destination
Syntax
DADC
DADC.B
Operation
dst + C −> dst (decimally)
Emulation
DADD
DADD.B
Description
The carry bit (C) is added decimally to the destination.
Status Bits
N: Set if MSB is 1
Z: Set if dst is 0, reset otherwise
C: Set if destination increments from 9999 to 0000, reset otherwise
Set if destination increments from 99 to 00, reset otherwise
V: Undefined
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The four-digit decimal number contained in R5 is added to an eight-digit decimal number pointed to by R8.
dst
dst
or
Example
src,dst
#0,dst
#0,dst
CLRC
DADD
DADC
DADC.W
R5,0(R8)
2(R8)
; Reset carry
; next instruction’s start condition is defined
; Add LSDs + C
; Add carry to MSD
The two-digit decimal number contained in R5 is added to a four-digit decimal
number pointed to by R8.
CLRC
DADD.B
DADC
R5,0(R8)
1(R8)
; Reset carry
; next instruction’s start condition is defined
; Add LSDs + C
; Add carry to MSDs
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-35
Instruction Set
DADD[.W]
DADD.B
Source and carry added decimally to destination
Source and carry added decimally to destination
Syntax
DADD
DADD.B
Operation
src + dst + C −> dst (decimally)
Description
The source operand and the destination operand are treated as four binary
coded decimals (BCD) with positive signs. The source operand and the carry
bit (C) are added decimally to the destination operand. The source operand
is not affected. The previous contents of the destination are lost. The result is
not defined for non-BCD numbers.
Status Bits
N: Set if the MSB is 1, reset otherwise
Z: Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
C: Set if the result is greater than 9999
Set if the result is greater than 99
V: Undefined
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The eight-digit BCD number contained in R5 and R6 is added decimally to an
eight-digit BCD number contained in R3 and R4 (R6 and R4 contain the
MSDs).
CLRC
DADD
DADD
JC
Example
src,dst
src,dst
or DADD.W
src,dst
; clear carry
R5,R3
; add LSDs
R6,R4
; add MSDs with carry
OVERFLOW ; If carry occurs go to error handling routine
The two-digit decimal counter in the RAM byte CNT is incremented by one.
CLRC
DADD.B
#1,CNT
; clear carry
; increment decimal counter
#0,CNT
; ≡ DADC.B
or
SETC
DADD.B
3-36
RISC 16−Bit CPU
CNT
Instruction Set
* DEC[.W]
* DEC.B
Decrement destination
Decrement destination
Syntax
DEC
DEC.B
Operation
dst − 1 −> dst
Emulation
Emulation
SUB
SUB.B
Description
The destination operand is decremented by one. The original contents are
lost.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
R10 is decremented by 1
dst
dst
or
DEC.W
dst
#1,dst
#1,dst
Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Set if dst contained 1, reset otherwise
Reset if dst contained 0, set otherwise
Set if an arithmetic overflow occurs, otherwise reset.
Set if initial value of destination was 08000h, otherwise reset.
Set if initial value of destination was 080h, otherwise reset.
DEC
R10
; Decrement R10
; Move a block of 255 bytes from memory location starting with EDE to memory location starting with
;TONI. Tables should not overlap: start of destination address TONI must not be within the range EDE
; to EDE+0FEh
;
MOV
#EDE,R6
MOV
#255,R10
L$1
MOV.B
@R6+,TONI−EDE−1(R6)
DEC
R10
JNZ
L$1
; Do not transfer tables using the routine above with the overlap shown in Figure 3−12.
Figure 3−12. Decrement Overlap
EDE
TONI
EDE+254
TONI+254
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-37
Instruction Set
* DECD[.W]
* DECD.B
Double-decrement destination
Double-decrement destination
Syntax
DECD
DECD.B
Operation
dst − 2 −> dst
Emulation
Emulation
SUB
SUB.B
Description
The destination operand is decremented by two. The original contents are lost.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
R10 is decremented by 2.
dst
dst
or
DECD.W
dst
#2,dst
#2,dst
Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Set if dst contained 2, reset otherwise
Reset if dst contained 0 or 1, set otherwise
Set if an arithmetic overflow occurs, otherwise reset.
Set if initial value of destination was 08001 or 08000h, otherwise reset.
Set if initial value of destination was 081 or 080h, otherwise reset.
DECD
R10
; Decrement R10 by two
; Move a block of 255 words from memory location starting with EDE to memory location
; starting with TONI
; Tables should not overlap: start of destination address TONI must not be within the
; range EDE to EDE+0FEh
;
MOV
#EDE,R6
MOV
#510,R10
L$1
MOV
@R6+,TONI−EDE−2(R6)
DECD
R10
JNZ
L$1
Example
Memory at location LEO is decremented by two.
DECD.B
LEO
Decrement status byte STATUS by two.
DECD.B
3-38
RISC 16−Bit CPU
STATUS
; Decrement MEM(LEO)
Instruction Set
* DINT
Disable (general) interrupts
Syntax
DINT
Operation
0 → GIE
or
(0FFF7h .AND. SR → SR
/
.NOT.src .AND. dst −> dst)
Emulation
BIC
Description
All interrupts are disabled.
The constant 08h is inverted and logically ANDed with the status register (SR).
The result is placed into the SR.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Mode Bits
GIE is reset. OSCOFF and CPUOFF are not affected.
Example
The general interrupt enable (GIE) bit in the status register is cleared to allow
a nondisrupted move of a 32-bit counter. This ensures that the counter is not
modified during the move by any interrupt.
DINT
NOP
MOV
MOV
EINT
#8,SR
; All interrupt events using the GIE bit are disabled
COUNTHI,R5 ; Copy counter
COUNTLO,R6
; All interrupt events using the GIE bit are enabled
Note: Disable Interrupt
If any code sequence needs to be protected from interruption, the DINT
should be executed at least one instruction before the beginning of the
uninterruptible sequence, or should be followed by a NOP instruction.
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-39
Instruction Set
* EINT
Enable (general) interrupts
Syntax
EINT
Operation
1 → GIE
or
(0008h .OR. SR −> SR / .src .OR. dst −> dst)
Emulation
BIS
Description
All interrupts are enabled.
The constant #08h and the status register SR are logically ORed. The result
is placed into the SR.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Mode Bits
GIE is set. OSCOFF and CPUOFF are not affected.
Example
The general interrupt enable (GIE) bit in the status register is set.
#8,SR
; Interrupt routine of ports P1.2 to P1.7
; P1IN is the address of the register where all port bits are read. P1IFG is the address of
; the register where all interrupt events are latched.
;
PUSH.B &P1IN
BIC.B
@SP,&P1IFG ; Reset only accepted flags
EINT
; Preset port 1 interrupt flags stored on stack
; other interrupts are allowed
BIT
#Mask,@SP
JEQ
MaskOK
; Flags are present identically to mask: jump
......
MaskOK
BIC
#Mask,@SP
......
INCD
SP
; Housekeeping: inverse to PUSH instruction
; at the start of interrupt subroutine. Corrects
; the stack pointer.
RETI
Note: Enable Interrupt
The instruction following the enable interrupt instruction (EINT) is always
executed, even if an interrupt service request is pending when the interrupts
are enable.
3-40
RISC 16−Bit CPU
Instruction Set
* INC[.W]
* INC.B
Increment destination
Increment destination
Syntax
INC
INC.B
Operation
dst + 1 −> dst
Emulation
ADD
Description
The destination operand is incremented by one. The original contents are lost.
Status Bits
N: Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Z: Set if dst contained 0FFFFh, reset otherwise
Set if dst contained 0FFh, reset otherwise
C: Set if dst contained 0FFFFh, reset otherwise
Set if dst contained 0FFh, reset otherwise
V: Set if dst contained 07FFFh, reset otherwise
Set if dst contained 07Fh, reset otherwise
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The status byte, STATUS, of a process is incremented. When it is equal to 11,
a branch to OVFL is taken.
dst
dst
or INC.W dst
#1,dst
INC.B
CMP.B
JEQ
STATUS
#11,STATUS
OVFL
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-41
Instruction Set
* INCD[.W]
* INCD.B
Double-increment destination
Double-increment destination
Syntax
INCD
INCD.B
Operation
dst + 2 −> dst
Emulation
Emulation
ADD
ADD.B
Example
The destination operand is incremented by two. The original contents are lost.
Status Bits
N: Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Z: Set if dst contained 0FFFEh, reset otherwise
Set if dst contained 0FEh, reset otherwise
C: Set if dst contained 0FFFEh or 0FFFFh, reset otherwise
Set if dst contained 0FEh or 0FFh, reset otherwise
V: Set if dst contained 07FFEh or 07FFFh, reset otherwise
Set if dst contained 07Eh or 07Fh, reset otherwise
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The item on the top of the stack (TOS) is removed without using a register.
dst
dst
or INCD.W
dst
#2,dst
#2,dst
.......
PUSH
R5
INCD
SP
; R5 is the result of a calculation, which is stored
; in the system stack
; Remove TOS by double-increment from stack
; Do not use INCD.B, SP is a word-aligned
; register
RET
Example
The byte on the top of the stack is incremented by two.
INCD.B
3-42
RISC 16−Bit CPU
0(SP)
; Byte on TOS is increment by two
Instruction Set
* INV[.W]
* INV.B
Invert destination
Invert destination
Syntax
INV
INV.B
Operation
.NOT.dst −> dst
Emulation
Emulation
XOR
XOR.B
Description
The destination operand is inverted. The original contents are lost.
Status Bits
N: Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Z: Set if dst contained 0FFFFh, reset otherwise
Set if dst contained 0FFh, reset otherwise
C: Set if result is not zero, reset otherwise ( = .NOT. Zero)
Set if result is not zero, reset otherwise ( = .NOT. Zero)
V: Set if initial destination operand was negative, otherwise reset
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
Content of R5 is negated (twos complement).
MOV
#00AEh,R5 ;
INV
R5
; Invert R5,
INC
R5
; R5 is now negated,
Example
dst
dst
#0FFFFh,dst
#0FFh,dst
R5 = 000AEh
R5 = 0FF51h
R5 = 0FF52h
Content of memory byte LEO is negated.
MOV.B
INV.B
INC.B
#0AEh,LEO ;
MEM(LEO) = 0AEh
LEO
; Invert LEO,
MEM(LEO) = 051h
LEO
; MEM(LEO) is negated,MEM(LEO) = 052h
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-43
Instruction Set
JC
JHS
Jump if carry set
Jump if higher or same
Syntax
JC
JHS
Operation
If C = 1: PC + 2 × offset −> PC
If C = 0: execute following instruction
Description
The status register carry bit (C) is tested. If it is set, the 10-bit signed offset
contained in the instruction LSBs is added to the program counter. If C is reset,
the next instruction following the jump is executed. JC (jump if carry/higher or
same) is used for the comparison of unsigned numbers (0 to 65536).
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Example
The P1IN.1 signal is used to define or control the program flow.
BIT
JC
......
Example
#01h,&P1IN
PROGA
; State of signal −> Carry
; If carry=1 then execute program routine A
; Carry=0, execute program here
R5 is compared to 15. If the content is higher or the same, branch to LABEL.
CMP
JHS
......
3-44
label
label
RISC 16−Bit CPU
#15,R5
LABEL
; Jump is taken if R5 ≥ 15
; Continue here if R5 < 15
Instruction Set
JEQ, JZ
Jump if equal, jump if zero
Syntax
JEQ
Operation
If Z = 1: PC + 2 × offset −> PC
If Z = 0: execute following instruction
Description
The status register zero bit (Z) is tested. If it is set, the 10-bit signed offset
contained in the instruction LSBs is added to the program counter. If Z is not
set, the instruction following the jump is executed.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Example
Jump to address TONI if R7 contains zero.
TST
JZ
Example
Example
label,
JZ
R7
TONI
label
; Test R7
; if zero: JUMP
Jump to address LEO if R6 is equal to the table contents.
CMP
R6,Table(R5)
JEQ
......
LEO
; Compare content of R6 with content of
; MEM (table address + content of R5)
; Jump if both data are equal
; No, data are not equal, continue here
Branch to LABEL if R5 is 0.
TST
JZ
......
R5
LABEL
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-45
Instruction Set
JGE
Jump if greater or equal
Syntax
JGE
Operation
If (N .XOR. V) = 0 then jump to label: PC + 2 × offset −> PC
If (N .XOR. V) = 1 then execute the following instruction
Description
The status register negative bit (N) and overflow bit (V) are tested. If both N
and V are set or reset, the 10-bit signed offset contained in the instruction LSBs
is added to the program counter. If only one is set, the instruction following the
jump is executed.
label
This allows comparison of signed integers.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Example
When the content of R6 is greater or equal to the memory pointed to by R7,
the program continues at label EDE.
CMP
JGE
......
......
......
3-46
RISC 16−Bit CPU
@R7,R6
EDE
; R6 ≥ (R7)?, compare on signed numbers
; Yes, R6 ≥ (R7)
; No, proceed
Instruction Set
JL
Jump if less
Syntax
JL
Operation
If (N .XOR. V) = 1 then jump to label: PC + 2 × offset −> PC
If (N .XOR. V) = 0 then execute following instruction
Description
The status register negative bit (N) and overflow bit (V) are tested. If only one
is set, the 10-bit signed offset contained in the instruction LSBs is added to the
program counter. If both N and V are set or reset, the instruction following the
jump is executed.
label
This allows comparison of signed integers.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Example
When the content of R6 is less than the memory pointed to by R7, the program
continues at label EDE.
CMP
JL
......
......
......
@R7,R6
EDE
; R6 < (R7)?, compare on signed numbers
; Yes, R6 < (R7)
; No, proceed
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-47
Instruction Set
JMP
Jump unconditionally
Syntax
JMP
Operation
PC + 2 × offset −> PC
Description
The 10-bit signed offset contained in the instruction LSBs is added to the
program counter.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Hint:
This one-word instruction replaces the BRANCH instruction in the range of
−511 to +512 words relative to the current program counter.
3-48
RISC 16−Bit CPU
label
Instruction Set
JN
Jump if negative
Syntax
JN
Operation
if N = 1: PC + 2 × offset −> PC
if N = 0: execute following instruction
Description
The negative bit (N) of the status register is tested. If it is set, the 10-bit signed
offset contained in the instruction LSBs is added to the program counter. If N
is reset, the next instruction following the jump is executed.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Example
The result of a computation in R5 is to be subtracted from COUNT. If the result
is negative, COUNT is to be cleared and the program continues execution in
another path.
L$1
SUB
JN
......
......
......
......
CLR
......
......
......
label
R5,COUNT
L$1
; COUNT − R5 −> COUNT
; If negative continue with COUNT=0 at PC=L$1
; Continue with COUNT≥0
COUNT
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-49
Instruction Set
JNC
JLO
Jump if carry not set
Jump if lower
Syntax
JNC
JLO
Operation
if C = 0: PC + 2 × offset −> PC
if C = 1: execute following instruction
Description
The status register carry bit (C) is tested. If it is reset, the 10-bit signed offset
contained in the instruction LSBs is added to the program counter. If C is set,
the next instruction following the jump is executed. JNC (jump if no carry/lower)
is used for the comparison of unsigned numbers (0 to 65536).
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Example
The result in R6 is added in BUFFER. If an overflow occurs, an error handling
routine at address ERROR is used.
ERROR
CONT
Example
ADD
JNC
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
R6,BUFFER
CONT
; BUFFER + R6 −> BUFFER
; No carry, jump to CONT
; Error handler start
; Continue with normal program flow
Branch to STL 2 if byte STATUS contains 1 or 0.
CMP.B
JLO
......
3-50
label
label
RISC 16−Bit CPU
#2,STATUS
STL2
; STATUS < 2
; STATUS ≥ 2, continue here
Instruction Set
JNE
JNZ
Jump if not equal
Jump if not zero
Syntax
JNE
JNZ
Operation
If Z = 0: PC + 2 × offset −> PC
If Z = 1: execute following instruction
Description
The status register zero bit (Z) is tested. If it is reset, the 10-bit signed offset
contained in the instruction LSBs is added to the program counter. If Z is set,
the next instruction following the jump is executed.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Example
Jump to address TONI if R7 and R8 have different contents.
CMP
JNE
......
label
label
R7,R8
TONI
; COMPARE R7 WITH R8
; if different: jump
; if equal, continue
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-51
Instruction Set
MOV[.W]
MOV.B
Move source to destination
Move source to destination
Syntax
MOV
MOV.B
Operation
src −> dst
Description
The source operand is moved to the destination.
The source operand is not affected. The previous contents of the destination
are lost.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The contents of table EDE (word data) are copied to table TOM. The length
of the tables must be 020h locations.
Loop
Example
Loop
3-52
MOV
MOV
MOV
DEC
JNZ
......
......
......
src,dst
src,dst
or
MOV.W
#EDE,R10
#020h,R9
@R10+,TOM−EDE−2(R10)
R9
Loop
src,dst
; Prepare pointer
; Prepare counter
; Use pointer in R10 for both tables
; Decrement counter
; Counter ≠ 0, continue copying
; Copying completed
The contents of table EDE (byte data) are copied to table TOM. The length of
the tables should be 020h locations
MOV #EDE,R10
; Prepare pointer
MOV #020h,R9
; Prepare counter
MOV.B @R10+,TOM−EDE−1(R10) ; Use pointer in R10 for
; both tables
DEC R9
; Decrement counter
JNZ
Loop
; Counter ≠ 0, continue
; copying
......
; Copying completed
......
......
RISC 16−Bit CPU
Instruction Set
* NOP
No operation
Syntax
NOP
Operation
None
Emulation
MOV
Description
No operation is performed. The instruction may be used for the elimination of
instructions during the software check or for defined waiting times.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
#0, R3
The NOP instruction is mainly used for two purposes:
- To fill one, two, or three memory words
- To adjust software timing
Note: Emulating No-Operation Instruction
Other instructions can emulate the NOP function while providing different
numbers of instruction cycles and code words. Some examples are:
Examples:
MOV
MOV
MOV
BIC
JMP
BIC
#0,R3
0(R4),0(R4)
@R4,0(R4)
#0,EDE(R4)
$+2
#0,R5
; 1 cycle, 1 word
; 6 cycles, 3 words
; 5 cycles, 2 words
; 4 cycles, 2 words
; 2 cycles, 1 word
; 1 cycle, 1 word
However, care should be taken when using these examples to prevent
unintended results. For example, if MOV 0(R4), 0(R4) is used and the value
in R4 is 120h, then a security violation will occur with the watchdog timer
(address 120h) because the security key was not used.
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-53
Instruction Set
* POP[.W]
* POP.B
Pop word from stack to destination
Pop byte from stack to destination
Syntax
POP
POP.B
Operation
@SP −> temp
SP + 2 −> SP
temp −> dst
Emulation
Emulation
MOV
MOV.B
Description
The stack location pointed to by the stack pointer (TOS) is moved to the
destination. The stack pointer is incremented by two afterwards.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Example
The contents of R7 and the status register are restored from the stack.
POP
POP
Example
R7
SR
or
MOV.W
@SP+,dst
; Restore R7
; Restore status register
LEO
; The low byte of the stack is moved to LEO.
The contents of R7 is restored from the stack.
POP.B
Example
@SP+,dst
@SP+,dst
The contents of RAM byte LEO is restored from the stack.
POP.B
Example
dst
dst
R7
; The low byte of the stack is moved to R7,
; the high byte of R7 is 00h
The contents of the memory pointed to by R7 and the status register are
restored from the stack.
POP.B
0(R7)
POP
SR
; The low byte of the stack is moved to the
; the byte which is pointed to by R7
: Example: R7 = 203h
;
Mem(R7) = low byte of system stack
: Example: R7 = 20Ah
;
Mem(R7) = low byte of system stack
; Last word on stack moved to the SR
Note: The System Stack Pointer
The system stack pointer (SP) is always incremented by two, independent
of the byte suffix.
3-54
RISC 16−Bit CPU
Instruction Set
PUSH[.W]
PUSH.B
Push word onto stack
Push byte onto stack
Syntax
PUSH
PUSH.B
Operation
SP − 2 → SP
src → @SP
Description
The stack pointer is decremented by two, then the source operand is moved
to the RAM word addressed by the stack pointer (TOS).
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The contents of the status register and R8 are saved on the stack.
PUSH
PUSH
Example
src
src
or
SR
R8
PUSH.W
src
; save status register
; save R8
The contents of the peripheral TCDAT is saved on the stack.
PUSH.B
&TCDAT
; save data from 8-bit peripheral module,
; address TCDAT, onto stack
Note: The System Stack Pointer
The system stack pointer (SP) is always decremented by two, independent
of the byte suffix.
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-55
Instruction Set
* RET
Return from subroutine
Syntax
RET
Operation
@SP→ PC
SP + 2 → SP
Emulation
MOV
Description
The return address pushed onto the stack by a CALL instruction is moved to
the program counter. The program continues at the code address following the
subroutine call.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
3-56
RISC 16−Bit CPU
@SP+,PC
Instruction Set
RETI
Return from interrupt
Syntax
RETI
Operation
TOS
SP + 2
TOS
SP + 2
Description
The status register is restored to the value at the beginning of the interrupt
service routine by replacing the present SR contents with the TOS contents.
The stack pointer (SP) is incremented by two.
→ SR
→ SP
→ PC
→ SP
The program counter is restored to the value at the beginning of interrupt
service. This is the consecutive step after the interrupted program flow.
Restoration is performed by replacing the present PC contents with the TOS
memory contents. The stack pointer (SP) is incremented.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
restored from system stack
restored from system stack
restored from system stack
restored from system stack
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are restored from system stack.
Example
Figure 3−13 illustrates the main program interrupt.
Figure 3−13. Main Program Interrupt
PC −6
PC −4
Interrupt Request
PC −2
PC
PC +2
Interrupt Accepted
PC+2 is Stored
Onto Stack
PC = PCi
PC +4
PCi +2
PC +6
PCi +4
PC +8
PCi +n−4
PCi +n−2
PCi +n
RETI
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-57
Instruction Set
* RLA[.W]
* RLA.B
Rotate left arithmetically
Rotate left arithmetically
Syntax
RLA
RLA.B
Operation
C <− MSB <− MSB−1 .... LSB+1 <− LSB <− 0
Emulation
ADD
ADD.B
Description
The destination operand is shifted left one position as shown in Figure 3−14.
The MSB is shifted into the carry bit (C) and the LSB is filled with 0. The RLA
instruction acts as a signed multiplication by 2.
dst
dst
or
RLA.W
dst
dst,dst
dst,dst
An overflow occurs if dst ≥ 04000h and dst < 0C000h before operation is
performed: the result has changed sign.
Figure 3−14. Destination Operand—Arithmetic Shift Left
Word
15
0
0
C
Byte
7
0
An overflow occurs if dst ≥ 040h and dst < 0C0h before the operation is
performed: the result has changed sign.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
Loaded from the MSB
Set if an arithmetic overflow occurs:
the initial value is 04000h ≤ dst < 0C000h; reset otherwise
Set if an arithmetic overflow occurs:
the initial value is 040h ≤ dst < 0C0h; reset otherwise
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
R7 is multiplied by 2.
RLA
Example
R7
; Shift left R7 (× 2)
The low byte of R7 is multiplied by 4.
RLA.B
RLA.B
R7
R7
; Shift left low byte of R7 (× 2)
; Shift left low byte of R7 (× 4)
Note: RLA Substitution
The assembler does not recognize the instruction:
RLA
@R5+,
RLA.B @R5+,
or
RLA(.B) @R5
ADD @R5+,−2(R5) ADD.B @R5+,−1(R5) or
ADD(.B) @R5
It must be substituted by:
3-58
RISC 16−Bit CPU
Instruction Set
* RLC[.W]
* RLC.B
Rotate left through carry
Rotate left through carry
Syntax
RLC
RLC.B
Operation
C <− MSB <− MSB−1 .... LSB+1 <− LSB <− C
Emulation
ADDC
Description
The destination operand is shifted left one position as shown in Figure 3−15.
The carry bit (C) is shifted into the LSB and the MSB is shifted into the carry
bit (C).
dst
dst
or
RLC.W
dst
dst,dst
Figure 3−15. Destination Operand—Carry Left Shift
Word
15
0
7
0
C
Byte
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
Loaded from the MSB
Set if an arithmetic overflow occurs
the initial value is 04000h ≤ dst < 0C000h; reset otherwise
Set if an arithmetic overflow occurs:
the initial value is 040h ≤ dst < 0C0h; reset otherwise
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
R5 is shifted left one position.
RLC
Example
; (R5 x 2) + C −> R5
The input P1IN.1 information is shifted into the LSB of R5.
BIT.B
RLC
Example
R5
#2,&P1IN
R5
; Information −> Carry
; Carry=P0in.1 −> LSB of R5
The MEM(LEO) content is shifted left one position.
RLC.B
LEO
; Mem(LEO) x 2 + C −> Mem(LEO)
Note: RLC and RLC.B Substitution
The assembler does not recognize the instruction:
RLC @R5+,
RLC.B @R5+,
or RLC(.B) @R5
It must be substituted by:
ADDC @R5+,−2(R5) ADDC.B
@R5+,−1(R5) or ADDC(.B) @R5
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-59
Instruction Set
RRA[.W]
RRA.B
Rotate right arithmetically
Rotate right arithmetically
Syntax
RRA
RRA.B
Operation
MSB −> MSB, MSB −> MSB−1, ... LSB+1 −> LSB,
Description
The destination operand is shifted right one position as shown in Figure 3−16.
The MSB is shifted into the MSB, the MSB is shifted into the MSB−1, and the
LSB+1 is shifted into the LSB.
dst
dst
or
RRA.W
dst
LSB −> C
Figure 3−16. Destination Operand—Arithmetic Right Shift
Word
15
0
15
0
C
Byte
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
Loaded from the LSB
Reset
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
R5 is shifted right one position. The MSB retains the old value. It operates
equal to an arithmetic division by 2.
RRA
;
;
3-60
; R5/2 −> R5
The value in R5 is multiplied by 0.75 (0.5 + 0.25).
PUSH
RRA
ADD
RRA
......
Example
R5
R5
R5
@SP+,R5
R5
; Hold R5 temporarily using stack
; R5 × 0.5 −> R5
; R5 × 0.5 + R5 = 1.5 × R5 −> R5
; (1.5 × R5) × 0.5 = 0.75 × R5 −> R5
The low byte of R5 is shifted right one position. The MSB retains the old value.
It operates equal to an arithmetic division by 2.
RRA.B
R5
PUSH.B
RRA.B
ADD.B
......
R5
@SP
@SP+,R5
RISC 16−Bit CPU
; R5/2 −> R5: operation is on low byte only
; High byte of R5 is reset
; R5 × 0.5 −> TOS
; TOS × 0.5 = 0.5 × R5 × 0.5 = 0.25 × R5 −> TOS
; R5 × 0.5 + R5 × 0.25 = 0.75 × R5 −> R5
Instruction Set
RRC[.W]
RRC.B
Rotate right through carry
Rotate right through carry
Syntax
RRC
RRC
Operation
C −> MSB −> MSB−1 .... LSB+1 −> LSB −> C
Description
The destination operand is shifted right one position as shown in Figure 3−17.
The carry bit (C) is shifted into the MSB, the LSB is shifted into the carry bit (C).
dst
dst
or
RRC.W
dst
Figure 3−17. Destination Operand—Carry Right Shift
Word
15
0
7
0
C
Byte
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
Loaded from the LSB
Reset
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
R5 is shifted right one position. The MSB is loaded with 1.
SETC
RRC
Example
R5
; Prepare carry for MSB
; R5/2 + 8000h −> R5
R5 is shifted right one position. The MSB is loaded with 1.
SETC
RRC.B
R5
; Prepare carry for MSB
; R5/2 + 80h −> R5; low byte of R5 is used
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-61
Instruction Set
* SBC[.W]
* SBC.B
Subtract source and borrow/.NOT. carry from destination
Subtract source and borrow/.NOT. carry from destination
Syntax
SBC
SBC.B
Operation
dst + 0FFFFh + C −> dst
dst + 0FFh + C −> dst
Emulation
SUBC
SUBC.B
Description
The carry bit (C) is added to the destination operand minus one. The previous
contents of the destination are lost.
Status Bits
N: Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Z: Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
C: Set if there is a carry from the MSB of the result, reset otherwise.
Set to 1 if no borrow, reset if borrow.
V: Set if an arithmetic overflow occurs, reset otherwise.
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The 16-bit counter pointed to by R13 is subtracted from a 32-bit counter
pointed to by R12.
SUB
SBC
Example
dst
dst
or
SBC.W
dst
#0,dst
#0,dst
@R13,0(R12)
2(R12)
; Subtract LSDs
; Subtract carry from MSD
The 8-bit counter pointed to by R13 is subtracted from a 16-bit counter pointed
to by R12.
SUB.B
SBC.B
@R13,0(R12)
1(R12)
; Subtract LSDs
; Subtract carry from MSD
Note: Borrow Implementation.
The borrow is treated as a .NOT. carry :
3-62
RISC 16−Bit CPU
Borrow
Yes
No
Carry bit
0
1
Instruction Set
* SETC
Set carry bit
Syntax
SETC
Operation
1 −> C
Emulation
BIS
Description
The carry bit (C) is set.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
Emulation of the decimal subtraction:
Subtract R5 from R6 decimally
Assume that R5 = 03987h and R6 = 04137h
DSUB
ADD
#06666h,R5
INV
R5
SETC
DADD
R5,R6
#1,SR
Not affected
Not affected
Set
Not affected
; Move content R5 from 0−9 to 6−0Fh
; R5 = 03987h + 06666h = 09FEDh
; Invert this (result back to 0−9)
; R5 = .NOT. R5 = 06012h
; Prepare carry = 1
; Emulate subtraction by addition of:
; (010000h − R5 − 1)
; R6 = R6 + R5 + 1
; R6 = 0150h
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-63
Instruction Set
* SETN
Set negative bit
Syntax
SETN
Operation
1 −> N
Emulation
BIS
Description
The negative bit (N) is set.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
3-64
RISC 16−Bit CPU
#4,SR
Set
Not affected
Not affected
Not affected
Instruction Set
* SETZ
Set zero bit
Syntax
SETZ
Operation
1 −> Z
Emulation
BIS
Description
The zero bit (Z) is set.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
#2,SR
Not affected
Set
Not affected
Not affected
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-65
Instruction Set
SUB[.W]
SUB.B
Subtract source from destination
Subtract source from destination
Syntax
SUB
SUB.B
Operation
dst + .NOT.src + 1 −> dst
or
[(dst − src −> dst)]
Description
The source operand is subtracted from the destination operand by adding the
source operand’s 1s complement and the constant 1. The source operand is
not affected. The previous contents of the destination are lost.
Status Bits
N: Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Z: Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
C: Set if there is a carry from the MSB of the result, reset otherwise.
Set to 1 if no borrow, reset if borrow.
V: Set if an arithmetic overflow occurs, otherwise reset
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
See example at the SBC instruction.
Example
See example at the SBC.B instruction.
src,dst
src,dst
or
SUB.W
src,dst
Note: Borrow Is Treated as a .NOT.
The borrow is treated as a .NOT. carry :
3-66
RISC 16−Bit CPU
Borrow
Yes
No
Carry bit
0
1
Instruction Set
SUBC[.W]SBB[.W]
SUBC.B,SBB.B
Subtract source and borrow/.NOT. carry from destination
Subtract source and borrow/.NOT. carry from destination
Syntax
SUBC
SBB
SUBC.B
Operation
dst + .NOT.src + C −> dst
or
(dst − src − 1 + C −> dst)
Description
The source operand is subtracted from the destination operand by adding the
source operand’s 1s complement and the carry bit (C). The source operand
is not affected. The previous contents of the destination are lost.
Status Bits
N: Set if result is negative, reset if positive.
Z: Set if result is zero, reset otherwise.
C: Set if there is a carry from the MSB of the result, reset otherwise.
Set to 1 if no borrow, reset if borrow.
V: Set if an arithmetic overflow occurs, reset otherwise.
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
Two floating point mantissas (24 bits) are subtracted.
LSBs are in R13 and R10, MSBs are in R12 and R9.
SUB.W
SUBC.B
Example
src,dst
src,dst
src,dst
or
or
or
SUBC.W
SBB.W
SBB.B
src,dst
src,dst
src,dst
or
R13,R10 ; 16-bit part, LSBs
R12,R9 ; 8-bit part, MSBs
The 16-bit counter pointed to by R13 is subtracted from a 16-bit counter in R10
and R11(MSD).
SUB.B
SUBC.B
...
@R13+,R10
@R13,R11
; Subtract LSDs without carry
; Subtract MSDs with carry
; resulting from the LSDs
Note: Borrow Implementation
The borrow is treated as a .NOT. carry :
Borrow
Yes
No
Carry bit
0
1
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-67
Instruction Set
SWPB
Swap bytes
Syntax
SWPB
Operation
Bits 15 to 8 <−> bits 7 to 0
Description
The destination operand high and low bytes are exchanged as shown in
Figure 3−18.
Status Bits
Status bits are not affected.
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
dst
Figure 3−18. Destination Operand Byte Swap
15
8
7
Example
MOV
SWPB
Example
; 0100000010111111 −> R7
; 1011111101000000 in R7
The value in R5 is multiplied by 256. The result is stored in R5,R4.
SWPB
MOV
BIC
BIC
3-68
#040BFh,R7
R7
RISC 16−Bit CPU
R5
R5,R4
#0FF00h,R5
#00FFh,R4
;
;Copy the swapped value to R4
;Correct the result
;Correct the result
0
Instruction Set
SXT
Extend Sign
Syntax
SXT
Operation
Bit 7 −> Bit 8 ......... Bit 15
Description
The sign of the low byte is extended into the high byte as shown in Figure 3−19.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
dst
Set if result is negative, reset if positive
Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
Set if result is not zero, reset otherwise (.NOT. Zero)
Reset
Figure 3−19. Destination Operand Sign Extension
15
Example
8
7
0
R7 is loaded with the P1IN value. The operation of the sign-extend instruction
expands bit 8 to bit 15 with the value of bit 7.
R7 is then added to R6.
MOV.B
SXT
&P1IN,R7
R7
; P1IN = 080h:
; R7 = 0FF80h:
. . . . . . . . 1000 0000
1111 1111 1000 0000
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-69
Instruction Set
* TST[.W]
* TST.B
Test destination
Test destination
Syntax
TST
TST.B
Operation
dst + 0FFFFh + 1
dst + 0FFh + 1
Emulation
CMP
CMP.B
Description
The destination operand is compared with zero. The status bits are set according to the result. The destination is not affected.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
R7 is tested. If it is negative, continue at R7NEG; if it is positive but not zero,
continue at R7POS.
#0,dst
#0,dst
TST
JN
JZ
......
......
......
R7
R7NEG
R7ZERO
; Test R7
; R7 is negative
; R7 is zero
; R7 is positive but not zero
; R7 is negative
; R7 is zero
The low byte of R7 is tested. If it is negative, continue at R7NEG; if it is positive
but not zero, continue at R7POS.
R7POS
R7NEG
R7ZERO
3-70
or TST.W dst
Set if destination is negative, reset if positive
Set if destination contains zero, reset otherwise
Set
Reset
R7POS
R7NEG
R7ZERO
Example
dst
dst
RISC 16−Bit CPU
TST.B
JN
JZ
......
.....
......
R7
R7NEG
R7ZERO
; Test low byte of R7
; Low byte of R7 is negative
; Low byte of R7 is zero
; Low byte of R7 is positive but not zero
; Low byte of R7 is negative
; Low byte of R7 is zero
Instruction Set
XOR[.W]
XOR.B
Exclusive OR of source with destination
Exclusive OR of source with destination
Syntax
XOR
XOR.B
Operation
src .XOR. dst −> dst
Description
The source and destination operands are exclusive ORed. The result is placed
into the destination. The source operand is not affected.
Status Bits
N:
Z:
C:
V:
Mode Bits
OSCOFF, CPUOFF, and GIE are not affected.
Example
The bits set in R6 toggle the bits in the RAM word TONI.
XOR.W
src,dst
R6,TONI
; Toggle bits of word TONI on the bits set in R6
The bits set in R6 toggle the bits in the RAM byte TONI.
XOR.B
Example
or
Set if result MSB is set, reset if not set
Set if result is zero, reset otherwise
Set if result is not zero, reset otherwise ( = .NOT. Zero)
Set if both operands are negative
XOR
Example
src,dst
src,dst
R6,TONI
; Toggle bits of byte TONI on the bits set in
; low byte of R6
Reset to 0 those bits in low byte of R7 that are different from bits in RAM byte
EDE.
XOR.B
INV.B
EDE,R7
R7
; Set different bit to “1s”
; Invert Lowbyte, Highbyte is 0h
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-71
Instruction Set
3.4.4
Instruction Cycles and Lengths
The number of CPU clock cycles required for an instruction depends on the
instruction format and the addressing modes used - not the instruction itself.
The number of clock cycles refers to the MCLK.
Interrupt and Reset Cycles
Table 3−14 lists the CPU cycles for interrupt overhead and reset.
Table 3−14.Interrupt and Reset Cycles
No. of
Cycles
5
Length of
Instruction
1
Interrupt accepted
6
−
WDT reset
4
−
Reset (RST/NMI)
4
−
Action
Return from interrupt (RETI)
Format-II (Single Operand) Instruction Cycles and Lengths
Table 3−15 lists the length and CPU cycles for all addressing modes of
format-II instructions.
Table 3−15.Format-II Instruction Cycles and Lengths
No. of Cycles
RRA, RRC
SWPB, SXT
PUSH
CALL
1
3
4
Length of
Instruction
1
@Rn
3
4
4
1
RRC @R9
@Rn+
3
5
5
1
SWPB @R10+
(See note)
4
5
2
CALL #0F000h
X(Rn)
4
5
5
2
CALL 2(R7)
EDE
4
5
5
2
PUSH EDE
&EDE
4
5
5
2
SXT &EDE
Addressing
Mode
Rn
#N
Example
SWPB R5
Note: Instruction Format II Immediate Mode
Do not use instructions RRA, RRC, SWPB, and SXT with the immediate
mode in the destination field. Use of these in the immediate mode results in
an unpredictable program operation.
Format-III (Jump) Instruction Cycles and Lengths
All jump instructions require one code word, and take two CPU cycles to
execute, regardless of whether the jump is taken or not.
3-72
RISC 16−Bit CPU
Instruction Set
Format-I (Double Operand) Instruction Cycles and Lengths
Table 3−16 lists the length and CPU cycles for all addressing modes of format-I
instructions.
Table 3−16.Format 1 Instruction Cycles and Lengths
No. of
Cycles
Length of
Instruction
Rm
1
1
MOV
PC
2
1
BR
R9
x(Rm)
4
2
ADD
R5,4(R6)
EDE
4
2
XOR
R8,EDE
&EDE
4
2
MOV
R5,&EDE
Rm
2
1
AND
@R4,R5
PC
2
1
BR
@R8
x(Rm)
5
2
XOR
@R5,8(R6)
EDE
5
2
MOV
@R5,EDE
&EDE
5
2
XOR
@R5,&EDE
Rm
2
1
ADD
@R5+,R6
PC
3
1
BR
@R9+
x(Rm)
5
2
XOR
@R5,8(R6)
EDE
5
2
MOV
@R9+,EDE
&EDE
5
2
MOV
@R9+,&EDE
Rm
2
2
MOV
#20,R9
PC
3
2
BR
#2AEh
x(Rm)
5
3
MOV
#0300h,0(SP)
EDE
5
3
ADD
#33,EDE
&EDE
5
3
ADD
#33,&EDE
Rm
3
2
MOV
2(R5),R7
PC
3
2
BR
2(R6)
TONI
6
3
MOV
4(R7),TONI
x(Rm)
6
3
ADD
4(R4),6(R9)
&TONI
6
3
MOV
2(R4),&TONI
Rm
3
2
AND
EDE,R6
PC
3
2
BR
EDE
TONI
6
3
CMP
EDE,TONI
x(Rm)
6
3
MOV
EDE,0(SP)
&TONI
6
3
MOV
EDE,&TONI
Rm
3
2
MOV
&EDE,R8
PC
3
2
BRA
&EDE
TONI
6
3
MOV
&EDE,TONI
Addressing Mode
Src
Rn
@Rn
@Rn+
#N
x(Rn)
EDE
&EDE
Dst
Example
R5,R8
x(Rm)
6
3
MOV
&EDE,0(SP)
&TONI
6
3
MOV
&EDE,&TONI
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-73
Instruction Set
3.4.5
Instruction Set Description
The instruction map is shown in Figure 3−20 and the complete instruction set
is summarized in Table 3−17.
Figure 3−20. Core Instruction Map
000
0xxx
4xxx
8xxx
Cxxx
1xxx
14xx
18xx
1Cxx
20xx
24xx
28xx
2Cxx
30xx
34xx
38xx
3Cxx
4xxx
5xxx
6xxx
7xxx
8xxx
9xxx
Axxx
Bxxx
Cxxx
Dxxx
Exxx
Fxxx
3-74
040
080
0C0
RRC RRC.B SWPB
100
RRA
140
180
RRA.B
SXT
1C0
200
240
280
PUSH
PUSH.B
CALL
JNE/JNZ
JEQ/JZ
JNC
JC
JN
JGE
JL
JMP
MOV, MOV.B
ADD, ADD.B
ADDC, ADDC.B
SUBC, SUBC.B
SUB, SUB.B
CMP, CMP.B
DADD, DADD.B
BIT, BIT.B
BIC, BIC.B
BIS, BIS.B
XOR, XOR.B
AND, AND.B
RISC 16−Bit CPU
2C0
300
RETI
340
380
3C0
Instruction Set
Table 3−17.MSP430 Instruction Set
Mnemonic
ADC(.B)†
V
N
Z
dst
Description
Add C to destination
dst + C → dst
*
*
*
C
*
ADD(.B)
src,dst
Add source to destination
src + dst → dst
*
*
*
*
ADDC(.B)
src,dst
Add source and C to destination
src + dst + C → dst
*
*
*
*
AND(.B)
src,dst
AND source and destination
src .and. dst → dst
0
*
*
*
BIC(.B)
src,dst
Clear bits in destination
.not.src .and. dst → dst
−
−
−
−
BIS(.B)
src,dst
Set bits in destination
src .or. dst → dst
−
−
−
−
BIT(.B)
BR†
src,dst
Test bits in destination
src .and. dst
0
*
*
*
dst
Branch to destination
dst → PC
−
−
−
−
CALL
CLR(.B)†
CLRC†
dst
Call destination
PC+2 → stack, dst → PC
−
−
−
−
dst
Clear destination
0 → dst
−
−
−
−
Clear C
0→C
−
−
−
0
Clear N
0→N
−
0
−
−
Clear Z
0→Z
−
−
0
−
CLRN†
CLRZ†
CMP(.B)
src,dst
Compare source and destination
dst − src
*
*
*
*
DADC(.B)†
dst
Add C decimally to destination
dst + C → dst (decimally)
*
*
*
*
DADD(.B)
DEC(.B)†
src,dst
Add source and C decimally to dst.
src + dst + C → dst (decimally)
*
*
*
*
dst
Decrement destination
dst − 1 → dst
*
*
*
*
DECD(.B)†
DINT†
dst
Double-decrement destination
dst − 2 → dst
*
*
*
*
Disable interrupts
0 → GIE
−
−
−
−
−
EINT†
Enable interrupts
1 → GIE
−
−
−
INC(.B)†
dst
Increment destination
dst +1 → dst
*
*
*
*
INCD(.B)†
INV(.B)†
dst
Double-increment destination
dst+2 → dst
*
*
*
*
dst
Invert destination
.not.dst → dst
JC/JHS
label
Jump if C set/Jump if higher or same
JEQ/JZ
label
Jump if equal/Jump if Z set
−
−
−
−
JGE
label
Jump if greater or equal
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
*
*
*
*
−
−
−
−
JL
label
Jump if less
JMP
label
Jump
JN
label
Jump if N set
−
−
−
−
JNC/JLO
label
Jump if C not set/Jump if lower
−
−
−
−
JNE/JNZ
label
Jump if not equal/Jump if Z not set
−
−
−
−
MOV(.B)
NOP†
src,dst
Move source to destination
src → dst
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
POP(.B)†
dst
Pop item from stack to destination
@SP → dst, SP+2 → SP
−
−
−
−
PUSH(.B)
RET†
src
Push source onto stack
SP − 2 → SP, src → @SP
−
−
−
−
Return from subroutine
@SP → PC, SP + 2 → SP
−
PC + 2 x offset → PC
No operation
RETI
−
−
−
Return from interrupt
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
RLA(.B)†
RLC(.B)†
dst
Rotate left arithmetically
dst
Rotate left through C
*
*
*
*
RRA(.B)
dst
Rotate right arithmetically
0
*
*
*
RRC(.B)
SBC(.B)†
dst
Rotate right through C
*
*
*
*
dst
Subtract not(C) from destination
dst + 0FFFFh + C → dst
*
*
*
*
SETC†
SETN†
Set C
1→C
−
−
−
1
Set N
1→N
−
1
−
−
SETZ†
Set Z
1→C
−
−
1
−
*
SUB(.B)
src,dst
Subtract source from destination
dst + .not.src + 1 → dst
*
*
*
SUBC(.B)
src,dst
Subtract source and not(C) from dst.
dst + .not.src + C → dst
*
*
*
*
SWPB
dst
Swap bytes
−
−
−
−
SXT
TST(.B)†
dst
Extend sign
0
*
*
*
dst
Test destination
dst + 0FFFFh + 1
0
*
*
1
XOR(.B)
src,dst
Exclusive OR source and destination
src .xor. dst → dst
*
*
*
*
† Emulated Instruction
RISC 16−Bit CPU
3-75
Chapter 4
"# "
The basic clock module provides the clocks for MSP430x1xx devices. This
chapter describes the operation of the basic clock module. The basic clock
module is implemented in all MSP430x1xx devices.
Topic
Page
4.1
Basic Clock Module Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4−2
4.2
Basic Clock Module Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4−4
4.3
Basic Clock Module Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4−14
Basic Clock Module
4-1
Basic Clock Module Introduction
4.1 Basic Clock Module Introduction
The basic clock module supports low system cost and ultralow-power
consumption. Using three internal clock signals, the user can select the best
balance of performance and low power consumption. The basic clock module
can be configured to operate without any external components, with one
external resistor, with one or two external crystals, or with resonators, under
full software control.
The basic clock module includes two or three clock sources:
- LFXT1CLK: Low-frequency/high-frequency oscillator that can be used
either with low-frequency 32768-Hz watch crystals, or standard crystals
or resonators in the 450-kHz to 8-MHz range.
- XT2CLK: Optional high-frequency oscillator that can be used with
standard crystals, resonators, or external clock sources in the 450-kHz to
8-MHz range.
- DCOCLK: Internal digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) with RC-type
characteristics.
Three clock signals are available from the basic clock module:
- ACLK: Auxiliary clock. The ACLK is the buffered LFXT1CLK clock source
divided by 1, 2, 4, or 8. ACLK is software selectable for individual
peripheral modules.
- MCLK: Master clock. MCLK is software selectable as LFXT1CLK,
XT2CLK (if available), or DCOCLK. MCLK is divided by 1, 2, 4, or 8. MCLK
is used by the CPU and system.
- SMCLK: Sub-main clock. SMCLK is software selectable as LFXT1CLK,
XT2CLK (if available on-chip), or DCOCLK. SMCLK is divided by 1, 2, 4,
or 8. SMCLK is software selectable for individual peripheral modules.
The block diagram of the basic clock module is shown in Figure 4−1.
4-2
Basic Clock Module
Basic Clock Module Introduction
Figure 4−1. Basic Clock Block Diagram
DIVAx
LFXT1CLK
Divider
/1/2/4/8
XTS
ACLK
OSCOFF
Auxillary Clock
0V
XIN
12pF
LF
12pF
XOUT
XT
LFOff
XT1Off
0V
SELMx
LFXT1 Oscillator
DIVMx
CPUOFF
00
XT2CLK
01
10
Divider
/1/2/4/8
0
1
11
MCLK
XT2OFF
XT2IN
Main System Clock
XT
XT2OUT
XT2 Oscillator
MODx
VCC
Modulator
DCOR
SCG0 RSELx
DCOx
SELS
DIVSx
SCG1
0
1
off
DC
Generator
n
DCO
n+1
0
1
DCOCLK
0
1
Divider
/1/2/4/8
0
1
P2.5/Rosc
SMCLK
Sub System Clock
Note: XT2 Oscillator
The XT2 Oscillator is not present on MSP430x11xx or MSP430x12xx
devices. The LFXT1CLK is used in place of XT2CLK.
Basic Clock Module
4-3
Basic Clock Module Operation
4.2 Basic Clock Module Operation
After a PUC, MCLK and SMCLK are sourced from DCOCLK at ~800 kHz (see
device-specific datasheet for parameters) and ACLK is sourced from LFXT1
in LF mode.
Status register control bits SCG0, SCG1, OSCOFF, and CPUOFF configure
the MSP430 operating modes and enable or disable portions of the basic clock
module. See Chapter System Resets, Interrupts and Operating Modes. The
DCOCTL, BCSCTL1, and BCSCTL2 registers configure the basic clock
module
The basic clock can be configured or reconfigured by software at any time
during program execution, for example:
BIS.B #RSEL2+RSEL1+RSEL0,&BCSCTL1 ;
BIS.B #DCO2+DCO1+DCO0,&DCOCTL
; Set max DCO frequency
4.2.1
Basic Clock Module Features for Low-Power Applications
Conflicting requirements typically exist in battery-powered MSP430x1xx
applications:
- Low clock frequency for energy conservation and time keeping
- High clock frequency for fast reaction to events and fast burst processing
capability
The basic clock module addresses the above conflicting requirements by
allowing the user to select from the three available clock signals: ACLK, MCLK,
and SMCLK. For optimal low-power performance, the ACLK can be
configured to oscillate with a low-power 32,768-Hz watch crystal, providing a
stable time base for the system and low power stand-by operation. The MCLK
can be configured to operate from the on-chip DCO that can be only activated
when requested by interrupt-driven events. The SMCLK can be configured to
operate from a crystal or the DCO, depending on peripheral requirements. A
flexible clock distribution and divider system is provided to fine tune the
individual clock requirements.
4-4
Basic Clock Module
Basic Clock Module Operation
4.2.2
LFXT1 Oscillator
The LFXT1 oscillator supports ultralow-current consumption using a
32,768-Hz watch crystal in LF mode (XTS = 0). A watch crystal connects to XIN
and XOUT without any other external components. Internal 12-pF load
capacitors are provided for LFXT1 in LF mode. The capacitors add serially,
providing a match for standard 32,768-Hz crystals requiring a 6-pF load.
Additional capacitors can be added if necessary.
The LFXT1 oscillator also supports high-speed crystals or resonators when in
HF mode (XTS = 1) and OSCOFF is cleared. The high-speed crystal or
resonator connects to XIN and XOUT and requires external capacitors on both
terminals. These capacitors should be sized according to the crystal or
resonator specifications.
LFXT1 may be used with an external clock signal on the XIN pin in either LF
or HF mode. When used with an external signal, the external frequency must
meet the datasheet parameters for the chosen mode and OSCOFF must be
reset.
Software can disable LFXT1 by setting OSCOFF, if this signal does not source
SMCLK or MCLK, as shown in Figure 4−2.
Figure 4−2. Off Signals for the LFXT1 Oscillator
XTS
LFoff
OSCOFF
CPUOFF
SELM0
SELM1
XT1off
XT2
SCG1
SELS
XT2 is an Internal Signal
XT2 = 0: MSP430x11xx, MSP430x12xx devices
XT2 = 1: MSP430x13x, MSP430x14x
MSP430x15x, and MSP430x16x devices
Note: LFXT1 Oscillator Characteristics
Low-frequency crystals often require hundreds of milliseconds to start up,
depending on the crystal.
Ultralow-power oscillators such as the LFXT1 in LF mode should be guarded
from noise coupling from other sources. The crystal should be placed as
close as possible to the MSP430 with the crystal housing grounded and the
crystal traces guarded with ground traces.
The LFXT1 oscillator in LF mode requires a 5.1-MΩ resistor from XOUT to
VSS when VCC < 2.5 V.
Basic Clock Module
4-5
Basic Clock Module Operation
4.2.3
XT2 Oscillator
Some devices have a second crystal oscillator, XT2. XT2 sources XT2CLK
and its characteristics are identical to LFXT1 in HF mode. The XT2OFF bit
disables the XT2 oscillator if XT2CLK is not used for MCLK or SMCLK as
shown in Figure 4−3.
XT2 may be used with external clock signals on the XT2IN pin. When used with
an external signal, the external frequency must meet the datasheet
parameters for XT2 and XT2OFF must be reset.
Figure 4−3. Off Signals for Oscillator XT2
XT2OFF
CPUOFF
SELM1
SELM0
XT2Off (Internal signal)
SCG1
SELS
4.2.4
Digitally-Controlled Oscillator (DCO)
The DCO is an integrated ring oscillator with RC-type characteristics. As with
any RC-type oscillator, frequency varies with temperature, voltage, and from
device to device. The DCO frequency can be adjusted by software using the
DCOx, MODx, and RSELx bits. The digital control of the oscillator allows
frequency stabilization despite its RC-type characteristics.
Disabling the DCO
Software can disable DCOCLK by setting SCG0 when it is not used to source
SMCLK or MCLK in active mode, as shown in Figure 4−4.
Figure 4−4. On/Off Control of DCO
CPUOFF
DCOCLK_on
XSELM1
D
SCG1
D
SELS
Q
1: on
0: off
Q
DCOCLK
CL
POR
SMCLK
SCG0
4-6
DCO_Gen_on
1: on
0: off
Basic Clock Module
Basic Clock Module Operation
Adjusting the DCO frequency
After a PUC, the internal resistor is selected for the DC generator, RSELx =
4, and DCOx = 3, allowing the DCO to start at a mid-range frequency. MCLK
and SMCLK are sourced from DCOCLK. Because the CPU executes code
from MCLK, which is sourced from the fast-starting DCO, code execution
begins from PUC in less than 6 µs. The typical DCOx and RSELx ranges and
steps are shown in Figure 4−5.
The frequency of DCOCLK is set by the following functions:
- The current injected into the DC generator by either the internal or external
resistor defines the fundamental frequency. The DCOR bit selects the
internal or external resistor.
- The three RSELx bits select one of eight nominal frequency ranges for the
DCO. These ranges are defined for an individual device in the
device-specific data sheet.
- The three DCOx bits divide the DCO range selected by the RSELx bits into
8 frequency steps, separated by approximately 10%.
- The five MODx bits, switch between the frequency selected by the DCOx
bits and the next higher frequency set by DCOx+1. When DCOx = 07h,
the MODx bits have no effect because the DCO is already at the highest
setting for the selected RSELx range.
Figure 4−5. Typical DCOx Range and RSELx Steps
fDCO
10000 kHz
RSEL=7
RSEL=6
RSEL=5
RSEL=4
1000 kHz
RSEL=3
RSEL=2
RSEL=1
RSEL=0
100 kHz
DCO=0
DCO=1
DCO=2
DCO=3
DCO=4
DCO=5
DCO=6
DCO=7
Basic Clock Module
4-7
Basic Clock Module Operation
Using an External Resistor (ROSC) for the DCO
The DCO temperature coefficient can be reduced by using an external resistor
ROSC tied to DVCC to source the current for the DC generator. Figure 4−6
shows the typical relationship of fDCO vs. temperature for both the internal and
external resistor options. Using an external ROSC reduces the DCO
temperature coefficient to approximately 0.1%/C. See the device-specific data
sheet for parameters.
ROSC also allows the DCO to operate at higher frequencies. For example, the
internal resistor nominal value is approximately 300 kΩ, allowing the DCO to
operate up to approximately 5 MHz. When using an external ROSC of
approximately 100 kΩ the DCO can operate up to approximately 10 MHz. The
user should take care to not exceed the maximum MCLK frequency specified
in the datasheet, even though the DCO is capable of exceeding it.
Figure 4−6. DCO Frequency vs. Temperature
fDCO
25%
0
External
Internal
−25%
Celsius
−50
4-8
Basic Clock Module
0
50
100
Basic Clock Module Operation
4.2.5
DCO Modulator
The modulator mixes two DCO frequencies, fDCO and fDCO+1 to produce an
intermediate effective frequency between fDCO and fDCO+1 and spread the
clock energy, reducing electromagnetic interference (EMI). The modulator
mixes fDCO and fDCO+1 for 32 DCOCLK clock cycles and is configured with the
MODx bits. When MODx = 0 the modulator is off.
The modulator mixing formula is:
t =(32− MODx) × tDCO + MODx × tDCO+1
Because fDCO is lower than the effective frequency and fDCO+1 is higher than
the effective frequency, the error of the effective frequency integrates to zero.
It does not accumulate. The error of the effective frequency is zero every 32
DCOCLK cycles. Figure 4−7 illustrates the modulator operation.
The modulator settings and DCO control are configured with software. The
DCOCLK can be compared to a stable frequency of known value and adjusted
with the DCOx, RSELx, and MODx bits. See http://www.msp430.com for
application notes and example code on configuring the DCO.
Figure 4−7. Modulator Patterns
MODx
31
24
16
15
5
4
3
2
Lower DCO Tap Frequency fDCO
Upper DCO Tap Frequency fDCO+1
1
0
Basic Clock Module
4-9
Basic Clock Module Operation
4.2.6
Basic Clock Module Fail-Safe Operation
The basic clock module incorporates an oscillator-fault detection fail-safe
feature. The oscillator fault detector is an analog circuit that monitors the
LFXT1CLK (in HF mode) and the XT2CLK. An oscillator fault is detected when
either clock signal is not present for approximately 50 µs. When an oscillator
fault is detected, and when MCLK is sourced from either LFXT1 in HF mode
or XT2, MCLK is automatically switched to the DCO for its clock source. This
allows code execution to continue, even though the crystal oscillator has
stopped.
When OFIFG is set and OFIE is set, an NMI interrupt is requested. The NMI
interrupt service routine can test the OFIFG flag to determine if an oscillator
fault occurred. The OFIFG flag must be cleared by software.
Note: No Oscillator Fault Detection for LFXT1 in LF Mode
Oscillator fault detection is only applicable for LFXT1 in HF mode and XT2.
There is no oscillator fault detection for LFXT1 in LF mode.
OFIFG is set by the oscillator fault signal, XT_OscFault. XT_OscFault is set
at POR, when LFXT1 has an oscillator fault in HF mode, or when XT2 has an
oscillator fault. When XT2 or LFXT1 in HF mode is stopped with software the
XT_OscFault signal becomes active immediately, remains active until the
oscillator is re-started, and becomes inactive approximately 50 µs after the
oscillator re-starts as shown in Figure 4−8.
Figure 4−9. Oscillator-Fault Signal
VCC
software enables OSC
software disables OSC
XT1OFF/
XT2OFF
OSC faults
LFXT1CLK/
XT2CLK
50 us
XT_OscFault
4-10
Basic Clock Module
50 us
50 us
Basic Clock Module Operation
Oscillator Fault Detection
Signal XT_OscFault triggers the OFIFG flag as shown in Figure 4−10. The
LFXT1_OscFault signal is low when LFXT1 is in LF mode.
On devices without XT2, the OFIFG flag cannot be cleared when LFXT1 is in
LF mode. MCLK may be sourced by LFXT1CLK in LF mode by setting the
SELMx bits, even though OFIFG remains set.
On devices with XT2, the OFIFG flag can be cleared by software when LFXT1
is in LF mode and it remains cleared. MCLK may be sourced by LFXT1CLK
in LF mode regardless of the state of the OFIFG flag.
Figure 4−10. Oscillator-Fault-Interrupt
XT1off
Oscillator Fault Interrupt Request
XT_OscFault
LFXT1_OscFault
POR
OFIFG
XT2off
XT2_OscFault
XT2
OF_IRQ_NMI
S
IFG1.1
OFIE
IE1.1
Clear
PUC
IRQA
Oscillator Fault Fail-Safe Logic
XTS
XSELM1
SELM1
SELM0
Fault_from
XT2
Fault_from
XT1
XDCOR
DCOR
XT2 Is an internal signal. XT2 = 0 on devices without XT2 (MSP430x11xx and MSP430x12xx).
XT2 = 1 on devices with XT2 (MSP430F13x, MSP430F14x, MSP430F15x, and(MSP430F16x)
IRQA: Interrupt request accepted
LFXT1_OscFault: Only applicable to LFXT1 oscillator in HF mode.
Basic Clock Module
4-11
Basic Clock Module Operation
Sourcing MCLK from a Crystal
After a PUC, the basic clock module uses DCOCLK for MCLK. If required,
MCLK may be sourced from LFXT1 or XT2.
The sequence to switch the MCLK source from the DCO clock to the crystal
clock (LFXT1CLK or XT2CLK) is:
1) Switch on the crystal oscillator
2) Clear the OFIFG flag
3) Wait at least 50 µs
4) Test OFIFG, and repeat steps 1-4 until OFIFG remains cleared.
; Select
BIC
BIS.B
L1 BIC.B
MOV
L2 DEC
JNZ
BIT.B
JNZ
BIS.B
4-12
Basic Clock Module
LFXT1 (HF mode) for MCLK
#OSCOFF,SR
; Turn on osc.
#XTS,&BCSCTL1
; HF mode
#OFIFG,&IFG1
; Clear OFIFG
#0FFh,R15
; Delay
R15
;
L2
;
#OFIFG,&IFG1
; Re−test OFIFG
L1
; Repeat test if needed
#SELM1+SELM0,&BCSCTL2 ; Select LFXT1CLK
Basic Clock Module Operation
4.2.7
Synchronization of Clock Signals
When switching MCLK or SMCLK from one clock source to the another, the
switch is synchronized to avoid critical race conditions as shown in
Figure 4−11:
1) The current clock cycle continues until the next rising edge.
2) The clock remains high until the next rising edge of the new clock.
3) The new clock source is selected and continues with a full high period.
Figure 4−11. Switch MCLK from DCOCLK to LFXT1CLK
Select
LFXT1CLK
DCOCLK
LFXT1CLK
MCLK
DCOCLK
Wait for
LFXT1CLK
LFXT1CLK
Basic Clock Module
4-13
Basic Clock Module Registers
4.3 Basic Clock Module Registers
The basic clock module registers are listed in Table 4−1:
Table 4−1. Basic Clock Module Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
DCO control register
DCOCTL
Read/write
056h
060h with PUC
Basic clock system control 1
BCSCTL1
Read/write
057h
084h with PUC
Basic clock system control 2
BCSCTL2
Read/write
058h
Reset with POR
SFR interrupt enable register 1
IE1
Read/write
000h
Reset with PUC
SFR interrupt flag register 1
IFG1
Read/write
002h
Reset with PUC
4-14
Basic Clock Module
Basic Clock Module Registers
DCOCTL, DCO Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
DCOx
rw−0
rw−1
2
1
0
rw−0
rw−0
MODx
rw−1
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
DCOx
Bits
7-5
DCO frequency select. These bits select which of the eight discrete DCO
frequencies of the RSELx setting is selected.
MODx
Bits
4-0
Modulator selection. These bits define how often the fDCO+1 frequency is
used within a period of 32 DCOCLK cycles. During the remaining clock
cycles (32−MOD) the fDCO frequency is used. Not useable when DCOx=7.
BCSCTL1, Basic Clock System Control Register 1
7
6
XT2OFF
XTS
rw−(1)
rw−(0)
5
4
DIVAx
rw−(0)
3
2
1
XT5V
rw−(0)
rw−0
0
RSELx
rw−1
rw−0
rw−0
XT2OFF
Bit 7
XT2 off. This bit turns off the XT2 oscillator
0
XT2 is on
1
XT2 is off if it is not used for MCLK or SMCLK.
XTS
Bit 6
LFXT1 mode select.
0
Low frequency mode
1
High frequency mode
DIVAx
Bits
5-4
Divider for ACLK
00 /1
01 /2
10 /4
11 /8
XT5V
Bit 3
Unused. XT5V should always be reset.
RSELx
Bits
2-0
Resistor Select. The internal resistor is selected in eight different steps.
The value of the resistor defines the nominal frequency. The lowest
nominal frequency is selected by setting RSELx=0.
Basic Clock Module
4-15
Basic Clock Module Registers
BCSCTL2, Basic Clock System Control Register 2
7
6
5
SELMx
rw−(0)
4
DIVMx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
3
2
SELS
rw−(0)
rw−0
1
DIVSx
rw−0
0
DCOR
rw−0
rw−0
SELMx
Bits
7-6
Select MCLK. These bits select the MCLK source.
00 DCOCLK
01 DCOCLK
10 XT2CLK when XT2 oscillator present on-chip. LFXT1CLK when XT2
oscillator not present on-chip.
11 LFXT1CLK
DIVMx
BitS
5-4
Divider for MCLK
00 /1
01 /2
10 /4
11 /8
SELS
Bit 3
Select SMCLK. This bit selects the SMCLK source.
0
DCOCLK
1
XT2CLK when XT2 oscillator present on-chip. LFXT1CLK when XT2
oscillator not present on-chip.
DIVSx
BitS
2-1
Divider for SMCLK
00 /1
01 /2
10 /4
11 /8
DCOR
Bit 0
DCO resistor select
0
Internal resistor
1
External resistor
4-16
Basic Clock Module
Basic Clock Module Registers
IE1, Interrupt Enable Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OFIE
rw−0
OFIE
Bits
7-2
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
Bit 1
Oscillator fault interrupt enable. This bit enables the OFIFG interrupt.
Because other bits in IE1 may be used for other modules, it is recommended
to set or clear this bit using BIS.B or BIC.B instructions, rather than MOV.B
or CLR.B instructions.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
Bits 0
This bit may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
IFG1, Interrupt Flag Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OFIFG
rw−1
OFIFG
Bits
7-2
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
Bit 1
Oscillator fault interrupt flag. Because other bits in IFG1 may be used for other
modules, it is recommended to set or clear this bit using BIS.B or BIC.B
instructions, rather than MOV.B or CLR.B instructions.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
Bits 0
This bit may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
Basic Clock Module
4-17
Chapter 5
" ""
This chapter describes the operation of the MSP430 flash memory controller.
Topic
Page
5.1
Flash Memory Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
5.2
Flash Memory Segmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5.3
Flash Memory Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
5.4
Flash Memory Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
Flash Memory Controller
5-1
Flash Memory Introduction
5.1 Flash Memory Introduction
The MSP430 flash memory is bit-, byte-, and word-addressable and
programmable. The flash memory module has an integrated controller that
controls programming and erase operations. The controller has three
registers, a timing generator, and a voltage generator to supply program and
erase voltages.
MSP430 flash memory features include:
- Internal programming voltage generation
- Bit, byte or word programmable
- Ultralow-power operation
- Segment erase and mass erase
The block diagram of the flash memory and controller is shown in Figure 5−1.
Note: Minimum VCC During Flash Write or Erase
The minimum VCC voltage during a flash write or erase operation is 2.7 V.
If VCC falls below 2.7 V during a write or erase, the result of the write or erase
will be unpredictable.
Figure 5−1. Flash Memory Module Block Diagram
MAB
FCTL1
FCTL2
MDB
Address Latch
Data Latch
Enable
Address
Latch
FCTL3
Timing
Generator
Flash
Memory
Array
Enable
Data Latch
Programming
Voltage
Generator
5-2
Flash Memory Controller
Flash Memory Segmentation
5.2 Flash Memory Segmentation
MSP430 flash memory is partitioned into segments. Single bits, bytes, or
words can be written to flash memory, but the segment is the smallest size of
flash memory that can be erased.
The flash memory is partitioned into main and information memory sections.
There is no difference in the operation of the main and information memory
sections. Code or data can be located in either section. The differences
between the two sections are the segment size and the physical addresses.
The information memory has two 128-byte segments (MSP430F1101 devices
have only one). The main memory has two or more 512-byte segments. See
the device-specific datasheet for the complete memory map of a device.
The segments are further divided into blocks. A block is 64 bytes, starting at
0xx00h, 0xx40h, 0xx80h, or 0xxC0h, and ending at 0xx3Fh, 0xx7Fh, 0xxBFh,
or 0xxFFh.
Figure 5−2 shows the flash segmentation using an example of 4-KB flash that
has eight main segments and both information segments.
Figure 5−2. Flash Memory Segments, 4-KB Example
4 KB + 256 byte
FFFFh
FFFFh
4-kbyte
Flash
Main Memory
FE00h
FDFFh
FC00h
F000h
10FFh
1000h
xxFFh
Segment0
256-byte
Flash
Information Memory
xxC0h
xxBFh
Segment1
xx80h
xx7Fh
Segment2
xx40h
xx3Fh
Segment3
xx00h
Block
Block
Block
Block
Segment4
Segment5
Segment6
F000h
Segment7
10FFh
SegmentA
1000h
SegmentB
Flash Memory Controller
5-3
Flash Memory Operation
5.3 Flash Memory Operation
The default mode of the flash memory is read mode. In read mode, the flash
memory is not being erased or written, the flash timing generator and voltage
generator are off, and the memory operates identically to ROM.
MSP430 flash memory is in-system programmable (ISP) without the need for
additional external voltage. The CPU can program its own flash memory. The
flash memory write/erase modes are selected with the BLKWRT, WRT,
MERAS, and ERASE bits and are:
- Byte/word write
- Block write
- Segment Erase
- Mass Erase (all main memory segments)
- All Erase (all segments)
Reading or writing to flash memory while it is being programmed or erased is
prohibited. If CPU execution is required during the write or erase, the code to
be executed must be in RAM. Any flash update can be initiated from within
flash memory or RAM.
5.3.1
Flash Memory Timing Generator
Write and erase operations are controlled by the flash timing generator shown
in Figure 5−3. The flash timing generator operating frequency, f(FTG), must be
in the range from ~ 257 kHz to ~ 476 kHz (see device-specific datasheet).
Figure 5−3. Flash Memory Timing Generator Block Diagram
FSSELx
FN5 ...........
ACLK
00
MCLK
01
SMCLK
10
SMCLK
11
PUC
FN0
fFTG
Divider, 1−64
EMEX
Reset
Flash Timing Generator
BUSY
WAIT
The flash timing generator can be sourced from ACLK, SMCLK, or MCLK. The
selected clock source should be divided using the FNx bits to meet the
frequency requirements for fFTG. If the fFTG frequency deviates from the
specification during the write or erase operation, the result of the write or erase
may be unpredictable, or the flash memory may be stressed above the limits
of reliable operation.
5-4
Flash Memory Controller
Flash Memory Operation
5.3.2
Erasing Flash Memory
The erased level of a flash memory bit is 1. Each bit can be programmed from
1 to 0 individually but to reprogram from 0 to 1 requires an erase cycle. The
smallest amount of flash that can be erased is a segment. There are three
erase modes selected with the ERASE and MERAS bits listed in Table 5−1.
Table 5−1. Erase Modes
Erase Mode
MERAS
ERASE
0
1
Segment erase
1
0
Mass erase (all main memory segments)
1
1
Erase all flash memory (main and information segments)
Any erase is initiated by a dummy write into the address range to be erased.
The dummy write starts the flash timing generator and the erase operation.
Figure 5−4 shows the erase cycle timing. The BUSY bit is set immediately after
the dummy write and remains set throughout the erase cycle. BUSY, MERAS,
and ERASE are automatically cleared when the cycle completes. The erase
cycle timing is not dependent on the amount of flash memory present on a
device. Erase cycle times are equivalent for all MSP430F1xx devices.
Figure 5−4. Erase Cycle Timing
Generate
Programming Voltage
Erase Operation Active
Remove
Programming Voltage
Erase Time, VCC Current Consumption is Increased
BUSY
tAll Erase = tMass Erase = 5297/fFTG, tSeg Erase = 4819/fFTG
A dummy write to an address not in the range to be erased does not start the
erase cycle, does not affect the flash memory, and is not flagged in any way.
This errant dummy write is ignored.
Interrupts should be disabled before a flash erase cycle. After the erase cycle
has completed, interrupts may be re-enabled. Any interrupt that occurred
during the erase cycle will have its associated flag set, and will generate an
interrupt request when re-enabled.
Flash Memory Controller
5-5
Flash Memory Operation
Initiating an Erase from Within Flash Memory
Any erase cycle can be initiated from within flash memory or from RAM. When
a flash segment erase operation is initiated from within flash memory, all timing
is controlled by the flash controller, and the CPU is held while the erase cycle
completes. After the erase cycle completes, the CPU resumes code execution
with the instruction following the dummy write.
When initiating an erase cycle from within flash memory, it is possible to erase
the code needed for execution after the erase. If this occurs, CPU execution
will be unpredictable after the erase cycle.
The flow to initiate an erase from flash is shown in Figure 5−5.
Figure 5−5. Erase Cycle from Within Flash Memory
Disable all interrupts and watchdog
Setup flash controller and erase
mode
Dummy write
Set LOCK=1, re-enable Interrupts
and watchdog
; Segment Erase from flash. 514 kHz < SMCLK < 952 kHz
; Assumes ACCVIE = NMIIE = OFIE = 0.
MOV
#WDTPW+WDTHOLD,&WDTCTL
; Disable WDT
DINT
; Disable interrupts
MOV
#FWKEY+FSSEL1+FN0,&FCTL2 ; SMCLK/2
MOV
#FWKEY,&FCTL3
; Clear LOCK
MOV
#FWKEY+ERASE,&FCTL1
; Enable segment erase
CLR
&0FC10h
; Dummy write, erase S1
MOV
#FWKEY+LOCK,&FCTL3
; Done, set LOCK
...
; Re-enable WDT?
EINT
; Enable interrupts
5-6
Flash Memory Controller
Flash Memory Operation
Initiating an Erase from RAM
Any erase cycle may be initiated from RAM. In this case, the CPU is not held
and can continue to execute code from RAM. The BUSY bit must be polled to
determine the end of the erase cycle before the CPU can access any flash
address again. If a flash access occurs while BUSY=1, it is an access violation,
ACCVIFG will be set, and the erase results will be unpredictable.
The flow to initiate an erase from RAM is shown in Figure 5−6.
Figure 5−6. Erase Cycle from Within RAM
Disable all interrupts and watchdog
yes
BUSY = 1
Setup flash controller and
erase mode
Dummy write
yes
BUSY = 1
Set LOCK = 1, re-enable
interrupts and watchdog
; Segment Erase from RAM. 514 kHz
; Assumes ACCVIE = NMIIE = OFIE =
MOV
#WDTPW+WDTHOLD,&WDTCTL
DINT
L1 BIT
#BUSY,&FCTL3
JNZ
L1
MOV
#FWKEY+FSSEL1+FN0,&FCTL2
MOV
#FWKEY,&FCTL3
MOV
#FWKEY+ERASE,&FCTL1
CLR
&0FC10h
L2 BIT
#BUSY,&FCTL3
JNZ
L2
MOV
#FWKEY+LOCK,&FCTL3
...
EINT
< SMCLK < 952 kHz
0.
; Disable WDT
; Disable interrupts
; Test BUSY
; Loop while busy
; SMCLK/2
; Clear LOCK
; Enable erase
; Dummy write, erase S1
; Test BUSY
; Loop while busy
; Done, set LOCK
; Re-enable WDT?
; Enable interrupts
Flash Memory Controller
5-7
Flash Memory Operation
5.3.3
Writing Flash Memory
The write modes, selected by the WRT and BLKWRT bits, are listed in
Table 5−1.
Table 5−2. Write Modes
Write Mode
BLKWRT
WRT
0
1
Byte/word write
1
1
Block write
Both write modes use a sequence of individual write instructions, but using the
block write mode is approximately twice as fast as byte/word mode, because
the voltage generator remains on for the complete block write. Any instruction
that modifies a destination can be used to modify a flash location in either
byte/word mode or block-write mode. A flash word (low + high byte) must not
be written more than twice between erasures. Otherwise, damage can occur.
The BUSY bit is set while a write operation is active and cleared when the
operation completes. If the write operation is initiated from RAM, the CPU must
not access flash while BUSY=1. Otherwise, an access violation occurs,
ACCVIFG is set, and the flash write is unpredictable.
Byte/Word Write
A byte/word write operation can be initiated from within flash memory or from
RAM. When initiating from within flash memory, all timing is controlled by the
flash controller, and the CPU is held while the write completes. After the write
completes, the CPU resumes code execution with the instruction following the
write. The byte/word write timing is shown in Figure 5−7.
Figure 5−7. Byte/Word Write Timing
ÎÎ
ÎÎ
Generate
Programming Voltage
Programming Operation Active
ÎÎ
ÎÎ
Remove
Programming Voltage
Programming Time, VCC Current Consumption is Increased
BUSY
tWord = 35/fFTG
When a byte/word write is executed from RAM, the CPU continues to execute
code from RAM. The BUSY bit must be zero before the CPU accesses flash
again, otherwise an access violation occurs, ACCVIFG is set, and the write
result is unpredictable.
5-8
Flash Memory Controller
Flash Memory Operation
In byte/word mode, the internally-generated programming voltage is applied
to the complete 64-byte block, each time a byte or word is written, for 32 of the
35 fFTG cycles. With each byte or word write, the amount of time the block is
subjected to the programming voltage accumulates. The cumulative
programming time, tCPT, must not be exceeded for any block. If the cumulative
programming time is met, the block must be erased before performing any
further writes to any address within the block. See the device-specific
datasheet for specifications.
Initiating a Byte/Word Write from Within Flash Memory
The flow to initiate a byte/word write from flash is shown in Figure 5−8.
Figure 5−8. Initiating a Byte/Word Write from Flash
Disable all interrupts and watchdog
Setup flash controller
and set WRT=1
Write byte or word
Set WRT=0, LOCK=1,
re-enable interrupts and watchdog
; Byte/word write from flash. 514 kHz < SMCLK < 952 kHz
; Assumes 0FF1Eh is already erased
; Assumes ACCVIE = NMIIE = OFIE = 0.
MOV
#WDTPW+WDTHOLD,&WDTCTL
; Disable WDT
DINT
; Disable interrupts
MOV
#FWKEY+FSSEL1+FN0,&FCTL2 ; SMCLK/2
MOV
#FWKEY,&FCTL3
; Clear LOCK
MOV
#FWKEY+WRT,&FCTL1
; Enable write
MOV
#0123h,&0FF1Eh
; 0123h
−> 0FF1Eh
MOV
#FWKEY,&FCTL1
; Done. Clear WRT
MOV
#FWKEY+LOCK,&FCTL3
; Set LOCK
...
; Re-enable WDT?
EINT
; Enable interrupts
Flash Memory Controller
5-9
Flash Memory Operation
Initiating a Byte/Word Write from RAM
The flow to initiate a byte/word write from RAM is shown in Figure 5−9.
Figure 5−9. Initiating a Byte/Word Write from RAM
Disable all interrupts and watchdog
yes
BUSY = 1
Setup flash controller
and set WRT=1
Write byte or word
yes
BUSY = 1
Set WRT=0, LOCK = 1
re-enable interrupts and watchdog
; Byte/word write from RAM. 514 kHz < SMCLK < 952 kHz
; Assumes 0FF1Eh is already erased
; Assumes ACCVIE = NMIIE = OFIE = 0.
MOV
#WDTPW+WDTHOLD,&WDTCTL
; Disable WDT
DINT
; Disable interrupts
L1 BIT
#BUSY,&FCTL3
; Test BUSY
JNZ
L1
; Loop while busy
MOV
#FWKEY+FSSEL1+FN0,&FCTL2 ; SMCLK/2
MOV
#FWKEY,&FCTL3
; Clear LOCK
MOV
#FWKEY+WRT,&FCTL1
; Enable write
MOV
#0123h,&0FF1Eh
; 0123h −> 0FF1Eh
L2 BIT
#BUSY,&FCTL3
; Test BUSY
JNZ
L2
; Loop while busy
MOV
#FWKEY,&FCTL1
; Clear WRT
MOV
#FWKEY+LOCK,&FCTL3
; Set LOCK
...
; Re-enable WDT?
EINT
; Enable interrupts
5-10
Flash Memory Controller
Flash Memory Operation
Block Write
The block write can be used to accelerate the flash write process when many
sequential bytes or words need to be programmed. The flash programming
voltage remains on for the duration of writing the 64-byte block. The
cumulative programming time tCPT must not be exceeded for any block during
a block write.
A block write cannot be initiated from within flash memory. The block write
must be initiated from RAM only. The BUSY bit remains set throughout the
duration of the block write. The WAIT bit must be checked between writing
each byte or word in the block. When WAIT is set the next byte or word of the
block can be written. When writing successive blocks, the BLKWRT bit must
be cleared after the current block is complete. BLKWRT can be set initiating
the next block write after the required flash recovery time given by tEnd. BUSY
is cleared following each block write completion indicating the next block can
be written. Figure 5−10 shows the block write timing.
Figure 5−10. Block-Write Cycle Timing
BLKWRT bit
Write to Flash e.g., MOV #123h, &Flash
Generate
Programming Voltage
Programming Operation Active
Remove
Programming Voltage
Cumulative Programming Time tCPT ∼=< 4ms, VCC Current Consumption is Increased
BUSY
tBlock, 0 = 30/fFTG
tBlock 1-63 = 21/fFTG
tBlock, 1-63 = 21/fFTG
tEnd = 6/fFTG
WAIT
Flash Memory Controller
5-11
Flash Memory Operation
Block Write Flow and Example
A block write flow is shown in Figure 5−8 and the following example.
Figure 5−11. Block Write Flow
Disable all interrupts and watchdog
yes
BUSY = 1
Setup flash controller
Set BLKWRT=WRT=1
Write byte or word
yes
WAIT=0?
no
Block Border?
Set BLKWRT=0
yes
BUSY = 1
yes
Another
Block?
Set WRT=0, LOCK=1
re-enable interrupts and WDT
5-12
Flash Memory Controller
Flash Memory Operation
; Write one block starting at 0F000h.
; Must be executed from RAM, Assumes Flash is already erased.
; 514 kHz < SMCLK < 952 kHz
; Assumes ACCVIE = NMIIE = OFIE = 0.
MOV
#32,R5
; Use as write counter
MOV
#0F000h,R6
; Write pointer
MOV
DINT
L1 BIT
JNZ
MOV
MOV
MOV
L2 MOV
L3 BIT
JZ
INCD
DEC
JNZ
MOV
L4 BIT
JNZ
MOV
...
EINT
#WDTPW+WDTHOLD,&WDTCTL
#BUSY,&FCTL3
L1
;
;
;
;
Disable WDT
Disable interrupts
Test BUSY
Loop while busy
#FWKEY+FSSEL1+FN0,&FCTL2 ; SMCLK/2
#FWKEY,&FCTL3
#FWKEY+BLKWRT+WRT,&FCTL1
Write_Value,0(R6)
#WAIT,&FCTL3
L3
R6
R5
L2
#FWKEY,&FCTL1
#BUSY,&FCTL3
L4
#FWKEY+LOCK,&FCTL3
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Clear LOCK
Enable block write
Write location
Test WAIT
Loop while WAIT=0
Point to next word
Decrement write counter
End of block?
Clear WRT,BLKWRT
Test BUSY
Loop while busy
Set LOCK
Re-enable WDT if needed
Enable interrupts
Flash Memory Controller
5-13
Flash Memory Operation
5.3.4
Flash Memory Access During Write or Erase
When any write or any erase operation is initiated from RAM and while
BUSY=1, the CPU may not read or write to or from any flash location.
Otherwise, an access violation occurs, ACCVIFG is set, and the result is
unpredictable. Also if a write to flash is attempted with WRT=0, the ACCVIFG
interrupt flag is set, and the flash memory is unaffected.
When a byte/word write or any erase operation is initiated from within flash
memory, the flash controller returns op-code 03FFFh to the CPU at the next
instruction fetch. Op-code 03FFFh is the JMP PC instruction. This causes the
CPU to loop until the flash operation is finished. When the operation is finished
and BUSY=0, the flash controller allows the CPU to fetch the proper op-code
and program execution resumes.
The flash access conditions while BUSY=1 are listed in Table 5−3.
Table 5−3. Flash Access While BUSY = 1
Flash
Operation
Any erase, or
Byte/word write
Block write
Flash
Access
WAIT
Result
Read
0
ACCVIFG = 0. 03FFFh is the value read
Write
0
ACCVIFG = 1. Write is ignored
Instruction
fetch
0
ACCVIFG = 0. CPU fetches 03FFFh. This
is the JMP PC instruction.
Any
0
ACCVIFG = 1, LOCK = 1
Read
1
ACCVIFG = 0, 03FFFh is the value read
Write
1
ACCVIFG = 0, Flash is written
Instruction
fetch
1
ACCVIFG = 1, LOCK = 1
All interrupt sources should be disabled before initiating any flash operation.
If an enabled interrupt were to occur during a flash operation, the CPU would
fetch 03FFFh as the address of the interrupt service routine. The CPU would
then execute the JMP PC instruction while BUSY=1. When the flash operation
finished, the CPU would begin executing code at address 03FFFh, not the
correct address for interrupt service routine.
5-14
Flash Memory Controller
Flash Memory Operation
5.3.5
Stopping a Write or Erase Cycle
Any write or erase operation can be stopped before its normal completion by
setting the emergency exit bit EMEX. Setting the EMEX bit stops the active
operation immediately and stops the flash controller. All flash operations
cease, the flash returns to read mode, and all bits in the FCTL1 register are
reset. The result of the intended operation is unpredictable.
5.3.6
Configuring and Accessing the Flash Memory Controller
The FCTLx registers are 16-bit, password-protected, read/write registers. Any
read or write access must use word instructions and write accesses must
include the write password 0A5h in the upper byte. Any write to any FCTLx
register with any value other than 0A5h in the upper byte is a security key
violation, sets the KEYV flag and triggers a PUC system reset. Any read of any
FCTLx registers reads 096h in the upper byte.
Any write to FCTL1 during an erase or byte/word write operation is an access
violation and sets ACCVIFG. Writing to FCTL1 is allowed in block write mode
when WAIT=1, but writing to FCTL1 in block write mode when WAIT=0 is an
access violation and sets ACCVIFG.
Any write to FCTL2 when the BUSY=1 is an access violation.
Any FCTLx register may be read when BUSY=1. A read will not cause an
access violation.
5.3.7
Flash Memory Controller Interrupts
The flash controller has two interrupt sources, KEYV, and ACCVIFG.
ACCVIFG is set when an access violation occurs. When the ACCVIE bit is
re-enabled after a flash write or erase, a set ACCVIFG flag will generate an
interrupt request. ACCVIFG sources the NMI interrupt vector, so it is not
necessary for GIE to be set for ACCVIFG to request an interrupt. ACCVIFG
may also be checked by software to determine if an access violation occurred.
ACCVIFG must be reset by software.
The key violation flag KEYV is set when any of the flash control registers are
written with an incorrect password. When this occurs, a PUC is generated
immediately resetting the device.
5.3.8
Programming Flash Memory Devices
There are three options for programming an MSP430 flash device. All options
support in-system programming:
- Program via JTAG
- Program via the Bootstrap Loader
- Program via a custom solution
Flash Memory Controller
5-15
Flash Memory Operation
Programming Flash Memory via JTAG
MSP430 devices can be programmed via the JTAG port. The JTAG interface
requires four signals (5 signals on 20- and 28-pin devices), ground and
optionally VCC and RST/NMI.
The JTAG port is protected with a fuse. Blowing the fuse completely disables
the JTAG port and is not reversible. Further access to the device via JTAG is
not possible For more details see the Application report Programming a
Flash-Based MSP430 Using the JTAG Interface at www.ti.com/sc/msp430.
Programming Flash Memory via the Bootstrap loader (BSL)
Every MSP430 flash device contains a bootstrap loader. The BSL enables
users to read or program the flash memory or RAM using a UART serial
interface. Access to the MSP430 flash memory via the BSL is protected by a
256-bit, user-defined password. For more details see the Application report
Features of the MSP430 Bootstrap Loader at www.ti.com/sc/msp430.
Programming Flash Memory via a Custom Solution
The ability of the MSP430 CPU to write to its own flash memory allows for
in-system and external custom programming solutions as shown in
Figure 5−12. The user can choose to provide data to the MSP430 through any
means available (UART, SPI, etc.). User-developed software can receive the
data and program the flash memory. Since this type of solution is developed
by the user, it can be completely customized to fit the application needs for
programming, erasing, or updating the flash memory.
Figure 5−12. User-Developed Programming Solution
Commands, data, etc.
Host
MSP430
UART,
Px.x,
SPI,
etc.
Flash Memory
CPU executes
user software
Read/write flash memory
5-16
Flash Memory Controller
Flash Memory Registers
5.4 Flash Memory Registers
The flash memory registers are listed in Table 5−4.
Table 5−4. Flash Memory Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
Flash memory control register 1
FCTL1
Read/write
0128h
09600h with PUC
Flash memory control register 2
FCTL2
Read/write
012Ah
09642h with PUC
Flash memory control register 3
FCTL3
Read/write
012Ch
09618h with PUC
Interrupt Enable 1
IE1
Read/write
000h
Reset with PUC
Flash Memory Controller
5-17
Flash Memory Registers
FCTL1, Flash Memory Control Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
FRKEY, Read as 096h
FWKEY, Must be written as 0A5h
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BLKWRT
WRT
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
MERAS
ERASE
Reserved
rw−0
rw−0
r0
r0
r0
rw−0
rw−0
r0
FRKEY/
FWKEY
Bits
15-8
FCTLx password. Always read as 096h. Must be written as 0A5h or a PUC
will be generated.
BLKWRT
Bit 7
Block write mode. WRT must also be set for block write mode. BLKWRT is
automatically reset when EMEX is set.
0
Block-write mode is off
1
Block-write mode is on
WRT
Bit 6
Write. This bit is used to select any write mode. WRT is automatically reset
when EMEX is set.
0
Write mode is off
1
Write mode is on
Reserved
Bits
5-3
Reserved. Always read as 0.
MERAS
ERASE
Bit 2
Bit 1
Mass erase and erase. These bits are used together to select the erase mode.
MERAS and ERASE are automatically reset when EMEX is set.
MERAS
Reserved
5-18
Bit 0
ERASE
Erase Cycle
0
0
No erase
0
1
Erase individual segment only
1
0
Erase all main memory segments
1
1
Erase all main and information memory segments
Reserved. Always read as 0.
Flash Memory Controller
Flash Memory Registers
FCTL2, Flash Memory Control Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
2
1
0
rw−0
rw-1
rw−0
FWKEYx, Read as 096h
Must be written as 0A5h
7
6
5
4
3
FSSELx
rw−0
FNx
rw−1
rw-0
rw-0
rw-0
FWKEYx
Bits
15-8
FCTLx password. Always read as 096h. Must be written as 0A5h or a PUC
will be generated.
FSSELx
Bits
7−6
Flash controller clock source select
00 ACLK
01 MCLK
10 SMCLK
11 SMCLK
FNx
Bits
5-0
Flash controller clock divider. These six bits select the divider for the flash
controller clock. The divisor value is FNx + 1. For example, when FNx=00h,
the divisor is 1. When FNx=03Fh the divisor is 64.
Flash Memory Controller
5-19
Flash Memory Registers
FCTL3, Flash Memory Control Register FCTL3
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
FWKEYx, Read as 096h
Must be written as 0A5h
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Reserved
Reserved
EMEX
LOCK
WAIT
ACCVIFG
KEYV
BUSY
r0
r0
rw-0
rw-1
r-1
rw−0
rw-(0)
r(w)−0
FWKEYx
Bits
15-8
FCTLx password. Always read as 096h. Must be written as 0A5h or a PUC
will be generated.
Reserved
Bits
7-6
Reserved. Always read as 0.
EMEX
Bit 5
Emergency exit
0
No emergency exit
1
Emergency exit
LOCK
Bit 4
Lock. This bit unlocks the flash memory for writing or erasing. The LOCK bit
can be set anytime during a byte/word write or erase operation and the
operation will complete normally. In the block write mode if the LOCK bit is set
while BLKWRT=WAIT=1, then BLKWRT and WAIT are reset and the mode
ends normally.
0
Unlocked
1
Locked
WAIT
Bit 3
Wait. Indicates the flash memory is being written to.
0
The flash memory is not ready for the next byte/word write
1
The flash memory is ready for the next byte/word write
ACCVIFG
Bit 2
Access violation interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
KEYV
Bit 1
Flash security key violation. This bit indicates an incorrect FCTLx password
was written to any flash control register and generates a PUC when set. KEYV
must be reset with software.
0
FCTLx password was written correctly
1
FCTLx password was written incorrectly
BUSY
Bit 0
Busy. This bit indicates the status of the flash timing generator.
0
Not Busy
1
Busy
5-20
Flash Memory Controller
Flash Memory Registers
IE1, Interrupt Enable Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ACCVIE
rw−0
ACCVIE
Bits
7-6,
4-0
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
Bit 5
Flash memory access violation interrupt enable. This bit enables the
ACCVIFG interrupt. Because other bits in IE1 may be used for other modules,
it is recommended to set or clear this bit using BIS.B or BIC.B instructions,
rather than MOV.B or CLR.B instructions.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
Flash Memory Controller
5-21
Chapter 6
" $" %
This chapter describes the operation of the SVS. The SVS is implemented in
MSP430x15x and MSP430x16x devices.
Topic
Page
6.1
SVS Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6−2
6.2
SVS Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6−4
6.3
SVS Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6−7
Supply Voltage Supervisor
6-1
SVS Introduction
6.1 SVS Introduction
The supply voltage supervisor (SVS) is used to monitor the AVCC supply
voltage or an external voltage. The SVS can be configured to set a flag or
generate a POR reset when the supply voltage or external voltage drops below
a user-selected threshold.
The SVS features include:
- AVCC monitoring
- Selectable generation of POR
- Output of SVS comparator accessible by software
- Low-voltage condition latched and accessible by software
- 14 selectable threshold levels
- External channel to monitor external voltage
The SVS block diagram is shown in Figure 6−1.
6-2
Supply Voltage Supervisor
SVS Introduction
Figure 6−1. SVS Block Diagram
VCC
AVCC
Brownout
Reset
D
AVCC
G S
SVSIN
~ 50us
1111
−
0001
SVS_POR
+
0010
tReset ~ 50us
1011
1100
SVSOUT
1.25V
1101
D
G S
Set SVSFG
Reset
VLD
PORON
SVSON
SVSOP
SVSFG
SVSCTL Bits
Supply Voltage Supervisor
6-3
SVS Operation
6.2 SVS Operation
The SVS detects if the AVCC voltage drops below a selectable level. It can be
configured to provide a POR or set a flag, when a low-voltage condition occurs.
The SVS is disabled after a brownout reset to conserve current consumption.
6.2.1
Configuring the SVS
The VLDx bits are used to enable/disable the SVS and select one of 14
threshold levels (V(SVS_IT−)) for comparison with AVCC. The SVS is off when
VLDx = 0 and on when VLDx > 0. The SVSON bit does not turn on the SVS.
Instead, it reflects the on/off state of the SVS and can be used to determine
when the SVS is on.
When VLDx = 1111, the external SVSIN channel is selected. The voltage on
SVSIN is compared to an internal level of approximately 1.2 V.
6.2.2
SVS Comparator Operation
A low-voltage condition exists when AVCC drops below the selected threshold
or when the external voltage drops below its 1.2-V threshold. Any low-voltage
condition sets the SVSFG bit.
The PORON bit enables or disables the device-reset function of the SVS. If
PORON = 1, a POR is generated when SVSFG is set. If PORON = 0, a
low-voltage condition sets SVSFG, but does not generate a POR.
The SVSFG bit is latched. This allows user software to determine if a
low-voltage condition occurred previously. The SVSFG bit must be reset by
user software. If the low-voltage condition is still present when SVSFG is reset,
it will be immediately set again by the SVS.
6-4
Supply Voltage Supervisor
SVS Operation
6.2.3
Changing the VLDx Bits
When the VLDx bits are changed, two settling delays are implemented to
allows the SVS circuitry to settle. During each delay, the SVS will not set
SVSFG. The delays, td(SVSon) and tsettle, are shown in Figure 6−2. The
td(SVSon) delay takes affect when VLDx is changed from zero to any non-zero
value and is a approximately 50 µs. The tsettle delay takes affect when the
VLDx bits change from any non-zero value to any other non-zero value and
is a maximum of ~12 µs. See the device-specific datasheet for the delay
parameters.
During the delays, the SVS will not flag a low-voltage condition or reset the
device, and the SVSON bit is cleared. Software can test the SVSON bit to
determine when the delay has elapsed and the SVS is monitoring the voltage
properly.
Figure 6−2. SVSON state When Changing VLDx
VLDx
15
14
4
3
2
1
0
0
1
2
2
15
3
VLD vs Time
1
td(SVSon)
tsettle
tsettle
tsettle
SVSON
0
Supply Voltage Supervisor
6-5
SVS Operation
6.2.4
SVS Operating Range
Each SVS level has hysteresis to reduce sensitivity to small supply voltage
changes when AVCC is close to the threshold. The SVS operation and
SVS/Brownout interoperation are shown in Figure 6−3.
Figure 6−3. Operating Levels for SVS and Brownout/Reset Circuit
AV
CC
V(SVS_IT−)
V(SVSstart)
Software Sets VLD>0
Vhys(SVS_IT−)
Vhys(B_IT−)
V(B_IT−)
VCC(start)
Brownout
BrownOut
Region
Brownout
Region
1
0
t d(BOR)
SVSOUT
t d(BOR)
SVS Circuit Active
1
0
td(SVSon)
Set POR
1
0
undefined
6-6
Supply Voltage Supervisor
td(SVSR)
SVS Registers
6.3 SVS Registers
The SVS registers are listed in Table 6−1.
Table 6−1. SVS Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
SVS Control Register
SVSCTL
Read/write
Reset with BOR
055h
SVSCTL, SVS Control Register
7
6
5
4
VLDx
rw−0†
rw−0†
rw−0†
rw−0†
† Reset by a brownout reset only, not by a POR or PUC.
3
2
1
0
PORON
SVSON
SVSOP
SVSFG
rw−0†
r
r
rw−0†
VLDx
Bits
7-4
Voltage level detect. These bits turn on the SVS and select the nominal SVS
threshold voltage level. See the device−specific datasheet for parameters.
0000 SVS is off
0001 1.9 V
0010 2.1 V
0011 2.2 V
0100 2.3 V
0101 2.4 V
0110 2.5 V
0111 2.65 V
1000 2.8 V
1001 2.9 V
1010 3.05
1011 3.2 V
1100 3.35 V
1101 3.5 V
1110 3.7 V
1111 Compares external input voltage SVSIN to 1.2 V.
PORON
Bit 3
POR on. This bit enables the SVSFG flag to cause a POR device reset.
0
SVSFG does not cause a POR
1
SVSFG causes a POR
SVSON
Bit 2
SVS on. This bit reflects the status of SVS operation. This bit DOES NOT turn
on the SVS. The SVS is turned on by setting VLDx > 0.
0
SVS is Off
1
SVS is On
SVSOP
Bit 1
SVS output. This bit reflects the output value of the SVS comparator.
0
SVS comparator output is low
1
SVS comparator output is high
SVSFG
Bit 0
SVS flag. This bit indicates a low voltage condition. SVSFG remains set after
a low voltage condition until reset by software or a brownout reset.
0
No low voltage condition occurred
1
A low condition is present or has occurred
Supply Voltage Supervisor
6-7
Chapter 7
&'""
This chapter describes the hardware multiplier. The hardware multiplier is
implemented in MSP430x14x and MSP430x16x devices.
Topic
Page
7.1
Hardware Multiplier Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
7.2
Hardware Multiplier Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
7.3
Hardware Multiplier Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
Hardware Multiplier
7-1
Hardware Multiplier Introduction
7.1 Hardware Multiplier Introduction
The hardware multiplier is a peripheral and is not part of the MSP430 CPU.
This means, its activities do not interfere with the CPU activities. The multiplier
registers are peripheral registers that are loaded and read with CPU
instructions.
The hardware multiplier supports:
- Unsigned multiply
- Signed multiply
- Unsigned multiply accumulate
- Signed multiply accumulate
- 16 × 16 bits, 16 × 8 bits, 8 × 16 bits, 8 × 8 bits
The hardware multiplier block diagram is shown in Figure 7−1.
Figure 7−1. Hardware Multiplier Block Diagram
rw
15
0
MPY 130h
15
MPYS 132h
OP1
rw
0
OP2 138h
MAC 134h
MACS 136h
16 x 16 Multipiler
Accessible
Register
MPY = 0000
MACS MPYS
32−bit Adder
MAC
MPY, MPYS
Multiplexer
32−bit Multiplexer
SUMEXT 13Eh
15
7-2
r
Hardware Multiplier
MAC, MACS
C
0
S
RESHI 13Ch
RESLO 13Ah
31
rw
rw
0
Hardware Multiplier Operation
7.2 Hardware Multiplier Operation
The hardware multiplier supports unsigned multiply, signed multiply, unsigned
multiply accumulate, and signed multiply accumulate operations. The type of
operation is selected by the address the first operand is written to.
The hardware multiplier has two 16-bit operand registers, OP1 and OP2, and
three result registers, RESLO, RESHI, and SUMEXT. RESLO stores the low
word of the result, RESHI stores the high word of the result, and SUMEXT
stores information about the result. The result is ready in three MCLK cycles
and can be read with the next instruction after writing to OP2, except when
using an indirect addressing mode to access the result. When using indirect
addressing for the result, a NOP is required before the result is ready.
7.2.1
Operand Registers
The operand one register OP1 has four addresses, shown in Table 7−1, used
to select the multiply mode. Writing the first operand to the desired address
selects the type of multiply operation but does not start any operation. Writing
the second operand to the operand two register OP2 initiates the multiply
operation. Writing OP2 starts the selected operation with the values stored in
OP1 and OP2. The result is written into the three result registers RESLO,
RESHI, and SUMEXT.
Repeated multiply operations may be performed without reloading OP1 if the
OP1 value is used for successive operations. It is not necessary to re-write the
OP1 value to perform the operations.
Table 7−1. OP1 addresses
OP1 Address
Register Name
Operation
0130h
MPY
Unsigned multiply
0132h
MPYS
Signed multiply
0134h
MAC
Unsigned multiply accumulate
0136h
MACS
Signed multiply accumulate
Hardware Multiplier
7-3
Hardware Multiplier Operation
7.2.2
Result Registers
The result low register RESLO holds the lower 16-bits of the calculation result.
The result high register RESHI contents depend on the multiply operation and
are listed in Table 7−2.
Table 7−2. RESHI Contents
Mode
RESHI Contents
MPY
Upper 16-bits of the result
MPYS
The MSB is the sign of the result. The remaining bits are the
upper 15-bits of the result. Two’s complement notation is used
for the result.
MAC
Upper 16-bits of the result
MACS
Upper 16-bits of the result. Two’s complement notation is used
for the result.
The sum extension registers SUMEXT contents depend on the multiply
operation and are listed in Table 7−3.
Table 7−3. SUMEXT Contents
Mode
SUMEXT
MPY
SUMEXT is always 0000h
MPYS
SUMEXT contains the extended sign of the result
00000h Result was positive or zero
0FFFFh Result was negative
MAC
SUMEXT contains the carry of the result
0000h
0001h
MACS
No carry for result
Result has a carry
SUMEXT contains the extended sign of the result
00000h Result was positive or zero
0FFFFh Result was negative
MACS Underflow and Overflow
The multiplier does not automatically detect underflow or overflow in the
MACS mode. The accumulator range for positive numbers is 0 to 7FFF FFFFh
and for negative numbers is 0FFFF FFFFh to 8000 0000h. An underflow
occurs when the sum of two negative numbers yields a result that is in the
range for a positive number. An overflow occurs when the sum of two positive
numbers yields a result that is in the range for a negative number. In both of
these cases, the SUMEXT register contains the sign of the result, 0FFFFh for
overflow and 0000h for underflow. User software must detect and handle
these conditions appropriately.
7-4
Hardware Multiplier
Hardware Multiplier Operation
7.2.3
Software Examples
Examples for all multiplier modes follow. All 8x8 modes use the absolute
address for the registers because the assembler will not allow .B access to
word registers when using the labels from the standard definitions file.
; 16x16 Unsigned Multiply
MOV
#01234h,&MPY ; Load first operand
MOV
#05678h,&OP2 ; Load second operand
; ...
; Process results
; 8x8 Unsigned Multiply. Absolute addressing.
MOV.B #012h,&0130h ; Load first operand
MOV.B #034h,&0138h ; Load 2nd operand
; ...
; Process results
; 16x16 Signed Multiply
MOV
#01234h,&MPYS ; Load first operand
MOV
#05678h,&OP2 ; Load 2nd operand
; ...
; Process results
; 8x8 Signed Multiply. Absolute addressing.
MOV.B #012h,&0132h ; Load first operand
SXT
&MPYS
; Sign extend first operand
MOV.B #034h,&0138h ; Load 2nd operand
SXT
&OP2
; Sign extend 2nd operand
; (triggers 2nd multiplication)
; ...
; Process results
; 16x16 Unsigned Multiply Accumulate
MOV
#01234h,&MAC ; Load first operand
MOV
#05678h,&OP2 ; Load 2nd operand
; ...
; Process results
; 8x8 Unsigned Multiply
MOV.B #012h,&0134h ;
MOV.B #034h,&0138h ;
; ...
;
Accumulate. Absolute addressing
Load first operand
Load 2nd operand
Process results
; 16x16 Signed Multiply Accumulate
MOV
#01234h,&MACS ; Load first operand
MOV
#05678h,&OP2 ; Load 2nd operand
; ...
; Process results
; 8x8 Signed Multiply
MOV.B #012h,&0136h
SXT
&MACS
MOV.B #034h,R5
SXT
R5
MOV
R5,&OP2
; ...
Accumulate. Absolute addressing
; Load first operand
; Sign extend first operand
; Temp. location for 2nd operand
; Sign extend 2nd operand
; Load 2nd operand
; Process results
Hardware Multiplier
7-5
Hardware Multiplier Operation
7.2.4
Indirect Addressing of RESLO
When using indirect or indirect autoincrement addressing mode to access the
result registers, At least one instruction is needed between loading the second
operand and accessing one of the result registers:
; Access
MOV
MOV
MOV
NOP
MOV
MOV
7.2.5
multiplier results with indirect addressing
#RESLO,R5
; RESLO address in R5 for indirect
&OPER1,&MPY ; Load 1st operand
&OPER2,&OP2 ; Load 2nd operand
; Need one cycle
@R5+,&xxx
; Move RESLO
@R5,&xxx
; Move RESHI
Using Interrupts
If an interrupt occurs after writing OP1, but before writing OP2, and the
multiplier is used in servicing that interrupt, the original multiplier mode
selection is lost and the results are unpredictable. To avoid this, disable
interrupts before using the hardware multiplier or do not use the multiplier in
interrupt service routines.
; Disable interrupts
DINT
;
NOP
;
MOV
#xxh,&MPY ;
MOV
#xxh,&OP2 ;
EINT
;
;
7-6
Hardware Multiplier
before using the hardware multiplier
Disable interrupts
Required for DINT
Load 1st operand
Load 2nd operand
Interrupts may be enable before
Process results
Hardware Multiplier Registers
7.3 Hardware Multiplier Registers
The hardware multiplier registers are listed in Table 7−4.
Table 7−4. Hardware Multiplier Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
Operand one - multiply
MPY
Read/write
0130h
Unchanged
Operand one - signed multiply
MPYS
Read/write
0132h
Unchanged
Operand one - multiply accumulate
MAC
Read/write
0134h
Unchanged
Operand one - signed multiply accumulate
MACS
Read/write
0136h
Unchanged
Operand two
OP2
Read/write
0138h
Unchanged
Result low word
RESLO
Read/write
013Ah
Undefined
Result high word
RESHI
Read/write
013Ch
Undefined
Sum Extension register
SUMEXT
Read
013Eh
Undefined
Hardware Multiplier
7-7
Chapter 8
() ""
The DMA controller module transfers data from one address to another
without CPU intervention. This chapter describes the operation of the DMA
controller. The DMA controller is implemented in MSP430x15x and
MSP430x16x devices.
Topic
Page
8.1
DMA Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
8.2
DMA Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
8.3
DMA Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18
DMA Controller
8-1
DMA Introduction
8.1 DMA Introduction
The direct memory access (DMA) controller transfers data from one address
to another, without CPU intervention, across the entire address range. For
example, the DMA controller can move data from the ADC12 conversion
memory to RAM.
Using the DMA controller can increase the throughput of peripheral modules.
It can also reduce system power consumption by allowing the CPU to remain
in a low-power mode without having to awaken to move data to or from a
peripheral.
The DMA controller features include:
- Three independent transfer channels
- Configurable DMA channel priorities
- Requires only two MCLK clock cycles
- Byte or word and mixed byte/word transfer capability
- Block sizes up to 65535 bytes or words
- Configurable transfer trigger selections
- Selectable edge or level-triggered transfer
- Four addressing modes
- Single, block, or burst-block transfer modes
The DMA controller block diagram is shown in Figure 8−1.
8-2
DMA Controller
DMA Introduction
Figure 8−1. DMA Controller Block Diagram
DMA0TSELx
JTAG Active
4
DMAREQ
TACCR2_CCIFG
TBCCR2_CCIFG
USART0 data received
USART0 transmit ready
DAC12_0IFG
ADC12IFGx
TACCR0_CCIFG
TBCCR0_CCIFG
USART1 data received
USART1 transmit ready
Multiplier ready
No trigger
No trigger
DMA2IFG
DMAE0
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
NMI Interrupt Request
ENNMI
Halt
ROUNDROBIN
2
DMADSTINCRx
DMADSTBYTE
DMADTx
3
DMA Channel 0
DMA0SA
DT
DMA0DA
−−−
DMA0SZ
1110
1111
2
DMASRSBYTE
DMASRCINCRx
DMAEN
DMA1TSELx
4
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
DMA Priority And Control
DMAREQ
TACCR2_CCIFG
TBCCR2_CCIFG
USART0 data received
USART0 transmit ready
DAC12_0IFG
ADC12IFGx
TACCR0_CCIFG
TBCCR0_CCIFG
USART1 data received
USART1 transmit ready
Multiplier ready
No trigger
No trigger
DMA0IFG
DMAE0
2
DMA Channel 1
DMA1SA
2
1110
1111
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
−−−
1110
1111
Address
Space
DMA1SZ
DMA2TSELx
DMAREQ
TACCR2_CCIFG
TBCCR2_CCIFG
USART0 data received
USART0 transmit ready
DAC12_0IFG
ADC12IFGx
TACCR0_CCIFG
TBCCR0_CCIFG
USART1 data received
USART1 transmit ready
Multiplier ready
No trigger
No trigger
DMA1IFG
DMAE0
DT
DMA1DA
−−−
4
DMADSTINCRx DMADTx
DMADSTBYTE
3
2
DMASRSBYTE
DMASRCINCRx
DMAEN
DMADSTINCRx DMADTx
DMADSTBYTE
3
DMA Channel 2
DMA2SA
DT
DMA2DA
DMA2SZ
2
DMASRSBYTE
DMASRCINCRx
DMAEN
DMAONFETCH
Halt CPU
DMA Controller
8-3
DMA Operation
8.2 DMA Operation
The DMA controller is configured with user software. The setup and operation
of the DMA is discussed in the following sections.
8.2.1
DMA Addressing Modes
The DMA controller has four addressing modes. The addressing mode for
each DMA channel is independently configurable. For example, channel 0
may transfer between two fixed addresses, while channel 1 transfers between
two blocks of addresses. The addressing modes are shown in Figure 8−2. The
addressing modes are:
- Fixed address to fixed address
- Fixed address to block of addresses
- Block of addresses to fixed address
- Block of addresses to block of addresses
The addressing modes are configured with the DMASRCINCRx and
DMADSTINCRx control bits. The DMASRCINCRx bits select if the source
address is incremented, decremented, or unchanged after each transfer. The
DMADSTINCRx bits select if the destination address is incremented,
decremented, or unchanged after each transfer.
Transfers may be byte-to-byte, word-to-word, byte-to-word, or word-to-byte.
When transferring word-to-byte, only the lower byte of the source-word
transfers. When transferring byte-to-word, the upper byte of the
destination-word is cleared when the transfer occurs.
Figure 8−2. DMA Addressing Modes
DMA
Controller
Address Space
Fixed Address To Fixed Address
DMA
Controller
Address Space
Block Of Addresses To Fixed Address
8-4
DMA Controller
DMA
Controller
Address Space
Fixed Address To Block Of Addresses
DMA
Controller
Address Space
Block Of Addresses To Block Of Addresses
DMA Operation
8.2.2
DMA Transfer Modes
The DMA controller has six transfer modes selected by the DMADTx bits as
listed in Table 8−1. Each channel is individually configurable for its transfer
mode. For example, channel 0 may be configured in single transfer mode,
while channel 1 is configured for burst-block transfer mode, and channel 2
operates in repeated block mode. The transfer mode is configured
independently from the addressing mode. Any addressing mode can be used
with any transfer mode.
Table 8−1.DMA Transfer Modes
DMADTx
Transfer
Mode
000
Single transfer
Each transfer requires a trigger. DMAEN is
automatically cleared when DMAxSZ transfers have
been made.
001
Block transfer
A complete block is transferred with one trigger.
DMAEN is automatically cleared at the end of the
block transfer.
Burst-block
transfer
CPU activity is interleaved with a block transfer.
DMAEN is automatically cleared at the end of the
burst-block transfer.
100
Repeated
single transfer
Each transfer requires a trigger. DMAEN remains
enabled.
101
Repeated
block transfer
A complete block is transferred with one trigger.
DMAEN remains enabled.
Repeated
burst-block
transfer
CPU activity is interleaved with a block transfer.
DMAEN remains enabled.
010, 011
110, 111
Description
DMA Controller
8-5
DMA Operation
Single Transfer
In single transfer mode, each byte/word transfer requires a separate trigger.
The single transfer state diagram is shown in Figure 8−3.
The DMAxSZ register is used to define the number of transfers to be made.
The DMADSTINCRx and DMASRCINCRx bits select if the destination
address and the source address are incremented or decremented after each
transfer. If DMAxSZ = 0, no transfers occur.
The DMAxSA, DMAxDA, and DMAxSZ registers are copied into temporary
registers. The temporary values of DMAxSA and DMAxDA are incremented
or decremented after each transfer. The DMAxSZ register is decremented
after each transfer. When the DMAxSZ register decrements to zero it is
reloaded from its temporary register and the corresponding DMAIFG flag is
set. When DMADTx = 0, the DMAEN bit is cleared automatically when
DMAxSZ decrements to zero and must be set again for another transfer to
occur.
In repeated single transfer mode, the DMA controller remains enabled with
DMAEN = 1, and a transfer occurs every time a trigger occurs.
8-6
DMA Controller
DMA Operation
Figure 8−3. DMA Single Transfer State Diagram
DMAEN = 0
Reset
DMAEN = 0
DMAREQ = 0
T_Size → DMAxSZ
DMAEN = 0
DMAEN = 1
DMAxSZ → T_Size
DMAxSA → T_SourceAdd
DMAxDA → T_DestAdd
[ DMADTx = 0
AND DMAxSZ = 0]
OR DMAEN = 0
DMAABORT = 1
Idle
DMAREQ = 0
DMAABORT=0
Wait for Trigger
2 x MCLK
DMAxSZ > 0
AND DMAEN = 1
[+Trigger AND DMALEVEL = 0 ]
OR
[Trigger=1 AND DMALEVEL=1]
Hold CPU,
Transfer one word/byte
[ENNMI = 1
AND NMI event]
OR
[DMALEVEL = 1
AND Trigger = 0]
T_Size → DMAxSZ
DMAxSA → T_SourceAdd
DMAxDA → T_DestAdd
DMADTx = 4
AND DMAxSZ = 0
AND DMAEN = 1
Decrement DMAxSZ
Modify T_SourceAdd
Modify T_DestAdd
DMA Controller
8-7
DMA Operation
Block Transfers
In block transfer mode, a transfer of a complete block of data occurs after one
trigger. When DMADTx = 1, the DMAEN bit is cleared after the completion of
the block transfer and must be set again before another block transfer can be
triggered. After a block transfer has been triggered, further trigger signals
occurring during the block transfer are ignored. The block transfer state
diagram is shown in Figure 8−4.
The DMAxSZ register is used to define the size of the block and the
DMADSTINCRx and DMASRCINCRx bits select if the destination address
and the source address are incremented or decremented after each transfer
of the block. If DMAxSZ = 0, no transfers occur.
The DMAxSA, DMAxDA, and DMAxSZ registers are copied into temporary
registers. The temporary values of DMAxSA and DMAxDA are incremented
or decremented after each transfer in the block. The DMAxSZ register is
decremented after each transfer of the block and shows the number of
transfers remaining in the block. When the DMAxSZ register decrements to
zero it is reloaded from its temporary register and the corresponding DMAIFG
flag is set.
During a block transfer, the CPU is halted until the complete block has been
transferred. The block transfer takes 2 x MCLK x DMAxSZ clock cycles to
complete. CPU execution resumes with its previous state after the block
transfer is complete.
In repeated block transfer mode, the DMAEN bit remains set after completion
of the block transfer. The next trigger after the completion of a repeated block
transfer triggers another block transfer.
8-8
DMA Controller
DMA Operation
Figure 8−4. DMA Block Transfer State Diagram
DMAEN = 0
Reset
DMAEN = 0
DMAREQ = 0
T_Size → DMAxSZ
DMAEN = 0
DMAEN = 1
DMAxSZ → T_Size
DMAxSA → T_SourceAdd
DMAxDA → T_DestAdd
[DMADTx = 1
AND DMAxSZ = 0]
OR
DMAEN = 0
DMAABORT = 1
Idle
DMAREQ = 0
T_Size → DMAxSZ
DMAxSA → T_SourceAdd
DMAxDA → T_DestAdd
DMAABORT=0
Wait for Trigger
2 x MCLK
[+Trigger AND DMALEVEL = 0 ]
OR
[Trigger=1 AND DMALEVEL=1]
DMADTx = 5
AND DMAxSZ = 0
AND DMAEN = 1
Hold CPU,
Transfer one word/byte
[ENNMI = 1
AND NMI event]
OR
[DMALEVEL = 1
AND Trigger = 0]
DMAxSZ > 0
Decrement DMAxSZ
Modify T_SourceAdd
Modify T_DestAdd
DMA Controller
8-9
DMA Operation
Burst-Block Transfers
In burst-block mode, transfers are block transfers with CPU activity
interleaved. The CPU executes 2 MCLK cycles after every four byte/word
transfers of the block resulting in 20% CPU execution capacity. After the
burst-block, CPU execution resumes at 100% capacity and the DMAEN bit is
cleared. DMAEN must be set again before another burst-block transfer can
be triggered. After a burst-block transfer has been triggered, further trigger
signals occurring during the burst-block transfer are ignored. The burst-block
transfer state diagram is shown in Figure 8−5.
The DMAxSZ register is used to define the size of the block and the
DMADSTINCRx and DMASRCINCRx bits select if the destination address
and the source address are incremented or decremented after each transfer
of the block. If DMAxSZ = 0, no transfers occur.
The DMAxSA, DMAxDA, and DMAxSZ registers are copied into temporary
registers. The temporary values of DMAxSA and DMAxDA are incremented
or decremented after each transfer in the block. The DMAxSZ register is
decremented after each transfer of the block and shows the number of
transfers remaining in the block. When the DMAxSZ register decrements to
zero it is reloaded from its temporary register and the corresponding DMAIFG
flag is set.
In repeated burst-block mode the DMAEN bit remains set after completion of
the burst-block transfer and no further trigger signals are required to initiate
another burst-block transfer. Another burst-block transfer begins immediately
after completion of a burst-block transfer. In this case, the transfers must be
stopped by clearing the DMAEN bit, or by an NMI interrupt when ENNMI is set.
In repeated burst-block mode the CPU executes at 20% capacity continuously
until the repeated burst-block transfer is stopped.
8-10
DMA Controller
DMA Operation
Figure 8−5. DMA Burst-Block Transfer State Diagram
DMAEN = 0
Reset
DMAEN = 0
DMAREQ = 0
T_Size → DMAxSZ
DMAEN = 0
DMAEN = 1
DMAxSZ → T_Size
[DMADTx = {2, 3}
DMAxSA → T_SourceAdd
AND DMAxSZ = 0]
DMAxDA → T_DestAdd
OR
DMAEN = 0
DMAABORT = 1
Idle
DMAABORT=0
Wait for Trigger
2 x MCLK
[+Trigger AND DMALEVEL = 0 ]
OR
[Trigger=1 AND DMALEVEL=1]
Hold CPU,
Transfer one word/byte
[ENNMI = 1
AND NMI event]
OR
[DMALEVEL = 1
AND Trigger = 0]
T_Size → DMAxSZ
DMAxSA → T_SourceAdd
DMAxDA → T_DestAdd
Decrement DMAxSZ
Modify T_SourceAdd
Modify T_DestAdd
DMAxSZ > 0 AND
a multiple of 4 words/bytes
were transferred
DMAxSZ > 0
DMAxSZ > 0
[DMADTx = {6, 7}
AND DMAxSZ = 0]
2 x MCLK
Burst State
(release CPU for 2xMCLK)
DMA Controller
8-11
DMA Operation
8.2.3
Initiating DMA Transfers
Each DMA channel is independently configured for its trigger source with the
DMAxTSELx bits as described in Table 8−2.The DMAxTSELx bits should be
modified only when the DMACTLx DMAEN bit is 0. Otherwise, unpredictable
DMA triggers may occur.
When selecting the trigger, the trigger must not have already occurred, or the
transfer will not take place. For example, if the TACCR2 CCIFG bit is selected
as a trigger, and it is already set, no transfer will occur until the next time the
TACCR2 CCIFG bit is set.
Edge-Sensitive Triggers
When DMALEVEL = 0, edge-sensitive triggers are used and the rising edge
of the trigger signal initiates the transfer. In single-transfer mode, each transfer
requires its own trigger. When using block or burst-block modes, only one
trigger is required to initiate the block or burst-block transfer.
Level-Sensitive Triggers
When DMALEVEL = 1, level-sensitive triggers are used. For proper operation,
level-sensitive triggers can only be used when external trigger DMAE0 is
selected as the trigger. DMA transfers are triggered as long as the trigger
signal is high and the DMAEN bit remains set.
The trigger signal must remain high for a block or burst-block transfer to
complete. If the trigger signal goes low during a block or burst-block transfer,
the DMA controller is held in its current state until the trigger goes back high
or until the DMA registers are modified by software. If the DMA registers are
not modified by software, when the trigger signal goes high again, the transfer
resumes from where it was when the trigger signal went low.
When DMALEVEL = 1, transfer modes selected when DMADTx = {0, 1, 2, 3}
are recommended because the DMAEN bit is automatically reset after the
configured transfer.
Halting Executing Instructions for DMA Transfers
The DMAONFETCH bit controls when the CPU is halted for a DMA transfer.
When DMAONFETCH = 0, the CPU is halted immediately and the transfer
begins when a trigger is received. When DMAONFETCH = 1, the CPU finishes
the currently executing instruction before the DMA controller halts the CPU
and the transfer begins.
Note: DMAONFETCH Must Be Used When The DMA Writes To Flash
If the DMA controller is used to write to flash memory, the DMAONFETCH
bit must be set. Otherwise, unpredictable operation can result.
8-12
DMA Controller
DMA Operation
Table 8−2.DMA Trigger Operation
DMAxTSELx Operation
0000
A transfer is triggered when the DMAREQ bit is set. The DMAREQ bit is automatically reset
when the transfer starts
0001
A transfer is triggered when the TACCR2 CCIFG flag is set. The TACCR2 CCIFG flag is
automatically reset when the transfer starts. If the TACCR2 CCIE bit is set, the TACCR2
CCIFG flag will not trigger a transfer.
0010
A transfer is triggered when the TBCCR2 CCIFG flag is set. The TBCCR2 CCIFG flag is
automatically reset when the transfer starts. If the TBCCR2 CCIE bit is set, the TBCCR2
CCIFG flag will not trigger a transfer.
0011
A transfer is triggered when USART0 receives new data. In I2C mode, the trigger is the
data-received condition, not the RXRDYIFG flag. RXRDYIFG is not cleared when the transfer
starts, and setting RXRDYIFG with software will not trigger a transfer. If RXRDYIE is set, the
data received condition will not trigger a transfer. In UART or SPI mode, a transfer is triggered
when the URXIFG0 flag is set. URXIFG0 is automatically reset when the transfer starts. If
URXIE0 is set, the URXIFG0 flag will not trigger a transfer.
0100
A transfer is triggered when USART0 is ready to transmit new data. In I2C mode, the trigger is
the transmit-ready condition, not the TXRDYIFG flag. TXRDYIFG is not cleared when the
transfer starts, and setting TXRDYIFG with software will not trigger a transfer. If TXRDYIE is
set, the transmit ready condition will not trigger a transfer. In UART or SPI mode, a transfer is
triggered when the UTXIFG0 flag is set. UTXIFG0 is automatically reset when the transfer
starts. If UTXIE0 is set, the UTXIFG0 flag will not trigger a transfer.
0101
A transfer is triggered when the DAC12_0CTL DAC12IFG flag is set. The DAC12_0CTL
DAC12IFG flag is automatically cleared when the transfer starts. If the DAC12_0CTL
DAC12IE bit is set, the DAC12_0CTL DAC12IFG flag will not trigger a transfer.
0110
A transfer is triggered by an ADC12IFGx flag. When single-channel conversions are
performed, the corresponding ADC12IFGx is the trigger. When sequences are used, the
ADC12IFGx for the last conversion in the sequence is the trigger. A transfer is triggered when
the conversion is completed and the ADC12IFGx is set. Setting the ADC12IFGx with software
will not trigger a transfer. All ADC12IFGx flags are automatically reset when the associated
ADC12MEMx register is accessed by the DMA controller.
0111
A transfer is triggered when the TACCR0 CCIFG flag is set. The TACCR0 CCIFG flag is
automatically reset when the transfer starts. If the TACCR0 CCIE bit is set, the TACCR0
CCIFG flag will not trigger a transfer.
1000
A transfer is triggered when the TBCCR0 CCIFG flag is set. The TBCCR0 CCIFG flag is
automatically reset when the transfer starts. If the TBCCR0 CCIE bit is set, the TBCCR0
CCIFG flag will not trigger a transfer.
1001
A transfer is triggered when the URXIFG1 flag is set. URXIFG1 is automatically reset when
the transfer starts. If URXIE1 is set, the URXIFG1 flag will not trigger a transfer.
1010
A transfer is triggered when the UTXIFG1 flag is set. UTXIFG1 is automatically reset when the
transfer starts. If UTXIE1 is set, the UTXIFG1 flag will not trigger a transfer.
1011
A transfer is triggered when the hardware multiplier is ready for a new operand.
1100
No transfer is triggered.
1101
No transfer is triggered.
1110
A transfer is triggered when the DMAxIFG flag is set. DMA0IFG triggers channel 1, DMA1IFG
triggers channel 2, and DMA2IFG triggers channel 0. None of the DMAxIFG flags are
automatically reset when the transfer starts.
1111
A transfer is triggered by the external trigger DMAE0.
DMA Controller
8-13
DMA Operation
8.2.4
Stopping DMA Transfers
There are two ways to stop DMA transfers in progress:
- A single, block, or burst-block transfer may be stopped with an NMI
interrupt, if the ENNMI bit is set in register DMACTL1.
- A burst-block transfer may be stopped by clearing the DMAEN bit.
8.2.5
DMA Channel Priorities
The default DMA channel priorities are DMA0−DMA1−DMA2. If two or three
triggers happen simultaneously or are pending, the channel with the highest
priority completes its transfer (single, block or burst-block transfer) first, then
the second priority channel, then the third priority channel. Transfers in
progress are not halted if a higher priority channel is triggered. The higher
priority channel waits until the transfer in progress completes before starting.
The DMA channel priorities are configurable with the ROUNDROBIN bit.
When the ROUNDROBIN bit is set, the channel that completes a transfer
becomes the lowest priority. The order of the priority of the channels always
stays the same, DMA0−DMA1−DMA2, for example:
DMA Priority
Transfer Occurs
New DMA Priority
DMA0 − DMA1 − DMA2
DMA1
DMA2 − DMA0 − DMA1
DMA2 − DMA0 − DMA1
DMA2
DMA0 − DMA1 − DMA2
DMA0 − DMA1 − DMA2
DMA0
DMA1 − DMA2 − DMA0
When the ROUNDROBIN bit is cleared the channel priority returns to the
default priority.
8-14
DMA Controller
DMA Operation
8.2.6
DMA Transfer Cycle Time
The DMA controller requires one or two MCLK clock cycles to synchronize
before each single transfer or complete block or burst-block transfer. Each
byte/word transfer requires two MCLK cycles after synchronization, and one
cycle of wait time after the transfer. Because the DMA controller uses MCLK,
the DMA cycle time is dependent on the MSP430 operating mode and clock
system setup.
If the MCLK source is active, but the CPU is off, the DMA controller will use
the MCLK source for each transfer, without re-enabling the CPU. If the MCLK
source is off, the DMA controller will temporarily restart MCLK, sourced with
DCOCLK, for the single transfer or complete block or burst-block transfer. The
CPU remains off, and after the transfer completes, MCLK is turned off. The
maximum DMA cycle time for all operating modes is shown in Table 8−3.
Table 8−3.Maximum Single-Transfer DMA Cycle Time
CPU Operating Mode
Clock Source
Maximum DMA Cycle Time
Active mode
MCLK=DCOCLK
4 MCLK cycles
Active mode
MCLK=LFXT1CLK
4 MCLK cycles
Low-power mode LPM0/1 MCLK=DCOCLK
5 MCLK cycles
Low-power mode LPM3/4 MCLK=DCOCLK
5 MCLK cycles + 6 µs†
Low-power mode LPM0/1 MCLK=LFXT1CLK
5 MCLK cycles
Low-power mode LPM3
MCLK=LFXT1CLK
5 MCLK cycles
Low-power mode LPM4
MCLK=LFXT1CLK
5 MCLK cycles + 6 µs†
† The additional 6 µs are needed to start the DCOCLK. It is the t(LPMx) parameter in the data sheet.
DMA Controller
8-15
DMA Operation
8.2.7
Using DMA with System Interrupts
DMA transfers are not interruptible by system interrupts. System interrupts
remain pending until the completion of the transfer. NMI interrupts can
interrupt the DMA controller if the ENNMI bit is set.
System interrupt service routines are interrupted by DMA transfers. If an
interrupt service routine or other routine must execute with no interruptions,
the DMA controller should be disabled prior to executing the routine.
8.2.8
DMA Controller Interrupts
Each DMA channel has its own DMAIFG flag. Each DMAIFG flag is set in any
mode, when the corresponding DMAxSZ register counts to zero. If the
corresponding DMAIE and GIE bits are set, an interrupt request is generated.
All DMAIFG flags source only one DMA controller interrupt vector and the
interrupt vector is shared with the DAC12 module. Software must check the
DMAIFG and DAC12IFG flags to determine the source of the interrupt. The
DMAIFG flags are not reset automatically and must be reset by software.
8-16
DMA Controller
DMA Operation
8.2.9
Using the I2C Module with the DMA Controller
The I2C module provides two trigger sources for the DMA controller. The I2C
module can trigger a transfer when new I2C data is received and the when the
transmit data is needed.
The TXDMAEN and RXDMAEN bits enable or disable the use of the DMA
controller with the I2C module. When RXDMAEN = 1, the DMA controller can
be used to transfer data from the I2C module after the I2C modules receives
data. When RXDMAEN = 1, RXRDYIE is ignored and RXRDYIFG will not
generate an interrupt.
When TXDMAEN = 1, the DMA controller can be used to transfer data to the
I2C module for transmission. When TXDMAEN = 1, TXRDYIE is ignored and
TXRDYIFG will not generate an interrupt.
8.2.10 Using ADC12 with the DMA Controller
MSP430 devices with an integrated DMA controller can automatically move
data from any ADC12MEMx register to another location. DMA transfers are
done without CPU intervention and independently of any low-power modes.
The DMA controller increases throughput of the ADC12 module, and
enhances low-power applications allowing the CPU to remain off while data
transfers occur.
DMA transfers can be triggered from any ADC12IFGx flag. When CONSEQx
= {0,2} the ADC12IFGx flag for the ADC12MEMx used for the conversion can
trigger a DMA transfer. When CONSEQx = {1,3}, the ADC12IFGx flag for the
last ADC12MEMx in the sequence can trigger a DMA transfer. Any
ADC12IFGx flag is automatically cleared when the DMA controller accesses
the corresponding ADC12MEMx.
8.2.11 Using DAC12 With the DMA Controller
MSP430 devices with an integrated DMA controller can automatically move
data to the DAC12_xDAT register. DMA transfers are done without CPU
intervention and independently of any low-power modes. The DMA controller
increases throughput to the DAC12 module, and enhances low-power
applications allowing the CPU to remain off while data transfers occur.
Applications requiring periodic waveform generation can benefit from using
the DMA controller with the DAC12. For example, an application that produces
a sinusoidal waveform may store the sinusoid values in a table. The DMA
controller can continuously and automatically transfer the values to the
DAC12 at specific intervals creating the sinusoid with zero CPU execution.
The DAC12_xCTL DAC12IFG flag is automatically cleared when the DMA
controller accesses the DAC12_xDAT register.
DMA Controller
8-17
DMA Registers
8.3 DMA Registers
The DMA registers are listed in Table 8−4:
Table 8−4.DMA Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type
Address
Initial State
DMA control 0
DMACTL0
Read/write
0122h
Reset with POR
DMA control 1
DMACTL1
Read/write
0124h
Reset with POR
DMA channel 0 control
DMA0CTL
Read/write
01E0h
Reset with POR
DMA channel 0 source address
DMA0SA
Read/write
01E2h
Unchanged
DMA channel 0 destination address
DMA0DA
Read/write
01E4h
Unchanged
DMA channel 0 transfer size
DMA0SZ
Read/write
01E6h
Unchanged
DMA channel 1 control
DMA1CTL
Read/write
01E8h
Reset with POR
DMA channel 1 source address
DMA1SA
Read/write
01EAh
Unchanged
DMA channel 1 destination address
DMA1DA
Read/write
01ECh
Unchanged
DMA channel 1 transfer size
DMA1SZ
Read/write
01EEh
Unchanged
DMA channel 2 control
DMA2CTL
Read/write
01F0h
Reset with POR
DMA channel 2 source address
DMA2SA
Read/write
01F2h
Unchanged
DMA channel 2 destination address
DMA2DA
Read/write
01F4h
Unchanged
DMA channel 2 transfer size
DMA2SZ
Read/write
01F6h
Unchanged
8-18
DMA Controller
DMA Registers
DMACTL0, DMA Control Register 0
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
DMA2TSELx
Reserved
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
DMA1TSELx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
DMA0TSELx
rw−(0)
Reserved
Bits
15−12
Reserved
DMA2
TSELx
Bits
11−8
DMA
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
DMA1
TSELx
Bits
7−4
Same as DMA2TSELx
DMA0
TSELx
Bits
3–0
Same as DMA2TSELx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
trigger select. These bits select the DMA transfer trigger.
DMAREQ bit (software trigger)
TACCR2 CCIFG bit
TBCCR2 CCIFG bit
URXIFG0 (UART/SPI mode), USART0 data received (I2C mode)
UTXIFG0 (UART/SPI mode), USART0 transmit ready (I2C mode)
DAC12_0CTL DAC12IFG bit
ADC12 ADC12IFGx bit
TACCR0 CCIFG bit
TBCCR0 CCIFG bit
URXIFG1 bit
UTXIFG1 bit
Multiplier ready
No action
No action
DMA0IFG bit triggers DMA channel 1
DMA1IFG bit triggers DMA channel 2
DMA2IFG bit triggers DMA channel 0
1111 External trigger DMAE0
DMA Controller
8-19
DMA Registers
DMACTL1, DMA Control Register 1
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
DMA
ONFETCH
ROUND
ROBIN
ENNMI
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
Reserved
Bits
15−3
Reserved. Read only. Always read as 0.
DMA
ONFETCH
Bit 2
DMA on fetch
0
The DMA transfer occurs immediately
1
The DMA transfer occurs on next instruction fetch after the trigger
ROUND
ROBIN
Bit 1
Round robin. This bit enables the round-robin DMA channel priorities.
0
DMA channel priority is DMA0 − DMA1 − DMA2
1
DMA channel priority changes with each transfer
ENNMI
Bit 0
Enable NMI. This bit enables the interruption of a DMA transfer by an NMI
interrupt. When an NMI interrupts a DMA transfer, the current transfer is
completed normally, further transfers are stopped, and DMAABORT is set.
0
NMI interrupt does not interrupt DMA transfer
1
NMI interrupt interrupts a DMA transfer
8-20
DMA Controller
DMA Registers
DMAxCTL, DMA Channel x Control Register
15
14
13
12
DMADTx
Reserved
11
10
DMADSTINCRx
9
8
DMASRCINCRx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DMA
DSTBYTE
DMA
SRCBYTE
DMALEVEL
DMAEN
DMAIFG
DMAIE
DMA
ABORT
DMAREQ
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
Reserved
Bit 15
Reserved
DMADTx
Bits
14−12
DMA Transfer mode.
000 Single transfer
001 Block transfer
010 Burst-block transfer
011 Burst-block transfer
100 Repeated single transfer
101 Repeated block transfer
110 Repeated burst-block transfer
111 Repeated burst-block transfer
DMA
DSTINCRx
Bits
11−10
DMA destination increment. This bit selects automatic incrementing or
decrementing of the destination address after each byte or word transfer.
When DMADSTBYTE=1, the destination address increments/decrements by
one.
When
DMADSTBYTE=0,
the
destination
address
increments/decrements by two. The DMAxDA is copied into a temporary
register and the temporary register is incremented or decremented. DMAxDA
is not incremented or decremented.
00 Destination address is unchanged
01 Destination address is unchanged
10 Destination address is decremented
11 Destination address is incremented
DMA
SRCINCRx
Bits
9−8
DMA source increment. This bit selects automatic incrementing or
decrementing of the source address for each byte or word transfer. When
DMASRCBYTE=1, the source address increments/decrements by one.
When DMASRCBYTE=0, the source address increments/decrements by
two. The DMAxSA is copied into a temporary register and the temporary
register is incremented or decremented. DMAxSA is not incremented or
decremented.
00 Source address is unchanged
01 Source address is unchanged
10 Source address is decremented
11 Source address is incremented
DMA
DSTBYTE
Bit 7
DMA destination byte. This bit selects the destination as a byte or word.
0
Word
1
Byte
DMA Controller
8-21
DMA Registers
DMA
SRCBYTE
Bit 6
DMA source byte. This bit selects the source as a byte or word.
0
Word
1
Byte
DMA
LEVEL
Bit 5
DMA level. This bit selects between edge-sensitive and level-sensitive
triggers.
0
Edge sensitive (rising edge)
1
Level sensitive (high level)
DMAEN
Bit 4
DMA enable
0
Disabled
1
Enabled
DMAIFG
Bit 3
DMA interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
DMAIE
Bit 2
DMA interrupt enable
0
Disabled
1
Enabled
DMA
ABORT
Bit 1
DMA Abort. This bit indicates if a DMA transfer was interrupt by an NMI.
0
DMA transfer not interrupted
1
DMA transfer was interrupted by NMI
DMAREQ
Bit 0
DMA request. Software-controlled DMA start. DMAREQ is reset
automatically.
0
No DMA start
1
Start DMA
DMAxSA, DMA Source Address Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
DMAxSAx
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
rw
DMAxSAx
rw
rw
DMAxSAx
8-22
Bits
15−0
rw
rw
DMA source address. The source address register points to the DMA source
address for single transfers or the first source address for block transfers. The
source address register remains unchanged during block and burst-block
transfers.
DMA Controller
DMA Registers
DMAxDA, DMA Destination Address Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
DMAxDAx
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
rw
DMAxDAx
rw
DMAxDAx
rw
Bits
15−0
rw
rw
DMA destination address. The destination address register points to the
destination address for single transfers or the first address for block transfers.
The DMAxDA register remains unchanged during block and burst-block
transfers.
DMAxSZ, DMA Size Address Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
DMAxSZx
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
rw
DMAxSZx
rw
DMAxSZx
rw
Bits
15−0
rw
rw
DMA size. The DMA size register defines the number of byte/word data per
block transfer. DMAxSZ register decrements with each word or byte transfer.
When DMAxSZ decrements to 0, it is immediately and automatically reloaded
with its previously initialized value.
00000h Transfer is disabled
00001h One byte or word is transferred
00002h Two bytes or words are transferred
:
0FFFFh 65535 bytes or words are transferred
DMA Controller
8-23
Chapter 9
("*
This chapter describes the operation of the digital I/O ports. Ports P1-P2 are
implemented in MSP430x11xx devices. Ports P1-P3 are implemented in
MSP430x12xx devices. Ports P1-P6 are implemented in MSP430x13x,
MSP430x14x, MSP430x15x, and MSP430x16x devices.
Topic
Page
9.1
Digital I/O Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
9.2
Digital I/O Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
9.3
Digital I/O Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
Digital I/O
9-1
Digital I/O Introduction
9.1 Digital I/O Introduction
MSP430 devices have up to 6 digital I/O ports implemented, P1 - P6. Each port
has eight I/O pins. Every I/O pin is individually configurable for input or output
direction, and each I/O line can be individually read or written to.
Ports P1 and P2 have interrupt capability. Each interrupt for the P1 and P2 I/O
lines can be individually enabled and configured to provide an interrupt on a
rising edge or falling edge of an input signal. All P1 I/O lines source a single
interrupt vector, and all P2 I/O lines source a different, single interrupt vector.
The digital I/O features include:
- Independently programmable individual I/Os
- Any combination of input or output
- Individually configurable P1 and P2 interrupts
- Independent input and output data registers
9-2
Digital I/O
Digital I/O Operation
9.2 Digital I/O Operation
The digital I/O is configured with user software. The setup and operation of the
digital I/O is discussed in the following sections.
9.2.1
Input Register PxIN
Each bit in each PxIN register reflects the value of the input signal at the
corresponding I/O pin when the pin is configured as I/O function.
Bit = 0: The input is low
Bit = 1: The input is high
Note: Writing to Read-Only Registers PxIN
Writing to these read-only registers results in increased current consumption
while the write attempt is active.
9.2.2
Output Registers PxOUT
Each bit in each PxOUT register is the value to be output on the corresponding
I/O pin when the pin is configured as I/O function and output direction.
Bit = 0: The output is low
Bit = 1: The output is high
9.2.3
Direction Registers PxDIR
Each bit in each PxDIR register selects the direction of the corresponding I/O
pin, regardless of the selected function for the pin. PxDIR bits for I/O pins that
are selected for other module functions must be set as required by the other
function.
Bit = 0: The port pin is switched to input direction
Bit = 1: The port pin is switched to output direction
Digital I/O
9-3
Digital I/O Operation
9.2.4
Function Select Registers PxSEL
Port pins are often multiplexed with other peripheral module functions. See the
device-specific data sheet to determine pin functions. Each PxSEL bit is used
to select the pin function − I/O port or peripheral module function.
Bit = 0: I/O Function is selected for the pin
Bit = 1: Peripheral module function is selected for the pin
Setting PxSELx = 1 does not automatically set the pin direction. Other
peripheral module functions may require the PxDIRx bits to be configured
according to the direction needed for the module function. See the pin
schematics in the device-specific datasheet.
;Output ACLK on P2.0 on MSP430F11x1
BIS.B #01h,&P2SEL ; Select ACLK function for pin
BIS.B #01h,&P2DIR ; Set direction to output *Required*
Note: P1 and P2 Interrupts Are Disabled When PxSEL = 1
When any P1SELx or P2SELx bit is set, the corresponding pin’s interrupt
function is disabled. Therefore, signals on these pins will not generate P1 or
P2 interrupts, regardless of the state of the corresponding P1IE or P2IE bit.
When a port pin is selected as an input to a peripheral, the input signal to the
peripheral is a latched representation of the signal at the device pin. While
PxSELx=1, the internal input signal follows the signal at the pin. However, if
the PxSELx=0, the input to the peripheral maintains the value of the input
signal at the device pin before the PxSELx bit was reset.
9-4
Digital I/O
Digital I/O Operation
9.2.5
P1 and P2 Interrupts
Each pin in ports P1 and P2 have interrupt capability, configured with the
PxIFG, PxIE, and PxIES registers. All P1 pins source a single interrupt vector,
and all P2 pins source a different single interrupt vector. The PxIFG register
can be tested to determine the source of a P1 or P2 interrupt.
Interrupt Flag Registers P1IFG, P2IFG
Each PxIFGx bit is the interrupt flag for its corresponding I/O pin and is set
when the selected input signal edge occurs at the pin. All PxIFGx interrupt
flags request an interrupt when their corresponding PxIE bit and the GIE bit
are set. Each PxIFG flag must be reset with software. Software can also set
each PxIFG flag, providing a way to generate a software initiated interrupt.
Bit = 0: No interrupt is pending
Bit = 1: An interrupt is pending
Only transitions, not static levels, cause interrupts. If any PxIFGx flag becomes
set during a Px interrupt service routine, or is set after the RETI instruction of
a Px interrupt service routine is executed, the set PxIFGx flag generates
another interrupt. This ensures that each transition is acknowledged.
Note: PxIFG Flags When Changing PxOUT or PxDIR
Writing to P1OUT, P1DIR, P2OUT, or P2DIR can result in setting the
corresponding P1IFG or P2IFG flags.
Note: Length of I/O Pin Interrupt Event
Any external interrupt event should be at least 1.5 times MCLK or longer, to
ensure that it is accepted and the corresponding interrupt flag is set.
Digital I/O
9-5
Digital I/O Operation
Interrupt Edge Select Registers P1IES, P2IES
Each PxIES bit selects the interrupt edge for the corresponding I/O pin.
Bit = 0: The PxIFGx flag is set with a low-to-high transition
Bit = 1: The PxIFGx flag is set with a high-to-low transition
Note: Writing to PxIESx
Writing to P1IES, or P2IES can result in setting the corresponding interrupt
flags.
PxIESx
0→1
0→1
1→0
1→0
PxINx
0
1
0
1
PxIFGx
May be set
Unchanged
Unchanged
May be set
Interrupt Enable P1IE, P2IE
Each PxIE bit enables the associated PxIFG interrupt flag.
Bit = 0: The interrupt is disabled
Bit = 1: The interrupt is enabled
9.2.6
Configuring Unused Port Pins
Unused I/O pins should be configured as I/O function, output direction, and left
unconnected on the PC board, to reduce power consumption. The value of the
PxOUT bit is don’t care, since the pin is unconnected. See chapter System
Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes for termination unused pins.
9-6
Digital I/O
Digital I/O Registers
9.3 Digital I/O Registers
Seven registers are used to configure P1 and P2. Four registers are used to
configure ports P3 - P6. The digital I/O registers are listed in Table 9−1.
Table 9−1. Digital I/O Registers
Port
Register
Short Form
Address
Register Type
P1
Input
P1IN
020h
Read only
Output
P1OUT
021h
Read/write
Unchanged
Direction
P1DIR
022h
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Interrupt Flag
P1IFG
023h
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Interrupt Edge Select
P1IES
024h
Read/write
Unchanged
Interrupt Enable
P1IE
025h
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Port Select
P1SEL
026h
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Input
P2IN
028h
Read only
Output
P2OUT
029h
Read/write
Unchanged
Direction
P2DIR
02Ah
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Interrupt Flag
P2IFG
02Bh
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Interrupt Edge Select
P2IES
02Ch
Read/write
Unchanged
Interrupt Enable
P2IE
02Dh
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Port Select
P2SEL
02Eh
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Input
P3IN
018h
Read only
Output
P3OUT
019h
Read/write
Unchanged
Direction
P3DIR
01Ah
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Port Select
P3SEL
01Bh
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Input
P4IN
01Ch
Read only
Output
P4OUT
01Dh
Read/write
Unchanged
Direction
P4DIR
01Eh
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Port Select
P4SEL
01Fh
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Input
P5IN
030h
Read only
Output
P5OUT
031h
Read/write
Unchanged
Direction
P5DIR
032h
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Port Select
P5SEL
033h
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Input
P6IN
034h
Read only
Output
P6OUT
035h
Read/write
Unchanged
Direction
P6DIR
036h
Read/write
Reset with PUC
Port Select
P6SEL
037h
Read/write
Reset with PUC
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
Initial State
−
−
−
−
−
−
Digital I/O
9-7
Chapter 10
+ The watchdog timer is a 16-bit timer that can be used as a watchdog or as an
interval timer. This chapter describes the watchdog timer. The watchdog timer
is implemented in all MSP430x1xx devices.
Topic
Page
10.1 Watchdog Timer Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
10.2 Watchdog Timer Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
10.2 Watchdog Timer Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
Watchdog Timer
10-1
Watchdog Timer Introduction
10.1 Watchdog Timer Introduction
The primary function of the watchdog timer (WDT) module is to perform a
controlled system restart after a software problem occurs. If the selected time
interval expires, a system reset is generated. If the watchdog function is not
needed in an application, the module can be configured as an interval timer
and can generate interrupts at selected time intervals.
Features of the watchdog timer module include:
- Four software-selectable time intervals
- Watchdog mode
- Interval mode
- Access to WDT control register is password protected
- Control of RST/NMI pin function
- Selectable clock source
- Can be stopped to conserve power
The WDT block diagram is shown in Figure 10−1.
Note: Watchdog Timer Powers Up Active
After a PUC, the WDT module is automatically configured in the watchdog
mode with an initial ~32-ms reset interval using the DCOCLK. The user must
setup or halt the WDT prior to the expiration of the initial reset interval.
10-2
Watchdog Timer
Watchdog Timer Introduction
Figure 10−1. Watchdog Timer Block Diagram
WDTCTL
4
Int.
Flag
MSB
Q6
0
Q9
WDTQn
Y
3
2
1
Q13
0
Q15
1
Pulse
Generator
MDB
1
16−bit
Counter
1
A
B
Password
Compare
0
16−bit
1
Clear
PUC
CLK
(Asyn)
0
EQU
Write Enable
Low Byte
EQU
SMCLK
1
WDTHOLD
ACLK
1
WDTNMIES
R/W
WDTNMI
A
EN
WDTTMSEL
WDTCNTCL
WDTSSEL
WDTIS1
WDTIS0
LSB
Watchdog Timer
10-3
Watchdog Timer Operation
10.2 Watchdog Timer Operation
The WDT module can be configured as either a watchdog or interval timer with
the WDTCTL register. The WDTCTL register also contains control bits to
configure the RST/NMI pin. WDTCTL is a 16-bit, password-protected,
read/write register. Any read or write access must use word instructions and
write accesses must include the write password 05Ah in the upper byte. Any
write to WDTCTL with any value other than 05Ah in the upper byte is a security
key violation and triggers a PUC system reset regardless of timer mode. Any
read of WDTCTL reads 069h in the upper byte.
10.2.1 Watchdog Timer Counter
The watchdog timer counter (WDTCNT) is a 16-bit up-counter that is not
directly accessible by software. The WDTCNT is controlled and time intervals
selected through the watchdog timer control register WDTCTL.
The WDTCNT can be sourced from ACLK or SMCLK. The clock source is
selected with the WDTSSEL bit.
10.2.2 Watchdog Mode
After a PUC condition, the WDT module is configured in the watchdog mode
with an initial ~32-ms reset interval using the DCOCLK. The user must setup,
halt, or clear the WDT prior to the expiration of the initial reset interval or
another PUC will be generated. When the WDT is configured to operate in
watchdog mode, either writing to WDTCTL with an incorrect password, or
expiration of the selected time interval triggers a PUC. A PUC resets the WDT
to its default condition and configures the RST/NMI pin to reset mode.
10.2.3 Interval Timer Mode
Setting the WDTTMSEL bit to 1 selects the interval timer mode. This mode can
be used to provide periodic interrupts. In interval timer mode, the WDTIFG flag
is set at the expiration of the selected time interval. A PUC is not generated
in interval timer mode at expiration of the selected timer interval and the
WDTIFG enable bit WDTIE remains unchanged.
When the WDTIE bit and the GIE bit are set, the WDTIFG flag requests an
interrupt. The WDTIFG interrupt flag is automatically reset when its interrupt
request is serviced, or may be reset by software. The interrupt vector address
in interval timer mode is different from that in watchdog mode.
Note: Modifying the Watchdog Timer
The WDT interval should be changed together with WDTCNTCL = 1 in a
single instruction to avoid an unexpected immediate PUC or interrupt.
The WDT should be halted before changing the clock source to avoid a
possible incorrect interval.
10-4
Watchdog Timer
Watchdog Timer Operation
10.2.4 Watchdog Timer Interrupts
The WDT uses two bits in the SFRs for interrupt control.
- The WDT interrupt flag, WDTIFG, located in IFG1.0
- The WDT interrupt enable, WDTIE, located in IE1.0
When using the WDT in the watchdog mode, the WDTIFG flag sources a reset
vector interrupt. The WDTIFG can be used by the reset interrupt service
routine to determine if the watchdog caused the device to reset. If the flag is
set, then the watchdog timer initiated the reset condition either by timing out
or by a security key violation. If WDTIFG is cleared, the reset was caused by
a different source.
When using the WDT in interval timer mode, the WDTIFG flag is set after the
selected time interval and requests a WDT interval timer interrupt if the WDTIE
and the GIE bits are set. The interval timer interrupt vector is different from the
reset vector used in watchdog mode. In interval timer mode, the WDTIFG flag
is reset automatically when the interrupt is serviced, or can be reset with
software.
Watchdog Timer
10-5
Watchdog Timer Operation
10.2.5 Operation in Low-Power Modes
The MSP430 devices have several low-power modes. Different clock signals
are available in different low-power modes. The requirements of the user’s
application and the type of clocking used determine how the WDT should be
configured. For example, the WDT should not be configured in watchdog
mode with SMCLK as its clock source if the user wants to use low-power mode
3 because SMCLK is not active in LPM3 and the WDT would not function.
When the watchdog timer is not required, the WDTHOLD bit can be used to
hold the WDTCNT, reducing power consumption.
10.2.6 Software Examples
Any write operation to WDTCTL must be a word operation with 05Ah
(WDTPW) in the upper byte:
; Periodically clear an active watchdog
MOV #WDTPW+WDTCNTCL,&WDTCTL
;
; Change watchdog timer interval
MOV #WDTPW+WDTCNTL+SSEL,&WDTCTL
;
; Stop the watchdog
MOV #WDTPW+WDTHOLD,&WDTCTL
;
; Change WDT to interval timer mode, clock/8192 interval
MOV #WDTPW+WDTCNTCL+WDTTMSEL+WDTIS0,&WDTCTL
10-6
Watchdog Timer
Watchdog Timer Registers
10.3 Watchdog Timer Registers
The watchdog timer module registers are listed in Table 10−1.
Table 10−1.Watchdog Timer Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
Watchdog timer control register
WDTCTL
Read/write
06900h with PUC
0120h
SFR interrupt enable register 1
IE1
Read/write
0000h
Reset with PUC
SFR interrupt flag register 1
IFG1
Read/write
0002h
Reset with PUC†
† WDTIFG is reset with POR
Watchdog Timer
10-7
Watchdog Timer Registers
WDTCTL, Watchdog Timer Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
1
0
Read as 069h
WDTPW, must be written as 05Ah
7
6
5
4
3
2
WDTHOLD
WDTNMIES
WDTNMI
WDTTMSEL
WDTCNTCL
WDTSSEL
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
r0(w)
rw−0
WDTISx
rw−0
rw−0
WDTPW
Bits
15-8
Watchdog timer password. Always read as 069h. Must be written as 05Ah, or
a PUC will be generated.
WDTHOLD
Bit 7
Watchdog timer hold. This bit stops the watchdog timer. Setting WDTHOLD
= 1 when the WDT is not in use conserves power.
0
Watchdog timer is not stopped
1
Watchdog timer is stopped
WDTNMIES
Bit 6
Watchdog timer NMI edge select. This bit selects the interrupt edge for the
NMI interrupt when WDTNMI = 1. Modifying this bit can trigger an NMI. Modify
this bit when WDTNMI = 0 to avoid triggering an accidental NMI.
0
NMI on rising edge
1
NMI on falling edge
WDTNMI
Bit 5
Watchdog timer NMI select. This bit selects the function for the RST/NMI pin.
0
Reset function
1
NMI function
WDTTMSEL Bit 4
Watchdog timer mode select
0
Watchdog mode
1
Interval timer mode
WDTCNTCL Bit 3
Watchdog timer counter clear. Setting WDTCNTCL = 1 clears the count value
to 0000h. WDTCNTCL is automatically reset.
0
No action
1
WDTCNT = 0000h
WDTSSEL
Bit 2
Watchdog timer clock source select
0
SMCLK
1
ACLK
WDTISx
Bits
1-0
Watchdog timer interval select. These bits select the watchdog timer interval
to set the WDTIFG flag and/or generate a PUC.
00 Watchdog clock source /32768
01 Watchdog clock source /8192
10 Watchdog clock source /512
11 Watchdog clock source /64
10-8
Watchdog Timer
Watchdog Timer Registers
IE1, Interrupt Enable Register 1
7
NMIIE
WDTIE
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
NMIIE
WDTIE
rw−0
rw−0
Bits
7-5
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
Bit 4
NMI interrupt enable. This bit enables the NMI interrupt. Because other bits
in IE1 may be used for other modules, it is recommended to set or clear this
bit using BIS.B or BIC.B instructions, rather than MOV.B or CLR.B
instructions.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
Bits
3-1
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
Bit 0
Watchdog timer interrupt enable. This bit enables the WDTIFG interrupt for
interval timer mode. It is not necessary to set this bit for watchdog mode.
Because other bits in IE1 may be used for other modules, it is recommended
to set or clear this bit using BIS.B or BIC.B instructions, rather than MOV.B
or CLR.B instructions.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
Watchdog Timer
10-9
Watchdog Timer Registers
IFG1, Interrupt Flag Register 1
7
NMIIFG
WDTIFG
10-10
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
NMIIFG
WDTIFG
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
Bits
7-5
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
Bit 4
NMI interrupt flag. NMIIFG must be reset by software. Because other bits in
IFG1 may be used for other modules, it is recommended to clear NMIIFG by
using BIS.B or BIC.B instructions, rather than MOV.B or CLR.B instructions.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
Bits
3-1
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
Bit 0
Watchdog timer interrupt flag. In watchdog mode, WDTIFG remains set until
reset by software. In interval mode, WDTIFG is reset automatically by
servicing the interrupt, or can be reset by software. Because other bits in IFG1
may be used for other modules, it is recommended to clear WDTIFG by using
BIS.B or BIC.B instructions, rather than MOV.B or CLR.B instructions.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
Watchdog Timer
Chapter 11
,)
Timer_A is a 16-bit timer/counter with three capture/compare registers. This
chapter describes Timer_A. Timer_A is implemented in all MSP430x1xx
devices.
Topic
Page
11.1 Timer_A Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
11.2 Timer_A Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
11.3 Timer_A Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19
Timer_A
11-1
Timer_A Introduction
11.1 Timer_A Introduction
Timer_A is a 16-bit timer/counter with three capture/compare registers.
Timer_A can support multiple capture/compares, PWM outputs, and interval
timing. Timer_A also has extensive interrupt capabilities. Interrupts may be
generated from the counter on overflow conditions and from each of the
capture/compare registers.
Timer_A features include:
- Asynchronous 16-bit timer/counter with four operating modes
- Selectable and configurable clock source
- Three configurable capture/compare registers
- Configurable outputs with PWM capability
- Asynchronous input and output latching
- Interrupt vector register for fast decoding of all Timer_A interrupts
The block diagram of Timer_A is shown in Figure 11−1.
Note: Use of the Word Count
Count is used throughout this chapter. It means the counter must be in the
process of counting for the action to take place. If a particular value is directly
written to the counter, then an associated action will not take place.
11-2
Timer_A
Timer_A Introduction
Figure 11−1. Timer_A Block Diagram
TASSELx
IDx
Timer Block
Timer Clock
MCx
15
TACLK
00
ACLK
01
SMCLK
10
INCLK
11
0
16−bit Timer
TAR
Divider
1/2/4/8
Count
Mode
RC
Clear
EQU0
Set TAIFG
TACLR
CCR0
CCR1
CCR2
CCISx
CMx
logic
COV
SCS
CCI2A
00
CCI2B
01
GND
10
VCC
11
Capture
Mode
Timer Clock
15
0
0
Sync
TACCR2
1
Comparator 2
CCI
EQU2
SCCI
Y
A
EN
CAP
0
1
Set TACCR2
CCIFG
OUT
EQU0
Output
Unit2
D Set Q
Timer Clock
OUT2 Signal
Reset
POR
OUTMODx
Timer_A
11-3
Timer_A Operation
11.2 Timer_A Operation
The Timer_A module is configured with user software. The setup and
operation of Timer_A is discussed in the following sections.
11.2.1 16-Bit Timer Counter
The 16-bit timer/counter register, TAR, increments or decrements (depending
on mode of operation) with each rising edge of the clock signal. TAR can be
read or written with software. Additionally, the timer can generate an interrupt
when it overflows.
TAR may be cleared by setting the TACLR bit. Setting TACLR also clears the
clock divider and count direction for up/down mode.
Note: Modifying Timer_A Registers
It is recommended to stop the timer before modifying its operation (with
exception of the interrupt enable, interrupt flag, and TACLR) to avoid errant
operating conditions.
When the timer clock is asynchronous to the CPU clock, any read from TAR
should occur while the timer is not operating or the results may be
unpredictable. Alternatively, the timer may be read multiple times while
operating, and a majority vote taken in software to determine the correct
reading. Any write to TAR will take effect immediately.
Clock Source Select and Divider
The timer clock can be sourced from ACLK, SMCLK, or externally via TACLK
or INCLK. The clock source is selected with the TASSELx bits. The selected
clock source may be passed directly to the timer or divided by 2, 4, or 8, using
the IDx bits. The clock divider is reset when TACLR is set.
11-4
Timer_A
Timer_A Operation
11.2.2 Starting the Timer
The timer may be started, or restarted in the following ways:
- The timer counts when MCx > 0 and the clock source is active.
- When the timer mode is either up or up/down, the timer may be stopped
by writing 0 to TACCR0. The timer may then be restarted by writing a
nonzero value to TACCR0. In this scenario, the timer starts incrementing
in the up direction from zero.
11.2.3 Timer Mode Control
The timer has four modes of operation as described in Table 11−1: stop, up,
continuous, and up/down. The operating mode is selected with the MCx bits.
Table 11−1. Timer Modes
MCx
Mode
Description
00
Stop
The timer is halted.
01
Up
The timer repeatedly counts from zero to the value of
TACCR0
10
Continuous
The timer repeatedly counts from zero to 0FFFFh.
11
Up/down
The timer repeatedly counts from zero up to the value of
TACCR0 and back down to zero.
Timer_A
11-5
Timer_A Operation
Up Mode
The up mode is used if the timer period must be different from 0FFFFh counts.
The timer repeatedly counts up to the value of compare register TACCR0,
which defines the period, as shown in Figure 11−2. The number of timer counts
in the period is TACCR0+1. When the timer value equals TACCR0 the timer
restarts counting from zero. If up mode is selected when the timer value is
greater than TACCR0, the timer immediately restarts counting from zero.
Figure 11−2. Up Mode
0FFFFh
TACCR0
0h
The TACCR0 CCIFG interrupt flag is set when the timer counts to the TACCR0
value. The TAIFG interrupt flag is set when the timer counts from TACCR0 to
zero. Figure 11−3 shows the flag set cycle.
Figure 11−3. Up Mode Flag Setting
Timer Clock
Timer
CCR0−1
CCR0
0h
1h
CCR0−1
CCR0
0h
Set TAIFG
Set TACCR0 CCIFG
Changing the Period Register TACCR0
When changing TACCR0 while the timer is running, if the new period is greater
than or equal to the old period, or greater than the current count value, the timer
counts up to the new period. If the new period is less than the current count
value, the timer rolls to zero. However, one additional count may occur before
the counter rolls to zero.
11-6
Timer_A
Timer_A Operation
Continuous Mode
In the continuous mode, the timer repeatedly counts up to 0FFFFh and restarts
from zero as shown in Figure 11−4. The capture/compare register TACCR0
works the same way as the other capture/compare registers.
Figure 11−4. Continuous Mode
0FFFFh
0h
The TAIFG interrupt flag is set when the timer counts from 0FFFFh to zero.
Figure 11−5 shows the flag set cycle.
Figure 11−5. Continuous Mode Flag Setting
Timer Clock
Timer
FFFEh
FFFFh
0h
1h
FFFEh
FFFFh
0h
Set TAIFG
Timer_A
11-7
Timer_A Operation
Use of the Continuous Mode
The continuous mode can be used to generate independent time intervals and
output frequencies. Each time an interval is completed, an interrupt is
generated. The next time interval is added to the TACCRx register in the
interrupt service routine. Figure 11−6 shows two separate time intervals t0 and
t1 being added to the capture/compare registers. In this usage, the time
interval is controlled by hardware, not software, without impact from interrupt
latency. Up to three independent time intervals or output frequencies can be
generated using all three capture/compare registers.
Figure 11−6. Continuous Mode Time Intervals
TACCR1b
TACCR0b
TACCR1c
TACCR0c
TACCR0d
0FFFFh
TACCR1d
TACCR1a
TACCR0a
t0
t0
t1
t0
t1
t1
Time intervals can be produced with other modes as well, where TACCR0 is
used as the period register. Their handling is more complex since the sum of
the old TACCRx data and the new period can be higher than the TACCR0
value. When the previous TACCRx value plus tx is greater than the TACCR0
data, the TACCR0 value must be subtracted to obtain the correct time interval.
11-8
Timer_A
Timer_A Operation
Up/Down Mode
The up/down mode is used if the timer period must be different from 0FFFFh
counts, and if symmetrical pulse generation is needed. The timer repeatedly
counts up to the value of compare register TACCR0 and back down to zero,
as shown in Figure 11−7. The period is twice the value in TACCR0.
Figure 11−7. Up/Down Mode
0FFFFh
TACCR0
0h
The count direction is latched. This allows the timer to be stopped and then
restarted in the same direction it was counting before it was stopped. If this is
not desired, the TACLR bit must be set to clear the direction. The TACLR bit
also clears the TAR value and the clock divider.
In up/down mode, the TACCR0 CCIFG interrupt flag and the TAIFG interrupt
flag are set only once during a period, separated by 1/2 the timer period. The
TACCR0 CCIFG interrupt flag is set when the timer counts from TACCR0−1
to TACCR0, and TAIFG is set when the timer completes counting down from
0001h to 0000h. Figure 11−8 shows the flag set cycle.
Figure 11−8. Up/Down Mode Flag Setting
Timer Clock
Timer
CCR0−1
CCR0
CCR0−1
CCR0−2
1h
0h
Up/Down
Set TAIFG
Set TACCR0 CCIFG
Timer_A
11-9
Timer_A Operation
Changing the Period Register TACCR0
When changing TACCR0 while the timer is running, and counting in the down
direction, the timer continues its descent until it reaches zero. The new period
takes affect after the counter counts down to zero.
When the timer is counting in the up direction, and the new period is greater
than or equal to the old period, or greater than the current count value, the timer
counts up to the new period before counting down. When the timer is counting
in the up direction, and the new period is less than the current count value, the
timer begins counting down. However, one additional count may occur before
the counter begins counting down.
Use of the Up/Down Mode
The up/down mode supports applications that require dead times between
output signals (See section Timer_A Output Unit). For example, to avoid
overload conditions, two outputs driving an H-bridge must never be in a high
state simultaneously. In the example shown in Figure 11−9 the tdead is:
tdead = ttimer × (TACCR1 − TACCR2)
With:
tdead
Time during which both outputs need to be inactive
ttimer
Cycle time of the timer clock
TACCRx Content of capture/compare register x
The TACCRx registers are not buffered. They update immediately when
written to. Therefore, any required dead time will not be maintained
automatically.
Figure 11−9. Output Unit in Up/Down Mode
0FFFFh
TACCR0
TACCR1
TACCR2
0h
Dead Time
Output Mode 6: Toggle/Set
Output Mode 2: Toggle/Reset
EQU1
EQU1
EQU1
EQU1
TAIFG
EQU0
EQU0
EQU2
EQU2 EQU2
EQU2
TAIFG
11-10
Timer_A
Interrupt Events
Timer_A Operation
11.2.4 Capture/Compare Blocks
Three identical capture/compare blocks, TACCRx, are present in Timer_A.
Any of the blocks may be used to capture the timer data, or to generate time
intervals.
Capture Mode
The capture mode is selected when CAP = 1. Capture mode is used to record
time events. It can be used for speed computations or time measurements.
The capture inputs CCIxA and CCIxB are connected to external pins or internal
signals and are selected with the CCISx bits. The CMx bits select the capture
edge of the input signal as rising, falling, or both. A capture occurs on the
selected edge of the input signal. If a capture occurs:
- The timer value is copied into the TACCRx register
- The interrupt flag CCIFG is set
The input signal level can be read at any time via the CCI bit. MSP430x1xx
family devices may have different signals connected to CCIxA and CCIxB.
Refer to the device-specific datasheet for the connections of these signals.
The capture signal can be asynchronous to the timer clock and cause a race
condition. Setting the SCS bit will synchronize the capture with the next timer
clock. Setting the SCS bit to synchronize the capture signal with the timer clock
is recommended. This is illustrated in Figure 11−10.
Figure 11−10.Capture Signal (SCS=1)
Timer Clock
Timer
n−2
n−1
n
n+1
n+2
n+3
n+4
CCI
Capture
Set TACCRx CCIFG
Overflow logic is provided in each capture/compare register to indicate if a
second capture was performed before the value from the first capture was
read. Bit COV is set when this occurs as shown in Figure 11−11. COV must
be reset with software.
Timer_A
11-11
Timer_A Operation
Figure 11−11. Capture Cycle
Idle
Capture
No
Capture
Taken
Capture Read
Read
Taken
Capture
Capture
Taken
Capture
Capture Read and No Capture
Capture
Clear Bit COV
in Register TACCTLx
Second
Capture
Taken
COV = 1
Idle
Capture
Capture Initiated by Software
Captures can be initiated by software. The CMx bits can be set for capture on
both edges. Software then sets CCIS1 = 1 and toggles bit CCIS0 to switch the
capture signal between VCC and GND, initiating a capture each time CCIS0
changes state:
MOV
XOR
#CAP+SCS+CCIS1+CM_3,&TACCTLx ; Setup TACCTLx
#CCIS0,&TACCTLx
; TACCTLx = TAR
Compare Mode
The compare mode is selected when CAP = 0. The compare mode is used to
generate PWM output signals or interrupts at specific time intervals. When
TAR counts to the value in a TACCRx:
- Interrupt flag CCIFG is set
- Internal signal EQUx = 1
- EQUx affects the output according to the output mode
- The input signal CCI is latched into SCCI
11-12
Timer_A
Timer_A Operation
11.2.5 Output Unit
Each capture/compare block contains an output unit. The output unit is used
to generate output signals such as PWM signals. Each output unit has eight
operating modes that generate signals based on the EQU0 and EQUx signals.
Output Modes
The output modes are defined by the OUTMODx bits and are described in
Table 11−2. The OUTx signal is changed with the rising edge of the timer clock
for all modes except mode 0. Output modes 2, 3, 6, and 7 are not useful for
output unit 0 because EQUx = EQU0.
Table 11−2. Output Modes
OUTMODx
Mode
Description
000
Output
The output signal OUTx is defined by the
OUTx bit. The OUTx signal updates
immediately when OUTx is updated.
001
Set
The output is set when the timer counts
to the TACCRx value. It remains set until
a reset of the timer, or until another
output mode is selected and affects the
output.
010
Toggle/Reset
The output is toggled when the timer
counts to the TACCRx value. It is reset
when the timer counts to the TACCR0
value.
011
Set/Reset
The output is set when the timer counts
to the TACCRx value. It is reset when the
timer counts to the TACCR0 value.
100
Toggle
The output is toggled when the timer
counts to the TACCRx value. The output
period is double the timer period.
101
Reset
The output is reset when the timer counts
to the TACCRx value. It remains reset
until another output mode is selected and
affects the output.
110
Toggle/Set
The output is toggled when the timer
counts to the TACCRx value. It is set
when the timer counts to the TACCR0
value.
111
Reset/Set
The output is reset when the timer counts
to the TACCRx value. It is set when the
timer counts to the TACCR0 value.
Timer_A
11-13
Timer_A Operation
Output Example—Timer in Up Mode
The OUTx signal is changed when the timer counts up to the TACCRx value,
and rolls from TACCR0 to zero, depending on the output mode. An example
is shown in Figure 11−12 using TACCR0 and TACCR1.
Figure 11−12.Output Example—Timer in Up Mode
0FFFFh
TACCR0
TACCR1
0h
Output Mode 1: Set
Output Mode 2: Toggle/Reset
Output Mode 3: Set/Reset
Output Mode 4: Toggle
Output Mode 5: Reset
Output Mode 6: Toggle/Set
Output Mode 7: Reset/Set
EQU0
TAIFG
11-14
Timer_A
EQU1
EQU0
TAIFG
EQU1
EQU0
TAIFG
Interrupt Events
Timer_A Operation
Output Example—Timer in Continuous Mode
The OUTx signal is changed when the timer reaches the TACCRx and
TACCR0 values, depending on the output mode. An example is shown in
Figure 11−13 using TACCR0 and TACCR1.
Figure 11−13.Output Example—Timer in Continuous Mode
0FFFFh
TACCR0
TACCR1
0h
Output Mode 1: Set
Output Mode 2: Toggle/Reset
Output Mode 3: Set/Reset
Output Mode 4: Toggle
Output Mode 5: Reset
Output Mode 6: Toggle/Set
Output Mode 7: Reset/Set
TAIFG
EQU1
EQU0 TAIFG
EQU1
EQU0
Interrupt Events
Timer_A
11-15
Timer_A Operation
Output Example—Timer in Up/Down Mode
The OUTx signal changes when the timer equals TACCRx in either count
direction and when the timer equals TACCR0, depending on the output mode.
An example is shown in Figure 11−14 using TACCR0 and TACCR2.
Figure 11−14.Output Example—Timer in Up/Down Mode
0FFFFh
TACCR0
TACCR2
0h
Output Mode 1: Set
Output Mode 2: Toggle/Reset
Output Mode 3: Set/Reset
Output Mode 4: Toggle
Output Mode 5: Reset
Output Mode 6: Toggle/Set
Output Mode 7: Reset/Set
TAIFG
EQU2
EQU2
EQU2
EQU2
TAIFG
EQU0
EQU0
Interrupt Events
Note: Switching Between Output Modes
When switching between output modes, one of the OUTMODx bits should
remain set during the transition, unless switching to mode 0. Otherwise,
output glitching can occur because a NOR gate decodes output mode 0. A
safe method for switching between output modes is to use output mode 7 as
a transition state:
BIS
BIC
11-16
Timer_A
#OUTMOD_7,&TACCTLx ; Set output mode=7
#OUTMODx,&TACCTLx ; Clear unwanted bits
Timer_A Operation
11.2.6 Timer_A Interrupts
Two interrupt vectors are associated with the 16-bit Timer_A module:
- TACCR0 interrupt vector for TACCR0 CCIFG
- TAIV interrupt vector for all other CCIFG flags and TAIFG
In capture mode any CCIFG flag is set when a timer value is captured in the
associated TACCRx register. In compare mode, any CCIFG flag is set if TAR
counts to the associated TACCRx value. Software may also set or clear any
CCIFG flag. All CCIFG flags request an interrupt when their corresponding
CCIE bit and the GIE bit are set.
TACCR0 Interrupt
The TACCR0 CCIFG flag has the highest Timer_A interrupt priority and has
a dedicated interrupt vector as shown in Figure 11−15. The TACCR0 CCIFG
flag is automatically reset when the TACCR0 interrupt request is serviced.
Figure 11−15.Capture/Compare TACCR0 Interrupt Flag
Capture
EQU0
CAP
D
Timer Clock
Set
CCIE
Q
IRQ, Interrupt Service Requested
Reset
IRACC, Interrupt Request Accepted
POR
TAIV, Interrupt Vector Generator
The TACCR1 CCIFG, TACCR2 CCIFG, and TAIFG flags are prioritized and
combined to source a single interrupt vector. The interrupt vector register TAIV
is used to determine which flag requested an interrupt.
The highest priority enabled interrupt generates a number in the TAIV register
(see register description). This number can be evaluated or added to the
program counter to automatically enter the appropriate software routine.
Disabled Timer_A interrupts do not affect the TAIV value.
Any access, read or write, of the TAIV register automatically resets the highest
pending interrupt flag. If another interrupt flag is set, another interrupt is
immediately generated after servicing the initial interrupt. For example, if the
TACCR1 and TACCR2 CCIFG flags are set when the interrupt service routine
accesses the TAIV register, TACCR1 CCIFG is reset automatically. After the
RETI instruction of the interrupt service routine is executed, the TACCR2
CCIFG flag will generate another interrupt.
Timer_A
11-17
Timer_A Operation
TAIV Software Example
The following software example shows the recommended use of TAIV and the
handling overhead. The TAIV value is added to the PC to automatically jump
to the appropriate routine.
The numbers at the right margin show the necessary CPU cycles for each
instruction. The software overhead for different interrupt sources includes
interrupt latency and return-from-interrupt cycles, but not the task handling
itself. The latencies are:
- Capture/compare block TACCR0
- Capture/compare blocks TACCR1, TACCR2
- Timer overflow TAIFG
11 cycles
16 cycles
14 cycles
; Interrupt handler for TACCR0 CCIFG.
Cycles
CCIFG_0_HND
;
...
; Start of handler Interrupt latency 6
RETI
5
; Interrupt handler for TAIFG, TACCR1 and TACCR2 CCIFG.
TA_HND
...
ADD
RETI
JMP
JMP
RETI
RETI
TAIFG_HND
...
RETI
11-18
Timer_A
;
&TAIV,PC
;
;
CCIFG_1_HND ;
CCIFG_2_HND ;
;
;
Interrupt latency
Add offset to Jump table
Vector 0: No interrupt
Vector 2: TACCR1
Vector 4: TACCR2
Vector 6: Reserved
Vector 8: Reserved
6
ā3
5
2
2
5
5
; Vector 10: TAIFG Flag
; Task starts here
5
CCIFG_2_HND
...
RETI
; Vector 4: TACCR2
; Task starts here
; Back to main program
5
CCIFG_1_HND
...
RETI
; Vector 2: TACCR1
; Task starts here
; Back to main program
5
Timer_A Registers
11.3 Timer_A Registers
The Timer_A registers are listed in Table 11−3:
Table 11−3. Timer_A Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
Timer_A control
TACTL
Read/write
0160h
Reset with POR
Timer_A counter
TAR
Read/write
0170h
Reset with POR
Timer_A capture/compare control 0
TACCTL0
Read/write
0162h
Reset with POR
Timer_A capture/compare 0
TACCR0
Read/write
0172h
Reset with POR
Timer_A capture/compare control 1
TACCTL1
Read/write
0164h
Reset with POR
Timer_A capture/compare 1
TACCR1
Read/write
0174h
Reset with POR
Timer_A capture/compare control 2
TACCTL 2
Read/write
0166h
Reset with POR
Timer_A capture/compare 2
TACCR2
Read/write
0176h
Reset with POR
Timer_A interrupt vector
TAIV
Read only
012Eh
Reset with POR
Timer_A
11-19
Timer_A Registers
TACTL, Timer_A Control Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Unused
8
TASSELx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Unused
TACLR
TAIE
TAIFG
rw−(0)
w−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
IDx
rw−(0)
MCx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
Unused
Bits
15-10
Unused
TASSELx
Bits
9-8
Timer_A clock source select
00 TACLK
01 ACLK
10 SMCLK
11 INCLK
IDx
Bits
7-6
Input divider. These bits select the divider for the input clock.
00 /1
01 /2
10 /4
11 /8
MCx
Bits
5-4
Mode control. Setting MCx = 00h when Timer_A is not in use conserves
power.
00 Stop mode: the timer is halted
01 Up mode: the timer counts up to TACCR0
10 Continuous mode: the timer counts up to 0FFFFh
11 Up/down mode: the timer counts up to TACCR0 then down to 0000h
Unused
Bit 3
Unused
TACLR
Bit 2
Timer_A clear. Setting this bit resets TAR, the clock divider, and the count
direction. The TACLR bit is automatically reset and is always read as zero.
TAIE
Bit 1
Timer_A interrupt enable. This bit enables the TAIFG interrupt request.
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
TAIFG
Bit 0
Timer_A interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
11-20
Timer_A
Timer_A Registers
TAR, Timer_A Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
TARx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
TARx
rw−(0)
TARx
rw−(0)
Bits
15-0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
Timer_A register. The TAR register is the count of Timer_A.
Timer_A
11-21
Timer_A Registers
TACCTLx, Capture/Compare Control Register
15
14
13
CMx
12
CCISx
11
10
9
8
SCS
SCCI
Unused
CAP
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
r
r0
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCIE
CCI
OUT
COV
CCIFG
rw−(0)
r
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
OUTMODx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
CMx
Bit
15-14
Capture mode
00 No capture
01 Capture on rising edge
10 Capture on falling edge
11 Capture on both rising and falling edges
CCISx
Bit
13-12
Capture/compare input select. These bits select the TACCRx input signal.
See the device-specific datasheet for specific signal connections.
00 CCIxA
01 CCIxB
10 GND
11 VCC
SCS
Bit 11
Synchronize capture source. This bit is used to synchronize the capture input
signal with the timer clock.
0
Asynchronous capture
1
Synchronous capture
SCCI
Bit 10
Synchronized capture/compare input. The selected CCI input signal is
latched with the EQUx signal and can be read via this bit
Unused
Bit 9
Unused. Read only. Always read as 0.
CAP
Bit 8
Capture mode
0
Compare mode
1
Capture mode
OUTMODx
Bits
7-5
Output mode. Modes 2, 3, 6, and 7 are not useful for TACCR0 because EQUx
= EQU0.
000 OUT bit value
001 Set
010 Toggle/reset
011 Set/reset
100 Toggle
101 Reset
110 Toggle/set
111 Reset/set
11-22
Timer_A
Timer_A Registers
CCIE
Bit 4
Capture/compare interrupt enable. This bit enables the interrupt request of
the corresponding CCIFG flag.
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
CCI
Bit 3
Capture/compare input. The selected input signal can be read by this bit.
OUT
Bit 2
Output. For output mode 0, this bit directly controls the state of the output.
0
Output low
1
Output high
COV
Bit 1
Capture overflow. This bit indicates a capture overflow occurred. COV must
be reset with software.
0
No capture overflow occurred
1
Capture overflow occurred
CCIFG
Bit 0
Capture/compare interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
TAIV, Timer_A Interrupt Vector Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
TAIVx
Bits
15-0
TAIVx
r−(0)
0
r−(0)
r−(0)
r0
Timer_A Interrupt Vector value
TAIV Contents
Interrupt Source
Interrupt
Priority
Interrupt Flag
00h
No interrupt pending
−
02h
Capture/compare 1
TACCR1 CCIFG
04h
Capture/compare 2
TACCR2 CCIFG
06h
Reserved
−
08h
Reserved
−
0Ah
Timer overflow
0Ch
Reserved
−
0Eh
Reserved
−
Highest
TAIFG
Lowest
Timer_A
11-23
Chapter 12
,
Timer_B is a 16-bit timer/counter with multiple capture/compare registers. This
chapter describes Timer_B. Timer_B3 (three capture/compare registers) is
implemented in MSP430x13x and MSP430x15x devices. Timer_B7 (seven
capture/compare registers) is implemented in MSP430x14x and
MSP430x16x devices.
Topic
Page
12.1 Timer_B Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
12.2 Timer_B Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
12.3 Timer_B Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-20
Timer_B
12-1
Timer_B Introduction
12.1 Timer_B Introduction
Timer_B is a 16-bit timer/counter with three or seven capture/compare
registers. Timer_B can support multiple capture/compares, PWM outputs, and
interval timing. Timer_B also has extensive interrupt capabilities. Interrupts
may be generated from the counter on overflow conditions and from each of
the capture/compare registers.
Timer_B features include :
- Asynchronous 16-bit timer/counter with four operating modes and four
selectable lengths
- Selectable and configurable clock source
- Three or seven configurable capture/compare registers
- Configurable outputs with PWM capability
- Double-buffered compare latches with synchronized loading
- Interrupt vector register for fast decoding of all Timer_B interrupts
The block diagram of Timer_B is shown in Figure 12−1.
Note: Use of the Word Count
Count is used throughout this chapter. It means the counter must be in the
process of counting for the action to take place. If a particular value is directly
written to the counter, then an associated action does not take place.
12.1.1 Similarities and Differences From Timer_A
Timer_B is identical to Timer_A with the following exceptions:
-
The length of Timer_B is programmable to be 8, 10, 12, or 16 bits.
- Timer_B TBCCRx registers are double-buffered and can be grouped.
- All Timer_B outputs can be put into a high-impedance state.
- The SCCI bit function is not implemented in Timer_B.
12-2
Timer_B
Timer_B Introduction
Figure 12−1. Timer_B Block Diagram
TBSSELx
IDx
Timer Block
Timer Clock
MCx
15
TBCLK
00
ACLK
01
SMCLK
10
Divider
1/2/4/8
0
16−bit Timer
RC
TBR
8 10 12 16
Clear
Count
Mode
EQU0
CNTLx
11
TBCLR
00
TBCLGRPx
01
Set TBIFG
10
Group
Load Logic
11
CCR0
CCR1
CCR2
CCR3
CCR4
CCR5
CCISx
CMx
logic
CCR6
COV
SCS
CCI6A
00
CCI6B
01
GND
10
VCC
11
Capture
Mode
15
Timer Clock
Sync
VCC
Load
Group
Load Logic
Compare Latch TBCL6
00
01
EQU0
UP/DOWN
TBCCR6
1
CLLDx
CCI
TBR=0
0
0
10
11
Comparator 6
CCR5
EQU6
CCR4
CAP
CCR1
0
1
Set TBCCR6
CCIFG
OUT
EQU0
Output
Unit6
D Set Q
Timer Clock
OUT6 Signal
Reset
POR
OUTMODx
Timer_B
12-3
Timer_B Operation
12.2 Timer_B Operation
The Timer_B module is configured with user software. The setup and
operation of Timer_B is discussed in the following sections.
12.2.1 16-Bit Timer Counter
The 16-bit timer/counter register, TBR, increments or decrements (depending
on mode of operation) with each rising edge of the clock signal. TBR can be
read or written with software. Additionally, the timer can generate an interrupt
when it overflows.
TBR may be cleared by setting the TBCLR bit. Setting TBCLR also clears the
clock divider and count direction for up/down mode.
Note: Modifying Timer_B Registers
It is recommended to stop the timer before modifying its operation (with
exception of the interrupt enable, interrupt flag, and TBCLR) to avoid errant
operating conditions.
When the timer clock is asynchronous to the CPU clock, any read from TBR
should occur while the timer is not operating or the results may be
unpredictable. Alternatively, the timer may be read multiple times while
operating, and a majority vote taken in software to determine the correct
reading. Any write to TBR will take effect immediately.
TBR Length
Timer_B is configurable to operate as an 8-, 10-, 12-, or 16-bit timer with the
CNTLx bits. The maximum count value, TBR(max), for the selectable lengths
is 0FFh, 03FFh, 0FFFh, and 0FFFFh, respectively. Data written to the TBR
register in 8-, 10-, and 12-bit mode is right-justified with leading zeros.
Clock Source Select and Divider
The timer clock can be sourced from ACLK, SMCLK, or externally via TBCLK
or INCLK. The clock source is selected with the TBSSELx bits. The selected
clock source may be passed directly to the timer or divided by 2,4, or 8, using
the IDx bits. The clock divider is reset when TBCLR is set.
12-4
Timer_B
Timer_B Operation
12.2.2 Starting the Timer
The timer may be started or restarted in the following ways:
- The timer counts when MCx > 0 and the clock source is active.
- When the timer mode is either up or up/down, the timer may be stopped
by loading 0 to TBCL0. The timer may then be restarted by loading a
nonzero value to TBCL0. In this scenario, the timer starts incrementing in
the up direction from zero.
12.2.3 Timer Mode Control
The timer has four modes of operation as described in Table 12−1: stop, up,
continuous, and up/down. The operating mode is selected with the MCx bits.
Table 12−1.Timer Modes
MCx
Mode
Description
00
Stop
The timer is halted.
01
Up
The timer repeatedly counts from zero to the value of
compare register TBCL0.
10
Continuous
The timer repeatedly counts from zero to the value
selected by the TBCNTLx bits.
11
Up/down
The timer repeatedly counts from zero up to the value of
TBCL0 and then back down to zero.
Timer_B
12-5
Timer_B Operation
Up Mode
The up mode is used if the timer period must be different from TBR(max) counts.
The timer repeatedly counts up to the value of compare latch TBCL0, which
defines the period, as shown in Figure 12−2. The number of timer counts in
the period is TBCL0+1. When the timer value equals TBCL0 the timer restarts
counting from zero. If up mode is selected when the timer value is greater than
TBCL0, the timer immediately restarts counting from zero.
Figure 12−2. Up Mode
TBR(max)
TBCL0
0h
The TBCCR0 CCIFG interrupt flag is set when the timer counts to the TBCL0
value. The TBIFG interrupt flag is set when the timer counts from TBCL0 to
zero. Figure 11−3 shows the flag set cycle.
Figure 12−3. Up Mode Flag Setting
Timer Clock
Timer
TBCL0−1
TBCL0
0h
1h
TBCL0−1
TBCL0
0h
Set TBIFG
Set TBCCR0 CCIFG
Changing the Period Register TBCL0
When changing TBCL0 while the timer is running and when the TBCL0 load
mode is immediate, if the new period is greater than or equal to the old period,
or greater than the current count value, the timer counts up to the new period.
If the new period is less than the current count value, the timer rolls to zero.
However, one additional count may occur before the counter rolls to zero.
12-6
Timer_B
Timer_B Operation
Continuous Mode
In continuous mode the timer repeatedly counts up to TBR(max) and restarts
from zero as shown in Figure 12−4. The compare latch TBCL0 works the same
way as the other capture/compare registers.
Figure 12−4. Continuous Mode
TBR(max)
0h
The TBIFG interrupt flag is set when the timer counts from TBR(max) to zero.
Figure 12−5 shows the flag set cycle.
Figure 12−5. Continuous Mode Flag Setting
Timer Clock
Timer
TBR (max)−1 TBR (max)
0h
1h
TBR (max)−1 TBR (max)
0h
Set TBIFG
Timer_B
12-7
Timer_B Operation
Use of the Continuous Mode
The continuous mode can be used to generate independent time intervals and
output frequencies. Each time an interval is completed, an interrupt is
generated. The next time interval is added to the TBCLx latch in the interrupt
service routine. Figure 12−6 shows two separate time intervals t0 and t1 being
added to the capture/compare registers. The time interval is controlled by
hardware, not software, without impact from interrupt latency. Up to three
(Timer_B3) or 7 (Timer_B7) independent time intervals or output frequencies
can be generated using capture/compare registers.
Figure 12−6. Continuous Mode Time Intervals
TBCL1b
TBCL0b
TBCL1c
TBCL0c
TBCL0d
TBR(max)
TBCL1a
TBCL1d
TBCL0a
0h
EQU0 Interrupt
EQU1 Interrupt
t0
t0
t1
t0
t1
t1
Time intervals can be produced with other modes as well, where TBCL0 is
used as the period register. Their handling is more complex since the sum of
the old TBCLx data and the new period can be higher than the TBCL0 value.
When the sum of the previous TBCLx value plus tx is greater than the TBCL0
data, the old TBCL0 value must be subtracted to obtain the correct time
interval.
12-8
Timer_B
Timer_B Operation
Up/Down Mode
The up/down mode is used if the timer period must be different from TBR(max)
counts, and if symmetrical pulse generation is needed. The timer repeatedly
counts up to the value of compare latch TBCL0, and back down to zero, as
shown in Figure 12−7. The period is twice the value in TBCL0.
Note: TBCL0 > TBR(max)
If TBCL0 > TBR(max), the counter operates as if it were configured for
continuous mode. It does not count down from TBR(max) to zero.
Figure 12−7. Up/Down Mode
TBCL0
0h
The count direction is latched. This allows the timer to be stopped and then
restarted in the same direction it was counting before it was stopped. If this is
not desired, the TBCLR bit must be used to clear the direction. The TBCLR bit
also clears the TBR value and the clock divider.
In up/down mode, the TBCCR0 CCIFG interrupt flag and the TBIFG interrupt
flag are set only once during the period, separated by 1/2 the timer period. The
TBCCR0 CCIFG interrupt flag is set when the timer counts from TBCL0−1 to
TBCL0, and TBIFG is set when the timer completes counting down from 0001h
to 0000h. Figure 12−8 shows the flag set cycle.
Figure 12−8. Up/Down Mode Flag Setting
Timer Clock
Timer
TBCL0−1
TBCL0
TBCL0−1 TBCL0−2
1h
0h
1h
Up/Down
Set TBIFG
Set TBCCR0 CCIFG
Timer_B
12-9
Timer_B Operation
Changing the Value of Period Register TBCL0
When changing TBCL0 while the timer is running, and counting in the down
direction, and when the TBCL0 load mode is immediate, the timer continues
its descent until it reaches zero. The new period takes effect after the counter
counts down to zero.
If the timer is counting in the up direction when the new period is latched into
TBCL0, and the new period is greater than or equal to the old period, or greater
than the current count value, the timer counts up to the new period before
counting down. When the timer is counting in the up direction, and the new
period is less than the current count value when TBCL0 is loaded, the timer
begins counting down. However, one additional count may occur before the
counter begins counting down.
Use of the Up/Down Mode
The up/down mode supports applications that require dead times between
output signals (see section Timer_B Output Unit). For example, to avoid
overload conditions, two outputs driving an H-bridge must never be in a high
state simultaneously. In the example shown in Figure 12−9 the tdead is:
tdead = ttimer × (TBCL1 − TBCL3)
With:
tdead
Time during which both outputs need to be inactive
ttimer
Cycle time of the timer clock
TBCLx Content of compare latch x
The ability to simultaneously load grouped compare latches assures the dead
times.
Figure 12−9. Output Unit in Up/Down Mode
TBR(max)
TBCL0
TBCL1
TBCL3
0h
Dead Time
Output Mode 6: Toggle/Set
Output Mode 2: Toggle/Reset
EQU1
EQU1
EQU1
EQU1
TBIFG
EQU0
EQU0
EQU3
EQU3 EQU3
EQU3
TBIFG
12-10
Timer_B
Interrupt Events
Timer_B Operation
12.2.4 Capture/Compare Blocks
Three or seven identical capture/compare blocks, TBCCRx, are present in
Timer_B. Any of the blocks may be used to capture the timer data or to
generate time intervals.
Capture Mode
The capture mode is selected when CAP = 1. Capture mode is used to record
time events. It can be used for speed computations or time measurements.
The capture inputs CCIxA and CCIxB are connected to external pins or internal
signals and are selected with the CCISx bits. The CMx bits select the capture
edge of the input signal as rising, falling, or both. A capture occurs on the
selected edge of the input signal. If a capture is performed:
- The timer value is copied into the TBCCRx register
- The interrupt flag CCIFG is set
The input signal level can be read at any time via the CCI bit. MSP430x1xx
family devices may have different signals connected to CCIxA and CCIxB.
Refer to the device-specific datasheet for the connections of these signals.
The capture signal can be asynchronous to the timer clock and cause a race
condition. Setting the SCS bit will synchronize the capture with the next timer
clock. Setting the SCS bit to synchronize the capture signal with the timer clock
is recommended. This is illustrated in Figure 12−10.
Figure 12−10. Capture Signal (SCS=1)
Timer Clock
Timer
n−2
n−1
n
n+1
n+2
n+3
n+4
CCI
Capture
Set TBCCRx CCIFG
Overflow logic is provided in each capture/compare register to indicate if a
second capture was performed before the value from the first capture was
read. Bit COV is set when this occurs as shown in Figure 12−11. COV must
be reset with software.
Timer_B
12-11
Timer_B Operation
Figure 12−11.Capture Cycle
Idle
Capture
No
Capture
Taken
Capture Read
Read
Taken
Capture
Capture
Taken
Capture
Capture Read and No Capture
Capture
Clear Bit COV
in Register TBCCTLx
Second
Capture
Taken
COV = 1
Idle
Capture
Capture Initiated by Software
Captures can be initiated by software. The CMx bits can be set for capture on
both edges. Software then sets bit CCIS1=1 and toggles bit CCIS0 to switch
the capture signal between VCC and GND, initiating a capture each time
CCIS0 changes state:
MOV
XOR
#CAP+SCS+CCIS1+CM_3,&TBCCTLx ; Setup TBCCTLx
#CCIS0,&TBCCTLx
; TBCCTLx = TBR
Compare Mode
The compare mode is selected when CAP = 0. Compare mode is used to
generate PWM output signals or interrupts at specific time intervals. When
TBR counts to the value in a TBCLx:
- Interrupt flag CCIFG is set
- Internal signal EQUx = 1
- EQUx affects the output according to the output mode
12-12
Timer_B
Timer_B Operation
Compare Latch TBCLx
The TBCCRx compare latch, TBCLx, holds the data for the comparison to the
timer value in compare mode. TBCLx is buffered by TBCCRx. The buffered
compare latch gives the user control over when a compare period updates.
The user cannot directly access TBCLx. Compare data is written to each
TBCCRx and automatically transferred to TBCLx. The timing of the transfer
from TBCCRx to TBCLx is user-selectable with the CLLDx bits as described
in Table 12−2.
Table 12−2.TBCLx Load Events
CLLDx
Description
00
New data is transferred from TBCCRx to TBCLx immediately when
TBCCRx is written to.
01
New data is transferred from TBCCRx to TBCLx when TBR counts to 0
10
New data is transferred from TBCCRx to TBCLx when TBR counts to 0
for up and continuous modes. New data is transferred to from TBCCRx
to TBCLx when TBR counts to the old TBCL0 value or to 0 for up/down
mode
11
New data is transferred from TBCCRx to TBCLx when TBR
counts to the old TBCLx value.
Grouping Compare Latches
Multiple compare latches may be grouped together for simultaneous updates
with the TBCLGRPx bits. When using groups, the CLLDx bits of the lowest
numbered TBCCRx in the group determine the load event for each compare
latch of the group, except when TBCLGRP = 3, as shown in Table 12−3. The
CLLDx bits of the controlling TBCCRx must not be set to zero. When the
CLLDx bits of the controlling TBCCRx are set to zero, all compare latches
update immediately when their corresponding TBCCRx is written - no
compare latches are grouped.
Two conditions must exist for the compare latches to be loaded when grouped.
First, all TBCCRx registers of the group must be updated, even when new
TBCCRx data = old TBCCRx data. Second, the load event must occur.
Table 12−3.Compare Latch Operating Modes
TBCLGRPx
Grouping
Update Control
00
None
Individual
01
TBCL1+TBCL2
TBCL3+TBCL4
TBCL5+TBCL6
TBCCR1
TBCCR3
TBCCR5
10
TBCL1+TBCL2+TBCL3
TBCL4+TBCL5+TBCL6
TBCCR1
TBCCR4
11
TBCL0+TBCL1+TBCL2+
TBCL3+TBCL4+TBCL5+TBCL6
TBCCR1
Timer_B
12-13
Timer_B Operation
12.2.5 Output Unit
Each capture/compare block contains an output unit. The output unit is used
to generate output signals such as PWM signals. Each output unit has eight
operating modes that generate signals based on the EQU0 and EQUx signals.
The TBOUTH pin function can be used to put all Timer_B outputs into a
high-impedance state. When the TBOUTH pin function is selected for the pin,
and when the pin is pulled high, all Timer_B outputs are in a high-impedance
state.
Output Modes
The output modes are defined by the OUTMODx bits and are described in
Table 12−4. The OUTx signal is changed with the rising edge of the timer clock
for all modes except mode 0. Output modes 2, 3, 6, and 7 are not useful for
output unit 0 because EQUx = EQU0.
Table 12−4.Output Modes
12-14
Timer_B
OUTMODx
Mode
Description
000
Output
The output signal OUTx is defined by the
OUTx bit. The OUTx signal updates
immediately when OUTx is updated.
001
Set
The output is set when the timer counts
to the TBCLx value. It remains set until a
reset of the timer, or until another output
mode is selected and affects the output.
010
Toggle/Reset
The output is toggled when the timer
counts to the TBCLx value. It is reset
when the timer counts to the TBCL0
value.
011
Set/Reset
The output is set when the timer counts
to the TBCLx value. It is reset when the
timer counts to the TBCL0 value.
100
Toggle
The output is toggled when the timer
counts to the TBCLx value. The output
period is double the timer period.
101
Reset
The output is reset when the timer counts
to the TBCLx value. It remains reset until
another output mode is selected and
affects the output.
110
Toggle/Set
The output is toggled when the timer
counts to the TBCLx value. It is set when
the timer counts to the TBCL0 value.
111
Reset/Set
The output is reset when the timer counts
to the TBCLx value. It is set when the
timer counts to the TBCL0 value.
Timer_B Operation
Output Example—Timer in Up Mode
The OUTx signal is changed when the timer counts up to the TBCLx value, and
rolls from TBCL0 to zero, depending on the output mode. An example is shown
in Figure 12−12 using TBCL0 and TBCL1.
Figure 12−12. Output Example—Timer in Up Mode
TBR(max)
TBCL0
TBCL1
0h
Output Mode 1: Set
Output Mode 2: Toggle/Reset
Output Mode 3: Set/Reset
Output Mode 4: Toggle
Output Mode 5: Reset
Output Mode 6: Toggle/Set
Output Mode 7: Reset/Set
EQU0
TBIFG
EQU1
EQU0
TBIFG
EQU1
EQU0
TBIFG
Interrupt Events
Timer_B
12-15
Timer_B Operation
Output Example—Timer in Continuous Mode
The OUTx signal is changed when the timer reaches the TBCLx and TBCL0
values, depending on the output mode, An example is shown in Figure 12−13
using TBCL0 and TBCL1.
Figure 12−13. Output Example—Timer in Continuous Mode
TBR(max)
TBCL0
TBCL1
0h
Output Mode 1: Set
Output Mode 2: Toggle/Reset
Output Mode 3: Set/Reset
Output Mode 4: Toggle
Output Mode 5: Reset
Output Mode 6: Toggle/Set
Output Mode 7: Reset/Set
TBIFG
12-16
Timer_B
EQU1
EQU0 TBIFG
EQU1
EQU0
Interrupt Events
Timer_B Operation
Output Example − Timer in Up/Down Mode
The OUTx signal changes when the timer equals TBCLx in either count
direction and when the timer equals TBCL0, depending on the output mode.
An example is shown in Figure 12−14 using TBCL0 and TBCL3.
Figure 12−14. Output Example—Timer in Up/Down Mode
TBR(max)
TBCL0
TBCL3
0h
Output Mode 1: Set
Output Mode 2: Toggle/Reset
Output Mode 3: Set/Reset
Output Mode 4: Toggle
Output Mode 5: Reset
Output Mode 6: Toggle/Set
Output Mode 7: Reset/Set
TBIFG
EQU3
EQU3
EQU3
EQU3
TBIFG
EQU0
EQU0
Interrupt Events
Note: Switching Between Output Modes
When switching between output modes, one of the OUTMODx bits should
remain set during the transition, unless switching to mode 0. Otherwise,
output glitching can occur because a NOR gate decodes output mode 0. A
safe method for switching between output modes is to use output mode 7 as
a transition state:
BIS
BIC
#OUTMOD_7,&TBCCTLx ; Set output mode=7
#OUTMODx,&TBCCTLx ; Clear unwanted bits
Timer_B
12-17
Timer_B Operation
12.2.6 Timer_B Interrupts
Two interrupt vectors are associated with the 16-bit Timer_B module:
- TBCCR0 interrupt vector for TBCCR0 CCIFG
- TBIV interrupt vector for all other CCIFG flags and TBIFG
In capture mode, any CCIFG flag is set when a timer value is captured in the
associated TBCCRx register. In compare mode, any CCIFG flag is set when
TBR counts to the associated TBCLx value. Software may also set or clear any
CCIFG flag. All CCIFG flags request an interrupt when their corresponding
CCIE bit and the GIE bit are set.
TBCCR0 Interrupt Vector
The TBCCR0 CCIFG flag has the highest Timer_B interrupt priority and has
a dedicated interrupt vector as shown in Figure 12−15. The TBCCR0 CCIFG
flag is automatically reset when the TBCCR0 interrupt request is serviced.
Figure 12−15. Capture/Compare TBCCR0 Interrupt Flag
Capture
EQU0
CAP
D
Timer Clock
Set
CCIE
Q
IRQ, Interrupt Service Requested
Reset
IRACC, Interrupt Request Accepted
POR
TBIV, Interrupt Vector Generator
The TBIFG flag and TBCCRx CCIFG flags (excluding TBCCR0 CCIFG) are
prioritized and combined to source a single interrupt vector. The interrupt
vector register TBIV is used to determine which flag requested an interrupt.
The highest priority enabled interrupt (excluding TBCCR0 CCIFG) generates
a number in the TBIV register (see register description). This number can be
evaluated or added to the program counter to automatically enter the
appropriate software routine. Disabled Timer_B interrupts do not affect the
TBIV value.
Any access, read or write, of the TBIV register automatically resets the highest
pending interrupt flag. If another interrupt flag is set, another interrupt is
immediately generated after servicing the initial interrupt. For example, if the
TBCCR1 and TBCCR2 CCIFG flags are set when the interrupt service routine
accesses the TBIV register, TBCCR1 CCIFG is reset automatically. After the
RETI instruction of the interrupt service routine is executed, the TBCCR2
CCIFG flag will generate another interrupt.
12-18
Timer_B
Timer_B Operation
TBIV, Interrupt Handler Examples
The following software example shows the recommended use of TBIV and the
handling overhead. The TBIV value is added to the PC to automatically jump
to the appropriate routine.
The numbers at the right margin show the necessary CPU clock cycles for
each instruction. The software overhead for different interrupt sources
includes interrupt latency and return-from-interrupt cycles, but not the task
handling itself. The latencies are:
- Capture/compare block CCR0
- Capture/compare blocks CCR1 to CCR6
- Timer overflow TBIFG
11 cycles
16 cycles
14 cycles
The following software example shows the recommended use of TBIV for
Timer_B3.
; Interrupt handler for TBCCR0 CCIFG.
Cycles
CCIFG_0_HND
...
; Start of handler Interrupt latency 6
RETI
5
; Interrupt handler for TBIFG, TBCCR1 and TBCCR2 CCIFG.
TB_HND
...
; Interrupt latency
ADD
&TBIV,PC
; Add offset to Jump table
RETI
; Vector 0: No interrupt
JMP
CCIFG_1_HND ; Vector 2: Module 1
JMP
CCIFG_2_HND ; Vector 4: Module 2
RETI
; Vector 6
RETI
; Vector 8
RETI
; Vector 10
RETI
; Vector 12
TBIFG_HND
...
RETI
CCIFG_2_HND
...
RETI
6
ā3
5
2
2
; Vector 14: TIMOV Flag
; Task starts here
5
; Vector 4: Module 2
; Task starts here
; Back to main program
5
; The Module 1 handler shows a way to look if any other
; interrupt is pending: 5 cycles have to be spent, but
; 9 cycles may be saved if another interrupt is pending
CCIFG_1_HND
; Vector 6: Module 3
...
; Task starts here
JMP
TB_HND
; Look for pending ints
2
Timer_B
12-19
Timer_B Registers
12.3 Timer_B Registers
The Timer_B registers are listed in Table 12−5:
Table 12−5.Timer_B Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
Timer_B control
TBCTL
Read/write
0180h
Reset with POR
Timer_B counter
TBR
Read/write
0190h
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare control 0
TBCCTL0
Read/write
0182h
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare 0
TBCCR0
Read/write
0192h
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare control 1
TBCCTL1
Read/write
0184h
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare 1
TBCCR1
Read/write
0194h
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare control 2
TBCCTL 2
Read/write
0186h
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare 2
TBCCR2
Read/write
0196h
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare control 3
TBCCTL3
Read/write
0188h
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare 3
TBCCR3
Read/write
0198h
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare control 4
TBCCTL4
Read/write
018Ah
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare 4
TBCCR4
Read/write
019Ah
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare control 5
TBCCTL5
Read/write
018Ch
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare 5
TBCCR5
Read/write
019Ch
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare control 6
TBCCTL6
Read/write
018Eh
Reset with POR
Timer_B capture/compare 6
TBCCR6
Read/write
019Eh
Reset with POR
Timer_B Interrupt Vector
TBIV
Read only
011Eh
Reset with POR
12-20
Timer_B
Timer_B Registers
Timer_B Control Register TBCTL
15
14
Unused
13
12
TBCLGRPx
11
CNTLx
10
9
Unused
8
TBSSELx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Unused
TBCLR
TBIE
TBIFG
rw−(0)
w−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
IDx
rw−(0)
MCx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
Unused
Bit 15
Unused
TBCLGRP
Bit
14-13
TBCLx group
00 Each TBCLx latch loads independently
01 TBCL1+TBCL2 (TBCCR1 CLLDx bits control the update)
TBCL3+TBCL4 (TBCCR3 CLLDx bits control the update)
TBCL5+TBCL6 (TBCCR5 CLLDx bits control the update)
TBCL0 independent
10 TBCL1+TBCL2+TBCL3 (TBCCR1 CLLDx bits control the update)
TBCL4+TBCL5+TBCL6 (TBCCR4 CLLDx bits control the update)
TBCL0 independent
11 TBCL0+TBCL1+TBCL2+TBCL3+TBCL4+TBCL5+TBCL6
(TBCCR1 CLLDx bits control the update)
CNTLx
Bits
12-11
Counter Length
00 16-bit, TBR(max) = 0FFFFh
01 12-bit, TBR(max) = 0FFFh
10 10-bit, TBR(max) = 03FFh
11 8-bit, TBR(max) = 0FFh
Unused
Bit 10
Unused
TBSSELx
Bits
9-8
Timer_B clock source select.
00 TBCLK
01 ACLK
10 SMCLK
11 Inverted TBCLK
IDx
Bits
7-6
Input divider. These bits select the divider for the input clock.
00 /1
01 /2
10 /4
11 /8
MCx
Bits
5-4
Mode control. Setting MCx = 00h when Timer_B is not in use conserves
power.
00 Stop mode: the timer is halted
01 Up mode: the timer counts up to TBCL0
10 Continuous mode: the timer counts up to the value set by TBCNTLx
11 Up/down mode: the timer counts up to TBCL0 and down to 0000h
Timer_B
12-21
Timer_B Registers
Unused
Bit 3
Unused
TBCLR
Bit 2
Timer_B clear. Setting this bit resets TBR, the clock divider, and the count
direction. The TBCLR bit is automatically reset and is always read as zero.
TBIE
Bit 1
Timer_B interrupt enable. This bit enables the TBIFG interrupt request.
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
TBIFG
Bit 0
Timer_B interrupt flag.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
TBR, Timer_B Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
TBRx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
TBRx
rw−(0)
TBRx
12-22
rw−(0)
Bits
15-0
Timer_B
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
Timer_B register. The TBR register is the count of Timer_B.
Timer_B Registers
TBCCTLx, Capture/Compare Control Register
15
14
13
CMx
12
CCISx
11
10
SCS
9
CLLDx
8
CAP
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CCIE
CCI
OUT
COV
CCIFG
rw−(0)
r
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
OUTMODx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
CMx
Bit
15-14
Capture mode
00 No capture
01 Capture on rising edge
10 Capture on falling edge
11 Capture on both rising and falling edges
CCISx
Bit
13-12
Capture/compare input select. These bits select the TBCCRx input signal.
See the device-specific datasheet for specific signal connections.
00 CCIxA
01 CCIxB
10 GND
11 VCC
SCS
Bit 11
Synchronize capture source. This bit is used to synchronize the capture input
signal with the timer clock.
0
Asynchronous capture
1
Synchronous capture
CLLDx
Bit
10-9
Compare latch load. These bits select the compare latch load event.
00 TBCLx loads on write to TBCCRx
01 TBCLx loads when TBR counts to 0
10 TBCLx loads when TBR counts to 0 (up or continuous mode)
TBCLx loads when TBR counts to TBCL0 or to 0 (up/down mode)
11 TBCLx loads when TBR counts to TBCLx
CAP
Bit 8
Capture mode
0
Compare mode
1
Capture mode
OUTMODx
Bits
7-5
Output mode. Modes 2, 3, 6, and 7 are not useful for TBCL0 because EQUx
= EQU0.
000 OUT bit value
001 Set
010 Toggle/reset
011 Set/reset
100 Toggle
101 Reset
110 Toggle/set
111 Reset/set
Timer_B
12-23
Timer_B Registers
CCIE
Bit 4
Capture/compare interrupt enable. This bit enables the interrupt request of
the corresponding CCIFG flag.
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
CCI
Bit 3
Capture/compare input. The selected input signal can be read by this bit.
OUT
Bit 2
Output. For output mode 0, this bit directly controls the state of the output.
0
Output low
1
Output high
COV
Bit 1
Capture overflow. This bit indicates a capture overflow occurred. COV must
be reset with software.
0
No capture overflow occurred
1
Capture overflow occurred
CCIFG
Bit 0
Capture/compare interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
12-24
Timer_B
Timer_B Registers
TBIV, Timer_B Interrupt Vector Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
TBIVx
Bits
15-0
TBIVx
r−(0)
0
r−(0)
r−(0)
r0
Timer_B interrupt vector value
TBIV Contents
Interrupt Source
00h
No interrupt pending
02h
Capture/compare 1
Interrupt
Priority
Interrupt Flag
−
TBCCR1 CCIFG
04h
Capture/compare 2
TBCCR2 CCIFG
06h
Capture/compare 3†
TBCCR3 CCIFG
08h
Capture/compare 4†
TBCCR4 CCIFG
0Ah
Capture/compare 5†
TBCCR5 CCIFG
0Ch
Capture/compare 6†
TBCCR6 CCIFG
0Eh
Timer overflow
TBIFG
Highest
Lowest
† MSP430x14x, MSP430x16x devices only
Timer_B
12-25
Chapter 13
!) " - !)
The universal synchronous/asynchronous receive/transmit (USART)
peripheral interface supports two serial modes with one hardware module.
This chapter discusses the operation of the asynchronous UART mode.
USART0 is implemented on the MSP430x12xx, MSP430x13xx, and
MSP430x15x devices. In addition to USART0, the MSP430x14x and
MSP430x16x devices implement a second identical USART module,
USART1.
Topic
Page
13.1 USART Introduction: UART Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
13.2 USART Operation: UART Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
13.3 USART Registers: UART Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-1
USART Introduction: UART Mode
13.1 USART Introduction: UART Mode
In asynchronous mode, the USART connects the MSP430 to an external
system via two external pins, URXD and UTXD. UART mode is selected when
the SYNC bit is cleared.
UART mode features include:
- 7- or 8-bit data with odd, even, or non-parity
- Independent transmit and receive shift registers
- Separate transmit and receive buffer registers
- LSB-first data transmit and receive
- Built-in
idle-line and
multiprocessor systems
address-bit
communication
protocols
for
- Receiver start-edge detection for auto-wake up from LPMx modes
- Programmable baud rate with modulation for fractional baud rate support
- Status flags for error detection and suppression and address detection
- Independent interrupt capability for receive and transmit
Figure 13−1 shows the USART when configured for UART mode.
13-2
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
USART Introduction: UART Mode
Figure 13−1. USART Block Diagram: UART Mode
SWRST URXEx* URXEIE URXWIE
SYNC= 0
URXIFGx*
Receive Control
FE PE OE BRK
Receive Status
Receiver Buffer UxRXBUF
LISTEN
0
RXERR
RXWAKE
MM
1
Receiver Shift Register
1
SSEL1 SSEL0
SP
CHAR
PEV
0
PENA
UCLKS
UCLKI
00
ACLK
01
SMCLK
10
SMCLK
11
SYNC
1
SOMI
0
1
URXD
0
Baud−Rate Generator
STE
Prescaler/Divider UxBRx
Modulator UxMCTL
SP
CHAR
PEV
UTXD
PENA
1
WUT
Transmit Shift Register
TXWAKE
Transmit Buffer UxTXBUF
1
SIMO
0
0
UTXIFGx*
Transmit Control
SYNC CKPH CKPL
SWRST UTXEx*
TXEPT
STC
UCLKI
UCLK
Clock Phase and Polarity
* Refer to the device-specific datasheet for SFR locations
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-3
USART Operation: UART Mode
13.2 USART Operation: UART Mode
In UART mode, the USART transmits and receives characters at a bit rate
asynchronous to another device. Timing for each character is based on the
selected baud rate of the USART. The transmit and receive functions use the
same baud rate frequency.
13.2.1 USART Initialization and Reset
The USART is reset by a PUC or by setting the SWRST bit. After a PUC, the
SWRST bit is automatically set, keeping the USART in a reset condition. When
set, the SWRST bit resets the URXIEx, UTXIEx, URXIFGx, RXWAKE,
TXWAKE, RXERR, BRK, PE, OE, and FE bits and sets the UTXIFGx and
TXEPT bits. The receive and transmit enable flags, URXEx and UTXEx, are
not altered by SWRST. Clearing SWRST releases the USART for operation.
See also chapter USART Module, I2C mode for USART0 when reconfiguring
from I2C mode to UART mode.
Note: Initializing or Re-Configuring the USART Module
The required USART initialization/re-configuration process is:
1) Set SWRST (BIS.B
#SWRST,&UxCTL)
2) Initialize all USART registers with SWRST = 1 (including UxCTL)
3) Enable USART module via the MEx SFRs (URXEx and/or UTXEx)
4) Clear SWRST via software (BIC.B
#SWRST,&UxCTL)
5) Enable interrupts (optional) via the IEx SFRs (URXIEx and/or UTXIEx)
Failure to follow this process may result in unpredictable USART behavior.
13.2.2 Character Format
The UART character format, shown in Figure 13−2, consists of a start bit,
seven or eight data bits, an even/odd/no parity bit, an address bit (address-bit
mode), and one or two stop bits. The bit period is defined by the selected clock
source and setup of the baud rate registers.
Figure 13−2. Character Format
Mark
ST
D0
D6
D7 AD PA
SP SP
Space
[2nd Stop Bit, SP = 1]
[Parity Bit, PENA = 1]
[Address Bit, MM = 1]
[Optional Bit, Condition]
13-4
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
[8th Data Bit, CHAR = 1]
USART Operation: UART Mode
13.2.3 Asynchronous Communication Formats
When two devices communicate asynchronously, the idle-line format is used
for the protocol. When three or more devices communicate, the USART
supports the idle-line and address-bit multiprocessor communication formats.
Idle-Line Multiprocessor Format
When MM = 0, the idle-line multiprocessor format is selected. Blocks of data
are separated by an idle time on the transmit or receive lines as shown in
Figure 13−3. An idle receive line is detected when 10 or more continuous ones
(marks) are received after the first stop bit of a character. When two stop bits
are used for the idle line the second stop bit is counted as the first mark bit of
the idle period.
The first character received after an idle period is an address character. The
RXWAKE bit is used as an address tag for each block of characters. In the
idle-line multiprocessor format, this bit is set when a received character is an
address and is transferred to UxRXBUF.
Figure 13−3. Idle-Line Format
Blocks of
Characters
UTXDx/URXDx
Idle Periods of 10 Bits or More
UTXDx/URXDx Expanded
UTXDx/URXDx
ST
Address
SP ST
First Character Within Block
Is Address. It Follows Idle
Period of 10 Bits or More
Data
SP
Character Within Block
ST
Data
SP
Character Within Block
Idle Period Less Than 10 Bits
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-5
USART Operation: UART Mode
The URXWIE bit is used to control data reception in the idle-line
multiprocessor format. When the URXWIE bit is set, all non-address
characters are assembled but not transferred into the UxRXBUF, and
interrupts are not generated. When an address character is received, the
receiver is temporarily activated to transfer the character to UxRXBUF and
sets the URXIFGx interrupt flag. Any applicable error flag is also set. The user
can then validate the received address.
If an address is received, user software can validate the address and must
reset URXWIE to continue receiving data. If URXWIE remains set, only
address characters will be received. The URXWIE bit is not modified by the
USART hardware automatically.
For address transmission in idle-line multiprocessor format, a precise idle
period can be generated by the USART to generate address character
identifiers on UTXDx. The wake-up temporary (WUT) flag is an internal flag
double-buffered with the user-accessible TXWAKE bit. When the transmitter
is loaded from UxTXBUF, WUT is also loaded from TXWAKE resetting the
TXWAKE bit.
The following procedure sends out an idle frame to indicate an address
character will follow:
1) Set TXWAKE, then write any character to UxTXBUF. UxTXBUF must be
ready for new data (UTXIFGx = 1).
The TXWAKE value is shifted to WUT and the contents of UxTXBUF are
shifted to the transmit shift register when the shift register is ready for new
data. This sets WUT, which suppresses the start, data, and parity bits of a
normal transmission, then transmits an idle period of exactly 11 bits. When
two stop bits are used for the idle line, the second stop bit is counted as the
first mark bit of the idle period. TXWAKE is reset automatically.
2) Write desired address character to UxTXBUF. UxTXBUF must be ready
for new data (UTXIFGx = 1).
The new character representing the specified address is shifted out
following the address-identifying idle period on UTXDx. Writing the first
“don’t care” character to UxTXBUF is necessary in order to shift the
TXWAKE bit to WUT and generate an idle-line condition. This data is
discarded and does not appear on UTXDx.
13-6
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
USART Operation: UART Mode
Address-Bit Multiprocessor Format
When MM = 1, the address-bit multiprocessor format is selected. Each
processed character contains an extra bit used as an address indicator shown
in Figure 13−4. The first character in a block of characters carries a set
address bit which indicates that the character is an address. The USART
RXWAKE bit is set when a received character is a valid address character and
is transferred to UxRXBUF.
The URXWIE bit is used to control data reception in the address-bit
multiprocessor format. If URXWIE is set, data characters (address bit = 0) are
assembled by the receiver but are not transferred to UxRXBUF and no
interrupts are generated. When a character containing a set address bit is
received, the receiver is temporarily activated to transfer the character to
UxRXBUF and set URXIFGx. All applicable error status flags are also set.
If an address is received, user software must reset URXWIE to continue
receiving data. If URXWIE remains set, only address characters (address bit
= 1) will be received. The URXWIE bit is not modified by the USART hardware
automatically.
Figure 13−4. Address-Bit Multiprocessor Format
Blocks of
Characters
UTXDx/URXDx
Idle Periods of No Significance
UTXDx/URXDx
Expanded
UTXDx/URXDx
ST
Address
1 SP ST
First Character Within Block
Is an Address. AD Bit Is 1
Data
0
SP
ST
Data
0 SP
AD Bit Is 0 for
Data Within Block.
Idle Time Is of No Significance
For address transmission in address-bit multiprocessor mode, the address bit
of a character can be controlled by writing to the TXWAKE bit. The value of the
TXWAKE bit is loaded into the address bit of the character transferred from
UxTXBUF to the transmit shift register, automatically clearing the TXWAKE bit.
TXWAKE must not be cleared by software. It is cleared by USART hardware
after it is transferred to WUT or by setting SWRST.
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-7
USART Operation: UART Mode
Automatic Error Detection
Glitch suppression prevents the USART from being accidentally started. Any
low-level on URXDx shorter than the deglitch time tτ (approximately 300 ns)
will be ignored. See the device-specific datasheet for parameters.
When a low period on URXDx exceeds tτ a majority vote is taken for the start
bit. If the majority vote fails to detect a valid start bit the USART halts character
reception and waits for the next low period on URXDx. The majority vote is also
used for each bit in a character to prevent bit errors.
The USART module automatically detects framing errors, parity errors,
overrun errors, and break conditions when receiving characters. The bits FE,
PE, OE, and BRK are set when their respective condition is detected. When
any of these error flags are set, RXERR is also set. The error conditions are
described in Table 13−1.
Table 13−1.Receive Error Conditions
Error Condition
Framing error
Description
A framing error occurs when a low stop bit is
detected. When two stop bits are used, only the first
stop bit is checked for framing error. When a
framing error is detected, the FE bit is set.
A parity error is a mismatch between the number of
1s in a character and the value of the parity bit.
When an address bit is included in the character, it
Parity error
is included in the parity calculation. When a parity
error is detected, the PE bit is set.
An overrun error occurs when a character is loaded
Receive overrun error into UxRXBUF before the prior character has been
read. When an overrun occurs, the OE bit is set.
A break condition is a period of 10 or more low bits
received on URXDx after a missing stop bit. When a
break condition is detected, the BRK bit is set. A
Break condition
break condition can also set the interrupt flag
URXIFGx.
When URXEIE = 0 and a framing error, parity error, or break condition is
detected, no character is received into UxRXBUF. When URXEIE = 1,
characters are received into UxRXBUF and any applicable error bit is set.
When any of the FE, PE, OE, BRK, or RXERR bits is set, the bit remains set
until user software resets it or UxRXBUF is read.
13-8
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
USART Operation: UART Mode
13.2.4 USART Receive Enable
The receive enable bit, URXEx, enables or disables data reception on URXDx
as shown in Figure 13−5. Disabling the USART receiver stops the receive
operation following completion of any character currently being received or
immediately if no receive operation is active. The receive-data buffer,
UxRXBUF, contains the character moved from the RX shift register after the
character is received.
Figure 13−5. State Diagram of Receiver Enable
No Valid Start Bit
URXEx = 0
URXEx = 1
Receive
Disable
URXEx = 0
Not Completed
Idle State
(Receiver
Enabled)
URXEx = 1
Valid Start Bit
URXEx = 1
Receiver
Collects
Character
Handle Interrupt
Conditions
Character
Received
URXEx = 0
Note: Re-Enabling the Receiver (Setting URXEx): UART Mode
When the receiver is disabled (URXEx = 0), re-enabling the receiver (URXEx
= 1) is asynchronous to any data stream that may be present on URXDx at
the time. Synchronization can be performed by testing for an idle line
condition before receiving a valid character (see URXWIE).
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-9
USART Operation: UART Mode
13.2.5 USART Transmit Enable
When UTXEx is set, the UART transmitter is enabled. Transmission is initiated
by writing data to UxTXBUF. The data is then moved to the transmit shift
register on the next BITCLK after the TX shift register is empty, and
transmission begins. This process is shown in Figure 13−6.
When the UTXEx bit is reset the transmitter is stopped. Any data moved to
UxTXBUF and any active transmission of data currently in the transmit shift
register prior to clearing UTXEx will continue until all data transmission is
completed.
Figure 13−6. State Diagram of Transmitter Enable
UTXEx = 0
UTXEx = 1
Transmit
Disable
UTXEx = 0
No Data Written
to Transmit Buffer
Idle State
(Transmitter
Enabled)
UTXEx = 1
Data Written to
Transmit Buffer
UTXEx = 1
Not Completed
Transmission
Active
Handle Interrupt
Conditions
Character
Transmitted
UTXEx = 0 And Last Buffer Entry Is Transmitted
When the transmitter is enabled (UTXEx = 1), data should not be written to
UxTXBUF unless it is ready for new data indicated by UTXIFGx = 1. Violation
can result in an erroneous transmission if data in UxTXBUF is modified as it
is being moved into the TX shift register.
It is recommended that the transmitter be disabled (UTXEx = 0) only after any
active transmission is complete. This is indicated by a set transmitter empty
bit (TXEPT = 1). Any data written to UxTXBUF while the transmitter is disabled
will be held in the buffer but will not be moved to the transmit shift register or
transmitted. Once UTXEx is set, the data in the transmit buffer is immediately
loaded into the transmit shift register and character transmission resumes.
13-10
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
USART Operation: UART Mode
13.2.6 UART Baud Rate Generation
The USART baud rate generator is capable of producing standard baud rates
from non-standard source frequencies. The baud rate generator uses one
prescaler/divider and a modulator as shown in Figure 13−7. This combination
supports fractional divisors for baud rate generation. The maximum USART
baud rate is one-third the UART source clock frequency BRCLK.
Figure 13−7. MSP430 Baud Rate Generator
SSEL1 SSEL0 N = 215
28
...
27
UxBR1
UCLKI
00
ACLK
01
SMCLK
10
SMCLK
11
20
...
UxBR0
8
8
BRCLK
16−Bit Counter
............
Q15
R
Q0
Toggle
FF
R
+0 or 1 Compare (0 or 1)
BITCLK
Modulation Data Shift Register R
(LSB first)
mX
8
m7
m0
Bit Start
UxMCTL
Timing for each bit is shown in Figure 13−8. For each bit received, a majority
vote is taken to determine the bit value. These samples occur at the N/2−1,
N/2, and N/2+1 BRCLK periods, where N is the number of BRCLKs per
BITCLK.
Figure 13−8. BITCLK Baud Rate Timing
Majority Vote:
(m= 0)
(m= 1)
Bit Start
BRCLK
Counter
N/2
N/2−1 N/2−2
1
N/2
1
0
N/2−1 N/2−2
N/2
N/2−1
1
N/2
N/2−1
1
0
N/2
BITCLK
NEVEN: INT(N/2)
INT(N/2) + m(= 0)
NODD : INT(N/2) + R(= 1)
INT(N/2) + m(= 1)
Bit Period
m: corresponding modulation bit
R: Remainder from N/2 division
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-11
USART Operation: UART Mode
Baud Rate Bit Timing
The first stage of the baud rate generator is the 16-bit counter and comparator.
At the beginning of each bit transmitted or received, the counter is loaded with
INT(N/2) where N is the value stored in the combination of UxBR0 and UxBR1.
The counter reloads INT(N/2) for each bit period half-cycle, giving a total bit
period of N BRCLKs. For a given BRCLK clock source, the baud rate used
determines the required division factor N:
N=
BRCLK
baud rate
The division factor N is often a non-integer value of which the integer portion
can be realized by the prescaler/divider. The second stage of the baud rate
generator, the modulator, is used to meet the fractional part as closely as
possible. The factor N is then defined as:
n*1
N + UxBR ) 1
n S mi
i+0
Where:
N:
UxBR:
i:
n:
mi :
Target division factor
16-bit representation of registers UxBR0 and UxBR1
Bit position in the character
Total number of bits in the character
Data of each corresponding modulation bit (1 or 0)
BRCLK
Baud rate + BRCLK +
n–1
N
UxBR ) 1 ȍ m
n
i
i+0
The BITCLK can be adjusted from bit to bit with the modulator to meet timing
requirements when a non-integer divisor is needed. Timing of each bit is
expanded by one BRCLK clock cycle if the modulator bit mi is set. Each time
a bit is received or transmitted, the next bit in the modulation control register
determines the timing for that bit. A set modulation bit increases the division
factor by one while a cleared modulation bit maintains the division factor given
by UxBR.
The timing for the start bit is determined by UxBR plus m0, the next bit is
determined by UxBR plus m1, and so on. The modulation sequence begins
with the LSB. When the character is greater than 8 bits, the modulation
sequence restarts with m0 and continues until all bits are processed.
Determining the Modulation Value
Determining the modulation value is an interactive process. Using the timing
error formula provided, beginning with the start bit , the individual bit errors are
calculated with the corresponding modulator bit set and cleared. The
modulation bit setting with the lower error is selected and the next bit error is
calculated. This process is continued until all bit errors are minimized. When
a character contains more than 8 bits, the modulation bits repeat. For example,
the 9th bit of a character uses modulation bit 0.
13-12
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
USART Operation: UART Mode
Transmit Bit Timing
The timing for each character is the sum of the individual bit timings. By
modulating each bit, the cumulative bit error is reduced. The individual bit error
can be calculated by:
NJ
Error [%] + baud rate
BRCLK
ƪ( j ) 1 )
j
ƫ
UxBR ) S m i * ( j ) 1 )
i+0
Nj
100%
With:
baud rate: Desired baud rate
BRCLK: Input frequency − UCLKI, ACLK, or SMCLK
j:
Bit position - 0 for the start bit, 1 for data bit D0, and so on
UxBR:
Division factor in registers UxBR1 and UxBR0
For example, the transmit errors for the following conditions are calculated:
Baud rate =
BRCLK =
UxBR =
UxMCTL =
ǒ
2400
32,768 Hz (ACLK)
13, since the ideal division factor is 13.65
6Bh: m7 = 0, m6 = 1, m5 = 1, m4 = 0, m3 = 1, m2 = 0,
m1 = 1, and m0= 1. The LSB of UxMCTL is used first.
Ǔ
Start bit Error [%] + baud rate ((0 ) 1) UxBR ) 1)–1
100% + 2.54%
BRCLK
100% + 5.08%
Data bit D0 Error [%] + baud rate ((1 ) 1) UxBR ) 2)–2
BRCLK
ǒ
Ǔ
Data bit D1 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate ((2 ) 1) UxBR ) 2)–3Ǔ
BRCLK
Data bit D2 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate ((3 ) 1) UxBR ) 3)–4Ǔ
BRCLK
baud
rate ((4 ) 1) UxBR ) 3)–5Ǔ
Data bit D3 Error [%] + ǒ
BRCLK
Data bit D4 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate ((5 ) 1) UxBR ) 4)–6Ǔ
BRCLK
Data bit D5 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate ((6 ) 1) UxBR ) 5)–7Ǔ
BRCLK
Data bit D6 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate ((7 ) 1) UxBR ) 5)–8Ǔ
BRCLK
Data bit D7 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate ((8 ) 1) UxBR ) 6)–9Ǔ
BRCLK
Parity bit Error [%] + ǒbaud rate ((9 ) 1) UxBR ) 7)–10Ǔ
BRCLK
Stop bit 1 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate ((10 ) 1) UxBR ) 7)–11Ǔ
BRCLK
100% + 0.29%
100% + 2.83%
100% +*1.95%
100% + 0.59%
100% + 3.13%
100% + *1.66%
100% + 0.88%
100% + 3.42%
100% + *1.37%
The results show the maximum per-bit error to be 5.08% of a BITCLK period.
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-13
USART Operation: UART Mode
Receive Bit Timing
Receive timing consists of two error sources. The first is the bit-to-bit timing
error. The second is the error between a start edge occurring and the start
edge being accepted by the USART. Figure 13−9 shows the asynchronous
timing errors between data on the URXDx pin and the internal baud-rate clock.
Figure 13−9. Receive Error
i
0
1
tideal
t0
t1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2
9 10 11 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
BRCLK
URXDx
ST
D0
D1
URXDS
ST
D0
D1
tactual
Sample
URXDS
t0
Synchronization Error ± 0.5x BRCLK
Int(UxBR/2)+m0 =
Int (13/2)+1 = 6+1 = 7
t1
t2
UxBR +m1 = 13+1 = 14
Majority Vote Taken
UxBR +m2 = 13+0 = 13
Majority Vote Taken
Majority Vote Taken
The ideal start bit timing tideal(0) is half the baud-rate timing tbaud rate because
the bit is tested in the middle of its period. The ideal baud rate timing tideal(i) for
the remaining character bits is the baud rate timing tbaud rate. The individual bit
errors can be calculated by:
ȡ
ȧ
Ȣ
Error [%] + baud rate
BRCLK
NJ
2
Ǔƫ ) ǒ i
ƪm0 ) int ǒUxBR
2
j
UxBR ) S m i
i+1
ǓNj * 1 * j Ǔ
Where:
baud rate is the required baud rate
BRCLK is the input frequency—selected for UCLK, ACLK, or SMCLK
j = 0 for the start bit, 1 for data bit D0, and so on
UxBR is the division factor in registers UxBR1 and UxBR0
13-14
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
100%
USART Operation: UART Mode
For example, the receive errors for the following conditions are calculated:
Baud rate = 2400
BRCLK =
32,768 Hz (ACLK)
UxBR =
13, since the ideal division factor is 13.65
UxMCTL = 6B:m7 = 0, m6 = 1, m5 = 1, m4 = 0, m3 = 1, m2 = 0, m1 = 1 and
m0 = 1 The LSB of UxMCTL is used first.
ǒ
Start bit Error [%] + baud rate
BRCLK
[2x(1 ) 6) ) (0
Ǔ
UxBR ) 0)] * 1 * 0
ǒ
[2x(1 ) 6) ) (1
Data bit D1 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate [2x(1 ) 6) ) (2
BRCLK
Data bit D2 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate [2x(1 ) 6) ) (3
BRCLK
Data bit D3 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate [2x(1 ) 6) ) (4
BRCLK
Data bit D4 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate [2x(1 ) 6) ) (5
BRCLK
Data bit D5 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate [2x(1 ) 6) ) (6
BRCLK
Data bit D6 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate [2x(1 ) 6) ) (7
BRCLK
baud
rate [2x(1 ) 6) ) (8
Data bit D7 Error [%] + ǒ
BRCLK
Parity bit Error [%] + ǒbaud rate [2x(1 ) 6) ) (9
BRCLK
Stop bit 1 Error [%] + ǒbaud rate [2x(1 ) 6) ) (10
BRCLK
Data bit D0 Error [%] + baud rate
BRCLK
100% + 2.54%
Ǔ 100% + 5.08%
UxBR ) 1)]–1–2Ǔ 100% + 0.29%
UxBR ) 2)]–1–3Ǔ 100% + 2.83%
UxBR ) 2)]–1–4Ǔ 100% + –1.95%
UxBR ) 3)]–1–5Ǔ 100% + 0.59%
UxBR ) 4)]–1–6Ǔ 100% + 3.13%
UxBR ) 4)]–1–7Ǔ 100% + –1.66%
UxBR ) 5)]–1–8Ǔ 100% + 0.88%
UxBR ) 6)]–1–9Ǔ 100% + 3.42%
UxBR ) 6)]–1–10Ǔ 100% + –1.37%
UxBR ) 1)]–1–1
The results show the maximum per-bit error to be 5.08% of a BITCLK period.
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-15
USART Operation: UART Mode
Typical Baud Rates and Errors
Standard baud rate frequency data for UxBRx and UxMCTL are listed in
Table 13−2 for a 32,768-Hz watch crystal (ACLK) and a typical 1,048,576-Hz
SMCLK.
The receive error is the accumulated time versus the ideal scanning time in the
middle of each bit. The transmit error is the accumulated timing error versus
the ideal time of the bit period.
Table 13−2.Commonly Used Baud Rates, Baud Rate Data, and Errors
Divide by
Baud
Rate
A: BRCLK = 32,768 Hz
UxBR0
UxMCTL
B: BRCLK = 1,048,576 Hz
Max.
TX
Error %
Max.
RX
Error %
Synchr.
RX
Error %
UxBR1
A:
B:
UxBR1
1200
27.31
873.81
0
1B
03
−4/3
− 4/3
±2
2400
13.65
436.91
0
0D
6B
− 6/3
− 6/3
±4
4800
6.83
218.45
0
06
6F
− 9/11
− 9/11
9600
3.41
109.23
0
03
4A
− 21/12
− 21/12
Max.
TX
Error %
Max.
RX
Error %
UxBR0
UxMCTL
03
69
FF
0/0.3
±2
01
B4
FF
0/0.3
±2
±7
0
DA
55
0/0.4
±2
± 15
0
6D
03
−0.4/1
±2
19,200
54.61
0
36
6B
−0.2/2
±2
38,400
27.31
0
1B
03
− 4/3
±2
76,800
13.65
0
0D
6B
− 6/3
±4
115,200
9.1
0
09
08
− 5/7
±7
13-16
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
USART Operation: UART Mode
13.2.7 USART Interrupts
The USART has one interrupt vector for transmission and one interrupt vector
for reception.
USART Transmit Interrupt Operation
The UTXIFGx interrupt flag is set by the transmitter to indicate that UxTXBUF
is ready to accept another character. An interrupt request is generated if
UTXIEx and GIE are also set. UTXIFGx is automatically reset if the interrupt
request is serviced or if a character is written to UxTXBUF.
UTXIFGx is set after a PUC or when SWRST = 1. UTXIEx is reset after a PUC
or when SWRST = 1. The operation is shown is Figure 13−10.
Figure 13−10. Transmit Interrupt Operation
Q
UTXIEx
Clear
PUC or SWRST
VCC
Character Moved From
Buffer to Shift Register
D
Set UTXIFGx
Q
Clear
Interrupt Service Requested
SWRST
Data written to UxTXBUF
IRQA
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-17
USART Operation: UART Mode
USART Receive Interrupt Operation
The URXIFGx interrupt flag is set each time a character is received and loaded
into UxRXBUF. An interrupt request is generated if URXIEx and GIE are also
set. URXIFGx and URXIEx are reset by a system reset PUC signal or when
SWRST = 1. URXIFGx is automatically reset if the pending interrupt is served
(when URXSE = 0) or when UxRXBUF is read. The operation is shown in
Figure 13−11.
Figure 13−11.Receive Interrupt Operation
SYNC
Valid Start Bit
URXS
S
Receiver Collects Character
URXSE
From URXD
τ
Clear
Erroneous Character Rejection
PE
FE
BRK
URXIEx
URXEIE
Interrupt Service
Requested
S
URXIFGx
Clear
URXWIE
RXWAKE
Non-Address Character Rejection
Character Received
or
Break Detected
SWRST
PUC
UxRXBUF Read
URXSE
IRQA
URXEIE is used to enable or disable erroneous characters from setting
URXIFGx. When using multiprocessor addressing modes, URXWIE is used
to auto-detect valid address characters and reject unwanted data characters.
Two types of characters do not set URXIFGx:
- Erroneous characters when URXEIE = 0
- Non-address characters when URXWIE = 1
When URXEIE = 1 a break condition will set the BRK bit and the URXIFGx flag.
13-18
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
USART Operation: UART Mode
Receive-Start Edge Detect Operation
The URXSE bit enables the receive start-edge detection feature. The
recommended usage of the receive-start edge feature is when BRCLK is
sourced by the DCO and when the DCO is off because of low-power mode
operation. The ultra-fast turn-on of the DCO allows character reception after
the start edge detection.
When URXSE, URXIEx and GIE are set and a start edge occurs on URXDx,
the internal signal URXS will be set. When URXS is set, a receive interrupt
request is generated but URXIFGx is not set. User software in the receive
interrupt service routine can test URXIFGx to determine the source of the
interrupt. When URXIFGx = 0 a start edge was detected and when URXIFGx
= 1 a valid character (or break) was received.
When the ISR determines the interrupt request was from a start edge, user
software toggles URXSE, and must enable the BRCLK source by returning
from the ISR to active mode or to a low-power mode where the source is active.
If the ISR returns to a low-power mode where the BRCLK source is inactive,
the character will not be received. Toggling URXSE clears the URXS signal
and re-enables the start edge detect feature for future characters. See chapter
System Resets, Interrupts, and Operating Modes for information on entering
and exiting low-power modes.
The now active BRCLK allows the USART to receive the balance of the
character. After the full character is received and moved to UxRXBUF,
URXIFGx is set and an interrupt service is again requested. Upon ISR entry,
URXIFGx = 1 indicating a character was received. The URXIFGx flag is
cleared when user software reads UxRXBUF.
; Interrupt handler for start condition and
; Character receive. BRCLK = DCO.
U0RX_Int BIT.B #URXIFG0,&IFG2
JNE
ST_COND
MOV.B &UxRXBUF,dst
...
RETI
ST_COND
; Test URXIFGx to determine
; If start or character
; Read buffer
;
;
BIC.B #URXSE,&U0TCTL ; Clear URXS signal
BIS.B #URXSE,&U0TCTL ; Re-enable edge detect
BIC
#SCG0+SCG1,0(SP) ; Enable BRCLK = DCO
RETI
;
Note: Break Detect With Halted UART Clock
When using the receive start-edge detect feature a break condition cannot
be detected when the BRCLK source is off.
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-19
USART Operation: UART Mode
Receive-Start Edge Detect Conditions
When URXSE = 1, glitch suppression prevents the USART from being
accidentally started. Any low-level on URXDx shorter than the deglitch time tτ
(approximately 300 ns) will be ignored by the USART and no interrupt request
will be generated as shown in Figure 13−12. See the device-specific
datasheet for parameters.
Figure 13−12. Glitch Suppression, USART Receive Not Started
URXDx
URXS
tτ
When a glitch is longer than tτ, or a valid start bit occurs on URXDx, the USART
receive operation is started and a majority vote is taken as shown in
Figure 13−13. If the majority vote fails to detect a start bit the USART halts
character reception.
If character reception is halted, an active BRCLK is not necessary. A time-out
period longer than the character receive duration can be used by software to
indicate that a character was not received in the expected time and the
software can disable BRCLK.
Figure 13−13. Glitch Suppression, USART Activated
Majority Vote Taken
URXDx
URXS
tτ
13-20
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
USART Registers: UART Mode
13.3 USART Registers: UART Mode
Table 13−3 lists the registers for all devices implementing a USART module.
Table 13−4 applies only to devices with a second USART module, USART1.
Table 13−3.USART0 Control and Status Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
USART control register
U0CTL
Read/write
001h with PUC
070h
Transmit control register
U0TCTL
Read/write
071h
001h with PUC
Receive control register
U0RCTL
Read/write
072h
000h with PUC
Modulation control register
U0MCTL
Read/write
073h
Unchanged
Baud rate control register 0
U0BR0
Read/write
074h
Unchanged
Baud rate control register 1
U0BR1
Read/write
075h
Unchanged
Receive buffer register
U0RXBUF
Read
076h
Unchanged
Transmit buffer register
U0TXBUF
Read/write
077h
Unchanged
SFR module enable register 1†
ME1
Read/write
004h
000h with PUC
SFR interrupt enable register 1†
IE1
Read/write
000h
000h with PUC
SFR interrupt flag register 1†
IFG1
Read/write
002h
082h with PUC
† Does not apply to ’12xx devices. Refer to the register definitions for registers and bit positions for these devices.
Table 13−4.USART1 Control and Status Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
USART control register
U1CTL
Read/write
078h
001h with PUC
Transmit control register
U1TCTL
Read/write
079h
001h with PUC
Receive control register
U1RCTL
Read/write
07Ah
000h with PUC
Modulation control register
U1MCTL
Read/write
07Bh
Unchanged
Baud rate control register 0
U1BR0
Read/write
07Ch
Unchanged
Baud rate control register 1
U1BR1
Read/write
07Dh
Unchanged
Receive buffer register
U1RXBUF
Read
07Eh
Unchanged
Transmit buffer register
U1TXBUF
Read/write
07Fh
Unchanged
SFR module enable register 2
ME2
Read/write
005h
000h with PUC
SFR interrupt enable register 2
IE2
Read/write
001h
000h with PUC
SFR interrupt flag register 2
IFG2
Read/write
003h
020h with PUC
Note: Modifying SFR bits
To avoid modifying control bits of other modules, it is recommended to set
or clear the IEx and IFGx bits using BIS.B or BIC.B instructions, rather than
MOV.B or CLR.B instructions.
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-21
USART Registers: UART Mode
UxCTL, USART Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PENA
PEV
SPB
CHAR
LISTEN
SYNC
MM
SWRST
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−1
PENA
Bit 7
Parity enable
0
Parity disabled.
1
Parity enabled. Parity bit is generated (UTXDx) and expected
(URXDx). In address-bit multiprocessor mode, the address bit is
included in the parity calculation.
PEV
Bit 6
Parity select. PEV is not used when parity is disabled.
0
Odd parity
1
Even parity
SPB
Bit 5
Stop bit select. Number of stop bits transmitted. The receiver always
checks for one stop bit.
0
One stop bit
1
Two stop bits
CHAR
Bit 4
Character length. Selects 7-bit or 8-bit character length.
0
7-bit data
1
8-bit data
LISTEN
Bit 3
Listen enable. The LISTEN bit selects loopback mode.
0
Disabled
1
Enabled. UTXDx is internally fed back to the receiver.
SYNC
Bit 2
Synchronous mode enable
0
UART mode
1
SPI Mode
MM
Bit 1
Multiprocessor mode select
0
Idle-line multiprocessor protocol
1
Address-bit multiprocessor protocol
SWRST
Bit 0
Software reset enable
0
Disabled. USART reset released for operation
1
Enabled. USART logic held in reset state
13-22
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
USART Registers: UART Mode
UxTCTL, USART Transmit Control Register
7
6
Unused
CKPL
rw−0
rw−0
5
4
SSELx
rw−0
3
2
1
0
URXSE
TXWAKE
Unused
TXEPT
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−1
rw−0
Unused
Bit 7
Unused
CKPL
Bit 6
Clock polarity select
0
UCLKI = UCLK
1
UCLKI = inverted UCLK
SSELx
Bits
5-4
Source select. These bits select the BRCLK source clock.
00 UCLKI
01 ACLK
10 SMCLK
11 SMCLK
URXSE
Bit 3
UART receive start-edge. The bit enables the UART receive start-edge
feature.
0
Disabled
1
Enabled
TXWAKE
Bit 2
Transmitter wake
0
Next character transmitted is data
1
Next character transmitted is an address
Unused
Bit 1
Unused
TXEPT
Bit 0
Transmitter empty flag
0
UART is transmitting data and/or data is waiting in UxTXBUF
1
Transmitter shift register and UxTXBUF are empty or SWRST=1
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-23
USART Registers: UART Mode
UxRCTL, USART Receive Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FE
PE
OE
BRK
URXEIE
URXWIE
RXWAKE
RXERR
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
FE
Bit 7
Framing error flag
0
No error
1
Character received with low stop bit
PE
Bit 6
Parity error flag. When PENA = 0, PE is read as 0.
0
No error
1
Character received with parity error
OE
Bit 5
Overrun error flag. This bit is set when a character is transferred into
UxRXBUF before the previous character was read.
0
No error
1
Overrun error occurred
BRK
Bit 4
Break detect flag
0
No break condition
1
Break condition occurred
URXEIE
Bit 3
Receive erroneous-character interrupt-enable
0
Erroneous characters rejected and URXIFGx is not set
1
Erroneous characters received will set URXIFGx
URXWIE
Bit 2
Receive wake-up interrupt-enable. This bit enables URXIFGx to be set
when an address character is received. When URXEIE = 0, an address
character will not set URXIFGx if it is received with errors.
0
All received characters set URXIFGx
1
Only received address characters set URXIFGx
RXWAKE
Bit 1
Receive wake-up flag
0
Received character is data
1
Received character is an address
RXERR
Bit 0
Receive error flag. This bit indicates a character was received with error(s).
When RXERR = 1, on or more error flags (FE,PE,OE, BRK) is also set.
RXERR is cleared when UxRXBUF is read.
0
No receive errors detected
1
Receive error detected
13-24
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
USART Registers: UART Mode
UxBR0, USART Baud Rate Control Register 0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
UxBR1, USART Baud Rate Control Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
215
214
213
212
211
210
29
28
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
The valid baud-rate control range is 3 ≤ UxBR < 0FFFFh, where UxBR =
{UxBR1+UxBR0}. Unpredictable receive and transmit timing occurs if
UxBR <3.
UxBRx
UxMCTL, USART Modulation Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
m7
m6
m5
m4
m3
m2
m1
m0
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
UxMCTLx
Bits
7−0
Modulation bits. These bits select the modulation for BRCLK.
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-25
USART Registers: UART Mode
UxRXBUF, USART Receive Buffer Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
UxRXBUFx
Bits
7−0
The receive-data buffer is user accessible and contains the last received
character from the receive shift register. Reading UxRXBUF resets the
receive-error bits, the RXWAKE bit, and URXIFGx. In 7-bit data mode,
UxRXBUF is LSB justified and the MSB is always reset.
UxTXBUF, USART Transmit Buffer Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
UxTXBUFx
13-26
Bits
7−0
The transmit data buffer is user accessible and holds the data waiting to be
moved into the transmit shift register and transmitted on UTXDx. Writing to
the transmit data buffer clears UTXIFGx. The MSB of UxTXBUF is not
used for 7-bit data and is reset.
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
USART Registers: UART Mode
ME1, Module Enable Register 1
7
6
UTXE0†
URXE0†
rw−0
rw−0
5
4
3
2
1
0
UTXE0†
Bit 7
USART0 transmit enable. This bit enables the transmitter for USART0.
0
Module not enabled
1
Module enabled
URXE0†
Bit 6
USART0 receive enable. This bit enables the receiver for USART0.
0
Module not enabled
1
Module enabled
Bits
5-0
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
† Does not apply to MSP430x12xx devices. See ME2 for the MSP430x12xx USART0 module enable bits
ME2, Module Enable Register 2
7
6
5
4
UTXE1
rw−0
3
2
1
0
URXE1
UTXE0‡
URXE0‡
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
Bits
7-6
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
UTXE1
Bit 5
USART1 transmit enable. This bit enables the transmitter for USART1.
0
Module not enabled
1
Module enabled
URXE1
Bit 4
USART1 receive enable. This bit enables the receiver for USART1.
0
Module not enabled
1
Module enabled
Bits
3-2
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
UTXE0‡
Bit 1
USART0 transmit enable. This bit enables the transmitter for USART0.
0
Module not enabled
1
Module enabled
URXE0‡
Bit 0
USART0 receive enable. This bit enables the receiver for USART0.
0
Module not enabled
1
Module enabled
‡ MSP430x12xx devices only
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-27
USART Registers: UART Mode
IE1, Interrupt Enable Register 1
7
6
UTXIE0†
URXIE0†
rw−0
rw−0
5
4
3
2
1
0
UTXIE0†
Bit 7
USART0 transmit interrupt enable. This bit enables the UTXIFG0 interrupt.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
URXIE0†
Bit 6
USART0 receive interrupt enable. This bit enables the URXIFG0 interrupt.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
Bits
5-0
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
† Does not apply to MSP430x12xx devices. See IE2 for the MSP430x12xx USART0 interrupt enable bits
IE2, Interrupt Enable Register 2
7
6
5
4
UTXIE1
rw−0
3
2
1
0
URXIE1
UTXIE0‡
URXIE0‡
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
Bits
7-6
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
UTXIE1
Bit 5
USART1 transmit interrupt enable. This bit enables the UTXIFG1 interrupt.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
URXIE1
Bit 4
USART1 receive interrupt enable. This bit enables the URXIFG1 interrupt.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
Bits
3-2
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
UTXIE0‡
Bit 1
USART0 transmit interrupt enable. This bit enables the UTXIFG0 interrupt.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
URXIE0‡
Bit 0
USART0 receive interrupt enable. This bit enables the URXIFG0 interrupt.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
‡ MSP430x12xx devices only
13-28
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
USART Registers: UART Mode
IFG1, Interrupt Flag Register 1
7
6
5
UTXIFG0†
URXIFG0†
rw−1
rw−0
4
3
2
1
0
UTXIFG0†
Bit 7
USART0 transmit interrupt flag. UTXIFG0 is set when U0TXBUF is empty.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
URXIFG0†
Bit 6
USART0 receive interrupt flag. URXIFG0 is set when U0RXBUF has received
a complete character.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
Bits
5-0
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
† Does not apply to MSP430x12xx devices. See IFG2 for the MSP430x12xx USART0 interrupt flag bits
IFG2, Interrupt Flag Register 2
7
6
5
4
UTXIFG1
rw−1
3
2
1
0
URXIFG1
UTXIFG0‡
URXIFG0‡
rw−0
rw−1
rw−0
Bits
7-6
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
UTXIFG1
Bit 5
USART1 transmit interrupt flag. UTXIFG1 is set when U1TXBUF empty.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
URXIFG1
Bit 4
USART1 receive interrupt flag. URXIFG1 is set when U1RXBUF has received
a complete character.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
Bits
3-2
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
13-29
USART Registers: UART Mode
UTXIFG0‡
Bit 1
USART0 transmit interrupt flag. UTXIFG0 is set when U0TXBUF is empty.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
URXIFG0‡
Bit 0
USART0 receive interrupt flag. URXIFG0 is set when U0RXBUF has received
a complete character.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
‡ MSP430x12xx devices only
13-30
USART Peripheral Interface, UART Mode
Chapter 14
!)"-
The universal synchronous/asynchronous receive/transmit (USART)
peripheral interface supports two serial modes with one hardware module.
This chapter discusses the operation of the synchronous peripheral interface
or SPI mode. USART0 is implemented on the MSP430x12xx, MSP430x13xx,
and MSP430x15x devices. In addition to USART0, the MSP430x14x and
MSP430x16x devices implement a second identical USART module,
USART1.
Topic
Page
14.1 USART Introduction: SPI Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
14.2 USART Operation: SPI Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
14.3 USART Registers: SPI Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-13
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
14-1
USART Introduction: SPI Mode
14.1 USART Introduction: SPI Mode
In synchronous mode, the USART connects the MSP430 to an external
system via three or four pins: SIMO, SOMI, UCLK, and STE. SPI mode is
selected when the SYNC bit is set and the I2C bit is cleared.
SPI mode features include:
- 7- or 8-bit data length
- 3-pin and 4-pin SPI operation
- Master or slave modes
- Independent transmit and receive shift registers
- Separate transmit and receive buffer registers
- Selectable UCLK polarity and phase control
- Programmable UCLK frequency in master mode
- Independent interrupt capability for receive and transmit
Figure 14−1 shows the USART when configured for SPI mode.
14-2
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
USART Introduction: SPI Mode
Figure 14−1. USART Block Diagram: SPI Mode
SWRST USPIEx* URXEIE URXWIE
SYNC= 1
URXIFGx*
Receive Control
FE PE OE BRK
Receive Status
Receiver Buffer UxRXBUF
LISTEN
0
RXERR
RXWAKE
MM
1
Receiver Shift Register
1
SSEL1 SSEL0
SP
CHAR
PEV
0
PENA
UCLKS
UCLKI
00
ACLK
01
SMCLK
10
SMCLK
11
SYNC
1
SOMI
0
1
URXD
0
Baud−Rate Generator
STE
Prescaler/Divider UxBRx
Modulator UxMCTL
SP
CHAR
PEV
UTXD
PENA
1
WUT
Transmit Shift Register
TXWAKE
Transmit Buffer UxTXBUF
0
1
SIMO
0
UTXIFGx*
Transmit Control
SYNC CKPH CKPL
SWRST USPIEx* TXEPT
STC
UCLKI
UCLK
Clock Phase and Polarity
* Refer to the device-specific datasheet for SFR locations
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
14-3
USART Operation: SPI Mode
14.2 USART Operation: SPI Mode
In SPI mode, serial data is transmitted and received by multiple devices using
a shared clock provided by the master. An additional pin, STE, is provided as
to enable a device to receive and transmit data and is controlled by the master.
Three or four signals are used for SPI data exchange:
- SIMO
Slave in, master out
Master mode: SIMO is the data output line.
Slave mode: SIMO is the data input line.
- SOMI
Slave out, master in
Master mode: SOMI is the data input line.
Slave mode: SOMI is the data output line.
- UCLK
USART SPI clock
Master mode: UCLK is an output.
Slave mode: UCLK is an input.
- STE
Slave transmit enable. Used in 4-pin mode to allow multiple
masters on a single bus. Not used in 3-pin mode.
4-Pin master mode:
When STE is high, SIMO and UCLK operate normally.
When STE is low, SIMO and UCLK are set to the input direction.
4-pin slave mode:
When STE is high, RX/TX operation of the slave is disabled and
SOMI is forced to the input direction.
When STE is low, RX/TX operation of the slave is enabled and
SOMI operates normally.
14.2.1 USART Initialization and Reset
The USART is reset by a PUC or by the SWRST bit. After a PUC, the SWRST
bit is automatically set, keeping the USART in a reset condition. When set, the
SWRST bit resets the URXIEx, UTXIEx, URXIFGx, OE, and FE bits and sets
the UTXIFGx flag. The USPIEx bit is not altered by SWRST. Clearing SWRST
releases the USART for operation. See also chapter USART Module, I2C
mode for USART0 when reconfiguring from I2C mode to SPI mode.
Note: Initializing or Re-Configuring the USART Module
The required USART initialization/re-configuration process is:
1) Set SWRST (BIS.B #SWRST,&UxCTL)
2) Initialize all USART registers with SWRST=1 (including UxCTL)
3) Enable USART module via the MEx SFRs (USPIEx)
4) Clear SWRST via software (BIC.B
#SWRST,&UxCTL)
5) Enable interrupts (optional) via the IEx SFRs (URXIEx and/or UTXIEx)
Failure to follow this process may result in unpredictable USART behavior.
14-4
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
USART Operation: SPI Mode
14.2.2 Master Mode
Figure 14−2. USART Master and External Slave
MASTER
Receive Buffer UxRXBUF
SLAVE
SIMO
Transmit Buffer UxTXBUF
Receive Shift Register
MSB
SIMO
SPI Receive Buffer
Px.x
STE
STE
SS
Port.x
SOMI
Transmit Shift Register
LSB
MSB
LSB
UCLK
MSP430 USART
SOMI
Data Shift Register (DSR)
LSB
MSB
SCLK
COMMON SPI
Figure 14−2 shows the USART as a master in both 3-pin and 4-pin
configurations. The USART initiates data transfer when data is moved to the
transmit data buffer UxTXBUF. The UxTXBUF data is moved to the TX shift
register when the TX shift register is empty, initiating data transfer on SIMO
starting with the most-significant bit. Data on SOMI is shifted into the receive
shift register on the opposite clock edge, starting with the most-significant bit.
When the character is received, the receive data is moved from the RX shift
register to the received data buffer UxRXBUF and the receive interrupt flag,
URXIFGx, is set, indicating the RX/TX operation is complete.
A set transmit interrupt flag, UTXIFGx, indicates that data has moved from
UxTXBUF to the TX shift register and UxTXBUF is ready for new data. It does
not indicate RX/TX completion.
To receive data into the USART in master mode, data must be written to
UxTXBUF because receive and transmit operations operate concurrently.
Four-Pin SPI Master Mode
In 4-pin master mode, STE is used to prevent conflicts with another master.
The master operates normally when STE is high. When STE is low:
- SIMO and UCLK are set to inputs and no longer drive the bus
- The error bit FE is set indicating a communication integrity violation to be
handled by the user
A low STE signal does not reset the USART module. The STE input signal is
not used in 3-pin master mode.
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
14-5
USART Operation: SPI Mode
14.2.3 Slave Mode
Figure 14−3. USART Slave and External Master
MASTER
SIMO
SPI Receive Buffer
Transmit Buffer UxTXBUF
Data Shift Register DSR
MSB
SLAVE
SIMO
Px.x
STE
STE
SS
Port.x
SOMI
SOMI
LSB
SCLK
Receive Buffer UxRXBUF
Transmit Shift Register
Receive Shift Register
MSB
MSB
LSB
LSB
UCLK
COMMON SPI
MSP430 USART
Figure 14−3 shows the USART as a slave in both 3-pin and 4-pin
configurations. UCLK is used as the input for the SPI clock and must be
supplied by the external master. The data-transfer rate is determined by this
clock and not by the internal baud rate generator. Data written to UxTXBUF
and moved to the TX shift register before the start of UCLK is transmitted on
SOMI. Data on SIMO is shifted into the receive shift register on the opposite
edge of UCLK and moved to UxRXBUF when the set number of bits are
received. When data is moved from the RX shift register to UxRXBUF, the
URXIFGx interrupt flag is set, indicating that data has been received. The
overrun error bit, OE, is set when the previously received data is not read from
UxRXBUF before new data is moved to UxRXBUF.
Four-Pin SPI Slave Mode
In 4-pin slave mode, STE is used by the slave to enable the transmit and
receive operations and is provided by the SPI master. When STE is low, the
slave operates normally. When STE is high:
- Any receive operation in progress on SIMO is halted
- SOMI is set to the input direction
A high STE signal does not reset the USART module. The STE input signal
is not used in 3-pin slave mode.
14-6
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
USART Operation: SPI Mode
14.2.4 SPI Enable
The SPI transmit/receive enable bit USPIEx enables or disables the USART
in SPI mode. When USPIEx = 0, the USART stops operation after the current
transfer completes, or immediately if no operation is active. A PUC or set
SWRST bit disables the USART immediately and any active transfer is
terminated.
Transmit Enable
When USPIEx = 0, any further write to UxTXBUF does not transmit. Data
written to UxTXBUF will begin to transmit when USPIEx = 1 and the BRCLK
source is active. Figure 14−4 and Figure 14−5 show the transmit enable state
diagrams.
Figure 14−4. Master Mode Transmit Enable
USPIEx = 0
USPIEx = 1
Transmit
Disable
USPIEx = 0
No Data Written
to Transfer Buffer
Idle State
(Transmitter
Enabled)
SWRST
USPIEx = 1,
Data Written to
Transmit Buffer
Not Completed
Transmission
Active
Character
Transmitted
USPIEx = 1
PUC
Handle Interrupt
Conditions
USPIEx = 0 And Last Buffer
Entry Is Transmitted
Figure 14−5. Slave Transmit Enable State Diagram
USPIEx = 0
USPIEx = 1
Transmit
Disable
USPIEx = 0
No Clock at UCLK
Idle State
(Transmitter
Enabled)
SWRST
USPIEx = 1
External Clock
Present
USPIEx = 1
PUC
Not Completed
Transmission
Active
Handle Interrupt
Conditions
Character
Transmitted
USPIEx = 0
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
14-7
USART Operation: SPI Mode
Receive Enable
The SPI receive enable state diagrams are shown in Figure 14−6 and
Figure 14−7. When USPIEx = 0, UCLK is disabled from shifting data into the
RX shift register.
Figure 14−6. SPI Master Receive-Enable State Diagram
No Data Written
to UxTXBUF
USPIEx = 0
USPIEx = 1
Receive
Disable
USPIEx = 0
Idle State
(Receiver
Enabled)
USPIEx = 1
Data Written
to UxTXBUF
Not Completed
Receiver
Collects
Character
Handle Interrupt
Conditions
Character
Received
SWRST
USPIEx = 1
PUC
USPIEx = 0
Figure 14−7. SPI Slave Receive-Enable State Diagram
No Clock at UCLK
USPIEx = 0
USPIEx = 1
Receive
Disable
USPIEx = 0
Idle State
(Receive
Enabled)
SWRST
External Clock
Present
USPIEx = 1
PUC
USPIEx = 0
14-8
USPIEx = 1
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
Not Completed
Receiver
Collects
Character
Handle Interrupt
Conditions
Character
Received
USART Operation: SPI Mode
14.2.5 Serial Clock Control
UCLK is provided by the master on the SPI bus. When MM = 1, BITCLK is
provided by the USART baud rate generator on the UCLK pin as shown in
Figure 14−8. When MM = 0, the USART clock is provided on the UCLK pin by
the master and, the baud rate generator is not used and the SSELx bits are
don’t care. The SPI receiver and transmitter operate in parallel and use the
same clock source for data transfer.
Figure 14−8. SPI Baud Rate Generator
SSEL1 SSEL0 N = 215
28
...
27
UxBR1
UCLKI
00
ACLK
01
SMCLK
10
SMCLK
11
20
...
UxBR0
8
8
BRCLK
16−Bit Counter
Q15
............
R
Q0
Toggle
FF
R
Compare (0 or 1)
BITCLK
Modulation Data Shift Register R
(LSB first)
mX
m7
8
UxMCTL
m0
Bit Start
The 16-bit value of UxBR0+UxBR1 is the division factor of the USART clock
source, BRCLK. The maximum baud rate that can be generated in master
mode is BRCLK/2. The maximum baud rate that can be generated in slave
mode is BRCLK. The modulator in the USART baud rate generator is not used
for SPI mode and is recommended to be set to 000h. The UCLK frequency is
given by:
Baud rate = BRCLK with UxBR= [UxBR1, UxBR0]
UxBR
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
14-9
USART Operation: SPI Mode
Serial Clock Polarity and Phase
The polarity and phase of UCLK are independently configured via the CKPL
and CKPH control bits of the USART. Timing for each case is shown in
Figure 14−9.
Figure 14−9. USART SPI Timing
CKPH CKPL
Cycle#
0
0
UCLK
0
1
UCLK
1
0
UCLK
1
1
UCLK
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
STE
0
X
SIMO/
SOMI
MSB
LSB
1
X
SIMO/
SOMI
MSB
LSB
Move to UxTXBUF
TX Data Shifted Out
RX Sample Points
14-10
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
USART Operation: SPI Mode
14.2.6 SPI Interrupts
The USART has one interrupt vector for transmission and one interrupt vector
for reception.
SPI Transmit Interrupt Operation
The UTXIFGx interrupt flag is set by the transmitter to indicate that UxTXBUF
is ready to accept another character. An interrupt request is generated if
UTXIEx and GIE are also set. UTXIFGx is automatically reset if the interrupt
request is serviced or if a character is written to UxTXBUF.
UTXIFGx is set after a PUC or when SWRST = 1. UTXIEx is reset after a PUC
or when SWRST = 1. The operation is shown is Figure 14−10.
Figure 14−10. Transmit Interrupt Operation
Q
UTXIEx
SYNC = 1
Clear
PUC or SWRST
VCC
Character Moved From
Buffer to Shift Register
D
Set UTXIFGx
Q
Clear
Interrupt Service Requested
SWRST
Data moved to UxTXBUF
IRQA
Note: Writing to UxTXBUF in SPI Mode
Data written to UxTXBUF when UTXIFGx = 0 and USPIEx = 1 may result in
erroneous data transmission.
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
14-11
USART Operation: SPI Mode
SPI Receive Interrupt Operation
The URXIFGx interrupt flag is set each time a character is received and loaded
into UxRXBUF as shown in Figure 14−11 and Figure 14−12. An interrupt
request is generated if URXIEx and GIE are also set. URXIFGx and URXIEx
are reset by a system reset PUC signal or when SWRST = 1. URXIFGx is
automatically reset if the pending interrupt is served or when UxRXBUF is
read.
Figure 14−11.Receive Interrupt Operation
SYNC
Valid Start Bit
SYNC = 1
URXS
Receiver Collects Character
URXSE
τ
From URXD
Clear
URXIEx
PE
FE
BRK
Interrupt Service
Requested
(S)
URXEIE
URXIFGx
URXWIE
Clear
RXWAKE
SWRST
PUC
UxRXBUF Read
URXSE
Character Received
IRQA
Figure 14−12. Receive Interrupt State Diagram
SWRST = 1
URXIFGx = 0
URXIEx = 0
Wait For Next
Start
Receive
Character
Receive
Character
Completed
USPIEx = 0
SWRST = 1
USPIEx = 0
PUC
USPIEx = 1
URXIFGx = 1
Priority
Too
Low
14-12
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
GIE = 0
USPIEx = 1 and
URXIEx = 1 and
GIE = 1 and
Priority Valid
Interrupt
Service Started,
GIE = 0
URXIFGx = 0
USART Registers: SPI Mode
14.3 USART Registers: SPI Mode
The USART registers, shown in Table 14−1 and Table 14−2, are byte
structured and should be accessed using byte instructions.
Table 14−1.USART0 Control and Status Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
USART control register
U0CTL
Read/write
070h
001h with PUC
Transmit control register
U0TCTL
Read/write
071h
001h with PUC
Receive control register
U0RCTL
Read/write
072h
000h with PUC
Modulation control register
U0MCTL
Read/write
073h
Unchanged
Baud rate control register 0
U0BR0
Read/write
074h
Unchanged
Baud rate control register 1
U0BR1
Read/write
075h
Unchanged
Receive buffer register
U0RXBUF
Read
076h
Unchanged
Transmit buffer register
U0TXBUF
Read/write
077h
Unchanged
SFR module enable register 1†
ME1
Read/write
004h
000h with PUC
SFR interrupt enable register 1†
IE1
Read/write
000h
000h with PUC
SFR interrupt flag register 1†
IFG1
Read/write
002h
082h with PUC
† Does not apply to MSP430x12xx devices. Refer to the register definitions for registers and bit positions for these devices.
Table 14−2.USART1 Control and Status Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
USART control register
U1CTL
Read/write
078h
001h with PUC
Transmit control register
U1TCTL
Read/write
079h
001h with PUC
Receive control register
U1RCTL
Read/write
07Ah
000h with PUC
Modulation control register
U1MCTL
Read/write
07Bh
Unchanged
Baud rate control register 0
U1BR0
Read/write
07Ch
Unchanged
Baud rate control register 1
U1BR1
Read/write
07Dh
Unchanged
Receive buffer register
U1RXBUF
Read
07Eh
Unchanged
Transmit buffer register
U1TXBUF
Read/write
07Fh
Unchanged
SFR module enable register 2
ME2
Read/write
005h
000h with PUC
SFR interrupt enable register 2
IE2
Read/write
001h
000h with PUC
SFR interrupt flag register 2
IFG2
Read/write
003h
020h with PUC
Note: Modifying the SFR bits
To avoid modifying control bits for other modules, it is recommended to set
or clear the IEx and IFGx bits using BIS.B or BIC.B instructions, rather than
MOV.B or CLR.B instructions.
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
14-13
USART Registers: SPI Mode
UxCTL, USART Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Unused
Unused
I2C†
CHAR
LISTEN
SYNC
MM
SWRST
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−1
Unused
Bits
7−6
Unused
I2C†
Bit 5
I2C mode enable. This bit selects I2C or SPI operation when SYNC = 1.
0
SPI mode
1
I2C mode
CHAR
Bit 4
Character length
0
7-bit data
1
8-bit data
LISTEN
Bit 3
Listen enable. The LISTEN bit selects the loopback mode
0
Disabled
1
Enabled. The transmit signal is internally fed back to the receiver
SYNC
Bit 2
Synchronous mode enable
0
UART mode
1
SPI mode
MM
Bit 1
Master mode
0
USART is slave
1
USART is master
SWRST
Bit 0
Software reset enable
0
Disabled. USART reset released for operation
1
Enabled. USART logic held in reset state
† Applies to USART0 on MSP430x15x and MSP430x16x devices only.
14-14
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
USART Registers: SPI Mode
UxTCTL, USART Transmit Control Register
7
6
CKPH
CKPL
rw−0
rw−0
5
4
SSELx
rw−0
rw−0
3
2
1
0
Unused
Unused
STC
TXEPT
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−1
CKPH
Bit 7
Clock phase select. Controls the phase of UCLK.
0
Normal UCLK clocking scheme
1
UCLK is delayed by one half cycle
CKPL
Bit 6
Clock polarity select
0
The inactive level is low; data is output with the rising edge of UCLK;
input data is latched with the falling edge of UCLK.
1
The inactive level is high; data is output with the falling edge of
UCLK; input data is latched with the rising edge of UCLK.
SSELx
Bits
5-4
Source select. These bits select the BRCLK source clock.
00 External UCLK (valid for slave mode only)
01 ACLK (valid for master mode only)
10 SMCLK (valid for master mode only)
11 SMCLK (valid for master mode only)
Unused
Bit 3
Unused
Unused
Bit 2
Unused
STC
Bit 1
Slave transmit control.
0
4-pin SPI mode: STE enabled.
1
3-pin SPI mode: STE disabled.
TXEPT
Bit 0
Transmitter empty flag. The TXEPT flag is not used in slave mode.
0
Transmission active and/or data waiting in UxTXBUF
1
UxTXBUF and TX shift register are empty
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
14-15
USART Registers: SPI Mode
UxRCTL, USART Receive Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FE
Unused
OE
Unused
Unused
Unused
Unused
Unused
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
FE
Bit 7
Framing error flag. This bit indicates a bus conflict when MM = 1 and STC
= 0. FE is unused in slave mode.
0
No conflict detected
1
A negative edge occurred on STE, indicating bus conflict
Undefined
Bit 6
Unused
OE
Bit 5
Overrun error flag. This bit is set when a character is transferred into
UxRXBUF before the previous character was read. OE is automatically
reset when UxRXBUF is read, when SWRST = 1, or can be reset by
software.
0
No error
1
Overrun error occurred
Unused
Bit 4
Unused
Unused
Bit 3
Unused
Unused
Bit 2
Unused
Unused
Bit 1
Unused
Unused
Bit 0
Unused
14-16
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
USART Registers: SPI Mode
UxBR0, USART Baud Rate Control Register 0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
UxBR1, USART Baud Rate Control Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
215
214
213
212
211
210
29
28
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
UxBRx
The baud-rate generator uses the content of {UxBR1+UxBR0} to set the
baud rate. Unpredictable SPI operation occurs if UxBR < 2.
UxMCTL, USART Modulation Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
m7
m6
m5
m4
m3
m2
m1
m0
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
UxMCTLx
Bits
7−0
The modulation control register is not used for SPI mode and should be set
to 000h.
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
14-17
USART Registers: SPI Mode
UxRXBUF, USART Receive Buffer Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
UxRXBUFx
Bits
7−0
The receive-data buffer is user accessible and contains the last received
character from the receive shift register. Reading UxRXBUF resets the OE
bit and URXIFGx flag. In 7-bit data mode, UxRXBUF is LSB justified and
the MSB is always reset.
UxTXBUF, USART Transmit Buffer Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
UxTXBUFx
14-18
Bits
7−0
The transmit data buffer is user accessible and contains current data to be
transmitted. When seven-bit character-length is used, the data should be
MSB justified before being moved into UxTXBUF. Data is transmitted MSB
first. Writing to UxTXBUF clears UTXIFGx.
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
USART Registers: SPI Mode
ME1, Module Enable Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
USPIE0†
rw−0
USPIE0†
Bit 7
This bit may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
Bit 6
USART0 SPI enable. This bit enables the SPI mode for USART0.
0
Module not enabled
1
Module enabled
Bits
5-0
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
† Does not apply to MSP430x12xx devices. See ME2 for the MSP430x12xx USART0 module enable bit
ME2, Module Enable Register 2
7
USPIE1
USPIE0‡
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
USPIE1
USPIE0‡
rw−0
rw−0
Bits
7-5
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
Bit 4
USART1 SPI enable. This bit enables the SPI mode for USART1.
0
Module not enabled
1
Module enabled
Bits
3-1
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
Bit 0
USART0 SPI enable. This bit enables the SPI mode for USART0.
0
Module not enabled
1
Module enabled
‡ MSP430x12xx devices only
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
14-19
USART Registers: SPI Mode
IE1, Interrupt Enable Register 1
7
6
UTXIE0†
URXIE0†
rw−0
rw−0
5
4
3
2
1
0
UTXIE0†
Bit 7
USART0 transmit interrupt enable. This bit enables the UTXIFG0 interrupt.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
URXIE0†
Bit 6
USART0 receive interrupt enable. This bit enables the URXIFG0 interrupt.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
Bits
5-0
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
† Does not apply to MSP430x12xx devices. See IE2 for the MSP430x12xx USART0 interrupt enable bits
IE2, Interrupt Enable Register 2
7
6
5
4
UTXIE1
rw−0
3
2
1
0
URXIE1
UTXIE0‡
URXIE0‡
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
Bits
7-6
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
UTXIE1
Bit 5
USART1 transmit interrupt enable. This bit enables the UTXIFG1 interrupt.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
URXIE1
Bit 4
USART1 receive interrupt enable. This bit enables the URXIFG1 interrupt.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
Bits
3-2
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
14-20
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
USART Registers: SPI Mode
UTXIE0‡
Bit 1
USART0 transmit interrupt enable. This bit enables the UTXIFG0 interrupt.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
URXIE0‡
Bit 0
USART0 receive interrupt enable. This bit enables the URXIFG0 interrupt for
USART0.
0
Interrupt not enabled
1
Interrupt enabled
‡ MSP430x12xx devices only
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
14-21
USART Registers: SPI Mode
IFG1, Interrupt Flag Register 1
7
6
5
UTXIFG0†
URXIFG0†
rw−1
rw−0
4
3
2
1
0
UTXIFG0†
Bit 7
USART0 transmit interrupt flag. UTXIFG0 is set when U0TXBUF is empty.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
URXIFG0†
Bit 6
USART0 receive interrupt flag. URXIFG0 is set when U0RXBUF has received
a complete character.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
Bits
5-0
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
† Does not apply to MSP430x12xx devices. See IFG2 for the MSP430x12xx USART0 interrupt flag bits
IFG2, Interrupt Flag Register 2
7
6
5
4
UTXIFG1
rw−1
3
2
1
0
URXIFG1
UTXIFG0‡
URXIFG0‡
rw−0
rw−1
rw−0
Bits
7-6
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
UTXIFG1
Bit 5
USART1 transmit interrupt flag. UTXIFG1 is set when U1TXBUF is empty.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
URXIFG1
Bit 4
USART1 receive interrupt flag. URXIFG1 is set when U1RXBUF has received
a complete character.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
Bits
3-2
These bits may be used by other modules. See device-specific datasheet.
UTXIFG0‡
Bit 1
USART0 transmit interrupt flag. UTXIFG0 is set when U0TXBUF is empty.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
URXIFG0‡
Bit 0
USART0 receive interrupt flag. URXIFG0 is set when U0RXBUF has received
a complete character.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
‡ MSP430x12xx devices only
14-22
USART Peripheral Interface, SPI Mode
Chapter 15
!) " - . The universal synchronous/asynchronous receive/transmit (USART)
peripheral interface supports I2C communication in USART0. This chapter
describes the I2C mode. The I2C mode is implemented on the MSP430x15x
and MSP430x16x devices.
Topic
Page
15.1 I2C Module Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
15.2 I2C Module Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
15.3 I2C Module Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-20
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-1
I 2C Module Introduction
15.1 I2C Module Introduction
The inter-IC control (I2C) module provides an interface between the MSP430
and I2C-compatible devices connected by way of the two-wire I2C serial bus.
External components attached to the I2C bus serially transmit and/or receive
serial data to/from the USART through the 2-wire I2C interface.
The I2C module has the following features:
- Compliance to the Philips Semiconductor I2C specification v2.1
J Byte/word format transfer
J 7-bit and 10-bit device addressing modes
J General call
J START/RESTART/STOP
J Multi-master transmitter/slave receiver mode
J Multi-master receiver/slave transmitter mode
J Combined master transmit/receive and receive/transmit mode
J Standard mode up to100 kbps and fast mode up to 400 kbps support
- Built-in FIFO for buffered read and write
- Programmable clock generation
- 16-bit wide data access to maximize bus throughput
- Automatic data byte counting
- Designed for low power
- Slave receiver START detection for auto-wake up from LPMx modes
- Extensive interrupt capability
- Implemented on USART0 only
The I2C block diagram is shown in Figure 15−1.
15-2
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Introduction
Figure 15−1. USART Block Diagram: I 2C Mode
I2CEN
I2CSSELx
SYNC = 1
I2C = 1
I2CBUSY
No clock
00
ACLK
01
SMCLK
10
SMCLK
11
I2C Clock Generator
I2CIN
I2CPSC
I2CSCLLOW
I2CSCLL
I2CCLK
SCL
1
I2CSCLH
R/W
MST
I2CTRX
LISTEN
I2CRXOVR
0
Receive Shift Register
I2CSTP
1
I2CSTT
I2CSTB
0
Transmit Shift Register
I2CWORD
SDA
1
I2CSBD
I2CTXUDF
I2CDRW
I2COA
I2CNDATx
I2CRM
I2CSA
XA
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-3
I 2C Module Operation
15.2 I2C Module Operation
The I2C module supports any slave or master I2C-compatible device.
Figure 15−2 shows an example of an I2C bus. Each I2C device is recognized
by a unique address and can operate as either a transmitter or a receiver. A
device connected to the I2C bus can be considered as the master or the slave
when performing data transfers. A master initiates a data transfer and generates the clock signal SCL. Any device addressed by a master is considered
a slave.
I2C data is communicated using the serial data pin (SDA) and the serial clock
pin (SCL). Both SDA and SCL are bidirectional, and must be connected to a
positive supply voltage using a pull-up resistor.
Figure 15−2. I 2C Bus Connection Diagram
VCC
Device A
MSP430
Serial Data (SDA)
Serial Clock (SCL)
Device B
Device C
Note: SDA and SCL Levels
The MSP430 SDA and SCL pins must not be pulled up above the MSP430
VCC level.
15-4
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Operation
15.2.1 I2C Module Initialization
The I2C module is part of the USART peripheral. Individual bit definitions when
using USART0 in I2C mode are different from that in SPI or UART mode. The
default value for the U0CTL register is the UART mode. To select I2C operation
the SYNC and I2C bits must be set. After module initialization, the I2C module
is ready for transmit or receive operation. Setting I2CEN releases the I2C
module for operation.
Configuring and re-configuring the I2C module must be done when I2CEN =
0 to avoid unpredictable behavior. Setting I2CEN = 0 has the following effects:
-
I2C communication stops
SDA and SCL are high impedance
I2CTCTL, bits 3-0 are cleared and bits 7-4 are unchanged
I2CDCTL and I2CDR register is cleared
Transmit and receive shift registers are cleared
U0CTL, I2CNDAT, I2CPSC, I2CSCLL, I2CSCLH registers are unchanged
I2COA, I2CSA, I2CIE, I2CIFG, and I2CIV registers are unchanged
When re-configuring the USART from I2C mode to UART or SPI mode the I2C,
SYNC, and I2CEN bits must first be cleared, then the SWRST must be set and
the UART or SPI initialization procedure must be followed. Failure to follow this
procedure could result in unpredictable operation.
Note: Configuring the USART Module for I2C Operation After Reset
The required I2C configuration process is:
1) Select I2C mode with SWRST = 1 (BIS.B
#I2C + SYNC,&U0CTL)
2) Disable the I2C module (BIC.B #I2CEN,&U0CTL)
3) Configure the I2C module with I2CEN = 0
4) Set I2CEN via software (BIS.B
#I2CEN,&U0CTL)
Failure to follow this process may result in unpredictable USART behavior.
Note: Re-Configuring the USART Module for UART or SPI Operation
When re-configuring the USART module for UART or SPI operation from I2C
operation, the required process is:
1) Clear I2C, SYNC, and I2CEN (CLR.B &U0CTL)
2) Set SWRST (MOV.B
#SWRST,&U0CTL)
3) Continue with UART or SPI initialization procedure.
Failure to follow this process may result in unpredictable USART behavior.
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-5
I 2C Module Operation
15.2.2 I2C Serial Data
One clock pulse is generated by the master device for each data bit
transferred. The I2C module operates with byte data. Data is transferred most
significant bit first as shown in Figure 15−3.
The first byte after a START condition consists of a 7-bit slave address and the
R/W bit. When R/W = 0, the master transmits data to a slave. When R/W = 1,
the master receives data from a slave. The ACK bit is sent from the receiver
after each byte on the 9th SCL clock.
Figure 15−3. I 2C Module Data Transfer
SDA
MSB
Acknowledgement
Signal From Receiver
Acknowledgement
Signal From Receiver
SCL
1
START
Condition (S)
2
7
8
R/W
9
ACK
1
2
8
9
ACK
STOP
Condition (P)
START and STOP conditions are generated by the master and are shown in
Figure 15−3. A START condition is a high-to-low transition on the SDA line
while SCL is high. A STOP condition is a low-to-high transition on the SDA line
while SCL is high. The busy bit, I2CBB, is set after a START and cleared after
a STOP.
Data on SDA must be stable during the high period of SCL as shown in
Figure 15−4. The high and low state of SDA can only change when SCL is low,
otherwise START or STOP conditions will be generated.
Figure 15−4. Bit Transfer on the I 2C Bus
Data Line
Stable Data
SDA
SCL
Change of Data Allowed
15-6
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Operation
15.2.3 I2C Addressing Modes
The I2C module supports 7-bit and 10-bit addressing modes.
7-Bit Addressing
In the 7-bit addressing format, shown in Figure 15−5, the first byte is the 7-bit
slave address and the R/W bit. The ACK bit is sent from the receiver after each
byte.
Figure 15−5. I 2C Module 7-Bit Addressing Format
1
1
1
R/W
ACK
7
S
Slave Address
1
8
Data
1
8
ACK
Data
1
ACK P
10-Bit Addressing
In the 10-bit addressing format, shown in Figure 15−6, the first byte is made
up of 11110b plus the two MSBs of the 10-bit slave address and the R/W bit.
The ACK bit is sent from the receiver after each byte. The next byte is the
remaining 8 bits of the 10-bit slave address, followed by the ACK bit and the
8-bit data.
Figure 15−6. I 2C Module 10-Bit Addressing Format
1
1
7
S Slave Address 1st byte
1
1
1
1
0
X
R/W
1
1
8
1
8
ACK Slave Address 2nd byte ACK
Data
1
ACK P
X
Repeated START Conditions
The direction of data flow on SDA can be changed by the master, without first
stopping a transfer, by issuing a repeated START condition. This is called a
RESTART. After a RESTART is issued, the slave address is again sent out with
the new data direction specified by the R/W bit. The RESTART condition is
shown in Figure 15−7.
Figure 15−7. I 2C Module Addressing Format with Repeated START Condition
1
7
1
S
Slave Address
1
1
R/W ACK
8
1
1
Data
ACK
S
Any
Number
1
7
Slave Address
1
1
R/W ACK
8
1
1
Data
ACK
P
Any Number
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-7
I 2C Module Operation
15.2.4 I2C Module Operating Modes
The I2C module operates in master transmitter, master receiver, slave
transmitter, or slave receiver mode.
Master Mode
In master mode, transmit and receive operation is controlled with the I2CRM,
I2CSTT, and I2CSTP bits as described in Table 15−1. The master transmitter
and master receiver modes are shown in Figure 15−8 and Figure 15−9. SCL
is held low when the intervention of the CPU is required after a byte has been
received or transmitted.
Table 15−1.Master Operation
I2CRM I2CSTP I2CSTT
15-8
Condition Or Bus Activity
X
0
0
The I2C module is in master mode, but is idle. No
START or STOP condition is generated.
0
0
1
Setting I2CSTT initiates activity. I2CNDAT is used to
determine length of transmission. A STOP condition is
not automatically generated after the I2CNDAT
number of bytes have been transferred. Software must
set I2CSTP to generate a STOP condition at the end
of transmission. This is used for RESTART conditions.
0
1
1
I2CNDAT is used to determine length of transmission.
Setting I2CSTT initiates activity. A STOP condition is
automatically generated after I2CNDAT number of
bytes have been transferred.
1
0
1
I2CNDAT is not used to determine length of
transmission. Software must control the length of the
transmission. Setting the I2CSTT bit initiates activity.
Software must set the I2CSTP bit to initiate a STOP
condition and stop activity. This mode is useful if > 255
bytes are to be transferred. This mode may not be
used when a RESTART is required. I2CRM must be
reset to generate a RESTART condition.
0
1
0
Setting the I2CSTP bit generates a STOP condition on
the bus after I2CNDAT number of bytes have been
sent, or immediately if I2CNDAT number of bytes have
already been sent.
1
1
0
Setting the I2CSTP bit generates a STOP condition on
the bus after the current transmission completes, or
immediately if no transmission is currently active and
a STOP has not already been generated. Setting
I2CSTP after a STOP has already been generated will
not result in another STOP condition.
1
1
1
Reserved, no bus activity.
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Operation
Figure 15−8. Master Transmitter Mode
IDLE
I2CSTT=1
*When I2RM=1, I2CSTP must be set before the last I2CDR value
is written. Othwerwise, correct STOP generation will not occur.
3
4 x I2CPSC
Generate START
I2CBUSY Is Set
1
8 x I2CPSC
XA=1
I2CBB Is Set
I2CSTT Is Cleared
8 x SCL
Send Slave Address
Bits 9−8 Extended
with R/W = 0
XA=0
NACKIFG Is Set
8 x SCL
8 x SCL
Send Slave
Address Bits 6−0
with R/W=0
1
No ACK
No Ack
Ack
IDLE
I2CBUSY Is Cleared
Send Slave Address
Bits 7−0
Ack
I2CRM=0
I2CNDAT
Number Of Bytes
Sent?
Repeat Mode?
I2CRM=1
Yes
No
STOP State?
2
No
I2CDR Empty
Yes I2CSTP=1
Yes
STOP State?
10 x I2CPSC
I2CDR Loaded?*
Generate STOP
No
No
No
Yes
8 x SCL I2CDR Written
Send I2CDR
Low Byte
2
8 x SCL
Ack, and
I2CWORD=0
8 x I2CPSC
I2CBB Is Cleared
No Ack
Ack
8 x I2CPSC
I2CSTP, I2CMST
Are Cleared
Send I2CDR
High Byte
Ack
No Ack
1
IDLE
I2CBUSY Is Cleared
New START?
New START?
3
Yes
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-9
I 2C Module Operation
Figure 15−9. Master Receiver Mode
IDLE
2
I2CSTT=1
Yes
4 x I2CPSC
Generate START
8 x I2CPSC
New START?
I2CBB Is Set
I2CSTT Is Cleared
XA = 1
8 x SCL
1
Send Slave Address
Bits 9−8 Extended
With R/W = 0
XA = 0
No Ack
8 x SCL
Send Slave Address
Bits 7−0
NACKIFG Is Set
4 x I2CPSC
No
Generate 2nd START
8 x SCL
8 x SCL
Send Slave
Address Bits 6−0
with R/W = 1
Send Slave Address
Bits 9−8 Extended
With R/W = 1
Ack
1
3
IDLE
I2CBUSY Is Cleared
No
I2CRM=0
Repeat Mode?
Ack
No Ack
8 x SCL
Receive Data
Low Byte
Yes
STOP State?
No
Generate Ack
For Low Byte
No
Or
8 x SCL
I2CWORD=0
1 x SCL
I2CRM=1
3
1 x SCL
No
I2CNDAT
Number Of Bytes
Received?
Receive Data
High Byte
STOP State?
Yes, I2CSTP=1
10 x I2CPSC
Generate STOP
3
No
8 x I2CPSC
Generate Ack
For High Byte
I2CBB Is Cleared
New START?
8 x I2CPSC
I2CSTP, I2CMST
Are Cleared
New START?
Yes
2
Yes
IDLE
I2CBUSY Is Cleared
15-10
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Operation
Arbitration
If two or more master transmitters simultaneously start a transmission on the
bus, an arbitration procedure is invoked. Figure 15−10 illustrates the
arbitration procedure between two devices. The arbitration procedure uses
the data presented on SDA by the competing transmitters. The first master
transmitter that generates a logic high is overruled by the opposing master
generating a logic low. The arbitration procedure gives priority to the device
that transmits the serial data stream with the lowest binary value. The master
transmitter that lost arbitration switches to the slave receiver mode, and sets
the arbitration lost flag ALIFG. If two or more devices send identical first bytes,
arbitration continues on the subsequent bytes.
Figure 15−10. Arbitration Procedure Between Two Master Transmitters
Bus Line
SCL
Device #1 Lost Arbitration
and Switches Off
n
Data From
Device #1
1
Data From
Device #2
0
0
0
0
1
Bus Line
SDA
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
If the arbitration procedure is in progress when a repeated START condition
or STOP condition is transmitted on SDA, the master transmitters involved in
arbitration must send the repeated START condition or STOP condition at the
same position in the format frame. Arbitration is not allowed between:
- A repeated START condition and a data bit
- A STOP condition and a data bit
- A repeated START condition and a STOP condition
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-11
I 2C Module Operation
Automatic Data Byte Counting
Automatic data byte counting is supported in master mode with the I2CNDAT
register. When I2CRM = 0, the number of bytes to be received or transmitted
is written to I2CNDAT. A STOP condition is automatically generated after
I2CNDAT number of bytes have been transferred when I2CSTP = 1.
Note: I2CNDAT Register
Do not change the I2CNDAT register after setting I2CSTT and before
I2CNDAT number of bytes have been transmitted. Otherwise, unpredictable
operation may occur. If the I2CNDAT contents must be updated for a
RESTART, wait for ARDYIFG to become set before modifying the contents
of I2CNDAT.
Slave Mode
In slave mode, transmit and receive operations are controlled automatically by
the I2C module. The slave transmitter and slave receiver modes are shown in
Figure 15−11 and Figure 15−12.
In slave receiver mode, serial data bits received on SDA are shifted in with the
clock pulses that are generated by the master device. The slave device does
not generate the clock, but it can hold SCL low if intervention of the CPU is
required after a byte has been received. In slave receiver mode, every byte
received will be acknowledged. There is no way for a slave to generate a
NACK condition for received data.
Slave transmitter mode is entered when the slave address byte transmitted by
the master is the same as its own address and a set R/W bit has been
transmitted indicating a request to send data to the master. The slave
transmitter shifts the serial data out on SDA with the clock pulses that are
generated by the master device. The slave device does not generate the clock,
but it will hold SCL low while intervention of the CPU is required after a byte
has been transmitted.
Note: I2CTRX Bit In Slave Mode
The I2CTRX bit must be cleared for proper slave mode operation.
15-12
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Operation
Figure 15−11.Slave Transmitter
IDLE
No
2
OAIFG Set If Not
RESTART
START
Detected?
I2CDR Empty
Yes
I2CDR Loaded?
STTIFG Is Set
I2CBUSY Is Set
4 x I2CPSC
Yes
I2CBB Is Set
XA = 1
XA = 0
8 x SCL
Send Data
Low Byte
To Master
8 x SCL
Receive Slave
Address Bits 9−8
with R/W = 0
Receive Slave
Address Bits 6−0
with R/W = 1
No
Match
No
Match
Matched I2COA
8 x SCL
Send Data
High Byte
To Master
Matched I2COA
Ack
1 x SCL
Send
Acknowledge
No Ack
Ack
2
1 x SCL
No
8 x SCL
No Ack
1
Ack and
I2CWORD=0
Send
Acknowledge
STOP Detected?
No
8 x SCL
Receive Slave
Address Bits 7−0
No
Match
2
Matched I2COA
Yes
RESTART
Detected?
1 x SCL
Send
Acknowledge
1 x SCL
OAIFG Set If Not
RESTART
8 x SCL
2nd Start
Detected?
4 x I2CPSC
Yes
Send
Acknowledge
I2CBB Is Cleared
13 x I2CPSC
I2CBUSY Is
Cleared
Receive Slave
Address Bits 9−8
with R/W=1
Yes
1
STTIFG Is Set
IDLE
No
Data
on SDA?
Yes
Enter Slave Receive
mode at ”1”
No
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-13
I 2C Module Operation
Figure 15−12. Slave Receiver
IDLE
No
START
Detected?
2
Yes
RESTART
Detected ?
Yes
STTIFG Is Set
I2CBUSY Is Set
From Slave
Transmit Mode
No
4 x I2CPSC
I2CBB Is Set
XA = 1
8 x SCL
8 x SCL
Receive Data
Low Byte
From Master
XA = 0
8 x SCL
Receive Slave
Address Bits 9−8
with R/W = 0
Receive Slave
Address Bits 6−0
with R/W = 0
No
Match
1 x SCL
Send
Acknowledge
8 x SCL
Receive Data
High Byte
From Master
Matched I2COA
Matched I2COA
1 x SCL
Send
Acknowledge
Send
Acknowledge
Receive Slave
Address Bits 7−0
I2CWORD=0
Byte Mode
1 x SCL
Send
Acknowledge
No
Match
8 x SCL
OAIFG Set If Not
RESTART
Matched I2COA
Stop State?
1 x SCL
Send
Acknowledge
Yes
4 x I2CPSC
I2CBB Is Cleared
1 x I2CPSC
I2CBUSY Is
Cleared
IDLE
15-14
No
No
Match
2
1 x SCL
1
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Operation
15.2.5 The I2C Data Register I2CDR
The I2CDR register can be accessed as an 8-bit or 16-bit register selected by
the I2CWORD bit. The I2CDR register functions as described in Table 15−2.
When I2CWORD = 1, any attempt to modify the register with a byte instruction
will fail and the register will not be modified.
Table 15−2.I2CDR Register Function
I2CWORD
I2CTRX
I2CDR Function
0
1
Byte mode transmit: Only the low byte is used. The byte is
double buffered. If a new byte is written before the previous
byte has been transmitted, the new byte is held in a
temporary buffer before being latched into the I2CDR low
byte. TXRDYIFG is set when I2CDR is ready to be accessed.
I2CDR should be written after I2CSTT is set.
0
0
Byte mode receive: Only the low byte is used. The byte is
double buffered. If a new byte is received before the previous
byte has been read, the new byte is held in a temporary buffer
before being latched into the I2CDR low byte. RXRDYIFG is
set when I2CDR is ready to be read.
1
1
Word mode transmit: The low byte of the word is sent first,
then the high byte. The register is double buffered. If a new
word is written before the previous word has been
transmitted, the new word is held in a temporary buffer before
being latched into the I2CDR register. TXRDYIFG is set
when I2CDR is ready to be accessed. I2CDR should be
written after I2CSTT is set.
1
0
Word mode receive: The low byte of the word was received
first, then the high byte. The register is double buffered. If a
new word is received before the previous word has been
read, the new word is held in a temporary buffer before being
latched into the I2CDR register. RXRDYIFG is set when
I2CDR is ready to be accessed.
Transmit Underflow
In master mode, underflow occurs when the transmit shift register and the
transmit buffer are empty. In slave mode, underflow occurs when the transmit
shift register and the transmit buffer are empty and the external I2C master still
requests data. When transmit underflow occurs, the I2CTXUDF bit is set.
Writing data to the I2CDR register or resetting the I2CEN bit resets I2CTXUDF.
I2CTXUDF is used in transmit mode only.
Receive Overrun
Receive overrun occurs when the receive shift register is full and the receive
buffer is full. The I2CRXOVR bit is set when receive overrun occurs. No data
is lost because SCL is held low in this condition, which stops further bus
activity. Reading the I2CDR register or resetting I2CEN resets I2CRXOVR.
The I2CRXOVR bit is used in receive mode only.
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-15
I 2C Module Operation
15.2.6 I2C Clock Generation and Synchronization
The I2C module is operated with the clock source selected by the I2CSSELx
bits. The prescaler, I2CPSC, and the I2CSCLH and I2CSCLL registers
determine the frequency and duty cycle of the SCL clock signal for master
mode as shown in Figure 15−13.
Note: I2CCLK Maximum Frequency
I2CIN must be at least 10x the SCL frequency x the I2CPSC divider rate in
both master and slave modes. For example, with an I2CPSC value of 02h,
I2CIN must be > 3 kHz x 3 x 10, or > 90 Khz for a 3-kHz SCL
Note: I2CPSC Value
When I2CPSC > 4, unpredictable operation can result. The I2CSCLL and
I2CSCLH registers should be used to set the SCL frequency.
Figure 15−13. I 2C Module SCL Generation
I2CIN
I2CPSC
I2CCLK
(I2CPSC +1) x (I2CSCLH + 2) (I2CPSC + 1) x (I2CSCLL + 2)
During the arbitration procedure the clocks from the different masters must be
synchronized. A device that first generates a low period on SCL overrules the
other devices forcing them to start their own low periods. SCL is then held low
by the device with the longest low period. The other devices must wait for SCL
to be released before starting their high periods. Figure 15−14 illustrates the
clock synchronization. This allows a slow slave to slow down a fast master.
Figure 15−14. Synchronization of Two I 2C Clock Generators During Arbitration
Wait
State
SCL From
Device #1
SCL From
Device #2
Bus Line
SCL
15-16
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
Start HIGH
Period
I 2C Module Operation
15.2.7 Using the I2C Module with Low Power Modes
The I2C module can be used with MSP430 low-power modes. When the
internal clock source for the I2C module is present, the module operates
normally regardless of the MSP430 operating mode. When the internal clock
source for the I2C module is not present, automatic clock activation is
provided. When the I2C module is in the idle state, I2CBUSY = 0, and the I2C
clock source I2CIN is disconnected from the I2C module state machine, saving
power.
When the I2C clock source is inactive, the I2C module automatically activates
the selected clock source when needed, regardless of the control-bit settings
for the clock source. The clock source remains active until the I2C module
returns to idle condition. After the I2C module returns to the idle condition,
control of the clock-source reverts to the settings of its control bits.
Automatic I2C clock activation occurs when:
- In master mode, clock activation occurs when I2CSTT = 1 and remains
active until the transfer completes and the I2C module returns to the idle
condition.
- In slave mode, clock activation occurs when a START condition is
detected and remains active until the transfer completes and the I2C
module returns to the idle condition. After detection of the START
condition, the STTIFG flag is set, and the module holds the SCL line low
until the clock source becomes active. Once the source is active, the I2C
module releases the SCL line to the master.
When the I2C module activates an inactive clock source, the clock source
becomes active for the whole device and any peripheral configured to use the
clock source may be affected. For example, a timer using SMCLK will
increment while the I2C module forces SMCLK active.
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-17
I 2C Module Operation
15.2.8 I2C Interrupts
The I2C module has one interrupt vector for eight interrupt flags listed in Table
15−3. Each interrupt flag has its own interrupt enable bit. When an interrupt
is enabled, and the GIE bit is set, the interrupt flag will generate an interrupt
request.
Table 15−3.I 2C Interrupts
Interrupt
Flag
15-18
Interrupt Condition
ALIFG
Arbitration-lost. Arbitration can be lost when two or more transmitters
start a transmission simultaneously, or when the software attempts
to initiate an I2C transfer while I2CBB = 1. The ALIFG flag is set when
arbitration has been lost. When ALIFG is set the MST and I2CSTP
bits are cleared and the I2C controller becomes a slave receiver.
NACKIFG
No-acknowledge interrupt. This flag is set when an acknowledge is
expected but is not received in master mode. NACKIFG is used in
master mode only.
OAIFG
Own-address interrupt. This flag is set when another master has
addressed the I2C module. OAIFG is used in slave mode only.
ARDYIFG
Register-access-ready interrupt. This flag is set as described for the
below conditions.
Master transmitter, I2CRM = 0: All data sent
Master transmitter, I2CRM = 1: All data sent and I2CSTP set
Master receiver, I2CRM = 0: I2CNDAT number of bytes received and
all data read from I2CDR
Master receiver, I2CRM = 1: Last byte of data received, I2CSTP set,
and all data read from I2CDR
Slave transmitter: STOP condition detected
Slave receiver: STOP condition detected and all data read from
I2CDR
RXRDYIFG
Receive ready interrupt/status. This flag is set when the I2C module
has received new data. RXRDYIFG is automatically cleared when
I2CDR is read and the receive buffer is empty. A receiver overrun is
indicated if bit I2CRXOVR = 1. RXRDYIFG is used in receive mode
only.
TXRDYIFG
Transmit ready interrupt/status. This flag is set when the I2C module
is ready for new transmit data (master transmit mode) or when
another master is requesting data (slave transmit mode). TXRDYIFG
is automatically cleared when I2CDR and the transmit buffer are full.
A transmit underflow is indicated if I2CTXUDF = 1. Unused in receive
mode.
GCIFG
General call interrupt. This flag is set when the I2C module received
the general call address (00h). GCIFG is used in receive mode only.
STTIFG
START condition detected interrupt. This flag is set when the I2C
module detects a START condition while in slave mode. This allows
the MSP430 to be in a low power mode with the I2C clock source
inactive until a master initiates I2C communication. STTIFG is used
in slave mode only.
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Operation
I2CIV, Interrupt Vector Generator
The I2C interrupt flags are prioritized and combined to source a single interrupt
vector. The interrupt vector register I2CIV is used to determine which flag
requested an interrupt. The highest priority enabled interrupt generates a
number in the I2CIV register that can be evaluated or added to the program
counter to automatically enter the appropriate software routine. Disabled I2C
interrupts do not affect the I2CIV value. When RXDMAEN = 1, RXRDYIFG will
not affect the I2CIV value and when TXDMAEN = 1, TXRDYIFG will not affect
the I2CIV value, regardless of the state of RXRDYIE or TXRDYIE.
Any access, read or write, of the I2CIV register automatically resets the highest
pending interrupt flag, except for TXRDYIFG and RXRDYIFG. Those flags are
reset as described in Table 15−3 . If another interrupt flag is set, another
interrupt is immediately generated after servicing the initial interrupt.
I2CIV Software Example
The following software example shows the recommended use of I2CIV. The
I2CIV value is added to the PC to automatically jump to the appropriate routine.
I2C_ISR
ADD
RETI
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
STTIFG_ISR
...
RETI
ALIFG_ISR
...
RETI
NACKIFG_ISR
...
RETI
OAIFG_ISR
...
RETI
ARDYIFG_ISR
...
RETI
RXRDYIFG_ISR
...
RETI
TXRDYIFG_ISR
...
RETI
GCIFG_ISR
...
RETI
&I2CIV, PC
ALIFG_ISR
NACKIFG_ISR
OAIFG_ISR
ARDYIFG_ISR
RXRDYIFG_ISR
TXRDYIFG_ISR
GCIFG_ISR
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Add offset to jump table
Vector 0: No interrupt
Vector 2: ALIFG
Vector 4: NACKIFG
Vector 6: OAIFG
Vector 8: ARDYIFG
Vector 10: RXRDYIFG
Vector 12: TXRDYIFG
Vector 14: GCIFG
Vector 16
Task starts here
Return
Vector 2
Task starts here
Return
Vector 4
Task starts here
Return
Vector 6
Task starts here
Return
Vector 8
Task starts here
Return
Vector 10
Task starts here
Return
Vector 12
Task starts here
Return
Vector 14
Task starts here
Return
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-19
I 2C Module Registers
15.3 I2C Module Registers
The I2C module registers are listed in Table 15−4.
Table 15−4.I 2C Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
I2C interrupt enable
I2CIE
Read/write
Reset with PUC
050h
I2C interrupt flag
I2CIFG
Read/write
051h
Reset with PUC
I2C data count
I2CNDAT
Read/write
052h
Reset with PUC
USART control
U0CTL
Read/write
070h
001h with PUC
I2C transfer control
I2CTCTL
Read/write
071h
Reset with PUC
I2C data control
I2CDCTL
Read only
072h
Reset with PUC
I2C prescaler
I2CPSC
Read/write
073h
Reset with PUC
I2C SCL high
I2CSCLH
Read/write
074h
Reset with PUC
I2C SCL low
I2CSCLL
Read/write
075h
Reset with PUC
I2C data
I2CDRW/I2CDRB Read/write
076h
Reset with PUC
I2C own address
I2COA
Read/write
0118h
Reset with PUC
I2C slave address
I2CSA
Read/write
011Ah
Reset with PUC
I2C interrupt vector
I2CIV
Read only
011Ch
Reset with PUC
15-20
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Registers
U0CTL, USART0 Control Register-I2C Mode
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXDMAEN
TXDMAEN
I2C
XA
LISTEN
SYNC
MST
I2CEN
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−1
RXDMAEN
Bit 7
Receive DMA enable. This bit enables the DMA controller to be used to
transfer data from the I2C module after the I2C modules receives data. When
RXDMAEN = 1, RXRDYIE is ignored.
0
Disabled
1
Enabled
TXDMAEN
Bit 6
Transmit DMA enable. This bit enables the DMA controller to be used to
provide data to the I2C module for transmission. When TXDMAEN = 1,
TXRDYIE, is ignored.
0
Disabled
1
Enabled
I2C
Bit 5
I2C mode enable. This bit select I2C or SPI operation when SYNC = 1.
0
SPI mode
1
I2C mode
XA
Bit 4
Extended Addressing
0
7-bit addressing
1
10-bit addressing
LISTEN
Bit 3
Listen. This bit selects loopback mode. LISTEN is only valid when MST = 1
and I2CTRX = 1 (master transmitter).
0
Normal mode
1
SDA is internally fed back to the receiver (loopback).
SYNC
Bit 2
Synchronous mode enable
0
UART mode
1
SPI or I2C mode
MST
Bit 1
Master. This bit selects master or slave mode. The MST bit is automatically
cleared when arbitration is lost or a STOP condition is generated.
0
Slave mode
1
Master mode
I2CEN
Bit 0
I2C enable. The bit enables or disables the I2C module. The initial condition
for this bit is set, and SWRST function for UART or SPI. When the I2C and
SYNC bits are first set after a PUC, this bit becomes I2CEN function and is
automatically cleared.
0
I2C operation is disabled
1
I2C operation is enabled
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-21
I 2C Module Registers
I2CTCTL, I2C Transmit Control Register
7
6
I2CWORD
I2CRM
rw−0
rw−0
5
4
I2CSSELx
rw−0
rw−0
3
2
1
0
I2CTRX
I2CSTB
I2CSTP
I2CSTT
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
Modifiable only when I2CEN = 0
I2CWORD
Bit 7
I2C word mode. Selects byte or word mode for the I2C data register.
0
Byte mode
1
Word mode
I2CRM
Bit 6
I2C repeat mode
0
I2CNDAT defines the number of bytes transmitted.
1
Number of bytes transmitted is controlled by software. I2CNDAT is
unused.
I2CSSELx
Bits
5−4
I2C clock source select. When MST = 1 and arbitration is lost, the external SCL
signal is automatically used.
00 No clock − I2C module is inactive
01 ACLK
10 SMCLK
11 SMCLK
I2CTRX
Bit 3
I2C transmit. This bit selects the transmit or receive function for the I2C
controller when MST = 1. When MST = 0, the R/W bit of the address byte
defines the data direction. I2CTRX must be reset for proper slave mode
operation.
0
Receive mode. Data is received on the SDA pin.
1
Transmit mode. Data transmitted on the SDA pin.
I2CSTB
Bit 2
Start byte. Setting the I2CSTB bit when MST = 1 initiates a start byte when
I2CSTT = 1. After the start byte is initiated, I2CSTB is automatically cleared.
0:
No action
1:
Send START condition and start byte (01h), but no STOP condition.
I2CSTP
Bit 1
STOP bit. This bit is used to generate STOP condition. After the STOP
condition, the I2CSTP is automatically cleared.
0:
No action
1:
Send STOP condition
I2CSTT
Bit 0
START bit. This bit is used to generate a START condition. After the start
condition the I2CSTT is automatically cleared.
0:
No action
1:
Send START condition
15-22
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Registers
I2CDCTL, I2C Data Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Unused
Unused
I2CBUSY
I2C
SCLLOW
I2CSBD
I2CTXUDF
I2CRXOVR
I2CBB
r0
r0
r−0
r−0
r−0
r−0
r−0
r−0
Unused
Bits
7−6
Unused. Always read as 0.
I2CBUSY
Bit 5
I2C busy
0
I2C module is idle
1
I2C module is not idle
I2C
SCLLOW
Bit 4
I2C SCL low. This bit indicates if a slave is holding the SCL line low while the
MSP430 is the master and is unused in slave mode.
0
SCL is not being held low
1
SCL is being held low
I2CSBD
Bit 3
I2C single byte data. This bit indicates if the receive register I2CDRW holds
a word or a byte. I2CSBD is valid only when I2CWORD = 1.
0
A complete word was received
1
Only the lower byte in I2CDR is valid
I2CTXUDF
Bit 2
I2C transmit underflow
0
No underflow occurred
1
Transmit underflow occurred
I2CRXOVR
Bit 1
I2C receive overrun
0
No receive overrun occurred
1
Receiver overrun occurred
I2CBB
Bit 0
I2C bus busy bit. A START condition sets I2CBB to 1. I2CBB is reset by a
STOP condition or when I2CEN=0.
0
I2C bus not busy
1
I2C bus busy
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-23
I 2C Module Registers
I2CDRW, I2CDRB, I2C Data Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
I2CDRW High Byte
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
I2CDRW Low Byte
I2CDRB
rw−0
I2CDRW/
I2CDRB
rw−0
Bits
15−8
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
I2C Data. When I2CWORD = 1, the register name is I2CDRW. When
I2CWORD = 0, the name is I2CDRB. When I2CWORD = 1, any attempt to
modify the register with a byte instruction will fail and the register will not be
updated.
I2CNDAT, I2C Transfer Byte Count Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
I2CNDATx
rw−0
I2CNDATx
15-24
rw−0
Bits
7−0
rw−0
rw−0
I2C number of bytes. This register supports automatic data byte counting for
master mode. In word mode, I2CNDATx must be an even value.
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Registers
I2CPSC, I2C Clock Prescaler Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
I2CPSCx
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
Modifiable only when I2CEN = 0
I2CPSCx
Bits
7−0
I2C clock prescaler. The I2C clock input I2CIN is divided by the I2CPSCx value
to produce the internal I2C clock frequency. The division rate is I2CPSCx+1.
I2CPSCx values > 4 are not recommended. The I2CSCLL and I2CSCLH
registers should be used to set the SCL frequency.
000h Divide by 1
001h Divide by 2
:
0FFh Divide by 256
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-25
I 2C Module Registers
I2CSCLH, I2C Shift Clock High Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
I2CSCLHx
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
Modifiable only when I2CEN = 0
I2CSCLHx
I2C shift clock high. These bits define the high period of SCL when the I2C
controller is in master mode. The SCL high period is (I2CSCLH+2) x (I2CPSC
+ 1).
000h SCL high period = 5 x (I2CPSC + 1)
001h SCL high period = 5 x (I2CPSC + 1)
002h SCL high period = 5 x (I2CPSC + 1)
003h SCL high period = 5 x (I2CPSC + 1)
004h SCL high period = 6 x (I2CPSC + 1)
:
0FFh SCL high period = 257 x (I2CPSC + 1)
Bits
7−0
I2CSCLL, I2C Shift Clock Low Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
I2CSCLLx
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
Modifiable only when I2CEN = 0
I2CSCLLx
15-26
Bits
7−0
I2C shift clock low. These bits define the low period of SCL when the I2C
controller is in master mode. The SCL low period is (I2CSCLL+2) x (I2CPSC
+ 1).
000h SCL low period = 5 x (I2CPSC + 1)
001h SCL low period = 5 x (I2CPSC + 1)
002h SCL low period = 5 x (I2CPSC + 1)
003h SCL low period = 5 x (I2CPSC + 1)
004h SCL low period = 6 x (I2CPSC + 1)
:
0FFh SCL low period = 257 x (I2CPSC + 1)
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Registers
I2COA, I2C Own Address Register, 7-Bit Addressing Mode
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
0
r0
I2COAx
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
Modifiable only when I2CEN = 0
I2COAx
I2C own address. The I2COA register contains the local address of the
MSP430 I2C controller. The I2COA register is right-justified. Bit 6 is the MSB.
Bits 15-7 are always 0.
Bits
15-0
I2COA, I2C Own Address Register, 10-Bit Addressing Mode
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
rw−0
rw−0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
I2COAx
I2COAx
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
Modifiable only when I2CEN = 0
I2COAx
Bits
15-0
I2C own address. The I2COA register contains the local address of the
MSP430 I2C controller. The I2COA register is right-justified. Bit 9 is the MSB.
Bits 15-10 are always 0.
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-27
I 2C Module Registers
I2CSA, I2C Slave Address Register, 7-Bit Addressing Mode
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
0
r0
I2CSAx
I2CSAx
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
I2C slave address. The I2CSA register contains the slave address of the
external device to be addressed by the MSP430. It is only used in master
mode. The I2CSA register is right-justified. Bit 6 is the MSB. Bits 15-7 are
always 0.
Bits
15-0
I2CSA, I2C Slave Address Register, 10-Bit Addressing Mode
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
rw−0
rw−0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
I2CSAx
I2CSAx
rw−0
I2CSAx
15-28
rw−0
Bits
15-0
rw−0
rw−0
I2C slave address. The I2CSA register contains the slave address of the
external device to be addressed by the MSP430. It is only used in master
mode. The I2CSA register is right-justified. Bit 9 is the MSB. Bits 15-10 are
always 0.
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Registers
I2CIE, I2C Interrupt Enable Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
STTIE
GCIE
TXRDYIE
RXRDYIE
ARDYIE
OAIE
NACKIE
ALIE
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
STTIE
Bit 7
START detect interrupt enable
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
GCIE
Bit 6
General call interrupt enable
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
TXRDYIE
Bit 5
Transmit ready interrupt enable. When TXDMAEN = 1, TXRDYIE is ignored
and TXRDYIFG will not generate an interrupt.
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
RXRDYIE
Bit 4
Receive ready interrupt enable. When RXDMAEN = 1, RXRDYIE is ignored
and RXRDYIFG will not generate an interrupt.
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
ARDYIE
Bit 3
Access ready interrupt enable
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
OAIE
Bit 2
Own address interrupt enable
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
NACKIE
Bit 1
ALIE
Bit 0
No acknowledge interrupt enable
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
Arbitration lost interrupt enable
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-29
I 2C Module Registers
I2CIFG, I2C Interrupt Flag Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
STTIFG
GCIFG
TXRDYIFG
RXRDYIFG
ARDYIFG
OAIFG
NACKIFG
ALIFG
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
rw−0
STTIFG
Bit 7
START detect interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
GCIFG
Bit 6
General call interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
TXRDYIFG
Bit 5
Transmit ready interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
RXRDYIFG
Bit 4
Receive ready interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
ARDYIFG
Bit 3
Access ready interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
OAIFG
Bit 2
Own address interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
NACKIFG
Bit 1
ALIFG
Bit 0
No acknowledge interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
Arbitration lost interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
15-30
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
I 2C Module Registers
I2CIV, I2C Interrupt Vector Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
I2CIVx
Bits
15-0
I2CIVx
r−0
r−0
0
r−0
r−0
r0
I2C interrupt vector value
I2CIV
Contents
Interrupt Source
Interrupt
Flag
000h
No interrupt pending
002h
Arbitration lost
ALIFG
004h
No acknowledgement
NACKIFG
006h
Own address
OAIFG
008h
Register access ready
ARDYIFG
00Ah
Receive data ready
RXRDYIFG
00Ch
Transmit data ready
TXRDYIFG
00Eh
General call
GCIFG
010h
START condition received
STTIFG
Interrupt
Priority
−
Highest
Lowest
USART Peripheral Interface, I 2C Mode
15-31
Chapter 16
,)
Comparator_A is an analog voltage comparator. This chapter describes
Comparator_A. Comparator_A is implemented in MSP430x11x1,
MSP430x12x, MSP430x13x, MSP430x14x, MSP430x15x and MSP430x16x
devices.
Topic
Page
16.1 Comparator_A Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
16.2 Comparator_A Operation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
16.3 Comparator_A Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-9
Comparator_A
16-1
Comparator_A Introduction
16.1 Comparator_A Introduction
The comparator_A module supports precision slope analog-to-digital
conversions, supply voltage supervision, and monitoring of external analog
signals.
Features of Comparator_A include:
- Inverting and non-inverting terminal input multiplexer
- Software selectable RC-filter for the comparator output
- Output provided to Timer_A capture input
- Software control of the port input buffer
- Interrupt capability
- Selectable reference voltage generator
- Comparator and reference generator can be powered down
The Comparator_A block diagram is shown in Figure 16−1.
16-2
Comparator_A
Comparator_A Introduction
Figure 16−1. Comparator_A Block Diagram
VCC 0V
P2CA0
CAEX
1
0
CAON
0
CA0
1
1
0
CA1
CAF
0
CCI1B
++
0
0
−−
1
1
CAOUT
0
1
1
Set_CAIFG
Tau ~ 2.0ms
P2CA1
0V
1
0
CAREFx
CARSEL
0.5x VCC
00
0
1
VCAREF
01
10
0.25x VCC
11
G
D
S
Comparator_A
16-3
Comparator_A Operation
16.2 Comparator_A Operation
The comparator_A module is configured with user software. The setup and
operation of comparator_A is discussed in the following sections.
16.2.1 Comparator
The comparator compares the analog voltages at the + and – input terminals.
If the + terminal is more positive than the – terminal, the comparator output
CAOUT is high. The comparator can be switched on or off using control bit
CAON. The comparator should be switched off when not in use to reduce
current consumption. When the comparator is switched off, the CAOUT is
always low.
16.2.2 Input Analog Switches
The analog input switches connect or disconnect the two comparator input
terminals to associated port pins using the P2CAx bits. Both comparator
terminal inputs can be controlled individually. The P2CAx bits allow:
- Application of an external signal to the + and – terminals of the comparator
- Routing of an internal reference voltage to an associated output port pin
Internally, the input switch is constructed as a T-switch to suppress distortion
in the signal path.
Note: Comparator Input Connection
When the comparator is on, the input terminals should be connected to a
signal, power, or ground. Otherwise, floating levels may cause unexpected
interrupts and increased current consumption.
The CAEX bit controls the input multiplexer, exchanging which input signals
are connected to the comparator’s + and – terminals. Additionally, when the
comparator terminals are exchanged, the output signal from the comparator
is inverted. This allows the user to determine or compensate for the
comparator input offset voltage.
16-4
Comparator_A
Comparator_A Operation
16.2.3 Output Filter
The output of the comparator can be used with or without internal filtering.
When control bit CAF is set, the output is filtered with an on-chip RC-filter.
Any comparator output oscillates if the voltage difference across the input
terminals is small. Internal and external parasitic effects and cross coupling on
and between signal lines, power supply lines, and other parts of the system
are responsible for this behavior as shown in Figure 16−2. The comparator
output oscillation reduces accuracy and resolution of the comparison result.
Selecting the output filter can reduce errors associated with comparator
oscillation.
Figure 16−2. RC-Filter Response at the Output of the Comparator
+ Terminal
− Terminal
Comparator Inputs
Comparator Output
Unfiltered at CAOUT
Comparator Output
Filtered at CAOUT
16.2.4 Voltage Reference Generator
The voltage reference generator is used to generate VCAREF, which can be
applied to either comparator input terminal. The CAREFx bits control the
output of the voltage generator. The CARSEL bit selects the comparator
terminal to which VCAREF is applied. If external signals are applied to both
comparator input terminals, the internal reference generator should be turned
off to reduce current consumption. The voltage reference generator can
generate a fraction of the device’s VCC or a fixed transistor threshold voltage
of ~ 0.55 V.
Comparator_A
16-5
Comparator_A Operation
16.2.5 Comparator_A, Port Disable Register CAPD
The comparator input and output functions are multiplexed with the associated
I/O port pins, which are digital CMOS gates. When analog signals are applied
to digital CMOS gates, parasitic current can flow from VCC to GND. This
parasitic current occurs if the input voltage is near the transition level of the
gate. Disabling the port pin buffer eliminates the parasitic current flow and
therefore reduces overall current consumption.
The CAPDx bits, when set, disable the corresponding P2 input buffer as shown
in Figure 16−3. When current consumption is critical, any P2 pin connected to
analog signals should be disabled with their associated CAPDx bit.
Figure 16−3. Transfer Characteristic and Power Dissipation in a CMOS Inverter/Buffer
VCC
VI
VO
ICC
ICC
VI
VCC
0
CAPD.x = 1
VCC
VSS
16.2.6 Comparator_A Interrupts
One interrupt flag and one interrupt vector are associated with the
Comparator_A as shown in Figure 16−4. The interrupt flag CAIFG is set on
either the rising or falling edge of the comparator output, selected by the
CAIES bit. If both the CAIE and the GIE bits are set, then the CAIFG flag
generates an interrupt request. The CAIFG flag is automatically reset when
the interrupt request is serviced or may be reset with software.
Figure 16−4. Comparator_A Interrupt System
CAIE
VCC
CAIES
SET_CAIFG
0
1
D
IRQ, Interrupt Service Requested
Q
Reset
IRACC, Interrupt Request Accepted
POR
16-6
Comparator_A
Comparator_A Operation
16.2.7 Comparator_A Used to Measure Resistive Elements
The Comparator_A can be optimized to precisely measure resistive elements
using single slope analog-to-digital conversion. For example, temperature can
be converted into digital data using a thermistor, by comparing the thermistor’s
capacitor discharge time to that of a reference resistor as shown in
Figure 16−5. A reference resister Rref is compared to Rmeas.
Figure 16−5. Temperature Measurement System
Rref
Px.x
Rmeas
Px.y
CA0
++
−−
CCI1B
Capture
Input
Of Timer_A
0.25xVCC
The MSP430 resources used to calculate the temperature sensed by Rmeas
are:
- Two digital I/O pins to charge and discharge the capacitor.
- I/O set to output high (VCC) to charge capacitor, reset to discharge.
- I/O switched to high-impedance input with CAPDx set when not in use.
- One output charges and discharges the capacitor via Rref.
- One output discharges capacitor via Rmeas.
- The + terminal is connected to the positive terminal of the capacitor.
- The – terminal is connected to a reference level, for example 0.25 x VCC.
- The output filter should be used to minimize switching noise.
- CAOUT used to gate Timer_A CCI1B, capturing capacitor discharge time.
More than one resistive element can be measured. Additional elements are
connected to CA0 with available I/O pins and switched to high impedance
when not being measured.
Comparator_A
16-7
Comparator_A Operation
The thermistor measurement is based on a ratiometric conversion principle.
The ratio of two capacitor discharge times is calculated as shown in
Figure 16−6.
Figure 16−6. Timing for Temperature Measurement Systems
VC
VCC
Rmeas
Rref
0.25 × VCC
Phase I:
Charge
Phase III:
Charge
Phase II:
Discharge
tref
Phase IV:
Discharge
t
tmeas
The VCC voltage and the capacitor value should remain constant during the
conversion, but are not critical since they cancel in the ratio:
N meas
+
N ref
–R meas
–R ref
C
C
N meas
R
+ meas
N ref
R ref
R meas + R ref
16-8
Comparator_A
N meas
N ref
ln
ln
V ref
V CC
V ref
V CC
Comparator_A Registers
16.3 Comparator_A Registers
The Comparator_A registers are listed in Table 16−1:
Table 16−1.Comparator_A Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
Comparator_A control register 1
CACTL1
Read/write
Reset with POR
059h
Comparator_A control register 2
CACTL2
Read/write
05Ah
Reset with POR
Comparator_A port disable
CAPD
Read/write
05Bh
Reset with POR
Comparator_A
16-9
Comparator_A Registers
CACTL1, Comparator_A Control Register 1
7
6
CAEX
CARSEL
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
5
4
CAREFx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
3
2
1
0
CAON
CAIES
CAIE
CAIFG
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
CAEX
Bit 7
Comparator_A exchange. This bit exchanges the comparator inputs and
inverts the comparator output.
CARSEL
Bit 6
Comparator_A reference select. This bit selects which terminal the VCAREF
is applied to.
When CAEX = 0:
0
VCAREF is applied to the + terminal
1
VCAREF is applied to the – terminal
When CAEX = 1:
0
VCAREF is applied to the – terminal
1
VCAREF is applied to the + terminal
CAREF
Bits
5-4
Comparator_A reference. These bits select the reference voltage VCAREF.
00 Internal reference off. An external reference can be applied.
01 0.25*VCC
10 0.50*VCC
11 Diode reference is selected
CAON
Bit 3
Comparator_A on. This bit turns on the comparator. When the comparator
is off it consumes no current. The reference circuitry is enabled or disabled
independently.
0
Off
1
On
CAIES
Bit 2
Comparator_A interrupt edge select
0
Rising edge
1
Falling edge
CAIE
Bit 1
Comparator_A interrupt enable
0
Disabled
1
Enabled
CAIFG
Bit 0
The Comparator_A interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
16-10
Comparator_A
Comparator_A Registers
CACTL2, Comparator_A, Control Register
7
6
5
4
Unused
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
3
2
1
0
P2CA1
P2CA0
CAF
CAOUT
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
r−(0)
Unused
Bits
7-4
Unused.
P2CA1
Bit 3
Pin to CA1. This bit selects the CA1 pin function.
0
The pin is not connected to CA1
1
The pin is connected to CA1
P2CA0
Bit 2
Pin to CA0. This bit selects the CA0 pin function.
0
The pin is not connected to CA0
1
The pin is connected to CA0
CAF
Bit 1
Comparator_A output filter
0
Comparator_A output is not filtered
1
Comparator_A output is filtered
CAOUT
Bit 0
Comparator_A output. This bit reflects the value of the comparator output.
Writing this bit has no effect.
CAPD, Comparator_A, Port Disable Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CAPD7
CAPD6
CAPD5
CAPD4
CAPD3
CAPD2
CAPD1
CAPD0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
CAPDx
Bits
7-0
Comparator_A port disable. These bits individually disable the input buffer
for the pins of the port associated with Comparator_A. For example, if CA0
is on pin P2.3, the CAPDx bits can be used to individually enable or
disable each P2.x pin buffer. CAPD0 disables P2.0, CAPD1 disables P2.1,
etc.
0
The input buffer is enabled.
1
The input buffer is disabled.
Comparator_A
16-11
Chapter 17
)(.
The ADC12 module is a high-performance 12-bit analog-to-digital converter.
This chapter describes the ADC12. The ADC12 is implemented in the
MSP430x13x, MSP430x14x, MSP430x15x, and MSP430x16x devices.
Topic
Page
17.1 ADC12 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
17.2 ADC12 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
17.3 ADC12 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-20
ADC12
17-1
ADC12 Introduction
17.1 ADC12 Introduction
The ADC12 module supports fast, 12-bit analog-to-digital conversions. The
module implements a 12-bit SAR core, sample select control, reference
generator and a 16 word conversion-and-control buffer. The
conversion-and-control buffer allows up to 16 independent ADC samples to be
converted and stored without any CPU intervention.
ADC12 features include:
- Greater than 200 ksps maximum conversion rate
- Monotonic 12-bit converter with no missing codes
- Sample-and-hold with programmable sampling periods controlled by
software or timers.
- Conversion initiation by software, Timer_A, or Timer_B
- Software selectable on-chip reference voltage generation (1.5 V or 2.5 V)
- Software selectable internal or external reference
- Eight individually configurable external input channels
- Conversion channels for internal temperature sensor, AVCC, and external
references
- Independent channel-selectable reference sources for both positive and
negative references
- Selectable conversion clock source
- Single-channel, repeat-single-channel, sequence, and repeat-sequence
conversion modes
- ADC core and reference voltage can be powered down separately
- Interrupt vector register for fast decoding of 18 ADC interrupts
- 16 conversion-result storage registers
The block diagram of ADC12 is shown in Figure 17−1.
17-2
ADC12
ADC12 Introduction
Figure 17−1. ADC12 Block Diagram
REFON
INCHx=0Ah
REF2_5V
Ve REF+
on
1.5 V or 2.5 V
Reference
VREF+
VREF− / Ve REF−
AVCC
INCHx
AVSS
4
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
SREF2
1
Ref_x
SREF1
SREF0
11 10 01 00
ADC12OSC
ADC12SSELx
ADC12ON
0
AVCC
ADC12DIVx
VR−
Sample
and
Hold
VR+
00
Divider
/1 .. /8
12−bit SAR
S/H
Convert
ADC12CLK
01
ACLK
10
MCLK
11
SMCLK
BUSY
SHP
SHSx
ISSH
SHT0x
ENC
4
1
SAMPCON
AVCC
0
Sample Timer
/4 .. /1024
SHI
0
1
Sync
4
SHT1x
00
ADC12SC
01
TA1
10
TB0
11
TB1
MSC
INCHx=0Bh
Ref_x
R
R
AVSS
CSTARTADDx
CONSEQx
ADC12MEM0
ADC12MCTL0
−
16 x 12
Memory
Buffer
−
−
16 x 8
Memory
Control
−
ADC12MEM15
ADC12MCTL15
ADC12
17-3
ADC12 Operation
17.2 ADC12 Operation
The ADC12 module is configured with user software. The setup and operation
of the ADC12 is discussed in the following sections.
17.2.1 12-Bit ADC Core
The ADC core converts an analog input to its 12-bit digital representation and
stores the result in conversion memory. The core uses two
programmable/selectable voltage levels (VR+ and VR−) to define the upper and
lower limits of the conversion. The digital output (NADC) is full scale (0FFFh)
when the input signal is equal to or higher than VR+, and zero when the input
signal is equal to or lower than VR−. The input channel and the reference
voltage levels (VR+ and VR−) are defined in the conversion-control memory.
The conversion formula for the ADC result NADC is:
N ADC + 4095
Vin * V R*
V R) * V R*
The ADC12 core is configured by two control registers, ADC12CTL0 and
ADC12CTL1. The core is enabled with the ADC12ON bit. The ADC12 can be
turned off when not in use to save power. With few exceptions the ADC12
control bits can only be modified when ENC = 0. ENC must be set to 1 before
any conversion can take place.
Conversion Clock Selection
The ADC12CLK is used both as the conversion clock and to generate the
sampling period when the pulse sampling mode is selected. The ADC12
source clock is selected using the ADC12SSELx bits and can be divided from
1-8 using the ADC12DIVx bits. Possible ADC12CLK sources are SMCLK,
MCLK, ACLK, and an internal oscillator ADC12OSC.
The ADC12OSC, generated internally, is in the 5-MHz range, but varies with
individual devices, supply voltage, and temperature. See the device-specific
datasheet for the ADC12OSC specification.
The user must ensure that the clock chosen for ADC12CLK remains active
until the end of a conversion. If the clock is removed during a conversion, the
operation will not complete and any result will be invalid.
17-4
ADC12
ADC12 Operation
17.2.2 ADC12 Inputs and Multiplexer
The eight external and four internal analog signals are selected as the channel
for conversion by the analog input multiplexer. The input multiplexer is a
break-before-make type to reduce input-to-input noise injection resulting from
channel switching as shown in Figure 17−2. The input multiplexer is also a
T-switch to minimize the coupling between channels. Channels that are not
selected are isolated from the A/D and the intermediate node is connected to
analog ground (AVSS) so that the stray capacitance is grounded to help
eliminate crosstalk.
The ADC12 uses the charge redistribution method. When the inputs are
internally switched, the switching action may cause transients on the input
signal. These transients decay and settle before causing errant conversion.
Figure 17−2. Analog Multiplexer
R ~ 100 Ohm
ADC12MCTLx.0−3
Input
Ax
ESD Protection
Analog Port Selection
The ADC12 inputs are multiplexed with the port P6 pins, which are digital
CMOS gates. When analog signals are applied to digital CMOS gates,
parasitic current can flow from VCC to GND. This parasitic current occurs if the
input voltage is near the transition level of the gate. Disabling the port pin buffer
eliminates the parasitic current flow and therefore reduces overall current
consumption. The P6SELx bits provide the ability to disable the port pin input
and output buffers.
; P6.0 and P6.1 configured for analog input
BIS.B #3h,&P6SEL
; P6.1 and P6.0 ADC12 function
ADC12
17-5
ADC12 Operation
17.2.3 Voltage Reference Generator
The ADC12 module contains a built-in voltage reference with two selectable
voltage levels, 1.5 V and 2.5 V. Either of these reference voltages may be used
internally and externally on pin VREF+.
Setting REFON=1 enables the internal reference. When REF2_5V = 1, the
internal reference is 2.5 V, the reference is 1.5 V when REF2_5V = 0. The
reference can be turned off to save power when not in use.
For proper operation the internal voltage reference generator must be
supplied with storage capacitance across VREF+ and AVSS. The recommended
storage capacitance is a parallel combination of 10-µF and 0.1-µF capacitors.
From turn-on, a minimum of 17 ms must be allowed for the voltage reference
generator to bias the recommended storage capacitors. If the internal
reference generator is not used for the conversion, the storage capacitors are
not required.
Note: Reference Decoupling
Approximately 200 µA is required from any reference used by the ADC12
while the two LSBs are being resolved during a conversion. A parallel
combination of 10-µF and 0.1-µF capacitors is recommended for any
reference used as shown in Figure 17−11.
External references may be supplied for VR+ and VR− through pins VeREF+ and
VREF−/VeREF− respectively.
17.2.4 Auto Power-Down
The ADC12 is designed for low power applications. When the ADC12 is not
actively converting, the core is automatically disabled and automatically
re-enabled when needed. The ADC12OSC is also automatically enabled
when needed and disabled when not needed. The reference is not
automatically disabled, but can be disabled by setting REFON = 0. When the
core, oscillator, or reference are disabled, they consume no current.
17-6
ADC12
ADC12 Operation
17.2.5 Sample and Conversion Timing
An analog-to-digital conversion is initiated with a rising edge of the sample
input signal SHI. The source for SHI is selected with the SHSx bits and
includes the following:
-
The ADC12SC bit
The Timer_A Output Unit 1
The Timer_B Output Unit 0
The Timer_B Output Unit 1
The polarity of the SHI signal source can be inverted with the ISSH bit. The
SAMPCON signal controls the sample period and start of conversion. When
SAMPCON is high, sampling is active. The high-to-low SAMPCON transition
starts the analog-to-digital conversion, which requires 13 ADC12CLK cycles.
Two different sample-timing methods are defined by control bit SHP, extended
sample mode and pulse mode.
Extended Sample Mode
The extended sample mode is selected when SHP = 0. The SHI signal directly
controls SAMPCON and defines the length of the sample period tsample. When
SAMPCON is high, sampling is active. The high-to-low SAMPCON transition
starts the conversion after synchronization with ADC12CLK. See Figure 17−3.
Figure 17−3. Extended Sample Mode
Start
Sampling
Stop
Sampling
Conversion
Complete
Start
Conversion
SHI
13 x ADC12CLK
SAMPCON
tsample
tconvert
t sync
ADC12CLK
ADC12
17-7
ADC12 Operation
Pulse Sample Mode
The pulse sample mode is selected when SHP = 1. The SHI signal is used to
trigger the sampling timer. The SHT0x and SHT1x bits in ADC12CTL0 control
the interval of the sampling timer that defines the SAMPCON sample period
tsample. The sampling timer keeps SAMPCON high after synchronization with
AD12CLK for a programmed interval tsample. The total sampling time is tsample
plus tsync. See Figure 17−4.
The SHTx bits select the sampling time in 4x multiples of ADC12CLK. SHT0x
selects the sampling time for ADC12MCTL0 to 7 and SHT1x selects the
sampling time for ADC12MCTL8 to 15.
Figure 17−4. Pulse Sample Mode
Start
Sampling
Stop
Sampling
Conversion
Complete
Start
Conversion
SHI
13 x ADC12CLK
SAMPCON
tsample
tsync
ADC12CLK
17-8
ADC12
tconvert
ADC12 Operation
Sample Timing Considerations
When SAMPCON = 0 all Ax inputs are high impedance. When SAMPCON =
1, the selected Ax input can be modeled as an RC low-pass filter during the
sampling time tsample, as shown below in Figure 17−5. An internal MUX-on
input resistance RI (max. 2 kΩ) in series with capacitor CI (max. 40 pF) is seen
by the source. The capacitor CI voltage VC must be charged to within 1/2 LSB
of the source voltage VS for an accurate 12-bit conversion.
Figure 17−5. Analog Input Equivalent Circuit
MSP430
RS
VS
RI
VI
VC
CI
VI = Input voltage at pin Ax
VS = External source voltage
RS = External source resistance
RI = Internal MUX-on input resistance
CI = Input capacitance
VC = Capacitance-charging voltage
The resistance of the source RS and RI affect tsample. The following equation
can be used to calculate the minimum sampling time tsample for a 12-bit
conversion:
t
sample
u (R S ) R I)
ln(2 13)
C I ) 800ns
Substituting the values for RI and CI given above, the equation becomes:
t
sample
u (R S ) 2kW)
9.011
40pF ) 800ns
For example, if RS is 10 kΩ, tsample must be greater than 5.13 µs.
ADC12
17-9
ADC12 Operation
17.2.6 Conversion Memory
There are 16 ADC12MEMx conversion memory registers to store conversion
results. Each ADC12MEMx is configured with an associated ADC12MCTLx
control register. The SREFx bits define the voltage reference and the INCHx
bits select the input channel. The EOS bit defines the end of sequence when
a sequential conversion mode is used. A sequence rolls over from
ADC12MEM15 to ADC12MEM0 when the EOS bit in ADC12MCTL15 is not
set.
The CSTARTADDx bits define the first ADC12MCTLx used for any
conversion. If the conversion mode is single-channel or repeat-single-channel
the CSTARTADDx points to the single ADC12MCTLx to be used.
If the conversion mode selected is either sequence-of-channels or
repeat-sequence-of-channels, CSTARTADDx points to the first
ADC12MCTLx location to be used in a sequence. A pointer, not visible to
software, is incremented automatically to the next ADC12MCTLx in a
sequence when each conversion completes. The sequence continues until an
EOS bit in ADC12MCTLx is processed - this is the last control byte processed.
When conversion results are written to a selected ADC12MEMx, the
corresponding flag in the ADC12IFGx register is set.
17.2.7 ADC12 Conversion Modes
The ADC12 has four operating modes selected by the CONSEQx bits as
discussed in Table 17−1.
Table 17−1.Conversion Mode Summary
CONSEQx
17-10
ADC12
Mode
Operation
00
Single channel
single-conversion
A single channel is converted once.
01
Sequence-ofchannels
A sequence of channels is converted once.
10
Repeat-singlechannel
A single channel is converted repeatedly.
11
Repeat-sequenceof-channels
A sequence of channels is converted
repeatedly.
ADC12 Operation
Single-Channel Single-Conversion Mode
A single channel is sampled and converted once. The ADC result is written to
the ADC12MEMx defined by the CSTARTADDx bits. Figure 17−6 shows the
flow of the Single-Channel, Single-Conversion mode. When ADC12SC
triggers a conversion, successive conversions can be triggered by the
ADC12SC bit. When any other trigger source is used, ENC must be toggled
between each conversion.
Figure 17−6. Single-Channel, Single-Conversion Mode
CONSEQx = 00
ADC12
off
ADC12ON = 1
ENC =
x = CSTARTADDx
Wait for Enable
ENC =
SHSx = 0
and
ENC = 1 or
and
ADC12SC =
ENC =
Wait for Trigger
SAMPCON =
ENC = 0
SAMPCON = 1
ENC = 0†
Sample, Input
Channel Defined in
ADC12MCTLx
SAMPCON =
12 x ADC12CLK
Convert
ENC = 0†
1 x ADC12CLK
Conversion
Completed,
Result Stored Into
ADC12MEMx,
ADC12IFG.x is Set
x = pointer to ADC12MCTLx
†Conversion result is unpredictable
ADC12
17-11
ADC12 Operation
Sequence-of-Channels Mode
A sequence of channels is sampled and converted once. The ADC results are
written to the conversion memories starting with the ADCMEMx defined by the
CSTARTADDx bits. The sequence stops after the measurement of the
channel with a set EOS bit. Figure 17−7 shows the sequence-of-channels
mode. When ADC12SC triggers a sequence, successive sequences can be
triggered by the ADC12SC bit. When any other trigger source is used, ENC
must be toggled between each sequence.
Figure 17−7. Sequence-of-Channels Mode
CONSEQx = 01
ADC12
off
ADC12ON = 1
ENC =
x = CSTARTADDx
Wait for Enable
ENC =
SHSx = 0
and
ENC = 1 or
and
ADC12SC =
ENC =
Wait for Trigger
EOS.x = 1
SAMPCON =
SAMPCON = 1
If x < 15 then x = x + 1
else x = 0
Sample, Input
Channel Defined in
ADC12MCTLx
If x < 15 then x = x + 1
else x = 0
SAMPCON =
MSC = 1
and
SHP = 1
and
EOS.x = 0
12 x ADC12CLK
Convert
1 x ADC12CLK
Conversion
Completed,
Result Stored Into
ADC12MEMx,
ADC12IFG.x is Set
x = pointer to ADC12MCTLx
17-12
ADC12
(MSC = 0
or
SHP = 0)
and
EOS.x = 0
ADC12 Operation
Repeat-Single-Channel Mode
A single channel is sampled and converted continuously. The ADC results are
written to the ADC12MEMx defined by the CSTARTADDx bits. It is necessary
to read the result after the completed conversion because only one
ADC12MEMx memory is used and is overwritten by the next conversion.
Figure 17−8 shows repeat-single-channel mode
Figure 17−8. Repeat-Single-Channel Mode
CONSEQx = 10
ADC12
off
ADC12ON = 1
ENC =
x = CSTARTADDx
Wait for Enable
ENC =
SHSx = 0
and
ENC = 1 or
and
ADC12SC =
ENC =
Wait for Trigger
ENC = 0
SAMPCON =
SAMPCON = 1
Sample, Input
Channel Defined in
ADC12MCTLx
SAMPCON =
12 x ADC12CLK
MSC = 1
and
SHP = 1
and
ENC = 1
Convert
1 x ADC12CLK
(MSC = 0
or
SHP = 0)
and
ENC = 1
Conversion
Completed,
Result Stored Into
ADC12MEMx,
ADC12IFG.x is Set
x = pointer to ADC12MCTLx
ADC12
17-13
ADC12 Operation
Repeat-Sequence-of-Channels Mode
A sequence of channels is sampled and converted repeatedly. The ADC
results are written to the conversion memories starting with the ADC12MEMx
defined by the CSTARTADDx bits. The sequence ends after the measurement
of the channel with a set EOS bit and the next trigger signal re-starts the
sequence. Figure 17−9 shows the repeat-sequence-of-channels mode.
Figure 17−9. Repeat-Sequence-of-Channels Mode
CONSEQx = 11
ADC12
off
ADC12ON = 1
ENC =
x = CSTARTADDx
Wait for Enable
ENC =
SHSx = 0
and
ENC = 1 or
and
ADC12SC =
ENC =
Wait for Trigger
ENC = 0
and
EOS.x = 1
SAMPCON =
SAMPCON = 1
Sample, Input
Channel Defined in
ADC12MCTLx
SAMPCON =
If EOS.x = 1 then x =
CSTARTADDx
else {if x < 15 then x = x + 1 else
x = 0}
MSC = 1
and
SHP = 1
and
(ENC = 1
or
EOS.x = 0)
x = pointer to ADC12MCTLx
17-14
ADC12
If EOS.x = 1 then x =
CSTARTADDx
else {if x < 15 then x = x + 1 else
x = 0}
12 x ADC12CLK
Convert
1 x ADC12CLK
Conversion
Completed,
Result Stored Into
ADC12MEMx,
ADC12IFG.x is Set
(MSC = 0
or
SHP = 0)
and
(ENC = 1
or
EOS.x = 0)
ADC12 Operation
Using the Multiple Sample and Convert (MSC) Bit
To configure the converter to perform successive conversions automatically
and as quickly as possible, a multiple sample and convert function is available.
When MSC = 1, CONSEQx > 0, and the sample timer is used, the first rising
edge of the SHI signal triggers the first conversion. Successive conversions
are triggered automatically as soon as the prior conversion is completed.
Additional rising edges on SHI are ignored until the sequence is completed in
the single-sequence mode or until the ENC bit is toggled in
repeat-single-channel, or repeated-sequence modes. The function of the ENC
bit is unchanged when using the MSC bit.
Stopping Conversions
Stopping ADC12 activity depends on the mode of operation. The
recommended ways to stop an active conversion or conversion sequence are:
- Resetting ENC in single-channel single-conversion mode stops a
conversion immediately and the results are unpredictable. For correct
results, poll the busy bit until reset before clearing ENC.
- Resetting ENC during repeat-single-channel operation stops the
converter at the end of the current conversion.
- Resetting ENC during a sequence or repeat-sequence mode stops the
converter at the end of the sequence.
- Any conversion mode may be stopped immediately by setting the
CONSEQx = 0 and resetting ENC bit. Conversion data are unreliable.
Note: No EOS Bit Set For Sequence
If no EOS bit is set and a sequence mode is selected, resetting the ENC bit
does not stop the sequence. To stop the sequence, first select a
single-channel mode and then reset ENC.
ADC12
17-15
ADC12 Operation
17.2.8 Using the Integrated Temperature Sensor
To use the on-chip temperature sensor, the user selects the analog input
channel INCHx = 1010. Any other configuration is done as if an external
channel was selected, including reference selection, conversion-memory
selection, etc.
The typical temperature sensor transfer function is shown in Figure 17−10.
When using the temperature sensor, the sample period must be greater than
30 µs. The temperature sensor offset error can be large, and may need to be
calibrated for most applications. See device-specific datasheet for
parameters.
Selecting the temperature sensor automatically turns on the on-chip reference
generator as a voltage source for the temperature sensor. However, it does not
enable the VREF+ output or affect the reference selections for the conversion.
The reference choices for converting the temperature sensor are the same as
with any other channel.
Figure 17−10. Typical Temperature Sensor Transfer Function
Volts
1.300
1.200
1.100
1.000
0.900
VTEMP=0.00355(TEMPC)+0.986
0.800
0.700
Celsius
−50
17-16
ADC12
0
50
100
ADC12 Operation
17.2.9 ADC12 Grounding and Noise Considerations
As with any high-resolution ADC, appropriate printed-circuit-board layout and
grounding techniques should be followed to eliminate ground loops, unwanted
parasitic effects, and noise.
Ground loops are formed when return current from the A/D flows through paths
that are common with other analog or digital circuitry. If care is not taken, this
current can generate small, unwanted offset voltages that can add to or
subtract from the reference or input voltages of the A/D converter. The
connections shown in Figure 17−11 help avoid this.
In addition to grounding, ripple and noise spikes on the power supply lines due
to digital switching or switching power supplies can corrupt the conversion
result. A noise-free design using separate analog and digital ground planes
with a single-point connection is recommend to achieve high accuracy.
Figure 17−11.ADC12 Grounding and Noise Considerations
Digital
Power Supply
Decoupling
DVCC
+
10 uF
Analog
Power Supply
Decoupling
100 nF
DVSS
AV CC
+
AV SS
10 uF
100 nF
Using an External +
Positive
Reference
10 uF
100 nF
Using the Internal +
Reference
Generator
10 uF
Using an External +
Negative
Reference
10 uF
MSP430F13x
MSP430F14x
MSP430F15x
Ve REF+
MSP430F16x
VREF+
100 nF
VREF− / Ve REF−
100 nF
ADC12
17-17
ADC12 Operation
17.2.10 ADC12 Interrupts
The ADC12 has 18 interrupt sources:
- ADC12IFG0-ADC12IFG15
- ADC12OV, ADC12MEMx overflow
- ADC12TOV, ADC12 conversion time overflow
The ADC12IFGx bits are set when their corresponding ADC12MEMx memory
register is loaded with a conversion result. An interrupt request is generated
if the corresponding ADC12IEx bit and the GIE bit are set. The ADC12OV
condition occurs when a conversion result is written to any ADC12MEMx
before its previous conversion result was read. The ADC12TOV condition is
generated when another sample-and-conversion is requested before the
current conversion is completed.
ADC12IV, Interrupt Vector Generator
All ADC12 interrupt sources are prioritized and combined to source a single
interrupt vector. The interrupt vector register ADC12IV is used to determine
which enabled ADC12 interrupt source requested an interrupt.
The highest priority enabled ADC12 interrupt generates a number in the
ADC12IV register (see register description). This number can be evaluated or
added to the program counter to automatically enter the appropriate software
routine. Disabled ADC12 interrupts do not affect the ADC12IV value.
Any access, read or write, of the ADC12IV register automatically resets the
ADC12OV condition or the ADC12TOV condition if either was the highest
pending interrupt. Neither interrupt condition has an accessible interrupt flag.
The ADC12IFGx flags are not reset by an ADC12IV access. ADC12IFGx bits
are reset automatically by accessing their associated ADC12MEMx register
or may be reset with software.
If another interrupt is pending after servicing of an interrupt, another interrupt
is generated. For example, if the ADC12OV and ADC12IFG3 interrupts are
pending when the interrupt service routine accesses the ADC12IV register, the
ADC12OV interrupt condition is reset automatically. After the RETI instruction
of the interrupt service routine is executed, the ADC12IFG3 generates another
interrupt.
17-18
ADC12
ADC12 Operation
ADC12 Interrupt Handling Software Example
The following software example shows the recommended use of ADC12IV
and the handling overhead. The ADC12IV value is added to the PC to
automatically jump to the appropriate routine.
The numbers at the right margin show the necessary CPU cycles for each
instruction. The software overhead for different interrupt sources includes
interrupt latency and return-from-interrupt cycles, but not the task handling
itself. The latencies are:
- ADC12IFG0 - ADC12IFG14, ADC12TOV and ADC12OV
16 cycles
- ADC12IFG15
14 cycles
The interrupt handler for ADC12IFG15 shows a way to check immediately if
a higher prioritized interrupt occurred during the processing of ADC12IFG15.
This saves nine cycles if another ADC12 interrupt is pending.
; Interrupt handler for ADC12.
INT_ADC12
; Enter Interrupt Service Routine
6
ADD
&ADC12IV,PC; Add offset to PC
3
RETI
; Vector 0: No interrupt
5
JMP
ADOV
; Vector 2: ADC overflow
2
JMP
ADTOV
; Vector 4: ADC timing overflow
2
JMP
ADM0
; Vector 6: ADC12IFG0
2
...
; Vectors 8-32
2
JMP
ADM14
; Vector 34: ADC12IFG14
2
;
; Handler for ADC12IFG15 starts here. No JMP required.
;
ADM15
MOV &ADC12MEM15,xxx ; Move result, flag is reset
...
; Other instruction needed?
JMP INT_ADC12
; Check other int pending
;
;
ADC12IFG14-ADC12IFG1 handlers go here
;
ADM0
;
ADTOV
;
ADOV
MOV &ADC12MEM0,xxx ; Move result, flag is reset
...
; Other instruction needed?
RETI
; Return
5
...
RETI
; Handle Conv. time overflow
; Return
5
...
RETI
; Handle ADCMEMx overflow
; Return
5
ADC12
17-19
ADC12 Registers
17.3 ADC12 Registers
The ADC12 registers are listed in Table 17−2:
Table 17−2.ADC12 Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
ADC12 control register 0
ADC12CTL0
Read/write
01A0h
Reset with POR
ADC12 control register 1
ADC12CTL1
Read/write
01A2h
Reset with POR
ADC12 interrupt flag register
ADC12IFG
Read/write
01A4h
Reset with POR
ADC12 interrupt enable register
ADC12IE
Read/write
01A6h
Reset with POR
ADC12 interrupt vector word
ADC12IV
Read
01A8h
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory 0
ADC12MEM0
Read/write
0140h
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 1
ADC12MEM1
Read/write
0142h
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 2
ADC12MEM2
Read/write
0144h
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 3
ADC12MEM3
Read/write
0146h
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 4
ADC12MEM4
Read/write
0148h
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 5
ADC12MEM5
Read/write
014Ah
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 6
ADC12MEM6
Read/write
014Ch
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 7
ADC12MEM7
Read/write
014Eh
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 8
ADC12MEM8
Read/write
0150h
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 9
ADC12MEM9
Read/write
0152h
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 10
ADC12MEM10
Read/write
0154h
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 11
ADC12MEM11
Read/write
0156h
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 12
ADC12MEM12
Read/write
0158h
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 13
ADC12MEM13
Read/write
015Ah
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 14
ADC12MEM14
Read/write
015Ch
Unchanged
ADC12 memory 15
ADC12MEM15
Read/write
015Eh
Unchanged
ADC12 memory control 0
ADC12MCTL0
Read/write
080h
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 1
ADC12MCTL1
Read/write
081h
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 2
ADC12MCTL2
Read/write
082h
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 3
ADC12MCTL3
Read/write
083h
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 4
ADC12MCTL4
Read/write
084h
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 5
ADC12MCTL5
Read/write
085h
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 6
ADC12MCTL6
Read/write
086h
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 7
ADC12MCTL7
Read/write
087h
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 8
ADC12MCTL8
Read/write
088h
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 9
ADC12MCTL9
Read/write
089h
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 10
ADC12MCTL10
Read/write
08Ah
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 11
ADC12MCTL11
Read/write
08Bh
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 12
ADC12MCTL12
Read/write
08Ch
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 13
ADC12MCTL13
Read/write
08Dh
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 14
ADC12MCTL14
Read/write
08Eh
Reset with POR
ADC12 memory control 15
ADC12MCTL15
Read/write
08Fh
Reset with POR
17-20
ADC12
ADC12 Registers
ADC12CTL0, ADC12 Control Register 0
15
14
13
12
11
10
SHT1x
9
8
SHT0x
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MSC
REF2_5V
REFON
ADC12ON
ADC12OVIE
ADC12
TOVIE
ENC
ADC12SC
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
Modifiable only when ENC = 0
SHT1x
Bits
15-12
Sample-and-hold time. These bits define the number of ADC12CLK cycles in
the sampling period for registers ADC12MEM8 to ADC12MEM15.
SHT0x
Bits
11-8
Sample-and-hold time. These bits define the number of ADC12CLK cycles in
the sampling period for registers ADC12MEM0 to ADC12MEM7.
SHTx Bits
ADC12CLK cycles
0000
4
0001
8
0010
16
0011
32
0100
64
0101
96
0110
128
0111
192
1000
256
1001
384
1010
512
1011
768
1100
1024
1101
1024
1110
1024
1111
1024
ADC12
17-21
ADC12 Registers
MSC
Bit 7
Multiple sample and conversion. Valid only for sequence or repeated modes.
0
The sampling timer requires a rising edge of the SHI signal to trigger
each sample-and-conversion.
1
The first rising edge of the SHI signal triggers the sampling timer, but
further sample-and-conversions are performed automatically as soon
as the prior conversion is completed.
REF2_5V
Bit 6
Reference generator voltage. REFON must also be set.
0
1.5 V
1
2.5 V
REFON
Bit 5
Reference generator on
0
Reference off
1
Reference on
ADC12ON
Bit 4
ADC12 on
0
ADC12 off
1
ADC12 on
ADC12OVIE Bit 3
ADC12MEMx overflow-interrupt enable. The GIE bit must also be set to
enable the interrupt.
0
Overflow interrupt disabled
1
Overflow interrupt enabled
ADC12
TOVIE
Bit 2
ADC12 conversion-time-overflow interrupt enable. The GIE bit must also be
set to enable the interrupt.
0
Conversion time overflow interrupt disabled
1
Conversion time overflow interrupt enabled
ENC
Bit 1
Enable conversion
0
ADC12 disabled
1
ADC12 enabled
ADC12SC
Bit 0
Start conversion. Software-controlled sample-and-conversion start.
ADC12SC and ENC may be set together with one instruction. ADC12SC is
reset automatically.
0
No sample-and-conversion-start
1
Start sample-and-conversion
17-22
ADC12
ADC12 Registers
ADC12CTL1, ADC12 Control Register 1
15
14
13
12
11
CSTARTADDx
10
SHSx
9
8
SHP
ISSH
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADC12DIVx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
ADC12SSELx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
ADC12
BUSY
CONSEQx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
r−(0)
Modifiable only when ENC = 0
CSTART
ADDx
Bits
15-12
Conversion start address. These bits select which ADC12
conversion-memory register is used for a single conversion or for the first
conversion in a sequence. The value of CSTARTADDx is 0 to 0Fh,
corresponding to ADC12MEM0 to ADC12MEM15.
SHSx
Bits
11-10
Sample-and-hold source select
00 ADC12SC bit
01 Timer_A.OUT1
10 Timer_B.OUT0
11 Timer_B.OUT1
SHP
Bit 9
Sample-and-hold pulse-mode select. This bit selects the source of the
sampling signal (SAMPCON) to be either the output of the sampling timer or
the sample-input signal directly.
0
SAMPCON signal is sourced from the sample-input signal.
1
SAMPCON signal is sourced from the sampling timer.
ISSH
Bit 8
Invert signal sample-and-hold
0
The sample-input signal is not inverted.
1
The sample-input signal is inverted.
ADC12DIVx
Bits
7-5
ADC12 clock divider
000 /1
001 /2
010 /3
011 /4
100 /5
101 /6
110 /7
111 /8
ADC12
17-23
ADC12 Registers
ADC12
SSELx
Bits
4-3
ADC12 clock source select
00 ADC12OSC
01 ACLK
10 MCLK
11 SMCLK
CONSEQx
Bits
2-1
Conversion sequence mode select
00 Single-channel, single-conversion
01 Sequence-of-channels
10 Repeat-single-channel
11 Repeat-sequence-of-channels
ADC12
BUSY
Bit 0
ADC12 busy. This bit indicates an active sample or conversion operation.
0
No operation is active.
1
A sequence, sample, or conversion is active.
ADC12MEMx, ADC12 Conversion Memory Registers
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
rw
rw
rw
rw
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw
rw
rw
Conversion Results
Conversion Results
rw
rw
Conversion
Results
17-24
Bits
15-0
ADC12
rw
rw
rw
The 12-bit conversion results are right-justified. Bit 11 is the MSB. Bits 15-12
are always 0. Writing to the conversion memory registers will corrupt the
results.
ADC12 Registers
ADC12MCTLx, ADC12 Conversion Memory Control Registers
7
6
EOS
rw−(0)
5
4
3
2
SREFx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
1
0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
INCHx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
Modifiable only when ENC = 0
EOS
Bit 7
End of sequence. Indicates the last conversion in a sequence.
0
Not end of sequence
1
End of sequence
SREFx
Bits
6-4
Select reference
000 VR+ = AVCC and VR− = AVSS
001 VR+ = VREF+ and VR− = AVSS
010 VR+ = VeREF+ and VR− = AVSS
011 VR+ = VeREF+ and VR− = AVSS
100 VR+ = AVCC and VR− = VREF−/ VeREF−
101 VR+ = VREF+ and VR− = VREF−/ VeREF−
110 VR+ = VeREF+ and VR− = VREF−/ VeREF−
111 VR+ = VeREF+ and VR− = VREF−/ VeREF−
INCHx
Bits
3-0
Input channel select
0000 A0
0001 A1
0010 A2
0011
A3
0100 A4
0101 A5
0110
A6
0111
A7
1000 VeREF+
1001 VREF− /VeREF−
1010 Temperature sensor
1011
(AVCC – AVSS) / 2
1100
(AVCC – AVSS) / 2
1101
(AVCC – AVSS) / 2
1110
(AVCC – AVSS) / 2
1111
(AVCC – AVSS) / 2
ADC12
17-25
ADC12 Registers
ADC12IE, ADC12 Interrupt Enable Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
ADC12IE15
ADC12IE14
ADC12IE13
ADC12IE12
ADC12IE11
ADC12IE10
ADC12IE9
ADC12IE8
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADC12IE7
ADC12IE6
ADC12IE5
ADC12IE4
ADC12IE3
ADC12IE2
ADC12IE1
ADC12IE0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
ADC12IEx
Bits
15-0
Interrupt enable. These bits enable or disable the interrupt request for the
ADC12IFGx bits.
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
ADC12IFG, ADC12 Interrupt Flag Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
ADC12
IFG15
ADC12
IFG14
ADC12
IFG13
ADC12
IFG12
ADC12
IFG11
ADC12
IFG10
ADC12
IFG9
ADC12
IFG8
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADC12
IFG7
ADC12
IFG6
ADC12
IFG5
ADC12
IFG4
ADC12
IFG3
ADC12
IFG2
ADC12
IFG1
ADC12
IFG0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
ADC12IFGx
17-26
Bits
15-0
ADC12
ADC12MEMx Interrupt flag. These bits are set when corresponding
ADC12MEMx is loaded with a conversion result. The ADC12IFGx bits are
reset if the corresponding ADC12MEMx is accessed, or may be reset with
software.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
ADC12 Registers
ADC12IV, ADC12 Interrupt Vector Register
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
r0
r0
ADC12IVx
Bits
15-0
ADC12IVx
r−(0)
r−(0)
r−(0)
0
r−(0)
r−(0)
r0
ADC12 interrupt vector value
ADC12IV
Contents
Interrupt Source
Interrupt Flag
000h
No interrupt pending
−
002h
ADC12MEMx overflow
−
004h
Conversion time overflow
−
006h
ADC12MEM0 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG0
008h
ADC12MEM1 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG1
00Ah
ADC12MEM2 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG2
00Ch
ADC12MEM3 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG3
00Eh
ADC12MEM4 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG4
010h
ADC12MEM5 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG5
012h
ADC12MEM6 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG6
014h
ADC12MEM7 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG7
016h
ADC12MEM8 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG8
018h
ADC12MEM9 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG9
01Ah
ADC12MEM10 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG10
01Ch
ADC12MEM11 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG11
01Eh
ADC12MEM12 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG12
020h
ADC12MEM13 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG13
022h
ADC12MEM14 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG14
024h
ADC12MEM15 interrupt flag
ADC12IFG15
Interrupt
Priority
Highest
Lowest
ADC12
17-27
Chapter 18
)(/
The ADC10 module is a high-performance 10-bit analog-to-digital converter.
This chapter describes the ADC10. The ADC10 is implemented in the
MSP430x11x2, MSP430x12x2 devices.
Topic
Page
18.1 ADC10 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
18.2 ADC10 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4
18.3 ADC10 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-24
ADC10
18-1
ADC10 Introduction
18.1 ADC10 Introduction
The ADC10 module supports fast, 10-bit analog-to-digital conversions. The
module implements a 10-bit SAR core, sample select control, reference
generator, and data transfer controller (DTC).
The DTC allows ADC10 samples to be converted and stored anywhere in
memory without CPU intervention. The module can be configured with user
software to support a variety of applications.
ADC10 features include:
- Greater than 200 ksps maximum conversion rate
- Monotonic10-bit converter with no missing codes
- Sample-and-hold with programmable sample periods
- Conversion initiation by software or Timer_A
- Software selectable on-chip reference voltage generation (1.5 V or 2.5 V)
- Software selectable internal or external reference
- Eight external input channels
- Conversion channels for internal temperature sensor, VCC, and external
references
- Selectable conversion clock source
- Single-channel, repeated single-channel, sequence, and repeated
sequence conversion modes
- ADC core and reference voltage can be powered down separately
- Data transfer controller for automatic storage of conversion results
The block diagram of ADC10 is shown in Figure 18−1.
18-2
ADC10
ADC10 Introduction
Figure 18−1. ADC10 Block Diagram
REFBURST
REFOUT
Ve REF+
0
on
1.5 V or 2.5 V
Reference
VREF+
1
REFON
INCHx=0Ah
REF2_5V
ADC10SR
VREF−/ Ve REF−
INCHx
VCC
Ref_x
VCC
4
Auto
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
CONSEQx
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
SREF2
VSS
1
11 10 01 00
SREF1
SREF0
ADC10SSELx
ADC10ON
0
ADC10OSC
ADC10DIVx
Sample
and
Hold
VR−
S/H
Convert
VR+
00
Divider
/1 .. /8
10−bit SAR
ADC10CLK
01
ACLK
10
MCLK
11
SMCLK
SHSx
ISSH
BUSY
ENC
SAMPCON
VCC
Sample Timer
/4/8/16/64
ADC10DF
SHI
0
1
Sync
00
ADC10SC
01
TA1
10
TA0
11
TA2
ADC10SHTx MSC
INCHx=0Bh
ADC10MEM
Ref_x
R
Data Transfer
Controller
n
RAM, Flash, Peripherials
ADC10SA
R
VSS
Halt CPU
ADC10CT
ADC10TB
ADC10B1
ADC10
18-3
ADC10 Operation
18.2 ADC10 Operation
The ADC10 module is configured with user software. The setup and operation
of the ADC10 is discussed in the following sections.
18.2.1 10-Bit ADC Core
The ADC core converts an analog input to its 10-bit digital representation and
stores the result in the ADC10MEM register. The core uses two
programmable/selectable voltage levels (VR+ and VR−) to define the upper and
lower limits of the conversion. The digital output (NADC) is full scale (03FFh)
when the input signal is equal to or higher than VR+, and zero when the input
signal is equal to or lower than VR−. The input channel and the reference
voltage levels (VR+ and VR−) are defined in the conversion-control memory.
Conversion results may be in straight binary format or 2s-complement format.
The conversion formula for the ADC result when using straight binary format
is:
Vin – V R–
N ADC + 1023
V R)– V R–
The ADC10 core is configured by two control registers, ADC10CTL0 and
ADC10CTL1. The core is enabled with the ADC10ON bit. With few exceptions
the ADC10 control bits can only be modified when ENC = 0. ENC must be set
to 1 before any conversion can take place.
Conversion Clock Selection
The ADC10CLK is used both as the conversion clock and to generate the
sampling period. The ADC10 source clock is selected using the ADC10SSELx
bits and can be divided from 1-8 using the ADC10DIVx bits. Possible
ADC10CLK sources are SMCLK, MCLK, ACLK and an internal oscillator
ADC10OSC .
The ADC10OSC, generated internally, is in the 5-MHz range, but varies with
individual devices, supply voltage, and temperature. See the device-specific
datasheet for the ADC10OSC specification.
The user must ensure that the clock chosen for ADC10CLK remains active
until the end of a conversion. If the clock is removed during a conversion, the
operation will not complete, and any result will be invalid.
18-4
ADC10
ADC10 Operation
18.2.2 ADC10 Inputs and Multiplexer
The eight external and four internal analog signals are selected as the channel
for conversion by the analog input multiplexer. The input multiplexer is a
break-before-make type to reduce input-to-input noise injection resulting from
channel switching as shown in Figure 18−2. The input multiplexer is also a
T-switch to minimize the coupling between channels. Channels that are not
selected are isolated from the A/D and the intermediate node is connected to
analog ground (VSS) so that the stray capacitance is grounded to help
eliminate crosstalk.
The ADC10 uses the charge redistribution method. When the inputs are
internally switched, the switching action may cause transients on the input
signal. These transients decay and settle before causing errant conversion.
Figure 18−2. Analog Multiplexer
R ~ 100Ohm
INCHx
Input
Ax
ESD Protection
Analog Port Selection
The ADC10 external inputs A0 to A4 and VeREF+ and VREF− share terminals
with I/O port P2, which are digital CMOS gates. Optional inputs A5 to A7 are
shared on port P3 on selected devices (see device-specific datasheet). When
analog signals are applied to digital CMOS gates, parasitic current can flow
from VCC to GND. This parasitic current occurs if the input voltage is near the
transition level of the gate. Disabling the port pin buffer eliminates the parasitic
current flow and therefore reduces overall current consumption. The
ADC10AEx bits provide the ability to disable the port pin input and output
buffers.
; P2.3 configured for analog input
BIS.B #08h,&ADC10AE
; P2.3 ADC10 function and enable
ADC10
18-5
ADC10 Operation
18.2.3 Voltage Reference Generator
The ADC10 module contains a built-in voltage reference with two selectable
voltage levels. Setting REFON = 1 enables the internal reference. When
REF2_5V = 1, the internal reference is 2.5 V. When REF2_5V = 0, the
reference is 1.5 V. The internal reference voltage may be used internally and,
when REFOUT = 0, externally on pin VREF+.
External references may be supplied for VR+ and VR− through pins A4 and A3
respectively. When external references are used, or when VCC is used as the
reference, the internal reference may be turned off to save power.
External storage capacitance is not required for the ADC10 reference source
as on the ADC12.
Internal Reference Low-Power Features
The ADC10 internal reference generator is designed for low power
applications. The reference generator includes a band-gap voltage source
and a separate buffer. The current consumption of each is specified separately
in the device-specific datasheet. When REFON = 1, both are enabled and
when REFON = 0 both are disabled. The total settling time when REFON
becomes set is 30 µs.
When REFON = 1, but no conversion is active, the buffer is automatically
disabled and automatically re-enabled when needed. When the buffer is
disabled, it consumes no current. In this case, the band-gap voltage source
remains enabled.
When REFOUT = 1, the REFBURST bit controls the operation of the internal
reference buffer. When REFBURST = 0, the buffer will be on continuously,
allowing the reference voltage to be present outside the device continuously.
When REFBURST = 1, the buffer is automatically disabled when the ADC10
is not actively converting, and automatically re-enabled when needed.
The internal reference buffer also has selectable speed vs. power settings.
When the maximum conversion rate is below 50 ksps, setting ADC10SR = 1
reduces the current consumption of the buffer approximately 50%.
18.2.4 Auto Power-Down
The ADC10 is designed for low power applications. When the ADC10 is not
actively converting, the core is automatically disabled and automatically
re-enabled when needed The ADC10OSC is also automatically enabled when
needed and disabled when not needed. When the core or oscillator are
disabled, they consume no current.
18-6
ADC10
ADC10 Operation
18.2.5 Sample and Conversion Timing
An analog-to-digital conversion is initiated with a rising edge of sample input
signal SHI. The source for SHI is selected with the SHSx bits and includes the
following:
-
The ADC10SC bit
The Timer_A Output Unit 1
The Timer_A Output Unit 0
The Timer_A Output Unit 2
The polarity of the SHI signal source can be inverted with the ISSH bit. The
SHTx bits select the sample period tsample to be 4, 8, 16, or 64 ADC10CLK
cycles. The sampling timer sets SAMPCON high for the selected sample
period after synchronization with ADC10CLK. Total sampling time is tsample
plus tsync.The high-to-low SAMPCON transition starts the analog-to-digital
conversion, which requires 13 ADC10CLK cycles as shown in Figure 18−3.
Figure 18−3. Sample Timing
Start
Sampling
Stop
Sampling
Conversion
Complete
Start
Conversion
SHI
13 x ADC10CLKs
SAMPCON
tsample
tconvert
tsync
ADC10CLK
ADC10
18-7
ADC10 Operation
Sample Timing Considerations
When SAMPCON = 0 all Ax inputs are high impedance. When SAMPCON =
1, the selected Ax input can be modeled as an RC low-pass filter during the
sampling time tsample, as shown below in Figure 18−4. An internal MUX-on
input resistance RI (max. 2 kΩ) in series with capacitor CI (max. 20 pF) is seen
by the source. The capacitor CI voltage VC must be charged to within ½ LSB
of the source voltage VS for an accurate 10-bit conversion.
Figure 18−4. Analog Input Equivalent Circuit
MSP430
RS
VS
RI
VI
VC
CI
VI = Input voltage at pin Ax
VS = External source voltage
RS = External source resistance
RI = Internal MUX-on input resistance
CI = Input capacitance
VC = Capacitance-charging voltage
The resistance of the source RS and RI affect tsample.The following equations
can be used to calculate the minimum sampling time tsample for a 10-bit
conversion.
When ADC10SR = 0:
t
sample
u (R S ) R I)
ln(2 11)
C I ) 800ns
ln(2 11)
C I ) 2.5ms
When ADC10SR = 1:
t
sample
u (R S ) R I)
Substituting the values for RI and CI given above, the equation becomes:
t
t
sample
u (R S ) 2k)
7.625
20pF ) 800ns
(ADC10SR = 0)
sample
u (R S ) 2k)
7.625
20pF ) 2.5ms
(ADC10SR = 1)
For example, if RS is 10 kΩ, tsample must be greater than 2.63 µs when
ADC10SR = 0, or 4.33 µs when ADC10SR = 1.
18-8
ADC10
ADC10 Operation
18.2.6 Conversion Modes
The ADC10 has four operating modes selected by the CONSEQx bits as
discussed in Table 18−1.
Table 18−1.Conversion Mode Summary
CONSEQx
Mode
Operation
00
Single channel
single-conversion
A single channel is converted once.
01
Sequence-ofchannels
A sequence of channels is converted once.
10
Repeat single
channel
A single channel is converted repeatedly.
11
Repeat sequenceof-channels
A sequence of channels is converted
repeatedly.
ADC10
18-9
ADC10 Operation
Single-Channel Single-Conversion Mode
A single channel selected by INCHx is sampled and converted once. The ADC
result is written to ADC10MEM. Figure 18−5 shows the flow of the
single-channel, single-conversion mode. When ADC10SC triggers a
conversion, successive conversions can be triggered by the ADC10SC bit.
When any other trigger source is used, ENC must be toggled between each
conversion.
Figure 18−5. Single-Channel Single-Conversion Mode
CONSEQx = 00
ADC10
Off
ENC =
ADC10ON = 1
x = INCHx
Wait for Enable
ENC =
SHS = 0
and
ENC = 1 or
and
ADC10SC =
ENC = 0
ENC =
Wait for Trigger
SAMPCON =
(4/8/16/64) x ADC10CLK
Sample, Input
Channel
ENC = 0†
12 x ADC10CLK
Convert
ENC = 0†
1 x ADC10CLK
Conversion
Completed,
Result to
ADC10MEM,
ADC10IFG is Set
x = input channel Ax
† Conversion result is unpredictable
18-10
ADC10
ADC10 Operation
Sequence-of-Channels Mode
A sequence of channels is sampled and converted once. The sequence
begins with the channel selected by INCHx and decrements to channel A0.
Each ADC result is written to ADC10MEM. The sequence stops after
conversion of channel A0. Figure 18−6 shows the sequence-of-channels
mode. When ADC10SC triggers a sequence, successive sequences can be
triggered by the ADC10SC bit . When any other trigger source is used, ENC
must be toggled between each sequence.
Figure 18−6. Sequence-of-Channels Mode
CONSEQx = 01
ADC10
Off
ADC10ON = 1
ENC =
x = INCHx
Wait for Enable
ENC =
SHS = 0
and
ENC = 1 or
and
ADC10SC =
ENC =
Wait for Trigger
SAMPCON =
x=0
(4/8/16/64) x ADC10CLK
Sample,
Input Channel Ax
If x > 0 then x = x −1
If x > 0 then x = x −1
12 x ADC10CLK
MSC = 1
and
x≠0
Convert
MSC = 0
and
x≠0
1 x ADC10CLK
Conversion
Completed,
Result to ADC10MEM,
ADC10IFG is Set
x = input channel Ax
ADC10
18-11
ADC10 Operation
Repeat-Single-Channel Mode
A single channel selected by INCHx is sampled and converted continuously.
Each ADC result is written to ADC10MEM. Figure 18−7 shows the
repeat-single-channel mode.
Figure 18−7. Repeat-Single-Channel Mode
CONSEQx = 10
ADC10
Off
ADC10ON = 1
ENC =
x = INCHx
Wait for Enable
ENC =
SHS = 0
and
ENC = 1 or
and
ADC10SC =
ENC =
Wait for Trigger
SAMPCON =
ENC = 0
(4/8/16/64) × ADC10CLK
Sample,
Input Channel Ax
12 x ADC10CLK
MSC = 1
and
ENC = 1
MSC = 0
and
ENC = 1
Convert
1 x ADC10CLK
Conversion
Completed,
Result to ADC10MEM,
ADC10IFG is Set
x = input channel Ax
18-12
ADC10
ADC10 Operation
Repeat-Sequence-of-Channels Mode
A sequence of channels is sampled and converted repeatedly. The sequence
begins with the channel selected by INCHx and decrements to channel A0.
Each ADC result is written to ADC10MEM. The sequence ends after
conversion of channel A0, and the next trigger signal re-starts the sequence.
Figure 18−8 shows the repeat-sequence-of-channels mode.
Figure 18−8. Repeat-Sequence-of-Channels Mode
CONSEQx = 11
ADC10
Off
ADC10ON = 1
ENC =
x = INCHx
Wait for Enable
ENC =
SHS = 0
and
ENC = 1 or
and
ADC10SC =
ENC =
Wait for Trigger
SAMPCON =
(4/8/16/64) x ADC10CLK
Sample
Input Channel Ax
If x = 0 then x = INCH
else x = x −1
If x = 0 then x = INCH
else x = x −1
12 x ADC10CLK
Convert
MSC = 1
and
(ENC = 1
or
x ≠ 0)
1 x ADC10CLK
MSC = 0
and
(ENC = 1
or
x ≠ 0)
ENC = 0
and
x=0
Conversion
Completed,
Result to ADC10MEM,
ADC10IFG is Set
x = input channel Ax
ADC10
18-13
ADC10 Operation
Using the MSC Bit
To configure the converter to perform successive conversions automatically
and as quickly as possible, a multiple sample and convert function is available.
When MSC = 1 and CONSEQx > 0 the first rising edge of the SHI signal
triggers the first conversion. Successive conversions are triggered
automatically as soon as the prior conversion is completed. Additional rising
edges on SHI are ignored until the sequence is completed in the
single-sequence mode or until the ENC bit is toggled in repeat-single-channel,
or repeated-sequence modes. The function of the ENC bit is unchanged when
using the MSC bit.
Stopping Conversions
Stopping ADC10 activity depends on the mode of operation. The
recommended ways to stop an active conversion or conversion sequence are:
- Resetting ENC in single-channel single-conversion mode stops a
conversion immediately and the results are unpredictable. For correct
results, poll the ADC10BUSY bit until reset before clearing ENC.
- Resetting ENC during repeat-single-channel operation stops the
converter at the end of the current conversion.
- Resetting ENC during a sequence or repeat sequence mode stops the
converter at the end of the sequence.
- Any conversion mode may be stopped immediately by setting the
CONSEQx=0 and resetting the ENC bit. Conversion data is unreliable.
18-14
ADC10
ADC10 Operation
18.2.7 ADC10 Data Transfer Controller
The ADC10 includes a data transfer controller (DTC) to automatically transfer
conversion results from ADC10MEM to other on-chip memory locations. The
DTC is enabled by setting the ADC10DTC1 register to a nonzero value.
When the DTC is enabled, each time the ADC10 completes a conversion and
loads the result to ADC10MEM, a data transfer is triggered. No software
intervention is required to manage the ADC10 until the predefined amount of
conversion data has been transferred. Each DTC transfer requires one CPU
MCLK. To avoid any bus contention during the DTC transfer, the CPU is halted,
if active, for the one MCLK required for the transfer.
A DTC transfer must not be initiated while the ADC10 is busy. Software must
ensure that no active conversion or sequence is in progress when the DTC is
configured:
; ADC10 activity test
BIC.W #ENC,&ADC10CTL0 ;
busy_test BIT.W #BUSY,&ADC10CTL1;
JNZ
busy_test
;
MOV.W #xxx,&ADC10SA
; Safe
MOV.B #xx,&ADC10DTC1 ;
; continue setup
ADC10
18-15
ADC10 Operation
One-Block Transfer Mode
The one-block mode is selected if the ADC10TB is reset. The value n in
ADC10DTC1 defines the total number of transfers for a block. The block start
address is defined anywhere in the MSP430 address range using the 16-bit
register ADC10SA. The block ends at ADC10SA+2n–2. The one-block
transfer mode is shown in Figure 18−9.
Figure 18−9. One-Block Transfer
TB=0
’n’th transfer
ADC10SA+2n−2
ADC10SA+2n−4
DTC
2nd transfer
ADC10SA+2
1st transfer
ADC10SA
The internal address pointer is initially equal to ADC10SA and the internal
transfer counter is initially equal to ‘n’. The internal pointer and counter are not
visible to software. The DTC transfers the word-value of ADC10MEM to the
address pointer ADC10SA. After each DTC transfer, the internal address
pointer is incremented by two and the internal transfer counter is decremented
by one.
The DTC transfers continue with each loading of ADC10MEM, until the
internal transfer counter becomes equal to zero. No additional DTC transfers
will occur until a write to ADC10SA. When using the DTC in the one-block
mode, the ADC10IFG flag is set only after a complete block has been
transferred. Figure 18−10 shows a state diagram of the one-block mode.
18-16
ADC10
ADC10 Operation
Figure 18−10. State Diagram for Data Transfer Control in One-Block Transfer Mode
n=0 (ADC10DTC1)
DTC reset
n≠0
Wait for write to
ADC10SA
n=0
DTC init
Initialize
Start Address in ADC10SA
Prepare
DTC
Write to
ADC10SA
x=n
AD = SA
Write to ADC10SA
or
n=0
n is latched
in counter ’x’
Wait until ADC10MEM
is written
DTC idle
Write to ADC10MEM
completed
Write to ADC10SA
Wait
for
CPU ready
Synchronize
with MCLK
x>0
DTC
operation
Write to ADC10SA
1 x MCLK cycle
Transfer data to
Address AD
AD = AD + 2
x=x−1
x=0
ADC10IFG=1
ADC10TB = 0
and
ADC10CT = 1
ADC10TB = 0
and
ADC10CT = 0
ADC10
18-17
ADC10 Operation
Two-Block Transfer Mode
The two-block mode is selected if the ADC10TB bit is set. The value n in
ADC10DTC1 defines the number of transfers for one block. The address
range of the first block is defined anywhere in the MSP430 address range with
the 16-bit register ADC10SA. The first block ends at ADC10SA+2n–2. The
address range for the second block is defined as SA+2n to SA+4n–2. The
two-block transfer mode is shown in Figure 18−11.
Figure 18−11.Two-Block Transfer
TB=1
2 x ’n’th transfer
ADC10SA+4n−2
ADC10SA+4n−4
DTC
’n’th transfer
ADC10SA+2n−2
ADC10SA+2n−4
2nd transfer
ADC10SA+2
1st transfer
ADC10SA
The internal address pointer is initially equal to ADC10SA and the internal
transfer counter is initially equal to ‘n’. The internal pointer and counter are not
visible to software. The DTC transfers the word-value of ADC10MEM to the
address pointer ADC10SA. After each DTC transfer the internal address
pointer is incremented by two and the internal transfer counter is decremented
by one.
The DTC transfers continue, with each loading of ADC10MEM, until the
internal transfer counter becomes equal to zero. At this point, block one is full
and both the ADC10IFG flag the ADC10B1 bit are set. The user can test the
ADC10B1 bit to determine that block one is full.
The DTC continues with block two. The internal transfer counter is
automatically reloaded with ’n’. At the next load of the ADC10MEM, the DTC
begins transferring conversion results to block two. After n transfers have
completed, block two is full. The ADC10IFG flag is set and the ADC10B1 bit
is cleared. User software can test the cleared ADC10B1 bit to determine that
block two is full. Figure 18−12 shows a state diagram of the two-block mode.
18-18
ADC10
ADC10 Operation
Figure 18−12. State Diagram for Data Transfer Control in Two-Block Transfer Mode
n=0 (ADC10DTC1)
DTC reset
ADC10B1 = 0
ADC10TB = 1
n≠0
n=0
Wait for write to
ADC10SA
DTC init
Initialize
Start Address in ADC10SA
Prepare
DTC
Write to
ADC10SA
x=n
If ADC10B1 = 0
then AD = SA
Write to ADC10SA
or
n=0
n is latched
in counter ’x’
Wait until ADC10MEM
is written
DTC idle
Write to ADC10MEM
completed
Write to ADC10SA
Wait
for
CPU ready
Synchronize
with MCLK
x>0
DTC
operation
Write to ADC10SA
1 x MCLK cycle
Transfer data to
Address AD
AD = AD + 2
x=x−1
x=0
ADC10IFG=1
Toggle
ADC10B1
ADC10B1 = 1
or
ADC10CT=1
ADC10CT = 0
and
ADC10B1 = 0
ADC10
18-19
ADC10 Operation
Continuous Transfer
A continuous transfer is selected if ADC10CT bit is set. The DTC will not stop
after block one in (one-block mode) or block two (two-block mode) has been
transferred. The internal address pointer and transfer counter are set equal to
ADC10SA and n respectively. Transfers continue starting in block one. If the
ADC10CT bit is reset, DTC transfers cease after the current completion of
transfers into block one (in the one-block mode) or block two (in the two-block
mode) have been transfer.
DTC Transfer Cycle Time
For each ADC10MEM transfer, the DTC requires one or two MCLK clock
cycles to synchronize, one for the actual transfer (while the CPU is halted), and
one cycle of wait time. Because the DTC uses MCLK, the DTC cycle time is
dependent on the MSP430 operating mode and clock system setup.
If the MCLK source is active, but the CPU is off, the DTC uses the MCLK
source for each transfer, without re-enabling the CPU. If the MCLK source is
off, the DTC temporarily restarts MCLK, sourced with DCOCLK, only during
a transfer. The CPU remains off and after the DTC transfer, MCLK is again
turned off. The maximum DTC cycle time for all operating modes is show in
Table 18−2.
Table 18−2.Maximum DTC Cycle Time
CPU Operating Mode
Clock Source
Maximum DTC Cycle Time
Active mode
MCLK=DCOCLK
3 MCLK cycles
Active mode
MCLK=LFXT1CLK
3 MCLK cycles
Low-power mode LPM0/1 MCLK=DCOCLK
4 MCLK cycles
Low-power mode LPM3/4 MCLK=DCOCLK
4 MCLK cycles + 6 µs†
Low-power mode LPM0/1 MCLK=LFXT1CLK
4 MCLK cycles
Low-power mode LPM3
MCLK=LFXT1CLK
4 MCLK cycles
Low-power mode LPM4
MCLK=LFXT1CLK
4 MCLK cycles + 6 µs†
† The additional 6 µs are needed to start the DCOCLK. It is the t(LPMx) parameter in the datasheet.
18-20
ADC10
ADC10 Operation
18.2.8 Using the Integrated Temperature Sensor
To use the on-chip temperature sensor, the user selects the analog input
channel INCHx = 1010. Any other configuration is done as if an external
channel was selected, including reference selection, conversion-memory
selection, etc.
The typical temperature sensor transfer function is shown in Figure 18−13.
When using the temperature sensor, the sample period must be greater than
30 µs. The temperature sensor offset error can be large, and may need to be
calibrated for most applications. See the device-specific datasheet for the
parameters.
Selecting the temperature sensor automatically turns on the on-chip reference
generator as a voltage source for the temperature sensor. However, it does not
enable the VREF+ output or affect the reference selections for the conversion.
The reference choices for converting the temperature sensor are the same as
with any other channel.
Figure 18−14. Typical Temperature Sensor Transfer Function
Volts
1.300
1.200
1.100
1.000
0.900
VTEMP=0.00355(TEMPC)+0.986
0.800
0.700
Celsius
−50
0
50
100
ADC10
18-21
ADC10 Operation
18.2.9 ADC10 Grounding and Noise Considerations
As with any high-resolution ADC, appropriate printed-circuit-board layout and
grounding techniques should be followed to eliminate ground loops, unwanted
parasitic effects, and noise.
Ground loops are formed when return current from the A/D flows through paths
that are common with other analog or digital circuitry. If care is not taken, this
current can generate small, unwanted offset voltages that can add to or
subtract from the reference or input voltages of the A/D converter. The
connections shown in Figure 18−15 help avoid this.
In addition to grounding, ripple and noise spikes on the power supply lines due
to digital switching or switching power supplies can corrupt the conversion
result. A noise-free design is important to achieve high accuracy.
Figure 18−16. ADC10 Grounding and Noise Considerations
VCC
Power Supply
Decoupling
+
10 uF
100 nF
VSS
MSP430F12x2
MSP430F11x2
Ve REF+
External
Reference
VREF−
18-22
ADC10
ADC10 Operation
18.2.10 ADC10 Interrupts
One interrupt and one interrupt vector are associated with the ADC10 as
shown in Figure 18−17. When the DTC is not used (ADC10DTC1 = 0)
ADC10IFG is set when conversion results are loaded into ADC10MEM. When
DTC is used (ADC10DTC1 > 0) ADC10IFG is set when a block transfer
completes and the internal transfer counter ’n’ = 0. If both the ADC10IE and
the GIE bits are set, then the ADC10IFG flag generates an interrupt request.
The ADC10IFG flag is automatically reset when the interrupt request is
serviced or may be reset by software.
Figure 18−17. ADC10 Interrupt System
ADC10IE
Set ADC10IFG
’n’ = 0
D
ADC10CLK
IRQ, Interrupt Service Requested
Q
Reset
IRACC, Interrupt Request Accepted
POR
ADC10
18-23
ADC10 Registers
18.3 ADC10 Registers
The ADC10 registers are listed in Table 18−3.
Table 18−3.ADC10 Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
ADC10 Input enable register
ADC10AE
Read/write
04Ah
Reset with POR
ADC10 control register 0
ADC10CTL0
Read/write
01B0h
Reset with POR
ADC10 control register 1
ADC10CTL1
Read/write
01B2h
Reset with POR
ADC10 memory
ADC10MEM
Read
01B4h
Unchanged
ADC10 data transfer control register 0
ADC10DTC0
Read/write
048h
Reset with POR
ADC10 data transfer control register 1
ADC10DTC1
Read/write
049h
Reset with POR
ADC10 data transfer start address
ADC10SA
Read/write
01BCh
0200h with POR
18-24
ADC10
ADC10 Registers
ADC10CTL0, ADC10 Control Register 0
15
14
13
12
SREFx
11
ADC10SHTx
10
9
8
ADC10SR
REFOUT
REFBURST
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MSC
REF2_5V
REFON
ADC10ON
ADC10IE
ADC10IFG
ENC
ADC10SC
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
Modifiable only when ENC = 0
SREFx
Bits
15-13
Select reference
000 VR+ = VCC and VR− = VSS
001 VR+ = VREF+ and VR− = VSS
010 VR+ = VeREF+ and VR− = VSS
011 VR+ = VeREF+ and VR− = VSS
100 VR+ = VCC and VR− = VREF−/ VeREF−
101 VR+ = VREF+ and VR− = VREF−/ VeREF−
110 VR+ = VeREF+ and VR− = VREF−/ VeREF−
111 VR+ = VeREF+ and VR− = VREF−/ VeREF−
ADC10
SHTx
Bits
12-11
ADC10 sample-and-hold time
00 4 x ADC10CLKs
01 8 x ADC10CLKs
10 16 x ADC10CLKs
11 64 x ADC10CLKs
ADC10SR
Bit 10
ADC10 sampling rate. This bit selects the reference buffer drive capability for
the maximum sampling rate. Setting ADC10SR reduces the current
consumption of the reference buffer.
0
Reference buffer supports up to ~200 ksps
1
Reference buffer supports up to ~50 ksps
REFOUT
Bit 9
Reference output
0
Reference output off
1
Reference output on
REFBURST
Bit 8
Reference burst. REFOUT must also be set.
0
Reference buffer on continuously
1
Reference buffer on only during sample-and-conversion
ADC10
18-25
ADC10 Registers
MSC
Bit 7
Multiple sample and conversion. Valid only for sequence or repeated modes.
0
The sampling requires a rising edge of the SHI signal to trigger each
sample-and-conversion.
1
The first rising edge of the SHI signal triggers the sampling timer, but
further sample-and-conversions are performed automatically as soon
as the prior conversion is completed
REF2_5V
Bit 6
Reference-generator voltage. REFON must also be set.
0
1.5 V
1
2.5 V
REFON
Bit 5
Reference generator on
0
Reference off
1
Reference on
ADC10ON
Bit 4
ADC10 on
0
ADC10 off
1
ADC10 on
ADC10IE
Bit 3
ADC10 interrupt enable
0
Interrupt disabled
1
interrupt enabled
ADC10IFG
Bit 2
ADC10 interrupt flag. This bit is set if ADC10MEM is loaded with a conversion
result. It is automatically reset when the interrupt request is accepted, or it may
be reset by software. When using the DTC this flag is set when a block of
transfers is completed.
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
ENC
Bit 1
Enable conversion
0
ADC10 disabled
1
ADC10 enabled
ADC10SC
Bit 0
Start conversion. Software-controlled sample-and-conversion start.
ADC10SC and ENC may be set together with one instruction. ADC10SC is
reset automatically.
0
No sample-and-conversion start
1
Start sample-and-conversion
18-26
ADC10
ADC10 Registers
ADC10CTL1, ADC10 Control Register 1
15
14
13
12
11
INCHx
10
SHSx
9
8
ADC10DF
ISSH
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADC10DIVx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
ADC10SSELx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
ADC10
BUSY
CONSEQx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
r−0
Modifiable only when ENC = 0
INCHx
Bits
15-12
Input channel select. These bits select the channel for a single-conversion or
the highest channel for a sequence of conversions.
0000 A0
0001 A1
0010 A2
0011
A3
0100 A4
0101 A5
0110
A6
0111
A7
1000 VeREF+
1001 VREF− /VeREF−
1010 Temperature sensor
1011
(VCC – VSS) / 2
1100
(VCC – VSS) / 2
1101
(VCC – VSS) / 2
1110
(VCC – VSS) / 2
1111
(VCC – VSS) / 2
SHSx
Bits
11-10
Sample-and-hold source select
00 ADC10SC bit
01 Timer_A.OUT1
10 Timer_A.OUT0
11 Timer_A.OUT2
ADC10DF
Bit 9
ADC10 data format
0
Straight binary
1
2’s complement
ISSH
Bit 8
Invert signal sample-and-hold
0
The sample-input signal is not inverted.
1
The sample-input signal is inverted.
ADC10
18-27
ADC10 Registers
ADC10DIVx
Bits
7-5
ADC10 clock divider
000 /1
001 /2
010 /3
011 /4
100 /5
101 /6
110 /7
111 /8
ADC10
SSELx
Bits
4-3
ADC10 clock source select
00 ADC10OSC
01 ACLK
10 MCLK
11 SMCLK
CONSEQx
Bits
2-1
Conversion sequence mode select
00 Single-channel-single-conversion
01 Sequence-of-channels
10 Repeat-single-channel
11 Repeat-sequence-of-channels
ADC10
BUSY
Bit 0
ADC10 busy. This bit indicates an active sample or conversion operation
0
No operation is active.
1
A sequence, sample, or conversion is active.
ADC10AE, Analog (Input) Enable Control Register
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADC10AE7
ADC10AE6
ADC10AE5
ADC10AE4
ADC10AE3
ADC10AE2
ADC10AE1
ADC10AE0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
ADC10AEx
18-28
Bits
7-0
ADC10
ADC10 analog enable
0
Analog input disabled
1
Analog input enabled
ADC10 Registers
ADC10MEM, Conversion-Memory Register, Binary Format
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r
r
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
r
r
r
Conversion Results
Conversion Results
r
Conversion
Results
r
Bits
15-0
r
r
r
The 10-bit conversion results are right justified, straight-binary format. Bit 9
is the MSB. Bits 15-10 are always 0.
ADC10MEM, Conversion-Memory Register, 2’s Complement Format
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Conversion Results
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
r0
Conversion Results
r
Conversion
Results
r
Bits
15-0
The 10-bit conversion results are left-justified, 2’s complement format. Bit 15
is the MSB. Bits 5-0 are always 0.
ADC10
18-29
ADC10 Registers
ADC10DTC0, Data Transfer Control Register 0
7
6
5
4
Reserved
r0
r0
r0
3
2
1
0
ADC10TB
ADC10CT
ADC10B1
ADC10
FETCH
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
r0
Reserved
Bits
7-4
Reserved. Always read as 0.
ADC10TB
Bit 3
ADC10 two-block mode.
0
One-block transfer mode
1
Two-block transfer mode
ADC10CT
Bit 2
ADC10 continuous transfer.
0
Data transfer stops when one block (one-block mode) or two blocks
(two-block mode) have completed.
1
Data is transferred continuously. DTC operation is stopped only if
ADC10CT cleared, or ADC10SA is written to.
ADC10B1
Bit 1
ADC10 block one. This bit indicates for two-block mode which block is filled
with ADC10 conversion results. ADC10B1 is valid only after ADC10IFG has
been set the first time during DTC operation. ADC10TB must also be set
0
Block 2 is filled
1
Block 1 is filled
ADC10
FETCH
Bit 0
This bit should normally be reset.
18-30
ADC10
ADC10 Registers
ADC10DTC1, Data Transfer Control Register 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
DTC Transfers
rw−(0)
DTC
Transfers
rw−(0)
Bits
7-0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
DTC transfers. These bits define the number of transfers in each block.
0
DTC is disabled
01h-0FFh Number of transfers per block
ADC10SA, Start Address Register for Data Transfer
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
ADC10SAx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(1)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADC10SAx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
r0
ADC10SAx
Bits
15-1
ADC10 start address. These bits are the start address for the DTC. A write
to register ADC10SA is required to initiate DTC transfers.
Unused
Bit 0
Unused, Read only. Always read as 0.
ADC10
18-31
Chapter 19
().
The DAC12 module is a 12-bit, voltage output digital-to-analog converter. This
chapter describes the DAC12. Two DAC12 modules are implemented in the
MSP430x15x and MSP430x16x devices.
Topic
Page
19.1 DAC12 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
19.2 DAC12 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-4
19.3 DAC12 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-10
DAC12
19-1
DAC12 Introduction
19.1 DAC12 Introduction
The DAC12 module is a 12-bit, voltage output DAC. The DAC12 can be
configured in 8- or 12-bit mode and may be used in conjunction with the DMA
controller. When multiple DAC12 modules are present, they may be grouped
together for synchronous update operation.
Features of the DAC12 include:
- 12-bit monotonic output
- 8- or 12-bit voltage output resolution
- Programmable settling time vs power consumption
- Internal or external reference selection
- Straight binary or 2’s compliment data format
- Self-calibration option for offset correction
- Synchronized update capability for multiple DAC12s
Note: Multiple DAC12 Modules
Some devices may integrate more than one DAC12 module. In the case
where more than one DAC12 is present on a device, the multiple DAC12
modules operate identically.
Throughout this chapter, nomenclature appears such as DAC12_xDAT or
DAC12_xCTL to describe register names. When this occurs, the x is used
to indicate which DAC12 module is being discussed. In cases where
operation is identical, the register is simply referred to as DAC12_xCTL.
The block diagram of the two DAC12 modules in the MSP430F15x/16x
devices is shown in Figure 19−1.
19-2
DAC12
DAC12 Introduction
Figure 19−1. DAC12 Block Diagram
Ve REF+
VREF+
To ADC12 module
2.5V or 1.5V reference from ADC12
DAC12SREFx
DAC12AMPx
DAC12IR
3
00
01
/3
10
11
AV SS
VR−
DAC12LSELx
VR+
DAC12_0OUT
DAC12_0
00
Latch Bypass
01
TA1
10
TB2
11
x3
0
1
1
DAC12_0Latch
0
DAC12GRP
DAC12ENC
DAC12RES
DAC12DF
DAC12_0DAT
DAC12_0DAT Updated
Group
Load
Logic
DAC12SREFx
DAC12AMPx
DAC12IR
3
00
01
/3
10
11
AV SS
VR−
DAC12LSELx
VR+
DAC12_1OUT
DAC12_1
00
01
TA1
10
TB2
11
x3
Latch Bypass
0
1
DAC12GRP
1
0
DAC12ENC
DAC12_1Latch
DAC12RES
DAC12DF
DAC12_1DAT
DAC12_1DAT Updated
DAC12
19-3
DAC12 Operation
19.2 DAC12 Operation
The DAC12 module is configured with user software. The setup and operation
of the DAC12 is discussed in the following sections.
19.2.1 DAC12 Core
The DAC12 can be configured to operate in 8- or 12-bit mode using the
DAC12RES bit. The full-scale output is programmable to be 1x or 3x the
selected reference voltage via the DAC12IR bit. This feature allows the user
to control the dynamic range of the DAC12. The DAC12DF bit allows the user
to select between straight binary data and 2’s compliment data for the DAC.
When using straight binary data format, the formula for the output voltage is
given in Table 19−1.
Table 19−1.DAC12 Full-Scale Range (Vref = VeREF+ or VREF+ )
Resolution DAC12RES
DAC12IR
12 bit
0
0
12 bit
0
1
8 bit
1
0
8 bit
1
1
Output Voltage Formula
DAC12_xDAT
4096
Vout + Vref
3
Vout + Vref
DAC12_xDAT
4096
Vout + Vref
3
Vout + Vref
DAC12_xDAT
256
DAC12_xDAT
256
In 8-bit mode the maximum useable value for DAC12_xDAT is 0FFh and in
12-bit mode the maximum useable value for DAC12_xDAT is 0FFFh. Values
greater than these may be written to the register, but all leading bits are
ignored.
DAC12 Port Selection
The DAC12 outputs are multiplexed with the port P6 pins and ADC12 analog
inputs. When DAC12AMPx > 0, the DAC12 function is automatically selected
for the pin, regardless of the state of the associated P6SELx and P6DIRx bits.
19-4
DAC12
DAC12 Operation
19.2.2 DAC12 Reference
The reference for the DAC12 is configured to use either an external reference
voltage or the internal 1.5-V/2.5-V reference from the ADC12 module with the
DAC12SREFx bits. When DAC12SREFx = {0,1} the VREF+ signal is used as
the reference and when DAC12SREFx = {2,3} the VeREF+ signal is used as the
reference.
To use the ADC12 internal reference, it must be enabled and configured via
the applicable ADC12 control bits (see the ADC12 chapter). Once the ADC12
reference is configured, the reference voltage appears on the VREF+ signal.
DAC12 Reference Input and Voltage Output Buffers
The reference input and voltage output buffers of the DAC12 can be
configured for optimized settling time vs power consumption. Eight
combinations are selected using the DAC12AMPx bits. In the low/low setting,
the settling time is the slowest, and the current consumption of both buffers is
the lowest. The medium and high settings have faster settling times, but the
current consumption increases. See the device-specific data sheet for
parameters.
19.2.3 Updating the DAC12 Voltage Output
The DAC12_xDAT register can be connected directly to the DAC12 core or
double buffered. The trigger for updating the DAC12 voltage output is selected
with the DAC12LSELx bits.
When DAC12LSELx = 0 the data latch is transparent and the DAC12_xDAT
register is applied directly to the DAC12 core. the DAC12 output updates
immediately when new DAC12 data is written to the DAC12_xDAT register,
regardless of the state of the DAC12ENC bit.
When DAC12LSELx = 1, DAC12 data is latched and applied to the DAC12
core after new data is written to DAC12_xDAT. When DAC12LSELx = 2 or 3,
data is latched on the rising edge from the Timer_A CCR1 output or Timer_B
CCR2 output respectively. DAC12ENC must be set to latch the new data when
DAC12LSELx > 0.
DAC12
19-5
DAC12 Operation
19.2.4 DAC12_xDAT Data Format
The DAC12 supports both straight binary and 2’s compliment data formats.
When using straight binary data format, the full-scale output value is 0FFFh
in 12-bit mode (0FFh in 8-bit mode) as shown in Figure 19−2.
Figure 19−2. Output Voltage vs DAC12 Data, 12-Bit, Straight Binary Mode
Output Voltage
Full-Scale Output
0
DAC Data
0
0FFFh
When using 2’s compliment data format, the range is shifted such that a
DAC12_xDAT value of 0800h (0080h in 8-bit mode) results in a zero output
voltage, 0000h is the mid-scale output voltage, and 07FFh (007Fh for 8-bit
mode) is the full-scale voltage output as shown in Figure 19−3.
Figure 19−3. Output Voltage vs DAC12 Data, 12-Bit, 2’s Compliment Mode
Output Voltage
Full-Scale Output
Mid-Scale Output
DAC Data
0
0800h (−2048)
19-6
DAC12
0
07FFh (+2047)
DAC12 Operation
19.2.5 DAC12 Output Amplifier Offset Calibration
The offset voltage of the DAC12 output amplifier can be positive or negative.
When the offset is negative, the output amplifier attempts to drive the voltage
negative, but cannot do so. The output voltage remains at zero until the DAC12
digital input produces a sufficient positive output voltage to overcome the
negative offset voltage, resulting in the transfer function shown in Figure 19−4.
Figure 19−4. Negative Offset
Output Voltage
0
DAC Data
Negative Offset
When the output amplifier has a positive offset, a digital input of zero does not
result in a zero output voltage. The DAC12 output voltage reaches the
maximum output level before the DAC12 data reaches the maximum code.
This is shown in Figure 19−5.
Figure 19−5. Positive Offset
Vcc
Output Voltage
0
DAC Data
Full-Scale Code
The DAC12 has the capability to calibrate the offset voltage of the output
amplifier. Setting the DAC12CALON bit initiates the offset calibration. The
calibration should complete before using the DAC12. When the calibration is
complete, the DAC12CALON bit is automatically reset. The DAC12AMPx bits
should be configured before calibration. For best calibration results, port and
CPU activity should be minimized during calibration.
DAC12
19-7
DAC12 Operation
19.2.6 Grouping Multiple DAC12 Modules
Multiple DAC12s can be grouped together with the DAC12GRP bit to
synchronize the update of each DAC12 output. Hardware ensures that all
DAC12 modules in a group update simultaneously independent of any
interrupt or NMI event.
On the MSP430x15x and MSP430x16x devices, DAC12_0 and DAC12_1 are
grouped by setting the DAC12GRP bit of DAC12_0. The DAC12GRP bit of
DAC12_1 is don’t care. When DAC12_0 and DAC12_1 are grouped:
- The DAC12_1 DAC12LSELx bits select the update trigger for both DACs
- The DAC12LSELx bits for both DACs must be > 0
- The DAC12ENC bits of both DACs must be set to 1
When DAC12_0 and DAC12_1 are grouped, both DAC12_xDAT registers
must be written to before the outputs update - even if data for one or both of
the DACs is not changed. Figure 19−6 shows a latch-update timing example
for grouped DAC12_0 and DAC12_1.
When DAC12_0 DAC12GRP = 1 and both DAC12_x DAC12LSELx > 0 and
either DAC12ENC = 0, neither DAC12 will update.
Figure 19−6. DAC12 Group Update Example, Timer_A3 Trigger
DAC12_0
DAC12GRP
DAC12_0 and DAC12_1
Updated Simultaneously
DAC12_0
DAC12ENC
TimerA_OUT1
DAC12_0DAT
New Data
DAC12_1DAT
New Data
DAC12_0 Updated
DAC12_0
Latch Trigger
DAC12_0 DAC12LSELx = 2
DAC12_0 DAC12LSELx > 0 AND
DAC12_1 DAC12LSELx = 2
Note: DAC12 Settling Time
The DMA controller is capable of transferring data to the DAC12 faster than
the DAC12 output can settle. The user must assure the DAC12 settling time
is not violated when using the DMA controller. See the device-specific data
sheet for parameters.
19-8
DAC12
DAC12 Operation
19.2.7 DAC12 Interrupts
The DAC12 interrupt vector is shared with the DMA controller. Software must
check the DAC12IFG and DMAIFG flags to determine the source of the
interrupt.
The DAC12IFG bit is set when DAC12LSELx > 0 and DAC12 data is latched
from the DAC12_xDAT register into the data latch. When DAC12LSELx = 0,
the DAC12IFG flag is not set.
A set DAC12IFG bit indicates that the DAC12 is ready for new data. If both the
DAC12IE and GIE bits are set, the DAC12IFG generates an interrupt request.
The DAC12IFG flag is not reset automatically. It must be reset by software.
DAC12
19-9
DAC12 Registers
19.3 DAC12 Registers
The DAC12 registers are listed in Table 19−2:
Table 19−2.DAC12 Registers
Register
Short Form
Register Type Address
Initial State
DAC12_0 control
DAC12_0CTL
Read/write
01C0h
Reset with POR
DAC12_0 data
DAC12_0DAT
Read/write
01C8h
Reset with POR
DAC12_1 control
DAC12_1CTL
Read/write
01C2h
Reset with POR
DAC12_1 data
DAC12_1DAT
Read/write
01CAh
Reset with POR
19-10
DAC12
DAC12 Registers
DAC12_xCTL, DAC12 Control Register
15
14
Reserved
13
DAC12SREFx
12
11
DAC12RES
10
DAC12LSELx
9
8
DAC12
CALON
DAC12IR
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DAC12DF
DAC12IE
DAC12IFG
DAC12ENC
DAC12
GRP
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
DAC12AMPx
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
Modifiable only when DAC12ENC = 0
Reserved
Bit 15
Reserved
DAC12
SREFx
Bits
14-13
DAC12 select reference voltage
00 VREF+
01 VREF+
10 VeREF+
11 VeREF+
DAC12
RES
Bit 12
DAC12 resolution select
0
12-bit resolution
1
8-bit resolution
DAC12
LSELx
Bits
11-10
DAC12 load select. Selects the load trigger for the DAC12 latch. DAC12ENC
must be set for the DAC to update, except when DAC12LSELx = 0.
00 DAC12 latch loads when DAC12_xDAT written (DAC12ENC is ignored)
01 DAC12 latch loads when DAC12_xDAT written, or, when grouped,
when all DAC12_xDAT registers in the group have been written.
10 Rising edge of Timer_A.OUT1 (TA1)
11 Rising edge of Timer_B.OUT2 (TB2)
DAC12
CALON
Bit 9
DAC12 calibration on. This bit initiates the DAC12 offset calibration sequence
and is automatically reset when the calibration completes.
0
Calibration is not active
1
Initiate calibration/calibration in progress
DAC12IR
Bit 8
DAC12 input range. This bit sets the reference input and voltage output range.
0
DAC12 full-scale output = 3x reference voltage
1
DAC12 full-scale output = 1x reference voltage
DAC12
19-11
DAC12 Registers
DAC12
AMPx
Bits
7-5
DAC12 amplifier setting. These bits select settling time vs. current
consumption for the DAC12 input and output amplifiers.
DAC12AMPx
Input Buffer
Output Buffer
000
Off
DAC12 off, output high Z
001
Off
DAC12 off, output 0 V
010
Low speed/current
Low speed/current
011
Low speed/current
Medium speed/current
100
Low speed/current
High speed/current
101
Medium speed/current
Medium speed/current
110
Medium speed/current
High speed/current
111
High speed/current
High speed/current
DAC12DF
Bit 4
DAC12 data format
0
Straight binary
1
2’s compliment
DAC12IE
Bit 3
DAC12 interrupt enable
0
Disabled
1
Enabled
DAC12IFG
Bit 2
DAC12 Interrupt flag
0
No interrupt pending
1
Interrupt pending
DAC12
ENC
Bit 1
DAC12 enable conversion. This bit enables the DAC12 module when
DAC12LSELx > 0. when DAC12LSELx = 0, DAC12ENC is ignored.
0
DAC12 disabled
1
DAC12 enabled
DAC12
GRP
Bit 0
DAC12 group. Groups DAC12_x with the next higher DAC12_x. Not used for
DAC12_1 on MSP430x15x and MSP430x16x devices.
0
Not grouped
1
Grouped
19-12
DAC12
DAC12 Registers
DAC12_xDAT, DAC12 Data Register
15
14
13
12
11
0
0
0
0
r(0)
r(0)
r(0)
r(0)
rw−(0)
7
6
5
4
10
9
8
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
3
2
1
0
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
DAC12 Data
DAC12 Data
rw−(0)
Unused
rw−(0)
Bits
15-12
DAC12 Data Bits
rw−(0)
rw−(0)
Unused. These bits are always 0 and do not affect the DAC12 core.
DAC12 data
11-0
DAC12 Data Format
DAC12 Data
12-bit binary
The DAC12 data are right-justified. Bit 11 is the MSB.
12-bit 2’s complement
The DAC12 data are right-justified. Bit 11 is the MSB
(sign).
8-bit binary
The DAC12 data are right-justified. Bit 7 is the MSB.
Bits 11-8 are don’t care and do not effect the DAC12
core.
8-bit 2’s complement
The DAC12 data are right-justified. Bit 7 is the MSB
(sign). Bits 11-8 are don’t care and do not effect the
DAC12 core.
DAC12
19-13
Manual Update Sheet
SLAZ671 – April 2015
Corrections to MSP430x1xx Family User's Guide
(SLAU049)
Document Being Updated: MSP430x1xx Family User's Guide
Literature Number Being Updated: SLAU049F
Page
146 (5-20)
Change or Add
In FCTL3, Flash Memory Control Register FCTL3, the BUSY bit is shown as "r(w)−0". The
correct value is "r−0".
SLAZ671 – April 2015
Submit Documentation Feedback
Corrections to MSP430x1xx Family User's Guide (SLAU049)
Copyright © 2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
1
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issue. Buyers should obtain the latest relevant information before placing orders and should verify that such information is current and
complete. All semiconductor products (also referred to herein as “components”) are sold subject to TI’s terms and conditions of sale
supplied at the time of order acknowledgment.
TI warrants performance of its components to the specifications applicable at the time of sale, in accordance with the warranty in TI’s terms
and conditions of sale of semiconductor products. Testing and other quality control techniques are used to the extent TI deems necessary
to support this warranty. Except where mandated by applicable law, testing of all parameters of each component is not necessarily
performed.
TI assumes no liability for applications assistance or the design of Buyers’ products. Buyers are responsible for their products and
applications using TI components. To minimize the risks associated with Buyers’ products and applications, Buyers should provide
adequate design and operating safeguards.
TI does not warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted under any patent right, copyright, mask work right, or
other intellectual property right relating to any combination, machine, or process in which TI components or services are used. Information
published by TI regarding third-party products or services does not constitute a license to use such products or services or a warranty or
endorsement thereof. Use of such information may require a license from a third party under the patents or other intellectual property of the
third party, or a license from TI under the patents or other intellectual property of TI.
Reproduction of significant portions of TI information in TI data books or data sheets is permissible only if reproduction is without alteration
and is accompanied by all associated warranties, conditions, limitations, and notices. TI is not responsible or liable for such altered
documentation. Information of third parties may be subject to additional restrictions.
Resale of TI components or services with statements different from or beyond the parameters stated by TI for that component or service
voids all express and any implied warranties for the associated TI component or service and is an unfair and deceptive business practice.
TI is not responsible or liable for any such statements.
Buyer acknowledges and agrees that it is solely responsible for compliance with all legal, regulatory and safety-related requirements
concerning its products, and any use of TI components in its applications, notwithstanding any applications-related information or support
that may be provided by TI. Buyer represents and agrees that it has all the necessary expertise to create and implement safeguards which
anticipate dangerous consequences of failures, monitor failures and their consequences, lessen the likelihood of failures that might cause
harm and take appropriate remedial actions. Buyer will fully indemnify TI and its representatives against any damages arising out of the use
of any TI components in safety-critical applications.
In some cases, TI components may be promoted specifically to facilitate safety-related applications. With such components, TI’s goal is to
help enable customers to design and create their own end-product solutions that meet applicable functional safety standards and
requirements. Nonetheless, such components are subject to these terms.
No TI components are authorized for use in FDA Class III (or similar life-critical medical equipment) unless authorized officers of the parties
have executed a special agreement specifically governing such use.
Only those TI components which TI has specifically designated as military grade or “enhanced plastic” are designed and intended for use in
military/aerospace applications or environments. Buyer acknowledges and agrees that any military or aerospace use of TI components
which have not been so designated is solely at the Buyer's risk, and that Buyer is solely responsible for compliance with all legal and
regulatory requirements in connection with such use.
TI has specifically designated certain components as meeting ISO/TS16949 requirements, mainly for automotive use. In any case of use of
non-designated products, TI will not be responsible for any failure to meet ISO/TS16949.
Products
Applications
Audio
www.ti.com/audio
Automotive and Transportation
www.ti.com/automotive
Amplifiers
amplifier.ti.com
Communications and Telecom
www.ti.com/communications
Data Converters
dataconverter.ti.com
Computers and Peripherals
www.ti.com/computers
DLP® Products
www.dlp.com
Consumer Electronics
www.ti.com/consumer-apps
DSP
dsp.ti.com
Energy and Lighting
www.ti.com/energy
Clocks and Timers
www.ti.com/clocks
Industrial
www.ti.com/industrial
Interface
interface.ti.com
Medical
www.ti.com/medical
Logic
logic.ti.com
Security
www.ti.com/security
Power Mgmt
power.ti.com
Space, Avionics and Defense
www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense
Microcontrollers
microcontroller.ti.com
Video and Imaging
www.ti.com/video
RFID
www.ti-rfid.com
OMAP Applications Processors
www.ti.com/omap
TI E2E Community
e2e.ti.com
Wireless Connectivity
www.ti.com/wirelessconnectivity
Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright © 2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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