Umted State Patent [19] [11] 4,142,232

Umted State Patent [19] [11] 4,142,232
,
Umted State Patent [19]
[11]
Harvey
[45]
[54]
STUDENTS COMPUTER
[76] Inventor:
.
[22] F'bd'
4,142,232
Feb. 27, 1979
Chertok .................. .. 119/1004 13 x
Norman L. Harvey, 127 Beverly Dr.,
3:701:84‘ [0/1972
SE, Winter Haven, Fla. 33880
3,704,363
"/1972
3,711,641
1/1973
Palmer ........... .,
3,732,546
5/1913
Ronkin =1 .1
3,755,792
8/1973
Harvey
3,931,457
1/1976
Mes
3,931,903
2/1916
Osann .............................. .. 360/12 x
121] APPI- N°~= “1,239
'
.
0”‘ 18’ 1975
....... .. 340/ 172.5
3,842,405 10/1914
Rellt?l 113- ADM D1"
[63]
Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 375,455, Ju1.‘2, 1973.
[51]
1111. 0.1 ...................... .. G06F 13/04; G06F 7/28;
[52]
US. Cl. .................................... .. 364/200; 360/72;
Key et a1
... . . .... . .
. 340/1741 B
340/112 5
340/173 TP
340/112 5
. . . ..
360/72 X
Pn-mar)’ Examiner__Gm.cm D_ Shaw
Assistant Examiner-Jan E- Rhoads
6118 31/00, GHC 11/00
57
1
ABSTRACT
_
_
_
179/1004 D
Tlus d1sc1osure descrlbes a novel computer system 1n
[58] Field Of Search ....................... .. 445/1; 340/1125;
178/6_6 DD; 364/200’ 9“); "lg/"x14 D;
which *1 Ears: capacity, serial storage medium, on which
standardmed programs end data banks ean be 6001mm]
360/72; 313/563; 214/] CM
cally recorded, as the pnmary: memory compoqent. The
operatmg software program 15 not transferred mto core
[56]
Referm Cited
memory, as is typical of present day computers, but
us. PATENT
DOCUMENTS
,
;,g:;,$
.............................. ..
remains 331011111‘:
in 115111910017 01} :vhieh it has bee:
.
e res tmg system 1s ower m cost, an
prerecor
suitable for using standardized programs
3'593'299
1/1911
011x001: 111.
....... .1...‘ 3411/1125
‘"hk’h “'1 1" dismbu‘“ in "chin" °°mpa?bl° f°"“ “1
3,66l,397
3,662,339
5/1912
5/1972
Worth et 61. .... ..
Tyler et a1.
119/1004 D x
.......... .. 340/ 146.2
"mam w"
3,662,350
5/1972
Chertok .................. .. 179/1(D.4 D X
5 Chill", 7 DI‘U'illI Figures
INTEL 8080A
CPU
U.S. Patent
Feb. 27, 1979
Sheet 1 of4
643
FIG. I
4,142,232
US. Patent
Feb. 27, 1979
/eo
/s2
’
Sheet 2 of4
/5a
’
’
KEYBOARD
Me'MoRY
ADDRESS
OUNTER
REGISTER _
\e4
\es
7
LOOPING
r-CONTROL
1
aa-- sua
PROGRAM
COUNTER
D|$PLAY
‘LINK
/5e
R
l
LATOR
\
/ 51
ROGRAM
ACCUMU~
4,142,232
1 ’/5|
MEMORY
ezxaurrea
REGISTER
MEMQRY
BUFFER
REGISTER
| i
ms'rRuc
54"“ ‘non
v0.65 ’
R 2 s IS T E R
OUTPUT
50
aHjANDOM
DYMAMK:
ACCESS -
SERIAL
MEMORY
MEMO RY
r
VOICE
MESSAGE
H6. 2
10
89/
H6. 4
,6
2|
a2
/--72
g! 273;?
55/ STORAGE
US. Patent
Feb. 27, 1979
I26
AMPL. &
SHAPING
CIRCUW
FIG. 7
Sheet4 0f4
4,142,232
1
4,142,232
2
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The invention will become more apparent by refer
ence to the following drawings which show certain
preferred embodiments of the invention:
FIG. 1 is a general assembly view of an embodiment
employing a phonograph-type disk as the plug-in mem
ory component, a simple decimal keyboard entry de
vice, and a small visual display and audio headphone
STUDENT’S COMPUTER
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. ap
plication Ser. No. 375,455 ?led July 2, 1973.
REFERENCES
The embodiments described in this disclosure em
ploy, in part, subsystems described in the following
output means.
references:
FIG. 2 is a functional block schematic showing the
elements of my invention integrated into a typical mini
1. U.S. Pat. No. 3,755,792 issued August 28, l973,
entitled "DIGITAL DATA STORAGE SYS
computer;
TEM.” Issued to Norman L. Harvey.
FIG. 3 is a side elevation, sectioned along lines 3-3
2. INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING, Digi
tal Equipment Corp. small computer handbook
series.
of FIG. 1, showing the cartridge carriage assembly;
3. 8080 MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEM USER’S
disk;
FIG. 4 is a front elevation of the cartridge and its
holder showing means for lifting the stylus from the
MANUAL, Intel Corporation, July, 1975.
FIG. 5 is an enlarged plan view illustrating the ar
20 rangement for locking the carriage at a selected position
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
to engage the grooves carrying a particular stored pro
My invention is of an improved computer architec
gram;
ture particularly suitable for low cost, free standing
FIG. 6 is a block schematic of the complete system
equipment to be used in the school classroom environ
implemented with standard components of the Intel
ment. It employs storage media which can be economi 25 Corporation microprocessor line; and
FIG. 7 shows the detailed circuit interfacing the pho
cally mass produced with pre-recorded programs and
nograph disk memory system and the voice message
data ?les, which can be essentially “plugged in" to the
system to the microprocessor.
equipment, and which function as the primary operat
ing memory component without the necessity of pro
Although many schools are already using computers
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
Referring ?rst to FIG. 1, the computer, employing a
in the educational process, there is a great need for
phonograph-type disk in this preferred embodiment, is
gram transfer to internal core.
30
shown assembled in a case 1. Disk 2 is centered over
post 3 on a turntable 4 which rotates typically at 45 rpm,
sure. Present equipment is so costly that it is a rare
school that can afford more than 6 or 8 terminals, and it 35 although other rotation speeds may be used if advanta
geous to certain applications. A small motor 5 with a
is usually necessary to concentrate these terminals in a
pulley 6 secured to its shaft 7 drives the turntable 4 by
computer room to which students come, rather than
equipment having the features described in this disclo
means of a belt 8.
taking the terminals into the classroom itself. Present
A rail 11 bridges across the top of the turntable and
systems further require a level of training on the part of
disk,
and serves as a support and track for a cartridge
40
the general classroom teacher that most are unwilling
carriage assembly which can be moved along it to se
or feel unable to absorb.
lected radial positions over the grooves of disk 2. Rail
My invention overcomes these limitations of existing
11 is supported at either end by rail blocks 30 and 31, to
systems, achieving substantially lower cost and greatyly
which it is precisely located by taper pins 32 and 33, and
increased teacher convenience by employing as the
fastened with cap screws 34 and 35.
primary operating memory of the computer a low cost,
The carriage assembly consists of plate 12 to which is
mass producible, storage medium on which programs
fastened rail guide 13 by means of machine screws not
and data are pre-recorded, and which can be easily
visible in this figure. Firmly ?xed to rail guide 13 by
plugged in to the computer. The normal core memory,
machine screws 14 and 15 is a lever base 10 which
as a result, can be very small since it is needed only to
carries a fixed lever 16, and blocks 17 and 18 between
receive operator-entered data, to store the intermediate
which carriage release lever 19 can turn about a small
results of calculations, and to store certain program
shaft 20. A compression spring 21 holds the levers 16
subroutines.
and 19 normally apart. The teacher or student can free
In a preferred embodiment of my invention, a vinyl
the cartridge assembly to move along rail 11 simply by
phonograph disk is used as this storage medium. Phono 55 pinching together levers 16 and 19.
graph disks can be replicated in large volume by con
Mounted also on plate 12 of the carriage assembly is
ventional record pressing techniques, can be distributed
cup solenoid 25 with its armature 26, and pivot 27,
at costs approximating those for printed materials, and
about which the cartridge arm assembly, underneath
are easily "plugged in" to the equipment. An efficient
and not visible in this plan view, can turn.
The teacher (or student) prepares to use the computer
method of recording digital data on phonograph disks,
by selecting a disk carrying the pre-recorded program
and of recovering it, is described in my U.S. Pat. No.
he desires, and placing it on the turntable. He next
3,755,792. The use of a magnetic tape cassette also is
pinches together levers 16 and 19, and moves the car
described.
tridge assembly along the rail to position the stylus over
The customary input/output devices can be em
ployed, but the phonograph disk and the tape cassette 65 the lead-in groove to the particular program he wants to
use. When the levers are released, a knife edge on the
both permit the use of prerecorded voice messages as a
lower part of lever 19 engages serrations 94 in rail 11
novel and economical feature. Means to utilize this
capability is disclosed.
(see FIG. 5) and locks the assembly in place.
3
4,142,232
In this embodiment the student enters coded com
mands and numbers into the computer by means of a ten
4
groove provides a capacity of about 2750 such 8 bit
words. The other grooves, in a system employing a
constant speed turntable, can store the same amount of
digit keyboard 40. Computer output is by means of a
numeric display 41, and aurally by headphones plugged
into phone jack 44.
software at lower density.
If magnetic tape is used for dynamic serial memory
The computer is turned on by line switch 42, and the
50, the programs and data can be stored in the same
"ON" condition is indicated by pilot light 43.
complementary pair of tracks as described in my previ
ously referenced patent, in the self clocking Manchester
FIG. 2 is presented to show the altered functional
relationships among the elements of a typical mini-com
puter system when the plug-in memory is introduced
into the system. It is intended more to show the func
tional relationships within the processor, than as a func
code, or in other suitable form. The tape is most conve
niently handled if it is used in cassette form. A conserva
tive recording density of 1000 bits per inch, will require
22 inches of tape to provide the same storage capacity
tional design of the improved system.
as available in one turn of the disk as described above.
To one skilled in the art, most of the component parts
In the conceptual schematic of FIG. 2, the data is
of the block schematic of FIG. 2 will be recognized as 15 recovered from the disk as described in my US. Pat.
a typical mini-computer. (e.g. see FIG. 2-l, page 2-5 of
No. 3,755,455 as a serial data stream. Then 8 bit groups
Introduction to Programming, Digital Equipment Cor
are assembled in a second memory buffer register 51.
poration). Input is made to the computer by conven
From there data is separated out and routed to accumu
tional keyboard 60 with the binary coded key-strokes
accumulated in accumulator 52. Any carries out of the 20 lator 52, and thence either to display 64, or through
memory buffer register 62 to random access memory
accumulator in the course of the performance of arith
61.
Most importantly, however, a series of program
metic operations, set link 65. Computer output is to
display 64 from accumulator 52 in a well known man
instructions increment program counter 53 and are
memory 61 are routed through a memory buffer regis
ter 62. Instructions from the program software are
moved from random access memory 61, through mem
by any program stored in the random access memory
54. Unlike existing systems where programs are trans
ory buffer register 62, to instruction register 54 from
which they direct the selection of the hard-wired in
cassettes, into an internal random access memory, and
transferred to instruction register 54 for execution. The
ner.
Transfers of data and instructions, both input and 25 tempo and the sequence of processing steps executed by
the computer system is established by the 8-bit words
output, between accumulator 52 and random access
being output by the dynamic serial memory 50, and not
ferred from external storage devices, like magnetic tape
structions from the instruction set of the system. With
then executed by progressively stepping through the
struction are held in memory address register 57.
The inter-functioning of all these elements of FIG. 2
just described, is entirely in a well known and conven
tional manner when used in conjunction with the addi
access memory is used only as a “scratch pad,” or to
tion, and is fully described in any book on mini-com
puter architecture. To this conventional system, I have
58. In that case an earlier address would be transferred
from program counter 53 to memory address register
added certain additional components in a novel manner,
57, identi?ed as requiring looping by instruction regis
internally stored program, the system of my invention
the execution of each instruction, sub-program counter
retains the mass storage device as the operating source
63 is supplied with the address of the next instruction to
be executed. Memory addresses referenced by an in 35 of the program being executed. The internal random
hold relatively short subroutines.
Since the program is stored and output in sequential
form, any program which requires looping back to an
tional components comprising the system of my inven 40 earlier portion of the program employs looping control
ter 54, and activate looping control 58. Cup solenoid 25
with FIGS. 2, 6, and 7.
45 is de-energized, Hook 82 (See FIG. 3) raises arm 76
with cartridge 72, and disengages stylus 73 from the
The crucial addition, continuing with FIG. 2, is dy
and these will be described more fully in connection
groove. By means to be described in detail in the discus
namic serial memory 50. In a ?rst preferred embodi
ment of my invention, dynamic serial memory 50 is a
sion of FIGS. 3 and 4, the stylus is repositioned to the
portion of the groove in which the start of this particu
phonograph-type disk encoded with software and data
in digital ‘form. In an alternative embodiment of my 50 lar program resides.
Retaining program control in a storage medium such
invention, magnetic tapeis employed as the dynamic
as a tape cassette or a phonograph disk, makes it feasa
serial memory. The word “dynamic” is used here to
ble to store audio messages integral with the program.
describe the fact that these two alternative storage
This is shown as a voice message storage 55 in FIG. 2,
media are in motion as used in my computer system.
In the preferred embodiment employing the phono
graph-type disk, a number of appropriate computer
programs useful to the classroom are encoded in the
55
actually an integral part of dynamic serial memory 50.
The voice is recorded on tape or disk in a conventional
manner. Under program control, these messages are
output through voice output 56, which for a classroom
spiral groove of the disk in machine language form.
could be an ampli?er and either speaker or headphones.
Any one of several known techniques for recording
digital data on a phonograph disk may be employed, but 60 FIG. 6 shows an embodiment of a system utilizing my
invention in further detail as implemented using the
the method described in my US. Pat. No. 3,755,455 is
especially efficient and suitable. Using that method,
micro-processor and related chip components manufac
data can be stored readily at densities of 2000 bits per
tured by Intel Corporation. Complete detail of the inter
linear groove inch. The innermost groove may have,
connection of the Intel components among themselves,
typically, a diameter of 3 inches, or about 11 inches of 65 and between them and standard I/O devices, is pro
groove length for one revolution. The storage capacity
of this groove is then I l X 2000 bits, or 22,000 bits total.
If the computer is designed to use an 8 bit word, this
vided in their "8080 Microcomputer Systems User’s
Manual,” July 1975. The full detail of the interconnec
tion to the nonconventional components required to
5
4,142,232
utilize my invention, is provided in connection with
FIG. 7.
Referring now to FIG. 6, the Intel 8080A Central
Processing Unit, with it’s 47 instruction set is shown as
101. An Intel 8224 Clock 102, controlled by crystal 103,
provides 2-phase clock signals to CPU 101. Ready,
Reset, and Sync connections are provided between the
units as described in the User’s Manual. An Intel 8228
bi-directional Bus Driver and Control 104 interfaces
CPU 101 to an 8-line data bus 106, and to a S-line con
trol bus 107. Data can flow in either direction between
the 8080A CPU and the 8228 Bus Driver through data
bus 105. A request from any peripheral device that the
CPU 101 enter a “hold” state is acknowledged on the
HLDA line. The DBIN line carries a signal to periph
eral devices through the control bus that the data bus is
in the input mode, and a signal on the WR line indicates
an ouput write to a peripheral. An STSTB (strobe)
input from Clock 102 strobes instruction status informa
tion onto the data bus at the beginning of each instruc 20
6
.
nel as the complementary one. In order to distinguish
whether each data word output from the disk is an
instruction, data, or an address, some form of coding is
necessary. One efficient method, available because of
the existence of a complementary pair, is to break the
complementary relationship for one 8-bit data word as a
synchronizing signal. The particular arrangement dc‘
picted in FIG. 7 is based upon encoding 1's in both
channels for one full 8-bit word to indicate that the next
8-bit word will be an address, and that all succeeding
words are to be assumed to be either data or instructions
located in an ascending sequence of addresses. In other
words, any full sequence of 8-bits in both channels is a
synchronizing signal only. The next 8-bit word is an
address, and each following 8-bit word is to be consid
ered as located in memory at an address incremented by
one over the next previous address. This continues until
the next synchronizing word is output.
Turning again to FIG. 7, the train of pulses output on
the B channel from ampli?er and shaping circuits 126
branches into three paths. The lower one of the three
paths in the schematic leads to an 8-bit serial register
Intel 8212 I/O Ports 109 through 114 are shown
128 where the 8—bit data words are assembled. Register
interfacing several [/0 devices to control bus 107 and
128 is also connected in parallel to the eight latches of
data bus 106. An address bus 108 connects directly from
CPU 101 to the several 82l2 Ports. The address bus 25 the Intel 8212 [/0 port 111. The latches are set when
port 111 is strobed at the STR connection.
carries I/O device addresses and device identi?cation
Asecond branch of the B-channel output from ampli
information. An Intel 8102A random access memory
?er and shaping circuits 126 leads to Inclusive OR gate
115 is connected to Port 109 to serve as a scratch pad
129. One branch of the A channel also leads to OR gate
memory, including the storing of short program subrou
tines. The Port 115 provides an 8-bit latch and output 30 129, and the gate output, which is an unbroken stream
of l’s, is used to synchronize clock 130 at the bit rate
buffering. A read-only memory chip, the Intel 8702A
output from the disk. One output from clock 130 is used
116 is interfaced to the system through Port 112 to
to sequence serial register 128. As bits are sequenced
provide a storage for standard utility software, such as
out of the high end of the register, they are dissipated in
a keyboard monitor.
Keyboard 117 is conventional, as is its connection to 35 the resistor load 131.
The A and B channels are ANDed in gate 127, the
the system through Port 110. The keyboard can be the
output of which is divided by 8 in divider 132. A second
simple lO-digit keyboard 40 shown in FIG. 1, or a stan
output from clock 130 is divided by 8 in a second di
dard teletype keyboard. Display 118 is the conventional
tion cycle.
set of drivers and light emitting diodes, and is connected
vider 134. One output from this divider provides the
to those skilled in the art.
132, and a third is input to AND gate 133, along with an
output from divider 132. An output from gate 133 is
lead to the interrupt (INT) terminal of I/O port 111, and
to the system through Port 113 in a manner well known 40 strobe signal to I/O port 111, a second clears divider
A vinyl disk 119, connected through Port 111, is the
source of program and data to be executed and utilized
by the system. A magnetic tape unit 120 is shown in
transmitted to the CPU 101 over the control bus. The
dashed lines as an alternate source of program and data. 45 completion of the transfer of a data word from I/O port
111 to CPU 101 is acknowledged with a clear (CLR)
signal back to the I/O port which clears the latches.
The ?rst word in each program on vinyl disk 126 is a
synchronizing word, is. 8 successive bits in both A and
B channels. Clock 130, and dividers 132 and 134 will all
In FIG. 7 the details of the interconnection of those
be initialized simultaneously, and at the eighth bit, there
portions of the system wherein the novelty lies, are
will be a bit appearing simultaneously on both input
shown. Vinyl disk 125, in this embodiment, is consid
ports of AND gate 133. These will AND to produce an
ered to be encoded with non return to zero-change at
interrupt to the CPU 101, a clear signal will be returned
one (NRZI) signals in one track of a stereo pair, and
with the complementary non return to zero--change at 55 to I/O port 111, the latches of the port will be cleared,
and the system is ready to receive the ?rst address
zero (NRZO) signal in the other, as described in detail
word. This normally will be the address of initialization
in my US. Pat. No. 3,755,455. As further described in
of the program counter in CPU 101, and the ensuing
that patent, each of the two signals is recovered inde
words will be instructions.
pendently with a stereo cartridge, ampli?ed and shaped
in separate channels, and output as a compleementary 60 CPU 101 increments its program counter after exe
Optional magnetic tape 120 is interfaced to the system
through Port 114. A voice output unit, 121, comprising
an audio amplifier and headset, is actuated under pro
gram control through control bus 107.
pair of pulse trains. Ampli?er & shaping circuits 126
perform these functions according to the teaching of
that patent.
cuting each instruction, and sends out an address on the
address bus with a request for the information stored at
that location. The vinyl disk outputs a data word that is
at an address de?ned as being the next higher address,
The signals encoded on vinyl disk 125 are encoded as
and the computing process proceeds. If data is to be
65
a sequential stream of Pa and 0's, each group of 8 repre
transferred, a synch signal is output, a new address
senting one data word. In the complementary channel,
sequence is started at a memory location assigned to
l‘s replace 0’s, and O’s replace the l’s. In FIG. 7, the B
data, and data is transferred and processed under pro
channel is shown as the direct channel, and the A chan
7
4,142,232
gram control. At the conclusion of data transfer, an
other synch word can initiate a return to addresses
assigned to instructions. The ROM 116 can be accessed
for general service routines in a conventional manner,
and the RAM 115 can be used dynamically as a scratch
parts of the carriage assembly are mounted mostly on
plate 12. Rail guide 13, machined to provide a smooth
sliding ?t to rail 11, is fastened to plate 12 by small
machine screws 70 and 71. Fastened, in turn, to rail
guide 13 by means of screws 14 and 15 (only 15 is visible
pad for short special routines and for holding process
in this ?gure),>is lever base 10, to which ?xed lever 16
is ?rmly attached. Carriage release lever 19 rotates
about shaft 20, which is supported between a pair of
blocks, of which one, 18, is visible in FIG. 3. Compres
sion spring 21 holds the two levers 16 and 19 apart.
Cartridge 72 with its stylus 73 is held in cartridge arm
76 by spring clips 74 and 75. Arm 76 is fastened to a
small bearing block 77 which pivots around pin 78,
which is held in yoke 79. This pivoting arrangement
ing results.
Small loops can be read from vinyl disk system into
the RAM and executed as subroutines. A major loop
can be identi?ed in the stored program as a previously
used address, initiating a hold request to the CPU, and
activating via the control bus an initiating signal to latch
135, thus initiating switching action by transistor 136 to
solenoid 25. The stylus is raised and mechanically repo
sitioned to the starting groove, lowered, the system is
permits the cartridge 72 to move in a vertical arc. Yoke
79, in turn, can turn about the vertical axis provided by
shoulder pin 27 which is mounted in plate 12. Arm 76 is
re-initialized for synchronization, and a search is insti
tuted for the desired address, all under software control.
Vinyl disk 125 also can be encoded with audio mes
sages, recorded either monaurally or in stereo by nor
mal recording techniques, and interspersed with the
unusually short as compared to typical phonograph
tone arms. This short arm is practical because the maxi
20
mum travel of stylus 73 along the disk radius during
program execution is only a few grooves of the spiral,
digital data on the disk. These messages would be brief
program responses or promptings to the student, requir
ing a playing time of the order of one second. Each
spanning perhaps l/32 inch. The angular travel is thus
for an input from that memory address, a service rou
tine stored in ROM 116 will identify that address as a
tracking force.
disk audio location, a control signal will be transmitted
via the control bus to enable (BNL) audio ampli?er 140.
The same cartridge and stylus associated with disk 125
which recovers the stored digital data, also recovers the
audio message which is input by a second circuit con
nection to audio ampli?er 140. The ampli?er output
actuates a small loudspeaker 141. It is obvious that head
angular opening in cartridge arm 76. The triangular
opening has its apex at the top, and is wide enough in
the lower portion so that when stylus 73 has been low
ered into the groove, it can move laterally through at
least the full l/ 32 inch allocated to one program with
out book 82 coming into contact with the sides of the
triangular opening. When hook 82 is raised so as to lift
phones can be substituted for the loud speaker. At the
conclusion of the voice message, another synch signal
the stylus clear of the disk groove, it then comes into
contact with both sides of the triangular opening as it
an order of magnitude less than that required in normal
response is preceeded by a synch signal and a unique
audio record players, and approaches much more
address. In program execution, an instruction will call 25 closely the ideal of having no lateral component in the
The stylus is raised by hook 82 which engages a tri
initiates an interrupt to CPU 101 as was previously.
nears the apex, and so returns the cartridge arm 76 and
It is well known that magnetic tape and phonograph
disks have comparable capabilities of frequency range,
stylus 73 to the position that the student had set initially.
This operation occurs every time looping control 58 of
signal to noise ratio, and general recording fidelity in
40 FIG. 2 is activated in introducing a pause in program
the recording of sound, and both media are used exten
sively commercially for this purpose. Moreover, the use
execution of student response, or for looping back to
earlier portions of the program on the disk.
of magnetic tape for the storage of digital data is exten
Hook 82 is an integral part of armature 26 of cup
sive and well known. It will accordingly be obvious to
solenoid 25. In the de-energized condition of solenoid
those skilled in the art, that a magnetic tape cassette 45 25, the armature 26 is held in a raised position by com
could readily be substituted for vinyl disk 125 in a sec
pression spring 83, pushing against iron washer 84,
ond alternative embodiment of my invention. Digital
which is held onto armature 26 by locking pin 85. The
data, in direct and complementary form can be re
normally raised position of stylus 73 is a safeguard
corded on two tracks of such a magnetic tape storage
against stylus of disk damage when the computer is
component, and these two outputs can be input to am 50 being moved.
pli?er and shaping circuits 126 in exactly the same man
FIG. 4 is a front end view of the cartridge and its
ner as has been described for signals from the vinyl
lifting means, intended to further clarify the arrange
desk. Other encoding means can be used for the mag
ment of the triangular opening. Cartridge 72 is shown
netic tape, suchas single track with the so-oalled Man
with stylus 73 just leaving engagement with a groove on
chester code, by making modi?cations to the circuits
for other patterns of timing and sychronizing signals.
disk 2. Cartridge 72 is held to cartridge arm 76 by spring
clips 75. The triangular opening 89 in the forward por
Such modi?cations will be readily made by those skilled
tion of arm 72 is shown, with a section view of hook 82
in the art.
engaged at the apex of the triangular opening.
Looping requirements in using a magnetic tape cas
FIG. 5 shows the manner in which the cartridge
sette are met by using transistor switch 136 to activate a 60 carriage assembly is locked to a selected program posi
rewind to a beginning-of-?le mark encoded on the tape.
tion by a knife edge in the lower portion of release lever
This rewind operation replaces sequence of lifting and
19 engaging accurately milled serrations 94 in rail 11. In
this illustrative embodiment, serrations 94 are l/ 32
type disk.
inches center-to-center, and are positioned to register
FIG. 3 shows, in a view sectioned along lin 3-3 of 65 with the mid-point of a lead-in spiral groove for each
FIG. 1, details of the cartridge carriage assembly, . . It
recorded program on the disk. Aset of calibration marks
is this assembly that the student moves along rail 11 as
92 is engraved on rail 11, and are also in registry with
he selects the particular program he wants to use. The
corresponding serrations 94, so that one edge of plate 12
repositioning the stylus when using the phonograph
9
4,142,232
10
serves as an index for reading the particular program
setting of the carriage assembly. In FIG. 5 the carriage
is shown positioned at Program #12. A position “X” is
shown at 93 that is used to position the carriage out of
the way when replacing a disk on the turntable. Other S
parts in the Figure are as identi?ed and explained in
connection with the explanation of previous ?gures in
this speci?cation.
It will be apparent that other input and output de
vices can be used in systems utilizing my invention. For
example, a standard alpha-numeric keyboard can be
-
decoding means for identifying which portions of
said pulse patterns represent addresses, processor
instructions, digital data, or data in other forms;
data processor means for performing data processing
operations;
’
?rst interfacing means responsive to said decoding
means for selectively transferring each assembled
binary word which represents a processor instruc
tion from said serial register means to said data
processor means;
second interfacing means responsive to said decoding
means and said processor means for selectively
used in place of the simple ten-digit keyboard. Output
also can be made to an alpha-numeric LED display, to
transferring each subsequently assembled binary
electric typewriter, to graphical platting devices, or to a
cathode ray tube.
It will be understood that many of the speci?c means
word, representing the data related to said trans
ferred instruction, from said serial register means to
said data processor means;
said data processor means performing the operations
indicated by each said instruction upon its related
data immediately upon completion of the respec
tive transfers by said first and second interfacing
described for the preferred embodiments disclosed in
this specification, may be replaced or modi?ed, and still
will be within the scope of my invention.
What is claimed is:
means; and
l. A data processing apparatus, comprising:
output means for reporting the results of the opera
tions performed on said transferred data.
2. The data processing apparatus of claim 1 wherein
means are included to disengage said sensing means
from the spiral groove, return it to a preceeding portion
a plastic disk on at least one face of which a sequen
tially organized combination of synchronization
signals, processor instructions, and related data has
been stored as undulations in aspiral groove;
transducer means for transforming the undulations
into an electrical signal having a corresponding
of said groove, and to reengage it in the groove so as to
recycle through a portion of the stored data and proces
pattern of pulses;
sor instructions.
detection means for identifying certain pulse patterns 30 3. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said plastic disk
as said synchronization signals, each occurrence of
is a phonograph type disk encoded with data and pro
which representing a predetermined reference
eessor instructions.
point in the organized sequence of said instructions
4. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said plastic disk
and data;
stores both voice messages and data encoded in digital
clocking means synchronized to said pattern of 35 form.
.
Pulses;
5. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said plastic disk
serial register means responsive to said clocking
is readily replacable by the user with a similar disk on
means and said detection means for assembling
which a second series of data and processor instructions
has been stored.
subsequent portions of said pattern of pulses into
binary words;
45
65
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