PV Magazine (February 2013 edition) Spoilt for Choice

Photo: Solarpraxis AG/Andreas Schlegel
Storage & Smart Grids
With so many technologies in the market, is there a way to say that one battery technology is better than another?
Spoilt for choice
Battery overview: Batteries are an integral part of the total storage solution offered
for renewable energy applications. However in the selection process, comparison of
the different batteries available is not easy since chemistries and performance for
applications differ. This market overview shows deep cycle batteries that are on the
market and the elements that can influence operation and storage.
Batteries are a dime a dozen at the moment. However, good batteries for optimum renewable energy storage are another thing altogether. Selecting the
wrong battery can be an expensive mistake. Renewable energy applications require deep cycle batteries, those that can
discharge between 50% and 80% of storage capacity repeatedly, enabling maximum capacity and higher cycle counts.
Deep cycle batteries are structurally
different compared to others, like starter
batteries for cars. Within the deep cycle
74
range, the chemistries vary too. Differentiating one battery type from another can
be difficult making it tricky to say which
is better.
Alfons Westgeest, executive director
of the Association of European Automotive and Industrial Battery Manufacturers (Eurobat), says: “I would say there is
no clear leader in these battery technologies. Lead-based is competitive in terms
of price, installation ease and maintenance. Lithium is more compact. Nickel
is somewhere in between lead-based and
lithium. And sodium is more for larger
scale applications. They all have different
characteristics.”
With so many technologies on the
market is there a way to say that one battery technology is better than another?
How safe is my battery?
Late in 2011, a sodium sulphur battery
system made up of 40 battery modules
went up in flames at a plant in Joso City
in Japan. The battery manufacturer NGK
Insulators, Ltd, had to request that cus-
02 / 2013 | www.pv-magazine.com
Worldwide installed storage capacity for electrical energy as of 2010
Compressed Air Energy Storage
440 MW/3,730 MWh
Sodium Sulphur Battery
316 MW/1,900 MWh
Pumped Hydro
127,000 MW/~1,500,000 MWh
Source: International Electrotechnical Commission
Graphic: Solarpraxis AG/Harald Schütt
Storage & Smart Grids
Lithium Ion Battery
~70 MW/~17 MWh
Lead Acid Battery
~35 MW/~70 MWh
over 99 % of the total storage capacity
Nickel Cadmium Battery
27 MW/6.75 MWh
Flywheels
<25 MW/<0.4 MWh
Redox Flow Battery
<3 MW/<12 MWh
Sodium sulphur batteries led the pack as of 2010 but other technologies are catching up.
tomers refrain from using the batteries until the cause was discovered. This
affected more than 170 locations in six
countries worldwide. In the middle of
last year, NGK released their incident report stating that one of the 384 cells in a
battery module was faulty and leaked hot
molten material causing a short between
battery cells in an adjoining block, and
thereby causing the whole battery module to catch fire. This fire occurred in a
large energy storage application and,
luckily, there were no casualties.
The example is not to scare people away
from batteries but rather to show that the
safety risks ought to be taken seriously.
Batteries of all technologies are manufactured according to internationally recognized design, production and quality
standards, in order to guarantee their
safety for users across all applications.Potential customers must also choose carefully, with the battery selection process
demanding know how. .Whoever is installing the battery needs to also know
how to handle the different battery types.
A market overview has to therefore
cover the different parameters that need
to be known. As important as safety
questions are, the batteries also differentiate themselves in other factors such
as capacity, cycle life, voltages and recommended charge and discharge depths
among others.
These parameters are therefore also
found in the market overview. Eight
companies participated giving details of
02 / 2013 | www.pv-magazine.com
more than 50 batteries for renewable energy storage.
An important factor in the aspect of
safety for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries
is the material used. Manufacturers like
Leclanché indicated in the market overview that ceramic separators in their HS
3200 battery can ensure high thermal and
electrical safety. Such separators have the
ability to provide a shut down function
in situations like a short circuit by cutting current flow. Lead- based batteries,
for example, can potentially release flammable hydrogen and oxygen gases during electrolysis. Accumulation of these
gases in batteries can be dangerous. In
the event of sparks there can potentially
be an explosion.
Nevertheless this hazard can be rectified with technology. If the batteries are
not valve-regulated, then they need to
be placed in a well-ventilated space for
safety. Hoppecke offers optional safety
measures for its two vented lead-acid
batteries: the AquaGen recombiner that
can be fitted to all lead acid and NickelCadmium (NiCd) batteries.The hydrogen
and oxygen gases that are emitted during electrolysis are fed into the AquaGen
recombiner. Such situations can also
be prevented with the implementation
of battery management systems (BMS).
Westgeest says that every battery ought
to be integrated with a BMS. Having such
a BMS becomes an important safety aspect especially when conditions start getting too hot or too cold for the battery.
In flooded batteries, over charging
means the battery will have higher water
consumption and would require more
maintenance. Trojan Battery’s senior applications engineer for the Renewable
Energy Group Kalyan Jana adds that if
this battery type is over charged over a
long time in an uncontrolled-temperature environment, theoretically thermal runaway can happen. “It takes a lot
but it can happen. Basically in thermal
runaway the battery generates more heat
than it can dissipate and it reaches a meltdown,” says Jana.
Leclanché’s HS 3200, for example, has
a ceramic separator in place not only for
thermal but also for electrical safety and
to improve the battery’s abuse tolerance.
This also includes an overcharge tolerance.
Saft’s product and applications manager Jésus Lugaro explains that, just as
with temperature extremes, the BMS will
step in when overcharging happens to a
Li-ion battery. He explains: “We measure
each cell voltage in the modules. This information is sent to the BMS and it has
an algorithm to understand if the maximum voltage limit is reached. If so, there
is a warning and the current breaker will
be activated.”
To Eurobat’s knowledge, there is no risk
of thermal runaway during standard operation of lead-based batteries. Thermal
runaway is possible in Li-based batteries
because of their more volatile chemistry
and higher energy density. However, Liion batteries are equipped with sophisticated battery and thermal management
systems to keep their operations under
safe parameters and protect against this
possibility. Therefore they are also safe to
operate under standard conditions.
The important point for the buyer is to
take note of the user manual and ensure
he does not abuse his batteries and then
expect them to function over many years.
What temperatures can it stand?
One of the fundamental aspects to look
out for in a battery brochure are the operating and storage temperatures. Temperature has an influence on cycle life,
an aspect we will cover later. Higher ambient temperatures tend to momentarily
improve performance of the battery by
lowering internal resistance and increasing the chemical metabolism. However,
over a long period of time, this can affect cycle life and increase self-discharge.
75
Storage & Smart Grids
At lower temperatures, internal resistance increases and decreases capacity.
Temperature compensation is one feature that can help if the battery is exposed to such extremes. That is another
reason why we also asked manufacturers
why temperature conditions are recommended for their batteries and what kind
of regulations are needed.
Trojan Battery product sheets recommend an operating temperature between
-20°C and 45°C for their lead-acid batteries. At temperatures below 0°C a state of
charge (SOC) greater than 60% is recommended. The SOC is important for leadacid batteries in cold conditions as in a
discharged state, the electrolyte becomes
more water-like and freezing temperature increases. At a 40% SOC, the electrolyte can freeze if the temperature reaches
approximately -8°C.
Westgeest says that lithium can be a bit
more sensitive to temperature extremes,
adding: “It’s more sensitive to charging
and decharging in particular tempera-
ture curves.” The Fraunhofer Institute for
Silicate Research (ISC) adds to this statement saying that even just a few degrees
of temperature fluctuations can make a
huge difference and this law also applies
to Li-ion batteries: adding ten degrees
Celsius cuts Li ion battery life in half.
Saft’s lithium nickel cobalt aluminum (Li(NCA)) Synerion 24M has operating temperatures between -20°C and
60°C while storage conditions can fall
to -30°C and up to 70°C. For Li-ion batteries, the BMS thus becomes the regulator. Saft’s Lugaro says that at too high
or too low temperatures, the BMS will
completely stop the battery at the maximum or minimum operating temperatures and no more current will be able to
pass through.
Applications with this battery?
Apart from ensuring the temperatures
the batteries are going to be stored and
operated at, the buyer also has to think
about the application he is going to need
the batteries for. Within energy storage, there are power and energy applications, power being the rate at which energy is consumed (in Watts) and energy
being the amount of power consumed (in
Watt-hours).
Lux Research’s Steve Minnihan explains it as an application where “you
need continuous energy discharge from
anywhere between five minutes and an
hour”. This application relates to the socalled “big watt” household devices like
coffee makers and vacuum cleaners. This
calls for a battery that can charge and discharge very quickly. Energy application
needs a battery that can provide energy
for a longer period of time, meaning longer discharges. Minnihan explains that
Li-ion batteries perform well for power
applications but fall short when longer
discharges are needed.
Saft’s Lugaro sees it differently, stressing that it is not that Li-ion batteries are
not as good as other technologies with
regards to longer discharges. He says:
Some deep cycle battery technologies
Lead based batteries are based on lead dioxide
as the active material of the positive electrode,
metallic lead in a high surface area porous
structure as the negative active material and
a sulphuric acid solution. They consist of other
sub technologies such as flooded lead acid batteries and valve regulated lead acid (VRLA).
VRLA batteries, also known as sealed batteries,
have electrolytes either immobilized by a gel or
with the electrolyte immobilized in an absorptive glass mat or AGM.
For VRLA batteries, the use of gel or glass fibers,
as in the case of AGM means that they can be
installed in any orientation due to the lack of liquids. VRLA batteries are relatively maintenance
free but checks like voltage, internal resistance,
and capacity verification measurements should
be done periodically.
Flooded lead acid batteries have the same internal chemistry but require upright orientation to prevent electrolyte leakage, a ventilated
environment to diffuse the gases emitted when
cycled and regular maintenance of the electrolyte. Lead based batteries are said to be:
•• Relatively efficient but lesser than lithium ion
batteries, for example
•• With low self discharge rates
•• Established with recycle possibilities
However, they have lower energy densities,
comparatively.
Lithium ion batteries are based on lithium ions
that move back and forth from the cathode to
the anode during charge and discharge. The
cathode or anode materials can differ in chem-
76
istries. The manufacturers who took part in the
market overview listed lithium ion based solutions such as lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4),
lithium titanate and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum (Li(NCA)).
The advantages are stated by energy expert
Arup Energy Storage’s “A five minute guide to
electricity storage” as:
•• Extremely high energy densities
•• Able to tolerate more discharge cycles than
other technologies
•• High efficiency
Negative effects can be rectified with battery
management systems.
Flow batteries use two liquid electrolytes for
the opposing charges which act as energy carriers. An ion selective membrane separates the
electrolytes and allows selected ions to pass
and complete chemical reactions during charging and discharging.
Vanadium redox flow batteries use vanadium
ions that are dissolved in the electrolytes in different oxidation states to store energy.
Arup Energy Storage states the advantages of
flow batteries as:
•• Less sensitive to higher DOD
•• Tolerance to a large number of charge/discharge cycles
•• Reduced likelihood of cell output being
reduced to that of the lowest performing cell
•• Virtually unlimited capacity
However, the batteries are said to have low
energy densities and are not yet commercially
mature.
Nickel based batteries can fall into two categories, mainly: nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and
nickel cadmium (NiCd).
NiCd has nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic
cadmium as electrodes. NiMh batteries have
positive electrodes of nickel oxy hydroxide
(NiOOH), like in NiCd, but negative electrodes
are a hydrogen absorbing alloy instead of cadmium. Sodium nickel chloride batteries are also
used in grid applications.
Molten salt batteries use, as the name suggests, molten salts as an electrolyte. Sodium
(Na) and sulphur (S) are the main components.
The battery casing acts as the positive electrode
while the molten core is the negative electrode.
The battery is generally known to operate at
high temperatures between 300°C and 350°C,
according to Arup Energy Storage.
When the batteries are not in use, they are left
under charge, typically, to ensure that they remain molten and ready for use. A reheating process is needed if the battery is allowed to shut
down and solidify.
Arup Energy Storage defines the advantages of
this battery type as:
•• High energy density
•• Long life cycle
•• Quick response
•• Efficient charge/discharge cycles
•• Tolerance to high number of charge/discharge cycles.
02 / 2013 | www.pv-magazine.com
Storage & Smart Grids
“Lithium ion performs very well in medium to high power applications compared to other technologies. And with
lower power, you still have this characteristic, but the other technologies improve
when they use the low current or power.
We have an added value in medium high
power applications”.
Lugaro adds that Saft, for example,
uses a model scenario where the client
decides which power and energy needs
he has and then either the model M, in
this case the Synerion 24M, for medium
power, or E, the Synerion 48E, for energy
will be proposed.
How heavy is it on my pocket?
Price is a very influential factor in the decision-making process for a buyer. When
looking solely at capital costs, lead based
batteries are seen as relatively cheaper.
Lux Research’s Steve Minnihan states
that on a cell level, lead acid batteries are
anywhere between US$100 and US$200
per kWh.
When comparing to the general costs
of Li-ion or sodium nickel or even redox
flow batteries, it may seem that lead acid
batteries have an unbeatable price.
After all Lux Research’s baseline scenario for grid-tied systems indicate that
by as early as 2022 Li-ion batteries will
reach US$506 per kWh storage capacity;
sodium nickel chloride batteries, US$473
per kWh; and vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs), US$783 per kWh. Does
this mean that lead based batteries have
a clear advantage in terms of price? Not
really.
Minnihan, for example, agrees that the
capital cost of lead-acid batteries is low.
But he adds: “When you factor in total
cost of ownership, replacement, labor and
maintenance costs over a five or ten-year
time frame, then the newer technologies
look substantially better.
“If I want an equivalent amount of energy either from a Li-ion battery or a leadacid battery, the lead-acid battery is going
to be substantially larger and ancillary
costs are significantly higher than a lot
of analyst firms choose to admit,” Minnihan adds.
He is right in pointing this out as capital cost is just one aspect. Delivery costs,
site preparation and installation costs all
come into play after the purchase of the
battery.
When we look at the table, the dimensions and weight of batteries are all differ-
02 / 2013 | www.pv-magazine.com
ent and not very comparable since the capacities largely vary. But a bulkier battery
can simply be interpreted with higher
transport costs. This is where lead-based
batteries may eventually lose out, but the
eventually much lower capital cost might
cancel this disadvantage out.
If the buyer has a certain budget, then
he ought to find out how many cycles the
battery can give at a given Depth of Discharge (DOD). DOD is the capacity that
the battery has been discharged to as a
percentage of maximum capacity.
How long can it run?
The manufacturers in the list provided
cycle life for DODs anywhere between
50% and 100%. Cycles for 80% DOD as
well as manufacturer’s own typical specified DOD was asked for.
It is not exactly a linear relationship
but the deeper the DOD, the more capacity you take out and the shorter the
cycle life. Deep-cycle batteries are normally not discharged 100%. This would
completely empty the battery, something
that is not recommended. Manufacturers normally recommend 80% DOD for
Li-ion batteries, where 20% of the stored
energy remains and 50% DOD for leadbased batteries. This in turn increases the
service life of the battery.
Trojan Battery’s Kalyan Jana says:
“You could have, for example, without
any specific reference, a battery that can
give 1,000 cycles at 80% DOD but at 50%
DOD, 1,200 to 1,300 cycles.”
The buyer thus needs to take note of the
DOD when looking at cycle life. The cycle
life numbers may look extremely impressive, but when the buyer discharges the
battery at higher DODs than that indicated, he cannot expect high cycle numbers.
In other words, the real DOD limits
the battery capacity. At 80% DOD, only
80% of the battery capacity is free for use.
When comparing prices, it then becomes
essential to look at the price for the useable battery capacity as opposed to the
actual capacity.
How fresh is my battery?
A fresh battery is always better. Not all
retail outlets that sell deep-cycle batteries periodically and dutifully recharge
them. People tend to forget that batteries
can self-discharge when left to sit around.
The market overview table shows that up
to 5% self-discharge can occur and if a
battery is already six months old and has
been on the shelf, it might not be at its
full capacity. Hence before packing the
battery into the shopping cart, check the
date of manufacture. S
Shamsiah Ali-Oettinger
Battery glossary
Actual battery capacity: According to how
control electronics are programmed, the actual
battery capacity varies from nominal capacity.
C-rate: The C-rate shows how quickly a battery,
with regards to its capacity, is discharged. 1C
means the battery discharges completely within
an hour. The energy available to be drawn is also
dependent on the C-rate.
Calendar life (when battery capacity falls to
80%): The time an inactive battery can be stored
before it reaches a critical balance capacity. In our
market overview, we have asked for the calendar
life of an inactive battery before it reaches 80% of
its initial capacity.
Depth of Discharge (DOD): Expressed as %, the
battery capacity that has been discharged as a
percentage of maximum capacity. A discharge to
at least 80% is termed a deep discharge.
Efficiency of battery: Defined by two efficiencies: the coulombic efficiency and the voltage
efficiency. The coulombic efficiency of a battery is
the ratio of the number of charges that enter the
battery during charging compared to the number
that can be extracted from the battery during
discharging. The voltage efficiency is determined
largely by the voltage difference between the
charging voltage and voltage of the battery during discharging.
Energy density: A battery with higher energy
density will be lighter or smaller than a similar
capacity battery with a lower energy density, respectively, whether the density is given as weight
(Wh/kg) or volume (Wh/l) density. This factor
plays a role in the transportation cost of batteries,
where a battery of higher density would be an
advantage.
Maximum continuous discharge current: The
maximum current at which the battery can be
discharged continuously. Usually defined by a
manufacturer to prevent excessive discharge
rates that can damage the battery or reduce its
capacity.
Nominal battery capacity: The amount of electrical charge that can be stored without taking
into account it should not be discharged to 100%.
Nominal voltage: The reference voltage of the
battery.
Self-discharge (%/month): The amount at which
internal chemical reactions reduce the stored
charge of the battery without any connection
between the electrodes.
State of charge (SOC): Expressed as %, the
present battery capacity as a percentage of the
maximum capacity.
77
Storage & Smart Grids | Market overview batteries
Battery Supplies/
Crown Europe
Cellstrom GmbH
Accumulatorenwerke
HOPPECKE
78
DE
Li(NMC)*
Nominal battery capacity
(kWh)
Maximum continuous
discharge current (A)
Voltage at recommended DOD
(pls. provide DOD, V)
Max voltage (at 100% charge)
(V)
Nominal voltage (V)
If yes, from own
production?
Price (without VAT) in euros
Weight (kg)
Volume: HxBxD (cm)
Suitable for
Battery type
Manufacturer
Manufactured in
Product Name
Company
neeoQube
Akasol GmbH
Battery controller included in
delivery?
Battery
controller Details of battery unit
General information
DE
456x280x456
52
7,500
yes
yes
24/48
29.4/58.8
212/106
5.5
482x482x266
49
7,150
yes
yes
24/48
29.4/58.8
212/106
5.5
400 V AC(3p)
230/50 hz,
220/60 hz,
120/60 hz,
MS 60036,000
25-500
Modular:
40130/200400: 400
opt.
2
2.08
***
Up to 348.8 A at
10 h discharge
for OPzS solar.
power 4700 Zelle
(C10/10)
0.4-6.8
Akasol GmbH
neeoRack
DE
Li(NMC)*
DE
Crown Solar
US
Crown USA
Open lead acid
ww
6/8/12
Solar Technologies
US
Crown USA
Open lead acid
ww
6/8/12
Solar Technologies
CN
Battery Supplies
Gel
ww
6/8/12
Solar Technologies
CN
Battery Supplies
AGM
ww
6/8/12
Solar
Technologies (OPzS)
EU
Battery Supplies
Open lead acid
ww
2
Solar Technologies
(OPzV)
EU
Battery Supplies
Gel
ww
2
Solar Technologies (Li
ion)
CN
Battery Supplies
LiFePO4
ww
Solar
Technologies (semitraction &
monoblock)
EU
Battery Supplies
Open lead acid
ww
Cellcube
AT
Cellstrom Gmbh
Vanadium Redox
Flow
yes
no
Customisable
6-12
ww
FB Modular:
240.5 x 220 x
465/FB 200400: 579.2 x
243.8 x 600
ww
420x105x208 815x215x580
Modular
max.14T/
200-400
60T
Modular:
89,000 199,000/
200-400:
849,000
OPzS solar.
power
DE
Vented lead acid
battery in 2 V
OPzS bloc
solar.power
DE
Vented lead acid
battery in block
design 6 V/12 V
ww
opt.
6/12
6.24/12.48
***
1.1-1.7/
0.6-1.7
***
0.4-6
Accumulatorenwerke HOPPECKE
17.3-229.6
OPzV solar.
power
DE
Sealed lead acid
battery 2V
ww
opt.
2
2.08-2.14
OPzV bloc
solar.power
DE
Sealed lead acid
battery in block
design 6V/12V
ww
opt.
6/12
6.24-6.42/
***
12.48-12.84
1.2-1.8/
0.6-1.8
solar.bloc
DE
Sealed AGM battery 6V/12V
ww
opt.
6/12
6.24-6.42/
***
12.48-12.84
1-1.3/
0.6-1.6
solar.power
pack
DE
24V system of
sealed lead acid
batteries in block
design
EU
yes
yes
24
24.96-25.68 ***
7.4
solar.power
system
DE
228-V system of
sealed lead acid
batteries in block
design
EU
yes
yes
228
237.12243.96
11.6
LiOn
DE
Lithium ion
24
29
23x1 x29
12
no
***
200
1.3
02 / 2013 | www.pv-magazine.com
Market overview batteries | Storage & Smart Grids
Comments
Comments on battery design
Other safety features
Other certifications
If yes, from who?
External safety certificate
battery ?
Certificates and guarantees
Specific power (W/kg)
Self-discharge (%/month)
Cycle life at typical specified
DOD in % & C-rate (cycles)
Cycle life at 80% DOD and
specified C-rate (cycles)
Efficiency of battery
C-rate with given actual
battery capacity
Actual battery capacity (kWh)
C-rate with given nominal
battery capacity
Gravimetric energy density
(Wh/kg)
Energy
density
& power
Lifetime
C/1
4.4
C/1
98%
3,000 (80%;
C/1)
3,000 (80%;
C/1)
2
105
96
yes
10-year performance
guarantee
C/1
4.4
C/1
98%
3,000 (80%;
C/1)
3,000 (80%;
C/1)
2
112
102
yes
10-year performance
guarantee
80%
1,250 (80%)
yes
80%
1,250 (80%)
yes
C/16 C/2
C/10
75%
600 (75%)
yes
75%
600 (75%)
yes
80%
yes
75%
yes
80%
2,000 (80%)
yes
80%
600-1,200
(80%)
yes
C/16 65%-80%
C/2
0.2-3.4
C/5
83%
< 0.1%
per
Month
3
25
2329.6
yes
200700
C/10
0.55-0.85/
0.3-0.85
C/5
83%
200700
C/10
0.2-3
C/5
83%
200700
C/10
0.6-0.9/
0.3-0.9
C/5
83%
200700
C/10
0.5-0.65/
0.3- 0.8
C/5
83%
200700
C/10
3.7
C/5
83%
200700
C/10
5.8
C/5
83%
200700
C/1
1.2
C/1
95%
02 / 2013 | www.pv-magazine.com
120
Typetest approval
For technical data
please contact export@
batterysupplies.be
Non-flammable,
not prone to
explosion
TÜV
CE
Norske
Veritas
- Plastic molded
poles
- Insulated
HOPPECKE system
connector
EN 50272-2
technology for max.
EN 60896-11
contact protection
IEC 61427
- Optional: AquaGen
recombiner
- Optional: electrolyte circulation
pump
Vanadium Redox Flow
Technology
- Plastic molded
poles
- Insulated
HOPPECKE system
EN 50272-2
connector
EN 60896-11
technology for max.
IEC 61427
contact protection
- Optional: AquaGen
recombiner
EN 50272-2
EN 60896-21
EN-60896-22
IEC 61427
- Plastic molded
poles
- Insulated
HOPPECKE system
connector
technology for max.
contact protection
including battery
backup unit
integrated BMS
and including battery backup unit
UN38.3
Modular system,
incl. BMS, monitor- desired capacity can be
done, can be operated
ing and logging
as redundant system
79
Storage & Smart Grids | Market overview batteries
Synerion
24M
Trojan
Battery
Company
Lithium-Titanate
EU
LiFePO4
EU
FR/US
SAFT
SAFT
30x75x52
85
8,950
Nominal battery capacity
(kWh)
Maximum continuous
discharge current (A)
Voltage at recommended DOD
(pls. provide DOD, V)
Max voltage (at 100% charge)
(V)
Nominal voltage (V)
If yes, from own
production?
Price (without VAT) in euros
Weight (kg)
Volume: HxBxD (cm)
Suitable for
Sonnenbatterie
Leclanché
Battery type
PROSOL Invest
DE
Manufacturer
Product Name
HS 3200
Manufactured in
Company
Leclanché SA
Battery controller included in
delivery?
Battery
controller Details of battery unit
General information
50.6
60
3.2
100-400
4.6-41
yes
yes
24-48
EU,
US
13.1x44.8x29.3 18.5
yes
yes
24
28.1
23.128.1
160
2
yes
yes
48
48.2
46.256.2
50
2.2
Lithium Nickel
Cobalt
Aluminium
Synerion
48E
FR/US
EU,
US
13.1x44.8x29.3 19
IND9-6V
US
EU
610x390x260
100
6
6.36
5.25
500
545 Ah2
IND13-6V
US
EU
610x568x260
143
6
6.36
5.25
500
820 Ah2
IND17-6V
US
EU
610x678x260
188
6
6.36
5.25
500
1090 Ah2
IND23-4V
US
EU
610x568x260
168
4
4.24
3.50
500
1500 Ah2
IND29-4V
US
EU
610x678x260
211
4
4.24
3.50
500
1910 AH2
IND27-2V
US
EU
610x390x260
104
2
2.12
1.75
500
1780 AH2
IND33-2V
US
EU
125x440x260
125
2
2.12
1.75
500
2187 AH2
T105-RE
US
EU
299x264x181
30
6
6.36
5.25
300
250 Ah2
L16RE-A
US
EU
450x295x178
52
6
6.36
5.25
300
360 AH2
L16RE-B
US
EU
450x295x178
54
6
6.36
5.25
300
410 AH2
L16RE-2V
US
EU
450x295x178
54
2
2.12
1.75
300
1235 AH2
J150
US
EU
283x351x181
38
12
12.72
10.50
300
166 AH2
J185P-AC
US
EU
371x281x178
52
12
12.72
10.50
300
226 AH2
Flooded lead-acid
J185H-AC
US
EU
371x381x178
58
12
12.72
10.5
300
249 AH2
T-105
US
EU
276x264x181
28
6
6.36
5.25
300
250 Ah2
T-125
US
EU
276x264x181
30
6
6.36
5.25
300
266 Ah2
287 AH2
T-145
US
EU
295x264x181
33
6
6.36
5.25
300
J250P-AC
US
EU
365x295x178
44
6
6.36
5.25
300
278 AH2
J305H-AC
US
EU
365x295x178
45
6
6.36
5.25
300
400 AH2
L16P-AC
US
EU
424x295x178
52
6
6.36
5.25
300
467 AH2
483 AH2
Trojan
Battery
Company
L16H-AC
US
EU
125x295x178
57
6
6.36
5.25
300
24TMX
US
EU
248x286x171
21
12
12.72
10.5
300
94 AH2
27TMX
US
EU
248x324x171
25
12
12.72
10.5
300
1172
27TMH
US
EU
248x324x171
28
12
12.72
10.5
300
1282
30XHS
US
EU
256x355x171
30
12
12.72
10.5
300
1442
U1-AGM
US
EU
174x207x132
12
12
12.72
10.5
300
342
22-AGM
US
EU
205x229x139
18
12
12.72
10.5
300
522
24-AGM
US
EU
220x274x174
24
12
12.72
10.5
300
842
27-AGM
US
EU
221x318x174
29
12
12.72
10.5
300
992
1112
VRLA AGM
31-AGM
US
EU
233x341x174
31
12
12.72
10.5
300
12-AGM
US
EU
278x345x173
45
12
12.72
10.5
300
24-GEL
US
EU
236x276x171
24
12
12.72
10.5
852
27-GEL
US
EU
234x324x171
29
12
12.72
10.5
1002
31-GEL
US
5SHP-GEL
US
VRLA Gel
EU
245x329x171
32
12
12.72
10.5
1082
EU
283x345x171
39
12
12.72
10.5
1372
8D-GEL
US
EU
233x534x279
71
12
12.72
10.5
2652
6V-GEL
US
EU
276x260x181
31
6
6.36
5.25
1982
TE35-GEL
US
EU
276x244x199
31
6
6.36
5.25
220 2
* Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt | ** Saft battery modules are operational up to 70% output capacity | *** Recommended: 50% DOD/ Voltage depends on the discharge location | depending on the discharge voltage | 1 (under Euro
80
02 / 2013 | www.pv-magazine.com
Market overview batteries | Storage & Smart Grids
C/1
3.2
C/1
> 90%
15,000
(100%; C/1)
<3
65
C/50.7C
3.15-29
0.3C0.9C
95%
5,000 (70%;
C/1)
2
100
C/5
C/5
2
C/5
95%
6,000 (C/2;
80%)**
5
104
6,500 (C/2;
70%)**
5
3.27 2
2,800 (50%)
4
30.58
4.92 2
2,800 (50%)
4
29.07
6.54 2
2,800 (50%)
4
28.75
6.00 2
2,800 (50%)
4
28.0
7.64 2
2,800 (50%)
4
27.62
3.56 2
2,800 (50%)
4
15.85
4
2.2
C/5
95%
6,000 (C/2;
80%)**
6,500 (C/2;
70%)/**
115
4.37 2
2,800 (50%)
1.50 2
1,600 (50%)
20.00
2.16 2
1,600 (50%)
24.07
2.46 2
1,600 (50%)
21.95
2.47 2
1,600 (50%)
21.86
1.99 2
1,200 (50%)
19.10
2.71 2
1,200 (50%)
19.19
2.99 2
1,200 (50%)
19.40
1.50 2
1,200 (50%)
18.67
1.60 2
1,200 (50%)
18.75
1.72 2
1,200 (50%)
19.19
1.67 2
1,200 (50%)
26.35
2.40 2
1,200 (50%)
18.75
2.80 2
1,200 (50%)
18.57
2.89 2
1,200 (50%)
19.72
1.13 2
600 (50%)
18.58
1.40 2
600 (50%)
17.86
1.54 2
600 (50%)
18.18
1.73 2
600 (50%)
0.408 2
1,000 (50%)
3
29.41
0.624 2
1,000 (50%)
3
28.85
1.01 2
1,000 (50%)
3
23.76
1.19 2
1,000 (50%)
3
24.37
1.33 2
1,000 (50%)
3
23.31
1,000 (50%)
3
1.02 2
1,000 (50%)
3
23.53
1.2 2
1,000 (50%)
3
24.17
1.3 2
1,000 (50%)
3
24.62
1.64 2
1,000 (50%)
3
23.78
3.18 2
1,000 (50%)
3
22.33
1.19 2
1,000 (50%)
3
26.05
1.32 2
1,000 (50%)
3
23.48
>100 205
131
yes
TÜV Rheinland
yes
National
Institute,
ROHS, CE, SGS,
Safety ventilation
PONY BatCNAS
tery Testing
Center
no external at
module level,
only at system
level because
Saft commercializes systems
Batso
Comments
Ceramic separator
EN50178
IEC60950
IP20
UN3480
IEC62093
EN50178
IEC60950
IP40
UN3480
EN61000
Comments on battery design
Other safety features
Other certifications
If yes, from who?
External safety certificate
battery ?
Certificates and guarantees
Specific power (W/kg)
Self-discharge (%/month)
Cycle life at typical specified
DOD in % & C-rate (cycles)
Cycle life at 80% DOD and
specified C-rate (cycles)
Efficiency of battery
C-rate with given actual
battery capacity
Actual battery capacity (kWh)
C-rate with given nominal
battery capacity
Gravimetric energy density
(Wh/kg)
Energy
density
& power
Lifetime
SIL2 cell safety
UL1642
Anode: Graphite;
Cathode: LiFePO4,
Dielectric: Membrane
Current interrupt devices at cells, optimal
thermal management,
separator material, cell balancing and
measurement of V,T,I in
the module for module
safety
At system level BMS
includes over-voltage,
over-temperature and
current protections
28.60
17.34
opean label) | ww = worldwide | opt. = optional | 2 at 100 hrs rate
02 / 2013 | www.pv-magazine.com
81
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