2.4 Update
Hyprotech is a member of the AEA Technology
plc group of companies
Copyright Notice
The copyright in this manual and its associated computer program are the property of
Hyprotech Ltd. All rights reserved. Both this manual and the computer program have
been provided pursuant to a License Agreement containing restrictions on use.
Hyprotech reserves the right to make changes to this manual or its associated computer
program without obligation to notify any person or organization. Companies, names and
data used in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise stated.
No part of this manual may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval
system, or translated into any other language, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical manual or otherwise, or disclosed to third
parties without the prior written consent of Hyprotech Ltd., Suite 800, 707 - 8th Avenue
SW, Calgary AB, T2P 1H5, Canada.
© 2001 Hyprotech Ltd. All rights reserved.
HYSYS, HYSYS.Plant, HYSYS.Process, HYSYS.Refinery, HYSYS.Concept, HYSYS.OTS,
HYSYS.RTO, DISTIL, HX-NET, HYPROP III and HYSIM are registered trademarks of
Hyprotech Ltd.
Microsoft® Windows®, Windows® 95/98, Windows® NT and Windows® 2000 are
registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation.
This product uses WinWrap® Basic, Copyright 1993-1998, Polar Engineering and
Consulting.
Documentation Credits
Authors of the current release, listed in order of historical start on project:
Sarah-Jane Brenner, BASc; Conrad, Gierer, BASc; Chris Strashok, BSc; Lisa Hugo, BSc, BA;
Muhammad Sachedina, BASc; Allan Chau, BSc; Adeel Jamil, BSc; Nana Nguyen, BSc;
Yannick Sternon, BIng; Kevin Hanson, PEng; Chris Lowe, PEng.
Since software is always a work in progress, any version, while representing a milestone,
is nevertheless but a point in a continuum. Those individuals whose contributions
created the foundation upon which this work is built have not been forgotten. The
current authors would like to thank the previous contributors.
A special thanks is also extended by the authors to everyone who contributed through
countless hours of proof-reading and testing.
Contacting Hyprotech
Hyprotech can be conveniently accessed via the following:
Website:
Technical Support:
Information and Sales:
www.hyprotech.com
support@hyprotech.com
info@hyprotech.com
Detailed information on accessing Hyprotech Technical Support can be found in the
Technical Support section in the preface to this manual.
Table of Contents
Welcome to HYSYS ........................................... vii
Hyprotech Software Solutions .............................................vii
Use of the Manuals ..............................................................xi
Technical Support ..............................................................xix
1
2
3
Interface ........................................................... 1-1
1.1
Interface Basics................................................................. 1-4
1.2
Manoeuvring Through the Interface ................................ 1-20
1.3
Starting a Simulation ....................................................... 1-30
Flowsheet Architecture ................................... 2-1
2.1
HYSYS Environments ....................................................... 2-4
2.2
Sub-Flowsheet Environment ........................................... 2-10
2.3
Templates........................................................................ 2-32
PFD.................................................................... 3-1
3.1
Object Inspection............................................................... 3-4
3.2
PFD Tools ......................................................................... 3-5
3.3
Installing Streams and Operations .................................... 3-9
3.4
Connecting Streams and Operations .............................. 3-10
3.5
Disconnecting Streams and Operations.......................... 3-13
3.6
The Custom PFD Notebook ............................................ 3-15
3.7
Cut/Paste Functions ........................................................ 3-17
3.8
Flowsheet Analysis Using the PFD ................................. 3-19
3.9
PFD Colour Schemes...................................................... 3-30
3.10 Manipulating the PFD...................................................... 3-34
3.11 Adding Annotations ........................................................ 3-52
3.12 Hiding PFD Objects......................................................... 3-54
3.13 Multi Pane PFDs ............................................................. 3-55
3.14 Printing the PFD .............................................................. 3-57
4
Workbook.......................................................... 4-1
4.1
Opening the Workbook...................................................... 4-4
iii
5
6
7
4.2
Installing a Stream or Operation........................................ 4-5
4.3
Accessing Streams or Operations..................................... 4-6
4.4
Deleting Streams or Operations .................................... 4-10
4.5
Setup of the Workbook Page .......................................... 4-11
4.6
Exporting/Importing Workbook Tabs ............................... 4-18
4.7
Sorting Information .......................................................... 4-20
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS.......................... 5-1
5.1
Property View Flowsheet Analysis .................................... 5-3
5.2
Navigation ........................................................................ 5-8
5.3
DataBook......................................................................... 5-15
5.4
Object Status Window/Trace Window ............................ 5-46
5.5
Attaching Utilities............................................................. 5-48
Output Control .................................................. 6-1
6.1
Printing in HYSYS ............................................................. 6-4
6.2
Reports ........................................................................... 6-10
6.3
Printing the PFD as a DXF File ...................................... 6-16
6.4
Graph Control.................................................................. 6-18
6.5
Format Editor .................................................................. 6-23
Menu Bar Options ............................................. 7-1
7.1
File .................................................................................... 7-4
7.2
Edit .................................................................................... 7-9
7.3
Simulation........................................................................ 7-10
7.4
Flowsheet ....................................................................... 7-17
7.5
Workbook ....................................................................... 7-25
7.6
PFD ................................................................................ 7-26
7.7
Tools ............................................................................... 7-27
7.8
Column ........................................................................... 7-59
7.9
Basis .............................................................................. 7-59
7.10 Window ........................................................................... 7-60
7.11 Help ................................................................................ 7-62
8
iv
Utilities ............................................................. 8-1
8.1
Boiling Point Curves ......................................................... 8-4
8.2
CO2 Solids ...................................................................... 8-10
8.3
Cold Properties ............................................................... 8-12
8.4
Critical Property .............................................................. 8-14
8.5
Data Recon ..................................................................... 8-16
8.6
Depressuring .................................................................. 8-17
8.7
Derivative ........................................................................ 8-40
8.8
Envelope ........................................................................ 8-40
8.9
Hydrate Formation .......................................................... 8-45
8.10 Parametric Utility ............................................................. 8-52
8.11 Pinch Utility...................................................................... 8-65
8.12 Pipe Sizing ...................................................................... 8-69
8.13
................................................................ Property Table8-73
8.14 Tray Sizing ..................................................................... 8-79
8.15 Tray Sizing Manager ....................................................... 8-89
8.16 User Properties ............................................................ 8-109
8.17 Vessel Sizing ................................................................ 8-114
8.18 Adjust Operation with Utility Target Object.................... 8-118
8.19 References .................................................................... 8-120
Index ..................................................................I-1
v
vi
Welcome to HYSYS
vii
Welcome to HYSYS
We are pleased to present you with the latest version of HYSYS — the
product that continually extends the bounds of process engineering
software. With HYSYS you can create rigorous steady-state and
dynamic models for plant design and trouble shooting. Through the
completely interactive HYSYS interface, you have the ability to easily
manipulate process variables and unit operation topology, as well as
the ability to fully customize your simulation using its OLE extensibility
capability.
Hyprotech Software Solutions
HYSYS has been developed with Hyprotech’s overall vision of the
ultimate process simulation solution in mind. The vision has led us to
create a product that is:
• Integrated
• Intuitive and interactive
• Open and extensible
Integrated Simulation Environment
In order to meet the ever-increasing demand of the process industries
for rigorous, streamlined software solutions, Hyprotech developed the
HYSYS Integrated Simulation Environment. The philosophy underlying
our truly integrated simulation environment is conceptualized in the
diagram below:
Figure 1
vii
Hyprotech Software Solutions
The central wedge represents the common parameters at the core of
the various modelling tools:
• model topology
• interface
• thermodynamics
The outer ring represents the modelling application needs over the
entire plant lifecycle. The arrows depict each Hyprotech product using
the common core, allowing for universal data sharing amongst the
tools, while providing a complete simulation solution.
As an engineer you undoubtedly have process modelling requirements
that are not all handled within a single package. The typical solution is
to generate results in one package, then transfer the necessary
information into a second package where you can determine the
additional information. At best, there is a mechanism for exchanging
information through file transfer. At worst, you must enter the
information manually, consuming valuable time and risking the
introduction of data transfer errors. Often the knowledge you gain in
the second application has an impact on the first model, so you must
repeat the whole process a number of times in an iterative way.
In a truly integrated simulation environment all of the necessary
applications work is performed within a common framework,
eliminating the tedious trial-and-error process described previously.
Such a system has a number of advantages:
• Information is shared, rather than transferred, among
applications.
• All applications use common thermodynamic models.
• All applications use common flowsheet topology.
• You only need to learn one interface.
• You can switch between modelling applications at any time,
gaining the most complete understanding of the process.
The plant lifecycle might begin with building a conceptual model to
determine the basic equipment requirements for your process. Based
on the conceptual design, you could build a steady-state model and
perform an optimization to determine the most desirable operating
conditions. Next, you could carry out some sizing and costing
calculations for the required equipment, then do some dynamic
modelling to determine appropriate control strategies. Once the design
has become a reality, you might perform some online modelling using
actual plant data for "what-if" studies, troubleshooting or even online
optimization. If a change at any stage in the design process affects the
common data, the new information is available immediately to all the
other applications — no manual data transfer is ever required.
viii
Welcome to HYSYS
ix
While this concept is easy to appreciate, delivering it in a useable
manner is difficult. Developing this multi-application, informationsharing software environment is realistically only possible using Object
Oriented Design methodologies, implemented with an Object Oriented
Programming Language. Throughout the design and development
process, we have adhered to these requirements in order to deliver a
truly integrated simulation environment as the HYSYS family of
products:
For information on any of
these products, contact your
local Hyprotech
representative.
HYSYS Product
Description
HYSYS.Process
Process Design - HYSYS.Process provides the
accuracy, speed and efficiency required for process
design activities. The level of detail and the
integrated utilities available in HYSYS.Process
allows for skillful evaluation of design alternatives.
HYSYS.Plant
Plant Design - HYSYS.Plant provides an integrated
steady-state and dynamic simulation capability,
offers rigorous and high-fidelity results with a very
fine level of equipment geometry and performance
detail. HYSYS.Plant+ provides additional detailed
equipment configurations, such as actuator
dynamics.
HYSYS.Refinery
Refinery Modeling - HYSYS.Refinery provides
truly scalable refinery-wide modeling. Detailed
models of reaction processes can be combined with
detailed representations of separation and heat
integration systems. Each hydrocarbon stream is
capable of predicting a full range of refinery
properties based on a Refinery Assay matrix.
HYSYS.OTS
Operations Training System - HYSYS.OTS
provides real-time simulated training exercises that
train operations personnel and help further develop
their skills performing critical process operations.
Increased process understanding and procedural
familiarity for operations personnel can lead to an
increase in plant safety and improvements in
process performance.
HYSYS.RTO
Real-Time Optimization - HYSYS.RTO is a realtime optimization package that enables the
optimization of plant efficiency and the management
of production rate changes and upsets in order to
handle process constraints and maximize operating
profits.
HYSYS.Concept
Conceptual Design Application - HYSYS.Concept
includes DISTIL which integrates the distillation
synthesis and residue curve map technology of
Mayflower with data regression and thermodynamic
database access. HYSYS.Concept also includes
HX-Net, which provides the ability to use pinch
technology in the design of heat exchanger
networks. Conceptual design helps enhance process
understanding and can assist in the development of
new and economical process schemes.
ix
Hyprotech Software Solutions
Intuitive and Interactive Process Modelling
We believe that the role of process simulation is to improve your
process understanding so that you can make the best process
decisions. Our solution has been, and continues to be, interactive
simulation. This solution has not only proven to make the most
efficient use of your simulation time, but by building the model
interactively – with immediate access to results – you gain the most
complete understanding of your simulation.
HYSYS uses the power of Object Oriented Design, together with an
Event-Driven Graphical Environment, to deliver a completely
interactive simulation environment where:
• calculations begin automatically whenever you supply new
information, and
• access to the information you need is in no way restricted.
At any time, even as calculations are proceeding, you can access
information from any location in HYSYS. As new information becomes
available, each location is always instantly updated with the most
current information, whether specified by you or calculated by HYSYS.
Open and Extensible HYSYS Architecture
HYSYS is the only
commercially available
simulation platform designed
for complete User
Customization.
The Integrated Simulation Environment and our fully Object Oriented
software design has paved the way for HYSYS to be fully OLE
compliant, allowing for complete user customization. Through a
completely transparent interface, OLE Extensibility lets you:
• develop custom steady-state and dynamic unit operations
• specify proprietary reaction kinetic expressions
• create specialized property packages.
With seamless integration, new modules appear and perform like
standard operations, reaction expressions or property packages within
HYSYS. The Automation features within HYSYS expose many of the
internal Objects to other OLE compliant software like Microsoft Excel,
Microsoft Visual Basic and Visio Corporation’s Visio. This functionality
enables you to use HYSYS applications as calculation engines for your
own custom applications.
By using industry standard OLE Automation and Extension the custom
simulation functionality is portable across Hyprotech software
updates. The open architecture allows you to extend your simulation
functionality in response to your changing needs.
x
Welcome to HYSYS
xi
Use of the Manuals
HYSYS Electronic Documentation
The HYSYS Documentation
Suite includes all available
documentation for the HYSYS
family of products.
All HYSYS documentation is available in electronic format as part of the
HYSYS Documentation Suite. The HYSYS Documentation CD ROM is
included with your package and may be found in the Get Started box.
The content of each manual is described in the following table:
Manual
Description
Get Started
Contains the information needed to install HYSYS,
plus a Quick Start example to get you up and
running, ensure that HYSYS was installed correctly
and is operating properly.
User’s Guide
Provides in depth information on the HYSYS
interface and architecture. HYSYS Utilities are also
covered in this manual.
Simulation Basis
Contains all information relating to the available
HYSYS fluid packages and components. This
includes information on the Oil Manager,
Hypotheticals, Reactions as well as a
thermodynamics reference section.
Steady State
Modeling
Steady state operation of HYSYS unit operations is
covered in depth in this manual.
Dynamic Modeling
This manual contains information on building and
running HYSYS simulations in Dynamic mode.
Dynamic theory, tools, dynamic functioning of the
unit operations as well as controls theory are
covered.
This manual is only included with the HYSYS.Plant
document set.
Customization
Guide
Details the many customization tools available in
HYSYS. Information on enhancing the functionality
of HYSYS by either using third-party tools to
programmatically run HYSYS (Automation), or by
the addition of user-defined Extensions is covered.
Other topics include the current internally extensible
tools available in HYSYS: the User Unit Operation
and User Variables as well as comprehensive
instruction on using the HYSYS View Editor.
Tutorials
Provides step-by-step instructions for building some
industry-specific simulation examples.
Applications
Contains a more advanced set of example problems.
Note that before you use this manual, you should
have a good working knowledge of HYSYS. The
Applications examples do not provide many of the
basic instructions at the level of detail given in the
Tutorials manual.
Quick Reference
Provides quick access to basic information regarding
all common HYSYS features and commands.
xi
Use of the Manuals
Contact Hyprotech for
information on HYSYS
training courses.
If you are new to HYSYS, you may want to begin by completing one or
more of the HYSYS tutorials, which give the step-by-step instructions
needed to build a simulation case. If you have some HYSYS experience,
but would still like to work through some more advanced sample
problems, refer to the HYSYS Applications.
Since HYSYS is totally interactive, it provides virtually unlimited
flexibility in solving any simulation problem. Keep in mind that the
approach used in solving each example problem presented in the
HYSYS documentation may only be one of the many possible methods.
You should feel free to explore other alternatives.
Viewing the Online Documentation
HYSYS electronic documentation is viewed using Adobe Acrobat
Reader®, which is included on the Documentation CD-ROM. Install
Acrobat Reader 4.0 on your computer following the instructions on the
CD-ROM insert card. Once installed, you can view the electronic
documentation either directly from the CD-ROM, or you can copy the
Doc folder (containing all the electronic documentation files) and the
file named menu.pdf to your hard drive before viewing the files.
Manoeuvre through the online documentation using the bookmarks on
the left of the screen, the navigation buttons in the button bar or using
the scroll bars on the side of the view. Blue text indicates an active link
to the referenced section or view. Click on that text and Acrobat Reader
will jump to that particular section.
Selecting the Search Index
xii
Ensure that your version of
Acrobat Reader has the
Search plug-in present. This
plug-in allows you to add a
search index to the search list.
One of the advantages in using the HYSYS Documentation CD is the
ability to do power searching using the Acrobat search tools. The
Acrobat Search command allows you to perform full text searches of
PDF documents that have been indexed using Acrobat Catolog®.
For more information on the
search tools available in
Acrobat Reader, consult the
help files provided with the
program.
To attach the index file to Acrobat Reader 4.0, use the following
procedure:
1.
Open the Index Selection view by selecting Edit-Search-Select
Indexes from the menu.
2.
Click the Add button. This will open the Add Index view.
3.
Ensure that the Look in field is currently set to your CD-ROM drive
label. There should be two directories visible from the root
directory: Acrobat and Doc.
Welcome to HYSYS
xiii
Figure 2
4.
Open the Doc directory. Inside it you should find the Index.pdx
file. Select it and click the Open button.
Figure 3
5.
The Index Selection view should display the available indexes that
can be attached. Select the index name and then click the OK
button. You may now begin making use of the Acrobat Search
command.
Using the Search Command
The Acrobat Search command allows you to perform a search on PDF
documents. You can search for a simple word or phrase, or you can
expand your search by using wild-card characters and operators.
To search an index, first select the indexes to search and define a search
query. A search query is an expression made up of text and other items
to define the information you want to define. Next, select the
documents to review from those returned by the search, and then view
the occurrences of the search term within the document you selected
xiii
Use of the Manuals
To perform a full-text search do the following:
1.
Choose Edit-Search-Query from the menu.
2.
Type the text you want to search for in the Find Results Containing
Text box.
3.
Click Search. The Search dialog box is hidden, and documents that
match your search query are listed in the Search Results window in
order of relevancy.
4.
Double-click a document that seems likely to contain the relevant
information, probably the first document in the list. The document
opens on the first match for the text you typed.
5.
Click the Search Next button or Search Previous button to go to
other matches in the document. Or choose another document to
view.
Other Acrobat Reader features include a zoom-in tool in the button bar,
which allows you to magnify the text you are reading. If you wish, you
may print pages or chapters of the online documentation using the
File-Print command under the menu.
Conventions used in the Manuals
The following section lists a number of conventions used throughout
the documentation.
Keywords for Mouse Actions
As you work through various procedures in the manuals, you will be
given instructions on performing specific functions or commands.
Instead of repeating certain phrases for mouse instructions, keywords
are used to imply a longer instructional phrase:
These are the normal (default)
settings for the mouse, but you
can change the positions of the
left- and right-buttons.
xiv
Keywords
Action
Point
Move the mouse pointer to position it over an item.
For example, point to an item to see its Tool Tip.
Click
Position the mouse pointer over the item, and rapidly
press and release the left mouse button. For
example, click Close button to close the current
window.
Right-Click
As for click, but use the right mouse button. For
example, right-click an object to display the Object
Inspection menu.
Welcome to HYSYS
Keywords
Action
Double-Click
Position the mouse pointer over the item, then
rapidly press and release the left mouse button
twice. For example, double-click the HYSYS icon to
launch the program.
Drag
Position the mouse pointer over the item, press and
hold the left mouse button, move the mouse while
the mouse button is down, and then release the
mouse button. For example, you drag items in the
current window, to move them.
Tool Tip
Whenever you pass the mouse pointer over certain
objects, such as tool bar icons and flowsheet
objects, a Tool Tip will be displayed. It will contain a
brief description of the action that will occur if you
click on that button or details relating to the object.
xv
A number of text formatting conventions are also used throughout the
manuals:
Note that blank spaces are
acceptable in the names of
streams and unit operations.
Format
Example
When you are asked to access a HYSYS menu
command, the command is identified by bold
lettering.
‘Select File-Save from the
menu to save your case.’
When you are asked to select a HYSYS button,
the button is identified by bold, italicized
lettering.
‘Click the Close button to
close the current view.’
When you are asked to select a key or key
combination to perform a certain function,
keyboard commands are identified by words in
bolded small capitals (small caps).
‘Press the F1 key on the
keyboard to open the
context sensitive help.’
The name of a HYSYS view (also know as a
property view or window) is indicated by bold
lettering.
‘Selecting this command
opens the Session
Preferences view.’
The names of pages and tabs on various views
are identified in bold lettering.
‘Click Composition page
on the Worksheet tab to
see all the stream
composition information.’
The name of radio buttons, check boxes and
cells are identified by bold lettering.
‘Click the Ignored check
box to ignore this
operation.’
Material and energy stream names are
identified by bold lettering.
Column Feed,
Condenser Duty
Unit operation names are identified by bold
lettering.
Inlet Separator,
Atmospheric Tower
When you are asked to provide keyboard input,
it will be indicated by bold lettering.
‘Type 100 in the cell to
define the stream
temperature.’
xv
Use of the Manuals
Bullets and Numbering
Bulleted and numbered lists will be used extensively throughout the
manuals. Numbered lists are used to break down a procedure into
steps, for example:
1.
Select the Name cell.
2.
Type a name for the operation.
3.
Press ENTER to accept the name.
Bulleted lists are used to identify alternative steps within a procedure,
or for simply listing like objects. A sample procedure that utilizes
bullets is:
1.
Move to the Name cell by doing one of the following:
• Select the Name cell
• Press ALT N
2.
Type a name for the operation.
• Press ENTER to accept the name.
Notice the two alternatives for completing Step 1 are indented to
indicate their sequence in the overall procedure.
A bulleted list of like objects might describe the various groups on a
particular view. For example, the Options page of the Simulation tab on
the Session Preferences view has three groups, namely:
• General Options
• Errors
• Column Options
Callouts
A callout is a label and arrow that describes or identifies an object. An
example callout describing a graphic is shown below.
Figure 4
HYSYS Icon
xvi
Welcome to HYSYS
xvii
Annotations
Annotation text appears in the
outside page margin.
Text appearing in the outside margin of the page supplies you with
additional or summary information about the adjacent graphic or
paragraph. An example is shown to the left.
Shaded Text Boxes
A shaded text box provides you with important information regarding
HYSYS’ behaviour, or general messages applying to the manual.
Examples include:
The resultant temperature of the mixed streams may be quite
different than those of the feed streams, due to mixing effects.
Before proceeding, you should have read the introductory
section which precedes the example problems in this manual.
The use of many of these conventions will become more apparent as
you progress through the manuals.
xvii
Use of the Manuals
xviii
xix
Technical Support
There are several ways in which you can contact Technical Support. If
you cannot find the answer to your question in the manuals, we
encourage you to visit our Website at www.hyprotech.com, where a
variety of information is available to you, including:
•
•
•
•
•
answers to frequently asked questions
example cases and product information
technical papers
news bulletins
hyperlink to support email
You can also access Support directly via email. A listing of Technical
Support Centres including the Support email address is at the end of
this chapter. When contacting us via email, please include in your
message:
• Your full name, company, phone and fax numbers.
• The version of HYSYS you are using (shown in the Help, About
HYSYS view).
• The serial number of your HYSYS security key.
• A detailed description of the problem (attach a simulation case
if possible).
We also have toll free lines that you may use. When you call, please have
the same information available.
xix
xx
Technical Support Centres
Calgary, Canada
AEA Technology - Hyprotech Ltd.
support@hyprotech.com (email)
Suite 800, 707 - 8th Avenue SW
(403) 520-6181 (local - technical support)
Calgary, Alberta
1-888-757-7836 (toll free - technical support)
T2P 1H5
(403) 520-6601 (fax - technical support)
1-800-661-8696 (information & sales)
Barcelona, Spain (Rest of Europe)
AEA Technology - Hyprotech Ltd.
support@hyprotech.com (email)
Hyprotech Europe S.L.
+34 93 215 68 84 (technical support)
Pg. de Gràcia 56, 4th floor
900 161 900 (toll free - technical support - Spain only)
E-08007 Barcelona, Spain
+34 93 215 42 56 (fax - technical support)
+34 93 215 68 84 (information & sales)
Oxford, UK (UK clients only)
AEA Technology Engineering Software
support@hyprotech.com (email)
Hyprotech Ltd.
0800 7317643 (freephone technical support)
404 Harwell, Didcot
+44 1235 434351 (fax - technical support)
Oxfordshire, OX11 0QJ
+44 1235 435555 (information &
United Kingdom
sales)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
AEA Technology - Hyprotech Ltd.
Hyprotech Ltd., Malaysia
Lot E-3-3a, Dataran Palma
support@hyprotech.com (email)
Jalan Selaman ½, Jalan Ampang
+60 3 4270 3880 (technical support)
68000 Ampang, Selangor
+60 3 4271 3811 (fax - technical support)
Malaysia
+60 3 4270 3880 (information & sales)
Yokohama, Japan
AEA Technology - Hyprotech Ltd.
AEA Hyprotech KK
Plus Taria Bldg. 6F.
3-1-4, Shin-Yokohama
xx
Kohoku-ku
support@hyprotech.com (email)
Yokohama, Japan
81 45 476 5051 (technical support)
222-0033
81 45 476 5051 (information & sales)
xxi
Offices
Calgary, Canada
Yokohama, Japan
Tel: (403) 520-6000
Tel: 81 45 476 5051
Fax: (403) 520-6040/60
Fax: 81 45 476 3055
Toll Free: 1-800-661-8696
Newark, DE, USA
Houston, TX, USA
Tel: (302) 369-0773
Tel: (713) 339-9600
Fax: (302) 369-0877
Fax: (713) 339-9601
Toll Free: 1-800-688-3430
Toll Free: 1-800-475-0011
Oxford, UK
Barcelona, Spain
Tel: +44 1235 435555
Tel: +34 93 215 68 84
Fax: +44 1235 434294
Fax: +34 93 215 42 56
Oudenaarde, Belgium
Düsseldorf, Germany
Tel: +32 55 310 299
Tel: +49 211 577933 0
Fax: +32 55 302 030
Fax: +49 211 577933 11
Hovik, Norway
Cairo, Egypt
Tel: +47 67 10 6464
Tel: +20 2 7020824
Fax: +47 67 10 6465
Fax: +20 2 7020289
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Seoul, Korea
Tel: +60 3 4270 3880
Tel: 82 2 3453 3144 5
Fax: +60 3 4270 3811
Fax: 82 2 3453 9772
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Agents
International Innotech, Inc.
Katy, USA
Tel: (281) 492-2774
Fax: (281) 492-8144
International Innotech, Inc.
Beijing, China
Tel: 86 10 6499 3956
Fax: 86 10 6499 3957
International Innotech
Taipei, Taiwan
Tel: 886 2 809 6704
Fax: 886 2 809 3095
KBTECH Ltda.
Bogota, Colombia
Tel: 57 1 258 44 50
Fax: 57 1 258 44 50
India PVT Ltd.
Pune, India
Tel: 91 020 5510141
Fax: 91 020 5510069
Logichem Process
Johannesburg, South Africa
Tel: 27 11 465 3800
Fax: 27 11 465 4548
Plant Solutions Pty. Ltd.
Peregian, Australia
Tel: 61 7 544 81 355
Fax: 61 7 544 81 644
Protech Engineering
Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Tel: +421 7 4488 8286
Fax: +421 7 4488 8286
PT. Danan Wingus Sakti
Jakarta, Indonesia
Tel: 62 21 567 4573 75/62 21 567 4508
10
Fax: 62 21 567 4507/62 21 568 3081
Ranchero Services (Thailand)
Co. Ltd.
Bangkok, Thailand
Tel: 66 2 381 1020
Fax: 66 2 381 1209
S.C. Chempetrol Service srl
Bucharest, Romania
Tel: +401 330 0125
Fax: +401 311 3463
Soteica De Mexico
Mexico D.F., Mexico
Tel: 52 5 546 5440
Fax: 52 5 535 6610
Soteica Do Brasil
Sao Paulo, Brazil
Tel: 55 11 533 2381
Fax: 55 11 556 10746
Soteica S.R.L.
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Tel: 54 11 4555 5703
Fax: 54 11 4551 0751
Soteiven C.A.
Caracas, Venezuela
Tel: 58 2 264 1873
Fax: 58 2 265 9509
ZAO Techneftechim
Moscow, Russia
Tel: +7 095 202 4370
Fax: +7 095 202 4370
Internet
Website: www.hyprotech.com
Email: info@hyprotech.com
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xxiii
HYSYS Hot Keys
File
Create New Case
Open Case
Save Current Case
Save As...
Close Current Case
Exit HYSYS
CTRL+N
CTRL+O
CTRL+S
CTRL+SHIFT+S
CTRL+Z
ALT+F4
Simulation
Go to Basis Manager
Leave Current Environment
(Return to Previous)
Main Properties
Access Optimizer
Toggle Steady-State/Dynamic
Modes
Toggle Hold/Go Calculations
Access Integrator
Start/Stop Integrator
Stop Calculations
CTRL+B
CTRL+L
CTRL+M
F5
F7
F8
CTRL+I
F9
CTRL+BREAK
Flowsheet
Add Material Stream
Add Operation
Access Object Navigator
Show/Hide Object Palette
Composition View (from
Workbook)
F11
F12
F3
F4
CTRL+K
Tools
Access Workbooks
Access PFDs
Toggle Move/Attach (PFD)
Access Utilities
Access Reports
Access DataBook
Access Controller FacePlates
Access Help
CTRL+W
CTRL+P
CTRL
CTRL+U
CTRL+R
CTRL+D
CTRL+F
F1
Column
Go to Column Runner
(SubFlowsheet)
Stop Column Solver
CTRL+T
CTRL+BREAK
Window
Close Active Window
Tile Windows
Go to Next Window
Go to Previous Window
Editing/General
Access Edit Bar
Access Pull-Down Menus
Go to Next Page Tab
Go to Previous Page Tab
Cut
Copy
Paste
CTRL+F4
SHIFT+F4
CTRL+F6 or CTRL+TAB
CTRL+SHIFT+F6 or
CTRL+SHIFT+TAB
F2
F10 or ALT
CTRL+SHIFT+N
CTRL+SHIFT+P
CTRL+X
CTRL+C
CTRL+V
xxiii
xxiv
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Interface
1-1
1 Interface
1.1 Interface Basics............................................................................................ 4
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.1.5
1.1.6
1.1.7
1.1.8
1.1.9
Windows Functionality ............................................................................. 4
Primary Interface Elements...................................................................... 4
Multi-Flowsheet Architecture/Environments............................................. 5
Objects ..................................................................................................... 6
Structure Terminology ............................................................................ 10
Desktop ...................................................................................................11
Interface Terminology............................................................................. 13
The Property View.................................................................................. 16
Selecting Items ...................................................................................... 19
1.2 Manoeuvring Through the Interface ......................................................... 20
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.2.5
1.2.6
Hot Keys - alt key ................................................................................... 20
Moving Through a View ......................................................................... 21
Moving Between Views .......................................................................... 22
Supplying Input ...................................................................................... 24
Editing Input ........................................................................................... 28
Closing Views......................................................................................... 29
1.3 Starting a Simulation ................................................................................. 30
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.3.5
1.3.6
File Menu ............................................................................................... 30
Basis Manager ....................................................................................... 31
Object Palette ........................................................................................ 33
Installing Streams .................................................................................. 35
Installing Operations .............................................................................. 44
Deleting Streams and Operations .......................................................... 51
1-1
1-2
1-2
Interface
1-3
As you use HYSYS, it will become apparent that you are allowed a high
degree of flexibility when performing tasks. In most instances, there is
more than one way to accomplish what you are trying to do. Combine
this with a consistent and logical approach to how these capabilities are
delivered and you are presented with an extremely versatile process
simulation tool.
The usability of HYSYS can be attributed to four key aspects of its
design:
1.
First there is the Event Driven operation. This concept combines
the power of interactive simulation with instantaneous access to
information. Interactive simulation means that information is
processed as you supply it, with calculations performed
automatically. At the same time, you are not tied to the specific
location of the program where you are supplying the information.
You can access whatever information you need when you need it.
2.
Secondly, Modular Operations are combined with the NonSequential solution algorithm. Not only is information processed
as you supply it, but the results of any calculation are automatically
propagated throughout the Flowsheet, both forwards and
backwards. The modular structure of the operations means that
they can calculate in either direction, using information in an
outlet stream to calculate inlet conditions. You gain process
understanding at every step, since operations calculate
automatically. You see the results immediately, thus understanding
each piece of the simulation in the greatest possible detail.
3.
The third attribute is the Multi-Flowsheet Architecture which
allows you to create any number of Flowsheets within a simulation.
In addition to satisfying the technical requirement of using
multiple property packages within a simulation, this architecture
complements the approach to interactive simulation modeling.
You can easily break a large simulation into smaller parts to
provide a convenient means of focusing your attention on specific
sections of the process.
4.
Ultimately, what brings all of these features together is the Object
Oriented Design of HYSYS. The separation of interface elements
(how the information is displayed) from the underlying
engineering code means that the same information can be
displayed simultaneously in a variety of locations. Each display is
tied to the same process variable, so that if the information
changes, it is automatically updated in every location. Also, if a
variable has been specified, it is shown as a specification in every
location - you are not restricted to a single location to change a
specification; rather, you can change the specification wherever it
is displayed.
1-3
1-4
Interface Basics
1.1
1.1.1
Interface Basics
Windows Functionality
HYSYS has the same basic features as found in other Windows 95 or NT
4.0 based programs.
• Minimize, Maximize/Restore and Close buttons located in the
upper right corner of most views.
• Close box located in the upper left corner of most views, which
contains the normal Windows 3.x menu.
Most of the different views found in HYSYS are resizable to some
degree. The following list provides a brief description on resizable
views:
• Minimize, Maximize/Restore and Close buttons available view can be resized vertically and horizontally.
• Minimize and Close buttons available - view can be resized
vertically only.
• Close button or Close and Pin buttons available - view can not
be resized.
1.1.2
Primary Interface Elements
Although information can be supplied and accessed a variety of ways,
there are four primary interface elements for interacting with HYSYS.
• The PFD is a graphical environment for building your Flowsheet
and examining process connectivity. Process information can
be displayed for each individual stream or operation as needed.
• The Workbook is a collection of tabs, displaying information in
a tabular format. Each Workbook tab displays information
about a specific object type, i.e., all streams, pipes, controllers,
etc., on a single tab. Multiple tabs for a given object type can
be installed, displaying information in varying levels of detail.
• The Property View is a single view which contains multiple
tabs. HYSYS extensively uses these single views which
include all information about a specific object, i.e. an individual
stream or operation.
• The Summary View displays the currently installed streams
and operations.
Each of these interface elements, plus the complimentary tools such as
the Data Recorder, Strip Charts, Case Study Tool, Plots, etc., are all
connected through the model itself. A change made in any location is
1-4
Interface
1-5
automatically reflected everywhere else in HYSYS. In addition, there is
basically no restriction on what can be displayed at any time. For
example, you can have both the PFD and Workbook open, as well as
Property Views for operations and streams.
1.1.3
There are two types of SubFlowsheets: Columns and
Templates.
Multi-Flowsheet
Architecture/Environments
As mentioned, HYSYS has been developed around a Multi-Flowsheet
Architecture. After you have created the fluid package(s) for your
simulation, you enter the Main Flowsheet. In this location, the bulk of
the model is created, installing the streams and operations that
represent your process.
However, you can create a Sub-Flowsheet at any time. Within the Main
Flowsheet, the Sub-Flowsheet appears as a single operation with
multiple connections. The Main Simulation has no knowledge of what
is inside the Sub-Flowsheet. For instance, it could be a refrigeration
loop or a decanter system. From the point of view of the Main
Flowsheet, the Sub-Flowsheet simply behaves as any other operation; it
calculates whenever conditions are changed.
The nature of the Sub-Flowsheet gives rise to the concept of
Environments. Although a Sub-Flowsheet (template or column)
appears as a single operation in the Main Flowsheet, you can, at any
time, enter the Sub-Flowsheet to examine conditions in greater detail
or make changes. When you do this, you enter the Sub-Flowsheet’s
Build Environment. Two things happen at this time. First, the Main
Flowsheet is temporarily cached; it will be returned to the exact status
when you come back out of the Sub-Flowsheet. Second, the Main
Flowsheet solver is temporarily shut down. Calculations will still be
performed inside the Sub-Flowsheet, but the results simply won’t be
propagated to the rest of the simulation until you come back out. This
allows you to focus on a specific aspect of the simulation without
having the entire simulation calculate every time conditions change.
With this in mind, consider the definition of a Flowsheet (or SubFlowsheet) in the context of the overall program. A Flowsheet is defined
by what it possesses:
•
•
•
•
An independent Fluid Package (optional)
A PFD
A Workbook
Flowsheet Elements (streams and/or operations)
1-5
1-6
Interface Basics
This may seem to contradict what has already been stated regarding
access to information. However, capabilities have been built into
HYSYS to maximize the power of using Sub-Flowsheets without
impeding any access to information. No matter where you are in the
simulation, you can open any Flowsheet’s PFD or Workbook. Since the
Sub-Flowsheets are in essence single operations within the Main
Flowsheet, each has its own property view. You can access whatever
information resides inside the Sub-Flowsheet through this property
view without ever having to enter the Sub-Flowsheet itself.
Refer to Section 5.2 Navigation for details on the
two navigational tools.
All of the Flowsheets within a simulation are tied together through the
Navigators. The Object Navigator allows immediate access to the
property view for any stream or operation from any location. Similarly,
the Variable Navigator allows you to target process variables from any
Flowsheet. For instance, you can select variables for inclusion on a Strip
Chart or for attachment to logical operations such as Adjusts or
Controllers.
Figure 1.1
1.1.4
Objects
The term Object is used extensively throughout the documentation to
refer to an individual stream or operation. Within HYSYS, information
associated with an object can be displayed in a variety of ways
(Workbook, PFD, Property View, Plot etc.). Through the object oriented
design of HYSYS, the information displayed by each interface element
is tied to the same underlying object. The result is that if a parameter
changes in the Flowsheet it is automatically updated in every location.
Object Inspection is a procedure associated with information display.
Object displays (for example an icon in a PFD) are tied to appropriate
commands for that object, i.e., printing, direct access to a property
view, etc. The way in which the pieces and capabilities of the HYSYS
interface work together will be illustrated in the following pages.
1-6
Interface
1-7
On the following pages, the major interface elements of HYSYS,
with some of the time saving features built into each, are
discussed. Each of these elements can be open simultaneously,
and offer different representations of the same information. No
matter where you are working - supplying information or
installing new streams or operations - every interface element
automatically updates with the new information.
Workbook View
Figure 1.2
Double click to open
the Property View.
Operations attached to a stream
can be accessed directly.
Object Inspect (right-click area with mouse)
the Title Bar to open the Print Datasheet
menu, from which you can print the
Workbook tab details.
Specifications for streams and
operations can be supplied directly
on the Workbook tab.
1-7
1-8
Interface Basics
PFD View
Figure 1.3
Double click on any icon to
open its Property View.
Object Inspect any operation
or stream icon to access a
menu of options.
Object Inspect the PFD by clicking with the
secondary mouse button on an empty area
of the PFD.
You can print the PFD from the
Object Inspection menu.
Summary View
Figure 1.4
Highlight the stream whose
Property View you want to
open.
1-8
You can also open the
Property Views for Unit
Operations.
Interface
1-9
Object Navigator
Figure 1.5
Highlight the Object you
wish to view.
Press this button to enter the
environment of the highlighted
Flowsheet.
Filter the list for quickly
locating a specific object.
Press the View button to view
the selected object, Off Gas.
Stream Property View
Figure 1.6
Object Inspect the Title Bar to
access the Print Specsheet
menu for the Object.
Throughout HYSYS, input
values appear in blue and
calculated values are black.
The pages list
different views that
are available on the
current tab.
The Status message
shows the current
status of the Object.
The tabs provide a logical
grouping of information in the
form of pages.
These buttons display the property
view of the attached unit operation
which is Downstream or Upstream of
the Stream.
1-9
1-10
Interface Basics
1.1.5
Structure Terminology
Before the HYSYS interface usage is explained, some of the terminology
that you will encounter will be defined. Every HYSYS case includes
certain structural elements.
Object
Definition
Flowsheet Element
(or object)
A Stream or Operation.
Flowsheet
A collection of Flowsheet Elements which utilize a
common fluid package. In addition, a Flowsheet
possesses its own Workbook and PFD.
Fluid Package
Includes the Property Package, Components (library,
pseudo or hypothetical), Reaction Package and User
Properties used for Flowsheet calculations. Fluid
Packages can be Imported and Exported.
Simulation Case
A collection of Fluid Package(s), Flowsheets, and
Flowsheet Elements which form the model. The
Simulation Case can be saved to disk for future
reference. The extension used for saved cases is
hsc.
Session
Encompasses every Simulation Case that you have
open while HYSYS is running.
Special Flowsheet Elements
Column Operations and Flowsheet Templates are special Flowsheet
Elements in that they are also Flowsheets. A Flowsheet Template can be
a Column Sub-Flowsheet or a more complex system.
The special capabilities of the Column and Flowsheet Template are:
• They have their own Flowsheet, which means they possess
their own Fluid Package, PFD and Workbook.
• They can be comprised of multiple Flowsheet Elements.
• They can be retrieved as a complete entity into any other
Simulation Case.
1-10
Interface
1.1.6
1-11
Desktop
The figure below shows the basic components of the HYSYS Desktop:
Figure 1.7
Menu Bar
Button Bar
Object Status Window
Title Bar
Status Bar
Trace Window
Environment/Mode Label
Scroll Bar
The main features of the Desktop are:
Refer to the next section,
Button Bar, for details
concerning the various
buttons which will be
encountered.
Object
Definition
Title Bar
Indicates the HYSYS file currently loaded.
Menu Bar
Provides access to common Flowsheet commands
through a pull down menu system.
Button Bar
Contains various buttons which invoke a specific
command when pressed.
Environment/Mode
Label
Indicates the environment and mode in which you
are currently working.
Status Bar
When the mouse pointer is placed over a button in
the Button Bar, the Object Palette, or a Property
View, a brief description of its function is displayed in
the Status Bar. The Status Bar also displays solver
status information.
Calculation/
Responsiveness
Button
The Calculation/Responsiveness button allows the
user to control how time is spent in updating the
screens versus calculations.
Scroll Bar
Scrolls vertically (in the above case) through the
Trace Window.
Calculation/Responsiveness
Button
1-11
1-12
Interface Basics
For more details on the Object
Status Window or Trace
Window, refer to Section 5.4 Object Status Window/Trace
Window.
Object
Definition
Object Status
Window/Trace
Window
The Object Status Window (left pane) shows current
status messages for Flowsheet objects while the
Trace Window (right pane) displays Solver
information. The windows can be resized vertically or
horizontally by clicking and dragging the windows
frames located between or above them.
Button Bar
Note that the Button Bar is
redrawn depending on the
current Environment and
Mode.
Name
The buttons on the Button Bar provide immediate access to the most
common commands, which are also available as Menu items. The
following is a sample of the buttons found on the various Button Bars.
View
Description
Create a new case.
New Case
Locate and open an existing case/template/column.
Open Case
Save the active case.
Save Case
Open the PFD for the current Flowsheet.
PFD
Open the Workbook for the current Flowsheet.
Workbook
Open the Object Navigator.
Navigator
Simulation
Navigator
Dynamics
Assistant
Opens the Simulation Navigator
Opens the Dynamic Assistant view.
Open the Column Runner view.
Column
Steady State/
Dynamics
Active/Holding
Run/Stop
Main Environment: Toggles between Active and
Holding modes. Green (left) is Active.
(Steady State)
Column Environment: Toggles between Run and
Stop Column Solver. Green (left) is Run.
Integrator
Integrator toggle. Toggles between Active and
Holding. Green (left) is Active.
(Dynamics)
1-12
Toggles between Steady State and Dynamic
mode. Currently toggled to Steady State mode.
Interface
Name
View
1-13
Description
Enter the Basis Environment.
Basis
Return to the parent Flowsheet from a SubFlowsheet, i.e., the Main Environment from the
Column Sub-Flowsheet Environment.
Parent
Flowsheet
Enter the Oil Environment from the Basis
Environment.
Oil
Environment
From the Oil Environment, return to the Basis
Environment; from the Basis Environment, return to
the Main Environment.
Leave
Environment
Some additional things to note about the HYSYS Desktop:
• When the mouse pointer is placed over a button, its descriptive
name pops up below the pointer and a flyby function is
displayed in the status bar.
• The Desktop itself has both a vertical and horizontal scroll bar.
These are automatically created when necessary.
1.1.7
Interface Terminology
Figure 1.8
Accept and Cancel
buttons (for Edit Bar
input)
Drop Down Input Cell
Edit Bar
Unit Box
Pin
Scroll Bar
Scroll Button
Button
Input Cell
Tabs
Object Status
Drop Down List
1-13
1-14
Interface Basics
The following terminology is used to describe the various HYSYS
interface elements:
Figure 1.9
Active Highlighted Radio Button
Location
Minimize, Maximize
and Close buttons
Group Box
Check Box
(unchecked)
Pages Highlighted Tab
1-14
Object
Definition
View
Any graphical representation found on the Desktop,
for example, a Property View for an operation.
Button
Invokes a command when pressed.
Pin
Converts a Modal Property View to a Non-Modal
Property View.
Tabs
Provides a logical grouping of information in the
form of pages.
Pages
Provides access to detailed information regarding
the selected object.
Drop Down List
A list of available options for a given input cell.
Scroll Bar
Provides access to information which cannot be
displayed in the current size of a menu or view.
Scroll Button
Part of the Scroll Bar, allowing you to slide the list
up or down, or left or right.
Input Cell
Location in a View for supplying or viewing
information, e.g., stream names, temperatures, etc.
In many cases it has a drop down list associated
with it.
Interface
Object
Definition
Edit Bar
Located at the top of a view, and is used for
entering or selecting input. The input can be
numerical or text.
Unit Box
Associated with the Edit Bar, this provides a drop
down list of units which are applicable for the
current input cell.
Object Status
Each property view shows the status of the
associated object with a coloured background (red
for a missing parameter, yellow for a warning
message and green for OK).
Icon
A minimized view. Double clicking on one opens the
view.
Close Box
Either closes the view (double clicking), or
produces a drop down menu of common Windows
commands.
Radio Button
Always found in groups of at least two; only one can
be active at a time.
Check Box
Items or settings which are On or Off. Selecting the
box will turn the function On. Selecting it again turns
it Off.
Minimize/Maximize
Either iconize the current view (minimize), or
expand a view to its full size.
Active Highlighted
Location
The current active location is always indicated by
highlighting.
Group Box
Organizational border within a page that groups
related functions together. Each group box has its
own active location.
Matrix
A group of cells through which you can manoeuvre
with the mouse or the keyboard arrow keys.
1-15
Active View/Active Location
Although several views can be displayed on the Desktop at any time,
only one view is Active or has Focus. This is indicated by the view’s Title
Bar being highlighted. Within that view, there is again only one location
that is Active. Depending on the location (cell, button, etc.), how this is
displayed can vary. In the previous view, one example of an Active
Location is shown.
1-15
1-16
Interface Basics
1.1.8
The Property View
Figure 1.10
A Property View is a view that contains multiple tabs, contained within
a single border. These are used extensively in HYSYS to allow access to
all information associated with an item in a single view. A Property
View is Modal by default but can be easily converted to a Non-Modal
View by selecting the Pin.
A common structure has been adopted for the Property Views. Once
you have become familiar with the format and usage of one Property
View, each additional one you encounter will behave and be structured
in a similar manner.
Accessing Property Pages Via the Page
Tabs
Moving between tabs can be done in several ways:
The mouse pointer will not
change if the first or last page
tab is active AND the pointer
is placed to either the left or
right, respectively, of the tabs.
1-16
• Select the desired tab with the mouse.
• Use the Hot Key combination CTRL SHIFT N, which will cycle you
through the tabs (CTRL SHIFT P cycles backwards).
• Place the mouse pointer to the direct left or right of the tabs
(remaining inside the border of the property view). The cursor
will change to a ‘tab switch’ cursor which points in the direction
in which the tabs will be cycled. Click the primary mouse button
to cycle through the tabs.
Interface
1-17
Several time saving features have been built into the Property View:
• It will always remember which tab you were last on, returning to
that tab automatically the next time you open that view. Each
Property View remembers its settings independently; for
example, two different streams could automatically open to
different tabs.
• There are various ways of moving from one tab to the next
including selecting the desired tab or by using the Hot Key
combination.
Supplying or specifying input is accomplished in a variety of manners.
Some definitions and terminology will be presented in order to
adequately explain the functionality and capabilities of HYSYS.
Tabs
Each Property View is made up of four or five tabs, which are displayed
at the bottom of the View. These tabs provide a logical grouping for the
object information. Note that in Figure 1.11, the Design tab is
highlighted and appears to be on top of the other tabs, which indicates
that this is the current tab.
Pages
In general, each tab will provide access to more than one page or view
The section on the left side of the property view has the same name as
the current tab. Within this section is a list of available pages, with the
current page being highlighted. The information contained on a
specific page may be accessed by simply selecting the page from the
list. This ‘page index’ is always present for the specific tab and its
appearance is not dependent upon the selection of the page.
Cells
See Section 1.2.4 - Supplying
Input for a more detailed
description of the Edit Bar.
This is a location in a view for supplying or viewing information, e.g.,
stream names, temperatures, etc. Cells can be present as single fields
(Input Stream cell on a unit operation) or contained within a group as
part of a Matrix. An example of Matrix Cells are those found in the
Worksheet tab of every unit operation views.
In many cases, cells present as a single field have an associated drop
down list, indicated by a down arrow next to the field. This produces a
list of available options associated with that field. If the cell is in a
Matrix, then the drop down list may be in the Edit Bar.
1-17
1-18
Interface Basics
Highlight Location
The current active location is always indicated by highlighting.
Typically this occurs on two levels. First, the actual view (property view
for example) will have the Title Bar appear in a different colour than
other open inactive views. Second, the active input cell will be
indicated with a heavier border, and may also have the contents appear
with a highlight. Figure 1.9 shows various types of highlighting. The
dashed box in the Toggles group is one type and the enlarged size of the
page tab for Simulation is another highlighting indicator.
Modal versus Non-Modal Property Views
Modal views without pins are
called dialog boxes.
When a view is Modal you cannot access any other element in the
simulation. That is, you cannot select a menu item or view that is not
directly part of that Modal view. This functionality is convenient if you
do not want to clutter the Desktop with unneccessary views.
You will encounter Modal Views without Pins, such as the Input
Composition view, which are called dialog boxes. HYSYS uses dialog
boxes to retrieve essential information. In essence, you must either
input all required information on this view or input nothing in order to
proceed.
Non-Modal Views do not restrict you in this manner. You can leave a
Non-Modal View open and interact with any other view or Menu Item
by selecting it.
Figure 1.11
Modal View
1-18
Non-Modal View
Interface
You can set Property Views to
be Non-Modal by default in
the Session Preferences.
1-19
The Modal View is indicated by the substitution of the Minimize/
Maximize buttons with a Pin. The Non-Modal View has the Minimize/
Maximize buttons in the upper right corner of the window.
A Modal View with a Pin can be converted to a Non-Modal View by
selecting that Pin.
1.1.9
Selecting Items
Selecting refers to either picking a specific item from a list, or invoking a
button command. There are four types of selecting in HYSYS.
Method
Description
Selecting a cell
Using the mouse, move the cursor to the
location and use the primary mouse button to
select.
Selecting a button
Select with the primary mouse button, or move
the focus location (using the TAB key or SHIFT
TAB combination) and press ENTER.
Selecting from a drop
down menu or list
Move the focus location into the drop down,
and use the mouse pointer or keyboard arrows
to highlight the selection, then press ENTER to
select.
Multiple list selections
Click and drag the mouse over the items you
wish to select (provided they are all sequential
in the list). Alternatively, you can highlight
sequential items by selecting the first item in the
list, holding down the SHIFT key and selecting
the last item in the list. If the items are not
sequential, select the first item with the primary
mouse button and then select additional items
with the mouse while holding down the CTRL
key.
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Manoeuvring Through the Interface
1.2
Manoeuvring Through
the Interface
HYSYS uses Windows conventions regarding interaction between the
user and the application. These are described in the following sections.
1.2.1
HYSYS uses a number of Hot
Keys for performing
commands. For a list, refer to
preface of this Manual or to
the Quick Reference Guide.
The mouse can be used to
move the active location to
any cell by moving the pointer
over the cell and pressing the
primary mouse button.
Hot Keys - ALT KEY
Most Labels, including the items on the Menu Bar, input cell identifiers,
and Button labels, have a single letter underlined. This letter works in
conjunction with the ALT key as a Hot Key combination, the result of
which varies depending on the label type.
• For Menu Bar Items (Edit for example), pressing ALT E will
open the drop down menu under Edit.
• For Input Cell Identifiers (Name, for example), pressing ALT N
will move the active location directly to that input cell.
• For Buttons (Close, for example), pressing ALT C will invoke
the button command.
Keep in mind that any keyboard input applies to the active view. For
example, if an input cell identifier on the active view has the letter F
underlined, you cannot directly open the File Menu by ALT F, as your
input will be applied to the active view.
The ALT key by itself automatically advances the active location to the
first item in the Menu Bar (File). The keyboard arrows move left and
right through the row, and the down arrow opens the active menu item.
If a drop down menu has underlined letters, you can invoke the
command by using that letter only. For example, with the File menu
open, you can start a New Case by pressing the N key.
Figure 1.12
1-20
Interface
1.2.2
1-21
Moving Through a View
When moving through a view using the keyboard functions, you will
notice that each input cell and button is accessed sequentially. You can
move the active location using the TAB (forward) and SHIFT TAB (reverse)
keys. In some instances, such as the Stream property view, HYSYS will
automatically advance you to the next input cell after pressing ENTER. If
the active location is on a cell in a matrix, the TAB key will not advance
you to the next cell in that matrix, but to the next active location in the
view. This location may be a button or another group.
HYSYS indicates the active location of the cursor in a view in one of
three ways.
• In the case of a string (Stream Name for example), the entire
string will be highlighted.
• If the input cell is numerical, a box is placed just inside the cell
border.
• In the case of a button, the perimeter of the button will be
highlighted and the label surrounded by a dashed box.
Figure 1.13
Shows a text cell as the
Active Location.
If Outlet was the active cell, pressing
would advance to Energy, while
SHIFT TAB would move back to Inlet.
TAB
If Delete was the active location, pressing TAB
would advance the highlight to Inlet, while SHIFT
TAB would reverse the highlight to the On/Off
checkbox.
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1-22
Manoeuvring Through the Interface
1.2.3
CTRL F6 or CTRL TAB will make
the next View in the sequence
Active.
CTRL SHIFT F6 or CTRL SHIFT TAB
reverses the direction of the
sequence.
Moving Between Views
The easiest way to move from one view to another is to use the mouse.
To make a view or icon active, simply press the primary mouse button
when the cursor is placed over the view or icon. However, because
HYSYS maintains all views (including minimized views) in a sequenced
list, you can move to another view using keyboard commands.
The graphic shown in Figure 1.14 illustrates the method by which you
can move between views. If P-100 is the initial active view, press CTRL
F6, and the PFD icon becomes the active view. This is now highlighted,
indicating the active location. Pressing CTRL F6 again forces the next
view in the sequence to become the active location. In this case, the
iconized Workbook. Press CTRL F6 once more, and P-100 will become
the active view. In this case, the sequenced views (PFD and Workbook)
are minimized. Minimized views which become active are denoted by a
highlighted title bar.
Figure 1.14
1. Initial Active
View.
6. Active View again.
2. Press CTRL F6.
5. Press CTRL F6 once
more.
3. The PFD becomes the
Active View (indicated by
highlighting the icon
name).
1-22
Press CTRL F6 again.
4. The Workbook becomes
the Active View.
Interface
1-23
If all three of the preceding views are open, the view will be similar to
that shown below. Sequencing through these will overlay the active
view on top of the previously active view (instead of highlighting). In
the following example, P-100 is the active location (notice it is on the
top) and its name, P-100, is also highlighted. Pressing CTRL F6 makes
Workbook the active location. When Workbook becomes the active
location, P-100 will be hidden behind the PFD view.
Figure 1.15
This will become the Active
location by pressing CTRL F6
Active View
Moving to the Up/Downstream Object
Downstream and Upstream
Buttons
The stream property view presents a special case of moving to a
different view is encountered when it is active. From the stream view,
the property views for the upstream and downstream objects can be
directly accessed by the Upstream Object or Downstream Object
button, respectively.
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1-24
Manoeuvring Through the Interface
1.2.4
Supplying Input
Text Input
When the required input is a Name (a stream or operation), you can
either supply the input directly via the keyboard, or in most cases
choose from a drop down list of applicable responses. If you are
supplying the input from the keyboard, (e.g. creating a new stream),
simply enter the text and press ENTER.
You can override the filtered
list by typing in the desired
name directly.
The drop down list displays existing objects. By default, HYSYS will
filter the list of available streams and operations to include only those
applicable to the current situation. For example, when selecting a
stream as an operation feed, only unconnected streams or streams that
are outlets of other operations will be shown. The following is a
description of how to use drop down lists to select existing items.
Depending on the type of cell that has focus, the drop down list may
appear next to the cell or in the Edit Bar. A drop down list directly tied to
a cell is signified by a down arrow next to the cell (i.e. the Outlet cell on
the Mixer property view).
If a cell’s drop down list is in the Edit Bar, then a down arrow will appear
in the Edit Bar when the cell has focus. For instance, when a cell in the
Inlets matrix on the MIX-100 property view has focus, the Edit Bar
contains a drop down list.
Figure 1.16
1-24
Interface
1-25
Numerical Input
If the input is numerical, the approach is slightly different. Views that
accept numerical input use the Edit Bar, which is redrawn to include a
Unit Box. The Unit Box will display the current default unit for the input
cell property. When you begin supplying a number for a numerical
input cell, your input is echoed in the Edit Bar. When you have supplied
the number and have pressed ENTER, HYSYS assumes that the default
unit was correct and transfers the value back into the input cell.
Figure 1.17
As numerical input for a parameter
(e.g., Delta P) is supplied for the
first time, it is echoed in the Edit
Bar at the top of the view.
Delta P cell is presently empty.
The numerical value entered in the
Edit Bar (10 kPa) will be displayed
here.
Unit Box shows the
default units.
While HYSYS is matching your
input to the list of units, you
can stop entering text and use
any of the other methods for
locating the unit (such as
selecting it with the mouse,
using the up and down arrows
etc.).
If you are supplying the number with a different unit than the default,
there are two methods available for identifying it.
Method
Action
Keyboard
Input a space after the number and then begin typing in
the unit. The unit becomes highlighted in the Unit Box
drop down list.
Mouse
After supplying the numerical value, but before pressing
ENTER, open the drop down list and locate the desired unit
1-25
1-26
Manoeuvring Through the Interface
Figure 1.18
Display the Unit Box drop down list
after supplying a numerical value by
selecting the down arrow. The Scroll
Bar can be used to locate the required
unit.
As you supply more of the unit, the
highlight will move through the list
covering the unit the most closely
matches your input. Pressing
ENTER accepts both the number
and the unit. The value is
recalculated using the default unit
and is transferred to the Active
Location.
When you begin entering the units, the
Unit Box drop down menu automatically
opens.
Drop Down Lists and Scroll Bars
Drop down lists are used extensively in HYSYS to provide an efficient
means of locating existing streams, operations, or units. These menus
can be accessed either via the mouse, or by using keyboard input. Once
a drop down list is opened, you manoeuvre through the list using the
mouse or keyboard.
The F2 key opens the drop
down list in the Edit Bar.
A drop down list for a Text input cell (valve inlet for example), can be
opened at any time by using the primary mouse button to select the
applicable arrow box. This not only opens the menu, but moves the
active location to that input cell. You can also open the drop down list
for the current active cell by pressing the keyboard down arrow. If the
stream is being attached for the first time, the highlight in the drop
down list will be at the top of the list. If the input cell already has a
stream in it, the highlight will be on that stream.
For a numerical input cell, the drop down list is located next to the Edit
Bar at the top of the view, and contains the Unit Box. This automatically
1-26
Interface
1-27
opens as soon as you stop supplying numerical input (signified by a
<space>) and begin entering the unit. Alternatively, the drop down list
can be opened at any time (which terminates the number entry) by
selecting the arrow box.
Figure 1.19
Click here to move up one
item
Click and drag to scroll the Menu
Click here to move down one
Page
The Up and Down arrows can be
used to move through the list.
Pressing ENTER selects the
highlighted item. The mouse can be
used to select the item directly.
Click here to move down one
item
Once a drop down list is opened, you can manoeuvre through it in
several ways:
• The most convenient method is via type-matching. Once a
drop down list is open, keyboard input is interpreted to find the
first menu item which best matches your input. As you continue
to supply input, the matching continues. Pressing ENTER
terminates the string and accepts the highlighted item. You can
also use the keyboard arrow keys to move to any item.
• If the menu contains six items or less, it appears without a
scroll bar. In this case, you can use the mouse to directly select
the desired item, or use the up and down keyboard arrows to
mark the item and then select it with the ENTER key.
• The PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN keys move the menu by one
page, and the HOME and END keys take you to the first and last
item respectively. The desired item is selected by highlighting it
and pressing ENTER.
1-27
1-28
Manoeuvring Through the Interface
• The Scroll Bar/Scroll Button provides similar functionality.
Selecting the Up and Down Scroll Arrows advance the menu
by one item. The scroll button can be selected with the primary
mouse button and dragged up and down to quickly scroll the
menu.
• Selecting the space between the scroll button and the scroll
arrow advances the menu up or down one page. The desired
item can then be selected with the primary mouse button.
1.2.5
Editing Input
Editing input can be done in two ways. When the input cell is active,
any information you supply will overwrite the previous input. Likewise,
you can use the drop down list to replace previous input.
Figure 1.20
Cancel Change
Accept Change
Insertion Point
If you want to make changes to
previously supplied input, you can
make an insertion point.
Input Cell location. The value in the
Edit Bar is converted to default
units, in this case, kPa.
1-28
Interface
1-29
You have a choice when editing numerical input.
To make an Insertion Point
somewhere in the number, use
the mouse or press F2 and use
the arrow keys. You can then
make selective changes.
• If you simply type in a new value and press ENTER, HYSYS
accepts the input and assumes it is in the default units.
• You can change the units using the methods described
previously.
• Another method is via selective modification. With this route,
you place an insertion point somewhere in the string and make
selective changes. Pressing ENTER or selecting the Accept
Change box accepts the changes, while you can abort them by
selecting the Cancel Change box.
1.2.6
Closing Views
There are four ways to close a view.
• Double click on the Close Box in the upper left hand corner of
the view.
• Click once on the Close Box to open the drop down menu. The
Close function in this drop down menu has the C underlined.
Press the C on the keyboard to close the view.
• CTRL F4 closes the active view.
• Click on the Close button in the upper right hand corner of the
view.
Figure 1.21
Close Box
Close Button
1-29
1-30
Starting a Simulation
1.3
Starting a Simulation
When starting a New simulation, the first thing you need to do is create
a New Case. You can do this through the File option in the Menu Bar or
using the New Case button.
New Case Button
1.3.1
File Menu
Before proceeding with the installation of a new case, the options
available under File in the Menu Bar will be explained. These options
are the general commands associated with any file - saving, printing,
etc.
For more information about
the File Menu, refer to Section
7.1 - File.
See Chapter 6 - Output
Control for more information
on printing.
1-30
Command
Definition
Starting (New/Open)
Creates a New HYSYS case or Opens an existing
one.
Saving (Save/Save
As/Save All)
When saving a case for the first time, choose the
Save command. Supply the file name and the
location (file path) to which you want to save the
file. If the case has been previously saved, this
command updates the information on disk. If you
want to change the file name or location, use the
Save As command. The Save All command can be
used to save all HYSYS cases currently open. You
are asked to select which cases should be saved.
Closing (Close Case/
Close All)
Close Case closes the current simulation; you are
first prompted to save it. Close All accesses a
dialog of cases currently in memory, allowing you to
specify which should be closed. Again, you will be
prompted to save the cases first.
Printing (Print/Print
Snapshot/Printer
Setup)
Print accesses a dialog of options for printing
Specsheets for the active object. Print Snapshot
prints a snapshot of what currently appears in the
HYSYS active window. Printer Setup is used to
select the default printer, print orientation, paper
size, etc. It is similar to the Printer Setup commands
in other Windows applications.
Interface
1.3.2
1-31
Basis Manager
When you start a New Case, HYSYS places you directly into the
Simulation Basis Manager. From this location you can manipulate
every Fluid Package in the simulation. The minimum steps required to
create a Fluid Package for your simulation are described.
Figure 1.22
Refer to Chapter 1 - Fluid
Package of the Simulation
Basis Manual for more
information.
From the Basis Manager, select the Add button to add the Fluid Package
to the new case. Prior to entering the Main Environment, you must fully
define at least one fluid package by selecting a property package and a
set of components. HYSYS places you on the Prop Pkg page of the Fluid
Package.
1-31
1-32
Starting a Simulation
From the Base Property Package Selection group, select a Property
Package to use with this case.
Figure 1.23
The next thing to do is select the components you are going to use in
the case. Select the Components tab.
Figure 1.24
1-32
Interface
1-33
Once the Components and the Property Package have been selected,
press the Close button to return to the Basis Manager. From here, press
the Enter Simulation Environment button to move to the Main
Environment.
Now that you have entered the Main Environment, you need to install
streams and operations in the case.
1.3.3
Object Palette
The Object Palette can be used to install streams and operations. You
can open or close the Palette from the Flowsheet option in the Menu
Bar, or by using the F4 Hot Key.
In the Main Flowsheet or Template Sub-Flowsheet, every operation
available in HYSYS is accessible via the Palette, (except those
specifically associated with Columns such as tray sections, reboilers,
etc.). A separate Palette is produced when you are inside the Column
Sub-Flowsheet.
From top to bottom, the Palette is organized into the following
categories:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Object Palette
Streams
Vessels (2 and 3-phase separators, tank)
Heat Transfer Equipment
Rotating Equipment (compressor, expander, pump)
Piping Equipment
Solids Handling
Reactors
Prebuilt Columns
Shortcut Columns
Sub-Flowsheets
Logicals
Buttons on the object palette that display an arrow pointing to the side
represent general buttons. For instance, the Solid Ops and General
Reactors buttons each will bring up a secondary palette displaying
buttons for more specific unit operations. As shown, you can select a
Gibbs Reactor, an Equilibrium Reactor or a Conversion Reactor after
pressing the General Reactors button.
General Reactors
1-33
1-34
Starting a Simulation
Each operation has a representative icon. In addition, when
you place the mouse pointer over top of any button, the flyby
description of what operation the icon represents is displayed
both below the pointer and at the bottom of the HYSYS
Window in the Status Bar.
Installing Streams and Operations via the
Palette
Add Button
You can install a single stream or operation from the Palette by double
clicking on the icon for the object you want to install. You can also use
the Add button at the top of the Palette. First, click on the button for the
Object you wish to install, then click on the Add button. This displays
the Property View for the Object type chosen.
You can install multiple Streams and Unit Operations from the Palette
by using the Lock button. The procedure for this is as follows:
Lock Button
Cancel Button
1.
Click on the Lock button at the top of the Palette.
2.
With the primary mouse button, click on the Icon for the Stream or
Operation you want to install.
3.
Select the Add button to install the stream or operation.
4.
You can repeat this as many times as necessary.
To deactivate the chosen Object button when in locked mode, press the
Cancel button or select a different Object. The Object button returns to
its normal state (changes from light grey to dark grey).
To remove the Lock function, click on the Lock button again.
1-34
Interface
1.3.4
1-35
Installing Streams
There are several methods to install new streams in HYSYS. Some of
these methods immediately open the Stream Property View upon
installation and others do not.
Installation with Direct Access to Property
Views
Note that both the menu bar
and the F11 hot key options
will install a material stream.
To convert the material stream
to an energy stream, refer to
Section 2.1 - Material Stream
Property View of the Steady
State Modeling Guide.
Method
Description
Menu Bar
New streams can be installed into the case via the
Menu Bar. Choose the Flowsheet option from the
Menu Bar, and then choose the Add Stream
option.
Hot Keys
Press F11.
Object Palette
Double click on the stream icon in the Object
Palette.
Summary View
Open the Select Summary view by selecting
Summaries from the Tools option in the Menu Bar.
From this view, highlight the Flowsheet to which you
will be adding the stream operation and press the
View button. The Summary view will appear, from
which you can choose the Add Material or Add
Energy buttons in the Flowsheet Streams group.
Figure 1.25
1-35
1-36
Starting a Simulation
Installation Without Direct Access to
Property Views
Method
Description
Workbook
Position the cursor in the **New** cell of a Streams
Type Workbook tab. Type in the new stream name.
You can now proceed to enter values for the default
stream variables.
Operation Property
View
You can supply a new stream name in an Input Cell
for an operation, which automatically creates the
stream.
Both Material and Energy Streams can be added to
the case via the Object Palette.
Material Stream Button (Blue)
• With the primary mouse button, click on the
Stream Icon in the palette (Material or Energy).
Move the cursor to the area on the PFD where
the Stream is to be placed. Press the primary
mouse button to complete the installation.
Object Palette to PFD
Energy Stream Button (Red)
or
• From the Object Palette, click (with the
secondary mouse button) and drag the stream
icon to the desired location in the PFD.
Release the secondary mouse button to drop
the stream on the PFD.
To access the Property View for a stream, do one of the following:
Refer to Section 3.8 Flowsheet Analysis Using the
PFD for more information on
accessing Property Views from
the PFD.
Refer to Section 5.2.1 - Object
Navigator for information on
accessing the navigator and its
functions.
1-36
• Double click on a Stream cell (any cell except a flow cell, which
accesses the Input Composition dialog) in the Workbook.
• Double click on the Icon in the PFD.
• Object inspect (with the secondary mouse button) a stream cell
in the Workbook. Choose View from the menu that appears.
• Object inspect the Icon in the PFD and choose View
Properties.
• Open the Object Status Window (left pane). Double click on the
message related to the stream.
• Access the Summary view, highlight the stream name in the
Flowsheet Streams group and press the View button.
Interface
1-37
• Access the Object Navigator. Select the Streams radio button
and highlight the name of a stream in the Streams group. Press
the View button.
Figure 1.26
Spec Stream As
On each Stream Property View, there is a Define from other Stream
button. This allows you to copy the existing specifications from another
stream into the present stream. When you press this button, the Spec
Stream As view appears.
Figure 1.27
In the Copy Stream Conditions group, you can select a maximum of
two variables in the first group: vapour fraction, temperature, pressure,
1-37
1-38
Starting a Simulation
molar enthalpy, or molar entropy. These will become the user defined
variables for the stream. If you wish to have the composition and/or
flow copied, select the appropriate box. From the Flow Basis group, you
can select which flow type will be the user defined flow.
Installing a Stream - Example
Material and Energy streams can be installed with any one of the
methods mentioned previously. For this example, the default units are
SI, the property package is NRTL and the components are Water and
Methanol. The following procedure will outline the installation of a
Stream:
1.
Double click on the Material Stream button in the Object Palette.
This brings up the Stream property view, which will have been
auto-named as 1.
Figure 1.28
1-38
Interface
2.
1-39
The Stream Name cell will have focus. You can type in a new name,
for example, Stream1. Your input will be echoed in the Edit Bar.
Pressing ENTER transfers your input back to the Stream Name cell.
Figure 1.29
3.
Nothing will be supplied for Vapour/Phase Fraction. Press the
keyboard down arrow to move the highlight to the Temperature
cell.
1-39
1-40
Starting a Simulation
4.
With the highlight on the Temperature cell, type in 60. This
appears in the Edit Bar. In the Unit List, C appears because this is
the default SI temperature unit. Press ENTER to accept the entry.
Figure 1.30
5.
1-40
The highlight will now be on the Pressure cell. You want the
pressure for this stream to be 0.5 bar. The default SI unit for
pressure is kPa, so you must change the pressure unit to bar. Type
in 0.5 followed by a Space, and the letter b. The Unit Box drop down
list will appear and bar will be highlighted. Press ENTER to accept
the units.
Interface
1-41
Figure 1.31
6.
Notice that the value transferred into the Pressure cell is 50 kPa, as
kPa is the default display unit for pressure.
7.
You will now be on the Molar Flow cell. Type in a value of 100
kgmole/hr and press ENTER. Notice that the stream still hasn’t
flashed, because we have not supplied a composition.
Figure 1.32
1-41
1-42
Starting a Simulation
8.
With the primary mouse button, select the Composition page. To
supply or edit the composition, either select a cell and enter a
value or press the Edit button. The Input Composition view will be
displayed.
Figure 1.33
Note that you could also double click on the appropriate flow cell
(mole, mass, or liquid volume) on the Conditions page and access the
following Input Composition view directly.
1-42
Interface
9.
1-43
Select the Mole Fractions radio button prior to the input of values.
Enter a Mole Fraction of 1.0 for Water and 1.0 for Methanol.
Figure 1.34
10. Press the Normalize button. Notice that the Total becomes 1.0, as
each component is assigned a mole fraction of 0.5.
11. Press the OK button to return to the stream property view. The
mole fractions entered are now present on the Composition page.
12. Select the Conditions page. The stream will have flashed. Notice
the status message shows OK.
Figure 1.35
1-43
1-44
Starting a Simulation
13. Note that it is a two phase stream. Use the horizontal scroll bar to
move to the Aqueous and Vapour Phase information of the stream.
You can also resize the view horizontally to display all three phases,
mixed, aqueous, and vapour. Remember that if the stream
property view is Modal, you must press the Pin button to make the
view Non-Modal before you can resize it. To resize the view, place
the mouse pointer on the border and drag horizontally. The resized
view is shown next.
Figure 1.36
More information regarding the stream properties can be found on
the other pages of the view.
1.3.5
Installing Operations
As with Streams, there are various ways to install Unit Operations in
HYSYS. Some of these methods immediately open the operation’s
Property View and some do not.
1-44
Interface
1-45
Direct Property View Access
Method
Description
Menu Bar
New Unit Operations can be installed into the Case
via the Menu Bar. Choose the Flowsheet option from
the Menu Bar, and then select Add Operation.
Hot Key
Press F12.
Summary View
Open the Select Summary view by selecting
Summaries from the Tools option in the Menu Bar.
From this view, highlight the Flowsheet in which you
will be adding the operation and press the View
button. The Summary view will appear, from which
you can choose the Add button in the Unit
Operations group. You can directly access the
Summary view by pressing the Summary View
button in the Button Bar
Workbook, Unit
Ops Page
From the Unit Ops page of the Workbook, press the
Add UnitOp button.
All of these methods will display the UnitOps view, listing all the
available Unit Operations. Upon selecting the Unit Operation, HYSYS
will produce the applicable Property View.
Figure 1.37
Use the radio buttons to select
the category of Unit Operation
you want to add.
When the desired Unit
Operation is highlighted,
press the Add button.
Unit Operations available
according to the radio button
chosen.
1-45
1-46
Starting a Simulation
Using the Object Palette to install an operation can also give you direct
Property View access.
Method
Description
Two methods are available:
Object Palette
• Double click on the operation icon in the Object
Palette. Click on the desired operation and
press the Add button at the top of the Palette.
Without Direct Property View Access
Refer to Section 4.5.2 - Editing
a Workbook Tab for
information concerning the
custom Workbook tab.
Object
Description
Workbook
Create a specific tab for the operation type you
want to add in the Workbook. For example, add a
Valves tab to the Workbook for all the valves in the
Flowsheet. Once you have the Operation tab in the
Workbook, you will notice that the default variables
for the Operation are shown. In the cell displaying
**New**, enter the name for the new operation.
Two methods are available:
For a custom Unit Operation
Workbook tab, only one type of
Unit Operation is allowed.
Object Palette to PFD
• With the primary mouse button, click on the
Icon in the Palette for the operation you want to
install. Move the cursor to the PFD area where
you want to place the operation, and press the
primary mouse button to complete the
installation.
• With the secondary mouse button, click on the
Icon in the Palette for the operation you want to
install. Hold the mouse button down and drag
the cursor into the PFD. Position the cursor
where you want to place the operation and
release the button.
To access the Property View for an operation, do one of the following:
• On a custom Unit Operation Workbook tab (i.e. Valves page),
double click on one of the Unit Operation’s cells.
• Double click on the Icon in the PFD.
• Object inspect (with the secondary mouse button) a cell on a
custom Unit Operation Workbook tab. Choose View from the
menu that appears.
• Object inspect the Icon in the PFD and choose View
Properties.
• On the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook, highlight the operation
and press the View UnitOp button.
• On the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook, double click on the
Name, Object Type or Calc. Level cell for the operation.
• Open the Object Status Window (left pane). Double click on the
message related to the unit operation.
• Open the Summary view, highlight the operation and press the
View button in the Unit Operations group.
1-46
Interface
1-47
Installing a Unit Operation - Example
Unit Operations can be installed using any of the methods just
described. This example demonstrates the installation of a TEE. It is
assumed that two streams have already been installed, Stream1 and
Stream2. The default units are SI.
1.
Double click on the TEE button in the Object Palette. This opens
the Property View, for the TEE which has been automatically
named TEE-100. Focus is currently on the Inlet cell.
Figure 1.38
TEE Button
2.
You can either type in the Feed Stream name, which can be an
existing stream or a new stream, or choose a stream from the drop
down list. In this case, use the drop down list to choose one of the
streams already installed. With the mouse, click on the down arrow
next to the cell to open the drop down list.
Figure 1.39
1-47
1-48
Starting a Simulation
3.
From the drop down list, select Stream1. This is now installed as
the Feed stream to the TEE. The stream name in the Feed cell is
highlighted and the cursor has not moved from this location. The
status message has changed from Requires a feed stream to
Requires a product stream.
4.
Move the cursor to the first cell in the Outlets group. You can have
as many product streams as you want. Again, you can supply
streams by typing a name into the cell, or by selecting already
installed streams from the drop down list in the Edit Bar. Each
method will be used to install one product stream.
Figure 1.40
1-48
Interface
You can also select items from
the drop down list by simply
clicking on them with the
primary mouse button.
5.
1-49
Click on the down arrow to the right of the Edit Bar to open the
drop down list. The only stream appearing in the drop down list is
Stream2. Highlight it using the arrow keys and press ENTER to
accept it as an input. When you do this, HYSYS places this stream
as the first stream in the Outlets group.
Figure 1.41
6.
In the Outlets group, move the highlight to the next cell, which is
ready for a new input. Now type in the name Stream3. Because it is
a new stream, HYSYS automatically installs it in the simulation.
The TEE connections are now complete. The status message
displays Unknown Splits.
Figure 1.42
1-49
1-50
Starting a Simulation
7.
Go to the Parameters page to supply the split fraction for each
product stream. The two Product streams, Stream2 and Stream3
appear on this page. The sum of the Flow Ratios must equal 1.0, so
you only need to supply one ratio. HYSYS will calculate the other
ratio by difference. Move the cursor to the Stream2 Flow Ratio cell
and type in 0.40.
Figure 1.43
1-50
8.
HYSYS has calculated the Flow Ratio of Stream3 to be 0.60. In
HYSYS, calculated values appear in black and supplied values
appear in blue. In this view, 0.40 is shown in blue, and 0.60 in black.
Since the TEE is being used in Steady State, this is all the
information needed. The status message shows OK.
9.
Press the Close button to exit the Property View.
Interface
1.3.6
Remember, once a stream or
operation is deleted, it cannot
be recovered.
1-51
Deleting Streams and
Operations
Property View
You can delete any stream or operation through its Property View by
selecting the Delete button.
Workbook
From the Workbook, you can delete Streams or Operations in various
ways, depending on the type of Workbook tab which is being viewed:
• On any Workbook tab, double clicking on the operation or
stream accesses the Property View for the object. By pressing
the Delete button on the property view, the object will be
deleted.
• On any Workbook tab but the Unit Ops page, select the item
with the secondary mouse button which provides the Object
Inspection menu. Selecting Delete from this menu deletes the
object.
• Highlight the object Name cell and press DELETE on the
keyboard.
• On the Unit Ops tab only, highlight the operation and press the
Delete UnitOp button.
PFD
To delete streams and operations from a PFD, you can:
• Double click on the operation or stream accesses the Property
View for the object, from which you can delete it by pressing
the Delete button.
• Select the item with the secondary mouse button which
provides the Object Inspection menu. Selecting Delete from
this menu deletes the object.
• Select the object and press DELETE on the keyboard.
1-51
1-52
Starting a Simulation
Summary View
There are separate Delete
buttons for the stream and
operation groups.
Once inside the Summary View, you can delete either streams or
operations. The Flowsheet Streams group lists all the streams present
in your case. Similarly, the Unit Operations group lists all the
operations in your case. Highlight the object you want to delete and
then press the Delete button. You can highlight multiple streams or
operations, and then delete them at the same time.
Figure 1.44
No matter which of the above methods you use for deleting
objects, HYSYS will prompt you for confirmation before
deleting the object. This confirmation requires you to select
either Yes or No from the message box that appears.
1-52
Flowsheet Architecture
2-1
2 Flowsheet
Architecture
2.1 HYSYS Environments .................................................................................. 4
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
Basis Environments ................................................................................. 4
Main Simulation Environments................................................................. 5
Related Environments.............................................................................. 7
Advantages of Using Environments ......................................................... 9
2.2 Sub-Flowsheet Environment..................................................................... 10
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5
2.2.6
2.2.7
Sub-Flowsheet Entities ...........................................................................11
Sub-Flowsheet Advantages ....................................................................11
Multi-Level Flowsheet Architecture ........................................................ 12
Flowsheet Information Transfer ............................................................. 14
Sub-Flowsheet Property View................................................................ 15
Installing a Sub-Flowsheet ..................................................................... 22
Decanter Sub-Flowsheet Example......................................................... 23
2.3 Templates.................................................................................................... 32
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
Template Information ............................................................................. 32
Creating a Template Style Flowsheet..................................................... 36
Installing a Template .............................................................................. 37
Example - Refrigeration Loop Template................................................. 39
2-1
2-2
2-2
Flowsheet Architecture
2-3
HYSYS has been engineered with a multi-level flowsheet architecture
tightly integrated within a framework of simulation environments. A
direct result of this powerful design is that although HYSYS allows you
to interact with an installed sub-flowsheet operation as if it were a
simple black box, you can easily delve deeper using the sub-flowsheet’s
simulation environment when more interaction is required. This
intuitive simulation environment framework allows you to focus on the
task at hand by providing completely separate Desktops for each
environment. It also provides a natural mechanism for HYSYS to be
exploited in providing peak computational efficiency for the user. The
net result is that potentially complex flowsheets installed as subFlowsheet operations behave in a familiar and consistent manner, just
like the other "normal" unit operations in HYSYS.
HYSYS also supports a natural extension to the sub-flowsheet concept the idea of a Process Template. Basically, a Template is a complete
Flowsheet that has been stored to disk with some additional
information included that pertains to hooking that flowsheet up as a
sub-flowsheet operation. Typically a Template is representative of a
plant process module or a portion of a process module. The stored
Template can subsequently be read from disk and efficiently installed
as a complete sub-flowsheet operation any number of times into any
number of different simulation cases.
The versatility of the HYSYS sub-flowsheet is extended by the capability
of assigning it a separate Fluid Package. For example, this option will
enable you to more rigorously model plant utilities such as cooling
water and steam circuits as separate flowsheets with dedicated Steam
Table property packages.
Column Sub-Flowsheets - A Special Case
There is another feature that the multi-level flowsheet architecture
makes possible in HYSYS. This is the extension of HYSIM’s traditional
or modal style of Column operation into the vastly more flexible and
powerful Column Sub-Flowsheet Operation incorporated in HYSYS.
Column sub-flowsheets are a distinct class of sub-flowsheet due to
their ability to provide a simultaneous Flowsheet solution. Even though
they are different, they are created and accessed much like normal subflowsheets, and Column Templates can also be created and later
imported into other simulations.
However, the Column sub-flowsheet’s property view and the Column’s
simulation environment are very different, as they are suited
specifically for designing Columns rather than general processes.
2-3
2-4
HYSYS Environments
Although a lot of the general sub-flowsheet information presented in
this chapter also applies to the Column sub-flowsheet, the Column
Sub-Flowsheet Operation is discussed specifically and in-depth in
Chapter 7 - Column of the Steady State Modeling manual.
2.1
The environments help you
maintain peak efficiency
while you are working with
your simulation, by avoiding
the execution of redundant
calculations.
HYSYS Environments
The environment design concept is one of the cornerstones on which
HYSYS is built. These environments allow you to access and input
information in a certain area ("environment") of the simulation, while
other areas of the simulation are put on hold. The other areas won’t
proceed with steady state calculations until you are finished working in
the area of interest. Since the HYSYS integrator is time-step based, the
environments have no impact on dynamic calculations.
Separate Desktops are available with each environment. Each of these
Desktops includes an appropriate Menu Bar, Button Bar and Home
View(s) specifically designed for interaction with their particular
environment. The Desktops also remember the views that were open
on them, even when their associated environment is not currently
active. When moving from one environment to another, they provide a
mechanism for quickly and automatically "putting away" what ever
views you have open in one environment, and "bringing up" the views
that were open in the other environment. This feature is particularly
useful when working with large Flowsheets.
The environments in HYSYS can be loosely grouped into two categories
for the purposes of discussion: Basis environments and Main
simulation environments.
2.1.1
Basis Environments
Within this category, there are the following two types of environments:
•
•
Simulation Basis Environment
Oil Characterization Environment
The Simulation Basis Environment
Whenever you begin a HYSYS simulation, you automatically start in the
Simulation Basis environment. Here you can create, define and modify
Fluid Packages to be used by the simulation’s Flowsheets. In general, a
Fluid Package contains at minimum a Property Package, as well as
2-4
Flowsheet Architecture
2-5
library and/or hypothetical components. Fluid Packages may also
contain information such as reactions and interaction parameters.
The Desktop for the Simulation Basis environment is specifically suited
to the task at hand as reflected by the available choices of buttons on
the Button Bar (Figure 2.1) and the designation of the Simulation Basis
Manager view as the Home View.
Figure 2.1
The Oil Characterization Environment
The Oil Characterization environment allows you to characterize
petroleum fluids by creating and defining Assays and Blends. The Oil
Characterization procedure generates petroleum pseudo components
for use in your Fluid Package(s). The Oil environment is unique in that
it is accessible only from the Simulation Basis environment.
The Desktop for the Oil Characterization environment is very similar in
nature to the Desktop available in the Simulation Basis environment.
Buttons specific to Generating Oils are provided, and the Oil
Characterization Manager is the Home View.
Figure 2.2
2.1.2
Main Simulation
Environments
These two types of environments are significant with respect to
interacting with sub-flowsheets:
• Main Flowsheet Environment / Sub-Flowsheet
Environment
• Column Sub-Flowsheet Environment
You can create sub-flowsheets
for all the flowsheets within
your simulation.
The Main flowsheet is said to be the parent flowsheet for the subflowsheets it contains. A sub-flowsheet can also be a parent flowsheet if
it contains other sub-flowsheets.
2-5
2-6
HYSYS Environments
The Main Flowsheet / Sub-Flowsheet
Environment
The simulation case’s Main Flowsheet environment is the location
where you do the majority of your work - installing and defining the
streams, unit operations, columns and sub-Flowsheets. This flowsheet
serves as the base level or "main" flowsheet for the whole simulation
case. Any number of sub-flowsheets may be generated off from this
main flowsheet. While there is only one Main Flowsheet environment,
each individual sub-flowsheet that is installed has its own
corresponding sub-flowsheet environment.
The Desktop for the Main Flowsheet environment contains an
extensive Menu Bar and Button Bar designed for building and running
simulations. There are two Home Views for the flowsheet - an
individual Workbook and PFD.
A sub-flowsheet environment is almost identical to the Main flowsheet
environment in that you can install streams, operations and other subflowsheets. One difference is that each installed flowsheet in the
simulation case will have its own corresponding environment, while
there is only one Main flowsheet environment. The other difference is
that while you are in a sub-flowsheet environment, Steady State
calculations in other areas of the simulation will be put on Hold
pending your return to the Main Flowsheet environment.
The Desktop for a sub-flowsheet environment is virtually identical to
the Desktop for the Main Flowsheet. There is one minor difference
which is the addition to the Button Bar of a Parent Simulation
Environment button.
Figure 2.3
Parent Simulation
Environment Button
The Column Sub-Flowsheet Environment
Similar to the sub-flowsheet environment described above, the Column
environment is where you install and define the streams and
operations contained in a Column sub-flowsheet. Examples of unit
operations available for use in a Column sub-flowsheet include tray
sections, condensers, reboilers, side strippers, heat exchangers, and
pumps. HYSYS contains a number of pre-built Column sub-flowsheet
Templates which allow you to quickly install a column of a typical type
2-6
Flowsheet Architecture
There are eleven Prebuilt
Columns available in HYSYS.
2-7
and then, if necessary, customize it accordingly within its Column
environment.
The Menu Bar, Button Bar and Home Views for the Column
environment have been designed expressly for designing, modifying,
and converging Column sub-Flowsheets. For example, an additional
Home View (the Column Runner) has been added and a corresponding
menu entry and button on the Button Bar provide access. Even with
these changes, a Column environment Desktop still closely resembles
the conventional Flowsheet environment Desktop.
Figure 2.4
Column Runner Button
Due to the nature of its solution method, the Column subFlowsheet does not support other sub-Flowsheets.
2.1.3
Related Environments
The diagram in Figure 2.5 shows the relationship that exist between the
various environments. The arrows indicate the directions in which you
would normally move between the environments as you are building a
HYSYS simulation. The typical process for building a simulation is as
follows:
1.
2.
Create a new simulation case, after which you will be in the
Simulation Basis environment.
Inside the Simulation Basis environment, you can:
• Choose a property method and pure components from the
HYSYS pure component library.
• Create and define any hypothetical components.
• Define reactions.
At this point, you have two options. If you have a petroleum fluid to
characterize, proceed to step 3. If not, proceed to step 5.
3.
Enter the Oil Characterization environment, where you can:
• Define one or more Assays and Blends.
• Generate petroleum pseudo components representing the
oil.
In order to access the Oil
environment you must first be
inside the Simulation Basis
environment.
4.
Return to the Simulation Basis environment.
2-7
2-8
HYSYS Environments
5.
Enter the Main flowsheet environment, where you can:
• Install and define streams and unit operations in the
simulation case's Main flowsheet.
• Install Columns operations, Process Templates and subflowsheet operations as necessary into the Main
flowsheet.
6.
Enter a Column or sub-flowsheet environment when you need to
make topological changes, or if you want to take advantage of a
sub-flowsheet environment’s separate Desktop.
Figure 2.5
Navigator Button
2-8
Keep in mind that you can move between the flowsheet environments
at any time during the simulation. The arrows in the diagram show that
the Column and sub-flowsheet environments are accessible only from
the Main flowsheet. However, this is only the typical way of moving
between the environments. The Navigator allows you to move directly
from one flowsheet to any another. The only restriction is that the Oil
environment can only be accessed from inside the Simulation Basis
environment.
Flowsheet Architecture
2.1.4
Advantages of Using
Environments
Using environments helps you
make the most of your
simulation time by
eliminating the execution of
time-consuming, extraneous
calculations.
To illustrate the advantages of the environments approach, consider
the creation of a new HYSYS simulation case. When you start HYSYS,
you will be placed in the Simulation Basis environment. Here you
define a Fluid Package by choosing a property method and
components. When finished, you enter the Main flowsheet
environment, and proceed to install streams and unit operations.
With each time-step, Dynamic
calculations proceed from the
front to back of the flowsheet
in an orderly propagation.
This is not affected by the
flowsheet environments.
Dynamics calculate in a "flat"
flowsheet space.
Suppose you now realize that you are missing some components in the
Main flowsheet. You can return to the Simulation Basis environment,
and all flowsheets will be placed in Holding mode until you return. This
prevents calculations from taking place until you have made all
changes to the Fluid Package. flowsheet calculations will not resume
until you instruct HYSYS to do so upon return to the Main flowsheet.
Press the Active (green) button
to resume calculations.
2-9
For sub-flowsheets, the concept of Holding Steady State calculations
works according to the hierarchy of the flowsheets in the simulation.
When you are working inside a particular flowsheet, only that flowsheet
and any others below it in the hierarchy will automatically calculate as
you make changes. All other flowsheets will hold until you move to their
flowsheet’s Simulation environment, or one directly above them on the
hierarchical tree.
Figure 2.6
2-9
2-10
Sub-Flowsheet Environment
Consider the diagram shown in Figure 2.6. Suppose you want to change
the number of trays for a column in sub-flowsheet F. You would enter
the environment for this sub-flowsheet, make the necessary change,
then instruct HYSYS to re-calculate the column. As there are no
flowsheets below F in the hierarchy, all other flowsheets will be on hold
while you work on the column. You could continue making changes
until you reach a satisfactory solution for F. When you return to the
Main flowsheet environment, all flowsheets would automatically be recalculated based on the new sub-flowsheet solution.
Suppose that you now wish to make changes in sub-flowsheet D, so you
move to its environment. Since D is above E in the hierarchy, all
flowsheets will be on hold except D and E. Once you reach a new
solution for D, you might move up to C, which will then resume
calculations. When you finally return to the Main flowsheet, all other
flowsheets (Main, A, B and F) will resume calculations.
If on the other hand you move directly from D to A, HYSYS will
automatically "visit" the Main flowsheet for you so that flowsheet A has
the most up to date information when you transfer there. Any transfer
to a flowsheet not on your "branch" of the tree will force a full
recalculation by HYSYS.
2.2
Sub-Flowsheet
Environment
The Main simulation environment described in the previous section is
one of the cornerstone design concepts upon which HYSYS is built.
When combined together with sub-flowsheet capabilities, it defines the
basic foundation on which you build a HYSYS simulation. The subflowsheet and Column operations embrace the concept of the multilevel flowsheet architecture and provides you with a flexible, intuitive
method of building your simulation.
Modelling a large process
using several flowsheets helps
you better organize your work
and manipulate the
simulation.
2-10
Suppose you are simulating a large processing facility with a number of
individual process units. Instead of installing all process streams and
unit operations into a single expansive and cumbersome flowsheet,
you can simulate each process unit inside its own compact and
dedicated sub-flowsheet.
Flowsheet Architecture
2.2.1
2-11
Sub-Flowsheet Entities
Whether the flowsheet is the Main flowsheet of a simulation case, or it
is contained in a sub-flowsheet operation, it possesses the following
components:
Flowsheet
Component
Description
Fluid Package
An independent Fluid Package, consisting of a
Property Package, Components, etc. It is not
necessary that every flowsheet in the simulation
have its own separate Fluid Package. More than one
flowsheet can share the same Fluid Package.
Flowsheet Objects
The inter-connected topology of the flowsheet. Unit
operations, material and energy streams, utilities etc.
A Dedicated PFD
A HYSYS view presenting a graphical
representation of the flowsheet, showing the interconnections amongst the flowsheet Objects.
A Dedicated
Workbook
A HYSYS view of tabular information describing the
various types of flowsheet objects in the flowsheet.
A Dedicated
Desktop
The PFD and Workbook are home views for this
Desktop, but also included are a Menu Bar and a
Button Bar specific to either regular or Column subflowsheets.
2.2.2
Sub-Flowsheet Advantages
The multi-flowsheet architecture of HYSYS provides a number of
technical and functional advantages. The main benefits realized when
sub-flowsheets are utilized in a simulation are discussed in the
following table:
There is no limit (except
available memory) to the
number of flowsheets
contained in a HYSYS
simulation.
Capability
Benefit
Multiple Fluid
Packages
Each installed sub-flowsheet can have its own Fluid
Package within a single simulation case. Note that in
some special instances (i.e. a decanter system) a
sub-flowsheet can be as small as a single unit
operation and its feed and product streams.
Flowsheet
Association
Flowsheet association is a design that forces the
change of property methods to occur at defined
flowsheet boundaries. This ensures that consistent
transitions between the thermodynamic basis of the
different property methods are maintained and easily
controlled.
Simulation Case
Organization
Create sub-flowsheets to break large simulations
into smaller, easily managed components. This
provides an effective means of keeping your
simulation concise, while providing the tools
(Desktops) to focus your attention on one specific
area of the simulation at any time.
2-11
2-12
Sub-Flowsheet Environment
Once a template is installed it
will be functionally
equivalent to a sub-flowsheet
that was created in that
simulation case. The only
difference is that a subflowsheet is unable to be saved
to disk and used in another
simulation.
Capability
Benefit
Template Creation
Build a process unit as a template style flowsheet
(e.g., a refrigeration loop) and save it to disk. You
can install this Template into another simulation by
simply attaching the necessary feed and product
streams as you would any other unit operation.
These Templates are fully defined flowsheets, with a
property package and components, unit operations,
streams and flowsheet specifications.
Nested Flowsheets
Use nested flowsheets, i.e. have sub-flowsheets
inside other sub-flowsheets. The only restriction on
nesting is with columns; that is, you cannot create
sub-flowsheet operations inside a Column
Operations’ sub-flowsheet.
As you become more experienced using HYSYS, you will discover other
benefits of the sub-flowsheets. Whether your simulation requires the
use of multiple property packages, or involves modelling large and
complex processes, using multi-level flowsheeting is the ideal solution.
2.2.3
A Show/Hide option also exists
for displaying sub-flowsheet
objects on the Main flowsheet
PFD. For further details, see
Section 3.8.2 - Accessing
Column or Sub-Flowsheet
PFDs.
Multi-Level Flowsheet
Architecture
From the perspective of the simulation case’s Main flowsheet, the subflowsheets it contains are discrete unit operations, with feed and
product streams. If you are interested only in the feeds to and the
products from a sub-flowsheet, you can simply work from the Main
flowsheet. However, if you wish to change the topology of the subflowsheet, or conveniently view some information about the individual
operations in the sub-flowsheet, you can go "inside" the sub-flowsheet
to get a more detailed perspective. This is also referred to as "Entering
the sub-flowsheet’s environment".
This discussion applies equally to sub-flowsheet and Column
Operations. For purposes of further discussion, consider the PFD of the
Main flowsheet for the Sour Water Stripper simulation shown below.
Figure 2.7
MAIN FLOWSHEET
In the Main flowsheet, the
column appears just as
any other unit operation
(Figure 2.7). However the
column has its own subflowsheet (Figure 2.8) that
gives you a detailed look at
the column’s internal
streams and operations.
2-12
Flowsheet Architecture
2-13
From the simulation environment of the Main flowsheet, the
distillation column SW STRIPPER appears as any other unit operation,
with feed and product streams (e.g., Feed, Off Gas, Bottoms). However,
the column is also a sub-flowsheet with streams and operations of its
own. To get a more detailed look at the column, you can go "inside" the
column sub-flowsheet and examine the streams and operations via the
SW STRIPPER’s simulation environment. Inside the Column (whose
dedicated sub-flowsheet PFD is shown Figure 2.8), the tray section,
reboiler and condenser exist as individual unit operations. Similarly,
the streams attaching these operations are also distinct (e.g., To
Condenser, Reflux, Boilup, To Reboiler).
From the perspective of the main flowsheet, the only sub-flowsheet
streams of interest are those that attach to it directly. In the case of the
Sour Water Stripper, the material streams Feed, Off Gas, and Bottoms
and the utility streams Cooling Water and Steam are the streams of
interest. These streams are termed the Boundary Streams because they
cross out of the main flowsheet’s environment into that of the subflowsheet, carrying information between parent and sub-flowsheets.
Each sub-flowsheet has its
own PFD and Workbook
relating only to the
information of that flowsheet.
Within the sub-flowsheet environment, a dedicated Workbook and PFD
are available for convenient access to the information that pertains
only to this sub-Flowsheet. Although information is never hidden or
made inaccessible among the various levels of flowsheets in a
simulation case, the use of the environments helps organize and focus
your simulation efforts in a clear and logical manner.
Figure 2.8
COLUMN SUB-FLOWSHEET
2-13
2-14
Sub-Flowsheet Environment
Note that the Simulation environment design basis of HYSYS
only allows topological changes to a sub-flowsheet within the
Simulation environment for that specific flowsheet.
Multi-Flowsheet Navigation
Object Navigator Button
The multi-flowsheet architecture of HYSYS can be compared to a
directory structure. The main flowsheet and its sub-flowsheets are
directories and sub-directories, with the streams and operations as the
files in that directory. The process information associated with the
streams and operations is then, in essence, the contents of the files.
Figure 2.9
HYSYS has special tools, called Navigators, which have been designed
to take advantage of this directory-like structure. The Object Navigator
is shown in Figure 2.9. Within a single window, you can quickly and
easily access a stream, operation or process variable in one flowsheet
from any other flowsheet in your simulation.
2.2.4
By default, the Calculation
Level for a sub-flowsheet is set
to 2500, which will ensure
that all possible flowsheet
calculations in the "Parent"
flowsheet are performed before
the sub-flowsheet is
calculated. This will tend to
force the sub-flowsheet to be
the last calculation in the
chain. In most situations this
is the desired behaviour, but
may be changed by modifying
the sub-flowsheet’s
calculation Level.
2-14
Flowsheet Information
Transfer
When you install or create a sub-flowsheet in the Main simulation
environment, it appears and behaves as a single operation with one or
more feed and product streams. Hence, whenever the values of the
streams attached to the sub-flowsheet change, the sub-flowsheet will
recalculate just as you expect with any other regular unit operation.
Each of the Parent flowsheet’s streams attached to the sub-flowsheet as
either a feed or product is associated on a 1:1 basis with a boundary
stream inside the sub-flowsheet. Information flows between the Parent
flowsheet and the sub-flowsheet through these associated streams. As a
Flowsheet Architecture
2-15
convenience, when a connection is first established across the
boundary, HYSYS automatically renames the sub-flowsheet stream
with the name of the stream in the Parent flowsheet. You can override
the name reassignment afterwards since the streams on each side of
the flowsheet boundary are not required to have the same name. For
example, you can have a stream named To Decanter in the main
flowsheet connected with Decanter Feed in a sub-flowsheet.
Components that are not in
both flowsheets are ignored,
with the remaining
compositions re-normalized.
One of the purposes of the sub-flowsheet architecture is to allow the
consistent use of different property methods. On each sub-flowsheet’s
property view, HYSYS allows you to control how stream information is
exchanged as it crosses the flowsheet boundary. For example, you can
specify that the Vapour Fraction and Temperature (specified or
calculated values) of a stream in the Main simulation be passed to the
sub-flowsheet. Once this information is inside, the Property Package for
the sub-flowsheet then calculates the remaining properties using the
transferred composition.
Note that no flash calculations are required for Energy streams. The
heat flow will simply be passed between flowsheets.
2.2.5
Sub-Flowsheet Property
View
Once a sub-flowsheet operation is installed in a flowsheet, its property
view becomes available just like any other flowsheet object. Think of
this view as the "outside" view of the "black box" that represents the
sub-flowsheet. Some of the information contained on this view is the
same as that used to construct a Template type of Main flowsheet.
Naturally this is due to the fact that once a Template is installed into
another flowsheet, it becomes a sub-flowsheet in that simulation. The
sub-flowsheet’s property view consists of the following six tabs:
Connections, Parameters, Transfer Basis, Mapping, Variables and
Notes.
Connections Tab
On the Connections tab, you can enter the name of the sub-flowsheet,
as well as its Tag name. All Feed and Product connections are shown.
Flowsheet Tags
These short names are used by HYSYS to identify the flowsheet
associated with a stream or operation when that flowsheet object is
being viewed outside of its native flowsheet’s scope. The default Tag
2-15
2-16
Sub-Flowsheet Environment
name for sub-flowsheet operations is TPL1 (for Template). When more
than one sub-flowsheet operation is installed, HYSYS will ensure
unique tag names by incrementing the numerical suffix; the subflowsheets are numbered sequentially in the order they were installed.
For example, if the first sub-flowsheet added to a simulation contained
a stream called Comp Duty, it would appear as Comp Duty@TPL1
when viewed from the Main flowsheet of the simulation.
Figure 2.10
Feed and Product Connections
Internal Streams are the Boundary Streams within the sub-flowsheet
that can be connected to External Streams in the Parent flowsheet.
Internal streams may not be specified on this tab, they are
automatically determined by HYSYS. Basically, any streams in the subflowsheet that are not completely connected (i.e. are "open ended")
can serve as a feed or product, and will appear on this. Note that subflowsheet streams that are not connected with any unit ops in the subflowsheet will appear in the view as well (and are termed "dangling"
streams”).
Figure 2.11
2-16
Flowsheet Architecture
2-17
To connect the sub-flowsheet, specify the appropriate name of the
external streams, which are in the Parent flowsheet, in the matrix
opposite the corresponding internal streams, which are in the subflowsheet. The stream conditions are passed across the flowsheet
boundary via these connections. Note that it is not necessary to specify
an external stream for each Internal Stream.
Parameters Tab
On the Parameters tab, you can view the exported sub-flowsheet
Variables. This tab is useful when you want to keep track of several key
variables without entering the sub-flowsheet environment or adding
the variables to the global DataBook. It is also useful in dealing with a
sub-flowsheet as a "black box"; the builder of the sub-flowsheet can set
up an appropriate Parameters tab, and the user of the sub-flowsheet
can be quite unaware of the complexities within the sub-flowsheet.
Figure 2.12
These variables are completely live and may display values which have
been calculated or specified by the user. If changes to specified values
are made here, the sub-flowsheet will be updated accordingly. For each
variable, the description, value, and units are shown.
The Ignore check box is used to bypass the sub-flowsheet during
calculations, just as with all HYSYS unit operations. The Local Solve
check box is used to solve the Parameters tab without solving the entire
PFD.
2-17
2-18
Sub-Flowsheet Environment
Note that these variable are actually added on the Variables tab
of the property view, but are viewed in full detail here on the
Parameters tab.
Transfer Basis Tab
The Transfer Basis is also
useful in controlling VF, T or P
calculations in Column subflowsheet boundary streams
with close boiling or nearly
pure compositions.
2-18
The transfer basis for each Feed and Product Stream is listed on the
Transfer Basis tab. The transfer basis only becomes significant when
the sub-flowsheet and Parent flowsheet’s Fluid Packages consist of
different property methods. The transfer basis is used to provide a
consistent means of switching between the differing basis of the
various property methods:
Transfer Basis
Description
T-P Flash
The Pressure and Temperature of the Material
stream are passed between flowsheets. A new
Vapour Fraction will be calculated.
VF-T Flash
The Vapour Fraction and Temperature of the
Material stream are passed between flowsheets. A
new Pressure will be calculated.
VF-P Flash
The Vapour Fraction and Pressure of the Material
stream are passed between flowsheets. A new
Temperature will be calculated.
P-H Flash
The Pressure and Enthalpy of the Material stream
are passed between flowsheets.
User Specs
You define the properties passed between
flowsheets for a Material stream.
None Required
No calculation is required for an Energy stream. The
heat flow will simply be passed between flowsheets.
Flowsheet Architecture
2-19
Figure 2.13
Mapping Tab
On the Mapping tab you can map fluid component composition across
Fluid Package boundaries. Composition values for individual
components from one Fluid Package can be mapped to a different
component in an alternate Fluid Package. This is especially useful
when dealing with hypothetical oil components where like
components from one fluid package can be mapped across the
subflowsheet boundary to another fluid package. Using a component
map, mass balance can be conserved.
At lease two previously defined Fluid Packages are required to perform
a component mapping which is defined as a collection. The collection
is created in Components Maps tab found in the Simulation Basis
Manager (refer to Section 5.2 - Component Maps Tab in the
Simulation Basis manual for more information).
2-19
2-20
Sub-Flowsheet Environment
Figure 2.14
Component Maps
The inlet and outlet component maps are listed in the In to
SubFlowSheet and Out of SubFlowSheet group boxes respectively. The
buttons located next the component map lists perform the following
functions.
2-20
Button
Function
View
Allows you to view and edit the component map by
accessing the Component Map Property view.
Refer to Section 5.3 - Component Map Property
View in the Simulation Basis manual for more
information).
Add
Allows you to define a new component map using
the Component Map Property view. Refer to
Section 5.3 - Component Map Property View in
the Simulation Basis manual for more information).
Delete
Allows you to delete a component map.
Imbalance
Opens the Untransferred Component Info view,
allowing you to confirm that all of the components
have been transferred in to the subflowsheet.
Flowsheet Architecture
2-21
Inlet and Outlet Streams
To attach a component map to inlet and outlet streams, simply specify
the name of the inlet component map in the In to SubflowSheet cell
and the name of the outlet component map in the Out of
SubFlowSheet cell of the desired stream.
Variables Tab
The Variables tab of the Main flowsheet’s property view is for creating
and maintaining the list of Externally Accessible Variables. Although
you can access any information inside the sub-flowsheet using the
Variable Navigator, this feature allows you to target key process
variables inside the sub-flowsheet and have their values displayed on
the property view. Then you can conveniently view this whole group of
information directly on the sub-flowsheet’s property view in the Parent
flowsheet.
To add variables to this tab, select the Add button. The Variable
Navigator will be available, where you can select the flowsheet object
and variable. On the navigator you may over-ride the default variable
description and provide a better description if you wish. Note that
these variables appear on the Parameters tab of this view in a format
suitable for viewing. Refer to Chapter 1 - Interface for details on the
Variable Navigator.
Figure 2.15
2-21
2-22
Sub-Flowsheet Environment
2.2.6
Sub-Flowsheet Button
Installing a Sub-Flowsheet
To install a sub-flowsheet, choose Add Operation from the flowsheet
Menu or press F12, and select Sub-flowsheet. Alternatively, you could
select the Sub-Flowsheet button on the Object Palette.
Once you initiate the installation of a sub-flowsheet, you must specify
how you would like to proceed. Your options are:
• reading an existing template
• starting with a blank flowsheet.
Figure 2.16
Reading an Existing Template
If you want to use a previously constructed Template that has been
saved on disk, select the Read an Existing Template button. The
process of installing a Process Template is covered in detail in Section
2.3.2 - Creating a Template Style Flowsheet.
Starting with a Blank Flowsheet
Starting with a blank
flowsheet is a good option if
you are just creating a small
sub-flowsheet, otherwise you
should consider creating a full
template flowsheet so it may
be re-used in future
simulations.
2-22
If you select Start with a Blank Flowsheet, HYSYS will install a subflowsheet operation containing no unit operations or streams. As with
other unit operations, the property view of the sub-flowsheet will be
opened, and you will be placed on the Connections tab. At this point,
there will be no feed or product connections (Boundary Streams) to the
sub-flowsheet. However, you can connect feed streams in the External
Stream column by typing directly in the cell or by making a selection
from the Edit Bar drop down list. This will either create a new stream in
the main flowsheet or use an existing stream. When an external feed
connection is made in the aforementioned way, its equivalent stream is
created inside the sub-flowsheet environment.
If you choose Start with a Blank Flowsheet, the sub-flowsheet you
create will not be available to use in any other simulation case you may
Flowsheet Architecture
2-23
happen to create in the future. If you think you would like to be able to
re-use the sub-flowsheet at a later date, perhaps you should consider
creating a Template instead. This is covered in detail in Section 2.3.2 Creating a Template Style Flowsheet.
In order to fully define the flowsheet, you have to enter the subflowsheet’s environment. To do so, select the Sub-Flowsheet
Environment button on the property view to transition to the subflowsheet’s environment and its dedicated Desktop. Construction of
the flowsheet can occur in the usual manner, and when you return to
the Parent environment, you will be able to connect the subflowsheet’s Boundary Streams to streams in the Parent flowsheet, and
everything will solve. An example of this process follows.
2.2.7
Decanter Sub-Flowsheet
Example
When simulating an azeotropic distillation column with a decanter,
two property methods are often preferred. A property method
optimized for Liquid-Liquid equilibrium is often desired for the
decanter, while a property method optimized for Vapour-Liquid
equilibrium is desired for the main tower. Utilizing a sub-flowsheet for
the decanter is the ideal way to solve these types of simulations.
The following example of the dehydration of an azeotropic ethanol/
water mixture using benzene as an entrainer illustrates the use of a subflowsheet as a means of providing a different property method for the
decanter.
Setting up the Fluid Packages
Two Fluid Packages are required for this example:
Name [Property Package]
Components
VLE-Basis [UNIQUAC]
Ethanol, H2O, Benzene
LLE-Basis [NRTL]
Ethanol, H2O, Benzene
1.
The first Fluid Package is named VLE-Basis. Select the UNIQUAC
activity model and the components Ethanol, H2O and Benzene.
2.
On the Fluid Pkgs tab of the Simulation Basis Manager view, press
the Copy button to copy VLE-Basis to create the new Fluid
Package, LLE-Basis.
2-23
2-24
Sub-Flowsheet Environment
To save time you can copy the
first Fluid Package using the
Copy button on the Fluid Pkgs
tab of the Simulation Basis
Manager and then make the
changes.
3.
Open the view for the LLE-Basis. Change the property method to
NRTL and then move to the Binary Coeffs tab.
4.
Select the UNIFAC LLE radio button and press the All Binaries
button. This will re-regress all interaction parameters such that
they are set up for two liquid phase predictions.
Define the Feed Streams
Two feed streams are required for the dehydrator; the estimated reflux
from the decanter and the almost azeotropic raw feed mixture of
ethanol and water.
1.
Create two streams: Feed and Reflux. Specify the properties as
defined in the following table.
Stream Name
Feed
Reflux
Temperature [C]
78
50
Pressure [atm]
1
1
Mass Flow [kg/hr]
3000
15000
Comp Mole Frac [Ethanol]
0.88
0.50
Comp Mole Frac [Water]
0.12
0.00
Comp Mole Frac [Benzene]
0.00
0.50
Install the Dehydrator Column
Install a 30-stage REBOILED ABSORBER, which will be used to model a
large portion of the dehydrator distillation column. Further on, in the
example, a separate condenser and decanter will be modelled in a subflowsheet.
Figure 2.17
Reboiled Absorber Button
2-24
Flowsheet Architecture
1.
Install the connections as shown in the PFD of Figure 2.17. The
Reflux enters on tray 1 and the Feed stream on tray 5.
2.
The pressure profile is at 1 atm.
3.
In the Damping group on the Solver page of the Parameters tab,
enter a Fixed Damping Factor of 0.5.
4.
Install an impurity specification of 1.0e-06 benzene mass fraction
in the Bottoms stream. See Figure 2.18.
2-25
Figure 2.18
5.
Press the Run button on the Column property view. The tower will
converge and an ethanol purity in excess of 99.5% will be attained
in the Bottoms stream.
2-25
2-26
Sub-Flowsheet Environment
Install a Sub-Flowsheet Operation
Perform the following steps to install the decanter sub-flowsheet:
Sub-Flowsheet Button
1.
Begin the sub-flowsheet operation installation by double clicking
on the Object Palette’s sub-flowsheet icon, or by pressing F12 and
selecting Sub-Flowsheet from the UnitOps view.
2.
The Sub-Flowsheet Option view will appear. Select Start With a
Blank Flowsheet.
3.
The Sub-Flowsheet property view will open to the Connections
tab. Change the default Name to Decanter System.
Build the Decanter Flowsheet
1.
In order to create the flowsheet, you have to enter the subflowsheet's environment. Selecting the Sub-Flowsheet
Environment button on the property view for transition to the subflowsheet's environment and its dedicated Desktop.
Figure 2.19
2.
The environment indicator on the Button Bar will indicate that you
are now in the Decanter System (TPL1). The Desktop for the
decanter flowsheet appears, and either the Workbook or the PFD
will be on the Desktop (depending on the preferences settings).
Install a COOLER operation by double clicking on the Cooler icon in
the Object Palette, or by pressing F12 and selecting Cooler from the
UnitOps view. Supply the following information:
COOLER (Condenser)
Tab [Page]
Design
[Connections]
2-26
Input Area
Entry
Name
Condenser
Inlet
Condenser Feed
Outlet
Decanter Feed
Energy
Cond Duty
Flowsheet Architecture
2-27
COOLER (Condenser)
Tab [Page]
Input Area
Entry
Design [Parameters]
Delta P
5 psi
3.
Specify the Vapour Fraction of Decanter Feed to be 0.0000.
4.
Install a 3-PHASE SEPARATOR operation. Supply the following
information:
Tab[Page]
Design [Connections]
5.
Input Area
Entry
Name
Decanter
Feeds
Decanter Feed
Vapour
Vent
Light Liquid
Light Distillate
Heavy Liquid
Heavy Distillate
As shown in the PFD of Figure 2.19, some of the Heavy Distillate is
usually mixed in with the Light Distillate to create the Reflux. This
is typically done to promote better column operability. Install a
TEE and MIXER to provide this functionality:
Operation
Inlet Stream(s)
Outlet Stream(s)
Splits
Tee
Heavy Distillate
Mixer
Light Distillate
Slip Stream
Distillate
Reflux
Slip Stream
Distillate - 0.9
n/a
Slip Stream - 0.1
Assign the LLE-Basis Fluid Package
1.
Select the Simulation Basis Environment button from the Main
Button Bar.
Simulation Basis
Environment Button
2-27
2-28
Sub-Flowsheet Environment
Figure 2.20
2.
In the Flowsheet - Fluid Pkg Associations group box, change the
Fluid Package assigned to the Decanter System (TPL1) flowsheet
from the default of "VLE-Basis" to the one designed just for the
decanter: "LLE-Basis". This is shown in Figure 2.20.
3.
Return to the Decanter’s sub-flowsheet environment by selecting
the Return to Simulation Environment button on the Simulation
Basis Manager view. Select No when queried as to whether HYSYS
calculations should be put on hold.
Specify Proper Transfer Basis
Parent Simulation
Environment Button
2-28
1.
Select the Parent Simulation Environment button on the Main
Button Bar to return to the Main flowsheet. Once there, open the
property view for the Decanter sub-flowsheet.
2.
On the Connections tab, you should see Condenser Feed as the
Boundary Stream available in the feeds matrix. The following
Boundary Streams should be available as products: Cond Duty,
Vent, Distillate, and Reflux.
3.
The decanter’s condenser should be dealing with a dew point feed
and the decanter itself is producing bubble point products.
Therefore, it is evident that the default Transfer Basis of T-P will not
be suitable as these are not the proper stream variables for
preserving the dew point/bubble point condition of the feed/
product streams when the thermodynamic basis changes across
the flowsheet boundary. Select the Transfer Basis tab to begin the
modification procedure.
Flowsheet Architecture
4.
2-29
Choose the following Transfer Basis for the feeds and products:
Condenser Feed VF-P, Reflux T-P (not necessarily at BP because of
the mixed in Heavy Distillate slipstream), Distillate VF-P.
Figure 2.21
Export Key Flowsheet Variables
1.
It is very convenient to view or specify key process variables of the
decanter from the Main flowsheet environment. Go to the
Variables tab of the property view.
2.
Press the Add button on this tab to summon the Variable
Navigator where you will select the appropriate variables from the
sub-flowsheet and supply the appropriate variable descriptions.
The variables are defined in the following table:
Field
Variable 1
Flowsheet
Decanter System
Decanter System
Object
Decanter
TEE-100
Variable
Vessel Temperature
Flow Ratio
Variable Specifics
n/a
Flow Ratio_1
3.
Variable 2
On the Parameters tab, the two variables which you have exported
will appear.
Figure 2.22
2-29
2-30
Sub-Flowsheet Environment
Once the main flowsheet has converged, the Parameters tab will
appear as shown in Figure 2.23.
Figure 2.23
Attach the Main Flowsheet Streams to Decanter
1.
Switch back to the Connections tab on the property view.
2.
Connect the absorber overhead stream as the feed connection.
Note that the Internal Stream name will change to Overhead once
the External Stream name is selected. The sub-flowsheet will have
enough information to solve once the Overhead feed is connected.
3.
Supply an appropriate stream name for the condenser duty.
4.
Supply names for the Vent, Reflux and Distillate product streams.
Input Lt Distillate in the External Stream cell next to Reflux. Since
the decanter has solved, the information will be transferred to the
external streams as soon as they are connected. See Figure 2.24.
Figure 2.24
2-30
Flowsheet Architecture
5.
2-31
Note that you must install a RECYCLE operation, a MIXER, and
usually some sort of a make-up stream is required to offset any
solvent losses in the products:
Stream Name
Make-Up
Temperature [C]
20
Pressure [atm]
1
Mass Flow [kg/hr]
1
Comp Mole Frac [Ethanol]
0.00
Comp Mole Frac [Water]
0.00
Comp Mole Frac [Benzene]
1.00
Field
Inlet Stream(s)
Outlet Stream
MIxer
Recycle
Lt Distillate
Recycle
Make-Up
Recycle
Reflux
Once the recycle has converged, the sub-flowsheet’s property view can
be opened to the Parameters tab and the Heavy Distillate’s slipstream
fraction varied as desired. After each change, the whole column/
decanter recycle process will automatically converge on the new
answer corresponding the specified slipstream fraction. See Figure 2.25
for the completed PFD.
Figure 2.25
2-31
2-32
Templates
2.3
Templates
A Template flowsheet is simply a normal HYSYS flowsheet with some
additional information contained in its Main properties and a different
file extension used when it is stored to disk (*.TPL versus the normal
*.HSC). The different file extension is employed mainly for
organizational purposes.
2.3.1
Template Information
The Template information for the flowsheet is accessed through the
Main flowsheet’s property view (Simulation - Main Properties or CTRL
M). The first two tabs of this property view are the same as for any
simulation case. However, there are three additional tabs that are
exclusive to Templates.
The tabs become available once the standard simulation case is
converted to a template. This is accomplished by selecting the Convert
to Template button on the bottom of the Main properties view. Once
the button has been selected, and the extra tabs appear, the button will
no longer be visible.
Figure 2.26
These extra tabs contain all of the same information available on the
property view of an installed sub-flowsheet operation as well as some
additional information. These extra parameters allow the flowsheet to
be treated as a "black box" and installed as a sub-flowsheet operation
with the same ease and in the same manner as a normal unit operation.
2-32
Flowsheet Architecture
2-33
Exported Connections Tab
On the Exported Connections tab, you can enter the Template Tag and
select the Installed Simulation Basis. All Feed and Product connections
are also shown on this tab.
Figure 2.27
Template Tag
Flowsheet Tags are short names used by HYSYS to identify the
flowsheet associated with a stream or operation when that flowsheet
object is being viewed outside of its native flowsheet’s scope. The
default Tag name for sub-flowsheet operations is TPL1 (for Template).
When more than one sub-flowsheet operation is installed, HYSYS will
ensure unique tag names by incrementing the numerical suffix in a
manner similar to HYSYS auto-naming unit operations; they are
numbered sequentially in the order they were installed. For example, if
the first sub-flowsheet added to a simulation contained a stream called
Comp Duty, it would appear as Comp Duty@TPL1 when viewed from
the Main flowsheet of the simulation.
Installed Simulation Basis
Once a Template is installed
the resulting Fluid Package
association may be overridden in the Simulation Basis
Manager at any time.
When a Template is read into a simulation case, its associated Fluid
Package is added to the list of Fluid Packages in the Simulation Basis
Manager. The Installed Simulation Basis gives the Template builder the
choice of using its own internal Fluid Package, or the same Fluid
Package of the Parent flowsheet in which it is installed. This only affects
what happens at the time the template is first installed.
2-33
2-34
Templates
Feed and Product Stream Info
A stream that appears on the
Exported Connections tab
does not necessarily have to be
connected.
All streams in the flowsheet Template that are not completely
connected, i.e., are only a feed to a unit operation, or a product from a
unit operation are designated as Boundary Streams, and will appear in
the appropriate Group Box. Boundary Streams may not be chosen to
appear on this tab, they are automatically determined by HYSYS. These
are the streams that you will be connecting to when the Template is
installed in a flowsheet.
For each stream appearing in either the Feed Stream or Product Stream
matrices, you can specify the Boundary Label and Transfer Basis.
A Boundary Label is what is used to describe the name of the feed and
product connections. This is not the name of the streams, but rather
the function of the streams, i.e. if you are using a numerical standard
for stream numbering, the feed stream inside the template could be
"1", but its feed label could be "HP Feed". This allows you to provide
descriptive feed and product stream labels, much like the built-in unit
operation property views used on their connection tabs. By default it
will just assume the name of its corresponding boundary stream in the
Template.
The Transfer Basis is used for feed and product streams as they cross
the flowsheet boundary. The Transfer Basis becomes significant only
when the sub-flowsheet and parent flowsheet Property Packages are
different. When there are differing Fluid Packages in the two flowsheets
(Parent and sub-flowsheet) you may wish to specify what stream
properties will be used to calculate the stream on the other side of the
boundary. The Transfer Basis is used to provide a consistent means of
switching between the differing basis of the various property methods:
2-34
Flash Type
Description
T-P Flash
The Pressure and Temperature of the Material
stream are passed between flowsheets. A new
Vapour Fraction will be calculated.
VF-T Flash
The Vapour Fraction and Temperature of the
Material stream are passed between flowsheets. A
new Pressure will be calculated.
VF-P Flash
The Vapour Fraction and Pressure of the Material
stream are passed between flowsheets. A new
Temperature will be calculated.
None Required
No calculation is required for an Energy stream. The
heat flow will simply be passed between flowsheets.
Flowsheet Architecture
2-35
Exported Variables Tab
The last tab of the Main flowsheet’s property view is for creating and
maintaining the list of Exported Variables. Although you can access any
information inside the sub-flowsheet using the Variable Navigator, this
feature allows you to target key process variables inside the subflowsheet and have their values displayed on the property view. Then,
when the Template is installed, you can conveniently view this
information directly on the sub-flowsheet’s property view in the Parent
flowsheet. This is very useful for "black box" treatment, as all the
important specifications for the operation of the sub-flowsheet may be
brought together and documented in this one location. You may never
have to enter the sub-flowsheet environment to get the template
"working" or adjusted to your needs.
Figure 2.28
To add variables to this tab, select the Add button. This will bring up the
Variable Navigator for you to select the flowsheet object and variable.
On the navigator you may over-ride the default variable description
and provide a better description. When you install this template into
another case, these variables will appear in the Parameters tab of the
sub-flowsheet property view (see Section 2.2.5 - Sub-Flowsheet
Property View for information on the Parameters tab).
2-35
2-36
Templates
Note that there is no difference between a template flowsheet
and a normal flowsheet, except the additional information
mentioned above, and the use of different file extensions. A
template flowsheet can be read in as the Main flowsheet in a
simulation case if necessary - you will just get a warning
message and the extra information will be ignored.
2.3.2
Note that you cannot create a
Template from just parts of a
Main Flowsheet. You will have
to delete any unwanted
streams and operations from
the Main Flowsheet before
saving it out to disk. Of course
it can be saved with a different
name, preserving your
original simulation case.
You cannot create a Template
from an existing subFlowsheet that is part of a
larger simulation.
Keep in mind that you can
have multiple simulation
cases in memory, so you can
create a new Template as part
of your current session and
then install it into your
original Simulation case.
2-36
Creating a Template Style
Flowsheet
Any Main flowsheet may be used as the base for a Template. It is simply
a matter of toggling it to being a template style flowsheet, supplying the
extra information necessary for it to be installable in any simulation
case, and saving it out to disk.
Note that there are two ways to toggle a flowsheet to being of a
Template Style:
• If you have already created a New Case (not a New Template)
and now decide you want to save it is a Template after it has
been built, or if you have an existing case on disk that you
would like to use as a template:
1.
Access the cases Main flowsheet’s Property view (Simulation Main Properties or CTRL M) and select the Convert to Template
button.
2.
Set the Template Tag, Installed Simulation Basis and other optional
template information if required. See Section 2.3.1 - Template
Information for a discussion on Template Information.
3.
When you save the simulation, it will be saved as a template.
• If you know ahead of time that the flowsheet is to be a
Template, you can begin by creating a new Template:
1.
From the File menu, select New, then Template.
2.
Follow the standard procedure for building your simulation.
3.
Access the Main flowsheet’s property view (Simulation - Main
Properties or CTRL M) and set the Template Tag, Installed
Simulation Basis and other optional template information if
required. See Section 2.3.1 - Template Information for a
discussion on Template Information.
4.
When you save the simulation, it will be saved as a template.
Flowsheet Architecture
2-37
HYSYS will automatically save the Template in the Templates directory
as a template file (*.TPL). The default path for the Templates directory
is set according to the HYSYS preferences. As shipped, the default
directory is HYSYS\TEMPLATE.
Note that a combination of flowsheets may be in your template,
i.e. a Main flowsheet and one or more sub-flowsheets. Likewise,
more than one Fluid Package maybe included in the template if
they are associated with a flowsheet at the time the template is
saved to disk.
2.3.3
Installing a Template
To install a Template you follow the same basic procedure as when
installing a sub-flowsheet. Choose Flowsheet-Add Operation from the
menu or press F12, and select Sub-Flowsheet. Alternatively, you could
select the Sub-Flowsheet button on the flowsheet Object Palette.
Sub-Flowsheet Button
Once you initiate the installation a sub-flowsheet, you will be queried
with a Sub-Flowsheet Option view as to how you wish to proceed. Your
options are:
• Reading an existing Template
• Starting with a blank Flowsheet
Figure 2.29
If you choose Start with a
Blank Flowsheet, the subflowsheet you create will not
be available to use in any
other simulation case you may
happen to create in the future.
If you think you would like to
be able to re-use the subflowsheet at a later date, you
should consider creating a
Template instead.
• Starting with a Blank Flowsheet
If you do not want to bother constructing a Template, select the Start
with a Blank Flowsheet button. The process of creating a sub-flowsheet
with a blank initial flowsheet operation was covered in detail previously
in Section 2.2.6 - Installing a Sub-Flowsheet.
This is a good option if you are just creating a small subflowsheet, otherwise you should consider creating a full
template flowsheet so it may be re-used in future simulations.
2-37
2-38
Templates
Reading an Existing Template
To install a Template style flowsheet, select the Read an Existing
Template button. HYSYS will look in the Templates directory for
available template files (*.TPL). The default path for the Templates
directory is set according to the HYSYS preferences. As shipped, the
default Templates directory is HYSYS\TEMPLATE.
HYSYS includes a sample Process Template for trial purposes. It is
called REFRIG.TPL and is identical to the example created in the next
section: Section 2.3.4 - Example - Refrigeration Loop Template.
If there are sub-flowsheets in
the template, they will be
installed as sub-flowsheets
underneath the new subflowsheet operation. In other
words, everything in the
template is "shifted down" at
least one level.
2-38
When a file is selected, HYSYS installs any Fluid Packages in the
Template into the Simulation Basis Manager. The Main flowsheet
contained in the Template is then installed as a new sub-flowsheet unit
operation in the current flowsheet you are in. After the flowsheet(s)
have been transferred into the simulation case, a Fluid Package will be
selected for the sub-flowsheet based on the Installed Fluid Package
setting used in the Template. Once HYSYS finishes all this book
keeping, you will be placed on the Connections tab of the subflowsheet property view where you can begin hooking up the Template.
Flowsheet Architecture
2.3.4
2-39
Example - Refrigeration
Loop Template
For this example, a refrigeration loop Process Template will be
constructed. This template will then be installed into a simulation case
as a sub-flowsheet. The required flow of refrigerant fluid to cool a
Natural Gas stream in the Main flowsheet will then be determined.
Refrigeration Loop Template
The Refrigeration Template PFD is shown in Figure 2.30:
Figure 2.30
Note that there are no material Boundary Streams in this
Template Flowsheet. The HEAT EXCHANGER operation allows
you to select a different Flowsheet for each side of the
exchanger. By using this feature, the process stream does not
have to be imported into the sub-Flowsheet and the
Refrigeration Loop Template can be solved with only the
refrigerant in its Fluid Package. The HEAT EXCHANGER will
perform the necessary heat transfer across the Flowsheet
boundary.
Flowsheet Setup
1.
Create a new case.
2.
For this Refrigeration Loop, the Peng Robinson property method
will be used with components propane and propene.
Property Package
Components
Peng Robinson
C3, C3=
2-39
2-40
Templates
3.
Create streams named C3-2 and C3-4 and define them as follows:
Name
C3-2
C3-4
Vapour Fraction
0.0000
1.0000
Temperature [C]
35.0000
<empty>
Pressure [kPa]
1742.2646
<empty>
Comp Mole Frac [Propane]
0.9500
<empty>
Comp Mole Frac [Propene]
0.0500
<empty>
4.
Create streams named C3-1 and C3-3.
5.
Install a COOLER with the following specifications:
Tab [Page]
Design [Connections]
Design [Parameters]
6.
Design [Connections]
Design [Parameters]
Name
E-100
Feed Stream
C3-1
Product Stream
C3-2
Energy Stream
Cooler Q
Pressure Drop
20 kPa
Input Area
Entry
Name
K-100
Inlet
C3-4
Outlet
C3-1
Energy
Comp Q
Adiabatic Efficiency
75%
Install a VALVE with the following specifications:
Tab [Page]
Design [Connections]
2-40
Entry
Install a COMPRESSOR with the following specifications:
Tab [Page]
7.
Input Area
Input Area
Entry
Name
VLV-100
Feed Stream
C3-2
Product Stream
C3-3
Flowsheet Architecture
8.
2-41
Add a HEAT EXCHANGER with the following specifications:
Tab [Page]
Design [Connections]
Design [Parameters]
Input Area
Entry
Name
E-101
Shell Side Inlet
C3-3
Shell Side Outlet
C3-4
Heat Exchanger Model
Weighted
Tube Side Delta P
35 kPa
Shell Side Delta P
5 kPa
Pass-1 Intervals
2
Pass-2 Intervals
2
At this point, the Tube Side Inlet and Outlet streams of E-101 will not be
attached. If these streams were created now, they would, by default,
inherit the components of the sub-flowsheet - propane and propene.
To avoid this, the split flowsheet capabilities of the HEAT EXCHANGER
will be used. When the Template is installed in the Main flowsheet, the
process side of the exchanger will be connected directly with streams in
the Main flowsheet, and will be able to use the Main flowsheet’s
components.
9.
On the Specs page of the Design tab, add a Heat Exchanger
temperature specification. Specify a 5oC temperature approach
between the Unknown Stream in the drop down list (select either
one since this will be changed to the Tube Side Outlet stream when
the Template is installed in the Main flowsheet) and C3-4. The
specification, shown below, is accessed by pressing the Add
button.
Figure 2.31
Specifying the Template Information
To open the Simulation Case
property view use the hot key
combination CTRL M.
1.
Open the Simulation Case property view.
2.
Press the Convert to Template button and when asked to confirm
your action, select the Yes button.
2-41
2-42
Templates
3.
Save the template. Provide a name refrig.tpl.
4.
On the Exported Connections tab, specify a Template Tag of RFG
and ensure that the Internal radio button is selected in the
Installed Simulation Basis group.
Figure 2.32
Press the Add button on the
Variables to add new
variables to the Externally
Accessible Variables list.
5.
The energy streams that cross the boundary should be labelled
Comp Q and Cooler Q.
6.
On the Exported Variables tab, add the following Externally
Accessible Variables, as shown below.
Variable Description
Object
Variable
Refrigeration
Temperature
C3-4
Temperature
Condenser
Temperature
C3-2
Temperature
Refrigerant Flow Rate
C3-4
Std Gas Flow
Compressor Duty
Comp Q
Heat Flow
Condenser Duty
Cooler Q
Heat Flow
7.
Press the Save button to store the template.
Main Process
In this part of the illustrative example, two Natural Gas streams will be
defined in the Main Simulation. The Refrigeration template, which was
previously created, will be installed to cool the Natural Gas. To facilitate
this, the process streams will be attached to the tube side of the heat
exchanger in the template.
2-42
Flowsheet Architecture
1.
Create a new case (CTRL N).
2.
Select the Peng Robinson property method, and add the
components: methane, ethane, propane, i-butane, n-butane, ipentane, n-pentane.
Property Package
Components
Peng Robinson
C1, C2, C3, i-C4, n-C4, i-C5, n-C5
3.
Install the stream Cool Gas with the following specifications:
Name
Cool Gas
Temperature [C]
60.0000
Pressure [kPa]
200.0000
Molar Flow [kgmole/hr]
500.0000
Comp Mole Frac [Methane]
0.2500
Comp Mole Frac [Ethane]
0.1250
Comp Mole Frac [Propane]
0.1250
Comp Mole Frac [i-Butane]
0.1250
Comp Mole Frac [n-Butane]
0.1250
Comp Mole Frac [i-Pentane]
0.1250
Comp Mole Frac [n-Pentane]
0.1250
4.
2-43
Install the stream Cold Gas; specify the temperature to be -25 oC.
These streams are installed in the Main simulation environment and
will be attached as the tube side inlet and outlet for the heat exchanger.
Installing the Template in the Main Flowsheet
Sub-flowsheet Button
found on Object Palette.
1.
Double click on the Sub-Flowsheet button in the Object Palette.
2.
From the Sub-Flowsheet Option dialog, press the Read an Existing
Template button.
Figure 2.33
3.
Select refrig.tpl from the Available Sub-Flowsheet Templates view
and press the Open button.
2-43
2-44
Templates
4.
The sub-flowsheet property view will open to the Connection tab.
Input the names Comp Q and Cooler Q in the appropriate External
Stream input cells.
Connecting the Heat Exchanger Process Side
Refer to Section 5.2.1 - Object
Navigator for details on the
Object Navigator.
Enter the sub-flowsheet environment again and open the heat
exchanger (E-101) view using the Object Navigator.
Figure 2.34
On the Connections page of the E-101 property view, select the Main
flowsheet as the Tubeside Flowsheet. Once the Tubeside flowsheet is
selected, the drop down list in the Edit Bar will display Main flowsheet
streams for the Tubeside connections. Select the streams Cool Gas for
the inlet and Cold Gas for the outlet:
Figure 2.35
The Heat Exchanger will now solve, as will the rest of the streams in the
sub-flowsheet.
2-44
1.
On the Specs of the E-101 property view, open the view for the
temperature approach specification by highlighting it and pressing
the View button.
2.
Press the DELETE in the cell that displays Cool Gas.
Flowsheet Architecture
3.
2-45
In the Edit Bar drop down list, select the stream Cold Gas. The
specification view should be as shown below:
Figure 2.36
The heat exchanger will re-solve reflecting the proper approach
specification.
Go to the Parameters page of the sub-flowsheet property view. The
exported variables from the template are displayed:
Figure 2.37
Change the Condenser Temperature to 50oC and observe the increased
Refrigerant Flow Rate requirement and correspondingly higher duties.
Figure 2.38
To conduct a proper case
study, you can use the Case
Studies feature in the
DataBook.
2-45
2-46
2-46
Templates
PFD
3-1
3 PFD
3.1 Object Inspection ......................................................................................... 4
3.2 PFD Tools...................................................................................................... 5
3.3 Installing Streams and Operations ............................................................. 9
3.4 Connecting Streams and Operations ....................................................... 10
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5
Creating a New Stream from an Operation.............................................11
Connecting Operations to Existing Streams ...........................................11
Connecting Two Operations................................................................... 12
Connecting Logical Operations .............................................................. 13
Working with the Column PFD ............................................................... 13
3.5 Disconnecting Streams and Operations .................................................. 13
3.6 The Custom PFD Notebook....................................................................... 15
3.6.1 Installing a New PFD.............................................................................. 15
3.6.3 Renaming a PFD ................................................................................... 16
3.7 Cut/Paste Functions................................................................................... 17
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.7.4
Creating Sub-Flowsheets....................................................................... 17
Importing/Exporting Objects................................................................... 18
Cloning Objects...................................................................................... 19
Cut/Copy/Paste ...................................................................................... 19
3.8 Flowsheet Analysis Using the PFD .......................................................... 19
3.8.1
3.8.2
3.8.3
3.8.4
Stream Label Options ............................................................................ 21
Accessing Column or Sub-Flowsheet PFDs .......................................... 23
Opening Controller Face Plates ............................................................. 25
PFD Tables ............................................................................................ 26
3-1
3-2
3.9 PFD Colour Schemes................................................................................. 30
3.9.1 Selecting/Changing a Colour Scheme ................................................... 31
3.9.2 Adding a Query Colour Scheme ............................................................ 32
3.10 Manipulating the PFD............................................................................... 34
3.10.1
3.10.2
3.10.3
3.10.4
Selecting PFD Objects ......................................................................... 34
Transforming Icons, Labels and Annotations....................................... 42
Auto-Scrolling....................................................................................... 45
Rerouting ............................................................................................. 46
3.11 Adding Annotations ................................................................................. 52
3.11.1 Editing Annotations .............................................................................. 53
3.12 Hiding PFD Objects.................................................................................. 54
3.13 Multi Pane PFDs ....................................................................................... 55
3.14 Printing the PFD ....................................................................................... 57
3-2
PFD
PFD Button
As HYSYS’ default view, the
PFD will be the active window
when you initially enter the
Simulation Environment.
3-3
One of the key benefits of the PFD is that it provides the best
representation of the Flowsheet as a whole. From this one location you
have an immediate reference to the progress of the simulation you are
currently building; i.e. what streams and operations have been
installed, Flowsheet connectivity, the status of objects, etc. The PFD is
HYSYS’ default view and is open when you first enter the HYSYS
Simulation Environment upon creating a new case.
Like the other major interface elements in HYSYS, the PFD has been
developed to satisfy a number of functions. In addition to graphical
representation, you can build your Flowsheet within the PFD using the
mouse to install and connect objects. A full set of manipulation tools
has been included to allow you to reposition streams and operations,
resize icons, or reroute streams. All of these tools have been designed to
simplify the development of a clear and concise graphical process
representation. Figure 3.1 shows the a HYSYS case PFD and highlights
some of its features.
As a key interface element in HYSYS, the PFD also possesses analytical
capabilities. You can access property views for streams or operations
directly from the PFD, or install custom Material Balance Tables for any
or all objects. Complete Workbook pages can also be displayed on the
PFD. Information will be automatically updated whenever changes are
made to the process. There are several ways that you can track a
specific variable throughout the PFD including the replacement of
stream name labels or by designating a colour to represent a variable
range.
Any PFD in the simulation
can be accessed from any
location using the CTRL P hot
key.
Since every Flowsheet (or Sub-Flowsheet) possesses its own PFD, and
you can access any Flowsheet’s PFD from any location, you can use the
Multi-Flowsheeting Architecture of HYSYS to provide clear and concise
representations of complex simulations. Instant access to the SubFlowsheet PFD is provided through object inspection of the main
Flowsheet’s PFD.
3-3
3-4
Object Inspection
3.1
Object Inspection
In the PFD, there are a number of instances in which either the mouse
or the keyboard can be used to perform the same function.
One very important PFD function for which the keyboard
cannot be used is Object Inspection
Figure 3.1
PFD Function Buttons
PFD tabs in a
Notebook format.
Colour Scheme
options
Vertical Scroll Bar
The double border next to the
scroll bar can be used to split the
PFD Window both horizontally
and vertically.
You can perform many of the tasks and manipulations on the icons in
the PFD by using Object Inspection. Place the mouse pointer over the
icon you want to inspect and press the secondary mouse button. An
appropriate menu is produced depending upon the icon selected
(Stream, Operation, Column, or Text Annotation).
3-4
PFD
3-5
The Object Inspection menu items for an Operation are shown as the
first menu in Figure 3.2. Cut/Paste Objects, Format Label and
Transform, each have an additional menu that is produced when that
item is selected.
Section 3.7 - Cut/Paste Functions
details the Cut/Paste Objects
menu commands in details.
In addition to inspecting the individual icons in the PFD, you can also
apply Object Inspection to the PFD itself. Press the secondary mouse
button over an open area of the PFD (not on top of an individual icon).
This produces a menu of available commands relating to the PFD itself,
shown as the second menu to the right in Figure 3.2. Cut/Paste Objects,
and Copy Pane to Clipboard, each have an additional menu that is
produced when that item is selected.
Figure 3.2
For Sub-Flowsheet Operations
(including the Column SubFlowsheet), the Operations menu
also includes the following
additional commands for SubFlowsheet manipulation:
Object Inspection Menu for
Operations.
3.2
Object Inspection Menu for
the PFD.
PFD Tools
There are several tools that help to simplify your interaction with the
PFD. The most basic tools relate to what is displayed in the PFD
Window (zoom level).
Pan/Zoom Functions
There will be instances when you will want to focus on a particular area
of the PFD or conversely, view all objects in the Flowsheet. The
following table lists functions that are available to help you display the
required objects:
3-5
3-6
PFD Tools
Function
In order for the PFD to
respond to the keyboard
command, it must be the
active window.
Button
Definition
Zoom Out
Zooms display out by 25%. You can either
press the Zoom Out button (minus symbol)
located in the lower left of the PFD or use the
keyboard command SHIFT PAGE DOWN.
Zoom In
Zooms display in by 25%. You can either
press the Zoom In button (plus symbol)
located in the lower left of the PFD or use the
keyboard command SHIFT PAGE UP.
Zoom All
Displays all unhidden objects in the current
Window. You can either press the function
button located in the lower left of the PFD or
use the keyboard command HOME.
Zoom Out
display 5%
Use the keyboard command PAGE DOWN.
Zoom In
display 5%
Use the keyboard command PAGE UP.
Zoom In
Click on the Mouse Wheel and scroll forward.
The PFD display will zoom in.
Mouse Wheel
Zoom Out
Click on the mouse wheel and scroll
backward. The PFD display will zoom out.
Mouse Wheel
Zoom In
HOME
HOME
Key
Toggle
between last
two Zoom
views
Z
Select PFD objects and press the HOME key
to zoom in on those objects. If no objects are
selected, the entire PFD will be shown.
Use the keyboard key Z.
Pan 15% Left,
Right, Up,
Down
Use the respective keyboard arrow keys: left,
right, up, down.
Pan 70% Left,
Right, Up,
Down
Use the SHIFT key combined with one of the
arrow keys: left, right, up, down.
Click on the mouse wheel (or middle mouse
button) and move the mouse to pan the view.
To stop, click the mouse button a second
time.
Pan
Mouse Wheel
Centre PFD on
cursor
.
By pressing the period key on the keyboard,
., the PFD will shift such that the location of
the cursor becomes the centre of the view.
PFD Modes
The PFD in HYSYS operates in three modes - Move, Attach, and Size.
Only one of these modes can be “active” at a time. This means that
when you are in Attach mode, you cannot move or resize icons. You can
switch modes via the buttons in the upper left corner of the PFD, using
3-6
PFD
3-7
Select Mode under PFD in the Menu Bar, or by selecting Mode from the
PFD Object Inspection menu.
Figure 3.3
Name
Button
Definition
Move/Attach
Controls two of the PFD modes, Move and
Attach. Move, the default setting, allows you
to relocate selected operations and streams.
When this button is “pressed” you are in
Attach mode, which allows you to connect
streams and operations graphically. Refer to
Section 3.4 - Connecting Streams and
Operations for more information concerning
Attach mode.
Size Mode
When in Size mode, selected objects can be
sized. A selected sizeable object appears
with a box around it, and this box contains
eight smaller white boxes around its
perimeter. Using the mouse, you can drag the
size of the box in any of these eight
directions. Refer to Section 3.10.1 Selecting PFD Objects for more details on
sizing PFD objects.
Additional Buttons
Name
Button
Function
Break
Connection
When this button is selected, you can break
the connection between a stream and an
operation. Once you have placed the mouse
pointer over an appropriate location, the
cursor is redrawn with a check mark added to
it. Select any portion of the stream between
the stream icon and the operation. Refer to
Section 3.5 - Disconnecting Streams and
Operations for more details.
Swap
Connections
Switches the nozzle connection points for two
streams attached to the same operation. For
more information, refer to Section 3.10.1 Selecting PFD Objects.
3-7
3-8
PFD Tools
Name
Button
Function
Drag Zoom
When you press this button, the cursor
becomes an arrow and magnifying glass
combination. Click and drag around a region
of interest to redraw the PFD showing the
selected region only. You can also Zoom
from the PFD Object Inspection menu by
selecting Mode and then Zoom (see Figure
3.4) or by selecting Drag Zoom under PFD in
the Menu Bar.
Add Text
Annotation
Allows you to add text to a PFD. When the
button is pressed, a ‘+’ symbol is added to
the regular cursor and a rectangular box
appears at the end of the pointer. Position the
cursor where the text is to be placed, press
the primary mouse button, and then type the
text into the dialog box presented. Refer to
Section 3.11 - Adding Annotations, for
more information.
Colour Scheme
Displays the PFD Colour Schemes dialog
box, from which a new scheme can be
created or an existing one chosen, edited or
deleted. Refer to Section 3.9 - PFD Colour
Schemes for more detailed information.
Quick Route
Mode
The Quick Route Mode allows icons to be
quickly and independently manipulated about
the PFD (i.e. icons can be moved with their
attached streams overlapping the view of
other icons). Upon release of this button,
HYSYS repositions streams so that there is
no overlap of icons. Refer to Section 3.10.4 Rerouting, for more.
Figure 3.4
If you are trying to perform a function in the PFD, such as
Move, Size, or Attach, and it is not working, check the buttons
to see if you are operating in the correct mode.
3-8
PFD
3.3
See Section 1.3.5 - Installing
Operations for a description
of how to provide the
necessary information to
define operational
parameters.
3-9
Installing Streams and
Operations
The PFD can be used to install streams and operations into the
flowsheet, as well as connect streams to operations, or operations to
other operations. Object specifications are then supplied via the
appropriate property view, which can be accessed by double clicking
on the object icon.
The Stream and Unit Operation PFD installation procedure follows:
For information concerning
the Object Palette, refer to
Section 1.3.3 - Object Palette.
1.
Place the mouse pointer over the desired operation in the Object
Palette.
2.
Hold down the secondary mouse button and drag to the desired
location in the PFD. As you move the cursor, a box and target will
indicate the placement of the icon.
3.
Release the mouse button and the stream or operation will be
installed.
or
Streams and Operations
added via any other method
automatically appear in the
PFD with connections already
drawn.
1.
From the Palette, push the button for the desired operation.
2.
Click (with the primary mouse button) on the location of the PFD
where the new object is to be placed.
You can move the icon to any open space on the PFD.
Deleting Streams and Operations
Streams and operations can be deleted from the case using the PFD in
any of the following ways:
• Select the object you wish to delete and press the DELETE key
on the keyboard.
• Object Inspect the appropriate icon and choose Delete from
the menu, as shown in Figure 3.5 below:
3-9
3-10
Connecting Streams and
Figure 3.5
With either method, HYSYS prompts you to confirm deleting the
object. If you select multiple objects to delete, HYSYS will ask for
confirmation before deleting each object.
3.4
Connection nozzles are the
small coloured connection
points that appear on streams
and operations when the
cursor is passed over top of
them when the PFD is in
Attach mode.
Connecting Streams
and Operations
You can connect an operation to an existing stream or have a new
stream created to connect two operations. New streams can be created
by dragging from an existing operation connection nozzle in Attach
mode.
Figure 3.6
These small boxes
are connection
areas.
Connection Nozzle Colours:
Red - Energy Stream
Blue - Material Stream
Green - Logical Connection
3-10
When the PFD is in Attach mode, connection nozzles will automatically
light up for each icon as the mouse pointer passes over the icon. A red
box indicates an Energy Stream connection, a blue box indicates a
Material Stream connection, and a green box indicates a Logical
connection. An exception to this is the BALANCE block which can
accept both Material and Energy Streams. All connections for the
BALANCE are shown in green.
PFD
3-11
In addition to the coloured squares which indicate the different
connection types, a fly-by description appears when the mouse pointer
is placed over a connection point.
3.4.1 Creating a New Stream from
an Operation
Hold down the CTRL key to
temporarily toggle to Attach
Mode. Make the connections
and release the CTRL key.
In order to use the PFD to create a stream, the Attach button in the
upper left corner of the PFD must be pressed.
The procedure for creating a new stream is as follows:
1.
Place the cursor over the desired operation connection point, or
nozzle. When the cursor is in the correct location, the perimeter of
a white square will appear at the tip of the mouse pointer.
2.
Hold down the primary mouse button, and begin dragging the
stream to an empty space in the PFD. First a full black square
appears at the end of the mouse pointer. Keep dragging the stream
until the Stream Connection Tool (as shown to the left) appears at
the end of the stream. If you release the mouse button while the
full black square is shown, the stream will not be attached.
3.
Release the mouse button. HYSYS will place a stream icon here and
name it using the next stream name as defined under the current
Preferences.
Stream Connection Tool
See Section 1.3.4 - Installing
Streams for a description of
how to provide the necessary
information to define the
stream conditions and
compositions.
3.4.2 Connecting Operations to
Existing Streams
Move / Attach Button
See Section 3.10.4 - Rerouting
for information on manually
changing the route of a
stream.
You can either connect a stream to an operation, or an operation to a
stream. The procedure for both is identical. Once again, to perform any
of these operations, you must press the Move/Attach button to switch
into Attach mode.
To connect an operation to an existing stream, place the pointer over
the desired nozzle, hold down the primary mouse button and begin
dragging to the desired stream. As you move the mouse, HYSYS draws a
line indicating the creation of a stream. This line tracks the mouse
directly. You cannot prescribe a path for the stream to follow as you
perform the connection.
Note that both Streams and Operations have Inlet and Outlet
nozzles. The connection points that light up depend on the
origin of the connection, i.e., when connecting from a Stream
Outlet, only Inlet nozzles to operations will light up.
3-11
3-12
Connecting Streams and
Stream Connection Tool
As you approach the stream, the available connection will light up.
When you are within the defined connection region for a nozzle (larger
than the region used when HYSYS indicates available connection
points), the cursor will change to the Stream Connection Tool. To
complete the connection, approach the appropriate nozzle and release
the mouse button when a full white square appears at the tip of the
mouse pointer.
3.4.3 Connecting Two Operations
Connecting two operations directly will automatically create a new
stream (using the next available name as defined in the Session
Preferences). The procedure is as follows:
1.
Press the Move/Attach button or hold down the CTRL key.
2.
Select the nozzle of the operation from which the stream will be
connected (in the case of Figure 3.7 the Valve, VLV-100).
3.
While holding down the primary mouse button, drag the new
stream toward the operation to which it will be connected, the
separator V-100 in Figure 3.7. HYSYS indicates the available
connection points. In this case, because the stream is being taken
from the outlet of the Valve, the only connection point indicated is
the inlet area of the Separator.
4.
When you reach the connection region, the mouse pointer
changes to a solid white square. Release the mouse button at this
time to complete the connection and create a new stream.
Figure 3.7
2
1
Valve outlet nozzle where The long connection
stream connects.
indicates that more than one
feed can be attached.
3
3-12
PFD
3-13
3.4.4 Connecting Logical Operations
Logical Operations can be connected to Operations or Streams in the
same way as explained previously. The only difference is that once the
connection is made, a dialog box appears. A variable, specific to the
object to which the logical is connected, is chosen. This view is different
depending on the type of logical operation and whether the connection
has been made to a stream or operation. Consider the situation where a
connection from an ADJUST operation to a Stream is made; the stream
is the Adjusted Variable Object. Figure 3.8 shows you the HYSYS
prompt you use to enter the Variable for the Adjusted Object.
Figure 3.8
3.4.5 Working with the Column PFD
When you are inside the Column Sub-Flowsheet, you can connect Feed
and Draw streams to the Column Tray Section in the PFD. The Column
PFD shows all column stages. Connections can be made to each stage.
The procedure for connecting Streams to the Column is the same as
that for Connecting Streams to Operations.
3.5
Disconnecting Streams
and Operations
Sometimes it is necessary to break connections between streams and
operations. There are several ways to accomplish this task from the
PFD, without having to enter the operation’s property view.
3-13
3-14
Disconnecting Streams and
Using Object Inspection
You can Object Inspect a connection line to break the connection:
1.
Move the pointer to the stream where you want to break the
connection.
2.
When the pointer is on the stream away from the arrow icon, it will
change into the Move Segment cursor (for a horizontal line
segment, the cursor is a vertical line with arrowheads at each end,
as in Figure 3.9).
Figure 3.9
3.
The Swap Attachments
option will appear in the
object inspection menu only
when more than one stream is
attached to a certain location
(i.e. 2 feed streams).
Press the secondary mouse button. From the menu that appears,
choose Break Connection. Depending on the selected stream, the
object inspection menu may not have all of the options as shown
in Figure 3.10.
Figure 3.10
Use of the Break Connection Option
Break Connection Button
Remember that breaking the
connection does not delete the
stream, but only its
connection to the operation.
You can either break an inlet
or an outlet stream
connection, depending on
which side of the stream icon
you select.
The Break Connection option allows you to break an existing stream
connection and can be accessed either by selecting the Break
Connection button or selecting the PFD Menu Bar Option.
The Break Connection option (button or menu item) is available only
when the PFD is open. You can only break one connection at a time. If
you want to break a second connection, you will need to select the
Break Connection option again.
Break Connection Procedure
Once the Break Connection option has been selected, the following
procedure must be followed:
1.
3-14
Select the Break Connection option (via button bar or drop down
PFD
3-15
menu), then move the cursor to the stream where you want to
break the connection.
2.
When the cursor is on the appropriate spot, it will change from an
X to a check mark.
3.
When the check mark appears, press the primary mouse button.
3.6
Deleting an object is a global
function, so if an object is
deleted from a PFD, it
disappears not only from all
PFDs but from the simulation
case.
The Custom PFD
Notebook
Similar to the design of the Workbook, the PFD can be customized into
a Notebook through the addition of new PFD tabs. The availability of
multiple tabs in a PFD format provides greater flexibility for the user.
For very large and complex process flow diagrams, one PFD can be
used as the main tab that shows the whole process, while subsequent
tabs show specific areas of interest. Another ideal circumstance for the
PFD Notebook occurs when you want each PFD to have a distinct
colour scheme for an identical objects setup.
Each PFD is an independent element on which objects can be
moved or hidden without changing the appearance of the other
tabs. However, when multiple PFDs exist, an object added to
one PFD is shown on all PFDs.
3.6.1 Installing a New PFD
To add a new PFD to the Notebook:
1.
Select PFD from the Menu Bar.
2.
From the drop down menu, choose Add a PFD.
Figure 3.11
3-15
3-16
The Custom PFD Notebook
3.
The Add a PFD dialog box will appear, in which the option to clone
an existing PFD is presented. Cloning a PFD produces an exact
duplicate of the chosen PFD. To clone a PFD, activate the Clone
from Existing PFD check box. You can change the name of the PFD
in the New PFD Name cell. Press OK.
Figure 3.12
4.
A new tab appears with the specified name and the new PFD
becomes the active view.
3.6.2 Deleting a PFD
There is no way to recover a
deleted PFD.
The delete option is not
available if there is only one
PFD in the notebook.
Unlike the deletion of a single object, deleting a PFD will remove it from
the notebook, but will not remove the associated objects from the
simulation case. The procedure for deleting a PFD is as follows:
1.
Make the PFD active by selecting its page tab.
2.
In the Menu Bar, choose PFD.
3.
Select Delete this PFD.
3.6.3 Renaming a PFD
If the name of the PFD was not changed when it was added, or if the
name of the original PFD is not suitable, it can be easily modified.
3-16
1.
Select the tab of the PFD you want to rename.
2.
In the Menu Bar, choose PFD to access the drop down menu.
PFD
3.
3-17
Select Rename this PFD to make the PFD Name dialog box appear.
Figure 3.13
4.
Modify the PFD name in the Current PFD Name input cell and
press the Close button.
5.
The new name appears on the tab.
3.7
Cut/Paste Functions
Figure 3.14
The Cut/Paste Objects sub-menu available in the PFD object
inspection menu provides several options for adding, removing or
recombining flowsheet objects.
3.7.1 Creating Sub-Flowsheets
The Combine Into Sub-flowsheet command allows you to select any
number of PFD objects already installed in your simulation case in the
main flowsheet and create a sub-flowsheet containing those objects.
This feature is especially useful if you wish to organize complicated
flowsheets. For instance, you may wish to divide your flowsheet into
different sections in order to aid reading for clearer understanding the
case. To create a sub-flowsheet in this manner:
3-17
3-18
Cut/Paste Functions
1.
Select the PFD objects that are to be part of the new sub-flowsheet.
This may include unit operations, streams and logical operators.
2.
Object inspect an open area of the PFD.
3.
From the Cut/Paste Objects sub-menu, select Combine Into Subflowsheet.
HYSYS will create a new sub-flowsheet within your case.
Moving Sub-Flowsheet Objects Back to
Parent Flowsheet
If you want to move the contents back to the owner flowsheet, object
inspect the sub-flowsheet icon and select Move Contents to Owner
Flowsheet.
Note that even though the contents of the sub-flowsheet have
been moved to the owner flowsheet, the sub-flowsheet still
exists. You may wish to delete this empty flowsheet from your
case. If you decided to “re-collapse” the sub-flowsheet objects,
HYSYS will create a new sub-flowsheet.
3.7.2 Importing/Exporting Objects
You can export flowsheet objects from one and import to another using
the Import Objects and Export Objects commands on the PFD object
inspection menu. Exported object files have the extension .hfl.
Exporting Objects
Select the PFD objects you wish to export and then select the Export
Objects command. HYSYS will ask you to provide a name and
destination for the information.
When you export objects from a flowsheet, the objects, connections
and geometric data is exported. None of the basis or flow information
(components, flowrates, etc.) is included.
Importing Objects
Templates can be imported into a flowsheet by using the Import
Objects command on the PFD object inspection menu. All basis
information already supplied to the flowsheet will automatically be
3-18
PFD
3-19
applied to the imported objects. None of the basis information from
the case from which the objects were exported has been saved in the
template file.
3.7.3 Cloning Objects
Clone flowsheet objects on your PFD using the Clone Selected Objects
from the Copy/Paste Objects sub-menu. Cloned objects occurs within a
single flowsheet. All object information will be automatically cloned
into a new set of objects, the only change will be to the object name.
3.7.4
Hot Keys:
Cut - CTRL X
Copy - CTRL C
Paste - CTRL V
Cut/Copy/Paste
The Cut, Copy and Paste commands in the Cut/Paste Objects submenu have the typical functionality associated with these commands.
Select objects in one flowsheet and paste the cut or copied objects to
sub-flowsheets within the same case. It is important to note that if the
destination sub-flowsheet was created using a different fluid package,
some of the copied information may not be transferrable and thus
omitted.
3.8
Flowsheet Analysis
Using the PFD
Once you have installed your streams and operations in the PFD, you
will need to supply specifications. Specifications are generally input
through the Workbook or an object’s property view. Property views can
be accessed through the PFD allowing you to keep the PFD open while
supplying the necessary object information. In addition, Tables
containing specified variables for streams and operations can also be
installed on the PFD.
If you are in Move or Size
mode, a box will appear
around the operation when
you select it.
The V or E key on the keyboard
can be used to open a selected
object’s property view.
Accessing Stream and Operation Property
Views
You can open property views directly from the PFD by double clicking
on the icon of the desired item.
You can also use Object Inspection to access a property view. Click on
an icon with the secondary mouse button. From the Object Inspection
menu, select the View Properties option and HYSYS displays the
3-19
3-20
Flowsheet Analysis Using the PFD
Property View for the stream or operation. The object inspection menu
for a unit operation is shown in Figure 3.15.
Figure 3.15
To access the property view for a stream, you do not need to find its
icon. You can double click or object inspect any portion of the line
which represents the stream. By object inspecting a line segment, you
will access a menu from which you can select View Properties.
Figure 3.16
Refer to Section 5.4 - Object
Status Window/Trace
Window for details
concerning the Trace Window.
Using the Object Status Window is an equally effective method for
opening property views. By moving the mouse pointer to the extra thick
border (directly above the Status Bar) at the bottom of the DeskTop, the
cursor will change to a vertical line with two arrowheads. Click the
primary mouse button and drag the cursor upward to expose the
Object Status and Trace Windows. The left pane is the Object Status
Window and contains object status messages for the various streams
and operations. By double clicking on a message, the property view for
the associated object will appear.
Note that the Object Status Window option will not be available
once the case has solved. At this point, all object status
messages are OK and are no longer displayed in the Window.
3-20
PFD
3-21
Fly-by Information Boxes
Information related to an object can be displayed by simply placing the
mouse pointer over its associated icon. HYSYS automatically shows a
small box listing the object name and the current values of key
variables. This is shown in Figure 3.17, displaying the fly-by description
of a cooler.
Figure 3.17
3.8.1 Stream Label Options
By default, each stream on the PFD has a label that displays its name.
You can change all stream name labels so that the current value of a key
variable is shown in place of each stream name.
Common Variable Choices
There are a few hot key combinations that allow you to toggle between
stream name labels and some of the more common stream variables:
Hot Key Combination
Function
SHIFT T
Displays stream temperatures
SHIFT P
Displays stream pressures
SHIFT F
Displays stream molar flowrates
SHIFT N
Displays stream names
3-21
3-22
Flowsheet Analysis Using the PFD
Other Variables
You can also replace the stream name labels with other variable values.
HYSYS provides an extensive list of possible choices. As an example, a
procedure for changing the stream name label to the stream Std Gas
Flow value is be outlined:
1.
Object Inspect an open area of the PFD.
2.
From the object inspection menu, select Choose Label Variable.
Figure 3.18
3.
The Select Variable for PFD Labels dialog will appear.
Figure 3.19
4.
3-22
Press the Change Variable button.
PFD
5.
3-23
From the Choose Label Variable dialog, select Std Gas Flow in the
Variable group.
Figure 3.20
6.
To modify the name of the variable, make changes in the
Description input cell.
7.
Press OK.
8.
You will now be returned to the Select Variable for PFD Labels
dialog. Notice that the description provided on the previous dialog
appears in the Current Variable cell.
9.
If you would like to show the molar density of each stream without
units, select the Hide Units radio button.
10. If you wish, you can return the stream names to the PFD by
selecting the Object Names radio button.
11. Press the Close button.
3.8.2 Accessing Column or SubFlowsheet PFDs
Object Inspecting a Column (or Sub-Flowsheet template) in the Main
PFD provides a menu similar to the one for streams and operations
with the addition of two options: Open PFD and Show sub-FlowSheet
Objects.
3-23
3-24
Flowsheet Analysis Using the PFD
Figure 3.21
A reasonable arrangement of
icons on the PFD should be
preserved using the Show subFlowSheets option, however,
for complex sub-flowsheets
the icon layout may become
crowded and may need to be
re-arranged manually.
Appearance of sub-flowsheet stream
tip within Main flowsheet PFD.
The Show sub-FlowSheet Objects command displays all sub-flowsheet
objects (streams, unit operations, tables, text etc.) onto the Main
Flowsheet PFD. In this way, all sub-flowsheet streams and operations
can now be viewed and accessed from the main PFD without entering
the sub-flowsheet environment.
To hide sub-flowsheet objects displayed in the main PFD, object
inspect the tip of any sub-flowsheet stream connected to the main
flowsheet. The tip of the stream will have a small square visible. Upon
object inspection, the Hide sub-FlowSheet Objects option will appear
which, once selected will hide all associated sub-flowsheet objects.
Column Sub-Flowsheet
In HYSYS, the external view of the Column resides in the Main PFD.
Only the external streams of the Column appear, i.e. Inlet, Outlet and
Energy streams. However, the Column possesses its own unique PFD,
which displays the complete representation of the column Flowsheet
internal view (including reboilers and condensers).
For the case of a Column, the Open PFD command opens the PFD,
showing complete column information. The Column PFD displays the
Columns internal streams, such as Boilup and Reflux. Also, in the
Column PFD, the Column is shown with the appropriate number of
stages.
3-24
PFD
3-25
When the column PFD is accessed from the Main
Environment, you will not be able to modify internal subflowsheet connections. You must enter the Column SubFlowsheet environment to perform such tasks as adding or
deleting objects and breaking stream connections.
3.8.3 Opening Controller Face Plates
Like streams, operations, and columns, you can also object inspect
controllers. The options available are the same as those associated with
the other operations, with the addition of one, Face Plate. Selecting this
option will open the face plate of the object inspected controller.
Figure 3.22
3-25
3-26
Flowsheet Analysis Using the PFD
3.8.4 PFD Tables
Workbook Table
You can display any full Workbook tab as a table on the PFD, with the
exception of the default Unit Ops tab. All information displayed on the
Workbook tab will be shown in the table and will be automatically
updated when changes occur in the Flowsheet.
Figure 3.23
Place a Workbook table on the PFD by object inspecting any open area
of the PFD and selecting Add Workbook Table. The Select Workbook
Page dialog will appear from which you can highlight any of the
existing Workbook tabs and press Select.
Once the Workbook table is placed on the PFD, you can click and drag it
to a new location.
When you object inspect a Workbook table, the menu shows the
following options:
Menu Item
Description
Hide
Hides the Workbook table.
Change Font
Allows you to change the font for the text in the table
Change Colour
Opens the colour palette, so you can change the
colour of the table text, and the table outline
Object Variable Table
You can install a Table for any object appearing in the PFD by object
inspecting the stream or operation and selecting Show Table from the
Object Inspection menu.
3-26
PFD
3-27
Figure 3.24
Each Object Type has a default variable list associated with it. The Table
shown here is for the operation Flash Tk. You can modify the list of
displayed variables, as well as the table appearance.
Figure 3.25
When you object inspect a Table, the menu shows the following
options:
Figure 3.26
Table Menu Item
Description
View Properties
Accesses the various properties available for the
tables. Refer to the Table Properties section for a
detailed explanation.
Hide Table
Temporarily hides the table on the PFD. When the
table is revealed, it will be shown as it was before it
was hidden.
3-27
3-28
Flowsheet Analysis Using the PFD
Table Menu Item
Description
Change Font
Allows you to change the font for the text in the table.
Change Colour
Opens the colour palette, so you can change the
colour of the Table text, and the Table outline.
Table Properties
You can also bring up the PFD
table dialog by double clicking
on the table.
A default variable set is provided for each stream and operation type. To
modify this list, object inspect the Table and select the View Properties
option.
Figure 3.27
Removes the selected
variable from the Table.
If you are having trouble
selecting a table, make sure
that you are not in Attach
mode.
Adds a new variable to
the Table.
These Table display
options are controlled via
check boxes.
The buttons located within the dialog box can be used to modify the
variable set for the table. Descriptions of the function and use of the
buttons follow:
3-28
PFD
Button
Button Usage
3-29
Views / Remarks
This button allows you to add a variable to the list
of variables appearing in the Table. The
procedure is as follows:
1. Select the Add Variable button to open the Select
Table Entry for Main view.
2. From the Variable column, highlight the variable you
wish to add to the Table.
Add Variable
3. If you choose a variable such as Liquid Mole
Fraction, the available components appear in the
Variable Specifics column. Select a variable
specification, in this case H2O.
4. You can change the variable description in the
Description box at the bottom.
5. Press the OK button to return to the PFD Table
dialog. Note that the Add Variable option allows you
to add only one variable at a time to the Table.
Remove Var
Use Set
Sort
Format
This button lets you remove variables from the
table. Select the variable(s) to remove from the
Description column, and press the Remove Var
button.
HYSYS does not ask for confirmation before
deleting variables from the table.
HYSYS typically provides default variable sets,
accessed via the Use Set button. The list of
variable Sets differs, depending on the object
type (stream, unit operation, column, controller).
To change to a default variable set, select one
from the list and press OK. The sets shown to the
side apply to a Material Stream Table.
This button allows you to reorganize variables in
the table. Select the item(s) you wish to move
from the Move Variable column. In the Before
column, select the variable in front of which you
want the previously selected item(s) to move.
Press the Move button. Movement of single as
well as groups of variables is allowed. To group
consecutive variables, hold down the SHIFT key
while making selections. For non-consecutive
variables, hold down the CTRL key.
With this button you are able to change the
numeric format of a table value. Before pressing
the Format button, select the variables you want
to change on the Properties table. In the Real
Format Editor, in the Format Specification
group box you can choose from the radio buttons
available: Exponential, Fixed Decimal Point or
Significant Figures. Below the radio buttons you
should further specify your selection. Press OK to
change the table value.
3-29
3-30
PFD Colour Schemes
Column Tables
Column tables can be added in the Main PFD and in the Column PFD.
The tables that can be added are different in each environment. For
instance, in the Main PFD the Column Table consists of variables
relating to the Column Tray Section.
Inside the Column PFD you can add Tables for the Condenser, Tray
Section, and Reboiler. Each of these can contain variables specific to
that unit operation.
3.9
Colour Scheme Button
Each PFD can have its own
distinct Colour Scheme.
PFD Colour Schemes
By simply viewing the colour schemes on the PFD, you can retrieve
specific information about your case. The type of information that is
available depends on the selected colour scheme. For example, in
Default mode, a unit operation may be red, which indicates a serious
status message associated with the object. The colour red may indicate
that the object requires the attachment of a material or energy stream.
The benefit of the colour scheme in the PFD is greatly enhanced if the
object status window is also open. The object colour combined with the
information provided in the object status window can prove very
helpful.
There are three colour scheme options:
Scheme
Description
Default Colour
Scheme
This colour scheme changes the colour of unit operations
and streams to reflect the status of the object. When
building a flowsheet from the PFD, use of this colour
scheme is advantageous. Unit Ops are red if there is a
serious message in the status window, outlined in yellow
if a warning message exists and completely grey if the
object has successfully solved. A Stream icon changes
colour once its status message shows OK. The default
colours are light blue for unsolved and dark blue for OK,
but can be changed in the Session Preferences.
HYSIM Colour
Scheme
Streams and unit operation icons are shown as wire
frames. You may change the colour of the wire frame.
Object inspect an object choosing Change Colour from
the menu. The colour palette appears and a new colour
can then be selected. Choose an existing colour or press
the Define Custom Colours button to customize a
colour. Once a colour has been chosen, press the OK
button. The new colour for the wire frame will then appear.
PFD default colours can be
changed on the Colours page
of the Session Preferences view.
Refer to Section 7.7.5 Preferences.
Simultaneously change the
colour of multiple wire frames
by selecting all of the desired
icons.
3-30
PFD
Scheme
Description
Query Colour
Scheme
The value of a specified variable can be monitored for all
material streams. You can choose five colours and an
associated variable range for each, as shown to the side,
for stream pressure. For the example given in Figure
3.28, the top colour (Colour 1) will appear for material
streams that have a temperature greater or equal to
300C. Colour 2 represents streams ranging from 200 to
300C. Colours 3 and 4 are explained similarly. The last
colour (Colour 5) is shown for streams that have
temperatures below 0.000C. Refer to the following
sections for information on working with query colour
schemes.
3-31
Figure 3.28
3.9.1 Selecting/Changing a Colour
Scheme
The Default Colour Scheme is active when the PFD is first accessed.
There are two ways of switching to another scheme:
• Click on the Colour Scheme button in the button bar. This
produces the PFD Colour Schemes dialog box (Figure 3.29).
Open the Current Scheme drop down list and select a colour
scheme. Press the Close button.
Figure 3.29
Colour Scheme Button
3-31
3-32
PFD Colour Schemes
• Use the mouse or the TAB key to open the colour scheme drop
down menu, located to the far right of the button bar. Select a
colour scheme from the list.
When the simulation case is saved, the active colour scheme for each
PFD is also stored. Note that the Delete this Scheme and Edit this
Scheme buttons appear for Query Colour Schemes only.
3.9.2 Adding a Query Colour Scheme
The Temperature colour
scheme, which is shown in the
Colour Scheme drop down list
when the PFD is accessed, is a
Query scheme.
To add a colour scheme that will track a key material stream variable
throughout the PFD, follow this procedure:
1.
Click on the Colour Scheme button in the button bar.
2.
Press the Add a Scheme button in the PFD Colour Schemes dialog
box. The Variable Navigator appears.
3.
Choose a material stream variable from the Variable group box and
if appropriate, select the variable specifics (i.e. for the selection of
Comp Mole Frac, a component must be chosen from the Variable
Specifics group box).
4.
Press the OK button. The Edit PFD Colour Scheme dialog box
appears.
5.
Input four values in the variable range boxes.
Refer to Section 5.2.2 Variable Navigator for more
details.
Figure 3.30
Variable Range Boxes.
For details on available colour
scheme changes, refer to the
section Editing a Query
Colour Scheme.
Colours that represent the
Variable Ranges.
6.
3-32
Double click on a colour to access the colour palette, from which
you may select a different colour for a variable range. Changes can
also be made to the name of the Scheme Name and to the Variable.
PFD
7.
Select the Close button. This returns you to the PFD Colour
Schemes dialog box.
8.
Press the Close button.
3-33
Deleting a Query Colour Scheme
To delete a query colour scheme:
Make sure you select the right
scheme when deleting as there
is no confirmation required
for this procedure.
Edit and Delete buttons
appear only when a Query
Colour Scheme is selected.
1.
Click on the Colour Scheme button in the button bar.
2.
Select a colour scheme from the Current Scheme drop down list in
the PFD Colour Schemes dialog box.
3.
Press the Delete this Scheme button.
Editing a Query Colour Scheme
Proceed as follows to edit a query colour scheme:
1.
Click on the Colour Scheme button in the button bar.
2.
Select a colour scheme from the Current Scheme drop down list in
the PFD Colour Schemes dialog box.
3.
Press the Edit this Scheme button.
4.
On the Edit PFD Colour Schemes dialog box which appears, you
can edit the following:
Variable
Description
Scheme Name
Use the hot key combination ALT N or the mouse to
select the Scheme Name input box and enter a new
name. Note that the Scheme Name will become the
Query Variable name if the Variable is changed.
Query Variable
Press the Select Variable button to access the
Select Query Variable dialog box. Choose a
material stream variable from the Variable group
box and if appropriate, select the variable specifics
(i.e. for the selection of Comp Mole Frac, a
component must be chosen from the Variable
Specifics group box).
Variable Ranges
Move the cursor to one of the input boxes and input
a new value. The input values will represent the
limits for the five variable ranges. The TAB key can
be used to move from the top cell to the bottom cell,
while the SHIFT TAB is used to move in the opposite
direction.
3-33
3-34
Manipulating the PFD
Only one colour can be
changed at a time.
Variable
Description
Colours for Variable
Ranges
Double click on the colour you want to change. The
colour palette will appear from which a new colour
can be selected. Choose an existing colour or press
the Define Custom Colours button to customize a
colour. Once a colour has been chosen, press the
OK button and the new colour will appear in the Edit
PFD Colour Scheme dialog box.
5.
Once all changes have been made to the query colour scheme,
press the Close button.
6.
Press the Close button on the PFD Colour Schemes dialog.
3.10
A Show/Hide option also exists
for displaying sub-flowsheet
objects on the Main flowsheet
PFD. For further details, see
Section 3.8.2 - Accessing
Column or Sub-Flowsheet
PFDs.
Manipulating the PFD
There are a number of features built into the PFD interface that allow its
appearance to be modified. The manipulations apply to all objects that
can be installed in the PFD: Streams, Unit Operations, Logical
Operations, Labels, and Text Annotations. In addition to the selection
of alternate icons for the operations, you can manipulate the routing of
streams, swap nozzle connections for two streams attached to the same
operation, move and size icons, add text, transform the orientation of
objects, and change text fonts and colours.
You can modify the appearance of the PFD using a number of different
tools: the Menu Bar, Mouse, Keyboard, Object Inspection Menu, and
PFD Inspection Menu. Each tool can be used in some manner to alter
the appearance of the PFD. For whichever route you use, manipulation
of the PFD works through the selection of items.
3.10.1 Selecting PFD Objects
When an object has been
selected, its icon is surrounded
by a white border and the
label background is
highlighted.
Press and hold SHIFT to blink
the bounding rectangles of
items selected in the PFD
To select a label, Object Inspect
the label or the object to which
it is attached, and choose
Move/Size Label.
Alternatively, select the object
and press the L key.
3-34
Before you can manipulate the PFD, you must know how to select PFD
objects, (streams, operations, and text annotations). HYSYS allows
selection of single objects as well as multiple objects, but in order to
select an object, you must not be in Attach mode.
Single Object Selection
• Position the mouse pointer on top of the object. Click once with
the primary mouse button. The selected object appears with a
white rectangular box around its Icon.
• You can also use the keyboard: S to cycle through all items in
the PFD, SHIFT S to cycle backwards through all items.
PFD
3-35
Multiple Object Selection
There are three methods available to selecting multiple objects.
Mouse Drag Option:
1.
If the objects are all contained within the same area, the quickest
and easiest way is to drag a box around the group. Press the
primary mouse button (outside the group), and drag the mouse so
that a box appears.
2.
Continue dragging until this box contains all the objects you want
selected.
3.
When you release the mouse button, each object will have its own
outline surrounding it, indicating it has been selected.
Menu Bar Option:
1.
Choose the Select Objects option, either in the Menu Bar under
PFD, or from the PFD Inspection menu. This produces the Select
Objects dialog.
2.
From the Objects to Select group, select all of the desired objects.
Figure 3.31
Use the Filter for a more
specific list in the Objects to
Select.
3.
When selecting multiple objects from the Objects to Select group,
use the SHIFT key or click and drag with the mouse, provided the
selections are consecutive. You can highlight non-consecutive
selections with the CTRL key and the primary mouse button.
4.
Press the OK button when you have made all your selections. When
you close this view and return to the PFD, all of the objects you
selected will be surrounded by a flashing white box.
3-35
3-36
Manipulating the PFD
Keyboard/Mouse Option
1.
Position the mouse pointer (in the PFD) on the first object you
want to select.
2.
Press the primary mouse button to select this object.
3.
To select a second object, hold down the SHIFT key, and click on the
second object with the primary mouse button. Two objects are
now selected (indicated by a white outline around each).
4.
Continue depressing the SHIFT key until you have selected all the
desired objects.
Deselecting Items
Any of the following methods can be used to deselect an object:
• Click on an empty spot in the PFD with the primary mouse
button.
• Press the D key to deselect all the selected items.
• To unselect only one item, press the SHIFT key and click on the
object with the primary mouse button.
Moving Objects
Objects can be moved in either
Size or Move mode.
The internal Auto Snap
feature may prevent an icon
from being moved with the
keyboard arrow keys. See the
Section - Aligning Icons for
more.
You can move objects individually, or as a group.
1.
Select the item or items you want to move.
2.
Position the mouse pointer over one of the selected items. Press
and hold the primary mouse button.
3.
Drag the mouse to the new position on the PFD and release the
mouse button. All selected items will move.
You can also use the keyboard to move an item within the PFD. Select
the item(s) you wish to move. Use the arrow keys to move up, down,
right, or left. The item moves a space at a time. To move an item in
larger increments, hold the SHIFT key down while pressing the arrow
keys.
Auto Positioning
Use this function to automatically reposition streams and unit
operations. You select the object(s) for HYSYS to reposition. An internal
algorithm determines the current location of objects on the PFD. This
information is then used to set the most appropriate location for the
selected item(s).
Auto-positioning will function differently depending on the object
selected. For unit operations, HYSYS determines a new location for the
3-36
PFD
3-37
object and places it in that position. Manually moving streams attached
to the unit operation after the auto-positioning has no effect on the
position of the unit operation icon.
When a stream is auto-positioned, it becomes a floating icon until it is
manually moved. This means that the stream is initially positioned by
HYSYS after the Auto-Positioning function is accessed. If a unit
operation icon is attached to the stream is then moved, the stream will
be automatically repositioned, floating with the unit operation icon. As
soon as you manually move a selected stream, the auto positioning
function becomes inactive. Any subsequent movement of an operation
to which this stream is attached will not affect the position of the
stream. You will need to use the Auto Positioning function again to have
the stream move with the operation.
You can access Auto-Positioning in the following ways:
Method
Description
Menu Bar
Under PFD, select either Auto Position All or Auto
Position Selected
Object Inspection
Choose Auto Position from the Menu; only selected
items are repositioned
Aligning Icons
This function can be used to horizontally or vertically align any
combination of streams and objects on the PFD. Each object has a
predetermined point through which it will be aligned.
To align icons, follow this procedure:
1.
Select the objects that you want to align. At least two objects must
be selected.
2.
Object inspect the icon that is to be the anchoring point (all other
selected objects will be aligned with this icon).
3.
Choose the Align Selected Icons option from the object inspection
menu.
Auto Snap Align
The Auto Snap feature on the PFD will automatically align objects if
they are moved within an internally set tolerance. This feature helps
eliminate the irregular line segments which might occur for streams.
3-37
3-38
Manipulating the PFD
The Auto Snap feature is always active and cannot be toggled on and
off. This may pose a problem if you want to move an icon via the
keyboard arrow keys. If HYSYS detects that the object is within the set
tolerance, the object will initially move in the direction of the arrow key,
but will snap back to its original position. To overcome this detail, use
the SHIFT key with the keyboard arrow key.
Sizing Objects
Unit Operations and streams installed on a PFD are a standard size.
Sometimes the need arises to change the size of these objects, in which
case you must be in Size Mode. The easiest way to do this is to press the
Size Mode button in the upper left hand corner of the PFD.
Size Mode Button
You can also enter Size Mode from the PFD option in the Menu Bar.
From this menu, choose Select Mode. The Select PFD Mode dialog
appears, from which you can choose the Size radio button.
Figure 3.32
The third method to enter Size Mode is through Object Inspection of
the PFD. Choose Mode and then Size from the menus that appear.
Once in Size Mode, the procedure for sizing is:
1.
Select the object you wish to resize.
2.
A white outline with eight target squares appears around the icon.
These identify the directions in which you can size the icon.
Figure 3.33
Sizing Tool
3-38
PFD
You can only size Labels and
Annotations horizontally and
to a maximum size. This is
useful for text containing
more than one line. You can
size such a text box so that all
text is shown on one line.
3.
To change the size of an icon, place the mouse pointer on top of
the target squares. The pointer changes to the sizing tool (line with
an arrowhead at each end) that indicates the directions that the
object can be stretched or compressed.
4.
Press the primary mouse button and drag away from the icon to
enlarge, and towards the icon to shrink. The icon is sized according
to the change in size of the box.
3-39
The Pump shown in Figure 3.33 is ready to size. However, the name
associated with it, P-100, will not be resized. It remains at its default
size although the size of its associated icon will change. You can change
the Font size of the text to modify the size of the label. See the section
on Moving and Sizing Labels.
Rather than sizing several icons individually, you can size multiple
icons simultaneously. Enter Size mode and select the icons you wish to
size (use one of the multiple selection methods, explained previously).
You will notice that each icon has its own outline around it. Pick any
one of these boxes. Position the mouse pointer on one of the target
boxes, and resize the icon. HYSYS sizes all the selected icons by this
factor.
Column Tray Section Display
Once inside the Column PFD, you can Object Inspect the individual
components of the Column, i.e., Tray Section, Condenser, and Reboiler.
Object Inspection of the Tray Section provides two additional options,
Show Trays and Compress/Expand.
3-39
3-40
Manipulating the PFD
Figure 3.34
Option
Description
Show Trays
This option produces the Stage Visibility view, as
shown here. This allows you to determine how the
Column Tray Section will be displayed on the PFD.
Compress/Expand
This is a Toggle feature, so only one of these options
appears in the object inspection menu at a time. For
the following description, refer to the Stage Visibility
dialog, shown in Figure 3.35. When the Selected
Expansion radio button is chosen and the tray
section is compressed, the Expand option appears
in the menu. This allows you to expand the Column
to full size (showing all the trays) without returning to
the Stage Visibility dialog to select the Full
Expansion radio button. After expanding the
Column, you can return it to its selected compressed
size by choosing Compress from the menu.
If the tray section shown is
compressed, the command at
the bottom of the menu will be
Expand. If the section is fully
expanded, the command will
be Compress
3-40
PFD
3-41
Figure 3.35
When this radio button is
selected, the Column is drawn
showing each tray. For
instance, a 10 tray column will
show trays 1 through 10 on the
PFD.
When this radio button is selected,
you can compress the column tray
section appearing on the PFD.
Instead of individually checking
all the boxes, use these buttons
to check or uncheck all the
stages in the Column.
Check the box for each tray
you want to display on the
PFD.
This group can only be
accessed when the
Selected Expansion radio
button is selected.
HYSYS will always draw the
column showing the first and last
stages, as well as feed and draw
stages.
Swap Connections
Swap Connections Button
This function allows you to select two streams attached to the same
object, and swap their nozzle connections. This is particularly useful
when streams cross each other. There are a few ways in which you can
access the Swap Connections function:
• Press the Swap Connections button.
• Object Inspect a connection point and select Swap
Attachments from the menu.
• Select Swap Connections under PFD in the Menu Bar.
• Use the keyboard command F, which activates the Swap
Connections button. The ESC key reverses the effect of the F
key.
3-41
3-42
Manipulating the PFD
Once you have accessed the Swap Connections function, follow this
procedure:
1.
Notice the mouse pointer when it is over an area of the PFD. It
takes on a special flip stream appearance, indicating which
streams are available for the operation (arrow with a check mark
and a numeral 1).
2.
Move to the first stream you want to swap and select it with the
primary mouse button. The cursor will change (replacing the 1
with a 2).
3.
Select the second stream you want to swap.
4.
After the swapping is complete, the Swap Connections button is
released.
Available to
Swap
Connections
Unavailable
Note that HYSYS indicates an unacceptable choice for Swap
Connections by replacing the check mark with an X.
3.10.2 Transforming Icons, Labels
and Annotations
Using the Rotate and Mirror
functions for multiple objects
will change all selections in
the same manner.
Keyboard commands for
selected objects:
When you add a Unit Operation, Stream, or Annotation to the PFD, it
always appears as it is shown in the Object Palette. You may want to
alter the orientation of an icon to improve PFD clarity. This can be done
through rotating and mirroring.
Method
Description
Transform >>Rotate
Rotate the icon of a selected object (clockwise)
about its centre in one of three ways, 90 degrees,
180 degrees, and 270 degrees.
Transform>>Mirror
Mirrors the object about the X or Y axis.
X mirror about X axis
Y mirror about Y axis
1 rotate by 90
2 rotate by 180
3 rotate by 270.
You can access the rotate and mirror functions through Object
Inspection.
N returns original
orientation
3-42
1.
Select the icon(s) of choice.
2.
Press the secondary button to produce the Object Inspection
menu.
PFD
3.
3-43
Select the Transform option. This produces an expandible menu
containing the Rotate and Mirror functions. Your selection will be
performed on the selected icon(s).
Figure 3.36
Changing Icons
HYSYS always chooses the default icon for PFD display. However, there
are optional icons that you can use to represent the same Unit
Operation. The method for changing icons is as follows:
1.
Select the PFD icon you wish to change.
2.
Press the secondary mouse button to display the Object Inspection
menu.
3.
Choose the Change Icon option (if there are no alternate Icons, this
option will be disabled in the menu).
Figure 3.37
3-43
3-44
Manipulating the PFD
4.
Once you choose the Icon option, HYSYS displays a screen of all
alternate icons allowed for this operation. Choose the one you
want to use. Figure 3.38 shows the options available for the
COOLER operation.
Figure 3.38
Check the Default box if you
want the selected Icon to be
the default for your
simulation.
5.
Notice that you also have the option of setting the new icon as the
default. If you choose the default option, the new icon will be
shown whenever you add this operation to the PFD.
6.
Press the OK button to return to the PFD.
If you have more than one icon selected in the PFD, and they represent
the same type of operation, you can change all selections to an
alternate icon at the same time. If you have selected more than one
type of operation, the Change Icon option will not be available in the
Object Inspection menu.
Wire Frame / 3D Icons
When you Object Inspect a three dimensional icon, the Draw Wire
Frame option is available in the menu. Any operation or stream whose
icon is three dimensional can be transformed to an outline
representation, or a Wire Frame view. A Wire Frame view of the Cooler
is shown in Figure 3.39. Since this is a toggle function, the object
inspection menu of a wire frame object will contain the option Draw
3D, which draws the icon in its default 3D view.
Figure 3.39
Cooler 3D Icon
3-44
Cooler Wire Frame Icon
PFD
3-45
To switch all objects into wire frames, you can:
• Use one of the selection techniques described earlier to select
all objects. Object inspect one object and choose the Draw
Wire Frame option from the menu.
• Change the colour scheme to the HYSIM Colour Scheme (refer
to Section 3.9.1 - Selecting/Changing a Colour Scheme, for
details). The colour of individual items can be changed using
this colour scheme.
Thick Stream Line
When object inspecting a stream icon, the Draw Thick Streamline
option is available. This option creates a more visible stream by making
it wider than the other streams. Use this option to simplify the task of
tracking one particular stream in a complex Flowsheet (i.e. a pipe
network). Return a stream to its default thickness by object inspecting
the stream and selecting Draw Normal Streamline from the menu.
Figure 3.40
3.10.3 Auto-Scrolling
Unlike most of the features available on the PFD, the auto-scrolling
function cannot be accessed through the main menu or by the
keyboard. Only the mouse can be used.
Scroll Button
Auto-scrolling enables continuous horizontal or vertical scrolling of the
active pane, depending on the location of the mouse. To initiate autoscrolling, place the mouse pointer anywhere in the active view and hold
down the primary mouse button. Move the cursor near the PFD pane
boundary. When the cursor enters a 15 pixel boundary at a pane edge
and remains anywhere within the boundary for 0.3 seconds, the view of
the PFD will begin to scroll. The closest boundary to which the cursor is
positioned determines the direction of scrolling, as evidenced by the
3-45
3-46
Manipulating the PFD
movement of the scroll button (i.e. if the cursor is dragged to the top
boundary, the view will scroll from its previous position and proceed
upward while the scroll button moves up)
The speed of scrolling can be varied by moving the mouse within the
boundary near the edge of the view. Faster scrolling will occur as the
cursor is moved closer to the outside.
Mouse Wheel Scrolling
The Static PFD Scroll cursor
appears when the mouse
button is clicked.
The Scrolling Cursor points in
the direction that the focus is
moving.
As an alternative to using the scroll bars, you can scroll to any location
on your PFD using the mouse wheel (or middle mouse button)
functionality. Simply click on the mouse wheel while on the PFD. The
cursor will change to the static PFD scroll cursor. Point your mouse in
the direction you want to scroll. Once you have reached the location
you wish to view, either click the mouse wheel a second time or place
the cursor directly over the static PFD scroll cursor (which remains on
your PFD until you click the mouse wheel).
3.10.4 Rerouting
Quick Route Mode
The Quick Route function can
be accessed while using any
mode (i.e. Move/Size/Attach).
To retain the clarity of the PFD, streams should not overlap unit
operation icons. When working with large complex Flowsheets, each
movement of an object causes HYSYS to reposition streams so that no
unit operation icons are covered. If the PFD is complex, this
repositioning can consume valuable computational time.
In Quick Route mode, the relocation and connection of objects is
completed without considering the other objects in the Flowsheet. For
example, if you move a valve, the valve icon and its associated streams
are relocated without the repositioning of its streams, should one pass
over another icon. After exiting Quick Route mode, HYSYS attempts to
reposition streams so that icons do not overlap. The incurred benefit is
that HYSYS repositions streams once rather than repeatedly doing so
after each object is relocated.
Quick Route Button
3-46
To access Quick Route mode, press the Quick Route button from the
button bar. After you have manipulated the objects on the PFD, press
the Quick Route button again and HYSYS will ensure that no streams
overlap unit operation icons.
PFD
3-47
Manual Routing of Streams
There are two types of manual stream routing:
• Moving the location of a horizontal or vertical line segment
• Adding bend points to create a new route for some portion
of the stream
Full Manual Route mode can only be accessed via the object inspection
of a Stream, away from its icon. From the menu, you must select
Manual Route. Only the portion of the stream which is object inspected
becomes available for manual routing, i.e. you object inspect either the
portion upstream or downstream of the stream icon.
Figure 3.41
To interrupt Manual Route
mode, simply click on an
empty area of the PFD.
In Full Manual Route mode, a bend point is shown at the end of each
line segment and the portion of the stream available for manual routing
changes colour. You can then manipulate any of the line segments in
the selected Stream until Manual Route is interrupted.
When not in Manual Route mode, you can still click on a stream line
segment and drag that portion of the line. Notice that bend points are
not shown in this case.
The procedures for the various Manual Routing processes follow.
3-47
3-48
Manipulating the PFD
Moving Line Segments:
1.
To move a portion of a stream, object inspect it and select Manual
Route from the menu. Anchor points will be shown at each corner
of the stream route.
2.
When you move the pointer over the stream, the pointer changes
to a double arrow head cursor. This cursor is oriented in the
direction that the portion of the stream can be moved, Vertical for
a horizontal section and Horizontal for a vertical section.
Figure 3.42
A Vertical Stream
Line can be
A Horizontal
Stream Line can be
3.
With the primary mouse button, select the desired portion of the
stream and drag it to the new location. As you move, a thin red line
will be drawn indicating the new stream route.
4.
When you release the mouse button, the stream is redrawn
through the new path.
Adding Bend Points
If you wish to create a new route for a stream, you can add new bend
points. The initial procedure is the same. Object inspect the stream and
select Manual Route from the menu. HYSYS will redraw the stream
with the existing bend points shown.
A bend point is an anchor that
the stream passes through.
Use the ESC key to end Manual
Routing. Use the DELETE key to
delete a manual route in
progress.
3-48
The logic behind the routing procedure is that you alternate
between horizontal and vertical sections of line with each
successive bend point.
PFD
You can place a bend point by
pressing the primary mouse
button.
3-49
The idea of bend points is demonstrated in the Figure 3.43. Bend point
2 is the one we are going to manipulate. You have a choice of initially
creating a horizontal or vertical line segment. Subsequent line
orientation is determined by the first line, i.e. horizontal segments
follow vertical and vice versa.
Figure 3.43
A Bend Point placed in this region will
specify a Horizontal Line.
A Bend Point in this region produces a
Vertical Line.
The mouse cursor will display
a check mark at an acceptable
location for the final Bend
Point.
1.
Select an existing bend point to begin the new route. The cursor
shows as a ‘+’ symbol when placed over a bend point, but is
replaced by an ‘X’ when the bend point has been selected.
2.
Around a bend point are four regions, two of which define the next
line as Horizontal, and two that define the next line as Vertical. As
you drag the mouse pointer around the region of the bend point,
notice that a light coloured line is displayed. It shows the area
where the new line routing will be placed.
For slight kinks in a stream it
may be easier to select the
Stream icon, and use the
keyboard arrow keys to nudge
it into place, rather than
inserting and removing bend
points.
3.
Click the primary mouse button to place a new bend point.
4.
Continue to move the mouse pointer to the location of the next
Bend Point and place it by pressing the primary mouse button.
5.
The Manual Routing procedure can only be completed by placing
the Final Bend Point on an Existing Bend Point. If this is not done,
then the new routing you just laid out will not appear in the PFD.
Any bend points added will also be erased.
3-49
3-50
Manipulating the PFD
Removing Bend Points
In certain instances, you may wish to remove bend points to provide a
more direct route between operations. When there is a jog in the route,
as shown in Figure 3.44, you can simply close down the section. Grab
either the Horizontal section between points 1 and 2 and move it
vertically until points 1 and 3 coincide, or grab the Vertical section (2 to
3) and move it horizontally until points 1 and 2 coincide. Either route
will result in the jog being removed from the stream.
Figure 3.44
You can also remove several intermediate bend points. Select the bend
point at the start of the section to be manipulated (in the case of Figure
3.45, point 2). Next, select the bend point at the end of the section
(point 9) and double click with the primary mouse button on the end
point. All intermediate bend points are removed.
Figure 3.45
Connection Line Straightening
This function removes all bend points from a stream to straighten the
line between the stream icon and the unit operation.
To access the line straightening function, the orientation of the stream
icon must be such that it can align with the nozzle connection, i.e. a
horizontal stream icon is in alignment with a nozzle connected to the
side of a unit operation.
3-50
PFD
3-51
To straighten a connection line:
The end of the thin red line
which is NOT chosen serves as
the anchor point, and will not
move when the line is
straightened.
1.
Place the cursor over a stream and look for the cursor to change to
a double-headed arrow
2.
Object inspect the stream with the secondary mouse button.
3.
Choose the Straighten Stream Line option from the pop-up menu.
The stream section that will be straightened becomes a thin red
line and the cursor changes to the acceptable/unacceptable
connection indicator.
4.
Move the cursor to either end of the red line where the cursor will
change from an X to a check mark. This indicates an acceptable
choice for line straightening.
5.
Click the primary mouse button to straighten the line.
Line Segment Alignment
While performing manual routing, the mouse can be used to align
sections of streams. Horizontal sections will be aligned horizontally
and vertical sections will be vertically aligned. The streams need not be
connected to the same unit operation, but the stream sections must be
in close enough proximity so that the internal tolerance for the function
is not exceeded.
As an example of line segment aligning, a unit operation with multiple
feeds will be used. The Mixer, shown in Figure 3.46, has three feed
streams, two of which contain vertical sections. For presentation
purposes, the vertical sections of the streams are to be aligned. To align
segments ab and cd, proceed as follows:
Figure 3.46
1.
Object Inspect the line segment that will be moved. Choose
Manual Route from the menu. The entire line will become
highlighted and its bend points will be shown. For instance, object
inspect line segment ab so that it will be moved to align with
segment cd.
2.
Use the primary mouse button to click on the anchoring segment,
in this case segment cd.
The segments are now aligned. The same procedure is followed for the
alignment of horizontal segments.
3-51
3-52
Adding Annotations
Rebuilding the PFD
In addition to all the different ways you can manipulate the PFD,
HYSYS provides you with an option to rebuild the PFD for any
simulation case. When you want to rebuild the PFD for a case, before
opening that case, use the hot key combination CTRL SHIFT K Z. HYSYS
will then display a message asking you if you want to rebuild the PFD.
Figure 3.47
Click on the Yes button and then the Open Simulation Case view will
appear. Proceed to open the case whose PFD you want to rebuild. If
there are more than one PFD (in the main and sub-flowsheet
environments), HYSYS will ask you if you want to rebuild each PFD (in
the main and sub-flowsheet environments). Click on the Yes if you want
to rebuild the specified PFD and No if you don’t. If there is only one PFD
(i.e. no sub-flowsheets) HYSYS will only ask you once if you want to
rebuild the main PFD.
3.11
Add Text Annotation Button
Text can be placed on the PFD via the Add Text Annotation button.
When this button is pressed, move the mouse pointer to the location on
the PFD where you want to place the text and press the primary mouse
button. HYSYS opens the Text Props View, in which you enter the text
that will appear on the PFD. When you are done, press the OK button.
Figure 3.48
3-52
Adding Annotations
PFD
3-53
3.11.1 Editing Annotations
Object Inspect Text Annotations to access its change menu. The View
Properties option displays the Text Props View. Other options include:
•
•
•
•
•
Hide
Delete
Transform — rotate by 90, 180 or 270 degrees
Change Font
Change Colour
The listed functions for annotations are the same as those previously
described for objects. The Change Font and Change Colour options are
explained in the section Changing Text Fonts and Colours.
Moving and Sizing Labels
Label Sizing Handle
You can move and size object Labels on the PFD. Object Inspect an
icon, and select Move/Size Label from the menu that appears. The
object’s Label is now available for moving and sizing. You can also free
the Label by selecting the object and then pressing L on the keyboard.
The same techniques mentioned for moving operations, streams and
annotations can be used for labels.
Figure 3.49
Sizing Labels is handled a little differently. Labels can only be sized
horizontally (notice the appearance of only two, not eight, resize
handles on the box surrounding the label).
Once you select the Move/Size Label option, the Label is unlocked from
the object to which it belongs. The Label relocks itself once it becomes
deselected; however, you may select the Label’s corresponding object
3-53
3-54
Hiding PFD Objects
icon and then select the label again without relocking the Label. This
facilitates moving and sizing both the icon and its Label at one time
without repeatedly selecting the Move/Size Label command.
Changing Text Fonts and Colours
You can make global changes
for Font and Colour through
Session Preferences (Font and
Colours pages).
When you Object Inspect a Label or Text Annotation, the menu
provides options for changing the Font and Colour. When Object
Inspecting a Label, you have to select the Format Label option to get at
the Change Font and Change Colour features. When you Object
Inspect an Annotation, directly select either the Change Font or
Change Colour option.
Figure 3.50
To change the font or colour
for multiple objects, select the
entire group and then make
the changes.
Menu Item
Description
Change Font
This option allows you to change the font for a Label or
Text Annotation. This function is not global, so only the
selected object’s font is changed.
Change Colour
Accesses a Colour Palette, and allows you to change the
colour of the selected Label or Text Annotation.
3.12
Hiding a unit operation or
stream on your PFD does not
alter your simulation case.
A Show/Hide option also exists
for displaying sub-flowsheet
objects on the Main flowsheet
PFD. For further details, see
Section 3.8.2 - Accessing
Column or Sub-Flowsheet
PFDs.
3-54
Hiding PFD Objects
Any Object on the PFD can be hidden. You can select multiple icons to
be hidden. Hiding an Icon does not prevent the case from solving. Hide
operations, streams, and text annotations by selecting the Hide option
from the Object Inspection menu.
To hide Labels, you need to select the Format Label option and then the
Hide Label option in the Object Inspection menu.
PFD
3-55
Reveal Hidden Objects
Any objects that are hidden on the PFD can be revealed with this
option. You can access this command in two ways. The first is through
the PFD option in the Menu Bar, and the second using PFD inspection.
When you choose Reveal Hidden Objects, the view in Figure 3.51 is
displayed; it allows you to specify the hidden objects to be revealed.
Figure 3.51
Since each pane is simply a
different representation of the
same Flowsheet, you can
interact across views, i.e.,
connect an operation in one
pane to an operation in
another.
3.13
Multi Pane PFDs
The PFD interface allows you to separate the PFD window into a
maximum of four panes. Each pane contains the entire information
regarding the PFD (operations, connections, etc.), but operates
independently with regards to the area of focus, zooming etc.
New panes are created using the manipulation areas located on the
border edge of the PFD view. Notice that the PFD appears to have two
borders. The manipulation areas are located along the inner border.
You can split the PFD once vertically and once horizontally, thus giving
a maximum of four panes. Each new view that you create will have its
own zoom and scroll buttons. This allows the various views to be at
different zoom levels or locations in the overall PFD.
Multi-Pane Sizing Tool
When the mouse pointer is over the heavy inside border of the PFD, the
pointer changes into the multi-pane sizing tool. This is represented by
the symbol shown to the side. The symbol is rotated 90 degrees for a
horizontal split. The Status Bar in the bottom of the screen indicates
which way the split will occur.
3-55
3-56
Multi Pane PFDs
Figure 3.52
Each Pane has its own zoom and
scrolling buttons
1
2
The third and fourth Panes can
be created by dragging from
the bottom inside border of the
PFD window.
By placing the cursor over the heavy inside
border and then dragging horizontally, a
second Pane of the PFD is created.
There is no requirement on which way you initially split the PFD. For
description purposes, a pane that is created by dragging vertically is
termed a Horizontally split pane, and one created by dragging
horizontally is termed a Vertically split pane.
Working Across Panes
By creating Split Panes within
your PFD, you can focus in on
different sections of the PFD in
each pane.
The splitting of PFD panes may become useful in cases where the PFD
is complex enough that you cannot view it in its entirety without
making it very small. When working in split panes of a PFD, it is
important to remember that all the panes interact with each other. This
allows you to connect an operation or stream in one pane to an
operation or stream in another. Whatever you do in one pane will be
done in the overall PFD, so you can see the change in any of the panes.
Resizing or Closing Split Panes
Once panes have been created, they can be resized or closed. To resize
or close a Vertically split pane, place the cursor on the right side of the
vertical scroll bar (in the split pane). The multi-pane tool will appear.
Drag it left or right to change the existing view. Dragging to the extreme
3-56
PFD
3-57
right will close the split pane. The procedure is the same for a
Horizontally split pane, except that you place the cursor on the bottom
of the horizontal scroll bar and drag up or down. Dragging to the
bottom of the original PFD window will close the split pane.
3.14
Printing the PFD
All items (Streams, Operations, Text, and PFD Tables) included within
the PFD Window can be printed. HYSYS prints the PFD as it appears on
the screen. The PFD can be printed from the PFD Inspection menu by
selecting Print PFD.
Figure 3.53
When the PFD has focus, you can select Print Snapshot under File in
the Menu Bar to print the PFD.
You can also access the Print Setup view from the PFD Inspection
menu.
3-57
3-58
3-58
Printing the PFD
Workbook
4-1
4 Workbook
4.1 Opening the Workbook................................................................................ 4
4.2 Installing a Stream or Operation................................................................. 5
4.2.1 New Stream ............................................................................................. 5
4.2.2 New Operation ......................................................................................... 5
4.3 Accessing Streams or Operations.............................................................. 6
4.3.1 Viewing Sub-Flowsheet Objects .............................................................. 9
4.3.2 Show Name Only ................................................................................... 10
4.4 Deleting Streams or Operations ............................................................... 10
4.5 Setup of the Workbook Page .................................................................... 11
4.5.1 Installing a New Tab in the Workbook .................................................... 12
4.5.2 Editing a Workbook Tab ......................................................................... 14
4.5.3 Deleting a Tab from the Workbook......................................................... 18
4.6 Exporting/Importing Workbook Tabs ....................................................... 18
4.7 Sorting Information .................................................................................... 20
4-1
4-2
4-2
Workbook
4-3
The most concise method of displaying process information is in a
tabular format. The HYSYS Workbook has been designed to satisfy this
need, extending the concept to the entire simulation. In addition to
displaying stream information and general unit operation information,
the Workbook can also be configured to display information about any
object type (streams, pipes, controllers, separators, etc.).
The Workbook becomes a collection of tabs. For example, suppose you
add a tab for Separators. Every separator in the Flowsheet will be on
that tab, with the current value of process variables appropriate to the
separator being displayed for each. To provide the greatest degree of
flexibility, you can modify the variable set to show whatever variables
are of interest, or install multiple tabs for the same object type in
varying levels of detail.
Not only is the Workbook extremely powerful for process analysis, but it
has also been developed as an integral element in the building and
manipulation of your simulation. In addition to displaying the process
information, you can make changes to specifications directly from the
Workbook and calculations will be performed automatically.
Mechanisms have also been built into the Workbook to provide you
immediate access to the property view for an individual stream or
operation.
Use the CTRL W hot key to
access a Workbook.
Each Flowsheet in your simulation (Main Flowsheet and Column/
Template SubFlowsheets) possesses its own Workbook. You can access
the Workbook for any Flowsheet from any location in your simulation.
Figure 4.1
4-3
4-4
Opening the Workbook
4.1
Workbook Button
Opening the Workbook
You can open the Workbook for the current Flowsheet by selecting the
Workbook button. Alternately, you can access any Workbook in the
simulation by selecting Workbooks under Tools in the Main Menu. The
Select Workbook view displays all Flowsheets in the simulation. To
open a specific Workbook, select its Flowsheet and press the View
button or double click on the Flowsheet name.
Figure 4.2
The first time you access the Workbook, it will open to the Material
Streams tab, displaying the basic stream information for all streams
currently installed in the Main Flowsheet. Notice that the default
Workbook also contains tabs for Compositions, Energy Streams and
Unit Ops. Shown here is the default Material Streams tab.
Figure 4.3
The Workbook is a resizable
view. Place the mouse pointer
over the border and drag to the
desired size.
Indicates where you can type in a
Name to create a new Stream.
4-4
Workbook
4.2
4.2.1
Refer to Section 1.3.4 Installing Streams for more
information.
Installing a Stream or
Operation
New Stream
The procedure for installing a new stream through the Workbook is as
follows:
1.
Select the **New** cell and begin typing in your stream name.
HYSYS opens the Edit Bar at the top of the Workbook tab, echoing
your input. Press ENTER to complete your input and transfer it into
that cell.
2.
HYSYS automatically advances to the next cell, Vapour Fraction.
Continue supplying your input.
3.
Supply input for any two of the three variables: Vapour Fraction,
Temperature, Pressure, as well as a flowrate.
4.
You can supply composition in numerous ways. You can provide
input directly on the Compositions tab, access the property view
for the stream, or double click on the appropriate flow cell to
access the Input Composition dialog directly.
4.2.2
Refer to Section 1.3.5 Installing Operations for
more information
4-5
New Operation
If your Workbook tab lists operations of a specific type, then the same
procedure as outlined above for streams applies for adding a new
operation.
To install a Unit Operation from the Workbook, proceed as follows:
If the unit operation category
is known, the list can be
filtered by selecting the
appropriate radio button. For
example, selection of the Heat
Transfer Equipment radio
button for a heater or cooler
operation.
1.
Select the Unit Ops tab to open the view.
2.
To access the list of unit operations, press the Add UnitOp button
or use the hot key F12.
3.
Choose the unit operation from the Unit Ops dialog and press the
Add button.
4-5
4-6
Accessing Streams or Operations
4.3
Accessing Streams or
Operations
The functionality of HYSYS allows you to access both streams and unit
operations from any of the default Workbook tabs.
You can access the Property View for a material stream directly from the
Material Streams tab. From this location, you can also access the Input
Composition view, as well as open the property view for any operation
attached to a stream.
Figure 4.4
Double clicking on the material
flow cells opens the Input
Composition view with units
defaulted to the selected flow
type.
Double click on any stream
cell, with the exception of the
material flow cells, and
HYSYS will open the Property
View for that stream.
Double click on Mixer to
open its Property View.
When the Workbook is on a stream tab,
the names of all operations to which the
active stream is attached are displayed
in this box.
From the Compositions tab, you can access a stream property view, the
Input Composition dialog for a stream or the property view of an
attached unit operation.
4-6
Workbook
4-7
Figure 4.5
Double click on the name cell to
access the stream property view.
Unit operations attached to the
highlighted stream are listed here.
Double click on the unit operation
name to access its property view.
Double click or start typing in a
composition cell to open the
Input Composition dialog for the
stream.
Object inspect any cell and select
View to display the stream property
view.
You can access energy stream property views from the Energy Streams
tab. The property views for unit operations to which the energy streams
are attached can also be displayed via this tab.
Figure 4.6
Double click on a cell to
open the energy stream
property view.
Object inspect a cell and
select View to access a
property view.
4-7
4-8
Accessing Streams or Operations
If you are on a Workbook tab of operations, the same capabilities apply.
You can access each operation’s property view by double clicking in an
associated cell.
On the Unit Ops tab, the property view of any unit operation in the
Flowsheet can be accessed. The property view of any stream which is
attached to a unit operation can also be opened from this tab.
Figure 4.7
Double click in the Name cell, Object
Type cell or Calc. Level cell to access
the Unit Operation property view.
The streams attached to the selected Unit
Operation are shown. Double click on a
name to access the stream property view.
4-8
Open the property view of the first stream
listed by double clicking the Feeds or
Products cell.
Workbook
4-9
4.3.1 Viewing Sub-Flowsheet Objects
From the Workbook in the Main Environment, you can view
information concerning Sub-Flowsheet items. You can display
SubFlowsheet information by pressing the Include Sub-Flowsheets
button, located in the lower right corner of the Workbook. For instance,
on the Material Streams tab, you can view the Column Sub-Flowsheet
streams such as Reflux and To Condenser.
Figure 4.8
The command to display SubFlowsheet objects must be
repeated on each individual
Workbook tab.
The functionality of the Include Sub-Flowsheets button is not global to
the entire Workbook. With each tab, you have the option of including
the Sub-Flowsheet items.
To hide the Sub-Flowsheet items from a Workbook tab, simply press the
Include Sub-Flowsheets button again.
You can also view or hide Sub-Flowsheet items on a Workbook tab by
using the Main Menu. Under Workbook, select Page Scope and from
the submenu, choose Show/Hide Sub-Flowsheet Objects.
Figure 4.9
Note that when the Include Sub-Flowsheets option is activated,
the Composition tab will only display results if a common Fluid
Package is shared by the Sub-Flowsheets and the Main
Environment in the case. Since different Fluid Packages can
contain both different types and numbers of components, it is
not possible to display the compositions in the same form.
4-9
4-10
Deleting Streams or Operations
4.3.2
The Show Name Only button
is not available on the default
Unit Ops page.
Show Name Only
To simplify the search for a particular stream or unit operation, select
the Show Name Only button, located in the lower right corner of the
Workbook. This button hides all object data except names. You can
then place the cursor on the name of the object of choice and press the
Show Name Only button again. All object data reappears and the cursor
remains on the selected object.
Figure 4.10
The functionality of the Show Name Only button is not global to the
entire Workbook. With each Workbook tab, you have the option of
showing either the names or all object data.
4.4
To delete objects without
confirmation, clear the
Confirm Delete check box on
the Simulation page of the
Session Preferences view.
Access Preferences under
Tools in the main menu.
Deleting Streams or
Operations
You can delete streams directly from the Workbook by object inspecting
on any cell associated with the stream. A pop-up menu will appear with
the option to view or delete the stream. Choosing Delete will display a
confirmation box to ensure that the choice was not accidental.
Figure 4.11
An alternative to using object inspection is to highlight the name of the
stream and press the DELETE key on the keyboard.
For unit operations, you can use either of the available deletion
methods unless the default Unit Ops page is being displayed. In this
case, highlight the operation and select the Delete button.
4-10
Workbook
4.5
4-11
Setup of the Workbook
Page
When the Workbook is active, HYSYS will redraw the Menu Bar at the
top of the Desktop, adding the Workbook item. Select Workbook or use
the hot key combination, ALT K to open the Workbook drop down
menu.
Figure 4.12
Selecting the Setup option displays the following dialog box:
Figure 4.13
4-11
4-12
Setup of the Workbook Page
4.5.1
You can also access the Setup
page by object inspecting a
Workbook tab and selecting
Setup from the menu.
When a new tab is added to the Workbook, it is inserted directly before
the highlighted tab in the Workbook Tabs group of the Setup view.The
procedure for adding a New Tab to the Workbook by installing a
customized Stream tab is illustrated:
1.
Select Workbook from the Menu Bar, and then select Setup. This
opens the Setup dialog.
2.
Highlight the default Material Streams tab in the Workbook Tabs
group.
3.
Select the Add button in the Workbook Tabs group. The New
Object Type view is automatically opened. The view that opens
shows 13 options. The ‘+’ symbol indicates that there are
additional sub-items underneath. To open the list of sub-items,
double click on the object, or click on the ‘+’. Once the list is open, a
‘+’ symbol will be replaced with ‘-’. To close the list, double click on
the main option, or click on the ‘-’ symbol.
Figure 4.14
4-12
Installing a New Tab in the
Workbook
Workbook
4.
4-13
Double click on the Streams item. The list is redrawn as shown.
Notice that Material and Energy Stream options have been added
to the list.
Figure 4.15
5.
Select Material Stream as the Operation Type and then press the
OK button. You are returned to the Setup view, and the Material
Stream default variable set has been added as a Workbook tab.
6.
Notice in the Tab Contents section that a name has been chosen,
in this case Material Streams 2, based on the selected object type.
Move the cursor to the Name cell and enter in a more descriptive
name for the tab, Comps.
Figure 4.16
This is the newly supplied
name.
HYSYS has filled in the
default variable set for
streams.
The name of the Object Type
appears here.
Format cells indicate the
precision of the variable.
4-13
4-14
Setup of the Workbook Page
Pressing the Close button will return you to the Workbook, with it open
to the tab you just created. The following section continues with the
variable set customization.
4.5.2
You cannot make changes to
the default Unit Ops
Workbook page.
Editing a Workbook Tab
From the Setup dialog, not only can you add new tabs to the Workbook,
but you can also edit existing tabs. The Setup dialog is used to add,
delete, and sort variables on the Workbook tab. Use can be made of
default variable sets or you can individually select the variables to
display. You can also designate the format of each variable here. The
name and type of tab can be modified, as well as the order of objects on
the tab.
The following procedure, which will focus on the new Workbook tab
created in the previous section, will demonstrate some of the available
editing features:
1.
Open the Workbook tab you want to edit by selecting the
appropriate tab in the Workbook. In this case, select the Comps
tab.
2.
Select Workbook in the Menu Bar, and then choose Setup. The
Setup dialog appears. Note that the highlight in the Workbook
Tabs group is on the active Workbook tab. The Tab Contents group
contains the information concerning the active tab, including its
name and type and all variables listed on the tab.
Figure 4.17
4-14
Workbook
Refer to Section 4.7 - Sorting
Information for details on the
Reorder Objects dialog.
3.
In the Object group, you can press the New Type button to change
the type of Workbook tab. The New Object Type dialog appears,
from which you can select a new tab type. For this example
however, the Material Stream option is satisfactory.
4.
Also in the Object group of the Setup dialog, you can select the
Order button. From the Order/Hide/Reveal Objects dialog, you
can arrange the order of the objects as they will be shown on the
Workbook tab. Multiple selections can be made in the Revealed
list.
4-15
Figure 4.18
You can remove multiple
variables from a Workbook
tab. Refer to Section 1.1.9 Selecting Items.
5.
After you have finished rearranging objects, press the Close button.
6.
Focus will now be shifted to the variables contained on the
Workbook tab. To remove a variable, highlight it in the Variables
group and press the Delete button.
4-15
4-16
Setup of the Workbook Page
7.
Press the Use Set button for
default variable lists.
To add variables to the tab, select the Add button. This produces
the Select Variables dialog, which contains appropriate variables
for the Object Type.
Figure 4.19
From this group select the
Variable to add to the Workbook
tab.
You can change the Variable Label by
typing the new name in this box. This is
useful for changing long default names.
You can only add one Variable
at a time.
The Single button lets you
select only one Variable
Specific.
The All radio button allows
you to choose all the
Variable Specifics.
8.
From the Variable column, select the variable to add to the tab. In
the above view, the Variable Comp Molar Flow is selected.
9.
If the selected Variable has specifics, such as components, select
these from the Variable Specifics column.
10. Select the OK button to return to the Setup view.
Refer to Section 6.5 - Format
Editor for details on the Real
Format Editor.
4-16
11. You can specify the display precision of a variable by highlighting it
and pressing the Format button. You can specify the number of
significant digits, a fixed number of decimal places or have the
Workbook
4-17
variable appear in exponential form. Make changes and press OK
or choose the Use Default button for the choice recommended by
HYSYS.
Figure 4.20
See Section 4.7 - Sorting
Information for a more
detailed explanation.
12. Having returned to the Setup dialog, choose the Order button if
you wish to change the order in which the variables appear on the
Workbook tab.
13. Select the Close button on the Setup dialog to return to the
Workbook tab.
Using Default Variable Sets
If you do not want to create your own variable set by using the Add and
Delete buttons, you can choose one of the predefined variable sets for
your Workbook tab. Selecting the Use Set button on the Setup dialog
accesses the view shown here. The list of default sets will depend on the
page Object Type.
Figure 4.21
These sets may serve as the basis for user modified variable sets.
4-17
4-18
Exporting/Importing Workbook Tabs
4.5.3
There is no confirmation
message when you delete a
Workbook tab. You cannot
recover deleted tabs.
Deleting a Tab from the
Workbook
To Delete a tab from the Workbook, select the Workbook option from
the Menu Bar and then select Setup. Once the Setup view is shown,
choose the tab from the Workbook Tabs group and press the Delete
button. The Workbook tab is now deleted.
4.6
Exporting/Importing
Workbook Tabs
Once a Workbook has been customized with the addition/deletion/
sorting of tabs and variables, it can be exported to a file. This same
workbook setup can then be used in another simulation case by
importing this file into HYSYS.
Access the exporting feature by selecting Export under Workbook in
the Menu Bar. From here you can choose to either export the entire
workbook or just some of the pages in the workbook.
Figure 4.22
If you choose to export pages the following dialog will appear allowing
you to specify what pages to export.
Figure 4.23
4-18
Workbook
4-19
After you have made a selection, either workbook or pages, choose a
File Path (the default is usually satisfactory), a File Name and select the
OK button.
Figure 4.24
The format for the .wrk files
does not change for an
exported workbook or
individual exported pages.
This means that existing .wrk
files are completely backwards
and foreards compatable, as
well as interchangeable for
workbook or workbook page
importing
Access the importing feature by selecting Import under Workbook in
the Menu Bar. From here you can choose to either import the entire
workbook or just some of the pages in the workbook.
A unique-naming function
has been added to distinguish
imported pages from preexisting pages that have the
same name.
Figure 4.25
Choose the Workbook file from the list and select the OK button. If the
file is not listed in the File Name box, an alternate File Path may be
needed.
Figure 4.26
4-19
4-20
Sorting Information
4.7
You can change the views for
opening and saving files to the
Windows standard in the
Preferences view.
Sorting Information
Each Workbook tab can be sorted independently. You can sort the
objects on a tab or you can select the order of the variables on a tab.
Object Sort
There are three locations where you can access the Sort function, all
three display the Order/Hide/Reveal Objects view:
• Order/Hide/Reveal Objects in the Workbook Menu
• Order/Hide/Reveal Objects in the Object Inspection of the
Workbook tabs or any cell
• Order button in the Object group of the Workbook Setup
view.
Figure 4.27
If the Workbook tab is sorted
alphabetically, objects
continue to be sorted
automatically following any
ensuing Name changes.
Option
Definition
Manual
Allows you to manuall rearrange the Workbook objects.
Select an object (or multiple objects) in the Revealed
group and use the up and down arrows to move the
selected object(s) through the list.
Alphabetical
Ascending
Sorts the Names of the objects in alphabetically
ascending order. Any item with a numerical name will be
listed first in an Alphabetical Ascending Sort.
Alphabetical
Descending
Sorts the names of the objects in alphabetically
descending order. Lists any items with a numerical name
last.
Use the Hide and Reveal buttons to hide or display the objects within
the workbook.
4-20
Workbook
4-21
Variable Sort
The Variable Sort lets you reorder the variables on the Workbook tab.
For this example, you will use the default stream variables list. To
reorganize the order in which these variables appear on the Workbook
tab, use the following procedure.
1.
Select Setup from the Workbook drop down menu.
2.
On the Setup view, select a Workbook tab from the Workbook Tabs
group and press the Order button in the Variables group. The Move
Components dialog appears.
Figure 4.28
If variables were added to the
Workbook tab as a group, i.e.
component molar flows, you
cannot move these
individually, but only as a
group.
3.
Select the variable(s) you want moved from the Move Variable
group.
4.
Press the Up Arrow or Down Arrow button, depending on how you
want to move the variable. The variable(s) selected in the Move
Variable group will be in a new position. The other variables will
not have changed.
5.
Close the view by pressing the Close button and then press the
Close button in the Setup view to return to the Workbook tab.
4-21
4-22
4-22
Sorting Information
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-1
5 Flowsheet Analysis in
HYSYS
5.1 Property View Flowsheet Analysis ............................................................. 3
5.1.1 Stream Analysis ....................................................................................... 4
5.1.2 Unit Operation Analysis............................................................................ 5
5.1.3 Simulation Navigator ................................................................................ 7
5.2 Navigation ..................................................................................................... 8
5.2.1 Object Navigator ...................................................................................... 9
5.2.2 Variable Navigator...................................................................................11
5.3 DataBook..................................................................................................... 15
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
Variables Tab.......................................................................................... 16
Process Data Tables Tab ....................................................................... 17
Strip Charts Tab ..................................................................................... 20
Data Recorder Tab ................................................................................. 33
Case Studies Tab ................................................................................... 37
5.4 Object Status Window/Trace Window ...................................................... 46
5.4.1 Opening and Sizing the Windows .......................................................... 46
5.4.2 Available Information.............................................................................. 46
5.4.3 Object Inspection Options ...................................................................... 47
5.5 Attaching Utilities....................................................................................... 48
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.5.4
5.5.5
Adding a Utility from a Stream Property View ........................................ 49
Adding a Utility From the Flowsheet ...................................................... 50
Viewing Utilities ...................................................................................... 52
Deleting Utilities ..................................................................................... 53
Attaching a Utility to a Different Stream ................................................. 53
5-1
5-2
5-2
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-3
HYSYS has been designed such that the analysis of your process is not
something that occurs after the fact, but rather, it is an integral part of
building the model. This is a direct result of the power of Event Driven
simulation. Information is processed as you supply it, with calculations
being performed automatically. The key is that results are available
immediately, and due to the Event Driven nature of HYSYS, you can
access whatever information you need at any time, including as
calculations are proceeding.
The approach incorporated for Flowsheet analysis in HYSYS is very
powerful. You gain the greatest possible process understanding by
examining both the individual components of your process and the
process as a whole. All internal relationships which govern your process
are revealed, rather than just the end results.
The Flowsheet analysis tools in HYSYS have been developed around
this interactive approach to modelling. Because of the object oriented
design, there is a great degree of flexibility provided in this area. Since
there is no standardized way to look at process information, there are a
variety of ways in which the necessary information can be presented,
from tabular to plots. The power of HYSYS is demonstrated in that the
various analytical tools are available simultaneously, with the same
information being displayed in a variety of manners.
Previous chapters have already outlined some of the analytical
capabilities built into the Main Interface elements, such as the Property
View, the PFD and the Workbook. This chapter will explain some of
these in greater detail as well as the specific analytical tools available.
5.1
Property View
Flowsheet Analysis
In HYSYS, Stream and Operation property views contain analytical
information based on the current Flowsheet conditions. For example,
the Stream property view has a page which contains information
concerning all phases present in the stream. Also, certain operations
have pages which display performance profiles, results, and other
analytical information.
5-3
5-4
Property View Flowsheet Analysis
5.1.1 Stream Analysis
Refer to Section 2.1 - Material
Stream Property View in the
Steady State Modeling
manual for details on the
various page tabs.
See Section 5.5 - Attaching
Utilities - for information on
attaching a utility to a stream.
Included as part of the Stream property view are two tabs containing
information pertinent to stream analysis: the Worksheet and
Attachments tabs. The Properties page in the Worksheet tab contains
detailed physical property information about the stream. The
Conditions page is simply a subset of the information provided in the
Properties page. The Utilities page in the Attachments tab is used to
attach Utilities to the stream, while the Unit Ops page indicates the unit
operations attached to the stream.
Figure 5.1
Open the Stream property view and go to the Properties page in the
Worksheet tab. In addition to containing the basic stream conditions,
more detailed physical property information for the stream is shown.
With the Stream property view at its default size, the page has vertical
and horizontal scroll bars. The vertical scroll bar allows you to view the
additional properties in the list. By using the horizontal scroll bar, you
can scroll left and right to view the Vapour, Liquid and/or Aqueous
phases for the stream.
Instead of scrolling through the view, you can resize it so that all phases,
and all of the properties for each phase can be seen, as shown below.
The Liquid Phase is referred to as the Aqueous Phase because Water is
present in the Stream. The other phases you may encounter are Light
and/or Heavy Liquid.
5-4
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-5
Figure 5.2
5.1.2 Unit Operation Analysis
A Worksheet tab is available
on each unit operation
property view. It provides
access to the streams attached
to the unit.
Many Unit Operations in HYSYS have pages that contain analytical
information. The Heat Exchanger displays its analytical information on
the Worksheet and Performance tabs.
The Details page in the Performance tab is shown in Figure 5.3. This
page displays Heat Exchanger information in two groups:
• Overall Performance
• Detailed Performance
5-5
5-6
Property View Flowsheet Analysis
Figure 5.3
The Plots page in the Performance tab lets you to generate curves for
the shell and/or tube sides of the heat exchanger. From the Plot Type
drop down, you can select the X and Y axis variables for the plot. The
Tables page displays the same information provided in the Plots page
but in tabular form.
Figure 5.4
5-6
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-7
The type of analytical information found in operation property views is
dependent on the operation type. Regardless of what the operation is,
the displayed information is automatically updated as conditions
change.
5.1.3 Simulation Navigator
The Simulation Navigator acts as a shortcut means of quickly viewing
the property view of any stream or unit operation within your HYSYS
case.
Simulation Navigator button
You can access the Simulation Navigator by selecting the Simulation
Navigator option from the Flowsheet menu bar or by clicking the
Simulation Navigator button in the button bar. This will open a
window allowing you to view any stream or unit operation. Selecting an
object from the tree list on the left will display its property view on the
right just as it would appear as if accessed from the flowsheet.
Figure 5.5
Figure 5.5 above shows a Stream property view as it would appear for
the ColdGas Stream object currently highlighted.
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5-8
Navigation
There are three radio buttons that allow you to filter the flowsheet
objects.
• Object - This filter organizes the attachment tree via object
type. This allows you to look at just the heat transfer equipment
or all of the vessels.
• Status - This filter allows you to view all of the objects via status
type. There are five different status types that the objects are
filtered into: OK, missing optional information, warning, missing
required information and error.
• Flowsheet - All of the objects contained in a column or
subflowsheet are shown under their respective column/
subflowsheet title. The objects in the main flowsheet are just
listed in alphabetical order.
For certain objects. you may need to enlarge the view horizontally to
see more of the property view. This can be performed by selecting a
window edge with the mouse and dragging to resize the view.
5.2
Navigation
HYSYS provides two Navigational aids that essentially bring the MultiFlowsheet architecture into a flat space. A simulation containing a Main
Flowsheet and Sub-Flowsheets (Columns and/or Template
SubFlowsheets) can be considered as having a Directory/File structure.
Flowsheets are directories (with the Main Flowsheet being the Root
directory) with Flowsheet elements (streams, operations or utilities)
being the files. However, one difference is that Sub-Flowsheets are both
Flowsheet Elements (within the main simulation) as well as Flowsheets
themselves. The effect of this difference on how you use the
navigational tools will be illustrated in the following subsections.
The two Navigators provided are:
5-8
Navigator
Definition
Object Navigator
Locate and view any Flowsheet Element within any
Flowsheet, or enter the build environment for a
Flowsheet. The object navigator is also used to
select objects for Utilities.
Variable Navigator
Select a process variable for an object from any
Flowsheet. You will use this Navigator during the
installation of Controllers, Adjusts, Strip Charts,
Spreadsheets, etc.
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-9
5.2.1 Object Navigator
You can access the Object Navigator (shown in Figure 5.6) in four ways:
• Double click on an empty area of the DeskTop.
• Press the Navigator button on the Button Bar.
• Choose the Flowsheet option from the Menu Bar, and then
choose Find Object.
• Press F3.
Navigator Button
Figure 5.6
Flowsheets group contains
Flowsheets, Sub-Flowsheets
and Templates.
Contains Objects
present in the
highlighted Flowsheet,
according to the Filter.
Enter the Environment of the
highlighted Flowsheet by
pressing this button.
Locates and opens the
property view of a
named object.
Radio Buttons designate
which object types will be
displayed in the
Flowsheet Objects group.
Allows you to create your
own filter topic for the
Flowsheet Objects list.
Opens the property view
of the selected object.
Object Filter
The Object Filter group is common to both the Object and Variable
Navigators. These radio buttons allow you to filter the Object list to only
those of a certain type. For example, choosing the Streams radio button
will show only streams.
The Setup Custom button allows you to define your own filter criteria:
When a ‘+’ is located after a
name in the list, highlight the
name and press ENTER or
double click on the name to
expand the list.
1.
Access the Select Type list of available objects by selecting the
Custom radio button or the Setup Custom button. The Setup
Custom button is used when the Custom radio button is already
selected.
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5-10
Navigation
2.
From the Select Type dialog, choose the stream type or unit
operation type and press OK.
Locating a Property View
The Object Navigator works in a left to right sequence. When you
highlight a Flowsheet, all Flowsheet objects (based on the current filter)
are displayed in the Flowsheet Objects group.
To access a property view for a specific Flowsheet object, use one of the
following methods. For all three of the methods, you will need to first
select the appropriate Flowsheet from the Flowsheets group.
• Highlight the desired object in the Flowsheet Objects group
and press the View button.
• Double click on the object in the Flowsheet Objects group.
• Press the Find button. This produces a dialog in which you
provide the name of the Object you wish to locate.
When you have located the desired object, the Navigator closes and
places you in the Property View for that stream or operation.
In the Object Navigator view (shown in Figure 5.6), SW Stripper
appears as both a Flowsheet and a Flowsheet Object. To the main
simulation, each Sub-Flowsheet appears as a single operation and has
an appropriate property view (or outside view). Selecting SW Stripper
from the Flowsheet Objects group brings you to this outside view.
Entering Build Environments
You can enter the Build Environment for any Flowsheet directly from
the Object Navigator. Highlight the Flowsheet (in the Flowsheets
group) and select the Build button, or double click on the Flowsheet
directly.
Selecting an Object for a Utility
Refer to Chapter 8 - Utilities
for more information
concerning available utilities.
5-10
A simplified version of the Object Navigator is used when an object
must be selected for a utility. The same functionality is present, in that a
Flowsheet must be selected and then an object from within that
Flowsheet highlighted. However, you cannot enter other build
environments or access the property views of objects from this form of
the Navigator. Its sole purpose is to present the available objects for the
utility.
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-11
HYSYS will automatically filter the list of objects according to the type
of utility. For instance, an Envelope utility performs calculations for
streams, thus the Navigator will show only available streams. The
Navigator accessed via the Envelope utility is shown below.
Figure 5.7
Once an object is selected for a utility, you can remove it using the
Navigator. Simply re-access the Navigator and press the Disconnect
button.
5.2.2 Variable Navigator
When you are browsing for variables (i.e. selecting a process variable
for a controller or a Strip Chart), the Variable Navigator is used. The
Variable Navigator uses a similar structure to the Object Navigator, but
allows for a more detailed search. When the Flowsheet radio button in
the Navigator Scope group box is selected, you can select the
Flowsheet, the Object, the Variable, and a Variable Specific
simultaneously.
For example, consider the situation where you want to select the
Process Variable for a controller. When you press the Select PV button
(from the Controller Connections page), the Variable Navigator will
appear.
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5-12
Navigation
Figure 5.8
Using the Variable Navigator
Refer to Section 5.2.1 - Object
Navigator for details on list
filtering.
When selecting a variable, you work your way from left to right through
the groups. The Object Filter eliminates selections from the Object
group according to your selection of a radio button. Selected items will
be highlighted, as shown in the previous Variable Navigator view.
The procedure used for selecting a process variable is:
5-12
1.
Choose the Flowsheet radio button from the Navigator Scope
group box.
2.
From the Flowsheet group, select the Flowsheet from which the
process variable will be selected, in this case, CO2 Wash.
3.
The Object group contains all the objects (streams, operations, and
logicals) within the chosen Flowsheet. Select To_Fermentor to be
the process variable.
4.
In the Variable group, all the variables relevant to the chosen
Object are displayed. In this case, Comp Mole Frac is selected.
5.
For certain variables (such as component specific variables), the
available Variable Specifics are listed in the fourth column. Choose
Ethanol.
6.
The Variable Description box contains the description that will
appear in the Variable cell for a controller, and the label for the
Variable in a Strip Chart. You can change the name supplied by
HYSYS.
7.
To complete the selection, press the OK button.
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-13
Below the Object Filter group, there are two buttons, Disconnect and
Cancel. The Disconnect button removes a connected variable while the
Cancel button simply closes the Navigator without saving any changes.
Navigator Scope
Column Spec Values will
appear as Variable Specifics
when you select Spec Value as
the Variable.
The final section of the Variable Navigator is the Navigator Scope
group. This group contains four radio buttons.
Object
Definition
Flowsheet
When this radio button is selected, the Navigator
displays the previous view. The Object group box
contains a list of all the Flowsheet Objects, as
determined by the Object Filter.
Case
This radio button is primarily used to access general
case information; for instance, information
concerning the Main Solver or Optimizer. You can
also use this radio button when a column is the Main
Flowsheet, i.e. the case is a column template, to
access column specification variables.
Figure 5.9
5-13
5-14
Navigation
Object
Definition
Basis
When this radio button is selected, the Navigator
shown in Figure 5.10 appears. If different property
packages or components are being used for
SubFlowsheets, they can be accessed by using this
radio button. In the Basis Object group box, each
basis for the simulation will be listed. Once a basis is
highlighted, its components and property package
will be shown in the Object group box. Each
component will have a list of variables from which to
choose. For the property package selection in the
Object group, you will be able to select options from
the Variable group, the Variable Specifics group
and the More Specific group.
Figure 5.10
5-14
Object
Definition
Utilities
When the Utility radio button is selected, the
Navigator shown below appears. A special utility
Object Filter appears, from which the Object list
can be shortened. The Object Filter All radio button
shows all of the Utilities installed in the case. The
Variables group displays only the variables
associated with the chosen Utility. For example, the
variables for an Envelope utility are shown here.
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-15
Figure 5.11
5.3
DataBook
With the redesigned DataBook, HYSYS provides a location from which a
systematic approach to data analysis can be taken. The DataBook
allows you to monitor key process variables in Steady State and in
Dynamics mode. Variables for all DataBook features are selected in a
single location. You can then activate variables from the main list for
each application.
There is only one DataBook in each HYSYS case, containing variables
from all Flowsheets. All of the following features are defined and
accessed through this single DataBook:
Databook Features
Process Data Tables
Strip Charts:
•
Historical Data Table
•
Current Values Table
Data Recorder Scenarios
Case Studies
Plotting for the Data Recorder and Case Study tool
You can access the DataBook by using the CTRL D hot key combination,
or via the Tools option on the Menu Bar.
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5-16
DataBook
5.3.1 Variables Tab
You can place as many
variables as you want on the
Variables tab.
All variables that will be used for the features of the DataBook are added
on the Variables tab. The variables added to the DataBook are
displayed in the Available Data Entries group box. For each variable,
the Object to which it is attached and a Variable description are listed.
Figure 5.12
Refer to Section 5.2.2 Variable Navigator for
instructions on the use of the
Variable Navigator.
Adding a Variable
The procedure for adding a variable is illustrated with the following
example. The variable to be added is the tray 6 temperature in a
Column operation.
1.
Select the Insert button from the Variables page to open the
Variable Navigator.
Figure 5.13
5-16
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
Notice that the Object Filter
has been used to display only
Unit Ops.
2.
From the Flowsheet group, select the Main Flowsheet containing
the variable.
3.
Move to the Object group and select T-100.
4.
In the Variable group, select Stage Temperature.
5.
More detail is needed to fully define the Variable. Move to the
Variable Specifics group and select 6_Main TS.
6.
The Variable Description box contains the name that will be
associated with the variable. If you want you can change the name
at this time. In this example, the name has been changed to
Stg6_Temp.
7.
Press the OK button to return to the Variables tab of the DataBook.
5-17
When you return to the DataBook, note that T-100 is shown under
Object and Stg6_Temp is under Variable.
Editing a Variable
To edit a variable, highlight it in the Available Data Entries group and
press the Edit button. This will produce the Variable Navigator view.
The Navigator selections are highlighted and will correspond to the
selected variable. You can change any of the selections: Flowsheet,
Object, Variable, Variable Specifics or the Description. After making
changes, press the OK button. If you decide after making the changes
that you do not want them, press the Cancel button. You will return to
the Variables page and your original variable selections will be intact.
Deleting Variables
When a Variable is deleted
from the Variables page, it is
removed from all features in
the DataBook, i.e. the Process
Data Tables, the Strip Charts,
etc.
Any variable added to the DataBook can be deleted from the Variables
page. Highlight the Variable and press the Delete button. HYSYS does
not require confirmation of the deletion, so make sure you have
selected the correct variable.
5.3.2 Process Data Tables Tab
Variables for the Process Data
Tables are selected on the
Variables tab of the
DataBook.
Process Data Tables are installed individually via the Process Data
Tables tab. On this tab, you can view, add, or delete customized process
data tables. For each table, you can add any combination of key process
variables from the list of available variables. Variables can be used in
multiple Process Data Tables.
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5-18
DataBook
Figure 5.14
Lists all the Process Data
Tables in the case.
Views the highlighted
Process Data Table.
Supply a descriptive name for
the highlighted Process Data
Table.
Adds a new Process
Data Table.
Deletes the highlighted
Process Data Table.
When the Show check box is
activated, the Variable is added
to the highlighted Process Data
Table.
Adding a Process Data Table
When the Process Data Tables tab is first accessed, there will be no
Available Process Data Tables in the list. Refer to Figure 5.14 while you
create a Process Data Table.
Variables can be shown in
more than one Process Data
Table.
5-18
1.
Select the Add button.
2.
The default name ProcData1 will appear in the list of available
tables. If desired, enter a different name in the Process Data Table
input cell.
3.
In the Individual Process Data Selection group box, all variables
available in the DataBook will be listed. Activate the Show check
box for each variable that you want to appear in this Process Data
Table.
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-19
Deleting A Process Data Table
When a Process Data Table is
deleted, the variables
associated with it are not
deleted from the DataBook.
There are two methods available for deleting a Process Data Table from
a case. Each of the methods is permanent, in that a deleted Process
Data Table cannot be recovered. Also, HYSYS does not ask you for
confirmation before deleting a Process Data Table. The methods
available are:
• Highlight the Process Data Table name in the Available
Process Data Tables group and press the Delete button.
• Highlight the Process Data Table name and press the DELETE
key on the keyboard.
Viewing A Process Data Table
To view existing Process Data Tables use one of the following methods:
Figure 5.15
• Highlight the Process Data Table name in the Available
Process Data Tables group and press the View button.
• Double click on the name of the Process Data Table in the
Available Process Data Tables.
The Process Data Table shows the following for each variable:
•
•
•
•
The Object to which the variable is attached
The descriptive Variable name
The current Value
The Units
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5-20
DataBook
5.3.3 Strip Charts Tab
Variables for the Strip Charts
are selected on the Variables
tab of the DataBook.
Monitoring the response of key process variables during dynamic
calculations is best accomplished via the Strip Charts tab. Strip Charts
allow you to monitor the behaviour of process variables in a graphical
format while calculations are proceeding. Current and Historical values
for each Strip Chart are also tabulated for further examination.
Strip Charts are installed individually via the Strip Charts tab. Multiple
Strip Charts are allowed, and each of these can have an unlimited
number of variables charted. However, since the same variable can be
used in more than one Strip Chart, it is recommended that you utilize
multiple Strip Charts with no more than six variables per Strip Chart.
Figure 5.16
Views the History Data
of the highlighted Strip
Chart.
Views the highlighted
Strip Chart.
Supply a descriptive name
for the highlighted Strip
Chart in this cell.
Displays all the Strip
Charts in the case.
Displays the Current
values of variables in
the highlighted Strip
Chart.
Opens the Strip Chart
Setup view.
Deletes the highlighted
Strip Chart.
Adds a new Strip
Chart.
When Active, the
associated Variable is
plotted on the highlighted
Strip Chart.
The Strip Charts tab is split into two groups: Available Strip Charts and
Individual Strip Chart Data Selection.
5-20
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-21
Available Strip Charts Group
The Available Strip Charts group consists of the Available Strip Charts
list that displays all the previously created strip charts. Six buttons
border the list box which allow you to manipulate the strip charts and
their properties.
Button
Description
Strip Chart
Opens the Strip Chart view for the current selection
in the Available Strip Charts list.
Historical
Displays the historical data of the highlighted strip
chart in tabular form.
Current
Displays the Current values of the active variables in
the selected Strip Chart.
Add
Adds a new Strip Chart to the Available Strip Chart
list.
Delete
Deletes the selected Strip Chart.
Setup
Opens the Logger Setup view. The Logger Setup
view displays the number of samples that will be
stored in the Strip Chart. The view also displays how
frequently data is recorded into the strip chart.
Individual Strip Chart Data Selection Group
The Individual Strip Chart Data Selection group contains four objects:
Object
Description
Name
The name of the Strip Chart.
Sample Int.
The sampling interval.
A matrix that displays the variables selected on the
Variables tab. The matrix consists of three columns:
Variable Selection
• Object - displays the flowsheet source for the
variable.
• Variable - displays the selected variable.
• Active - toggles the variables in and out of the
Strip Chart.
Adding a Strip Chart
Refer to Figure 5.16 as you add a new Strip Chart to the DataBook.
1.
Select the Add button in the Available Strip Charts group.
2.
HYSYS installs the new Strip Chart and automatically names it. In
this case, the name is DataLogger1.
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5-22
DataBook
Variables can be shown in
more than one Strip Chart.
3.
The name of the currently selected Strip Chart, DataLogger1 also
appears in the Strip Chart Name cell. You can modify the name
directly in the input cell.
4.
In the Individual Strip Chart Data Selection group box, all
variables available in the DataBook will be listed. Activate the
Active check box for each variable that you want to appear in this
Strip Chart.
Deleting a Strip Chart
When a Strip Chart is deleted,
its attached variables are not
deleted from the DataBook.
There are a number of methods available for deleting a Strip Chart from
a case. Each of the methods is permanent, in that a deleted Strip Chart
cannot be recovered. Also, HYSYS does not ask you for confirmation
before deleting a Strip Chart. The methods available for deleting a Strip
Chart are:
• Highlight the Strip Chart name in the Available Strip Charts
group and press the Delete button.
• Highlight the Strip Chart name and press the DELETE key on the
keyboard.
• Highlight the Strip Chart name, Object Inspect it and select
Delete from the menu that appears.
Viewing the Strip Chart
The most common means of monitoring the trends of targeted process
variables is via the Strip Chart. This is a dynamic view that is being
continually redrawn with time labels shifting.
To view existing Strip Charts use one of the following methods:
• Highlight the Strip Chart name in the Available Strip Charts
group and press the View button.
• Double click on the name of the Strip Chart.
• Highlight the name of the Strip Chart, and object inspect it.
From the menu, choose View to display the Strip Chart.
If the Integrator has been started, the Strip Chart begins to accumulate
data points as soon as it is created.
5-22
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-23
Strip Chart View
Figure 5.17
The Legend shows the Names and
Formats of the Variables, as they are
shown on the Strip Chart.
By default like variables are grouped under
a similar axis range. You may however
create you own y axis in the Graph
Controls property view.
Strip Chart
variables are
grouped into their
unit sets. Grouped
variables share
the same y-axis
range.
Time is always on the x-axis.
Interval Markers are used to
measure variables at certain
instances in the strip chart.
Current values of the
Strip Chart variables.
You can manipulate the information displayed on the strip chart within
the Strip Chart view. There are several functions you can perform
directly on the strip chart.
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5-24
DataBook
Selecting Curves
The y-axis will display the range and units of a specific variable in the
strip chart depending on which variable you select in the strip chart.
You may select a curve in one of two ways:
• Click any part of the strip chart variable curve on the Strip
Chart using the primary mouse button.
• Object inspect the Strip Chart. Choose Select Curve from the
Object Inspection menu and select strip chart variable.
Figure 5.18
If you select the background of
the strip chart the following
mouse cursor will appear. It
will allow you to move in any
direction along the strip
chart.
If you simply wish to move
vertically across the strip
chart select a curve with the
primary mouse button and
the following mouse cursor
will appear.
Manipulating the Y-Axis Range
You can manipulate the y-axis range of the strip chart. In order to
modify the range of what is displayed:
1.
Click and hold any part of the strip chart. A multi-directional
cursor will appear, as shown in the sidebar.
2.
Drag the Strip Chart up if you wish to display a lower range of
values on the y-axis. Drag the Strip Chart down if you wish to
display a higher range of values.
By default, Strip Chart curves are grouped into their unit sets. For
instance, all temperature variables are associated and displayed with
the same y-axis range and units. By manipulating the range of a
temperature variable in the strip chart, you change the range of all
temperature variables associated with that axis.
If you wish to associate a different range to a variable in the Strip Chart,
you must first create your own axis. You may create different axes in the
Axis tab of the Strip Chart Configuration view. This view can be
accessed by object inspecting the Strip Chart and selecting Graph
Control.
5-24
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-25
Manipulating the X-Axis Range
You may scroll across the Strip
Chart by either:
• the x-axis, or
• selecting the light blue
section of the Log Controller
Bar with the mouse cursor.
The following cursor should
appear.
You may move the cursor
along the bar to the interval
you wish to view.
You can manipulate the range of sampled data displayed in the strip
chart. HYSYS displays, below the x-axis, a set of colours indicating what
range of sampled data is displayed in the strip chart. You may increase
or decrease the range of sampled data. You may scroll the strip chart
over a range of recorded strip chart data. Depending on how much data
is already recorded in the Strip Chart view, a Log Controller bar similar
to one shown in Figure 5.19, will be displayed below the x-axis.
Figure 5.19
Each colour in the Log Controller Bar is described as follows from left to
right:
Colour
Definition
Gray Bar
The gray section of the strip chart displays where
there is no data in the strip chart.
Dark Blue Bar
The Dark Blue section shows where strip chart data
is recorded.
Red Marker
The Red marker labels where data are first displayed
in the strip chart. You can expand the range of
display in the strip chart by “dragging” the red marker
to the left (away from the yellow marker). Decrease
the displayed range of data by dragging the red
marker right (towards the yellow marker).
Light Blue Bar
This section graphically shows which section of the
strip chart is displayed. You may click and drag the
light blue strip of the Log Controller bar across the
strip chart x-axis to view the history of the strip chart.
Drag the light blue strip of the Log Controller bar to
view the most recent recorded data.
Yellow Marker
The Yellow marker labels where the displayed data
ends. You can expand the range of displayed in the
strip chart by “dragging” the yellow marker to the
right (away from the red marker). Decrease the
displayed range of data by dragging the yellow
marker left (towards the red marker).
Creating Interval Markers
You may create and display interval markers on the strip chart. Interval
markers are used to measure variables at certain instances in the strip
chart. The strip chart variable value appears next to where the interval
marker intersects the strip chart variable curve.
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5-26
DataBook
You may add up to four interval markers to the strip chart. To add a new
interval marker, use the following procedure:
Left Arrow Cursor
1.
Ensure that the most recent strip chart data is displayed on the
Strip Chart view. (The light blue part of the Log Controller Bar
should be located at the far right of the x-axis.)
2.
Place the cursor on the right edge of the strip chart. A left arrow
should be in place of the cursor.
3.
Press the primary mouse button and drag the interval marker
across the strip chart.
Zooming in on the Strip Chart
Zoom Strip Chart Cursor
There may be instances when you want to focus on a particular area in
the Strip Chart. In order to zoom in on an area of the strip chart, press
the SHIFT key and click, the mouse cursor should change to a
magnification glass. Drag an area onto the strip chart. The y-axes
scaling will change to reflect the zoom.
Figure 5.20
Object Inspection Options
The options available through the object inspection of the Strip Chart
are displayed in the following table. The Object Inspection menu
appears if you click on the Strip Chart using the secondary mouse
button.
5-26
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
Option
Description
Graph Control
The Graph Control option allows you to customize the appearance of the
Strip Chart. You are able to modify curve and axis parameters in this option.
For more information regarding the Graph Control option, refer to the Graph
Control that appears later in this section.
5-27
Select the Legend option in order to display the Legend view.
Legend
The Legend view displays all the Curve Names, Colours, and Line Styles
associated with the Strip Chart variables. You may modify the Curve Name or
Line Style of any variable by clicking on the corresponding cell in the Legend
view. Modify the Curve Name in the Edit Bar. You can choose a different Line
Style from the Edit Bar drop down list.
Select Curve
The y-axis will display the range and units of a selected variable in the strip
chart. You may select a curve in one by choosing the Select Curve option
from the Object Inspection menu and select any strip chart variable.
Auto Scale
Curve
You may choose the Auto Scale Curve option if you wish to have HYSYS
automatically set the bounds for the y-axis of the selected curve.
Print Plot
You may print the Strip Chart by selecting the Print Plot option. HYSYS
prints the strip chart as it appears on the screen.
Print Setup
Select the Print Setup option in order to modify any print options associated
with printing the Strip Chart.
Graph Control
You can modify many of the strip chart characteristics in the Strip
Chart Configuration view. You can access this view by selecting Graph
Control in the Object Inspection menu. The Strip Chart Configuration
view contains four tabs: General, Curves, Axes, and Time Axis.
5-27
5-28
DataBook
General Tab
The General tab contains information used to format the chart
appearance.
Figure 5.21
Check the Visible check box in order to make the Background,
Grid, or Frame colours visible. You may choose a colour for the
item by double-clicking on the Colour box and selecting a colour
from the Colour view.
Check boxes are
used to modify the
appearance of the
Strip Chart. Activate
the appropriate
check box to display
the option on the
Strip Chart.
Click the Open Databook button
in order to bring up the Databook
view.
5-28
Click the Setup Logger button in
order to bring up the Setup
Logger view.
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-29
Curves Tab
The Curves tab displays information regarding the appearance of
individual curves in the Strip Chart. You may also modify how strip
chart variables, variable titles and units are displayed on this tab.
Figure 5.22
Select a specific Strip
Chart variable whose
plot characteristics you
wish to display in the
Curves tab. The OP
value of operation
TRF-1 is currently
displayed in the
Curves tab.
The Object/Variable and Display Label fields
display the Strip Chart curve names. By default,
the Display Label is copied from the Object/
Variable field. You may what is actually
displayed in the Strip Chart by modifying the
Display Label field.
Click the Show Curve check box
to display or hide the selected
curve. Click the Live Values
check box to display the most
recent calculated strip chart
values.
Modify the curve colour
and line style in the
Edit box. You may
choose a colour for the
item by double-clicking
on the Colour box and
selecting a colour from
the Colour view
Displays the Axis associated
with the selected Strip Chart
variable. You may
Click the Open
Databook button in
order to bring up the
Databook view.
Click the Setup
Logger button in order
to bring up the Setup
Logger view.
Deletes the Curve
Displays the Units of
the curve.
5-29
5-30
DataBook
Axes Tab
You may create, modify and delete y-axes in the Axes tab. The Axes tab
allows you to create different types of axes that can be associated with
different strip chart variables.
Figure 5.23
The Object/Variable and Display Label fields display the
Strip Chart curve names. By default, the Display Label is
copied from the Object/Variable field. You may change
what is actually displayed in the Strip Chart by modifying the
Display Label field. If you to wish to label your axis,
deactivate the Show check box
You may label the axis with
units. If you do not wish to label
your axis with units, deactivate
the Show check box.
Select a specific axis
whose
characteristics you
wish to display in the
Axes tab.
Modify the axis range
in the Scaling group
box. The Current
range displays the
actual range of the
axis. Press the Set
button to copy
current ranges into
the default field.
Press the Use button
to copy default
ranges into the
Current field.
5-30
Press the New
Axis button to
create an new
axis.
Press the
AutoScale
button to
automatically
scale
Press the Delete
Axis button to
delete an axis you
created. You
cannot delete the
default axes.
The Curves group box
displays all strip chart
variables associated
with the selected axis.
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
Time may be entered in the
format:
HHH:MM:SS.S
5-31
Time Axis Tab
The Time Axis tab is used to modify the display range of the strip chart.
Figure 5.24
The Low Time and High Time fields indicate what range of time is
displayed on the strip chart. You may modify these fields directly
in the Time Axis tab.
The Delta Time field
represents the
difference between
the High and Low
Times. You may
modify this field.
Click the Open Databook button
in order to bring up the Databook
view.
Click the Setup Logger button in
order to bring up the Setup
Logger view.
5-31
5-32
DataBook
Historical Data
The Current button on the
DataBook Strip Charts page
displays the current values of
the variables for the selected
Strip Chart.
The Historical Data view is
resizable.
The same variable on multiple
Strip Charts will be recorded
independently using the
settings for the Strip Chart.
The Historical Data view records the data history for the variables on a
Strip Chart. The number of points recorded and the time between
points is determined by the Accumulated Points and Sampling Rate in
the Strip Chart SetUp view. The Historical can only be accessed on the
Strip Charts tab in the DataBook (by pressing the Historical button).
The Historical Data view is a scrolling view of all recorded values for
each of the Strip Chart Variables. You can move up and down through
the list of data. You can also print the contents of the Historical to a file
with the Save To File button. This prints the set of information in the
Historical to an ASCII file.
Figure 5.25
Object Inspection of Strip Charts
Like most objects in HYSYS, Strip Charts can be Object Inspected. Place
the mouse pointer on an area of the Strip Chart and press the
secondary mouse button. The options from the menu are:
5-32
Object
Description
Setup Chart
Opens the Strip Chart SetUp view.
Print Chart
Prints the Strip Chart.
Print Datasheet
Previews or prints a Datasheet containing the Strip
Chart Variables and Historical data.
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-33
5.3.4 Data Recorder Tab
The Data Recorder tab lets you store snap shots of your process by
grouping key process variables into different Scenarios. You can
manipulate the process in the current case and then have HYSYS record
the results for the variables that you are monitoring. Each Scenario that
you create on the Data Recorder tab can have an unlimited number of
snap shots, which are called States. Examine the states of a Scenario in
a table or on a plot.
Variables for the Data
Recorder are selected on the
Variables page of the
DataBook.
Figure 5.26
Displays all the scenarios in
the case.
Records a State (the current
values of the variables) for
the highlighted Scenario.
Provide a descriptive name for
the highlighted Scenario in this
cell.
Adds a new Scenario.
Deletes the
highlighted Scenario.
Views the recorded States of the
highlighted Scenario in tabular or
When the Include check box is
activated, the associated Variable is
added to the highlighted Scenario.
Adding a Scenario
On the Data Recorder tab, you can create an unlimited number of
Scenarios for the current case. Refer to the previous view as you create a
Scenario:
Variables can be included in
more than one Scenario.
1.
Press the Add button in the Available Scenarios group box.
2.
HYSYS automatically names the Scenario with the format
Scenario#, where # represents a positive integer value greater than
zero.
3.
In the Data Recorder Data Selection group, you can provide a
descriptive name for the Scenario in the Current Scenario input
cell.
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5-34
DataBook
4.
From the list of variable, activate the Include check box for each
process variable which will be added to the Scenario.
Recording States
Each time a change has been made to your process, you may wish to
record the key variable values which are contained in the Scenarios of
the Data Recorder. To record a State, follow this procedure:
1.
In the Available Scenarios group, highlight a Scenario.
2.
Press the Record button. The New Solved State dialog appears. The
initial default name for the new State is State1. Each time the
Record button is pressed, HYSYS incrementally increases the
integer value in the State name.
Figure 5.27
If you add a variable to a
Scenario after you have
recorded States, values for the
new variable will not be
shown in the previously
recorded States.
3.
You can modify the State name directly in the Name for New State
input cell.
4.
Press the OK button. The key process variables of the highlighted
Scenario are recorded.
5.
Repeat steps #1 through #4 each time you want to record the
process variables in the Scenario.
You can record an unlimited number of States for a given Scenario.
Viewing a Scenario in the Data Recorder
Notebook
If more than one Scenario has
been created, the Scenarios
will be grouped in a Notebook
format.
5-34
There are two options available when you want to view the States
contained within a Scenario. The States can be displayed in tabular or
graphical format.
1.
Access the Data Recorder tab of the DataBook.
2.
Highlight a Scenario in the Available Scenarios group.
3.
In the Available Display group, select either the Table or the Graph
radio button.
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
4.
5-35
Press the View button to access the tab for the selected Scenario in
the Data Recorder Notebook. Depending on the radio button
selection (step #3), either a table or a plot will appear.
Figure 5.29
Figure 5.28
Highlight the State cell and modify
the name in the Edit Bar.
Deletes the active
Scenario from the
Notebook.
These radio buttons allow
you to toggle between
tabular and graphical
format.
Pressing this button
renames the existing
States as State1, State2,
State3, etc.
Accesses the Data
Recorder Setup
view.
5-35
5-36
DataBook
You can customize the Scenario plot by accessing the Graph Control
property view. Object inspect anywhere on the plot area and select
Graph Control from the menu.
Refer to Section 6.4 - Graph
Control for information on
customizing plots.
If more than 2 variables are Active on the Data Recorder Setup view,
only the first 2 will be plotted.
Deleting a Scenario
There are a number of methods available for deleting a Scenario from a
case. Each of the methods is permanent, in that a deleted Scenario
cannot be recovered. Also, HYSYS does not ask you for confirmation
before deleting a Scenario. The methods available for deleting a
Scenario are:
Refer to the Viewing a
Scenario section for
information concerning the
Data Recorder Notebook.
• Highlight the Scenario name in the Available Scenarios group
and press the Erase button.
• Highlight the Scenario name and press the DELETE key on the
keyboard.
• Open the Data Recorder Notebook, select a page tab for a
Scenario and press the Delete button.
Deleting States
To remove a recorded state from a Scenario, you must access the page
tab for the Scenario in the Data Recorder Notebook. Switch to tabular
format by selecting the Table radio button and then use one of the
following methods to delete the recorded state:
• Highlight the State and press the DELETE key.
• Object inspect any cell for the State and select Delete from the
menu.
Data Recorder Setup
The Data Recorder Setup view provides a list of all Scenarios installed
in the DataBook. From this view, you can select the variables that will
appear in the table and on the y-axis of the plot for each Scenario. You
are limited to two y-axis variables per plot.
5-36
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-37
Figure 5.30
For each Scenario, select the variables to display:
1.
Highlight a Scenario from the Scenarios group.
2.
From the list of variables, activate the Active check box for the
variable(s) to be displayed on the plot and in the table.
The following buttons are also available on the Data Recorder Setup
property view:
Button
Description
Add
Adds a Scenario to the DataBook.
Delete
Removes the selected Scenario from the DataBook.
Results
Opens the Data Recorder Notebook to the page
tab of the highlighted Scenario.
Close
Closes the Setup view.
5.3.5 Case Studies Tab
Variables for the Case Study
are selected on the Variables
page of the DataBook.
The case study tool allows you to monitor the steady state response of
key process variables to changes in your process. From the list of
variables created on the Variables tab, you designate the independent
and dependent variables for each case study. For each independent
variable, you will specify a lower and upper bound, as well as a step
size. HYSYS varies the independent variables one at a time, and with
each change, the dependent variables are calculated and a new State is
defined. HYSYS shows the number of States which will be calculated as
you define the bounds and step size of the independent variables.
5-37
5-38
DataBook
Since a maximum of 2
independent variables can be
plotted, you can limit the
number of States and
minimize solution time by
selecting only two
independent variables per
case study.
Once the Case Study has solved, you can examine the States in a table
or view the results in a plot. Although you can select as many variables
as you like for a Case Study, a maximum of three variables can be shown
on a plot. One independent variable and two dependent variables will
produce a two-dimensional plot while two independent variables and a
single dependent variable will be shown on a three-dimensional graph.
Figure 5.31
Adds a Case Study.
Deletes the highlighted
Case Study.
Provide a descriptive name
for the Case Study directly in
this cell.
Displays all the Case
Studies in the Case.
Accesses the setup view
for the highlighted Case
Study.
Select either a tabular or
graphical format for the
results of the highlighted
Case Study.
Displays the results of the
highlighted Case Study.
Select the independent and
dependent variables for the
highlighted Case Study by
activating the appropriate
check boxes.
Adding A Case Study
You can create an unlimited number of Case Studies in a case. Refer to
Figure 5.31 as the procedure for adding a case study is outlined:
You can use the same
variables in different case
studies.
5-38
1.
Press the Add button in the Available Case Studies group.
2.
HYSYS automatically names the case study with the format Case
Study #, where # represents a positive integer above zero.
3.
In the Case Studies Data Selection group, activate the Ind check
box for the (independent) variables that HYSYS will vary.
4.
Activate the Dep check box for the calculated (dependent)
variables.
5.
In the Current Case Study input cell, you can change the name of
the case study.
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-39
Removing A Case Study
There are a number of methods available for deleting a Case Study from
a case. Each of the methods is permanent, in that a deleted Case Study
cannot be recovered. Also, HYSYS does not ask you for confirmation
before deleting a Case Study. The methods available for deleting a Case
Study are:
Refer to the Viewing a Case
Study in the Case Studies
Notebook section for
information on the Notebook
format.
• Highlight the Case Study name in the Available Case Studies
group and press the Delete button.
• Highlight the Case Study name and press the DELETE key on
the keyboard.
• Open the Case Studies Notebook, select a tab for a Case
Study and press the Delete button.
Case Study Setup
Access the Case Studies Setup view in one of three ways:
• Press the View button on the Case Studies page of the
DataBook.
• Double click on the Case Study name in the Available Cases
Studies group.
• Press the Setup button from the Case Studies Notebook.
Three tabs are available on which you can specify the parameters of
each case study:
Tab
Description
Independent
Variables Setup
Define the bounds and step size for each of the
independent variables.
Display Properties
Select which dependent variable(s) to display in the
Table and on the Graph.
Failed Status
Displays any states that have failed during the case
study.
Common to both of the aforementioned tabs are the buttons which line
the bottom of the Setup property view:
Button
Description
Add
Adds a case study to the case
Delete
Removes the highlighted case study from the case
Results
Opens the Case Studies Notebook
Start/Stop
Starts or stops the solution of the highlighted case study.
The Stop button is shown only when a case study is
solving.
5-39
5-40
DataBook
Independent Variables Setup Tab
Steps #1 and #2 are reversible.
You could select a Case Study
from the Case Studies Setup
property view.
A maximum of 2 independent
variables can be plotted. If
more than 2 are used in a case
study, graphical results will
NOT be available.
For each case study, the range and step size for the independent
variables must be defined. HYSYS will automatically calculate the
Number of States which will occur in the case study. To define the
variable ranges, proceed as follows:
1.
In the Case Studies list box in the DataBook, highlight a case study
from the Available Case Studies group.
2.
Press the Setup button to access the Case Studies Setup property
view
3.
For each independent variable, supply a Low Bound, High Bound
and Step Size.
4.
Note the Number of States is displayed in the upper right corner.
Press the Start button to begin the calculations.
Figure 5.32
5-40
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-41
Display Properties Tab
The list of Dependent
Variables will be empty until
the calculations for the Case
Study have been started.
On the Display Properties tab, you can select which dependent
variables to display in the Table and on the Graph for each case study.
Activate the Display check box for each Dependent variable that you
want to display in the Results.
Figure 5.33
If two independent variables
are active, only the first
activated dependent variable
will be displayed on the plot. If
one independent variable is
used, the first 2 activated
dependent variables will be
shown on the plot.
Failed States Tab
The Failed States tab displays the number of states that the case study
consists of as well as the number of states that have failed. The Failed
States and Unit Ops group lists the states that have failed and the name
of the unit op where the failure occurred. The value of the independent
variable for each failed state is displayed in the Independent Variable
Info group.
Figure 5.34
5-41
5-42
DataBook
Case Study Display
The Case Studies Notebook provides a tab for each Case Study and
displays the results in tabular or graphical format. You can access the
Case Studies Notebook from two different views:
Case Studies Tab in the DataBook
Note that within the Case
Studies Notebook, you can use
the radio buttons to toggle
between tabular and
graphical format.
1.
Highlight a Case Study in the Available Case Studies group.
2.
Select either the Table or Graph radio button in the Available
Displays group.
3.
Press the Results button.
4.
Depending on the radio button selection (step #2), either a table or
a plot will be displayed for the Case Study.
Case Studies Setup View
1.
From the Case Studies Setup view, select either the Table or Graph
radio button.
2.
Press the Results button.
3.
Depending on the radio button selection (Step #1), either a table or
a plot will be displayed for the Case Study.
Figure 5.35
Highlight the State cell and
modify the name in the Edit
Bar.
To remove a State, object inspect
an associated cell and select
Delete from the menu.
Deletes the active
Case Study from the
Notebook.
Pressing this button renames
the existing States as State1,
State2, State3, etc.
5-42
Accesses the Case
Studies Setup property
view.
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-43
•
Highlighted tab for the
current Case Study.
Refer to Section 6.4 - Graph
Control for information on
customizing plots.
These radio buttons allow you to
toggle between tabular and
graphical format.
You can customize the Scenario plot by accessing the Graph Control
property view. Object inspect anywhere on the plot area and select
Graph Control from the menu.
Multi-Dimensional Graphing
Figure 5.36
5-43
5-44
DataBook
Often, you may be conducting Case Studies that involve more than one
independent variables. HYSYS allows you to not only view the results of
the study in table form, but to also plot them in a 3-dimensional
graphing environment.
HYSYS will automatically plot three dimensionally if you run the Case
Study with two independent variables selected. To view the three
dimensional plot simply select the Graph radio button. Please note that
the limits of the system allow for only three dimensions. Any more than
two independent variables will result in no graph being produced.
3-Dimensional Graph Control
To access the Graph Control click the right mouse button with the
cursor over the plot and select Graph Control. The Graph Control view
will appear as shown:
Figure 5.37
The Azimuth field defines the angle between a horizontal plane and the
XY plane of the plot. This means that an azimuth of 0.0 will result in a
view of the XY plane as a single horizontal line across the screen. The
Azimuth may be manipulated by selecting the Azimuth field, entering a
value, and then pressing the Apply button.
The Angle field defines the angle between the vertical and the XZ (YZ)
plane of the plot. Increasing the angle will cause the graphic to rotate
counter-clockwise. The angle may be manipulated by selecting the
Angle field, entering a value, and pressing the Apply button.
Alternatively, the angle and azimuth can be manipulated by pressing
the arrow buttons of the keypad located in the View Control group. The
action of each arrow button is noted as shown in Figure 5.38.
5-44
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-45
Figure 5.38
Decrease Angle
and Increase
Azimuth
Increase
Azimuth
Increase Angle
Decrease Angle
Decrease Angle
and Decrease
Azimuth
Increase Angle
and Decrease
Azimuth
Decrease
Azimuth
Increase Angle
and Decrease
Azimuth
The Plane Slice group is used to examine two-dimensional plots taken
from the XZ, XY, and YZ plane. The appropriate two-dimensional plot is
specified by selecting one of the radio buttons in the Plane Slice group.
The two-dimensional plot can be examined by pressing the View
button. A sample plot using the plane slice method is shown in Figure
5.39.
Figure 5.39
The planar slice can be moved through the plot by pressing the right
and left arrow buttons located within the Plane Slice group.
5-45
5-46
Object Status Window/Trace
5.4
Note that the Object Status
Window and Trace Window
cannot be opened separately.
Object Status Window/
Trace Window
At the bottom of the HYSYS DeskTop, there is a Window that is, by
default, closed. The Window, which is split vertically into two panes,
displays status messages and detailed Solver information. The left pane
is referred to as the Object Status Window and the right pane is the
Trace Window.
5.4.1 Opening and Sizing the
Windows
To open the Object Status and Trace Windows, position the mouse
pointer on any part of the extra thick border directly above the Status
Bar. When the cursor changes to a sizing arrowhead (double-headed
arrow), click and drag the border vertically.
If the cursor is placed over the vertical double line which separates the
two panes, a horizontal sizing arrowhead appears. The size of the two
panes can be adjusted by clicking and horizontally dragging the cursor.
5.4.2 Available Information
The Object Status Window:
For the sake of clarity, a status
messages that is yellow in a
property view is shown in
black in the Object Status
Window.
• Shows current status messages for objects in the Flowsheet,
coloured accordingly. The colour of the status message for an
object matches the colour of the status message on the
object’s property view.
• Allows you to access the property view of an object described
in the status message by double clicking on the message.
The Trace Window has three main functions:
• It displays iterative calculations for certain operations, such as
the Adjust, Recycle, Reactor, etc. These are shown in black.
• It displays scripting commands, shown in blue.
• If an operation has an error or warning, but still solves, this
message is shown in red.
5-46
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-47
An example of the contents shown in the Object Status and Trace
Windows is displayed in Figure 5.40. Each window has a vertical scroll
bar, which allows you to move through the contents of the particular
window.
Figure 5.40
5.4.3 Object Inspection Options
The options available through the object inspection of the Object
Status Window and Trace Window are specific to each pane.
Object Status Window
Status messages that are OK
do not appear in the Object
Status Window.
The following options are available by object inspecting the Object
Status Window:
Option
Description
View Status List
Properties
Opens the Status List Properties dialog. This view
contains an input box for the Status List File Name
(by default Status.Log), which allows the contents of
the left pane to be written to a file. Also on this view
is a drop down list for the Minimum Severity. From
top to bottom, the options in the drop down list
represent increasing status message severity. For
instance, selecting Warning from the list will allow all
messages that are warnings or more severe to
appear in the left pane. To allow only error
messages, which are the most severe, to appear,
select the **Error** option.
Dump Current
Status List to File
Automatically dumps the contents of the left pane to
the Status List File Name.
Figure 5.41
5-47
5-48
Attaching Utilities
Trace Window
The object inspection options for the Trace Window are:
Option
Description
Opens the Trace Properties dialog, which contains
the following:
• Trace File Name cell - displays the file name to
which the contents of the Trace Window can be
written (by default Trace.Log).
• History Length cell - represents the number of
lines that the Trace Window keeps in its history.
• Trace to File Continuously check box - when
activated, the Trace Window contents are
written to the Trace File.
• Verbose check box - when activated, the Trace
Window displays solver information for all the
operations in the case.
View Trace
Properties
Dump Current Trace
to File
Automatically dumps the contents of the Trace
Window to the Trace File.
Clear Trace Window
Clears all the information from the Trace Window.
Figure 5.42
5.5
Attaching Utilities
The Utilities available in HYSYS are a set of useful tools that interact
with your process, providing additional information or analysis of
streams or operations. In HYSYS, a utility becomes a permanent part of
the Flowsheet, automatically calculating when conditions change in
the stream or operation to which it is attached. Access Utilities by:
• Selecting Utilities under Tools in the Menu Bar.
• Using the hot key CTRL U.
• Choosing the Utilities page in the Attachments tab of a Stream
Property View and pressing the Create button.
5-48
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-49
There are eight Utilities available from the Stream property view.
A Stream of known
composition is required to use
these utilities.
Refer to Chapter 8 - Utilities
for detailed information
concerning the individual
utilities.
Option
Description
CO2 Solids
Determines CO2 freezing conditions.
Cold Properties
Calculates several Cold Properties (e.g. Vapour
Pressure, Flash Point, Pour Point, Refractive Index,
etc.).
Envelope
Shows critical values and phase envelopes.
Hydrate Formation
Determines hydrate formation conditions.
Property Table
Calculates dependent variables for user specified
independent variable ranges or values.
User Property
Allows you to define a property which is dependent
on the composition of the stream.
BP Curves
Provides the results of a laboratory style cut point
analysis for your simulation streams.
Critical Property
Calculates both true and pseudo critical
temperature, pressure, volume and compressibility.
5.5.1 Adding a Utility from a Stream
Property View
Not all Utilities can be
accessed via the Stream
property view, such as
Depressuring, Separator
Sizing, etc.
To add a Utility from a Stream property view, follow this procedure:
1.
Access the property view for the desired stream and select the
Utilities page of the Attachments tab. The Attached Utilities group
displays any utilities already attached to the stream.
Figure 5.43
5-49
5-50
Attaching Utilities
2.
Press the Create button to add a new utility.
The Available Utilities view appears, from which you can select a utility
and press the Add Utility button. The property view for the selected
utility will appear. Note that the Stream cell on the Utility view shows
the name of the stream from which the utility was created.
Figure 5.44
For more information on the
Utilities available in HYSYS,
refer to Chapter 8 - Utilities.
5.5.2 Adding a Utility From the
Flowsheet
Once a Utility has been attached to a stream (either through the stream
property view or as described in the following example) it remains
attached. You can then access the Utility from the stream directly, or
through the Utility option in the Menu Bar.
To illustrate how to add a Utility, the following is an example of
attaching an Envelope to a stream.
1.
5-50
Open the Available Utilities View by selecting Utilities under Tools
in the Menu Bar. (See Figure 5.45)
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-51
Figure 5.45
This group displays utilities
that have been added to the
case.
These are the available Utilities.
Adds the highlighted Utility to
the case.
Refer to Section 5.2.1 - Object
Navigator, Selecting an
Object for a Utility for
information on selecting a
stream.
2.
Select the Utility you want to add from the Available Utilities view
(right hand side). In the above view, the Envelope is selected as the
utility to add.
3.
Press the Add Utility button. HYSYS displays the view for the
Utility.
4.
If desired, change the name of the utility in the Name cell.
5.
Press the Select Stream button to access the Object Navigator.
Figure 5.46
6.
Select a stream from the Object Navigator and press OK.
5-51
5-52
Attaching Utilities
7.
As soon as the stream is attached, HYSYS moves to the next page of
the Envelope view, the Plots page and displays the Pressure Temperature phase envelope.
8.
Press the Close button to exit this view.
5.5.3 Viewing Utilities
Note that the property view for a Utility can remain open
independently of the stream to which it is attached. There are a three
ways within HYSYS to View Utilities.
Method
Description
Access the Stream property view for the
stream to which the utility is attached.
Open the Utilities page in the
Attachments tab of the Stream property
view. HYSYS displays any utilities
attached to the stream in the Attached
Utilities group. Notice that a stream can
be attached to more than one Utility.
Select the Utility you want to view and
press the View button.
Stream Property
View
Available Utilities
View
Workbook Page
5-52
Access this view by selecting Utilities
under Tools in the Menu Bar, or through
the hot key CTRL U. From the view, select
a Utility (from the left side) and press the
View Utility button.
Any utility attached to the highlighted
stream is shown in the box in the bottom
left hand corner of the Workbook Page.
Double click on the Utility name in this
box to display the Utility property view.
View
Flowsheet Analysis in HYSYS
5-53
5.5.4 Deleting Utilities
Once you delete a Utility, it
cannot be recovered.
The procedures for deleting and viewing utilities are very similar. To
delete a utility, use one of the following methods:
Method
Description
Available Utilities
View
When you are in the Available Utilities view, select
the Utility you want to delete. Press the Delete
Utility button to delete it from the case.
Stream Property
View
Open the Utilities page in the Attachments tab of
the Stream property view. Select the Utility in the
Attached Utilities group and press the Delete
button.
Utility Property View
Open the property view for the specific utility (e.g.,
CO2 Solids, Cold Properties, etc.). Press the Delete
button to delete the Utility.
5.5.5 Attaching a Utility to a
Different Stream
Once a Utility is created, you can change the stream to which it is
connected on the Connections page of the Utility property view. For
example, on the Connections page of the Envelope utility (shown
previously), press the Select Stream button. Change the stream to
which the utility is attached in the Object Navigator view and press OK.
Once you change a connection, the name of the utility will
automatically appear on the Utilities page of the new stream’s property
view.
5-53
5-54
5-54
Attaching Utilities
Output Control
6-1
6 Output Control
6.1 Printing in HYSYS ........................................................................................ 4
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.1.5
Menu Bar Options .................................................................................... 4
Printing Specsheets ................................................................................. 5
Printing the PFD....................................................................................... 7
Printing Plots ............................................................................................ 8
Printer Setup ............................................................................................ 9
6.2 Reports........................................................................................................ 10
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
Creating a Report....................................................................................11
Editing a Report ..................................................................................... 14
Deleting a Report ................................................................................... 15
Printing and Previewing Reports............................................................ 15
6.3 Printing the PFD as a DXF File.................................................................. 16
6.4 Graph Control ............................................................................................. 18
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.4.5
Data Page Tab ....................................................................................... 19
Axes Tab ................................................................................................ 20
Title Tab.................................................................................................. 21
Legend Tab ............................................................................................ 22
Plot Area Tab ......................................................................................... 23
6.5 Format Editor.............................................................................................. 23
6-1
6-2
6-2
Output Control
6-3
In HYSYS, the capability to effectively transcribe process information
concerning your simulation case is readily available through printing
features. By allowing you to obtain information in various levels of
detail, you can efficiently create printed reports that can range from
basic data to comprehensive summaries. There are two primary
printing options in HYSYS:
• Object Specific
• Reports
Object Specific printing relates to the object that currently has focus in
the simulation case. For instance, if the active location resides on a
SEPARATOR property view, you can print a Snapshot of the property
view as it is seen on your monitor or print out a Specsheet specific to
the unit operation. A Specsheet displays object related information,
which can include input specifications and calculated results. Each
object within HYSYS has at least one Specsheet available, with many
objects also having condensed versions of the full Specsheet.
The printing of Reports deals with much more extensive sets of
information. When creating a Report, you collect the Specsheets of
multiple objects in one document. HYSYS allows you to select any
Specsheet for any object currently in your simulation case. For each
Report that you create, you have the option of customizing the Page
Setup.
Both primary printing features can be accessed via the Menu Bar.
However, Object Specific printing is also available via Object
Inspection. By Object Inspecting the Title Bar of an object, you can
print or preview its associated Specsheet.
The high degree of flexibility offered by the design of HYSYS is once
again demonstrated with its printing features. Both Specsheet and
Report views can remain open while you manipulate your Flowsheet. If
changes occur which affect the values shown in a Specsheet, you can
easily update the information.
This chapter provides more detail on all of the printing features
available in HYSYS.
6-3
6-4
Printing in HYSYS
6.1
Refer to Section 6.1.1 - Menu
Bar Options for details.
Refer to Section 6.2 - Reports
for details on the Report
Manager.
Printing in HYSYS
In HYSYS, you can generate printed information in one of three ways:
Method
Description
Menu Bar
Select one of the options under File in the Menu Bar.
Object Inspection
Object Inspect the Title Bar of a view and select the
Print Specsheet option from the menu. A list of
available Specsheets is displayed for the object.
Object inspection of the Title Bar is the same as
selecting Print under File in the Menu Bar. However,
object inspection proves useful when views are
Modal, since the Menu Bar cannot be accessed.
Report Manager
Select Reports under Tools in the Menu Bar to
access the Report Manager view.
6.1.1
Menu Bar Options
The HYSYS Printing options which can be accessed under File in the
Menu Bar are:
Figure 6.1
6-4
Option
Description
Print
Lists the available Specsheet(s) for the currently
active object. You can highlight a Specsheet and
either preview or print it. See Section 6.1.2 Printing Specsheets for more detail.
Print Snapshot
Prints a bitmap of the currently active HYSYS view.
Use this option when you want to print a view that
does not have a Specsheet associated with it (i.e.
the Optimizer view or a Table such as a Column
Profiles Table).
Printer Setup
With this option, you can select either the Graphic
Printer or the Report Printer. This allows you to
select the printer, paper orientation, paper size and
source. Refer to Section 6.2.4 - Printing and
Previewing Reports for details.
Output Control
6.1.2
All default and customized
Workbook pages have
Specsheets available.
6-5
Printing Specsheets
When you choose the Print option, HYSYS automatically prepares to
print the Specsheet for the view that currently has focus. For instance,
this could be a Workbook tab, a Stream, a Unit Operation or a Utility. If
you are currently in an area where printing is not allowed (e.g. the
Optimizer), you will be informed that no Specsheets are available for
the selected object when you choose Print.
Printing Workbook Specsheets
When a Workbook tab is the active location and you select the Print
option, the following view appears.
Figure 6.2
Select the specsheets
by clicking in the
checkbox.
Click the Select All
button to include all the
specsheets. Invert
Selection button reverse
the selection.
Set the specsheet
preferences and recall the
prefered selection.
See Section 4.5.2 - Editing a
Workbook Tab for details on
adding variables to a
Workbook page.
Prints the
selected
Specsheet.
Selects the output format.
HYSYS will print the
Specsheet to an ASCII file.
Allows you
to display a Preview
of the highlighted
specsheet.
The active location in the Flowsheet governs which Specsheets will be
available. In this case, the active location is a Workbook tab, thus the
only available options pertain to the Workbook. The All Pages
Specsheet, displays all the information in the Workbook. Only the
variables present on the Workbook tab appear in the Specsheet. If you
want additional variables to appear on the Specsheet, you have to add
variables to the Workbook tab.
6-5
6-6
Printing in HYSYS
Figure 6.3
Change the
specsheet format.
Prints the currently
displayed Specsheet.
The Zoom buttons in the
Preview have the same
function as in the PFD.
Printing Operation Specsheets
You may encounter particular
Specsheets for certain
operations. For instance, a
column tray section has a Tray
Section Component
Summary, and a Strip Chart
has a Strip Chart Variables
and Historical Data
Specsheet.
6-6
When you want to print the Specsheet for an operation, you must make
that operation the active location, i.e. open the operation Property
View. When you select the Print option under File in the Menu Bar, the
Select Datablock(s) to Print for view appears.
This view is similar to the view shown for the Workbook. The only
difference is the specsheets listed in the Available Datablock group.
Figure 6.4
Output Control
6-7
Printing Stream Specsheets
When you select Print under File in the Menu Bar while a material or
energy stream has focus, the Select Datablock(s) to Print for view will
be shown.
The same options available for the operation Specsheets are listed as
stream Specsheets and the only difference in the specsheets listed in
the Available Datablock group.
Figure 6.5
6.1.3
Printing the PFD
HYSYS also allows you to print the PFD. To print the PFD, use object
inspection (secondary mouse button on an empty area of the PFD).
This will produce the menu shown in Figure 6.6, which has three print
related functions:
Figure 6.6
Alternatively, you may select
these printing options under
File in the Menu Bar.
Option
Description
Print PFD
Prints the PFD as it appears on the screen. Only the
sections visible within the PFD window will be
printed. Any Tables that you have added will also be
printed. Note that when you select this option, the
PFD is immediately printed without accessing any
further menus.
6-7
6-8
Printing in HYSYS
Option
Description
Print Setup
Accesses the typical Windows Print Setup, which
allows you to select the printer, the paper orientation,
the paper size and paper source.
Print to DXF
Prints the entire PFD to a dxf file. For more
information refer to Section 6.3 - Printing the PFD
as a DXF File.
6.1.4
Printing Plots
To print a plot, object inspect the plot area and select one of the two
options for printing:
Figure 6.7
For information on
controlling the appearance of
plots, refer to Section 6.4 Graph Control.
6-8
Object
Description
Print Plot
Prints the plot as it appears on the screen.
Print Setup
Accesses the typical Windows Print Setup, which
allows you to select the printer, the paper orientation,
the paper size and paper source.
Output Control
6.1.5
6-9
Printer Setup
The Print Setup view can be accessed by selecting Printer Setup under
File in the Menu Bar. The side menu then provides two options:
Figure 6.8
Printer
Description
Graphic Printer
Use the Graphic Printer when printing the PFD,
Plots, Strip Charts and Snapshots.
Report Printer
The Report Printer is used for Specsheets, Reports
and Text.
If the Print Setup view is accessed through object inspection (i.e. via
the PFD), HYSYS will default to the appropriate printer according to the
active location in the Flowsheet.
On the Print Setup view, you can select the printer, as well as the page
orientation, paper size and paper source. The layout of the Print Setup
view can vary depending on the selected printer. You can also modify
the default properties for the selected printer by pressing the Properties
button.
Figure 6.9
6-9
6-10
Reports
6.2
Reports
Within a simulation case, you can print stream and operation
Specsheets with the Print function. However, this only allows you to
print Specsheets for a single object at a time. By using the Report
Manager, you can add multiple Specsheets for streams and operations
to a single Report and print the entire document at once. You can also
format the display of the Report to meet your personal preferences.
The Report Manager is accessed by selecting Reports under Tools in
the Menu Bar or with the hot key combination CTRL R. All reports that
you have created for the simulation will be listed in the Reports group.
Figure 6.10
Shows the Reports installed in the
simulation case. Report1 is a
default name, Second Report is a
user specified name.
Creates a new
Updates and prints the
Report and opens
selected Report.
the Report Builder.
Displays a
Preview of the
Report.
Opens the Report Builder view Deletes the
so you can edit the highlighted
highlighted
Report.
Report.
6-10
Selects the output format.
Output Control
6.2.1
6-11
Creating a Report
By pressing the Create button in the Report Manager, the Report
Builder view will be displayed for a new Report. The four buttons in the
Printing group, Print, Preview, Format/Layout and Print Setup provide
the same functions as those in the Report Manager.
Figure 6.11
By default, this has been named
Report1. You can move the
cursor to this cell and type in a
new name.
Allows you to add any
available Specsheet to the
Report.
Displays the current number
of pages in the Report.
Removes a selected
Specsheet from the
Report.
Allows you to rearrange the list
in the Report Datasheets
group. The highlighted
Specsheet is moved up or down
within the list.
Contents Tab
Inserting a Specsheet
When you press the Insert Datasheet button on the Report Builder
view, the Select a Specsheet to Add view appears (see Figure 6.12).
The view can be analyzed by examining its two main groups. The first is
the Source for Specsheets group, which contains two radio buttons.
Depending on which radio button is selected, the information
contained within the group will change. In the following sections, the
functionality of each of the radio buttons is explained.
6-11
6-12
Reports
The second group is the Available Specsheets group, which lists the
Specsheets that can be added to the Report. The Specsheet options that
are displayed in this group depend upon the selection made in the
Source for Specsheets group.
Figure 6.12
Pick a Specific Object by Name
The Filter can be used to
reduce the list of Flowsheet
Objects. The Filter group is
only present when the Pick a
Specific Object by Name radio
button is selected.
To return to the Report
Builder view without adding
a Specsheet, press the Cancel
button.
6-12
When this radio button is selected, the Select a Specsheet to Add view,
as shown above, is displayed. You can insert individual Specsheets for
any object that is present in the simulation case.
Use the following procedure:
1.
From the Flowsheets group, pick the Flowsheet that contains the
object.
2.
Choose the desired object (stream, operation or logical) from the
Objects group. In the above view, AGO is selected.
3.
In the Available Datablocks group, all Specsheets available for the
selected Flowsheet Object are displayed. Select the Specsheet that
you want to insert in the Report.
4.
Press the Add button.
5.
Repeat steps #1 through #4 for each Specsheet that you want to add
to the Report.
6.
When all Specsheets have been added, press the Done button.
Output Control
6-13
Pick All Objects of a Given Type
When this radio button is selected, you can choose a specific object
type in the Source for Specsheets group and then pick a Specsheet in
the Available Specsheets group. HYSYS adds a set of Specsheets to the
Report; one Specsheet is added for each occurrence of the specific
Object Type in the case.
Figure 6.13
Follow this procedure to add a group of Specsheets:
1.
In the Object Types group, select a Stream or Unit Operation type.
The ‘+’ symbol indicates that there are additional sub-items
underneath. To open the list of sub-items, double click on the
object, or click on the ‘+’. Once the list is open, the ‘+’ symbol will
be replaced with ‘-’. To close the list, double click on the main
object or click on the ‘-’ symbol. If you select the object types
Streams or Unit Operations, a specsheet for every stream or unit
operation in the selected Flowsheet will be added to the report.
2.
For the selected Object Type, you can add Specsheets to the Report
for objects that reside within Sub-Flowsheets. Simply activate the
Include Sub-Flowsheets check box.
3.
Select a Specsheet in the Available Datablocks group.
4.
Press the Add button.
5.
Repeat steps #1 through #4 for each group of Specsheets that you
wish to add to the Report.
6.
Press the Done button when no more Specsheets are to be added.
6-13
6-14
Reports
Page Setup Tab
The default Report format is
set in the Session Preferences.
See Section 7.7.5 - Preferences
for more detail.
On the Report Builder view, selecting the Page Setup tab will display
the options available for customizing the format of the Report.
Figure 6.14
Numbers all lines
in the Specsheet.
Place a star (*) after a user
specified value.
Specify the distance between each
border and the edge of the Report
page. Default units correspond to
the Page Width and Height units.
6.2.2
Text string to display
for empty cells.
Specification values
for the Page Size
and Orientation.
Sets the Unit Set
to be use for the
Report.
Editing a Report
When a new Report is created, all the necessary Specsheets can be
added and the custom formats set. However, if you close the Report
Builder view and then want to change some of the input in the Report,
you can do so using the Editing feature.
Highlight a Report on the Report Manager view and press the Edit
button. The Report Builder view opens, from which you can edit the list
of Specsheets or the format of the Report.
6-14
Output Control
6.2.3
6-15
Deleting a Report
You can delete a report from either the Report Manager view or the
Report Builder view. When in the Report Manager view, highlight the
report to be deleted and press the Delete button.
Figure 6.15
If the Report Builder view is active, pressing the Delete button will
delete the current report. No confirmation is required for deleting
reports, so ensure that the correct report is selected.
6.2.4
Printing and Previewing
Reports
A Report can be Printed or Previewed from either the Report Manager
view or the Report Builder view. If the Report Builder view is open,
press the Print button and the entire Report is updated and printed.
When you Preview a Report, a Print button is always available on the
Preview screen, so you can print directly from the preview. From the
Report Manager view, you are given the option to Print to a printer or
transfer the Report contents to an ASCII file.
6-15
6-16
Printing the PFD as a DXF File
6.3
To open the .dxf file in
AutoCAD Release 14, select
DXF in the Files of Type drop
down on the File Open
window.
Printing the PFD as a
DXF File
An ASCII Drawing Interchange File (DXF) representing the HYSYS PFD
can be created by HYSYS. The DXF can then be read into AutoCAD. By
default, the file created is called pfd.dxf and will contain the entire PFD
regardless of what is visible on the screen. A different layer is generated
for each of the following groups:
•
•
•
•
•
Physical unit operations (pfdOP)
Logical unit operations (pfdLOGICOP)
Streams (pfdSTREAM)
Stream labels (pfdLABEL)
Table or other text (pfdTABLE)
Each layer is created using standard AUTOCAD blocks.
To create a DXF file in HYSYS, object inspect the PFD and select Print to
DXF File from the menu. A standard windows file selection dialog
named Write DXF File will appear, from which you can select the path
and file name for the DXF file.
Figure 6.16
You can also object inspect the PFD and select Setup DXF File, which
allows you to set which layers are sent to the file. Activate the
corresponding check box for each layer that you want in the file.
6-16
Output Control
6-17
An example of a pfd.DXF exported into AutoCAD is shown below:
Figure 6.17
Included in the directory \HYSYS\Support\ is a header file named
autocad.hdr. If you have trouble transferring the .dxf into AutoCAD,
changes may be needed to this header file. The default version of the
header file may not be compatible with certain versions of AutoCAD
and therefore, may need to be manipulated.
Try the following procedure to check the header file:
1.
Start a completely new AutoCAD drawing.
2.
Note that the custom corporate title blocks and border should not
be in the blank drawing that is used to generate the test header.
3.
Save the blank drawing as a DXF file using AutoCAD’s DXFOUT
command.
4.
Compare the DXF file of the blank drawing to the AutoCAD.hdr
supplied with HYSYS.
6-17
6-18
Graph Control
6.4
Graph Control
You can customize each individual plot in HYSYS using the Graph
Control tool. You can modify many of the plot characteristics, which are
categorized into the five tabs of the Graph Control property view: Data,
Axes, Title, Legend and Plot Area.
Figure 6.18
There is more than one way to access the Graph Control property view.
The easiest method is to object inspect any spot on an active plot and
select Graph Control from the object inspection menu.
Figure 6.19
You can also open the Graph Control property view to a specific tab. By
double clicking the primary mouse button in the plot area, you make
the plot the active view. Then, either double click on the plot Title or on
the Legend to access the respective tab of the Graph Control tool.
While the plot area has focus, you can also click and drag on either the
Legend or Title to reposition the selected item.
6-18
Output Control
6-19
The changes made to a plot using the Graph Control tool are
specific to the active plot. To make global changes, which will
affect all plots, use the Colours and Fonts pages on the
Resources tab of the Session Preferences property view.
6.4.1
Data Page Tab
For each data set on the plot, you can:
All changes instantaneously
affect the plot. There is no
need to close the Graph
Control property view to view
the modifications.
The Symbol drop down is not
available for Bar Charts.
• View the data set Type.
• Modify the data set Name.
• Specify the Colour and Symbol that represent the data on the
plot.
• Choose a Line Style.
• Show/hide the Symbol or Line.
• Show/hide the name in the Legend.
Any changes that are made will affect only the data set that is
highlighted in the list.
To make modifications to the appearance of a data set, highlight the
name of the set in the list of data sets. The information which
corresponds to the highlighted data set will appear, as shown in Figure
6.20.
Figure 6.20
Changes can be made directly in the
input box and will be reflected in the
list of data sets and in the legend.
Highlight a data set to
make modifications to
the associated data.
The Type will either be Line or Bar,
depending on the selected plot. This
information cannot be changed.
Double click here to
access the colour
palette. Choose a
default colour or
customize a colour for
the data set.
Activate the check
box to have the data
set name appear in
the Legend.
Open the drop down list and select
one of the options. If you do not want
the line to appear on the plot,
deactivate the Visible check box.
Open the drop down list and select
one of the options. If you do not want
the symbol to appear on the plot,
deactivate the Visible check box.
6-19
6-20
Graph Control
6.4.2
Axes Tab
From the Axes tab, you can do the following for each axis:
Refer to Section 6.5 - Format
Editor for information
regarding value formatting.
•
•
•
•
Make changes to the Label name, font and units.
Show/Hide the Label name and/or Units.
Define the axis Bounds or use the Auto Scale function.
Format the axis values.
Any changes that are made will affect only the axis that is highlighted in
the list.
To make modifications to the appearance of an axis, highlight the name
in the list of axes. The information that corresponds to the highlighted
axis will appear.
Figure 6.21
List of Axes
Change the label name
for the axis directly in
the input box.
Activate the Visible check box
to display the axis name and/or
units on the plot.
Double click here to
access the Font
dialog box.
The drop down list
shows the available
units for the axis.
Set the Minimum
and Maximum
values for the axis
Bounds directly in
the input boxes.
Note the Auto Scale
check boxes must be
deactivated.
Activate the Use Auto
Scale check boxes to
have HYSYS
automatically set the
bounds for the axis.
Check this box to display
the axis on a
Logarithmic scale.
6-20
Press this button to access
the Real Format Editor,
from which you can set the
format for the axis values.
Output Control
6.4.3
6-21
Title Tab
On the Title tab, you can:
• Change the default title name and font.
• Select the colours for the Text, Background and Border of the
title.
• Show/Hide the Title, Background and Border.
Figure 6.22
Make changes to the Title
directly in the input box.
Double click on the coloured box to
access the colour palette.
Double click here to access
the Font dialog box.
Activate the appropriate
Visible check box to display
the Text, Background or
Border.
6-21
6-22
Graph Control
6.4.4
Legend Tab
The Legend tab allows you to change the appearance and location of
the legend. You may:
•
•
•
•
•
Change the colour of the Border, Background or Text.
Choose the orientation: Vertical or Horizontal.
Show/Hide the Border and Background.
Enable automatic resizing of the legend upon repositioning.
Place the legend in the foreground or background.
Figure 6.23
Activate the Visible
check box to place the
Legend in the foreground.
Activate this check box to
have HYSYS resize the
Legend when it is
repositioned in the plot area.
6-22
Activate the appropriate
Visible check box to display
the Border or Background
colour.
Select a radio button
for the Orientation of
the legend.
Double click here to
access the Font
dialog box.
Double click on a coloured box
to access the colour palette.
Output Control
6.4.5
6-23
Plot Area Tab
Figure 6.24
Double click on a coloured
box to access the colour
palette.
Activate the appropriate Visible
check box to display the
Background Frame or Grid.
From the Plot Area tab, you can:
• Change the colour of the Background, Frame or Grid.
• Show/Hide the Background, Frame or Grid.
6.5
Format Editor
The Real Format Editor can be accessed from the following views:
• Workbook Setup property view
• Graph Control property view
The layout of the Real Format
Editor view is dependent
upon the radio button
selection.
Figure 6.25
6-23
6-24
Format Editor
From the view of Figure 6.25, you can set the format of values that are
displayed in HYSYS. The Format Specification group uses three radio
buttons to list the options available:
Format
Description
Exponential
The values will be in exponential form with a
specified number of Significant digits. For instance
8546 would be displayed as 8.546e+03 if 4 was
specified in the Significant cell.
Specify the maximum number of digits that will be
displayed before the decimal point in the Whole cell see Figure 6.26. If the Whole cell limit is exceeded
by a value in HYSYS, exponential form will be used.
In the Decimal Digits cell, input the number of digits
that will appear after the decimal point.
Fixed Decimal Point
Significant Figures
By activating the Display sign if zero check box,
HYSYS will show a ‘+’ symbol in front of a value that
is displayed as zero using the current precision. For
instance, a composition of 0.000008 would be shown
as zero when using a Decimal Digits value of 4.
With the check box activated, the cell would show
+0.0000 to signify that there is a small number
present.
In the Significant cell, specify the number of
significant figures (between 0 and 9) that you wish to
display.
The Use Default button closes the Real Format Editor view and assigns
the HYSYS default format to the associated values.
Figure 6.26
6-24
Menu Bar Options
7-1
7 Menu Bar Options
7.1 File ................................................................................................................. 4
7.1.1
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.1.4
Starting a Simulation ................................................................................ 4
Saving a Simulation ................................................................................. 7
Closing a Simulation ................................................................................ 8
Printing ..................................................................................................... 8
7.2 Edit................................................................................................................. 9
7.3 Simulation ................................................................................................... 10
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.3.6
Main Properties .......................................................................................11
Optimizer................................................................................................ 13
Event Scheduler..................................................................................... 14
Integrator................................................................................................ 14
View Equations ...................................................................................... 15
Enter Basis Environment........................................................................ 15
7.4 Flowsheet.................................................................................................... 17
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.3.7
7.4.3
Reaction Package .................................................................................. 18
Fluid Packages ...................................................................................... 21
Oil Output Settings ................................................................................. 16
User Properties ...................................................................................... 21
7.5 Workbook.................................................................................................... 25
7.6 PFD .............................................................................................................. 26
7.7 Tools ............................................................................................................ 27
7.7.1
7.7.2
7.7.3
7.7.4
7.7.5
Face Plates ............................................................................................ 28
DCS ....................................................................................................... 29
Script Manager....................................................................................... 30
Macro Language Editor.......................................................................... 32
Preferences............................................................................................ 32
7-1
7-2
7.8 Column ........................................................................................................ 59
7.9 Basis............................................................................................................ 59
7.10 Window...................................................................................................... 60
7.11 Help............................................................................................................ 62
7-2
Menu Bar Options
7-3
Most of the tasks described to this point (i.e. installing streams and
operations, accessing the Workbook and PFD, Printing, etc.) have hot
keys or buttons associated with them, which provide quick access to
their capabilities. Each of these functions can also be accessed through
the Menu Bar. The list of command or function groups, which is
displayed at the top of the HYSYS DeskTop, operates as a pull down
menu system. By selecting one of the options in the Menu Bar, a menu
of associated commands or options is opened.
Session Preferences can be
accessed through the Menu
Bar only.
In addition to the functions already described, the Menu Bar also
provides access to a number of functions that can only be accessed
through this route. Included in the functions that can only be accessed
via the Menu Bar are setting Session Preferences (units, default naming
schemes, etc.) and switching to another simulation currently in
memory.
In this chapter a description of each of the options that are available
through the Menu Bar will be provided. In cases where the options have
been described elsewhere in greater detail, only a quick review will be
provided. Others, such as Session Preferences and Scripting will be
described completely.
You can access the Menu Bar options in three ways:
• Select the desired Menu Bar item using the primary mouse
button, which will automatically open the associated menu.
• Use the ALT key in combination with the underlined letter in the
Menu Bar title. For example, ALT T will open the Tools menu.
• Use the ALT key by itself to move the active location to the File
option in the Menu Bar. Once the Menu Bar becomes the
Active location in HYSYS, you can manoeuvre through it using
the keyboard. The up and down arrows move through the menu
associated with a specific item, while the left and right arrows
move you to the next Menu Bar item, automatically opening the
associated menu.
If you want to switch focus from the Menu Bar without making a
selection, press the ESC key or the ALT key.
7-3
7-4
File
7.1
Note that a menu item with
an arrow head pointing to the
side has further options on a
submenu.
File
There are two variations to the drop down menu under File. A
condensed menu will be displayed in HYSYS before a simulation has
been created or opened. The options which are common to both
versions of the menu, as well as the functions specific to the detailed
menu will be explained in this section.
Figure 7.1
The menu options can be grouped into four main categories:
•
•
•
•
Starting a Simulation
Saving a Simulation
Closing a Simulation
Printing
7.1.1
Starting a Simulation
The New and Open options under File in the Menu Bar allow you to
create a new Flowsheet or open an existing Flowsheet. If you select
either New or Open, an expandible menu is produced containing the
available Flowsheet options:
See Chapter 2 - Flowsheet
Architecture for more
information on
SubFlowsheets and Templates.
7-4
Option
Description
Case
Creates a new simulation case or opens an existing
one. This option allows you to access HYSYS
simulation cases (*.hsc), HYSIM simulation cases
(*.sim) or Backup simulation cases (*.bk?).
Template
Creates a new template or opens an existing one.
These are Sub-Flowsheet templates.
Column
Creates a new column Flowsheet or opens an
existing one.
Menu Bar Options
7-5
When opening a case from an older version of HYSYS you will receive
the following message.
Figure 7.2
When you receive this message re-enter the Simulation Basis and make
sure that all of your assays or reactions are re-calculated.
Reading a HYSIM Case
HYSYS presents the functionality to open HYSIM simulations and to
transfer all compatible data into the appropriate HYSYS Environments.
Figure 7.3
Displays files according to the File Path and File
Filter selections. Your selection in this list will
appear in the File Name cell.
Note that the description for
each HYSIM case has a
Revision number. If the value
shown is less than 10014, the
HYSIM case IS NOT VALID for
transfer into HYSYS.
Use the File Filter to display only
HYSIM cases (*.sim) in the file
To open a HYSIM case, do the following:
Open Case Button
1.
Under File in the Menu Bar, select Open and then Case from the
submenu, or press the Open Case button.
2.
On the Open Simulation Case dialog, select Hysim Simulation
Cases (*.sim) from the File Filter drop down list.
7-5
7-6
File
3.
Choose a directory that contains a HYSIM case in the File Path
group.
4.
Select a HYSIM case in the list of cases or type the name of a case in
the File Name input cell.
5.
Press the OK button.
HYSIM Functionality NOT Supported In
HYSYS
HYSYS does not currently support some HYSIM functionality, therefore
it is not possible to transfer all HYSIM information into HYSYS. The
following table lists some issues of which you should be aware:
Object
Details Not Supported
Calculator
All Programs
Column
Condenser or Reboiler with Side Stripper Draw
Column
Condenser or Reboiler with Pump Around Draw
Column
Reboiler Liquid Draw (other than Bottoms product)
Column
Condenser Side Vapour Draw
Column
Reboiler Water Draw
Column
In AMSIM, tray efficiencies require the input of tray
dimensions on a per tray basis. HYSYS supports
only one diameter, one weir length and one weir
height per Tray Section. In this case, dimensions of
the 2nd stage from the bottom of the HYSIM column
are used for the HYSYS Tray Section.
Liquid Liquid
Extractor
Pump Arounds
Cyclone
Liquid Streams
Hydrocyclone
Vapour Streams
Rotary Vacuum
Filter
Only Connections are transferred. Other operation
parameters must be specified in HYSYS.
Baghouse Filter
Liquid Streams
Crystallizer Solid
Operation
All
Tee
Energy Stream Attachments
LNG
If the LNG Duty Stream is attached to another
operation in HYSIM, the Flowsheet will not be
complete in HYSYS.
Plug Flow Reactor
(PFR)
Space Time Option
CSTR
Space Time Option
CSTR
Dead Space Option
CSTR
Initialization from Stream
Data Recorder
7-6
Menu Bar Options
7.1.2
7-7
Saving a Simulation
HYSYS has three different save commands:
Command
Description
Save
Saves the case using the current file name and
location.
Save As
With this saving option, you need to enter a name
and location to which you want to save the file. The
Save Simulation Case As view appears when you
select the Save As command. You are able to
choose the File Path and a File Name for the case.
HYSYS automatically attaches the appropriate file
extension, .hsc.
Save All
Use this option to save all currently opened HYSYS
cases. You are asked to select which cases should
be saved. Select multiple cases with the CTRL key
and the primary mouse button. Once the cases have
been highlighted, select the Save button to save the
case(s) as shown in the view, or the Save As button
to save with a new name and/or location.
Figure 7.4
Figure 7.5
7-7
7-8
File
7.1.3
Closing a Simulation
Two of the options under File in the Menu Bar involve closing your
simulation:
Command
Description
Close Case
Closes the active case. Before closing the case, you
are asked if the case should be saved.
Close All
Allows you to close more than one case at a time.
The name of each opened file is displayed. You
select which case(s) you want to close.
Figure 7.6
7.1.4
Printing
The printing section contains the following options:
See Section 6.1 - Printing in
HYSYS for more information.
7-8
Command
Description
Print
Allows you to print Specsheets for streams and
operations.
Print Snapshot
Prints a bitmap snapshot of what currently appears
in the active HYSYS view.
Printer Setup
Allows you to select the default printer, print
orientation, paper size, etc. It is similar to the Printer
Setup commands in other Windows applications.
Menu Bar Options
7.2
7-9
Edit
Figure 7.7
The functions listed under Edit in the Menu Bar are available in all
Environments (i.e. Basis, Main, Sub-Flowsheet) and can be used both
across the Environments and outside of HYSYS:
Command
Description
Cut
Removes the selected cell(s) from the current view.
You can then use the Paste function to place the
removed cell(s) in another location or in another
application.
Copy
Copies the selected cell(s) to the Clipboard. You can
then use the Paste function to place the copied cell(s)
in another location or in another application.
Copy Special /
with Labels
Copies the selected cell(s) and their corresponding
labels to the Clipboard. You can then use the Paste
function to place the copied cell(s) in another location
or in another application.
Paste
Allows you to place copied or cut selections in the
location of your choice.
Although the functions are available throughout HYSYS, not all areas
within the Environments support them. Only matrix type areas can be
manipulated. For instance, you can copy a group of cells from the
Workbook or from a table and paste them into the Spreadsheet. In most
areas, you will be able to manipulate a group of cells by clicking and
dragging with the mouse. Whenever cells are grouped within a matrix
(i.e. Inlet streams for a MIXER, shown in Figure 7.8), you can highlight
more than a single cell.
Figure 7.8
7-9
7-10
Simulation
7.3
Simulation
The options under Simulation vary depending on whether you are in
Steady State or Dynamic mode. Both steady state and dynamic views
are shown below.
Figure 7.9
Option
Description
Main Properties
Displays simulation case properties, such as
Calculation Levels, Case Description and current
Object Status messages.
Optimizer
Opens the Optimizer, which performs steady state
optimization. This option is available from the Main
Flowsheet only.
Event Scheduler
Opens the Event Scheduler. Although it appears in
the Steady State menu, it only functions when in
Dynamic Mode.
Integrator
Opens the Dynamic Integrator. Although it appears
in the Steady State menu, it only functions when in
Dynamic Mode.
Simultaneous
Adjust Manager
Allows you to monitor and modify all adjusts that are
selected as simultaneous. Refer to Section 10.1 Adjust for more information.
Dynamics/Steady
State
Toggles between Dynamic and Steady State. The
Simulation menu is redrawn depending on this
choice.
Solver Holding/
Solver Active
Toggles between Hold mode and Calculate mode.
This option only appears in Steady State. When
HYSYS is calculating, the Hold Calculations option
appears, and when in holding mode, the Start
Calculations option appears.
Start Integrator/Stop
Integrator
Toggles between Start Integrator and Stop
Integrator. This option only appears in the
Simulation menu when you are in Dynamic mode.
Equation View
Summary
7-10
Opens the Equation Summary view.
Menu Bar Options
Option
Description
Enter Basis
Environment
Opens the Simulation Basis Manager.
Simulation Case
User Variables
Opens the User Variables view for the current case.
Import and Export
User Variables
Opens the Import and Export User Variables view
allowing you to export user variables from the current
case to an export file and import user variables from
an export file to the current case.
Oil Output Settings
Opens the Preferences view to the Oil Input tab,
where Assay preferences can be set for the case.
7.3.1
7-11
Main Properties
Selecting the Main Properties option via Simulation in the Menu Bar or
the CTRL M hot key opens the Simulation Case view, as shown in Figure
7.10.
Figure 7.10
You can convert the case to a template by selecting the Convert to
Template button at the bottom of the view. This converts the entire
Flowsheet to a Template.
You can also export all the information on the Print Spec Flowsheet tab
to a text file using the Export Flowsheet button. HYSYS will open a
dialog box to save the information to a text file with an *.hsi extension.
Main Environment Button
If the Main Properties option is selected while in a Sub-Flowsheet
environment, a Main Environment button is available to return to the
Main environment.
7-11
7-12
Simulation
Status Message Tab
See Section 5.4 - Object Status
Window/Trace Window for
more details on choosing a
Minimum Severity.
You can use this tab is used to re-name the environment. Notice that
the Name cell displays the name Case, which is the internal name
applied to the simulation case. This name appears in the upper right
hand corner of the HYSYS screen when in the Main Environment. It
also appears as part of the name on the Workbook and on the PFD. The
Tag cell displays the word Main, which also appears in the upper right
hand corner of the HYSYS screen and as part of the Workbook and PFD
names. You can change either of these descriptive words.
The Object Status group displays the current status messages for all
objects in the Flowsheet according to the Minimum Severity that you
choose.
Calculation Levels Tab
The second tab of the Simulation Case view is the Calc Levels tab. The
Calculation Level sets control over the order in which streams,
operations, and Flowsheets are calculated. For instance, you may want
a certain operation (Adjust) to be performed before another (Recycle).
To do this, you specify the Calculation Levels, such that the Adjust has a
lower value than the Recycle. HYSYS then forces the operation with the
lower Calculation Level to calculate first.
Figure 7.11
You can also ignore a certain stream or operation in a case by
deactivating its Active check box. The Reset button will return all the
Calculation Levels to their default values.
7-12
Menu Bar Options
7-13
Print Spec Flowsheet Tab
Figure 7.12
The scrolling display
lists all the flowsheet
specification details.
Use the Update
button to generate
a list of current
specifications in
your flowsheet.
The Export Flowsheet button allows you to save
the flowsheet specification details to a text file.
Selecting the Auto Update
checkbox, will automatically
update the list whenever the
simulation changes.
The last tab of the Simulation Case view is the Print Spec Flowsheet
tab. Once updated, this view lists all the current specifications used to
build your simulation case. The display begins with the Basis
Environment information and then proceeds to the Simulation
Environment, listing all the specifications for the unit operations
attached to your case.
To print the information displayed on the Print Spec Flowsheet tab to a
file, select the Export Flowsheet button at the bottom of the view. The
Save PrintSpecFlowsheet File dialog box will appear which will allow
you to save this information as a text file with the extension *.hsi.
7.3.2
The Optimizer can be invoked
with the hot key F5.
Optimizer
The Optimizer performs steady-state optimization by finding values of
process variables that minimize or maximize a user-defined objective
function. The Optimizer possesses its own Spreadsheet, where the
variables that define the objective function are attached, as well as the
mathematical expression relating these variables. In addition, you may
set upper and lower bounds and constraints that the process variables
must also satisfy. The optimization must begin in a feasible region, i.e.,
all constraints must be satisfied at the initial starting conditions.
7-13
7-14
Simulation
7.3.3
Event Scheduler
Using the Event Scheduler it is possible to have HYSYS perform tasks at
given times during the dynamic simulation of a process. The time at
which HYSYS starts a task may be predetermined (i.e. after 20 minutes
of simulation time) or it may depend on the simulation (i.e. after a
reboiler product stream temperature stabilizes).
Refer to Chapter 2 - Dynamic Tools of the Dynamic Modeling manual
for more information regarding the Event Scheduler.
7.3.4
Integrator
The Integrator is used when running a case in Dynamic mode. You can
access the Integrator view under Simulation in the Menu Bar or by
using the hot key CTRL I.
Figure 7.13
Automatically forces the
Flowsheet Variables to
update regardless of what
is set for the Display
Interval.
Starts the Integrator.
When the Integrator is
running, this switches to a
Stop button. The Start/
Stop functionality can
also be accessed by
using the Integrator
buttons in the Button Bar.
7-14
Resets all the values to
the default values.
Menu Bar Options
7-15
On the Integrator property view, you can specify various integration
parameters:
Parameter
Description
Units
Select the time units for the Current Time, End Time
and Display Interval.
Current Time
Displays the time that the Integrator has been
running. When the Integrator is Reset, this value
returns to zero.
Acceleration
Allows you to see the Real Time factor to slow a
simulation case down to run at real-time.
End Time
Allows you to specify the time at which the integrator
will stop.
Display Interval
Time interval at which HYSYS updates the variables
in the Flowsheet. Keep in mind that the frequency of
update has a significant impact on the speed at
which your simulation runs. The Display Interval has
no affect on the calculation frequency.
Units
Select the time units for the Step Size, Minimum and
Maximum cells.
Step Size
When the Integrator starts, the Step Size varies
according to the integration errors and the range set
by the Minimum and Maximum. After the Reset
button is pressed, HYSYS defaults this value to the
Minimum specified step size.
Minimum
Allows you to specify the minimum step size.
Maximum
Allows you to specify the maximum step size.
7.3.5
The View Equations
command is available only
when you are in Dynamics
mode.
You can use the hot key CTRL B
to re-enter the Basis Manager
from any Environment.
View Equations
The Equation Summary View is used when running a case in Dynamic
mode. The Equation Summary View is opened automatically by HYSYS
when there are dynamic specification errors in your case, or manually
by selecting View Equations from the Simulation Menu Bar. The
Equation Summary provides a list of the equations and pressure flow
specifications that are currently used in the dynamic simulation. In
addition it allows you to perform an analysis of the simulation to
determine whether any equations and specifications are required or
redundant.
7.3.6
Enter Basis Environment
When in the Basis Environment, you can access the Basis Manager via
the Basis command in the Menu Bar. Whenever you open a New Case,
HYSYS places you directly into the Basis Manager. You can re-enter the
Basis Manager from any Flowsheet by choosing Simulation from the
7-15
7-16
Simulation
Menu Bar and then the Enter Basis Environment option. You can also
use the Basis button to re-enter the Basis Manager from either the Main
or Column environment.
Refer to Section 1.3 - Starting
a Simulation for more
information.
The Simulation Basis Manager is a Property View that allows you to
create and manipulate every fluid package in the simulation. Each
Flowsheet in HYSYS can possess its own fluid package. Because the
Template and Column Sub-Flowsheets reside inside the Main
Simulation, these Sub-Flowsheets can either inherit the fluid package
of the Main Flowsheet, or you can create an entirely new fluid package
for each Sub-Flowsheet. For each Fluid Package you can supply a
property package, components, reactions, and user properties.
7.3.7
Refer to Chapter 3 - HYSYS Oil
Manager in the Simulation
Basis manual for information
on oil characterization.
More detail on the BP Curves
utility can be found in
Chapter 8 - Utilities.
During the characterization of an oil or the calculation of boiling ranges
for a fluid in the BP Curves utility, the initial (IBP) and final boiling
point (FBP) cut point values can have a significant effect on the outer
limits of the boiling range. During the laboratory analysis of a
petroleum fluid boiling point regions, the most difficult to measure are
the end regions.
HYSYS uses the defaults of 1% and 98% for the IBP and FBP,
respectively. With a 1% IBP value, HYSYS utilizes the boiling points of
all components in the first volume percent of the given fluid and
calculates a weighted average boiling point, which is used as the IBP for
any further analysis. The final boiling point is determined in much the
same way, using the weighted average of the boiling points for the
components found in the final two liquid volume percent of the fluid.
Figure 7.14
7-16
Oil Output Settings
Menu Bar Options
7-17
On the Boiling Ranges view, you can specify the following, in units of
liquid volume percent:
Unit
Description
IBP cut point
Values from 0% to 5% are allowed.
FBP cut point
Values from 90% to 100% are allowed.
Also, you can choose the ASTM D86 Conversion Method. The options
include:
•
•
•
•
API 1974
API 1987
API 1994
Edmister-Okamoto 1959
For the ASTN D2887 Conversion Method, the options include:
• API 1987
• API 1994 Indirect
• API 1994 Direct
7.4
Flowsheet
Figure 7.15
The options under Flowsheet are:
Option
Description
Add Stream
Adds a Stream to the Flowsheet. For more
information, refer to Section 1.3.4 - Installing
Streams
Add Operation
Adds a Unit Operation to the Flowsheet. For more
information, refer to Section 1.3.5 - Installing
Operations.
7-17
7-18
Flowsheet
Option
Description
Find Object
Opens the Object Navigator and allows you to
access any stream, unit operation or Flowsheet
present in the case. Refer to Section 5.2.1 - Object
Navigator for more information.
Simulation
Navigator
Opens the Simulation Navigator that allows you to
view the Property View of any stream or unit
operation present in the case. Refer to Section 5.1.3
- Simulation Navigator for more information.
Open/Close Object
Palette
Toggles between opening and closing the Object
Palette. Refer to Section 1.3.3 - Object Palette for
more information.
Optimization
Objects
Allows you to select a generic set of objects which
are used to identify the underlying flowsheet
variable, and provide the necessary configuration
information for use by Optim or Estim. Refer to
Section 3.2 - Optimization Objects in the RTO
manual.
Reaction Package
Accesses the Reaction Package view.
Fluid Package/
Dynamic Model
Accesses both the Fluid Packages assignment
view, and the Dynamic Property Model.
User Properties
Accesses a view from which you can install User
Properties.
Flowsheet User
Variables
Accesses the User Variables view. For more
information, see User Variables chapter of
Customization Guide.
7.4.1
Components for the reactions
are installed in the Basis
Environment. Refer to
Chapter 4 - Reactions in the
Simulation Basis manual for
details on component
selection.
7-18
Reaction Package
Selecting this option opens the Reaction Package view, from which you
can do the following:
•
•
•
•
Create, Copy or Edit a Reaction.
Create, Copy or Edit a Reaction Set.
Attach Reactions to a Reaction Set.
Make a Reaction Set available to unit operations within the
current case.
Menu Bar Options
7-19
Figure 7.16
Makes a reaction set in the
Available Reaction Sets group
accessible to unit operations in the
Flowsheet by placing it in the
Current Reaction Sets group.
Attached reactions for the
highlighted reaction set in the
Current Reaction Sets group.
Pressing this button
creates a new
reaction set.
Object inspect (and choose
View) or double click on the
highlighted reaction to open
its property view.
Press this button to make
a copy of the highlighted
reaction.
Press this button
to add a new
reaction.
The Reaction Package view eliminates the need to return to the Basis
Environment to define Reactions and Reaction Sets. The only aspect of
defining reactions that must be done in the Basis Environment is the
selection of components.
Generalized Procedure
Refer to Chapter 4 - Reactions
in the Simulation Basis
manual for details on
Reactions and Reaction Sets.
The following procedure outlines the basic steps for creating a reaction,
creating a reaction set, adding the reaction to the reaction set and then
making the set available to the Flowsheet. Refer to the Reaction
Package view, shown in Figure 7.16, as you follow the procedure:
1.
Select Reaction Package under Flowsheet in the Menu Bar.
2.
On the Reaction Package view, press the Add Rxn button to create
a new Reaction.
3.
A Reactions view appears, from which you must select the type of
reaction to create. Highlight a reaction type and press the Add
Reaction button.
7-19
7-20
Flowsheet
4.
The property view for the reaction type you have selected will
appear. Complete the input for the reaction until Ready appears as
its status message. You can close the Reaction property view, if
desired, by pressing the Close button.
Figure 7.17
5.
On the Reaction Package view, press the New Set button to create a
Reaction Set. The Reaction Set view appears.
Figure 7.18
7-20
6.
If desired, change the Name of the Reaction Set to better identify it.
7.
To attach the newly created reaction to the Reaction Set, place the
cursor in the <empty> cell of the Active List group. Open the drop
down list in the Edit Bar and select the reaction name. The reaction
becomes attached to the Reaction Set, as indicated by the activated
check box in the OK column.
8.
Press the Close button on the Reaction Set view.
Menu Bar Options
9.
Add Set Button
In the Available Reaction Sets group of the Reaction Package view,
highlight the name of the newly created Reaction Set. Notice that
the attached reaction is listed in the Associated Reactions group.
10. Press the Add Set button to make the Reaction Set, and thus the
Reaction, available to unit operations in the Flowsheet. The new
Reaction Set is displayed in the Current Reaction Sets group.
7.4.2
If Flowsheets use the same
fluid package, they must also
use the same Flash Options.
7-21
Fluid Packages
This option quickly provides you with a summary of any Fluid Packages
in the simulation. You can view the Property Package and components
contained in each Flowsheet. Since each Flowsheet can have a different
fluid and property package, each can also have a different Flash Option.
Figure 7.19
This group displays all the
Flowsheets present in the case.
Displays the fluid and Property
Packages for the selected Flowsheet.
For more information
regarding the Dynamic Flash
options refer to Section 1.4.5 Stability Test Tab of the
Simulation Basis Guide.
Displays the components
in the selected
Flowsheet.
The group displays the
flash option for the
current Fluid Package.
7.4.3
Refer to Chapter 5 Component Maps in the
Simulation Basis manual for
more information.
User Properties
The view accessed by selecting User Properties under Flowsheet in the
Menu Bar allows you to manipulate user properties for your simulation
case without returning to the Basis Environment. From this view, you
can create, edit or delete user properties. Your changes are, however,
transferred to the User Property view in the Basis Environment.
7-21
7-22
Flowsheet
Figure 7.20
The Available User Properties are listed in the User Properties group.
You can manipulate the User Properties by using the buttons on the
view:
Button
Description
Add
Creates a new User Property.
Delete
Erases the currently highlighted User Property.
HYSYS will not prompt for confirmation when
deleting a User Property, so be careful when you are
using this button.
View
Allows you to edit the currently highlighted User
Property.
The User Property Parameters group lists the parameters for the
highlighted user property.
7-22
Menu Bar Options
7-23
You can make changes to the parameters directly on this view:
Parameter
Description
User Property Name
Use the HYSYS default, or supply the name.
Mixing Basis
Select fraction or flow on a molar, mass or liquid
volume basis.
Choose one of the mixing rule equations:
N
•
( Pmix ) F1 = F2 ∑ ( x ( i )P ( i ) F1 )
i=1
N
•
ln ( Pmix ) F1 = F2 ∑ ( x ( i ) ln P ( i ) F1 )
i=1
N
Mixing Rule
•
Index =
∑ x ( i ) ( F1P ( i ) + 10F2P ( i ) )
i=1
where:
Pmix P(i) x(i) Index this is bblank
total user property value
property value for component i
component fraction
total user property value for the
index equation
Mixing Parameter
F1, F2
You can change either parameter from its default
value of 1.
Component
Property Values
Supply the component user property values.
From the View User Properties of Components in Fluid Package drop
down list, select a Fluid Package as the source for the user property list
of components.
7-23
7-24
Flowsheet
Adding a User Property
1.
Press the Add button.
2.
The User Property view will appear as shown in Figure 7.21.
Figure 7.21
7-24
3.
Provide a descriptive Name for the user property.
4.
In the Equation Parameters group, select a Mixing Basis (Fraction
or Flow): Mole, Mass or Liquid Volume.
5.
Choose a Mixing Rule.
6.
You can modify the two Mixing Parameters (F1 and F2) to more
accurately reflect your property formula.
7.
Select a Source fluid package to obtain the list of user property
components.
8.
Input the property values for each component.
Menu Bar Options
7.5
7-25
Workbook
Figure 7.22
Refer to Chapter 4 - Workbook
for more information.
This menu item only appears when the Workbook has focus. The
options under Workbook are:
Command
Description
Setup
Produces a dialog box from which you can
manipulate Workbook tabs.
Export
Provides access to a submenu that contains the
Workbook and Pages options. Allows you to save a
Workbook or Page setup. A name, file path and
description for the Workbook can be provided.
Import
Provides access to a submenu that contains the
Workbook and Pages options. Replaces the current
Workbook or Page setup with a saved setup.
Page Scope
Provides access to a submenu that contains the
Show/Hide Sub-Flowsheet Objects option. This
toggle function will either show or hide SubFlowsheet objects on the active Workbook tab.
Order/Hide/Reveal
Objects
Produces a dialog box that you can choose to sort
the Workbook objects either alphabetically or
manually, hide Workbook objects and reveal
Workbook objects.
7-25
7-26
PFD
7.6
PFD
Figure 7.23
Refer to Chapter 3 - PFD for
more information.
This menu item only appears when the PFD has focus. The options
under PFD are:
Command
Description
Select Objects
Allows you to select multiple operations and streams
on the PFD. The Select Objects dialog contains a
Filter, allowing you to narrow your object choice.
Show Hidden
Objects
Any hidden objects on the PFD may be viewed with
this option. When you select this, HYSYS displays
the Show Hidden Objects dialog.
Swap Connections
Allows you to select two streams which are attached
to the same operation and exchange their nozzle
connections.
Break a Connection
Lets you break the connection between a stream and
an operation without deleting either.
Auto Position All
Repositions all objects on the PFD to the best
possible location as selected by HYSYS.
Auto Position
Selected
7-26
Auto positions only selected objects.
Select Mode
Selects the operating mode for the PFD. This is
either Move, Size, or Attach.
Drag Zoom
Use the primary mouse button to drag a box around
a region. HYSYS redraws the PFD showing only that
region.
Add a PFD
Adds a new page to the PFD Notebook. The option
to clone an existing PFD is presented.
Delete this PFD
Deletes the active PFD without a notice to confirm
the action.
Rename this PFD
Allows you to change the name of the PFD, which
appears on the page tab.
Menu Bar Options
7.7
7-27
Tools
Figure 7.24
The options under Tools are:
The User Session Preferences
view can be accessed only
through the Tools menu.
Command
Description
Workbooks
Opens the Workbook for any Flowsheet. Refer to
Chapter 4 - Workbook, for more information.
PFDs
Opens the PFD for any Flowsheet. Refer to Chapter
3 - PFD, for more information.
Summaries
Opens the Summary View for the current Flowsheet.
Refer to Chapter 1 - Interface, for more information.
Utilities
Opens the Available Utilities view. Refer to
Chapter 8 - Utilities, for more information.
Reports
Opens the Report Manager. Refer to Section 6.2.1 Creating a Report, for more information.
Databook
Opens the Databook, from which you can install
Process Data Tables, Strip Charts, Data Recorder
Scenarios and Case Studies.
Face Plates
Provides access to controller Face Plates.
DCS
Accesses the HYSYS DCS Interface.
Dynamics Assistant
Opens the Dynamics Assistant to help convert
steady state cases to dynamics.
Control Manager
The Control Manager lists all PID and MP controllers
attached to your case. For more information refer to
the Dynamics Modeling manual.
Script Manager
Provides access to the Script Manager.
Add-Ins Manager
Allows you to add Active-X controls to your HYSYS
GUI.
Macro Language
Editor
Accesses the HYSYS Macro Language Editor view.
Preferences
Accesses the User Session Preferences.
7-27
7-28
Tools
7.7.1
Refer to Section 10.7 Controller Face Plate of the
Dynamic Modelling Guide for
more information.
Face Plates
The Face Plate provides all pertinent information about a controller.
You can access the Face Plates dialog under Tools in the Menu Bar or
with the hot key CTRL F. From the Flowsheets group, select the
Flowsheet containing the Controller whose Face Plate you want to
open. The Logical Operations group displays all the Controllers in the
highlighted Flowsheet. Select the Controller Face Plate(s) you want to
open and press the Open button. You can select multiple Face Plates by
holding down the CTRL key and clicking on the controller names.
Figure 7.25
You can change the appearance of all Face Plates in the Flowsheet by
pressing the Type button. There are two types of Face Plates available in
HYSYS, Fixed Size and Scalable. Fixed Size Face Plates are the default.
Both types are shown below.
Figure 7.26
Fixed Size Face Plate
Scalable Face Plate
With these radio buttons, you
can select the controller mode:
Manual, Automatic or
Cascade.
7-28
Menu Bar Options
7.7.2
7-29
DCS
Selecting DCS under Tools in the Menu Bar opens the HYSYS DCS
Interface view, from which you can link HYSYS to your Distributed
Control System (DCS). Linking HYSYS to your DCS provides the
following potential application opportunities:
For further information on the
HYSYS DCS Interface, contact
your local AEA Technology
Engineering Software
representative.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Conceptual Design
Process Design
Control Strategy Development
Fault Tree and Safety Analysis and Evaluation
Plant Control System Check Out
Process Improvement
Operator Training
Figure 7.27
Deletes all DCS information from the
current case. HYSYS asks for
confirmation before the deletion.
Enable/Disable toggle that creates/breaks
the communication link with the DCS.
All information concerning the HYSYS DCS Interface is distributed
over the four tabs on the view:
•
•
•
•
•
Drivers
General Data
Controllers
PV Export
PV Import
7-29
7-30
Tools
7.7.3
Script Manager
The Script Manager is a HYSYS tool that records all your case
interaction, with respect to installing streams or operations, making
connections, and supplying specifications. The recorded script can be
played back at a later time. When in the Basis, Main, or Column
Environment, you can access the Script Manager under Tools in the
Menu Bar.
Figure 7.28
When using the Script feature, it is important to note a few points.
• Session Preferences are not saved in the Script.
• Scripting is always done in HYSYS internal units.
• Scripting is Name specific, so stream and operation names in a
script must be identical to those in the case in which you are
running the script.
• For the playback of a script, the simulation case MUST BE
EXACTLY as it was when the script was recorded, so that
HYSYS can perform all the steps in the script.
Recording
The procedure for recording a New Script is as follows:
7-30
1.
Save your simulation case. Since the case must be in exactly this
same condition for playback of the recorded script, this is generally
a good idea.
2.
Select Script Manager under Tools in the Menu Bar.
3.
Choose a directory from the Directories group in which the Script
file will be saved.
Menu Bar Options
4.
7-31
Press the New button. HYSYS closes the Script Manager view and
displays the New Script view.
Figure 7.29
5.
Enter a Name and Description (if desired) for the Script. If you do
not add an extension to the script Name, HYSYS adds the .scp
extension.
6.
Press the Record button to start recording. HYSYS closes the New
Script view. Notice the red Record icon in the lower right corner of
the DeskTop.
Record Icon (Red)
7.
Perform each task that you wish to record.
8.
When you finish recording commands, return to the Script
Manager view and press the Stop Recording button.
9.
If you would like to save the case, DO NOT save it with the same
name as in step #1, as this will prevent you from playing back the
script.
Playback
In order to play a script, the simulation case must be in the same state
as it was prior to the recording of the script.
At any time during the playback, you can stop the script by
accessing the Script Manager view and pressing the Stop Play
button. This stops the script, but may not stop the HYSYS
function that was occurring during playback, i.e. integration in
Dynamic mode.
Follow this procedure to play a script:
Playback Icon (Green)
1.
Open the case that is associated with the script.
2.
Select Script Manager under Tools in the Menu Bar.
3.
Highlight the script name in the Script Files group of the Script
Manager view. If your script is not listed in the default directory,
you can select a different path in the Directories group.
7-31
7-32
Tools
Refer to Section 5.5 - Object
Status Window/Trace
Window for details on the
Trace Window.
4.
Press the Play button. HYSYS closes the Script Manager view and
begins playing back the script. Notice the green Playback icon in
the lower right corner of the DeskTop.
5.
View the steps of the script playback in the Trace Window.
7.7.4
Macro Language Editor
By selecting Macro Language Editor under Tools in the Menu Bar, you
access the HYSYS Macro Language Editor view.
Figure 7.30
For more information, consult
the on-line help by selecting
Help in the Menu Bar of the
HYSYS Macro Language
Editor.
The HYSYS Macro Language Editor is an interactive design
environment for developing, testing and executing WinWrap Basic
scripts. The editor uses a syntax that is similar to Microsoft® Visual
Basic®. See Section 2.4 - Example 1 - The Macro Language Editor in the
Customization Guide for more information.
7.7.5
Preferences
The Preferences section in HYSYS is used to specify default information
for the simulation case. This information includes Automatic Naming
Formats, Units, Colours, Fonts, Icons, etc., for the simulation. Session
Preferences can be saved for use in other simulations.
You can save multiple Session
Preferences.
7-32
You can open the Session Preferences under Tools in the Menu Bar of
the Basis, Main, and Column Environments. When opened, the Session
Preferences Property View appears. Like all Property Views, there are a
number of tabs associated with the view. Common to each tab are the
two buttons along the bottom of the view:
Menu Bar Options
Command
Description
Save Preference Set
Saves the Preferences to a file. You can provide a
new file name and/or location to which the
Preferences are saved.
Load Preference Set
This button allows you to Load Preferences saved
from a previous HYSYS session.
7-33
Simulation Tab
The Simulation tab consists of five pages: Options, Desktop, Naming,
ToolTips and Assistant.
Options Page
The Options page shown in Figure 7.31 contains three groups: General
Options, Errors, and Column Options.
Figure 7.31
7-33
7-34
Tools
The General Options group is a set of six check boxes:
See Section 1.1.8 - The
Property View for
information on how to
convert Modal views to NonModal.
Option
Description
Allow Multiple
Stream Connections
This check box, which is not activated by default,
controls whether lists of streams should be filtered to
only those that are not currently connected. For
example, suppose you use the drop down list of
streams when selecting a feed to an operation. If this
check box is not activated, only streams that are not
already connected as a feed to an operation will be
shown in the list. If the check box is activated,
HYSYS displays all the streams in the Flowsheet,
including the ones that you cannot connect as feed
streams.
View New Streams
Upon Creation
If activated, the property view for the stream will
automatically appear when you add a new stream.
Use Input Experts
Column operations have an optional installation
guide built in to assist you in the installation. When
this check box is activated, you will be guided
through the Column installation.
Confirm Delete
When this is activated, HYSYS prompts you for
confirmation before deleting an object. If the check
box is not activated, HYSYS will delete the object as
soon as the instruction is given. It is advised to keep
this option activated.
Use Modal Property
Views
When this box is activated, all property views are
displayed as Modal (with a Pin). If the check box is
not activated, all property views are Non-Modal.
When Views are Modal, you have the options of
individually making each property view Non-Modal
by selecting the Pin in the upper corner of the view.
Confirm Mode
Switches
When activated, HYSYS prompts for confirmation
when you change to or from Dynamic Mode.
The Errors group contains two check boxes which when activated will
send the specified errors to the Trace Window. When these check boxes
are activated, you will not be prompted to acknowledge errors.
The Column Options group contains two check boxes. The Expand
Tray Sections box will, when active, show a fully expanded column in
the column environment PFD. When the check box is inactive, the
column is displayed with the minimum required number of trays; those
trays which have streams (inlet or outlet) attached to them.
7-34
Menu Bar Options
7-35
Desktop Page
The Desktop page shown in Figure 7.32 contains two groups: Initial
Build Home View and Face Plates.
Figure 7.32
The Initial Build Home View group contains radio buttons which allow
you to specify which of the three main interfaces, Workbook, PFD, or
Summary, appears first when you enter a new Environment. This does
not restrict you to what you can access within that environment, as the
Workbook, PFD, and Summary Views can all be open at the same time.
This setting only establishes which view should be opened by default.
The Face Plates group involves the placement of face plates on the
Desktop. When you have a large number of face plates open in a case
and you select Arrange Desktop under Window in the Menu Bar, the
face plates will be organized according to your specifications in the
Face Plates group. The face plates will either be placed along the left
side of the Desktop in a column format or along the top in a row format.
You can limit the number of columns or rows (depending on the choice
of the radio button) in the Maximum Number of Columns/Rows input
cell. Any excess face plates which cannot be placed in columns/rows
due to the Maximum Number of Columns/Rows limit, will be cascaded
with other open windows.
7-35
7-36
Tools
Figure 7.33
The Tile Face Plates Along Side radio
button was selected on the Simulation
page.
An input value of 2 was specified as the
Maximum Number of Columns.
Extra windows, including face plates,
are cascaded when Arrange
Desktop is selected under Window
in the Menu bar.
Naming Page
There are no restrictions in
naming streams and
operations. You can use more
than one word (separated by
spaces if desired) to provide
the best possible description.
7-36
The Automatic Naming of Flowsheet Objects group dictates how
HYSYS names streams and operations when they are installed. You can
specify the naming convention for each type of operation. For each
Flowsheet object, you can specify a naming convention and a starting
number. For example, in the view shown, Energy Streams are indicated
as Q-%d, with a Starting Number of 100. The first energy stream
installed using the Add Energy Stream command will be named Q-100,
the second Q-101, and so on. The automatic naming function is
Menu Bar Options
7-37
provided merely for convenience. You can change any default name at
any time within the Flowsheet.
Figure 7.34
Tool Tips Page
There are two groups on the Tools Tips page, Show Tooltips and Show
PFD Flyby. Tooltips show you information regarding objects such as
streams. For example, make sure that all the check boxes in the Show
Tooltips group are checked, and open the property view for a stream.
Hover the mouse pointer over top of the temperature input cell. A
tooltip appears, showing the units for the value and the calculation
methods. If you only check the Value in SI Units check box in the Show
Tooltips group, then when you hover the mouse pointer over top of the
temperature input cell for a stream, the tooltip message would only
show the temperature vaue in SI units.
A PFD flyby is a small message box that appears when you hover the
mouse pointer over top of an icon on the PFD. If you uncheck the Show
PFD Flyby box and then hover the mouse pointer over top of any icon
on the PFD, the message box will not appear.
7-37
7-38
Tools
Figure 7.35
Dynamics Page
There are four groups on the Dynamics page that allow you to specify
options used in Dynamic mode: Assistant, Controllers Options,
Pressure Flow solver and IOFlash Heat Exchangers..
Figure 7.36
The Assistant group options deal with the Dynamic Assistant. The first
check-box allows HYSYS to automatically set all of the dynamic stream
7-38
Menu Bar Options
7-39
specifications. When the second check-box is active HYSYS will ask you
if you would like to use the Dynamic Assistant when switching from
Steady State to Dynamics or when starting up the Integrator.
The Controller Options group has one check-box that when active will
display controller alarm messages in the trace window at the bottom of
the screen.
The Pressure Flow Solver group allows you to ignore convergence
failures for up to five pressure flow steps. It is not recommended to
activate this option. However, it can be useful in extreme cases where
you know that the case will converge but are having problems during
one of the calculation steps.
The check-box available in the IOFlash Heat Exchanger group gives you
the option of solving the heat transfer equations simultaneously with
the IOFlash. This can be used to increases the calculation speed of your
simulation. However, if you encounter any inconsistencies with your
heat transfer equipment diable this option.
Performance Page
The Performance Page displays the Macro Performance slider. This
allows you to balance the Macro speed with memory requirements. The
faster your setting, the more memory your computer will require to run
the macros.
Figure 7.37
You also are given the option of updating the Object Status Services
while solving.
7-39
7-40
Tools
Variables Tab
Units Page
Figure 7.38
Field is the Current Unit
Set for the case.
Used to add a new
custom unit set to the
Preferences.
Contains the default
unit set in HYSYS.
These cannot be
changed or deleted.
Displays the variable and the unit
according to the highlighted Unit Set.
Used to delete a custom unit
set from the preferences.
Adding a New Unit Set
A custom unit set allows you
to mix SI and Field units
within the same unit set.
As previously mentioned, HYSYS has three default unit sets: Field, SI,
and EuroSI. These three sets are fixed, in that none of the units can be
changed. Since you may wish HYSYS to display information in units
other than the default, you are able to create your own custom sets.
HYSYS allows you to create new custom unit sets by cloning an existing
set and altering it. The procedure is as follows:
7-40
1.
Select the unit set you want to modify from the Current Unit Set
group. For example, choose SI.
2.
Press the Clone button. The name HYSYS gives to this new unit set
is NewUser. The name now appears in the Current Unit Set group
and in the Unit Set Name cell. You can change the default name in
the Unit Set Name cell. The units for the new set are the same as
the SI units.
Menu Bar Options
7-41
Figure 7.39
3.
Move to the Vapour Fraction cell. Place the cursor on the unit cell
which displays Unitless. If you click on the drop down list in the
Edit Bar, it is empty because the chosen variable, Vapour Fraction,
is unitless, and does not have any alternate units.
4.
Move to the Temperature unit cell. It displays C (degrees Celsius),
as its units. Open the drop down list in the Edit Bar. Now there are
alternate units displayed: C, K, F, R. Choose K (Kelvin) as the base
temperature unit. It appears in the Temperature Unit Cell.
5.
Move to the Pressure Unit cell. It presently displays kPa as its units.
Open the drop down list in the Edit Bar. There are several pressure
units from which to choose. Use the scroll bar to select psia.
6.
You can continue to scroll through the Variable/Unit list until you
have finished customizing the Unit Set.
7.
When you finish customizing the set, you can save it so that it will
be available in future HYSYS cases. Press the Save Preference Set
button. The Unit Set is stored as part of an overall Preferences (.prf)
file.
8.
Whenever you open a new case and wish to use your customized
Unit Set, click on the Load Preference Set button, and then select
the Preferences to load. Any customized Unit Set you saved within
the Preferences appears as an Available Unit Set.
If you create a new set and then decide you do not want it, it can be
deleted. Select the set you wish to delete from the Current Unit Set
group and press the Delete button. The unit set is deleted from the
current case.
7-41
7-42
Tools
Unit Conversion Buttons
HYSYS performs its calculations in an internal unit set, and every other
unit is converted from these default units. The three buttons on the
right side of the Units page allow you to View, Add and Delete Unit
Conversions.
Viewing a Unit Conversion
The View button lets you view the conversion factor HYSYS uses to
convert from its internal unit (SI) to the unit chosen in your unit set.
You can view the conversion for any available unit.
For instance, if you choose Field as the Unit Set, the pressure unit is
psia. To see what conversion factor HYSYS uses to convert from psia
into kPa (internal units), place the cursor on the pressure unit cell, and
press the View button.
Figure 7.40
The Name cell displays the units, and the cell next to it shows the
conversion factor (0.1450) between kPa and psia. This is a View Only
display. You cannot change the contents of the Name cell or the value of
the conversion for a default unit.
Adding a Unit Conversion
In some instances, you may require a unit that is unavailable in the
HYSYS data base. In this case, HYSYS allows you to create your own unit
and supply a conversion factor for it. You may only add a unit to a User
defined Unit Set. The procedure for adding a Unit is as follows:
7-42
1.
Select the customized Unit Set to which you want to add the unit.
2.
Select the unit type (e.g., pressure).
3.
Press the Add Unit Conv button. The User Conversion dialog
appears.
Menu Bar Options
7-43
Figure 7.41
4.
By default, HYSYS names the new unit UserUnit*. You can change
this name. To avoid confusion, do not use a HYSYS default name.
For this example, type PUnit1 in the Name cell.
5.
Enter the conversion factor between your unit and the HYSYS
internal unit. Notice that the above view has two cells for entering
values. The first is the multiply or divide cell, and the second is the
add cell. The internal pressure unit in HYSYS is kPa, so the
conversion will be from kPa. In the first cell, enter the value 0.75.
6.
Next to the first cell is a cell containing an asterisk, indicating
multiplication. The down arrow accesses a drop down list that also
contains the division symbol (/). Select division as the operation.
7.
The final cell is preceded by an addition symbol. The value in this
cell can be added or subtracted. To subtract, place a negative sign
in front of the number. For instance, use -2.000 as the value for this
cell.
Figure 7.42
8.
Press the OK button. Notice the appearance of the name PUnit1 in
the Pressure unit cell.
The pressure conversion factor is now: PUnit1 = 0.750/kPa - 2.000.
Deleting a Unit Conversion
You may only delete User defined Unit Conversions. Select the Unit Set
which contains the unit to be deleted, then select the particular unit.
For instance, in the customized unit set, NewUser, select Pressure as
the unit to delete. Press the Delete Unit Conv button. The unit returns
to the HYSYS default unit.
7-43
7-44
Tools
Formats Page
On this page you can specify how variables will be displayed. Double
clicking on the format cell of a variable will bring up the Real Format
Editor view.
Figure 7.43
There are three buttons located on the Formats page:
Button
Description
Format
Brings up the Real Format Editor view for the active
variable format cell.
Reset
Returns the selected variable to the default format.
Reset All
Returns all the variables to their default formats.
The Real Format Editor view is used to change variables format in
HYSYS..
Figure 7.44
7-44
Menu Bar Options
7-45
There are three radio buttons located in the Format Specification
group box page:
Radio Button
Description
Displays the values in scientific notation. The
number of significant digits appearing after the
decimal point is set in the Significant Figure cell. As
an example:
Exponential
• Entered or calculated value: 10000.5
• Significant Figure: 5 (includes the first whole
digit)
• Final display: 1.0001e+04
Displays the values in decimal notation. The number
of whole digits and significant digits appearing after
the decimal point and are set in the Whole Digits
and Decimal Digits cells. As an example:
Fixed Decimal Point
• Entered value: 100.5
• Whole digits: 3
• Decimal digits: 2
• Final display: 100.50
If the entered or calculated value exceed the
specified whole digits, HYSYS will display the value
as an Exponential, with the sum of the specified
whole and decimal digits being the number of
significant figures.
Also, if the Display sign if zero check box is
activated, HYSYS will display the sign of the number
entered or calculated that has been rounded to zero.
Displays the values in either decimal notation and
scientific notation. The number of significant digits
appearing after the decimal point is set in the
Significant Figure cell.
Example 1:
Significant Figure
• Entered or calculated value: 100.5
• Significant Figure: 5
• Final display: 100.50
Example 2:
• Entered or calculated value: 10000.5
• Significant Figure: 5
• Final display: 1.0001e+04
Reports Tab
Format/Layout Page
This page provides you with options for formatting and specifying your
reports.
7-45
7-46
Tools
Figure 7.45
Text Format Page
For reports printed in text format, this page allows you to specify some
text formatting options.
Figure 7.46
Datasheets Page
The Datasheets page allows you to select which datablocks are to be
included for each stream, unit operation, utility and reaction report
7-46
Menu Bar Options
7-47
printout. You first select the datasheet type in the Datasheet Type tree
and then select the datablocks to be include or excluded in the Default
Datablocks list box.
Figure 7.47
Company Info Page
Note that HYSYS will not
automatically resize a bitmap
file to fit the logo box on this
page. The size of the sample
logo shown in Figure 7.48 is
4.42cm wide by 1.88cm high.
The maximum logo size that
can be accommodated by the
logo box is 6.55cm wide by
2.38cm high.
On this page, you can provide some information about your company,
such as the company name, location and logo.
Figure 7.48
7-47
7-48
Tools
Files Tab
Options Page
The Options page lets you specify the view that will be used when
opening or saving files in HYSYS. The default selection is the Win 95/NT
common dialogs which will display the same open and save dialogs as
other Windows applications. The HYPROTECH file picker selection
displays the custom HYSYS open and save dialogs which show the build
the case was saved in and the case description, if one was added to the
case.
From the Options page there is the setting of where HYSYS saves
AutoRecovery cases. Once this selection is activated, you can change
the frequency of the saves from the default value of every 15 minutes.
You can also set HYSYS to save AutoRecovery cases while the integrator
is running.
There is also a box indicating the Number of Case Backups. HYSYS will
maintain the specified number of backups of each simulation, using
the extension bk*. The newest backup will be bk0, the next newest bk1,
etc.
Figure 7.49
7-48
Menu Bar Options
7-49
Locations Page
On the Locations page, you can select and specify the default paths for
saving and reading case files.
Figure 7.50
7-49
7-50
Tools
Resources Tab
Colours Page
All the functions and screen displays in HYSYS are set with a predefined
colour scheme. However, you can make changes to this colour set and
customize it to meet the specific needs of your simulation.
Figure 7.51
Contains all the screen
elements in HYSYS for
which you can change the
colour.
This area displays the
Current Colour for the
highlighted object in the
Colour Name group.
Double clicking, with the
primary mouse button on
this area accesses the
Colour Palette.
Toggles the 3 dimensional
appearance of views when
using Windows 95 or NT 4.0.
Colour system applied to
the highlighted object in
the Colour Name group.
Allows immediate access to the
Colour Palette for supplying a
Custom Colour.
Resets all Colours to the
HYSYS default Colour
Scheme.
To change the colour of an element, you can use the following method:
If you change any colour
settings and then wish to
return to the default HYSYS
colours, press the Reset All
Colours button.
1.
Select the item from the Colour Name group. For instance, choose
Application Background.
2.
From the Select System Colour drop down list, select <Custom>.
3.
Select the desired colour from the colour palette.
4.
Press the OK button.
5.
Notice that the Application Background has changed from the
default colour to the new colour you selected. You can continue to
change whatever item colours you wish.
When you have finished customizing the item colours, you may want to
save your preferences by pressing the Save Preference Set button.
7-50
Menu Bar Options
7-51
Fonts Page
All the text appearing in HYSYS has a predefined font scheme. However,
like the colour scheme, you are able to change the font scheme.
The structure of the Fonts page is much like the Colours page, as shown
in the following view.
Figure 7.52
This group contains all
the text items in HYSYS.
This area displays the
Current Font for the
selected item in the Font
Name Group.
Double clicking, with the
primary mouse button in this
area accesses the Custom
Font dialog.
Present Scaling
Factor for the Font.
This is the System Font
currently applied to the
highlighted font. You can
select another font in the
drop down menu.
Allows immediate access
to the Font menu for
supplying a custom font.
Resets all Fonts to the
HYSYS default Font
Scheme.
The Select Custom Font button opens the Custom Font dialog. From
this view, you can see that the font used for a Calculated Value (the
highlighted text item) is MS Sans Serif, Bold, 8 Point. You can change
the font for this item by doing the following:
7-51
7-52
Tools
Figure 7.53
1.
Select MS Serif from the Font group.
2.
Select Italic from the Font Style group.
3.
Select 10 from the Size group.
4.
Press the OK button to return to the Preferences Font page. The
new font appears in the Current Font group.
Notice the Test Scaling box below the Current Font box. This box is
used for scaling the font. It presently displays 1.0. If you move the
cursor to this box, you will be able to change this number in the Edit
Bar. Increasing the number increases the size of the font, and
decreasing the number decreases the font size.
When you have finished customizing the item fonts, you may want to
save the scheme for future use by pressing the Save Preference Set
button.
7-52
Menu Bar Options
7-53
Icons Page
HYSYS has a default Icon scheme. Any Icons in HYSYS that you can
change are displayed on this page. The structure of the Icons page is
much the same as the Colours and Fonts pages.
Figure 7.54
Contains all the Icons
that can be changed in
HYSYS.
This area displays the
Current Icon for the
selected item in the Icon
Name Group.
Double click with the
primary mouse button in this
area to open the Internal
Icons dialog.
Used for aligning
the Icon.
Icon system applied to
the highlighted item in
the Icon Name group.
Opens the Icon Menu
so you can supply a
custom Icon.
Resets all Icons to the
HYSYS default Icon
Scheme.
In the above view, the highlight is on Bar-Oil Environment. The
Current Icon box displays the current Icon used for this item. In the
Select System Icon group, HYSYS displays <Custom>. This indicates
that the Icon was chosen from the Custom Menu. If you choose the
Select Custom Icon button, HYSYS displays the Internal Icons dialog.
The Internal Icons dialog displays all the Icons available in HYSYS. You
can choose any of these as the Icon for an item.
7-53
7-54
Tools
Figure 7.55
Allows you to Browse into other
directories (besides HYSYS) and select
Icons.
Scroll Bar indicates that there are more
Icons in this view.
You can assign any Icon in this view to represent the highlighted item
from the Icon Name group, in this case Bar-Oil Environment. If you
choose to use the Oil Drop symbol as the Icon (column sixteen, row
two), simply click on it and then click on the OK button. HYSYS returns
to the Icons page view. The GO Icon will replace the Exit Icon in the
Button Bar at the top of the screen.
When you have finished customizing the item Icons, you may want to
save the scheme for future use by pressing the Save Preference Set
button.
Cursors Page
As with the Colours, Fonts, and Icons pages, HYSYS allows you to
customize the Cursors. Cursor type is often specific to certain
functions. Any cursor types that you can change are displayed on the
Cursors page.
7-54
Menu Bar Options
7-55
Figure 7.56
Displays all the cursors
available in HYSYS.
Cursor System presently applied to the
selected object in the Cursor Name group.
This area displays the
Cursor for the selected
item in the Cursor Name
Group.
Accesses the Internal
Cursors dialog.
Double clicking in this area
with the primary mouse
button opens the Internal
Cursors dialog.
Resets all Cursors to
the HYSYS default
Cursor Scheme.
If you scroll through the Select System Cursor drop down list, you can
see the various cursor types available in HYSYS. At the very top of this
list is the <Custom> type. If you click on this type, the Internal Cursors
dialog appears. All Cursor types available in HYSYS are displayed. You
can also access the Internal Cursors dialog by clicking on the Select
Custom Cursor button.
By selecting a Cursor type from the Internal Cursors dialog and
pressing the OK button, you will change the cursor of the highlighted
item in the Cursor Name group on the Cursors page. There is no view
section on the Internal Cursors dialog, so you cannot view the cursor
you are selecting until you return to the Cursors page.
When you have finished customizing the Cursors, you can save the
scheme for future use by pressing the Save Preference Set button.
7-55
7-56
Tools
Sounds Page
On the Sounds page you can select a time and have HYSYS play a *.wav
file if the Steady State solution takes longer than the selected time.
Figure 7.57
Extensions Tab
To register an extension, press the Register an Extension button. From
the dialog, select the file you wish to register. To unregister an
extension, select the extension from the Registered Extensions group
and press the Unregister an Extension button.
Figure 7.58
7-56
Menu Bar Options
7-57
Oil Input Tab
The pages on the Oils tab allows you to set default settings and select
options for characterizing oils in your simulation case. This tab
contains two pages, Assay Definition and Assay Options. You can
specify the default options for defining an oil assay on these pages. For
more details about these options, please see Chapter 3 - HYSYS Oil
Manager in the Simulation Basis manual.
Tray Sizing Tab
From the Tray Sizing tab, you can set the HYSYS defaults for the Tray
Sizing Utility. Any parameters set here will be automatically used when
you attach a Tray Sizing utility to your case. For more information on
this utility see Section 8.14 - Tray Sizing of this manual.
Parameters Page
From here you can set the Auto Section Parameters for the utility.
These include the Area Tolerance, NFP Diameter Factor and the Tray
Internal Type.
Packed Page
On this page, set the defaults for the Packed Tray Setup Info. This
includes information on the Correlation Type, Packing Flood Factor,
Maximum Packing and Maximum Pressure Drop per Length.
Trayed Page
On this page, select the type of tray using the radio buttons and then
specify the geometry particular to that tray type.
Stream Configuration Tab
This tab allows you to specify settings relating to the various Package
Properties available. Package Properties in HYSYS are property groups
with unique handling characteristics for dealing with specific
component families, for example Electrolytes. Package Properties are
accessible from any Stream property view where they can be viewed
and plotted.
7-57
7-58
Tools
For details relating to the
various Package Properties
available with HYSYS, please
contact your local Hyprotech
agent.
The Stream Configuration tab contains a list of available properties.
Only properties included with your version of HYSYS will be enabled in
the view. Selecting a property group on the left of the view will allow
you to configure Point and Plottable stream options relating to that
property. A Point property shows you the property value calculated for
the whole stream, while Plottable properties show how the property is
distributed across the streams boiling range.
Figure 7.59
Select either Session (default) or Case
for your configuration source.
When the configuration
source is set to Session, use
these buttons to open and/or
save a property configuration
file (*.prp).
To activate/inactivate a
property, click its cell
then click the Make
Active/Make Inactive
button.
You can select how the stream configuration will be stored using the
Configuration Source drop down list. The following options are
available:
• Session - allows you to either save your configuration to an
external property configuration file (*.prp) or open a previously
saved configuration file for use during this session.
• Case - all stream configuration settings will be saved with the
current case.
You can activate a property for use in the simulation by clicking the
property’s cell and then clicking the Make Active button. Activating a
Package Property from the Session Preferences view sets the property
preferences for the entire simulation case. The property becomes
accessible to other objects within the case.
To activate a property for a specific stream only, do so on the
flowsheet, from the stream’s property view. For more details
about these options, please see the Package Properties section in
Chapter 2 - Streams of the Steady State Modeling manual.
7-58
Menu Bar Options
7.8
7-59
Column
Figure 7.60
This menu item only appears inside the Column Environment. The
options under Column are:
Command
Description
Column Runner
View the Column Runner.
Run
Starts the Column Solver.
Reset
Resets the Column Solver.
Refer to Chapter 7 - Column in the Steady State Modeling manual for
more information.
7.9
Basis
Figure 7.61
The Basis option appears when you enter the Basis Environment. The
options available in this menu are:
Command
Description
Basis Manager
Opens the Simulation Basis Manager view. For more
information, refer to Section 7.3 - Simulation.
Reaction Package
Accesses the Reaction Package view. Refer to
Section 7.4.1 - Reaction Package, for more
information on the functionality of this view.
Leave Basis
Environment
Returns to the Simulation Building Environment
(Main Environment).
7-59
7-60
Window
7.10
Window
Figure 7.62
This menu contains general Windows application functions. The
options are:
Command
Description
Arrange Desktop
Cascades all windows which are currently open and
not iconized. Face plates will be placed in rows or
column according to the specifications on the
Simulation page of the Session Preferences view.
Refer to Section 7.7.5 - Preferences, for more
information.
Arrange Icons
Arranges icons horizontally at the bottom of the
Desktop.
Close
Closes the active window.
Close All
Closes all windows.
Save Workspace
Saves the current window layout for future use.
Load Workspace
Loads another HYSYS case which is currently open.
This function allows you to toggle between cases.
The last section in this menu lists all open windows on the DeskTop.
The active window is indicated with a check mark.
7.10.1
Save Workspace
You can save different Workspace arrangements within a HYSYS case.
The Workspace is a specific organization of views for the current case.
For example, you could create an arrangement of views which has the
PFD, Workbook, Controllers, Strip Charts, etc. You can name each
arrangement individually, then re-access the arrangement at any time.
7-60
Menu Bar Options
7-61
Figure 7.63
This has no effect on the calculation status. It is simply the way the
various views are arranged. After changes have been made to the
DeskTop arrangement, you can then re-load a saved arrangement to reaccess the window layout.
7.10.2
Load Workspace
The Load Workspace dialog displays all cases that are currently open.
The Workspaces contained within each case appear in the Available
Workspaces group. When loading a Workspace, choose the case which
contains the Workspace, select an Available Workspace and press the
Load button.
Figure 7.64
7-61
7-62
Help
7.11
Help
Figure 7.65
The options under Help are:
7-62
Command
Description
HYSYS Help Topics
Displays HELP contents.
Help on Extending
HYSYS
Help topics for OLE functionality.
Help on the Current
Form
Accesses the help topic for the active window.
Bug Reports
Accesses HYSYS’ unique bug reporting option.
About HYSYS
Provides information about HYSYS.
Utilities
8-1
8 Utilities
8.1 Boiling Point Curves .................................................................................... 4
8.1.1 Generalized Procedure ............................................................................ 4
8.1.2 Example Results ...................................................................................... 6
8.2 CO2 Solids .................................................................................................. 10
8.3 Cold Properties........................................................................................... 12
8.4 Critical Property ......................................................................................... 14
8.4.1 Quick Start ............................................................................................. 14
8.4.2 True and Pseudo Critical Properties ...................................................... 15
8.5 Data Recon.................................................................................................. 16
8.6 Depressuring .............................................................................................. 17
8.6.1
8.6.2
8.6.3
8.6.4
8.6.5
8.6.6
8.6.7
Quick Start - Fire Wetted Example......................................................... 18
Quick Start - Adiabatic Example ............................................................ 22
Design Tab ............................................................................................. 24
Tabular Results Tab ............................................................................... 35
Graphical Results Tab ............................................................................ 36
Notes Tab ............................................................................................... 37
Modelling Specific Systems ................................................................... 37
8.7 Derivative .................................................................................................... 40
8.8 Envelope ..................................................................................................... 40
8.8.1
8.8.2
8.8.3
8.8.4
Connections ........................................................................................... 41
Plots ....................................................................................................... 42
PV-PH-PS Envelopes ............................................................................ 43
TV-TH-TS Envelopes ............................................................................. 44
8-1
8-2
8.9 Hydrate Formation ..................................................................................... 45
8.9.1
8.9.2
8.9.3
8.9.4
8.9.5
8.9.6
Stream Settings ..................................................................................... 45
Hydrate Formation at Stream Conditions Group.................................... 47
Formation Temperature at Stream Pressure.......................................... 49
Formation Pressure at Stream Temperature.......................................... 49
Hydrate Inhibition ................................................................................... 50
Hydrate Inhibition Example .................................................................... 51
8.10 Parametric Utility...................................................................................... 52
8.10.1
8.10.2
8.10.3
8.10.4
Neural Networks................................................................................... 53
Variables .............................................................................................. 53
Generalized Procedure ........................................................................ 54
PM Utility View ..................................................................................... 56
8.11 Pinch Utility............................................................................................... 65
8.11.1 Quick Start............................................................................................ 65
8.12 Pipe Sizing ................................................................................................ 69
8.12.1 Quick Start ........................................................................................... 69
8.12.2 Pipe Sizing View .................................................................................. 71
8.13 Property Table .......................................................................................... 73
8.13.1 Quick Start ........................................................................................... 73
8.14 Tray Sizing ................................................................................................ 79
8.14.1 Quick Start ........................................................................................... 79
8.14.2 Tray Sizing — Design .......................................................................... 81
8.14.3 Tray Sizing — Rating Part II................................................................. 87
8.15 Tray Sizing Manager................................................................................. 89
8.15.1
8.15.2
8.15.3
8.15.4
8.15.5
Setup Page .......................................................................................... 90
Design Specifications........................................................................... 95
Specs Page.......................................................................................... 96
Tray Internals Page............................................................................ 101
Auto Section....................................................................................... 106
8.16 User Properties....................................................................................... 109
8.16.1 Quick Start ......................................................................................... 109
8.17 Vessel Sizing........................................................................................... 114
8.17.1 Quick Start ..........................................................................................114
8.18 Adjust Operation with Utility Target Object ......................................... 118
8.19 References .............................................................................................. 120
8-2
Utilities
8-3
The Utility commands are a set of tools which interact with a process by
providing additional information or analysis of streams or operations.
In HYSYS, Utilities become a permanent part of the Flowsheet and are
calculated automatically when appropriate. They can also be used as
target objects for ADJUST Operations.
The Utilities are accessed by selecting Utilities under Tools in the Menu
Bar (you may also press CTRL U). Most utilities can also be added
through the Utilities page found on the Attachments tab of a stream’s
property view. A utility added through either route is automatically
updated in the other location. For example, if you attach an Envelope
utility to a stream using the CTRL U route, it will automatically be
displayed on the Utilities page of the Attachments tab in the property
view of the stream to which it was attached.
You can select any of the following utilities from the Available Utilities
view:
Utilities
Description
Boiling Point
Curves
Obtain laboratory-style distillation results for streams.
CO2 Freeze Out
Determine stream CO2 freezing conditions.
Cold Properties
Calculate several stream Cold Properties (e.g. True
and Reid Vapour Pressures, Flash Point, Pour Point,
Refractive Index, etc.).
Critical Property
Calculate true and pseudo critical properties for
streams.
Data Recon
The Data Recon utility is used by HYSYS.RTO
optimization objects as a data holder that allows for
multiple sets of stream data, each corresponding to a
different set. For further details, refer to the
HYSYS.RTO User’s manual.
Depressuring
Model the pressure letdown of a single vessel or
network of vessels under plant emergency conditions.
Derivative
The Derivative utility is used by HYSYS.RTO to hold
all the data used for defining the RTO optimizer
constraints and variables. For further details, refer to
the HYSYS.RTO User’s manual.
Envelope Utility
Show critical values and phase diagrams for a
stream.
Hydrate Formation
Utility
Determine stream hydrate formation conditions.
Parametric Utility
The Parametric Utility integrates Neural Network (NN)
technology into its framework. The major function of
the utility is to approximate an existing HYSYS model
with a parametric model.
Pinch Utility
Optimize the use of process heat exchange and
utilities for heat exchangers, LNG's, coolers and
heaters.
8-3
8-4
Boiling Point Curves
Utilities
Description
Property Table
Examine stream property trends over a range of
conditions.
Tray Sizing
Size/rate existing sections or full towers.
User Property
Define new stream properties based on composition.
Vessel Sizing
Size and cost installed Separator Unit Operations.
To add a Utility, highlight one of the available utilities (on the right
side), and select the Add Utility button. You may view or delete an
existing Utility simply by highlighting it (left side of view), and selecting
the View Utility or Delete Utility button respectively. Select the Close
button to close the Available Utilities view.
8.1
Refer to Chapter 3 - HYSYS Oil
Manager of the Simulation
Basis guide for details on the
distillation data types.
For a tray section, the boiling
point curves and critical
property data can be accessed
on the Profiles tab of the
Column Runner.
The Boiling Point Curves utility, which will generally be used in
conjunction with characterized oils from the Oil Manager, allows you to
obtain the results of a laboratory style analysis for your simulation
streams. Simulated distillation data including TBP, ASTM D86, D86
(Corr.), D1160(Vac), D1160(Atm) and D2887 as well as critical property
data for each cut point and cold property data are calculated. The data
can be viewed in tabular format or graphically.
The object for the analysis can be a stream, a phase on any stage of a
tray section, or one of the phases in a separator, in a condenser or in a
reboiler. You select the basis for the calculations and you can specify
the boiling ranges for the simulated distillation data.
8.1.1
The list in the Object
Navigator will be filtered
according to your selection of
Object Type.
8-4
Boiling Point Curves
Generalized Procedure
1.
The Boiling Point Curves utility can be accessed by selecting
Utilities under Tools in the Menu Bar. Choose Boiling Point Curves
from the list in the Available Utilities view and press the Add
Utility button.
2.
On the BP Curves tab, change the Name of the utility, if desired.
3.
Select the Object Type: Stream, Tray Section, Separator, Condenser,
or Reboiler.
4.
Press the Select Object button and choose the appropriate object
from the Object Navigator. If the Object Type which you have
selected is a Tray Section choose a Stage from the aptly named
drop down menu.
5.
Select a Basis for the calculation of the distillation data. The
options are: Mole Frac, Mass Frac, Liquid Volume.
Utilities
Refer to Section 3.6 - Oil
Characterization View of the
Simulation Basis manual for
more information on the D86
interconversion options.
6.
For all object types except the Stream selection, you can select the
Phase for the analysis: Vapour or Liquid.
7.
Press the Boiling Ranges button to access a property view from
which you can specify the initial and final boiling point cut points
on a liquid volume basis. You can also choose the D86 curve
interconversion method from the Default D86 Curve Type drop
down list:
•
•
•
•
Refer to Section 8.3 - Cold
Properties for more
information on the Cold
Properties.
The ASTM D86 boiling point
curve corresponds to the true
boiling points of the oil, which
assumes no cracking has
occurred.
When the oil is characterized
by a ASTM D86 distillation
assay with no cracking option,
the D86 Corr boiling point
curve corresponds to the assay
input data. The ASTM D86
boiling point curve then
corresponds to raw lab data,
with no cracking correction
applied.
When the oil is characterized
by a ASTM D86 distillation
assay with cracking option,
the ASTM D86 boiling point
curve corresponds to the assay
input data. The cracking
correction factor is then
applied to the D86 Corr
boiling point curve.
8-5
API (Edmister) Method
API 1988 (Riazi) Method
API 1992 modified (Riazi) D86
Edmister-Okamoto 1959 Interconversion
8.
View the results of the boiling point curve calculations in tabular
format on the Performance tab, Results page. Simulated
distillation profiles are provided for the following assay types: TBP,
ASTM D86, D86 Corr., ASTM D1160 (Vac.), ASTM D1160 (Atm.),
ASTM D2887.
9.
Switch to the Critical Properties page where you can examine a
table containing, for each cut point, the Critical Temperature,
Critical Pressure, Acentric Factor, Molecular Weight and Liquid
Density.
10. On the Cold Props page, you will find a table of various cold
properties and the calculated ratio of paraffins, naphthas and
aromatics.
11. The Plots tab shows the Boiling Point Curves results and the
Critical Properties results in graphical form. Examine the plot of
your choice by making a selection from the Dependent Variable
drop down list:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Boiling Point Curves
Critical Temperature
Critical Pressure
Acentric Factor
Molecular Weight
Liquid Density
12. You can customize a plot by object inspecting the plot area and
selecting Graph Control from the menu.
Refer to Section 6.4 - Graph
Control of the User’s Guide for
details concerning the
customization of plots.
8-5
8-6
Boiling Point Curves
8.1.2
Example Results
If you would like to proceed through an example and obtain the
following results from the Boiling Point Curves utility, open case:
R-1.hsc, which can be found in the...\HYSYS\Samples directory.
In the Oil Manager, assay data is used to characterize the raw crude
feed stream. The crude feed is processed into five products in a 29 stage
crude fractionator which has three attached side strippers.
Simulated distillation data, critical properties and cold properties will
be examined for the Kerosene product stream.
Setting the Utility Parameters
Figure 8.1
8-6
Utilities
8-7
On the Boiling Point Curves tab, you select the parameters for the
Boiling Point Curves utility. Ensure the Basis is set to Liquid Volume
and leave the Object Type at its default, Stream. Press the Select Object
button to access the Object Navigator. The selection of the Object Type
filters the list shown in the navigator. Select the stream Kerosene as
shown.
Figure 8.2
Since a stream was selected as the Object Type, you do not need to
specify a phase for the calculations. HYSYS will calculate the distillation
data for the bulk phase of the selected stream and display the
information in the Results table. Examine the range for the simulated
distillation data profiles by pressing the Boiling Ranges button. The
initial and final boiling point defaults will be used for this example.
Critical Properties
You can switch to the Critical Properties tab to examine the critical
properties for each cut point. A section of the results table is shown
here.
Figure 8.3
8-7
8-8
Boiling Point Curves
Cold Properties
Details of the methods used to
determine the Cold Properties
can be found in Section 8.3 Cold Properties.
You can view the bulk cold properties of the stream on the Cold
Properties page. Also listed is the ratio of paraffins to naphthas to
aromatics.
Figure 8.4
Plots
On the Plots page, graphical profiles of either the simulated distillation
data or the critical properties can be examined. The profiles of the TBP
and D86 curves will be examined.
See Section 6.4 - Graph
Control of the User’s Guide for
full details on the options
available from the Graph
Control property view.
To view only the TBP and D86 profiles, modifications must be made to
the plot. The default selection for the Dependent Variable, which is
Boiling Point Curves, can remain. When the plot first appears, all of the
simulated distillation data profiles are present. The unwanted profiles
can be eliminated via the Graph Control property view. Access this view
by object inspecting the plot area and choosing Graph Control.
By changing the y-axis range and the format of the x-axis values, the
plot of the simulated distillation data profiles will be as shown.
8-8
Utilities
8-9
Figure 8.5
Dynamics
The Dynamics tab allows you to control how often the utility gets
calculated when running in Dynamic mode.
Figure 8.6
8-9
8-10
CO2 Solids
The Control Period field is used to specify the frequency that the utility
is calculated. A value of 10 indicates that the utility will be recalculated
every 10th pressure flow step. This can help speed up your dynamic
simulation since utilities can require some time to calculate.
The Use Default Periods check-box allows you to set the Control Period
of one utility to equal the Control Period of any other utilities that you
have in the simulation. For example, if you have five utilities and
require them all to have a Control Period of 5 and currently the value is
8, with this check-box activated if you change the value in one utility all
the other utilities will change. Alternatively if you want all the utilities to
have different values you would de-active this check-box.
The Enable in Dynamics check-box is used to activate this feature for
use in Dynamic mode.
8.2
CO2 Solids
An equation-of-state based approach is used to calculate the incipient
solid formation point for mixtures containing Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
The model can be used for predicting the initial solid formation point
in equilibrium with either vapours or liquids. The fugacity of the
resultant solid is obtained from the known vapour pressure of solid
CO2. The fugacity of the corresponding phase (in equilibrium with the
solid) is calculated from the equation of state.
CO2 Solids prediction is restricted to the Peng Robinson (PR)
and Soave Redlich Kwong (SRK) equations of state.
You are required to enter the stream for which the calculations will be
made. The stream is chosen from the Object Navigator, which is
accessed by pressing the Select Stream button.
8-10
Utilities
8-11
Figure 8.7
HYSYS will determine the CO2 Freeze Temperature, and will display the
formation status in the Formation Flag cell:
Formation Flag
Flag Significance
Undetermined
No Stream has been chosen.
NO CO2 in Stream
There is no CO2 present in the Stream.
Does NOT Form
Solid CO2 will not form at the present conditions of
the stream. The CO2 Freeze Temperature will be
shown in the corresponding field.
Solid CO2 Present
Solid CO2 is present at the current stream
conditions. The CO2 Freeze Temperature is shown
in the corresponding field.
An equation-of-state based approach is used to calculate the incipient
solid formation point for mixtures containing Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
The model can be used for predicting the initial solid formation point
in equilibrium with either vapours or liquids. The fugacity of the
resultant solid is obtained from the known vapour pressure of solid
CO2. The fugacity of the corresponding phase (in equilibrium with the
solid) is calculated from the equation of state.
CO2 Solids prediction is restricted to the Peng Robinson (PR)
and Soave Redlich Kwong (SRK) equations of state.
To ignore this Utility during calculations, select the Ignored check box.
HYSYS will disregard the utility entirely until you restore it to an active
state by clearing the check box.
8-11
8-12
Cold Properties
8.3
Cold Properties
The following list summarizes the cold properties which are available
through the Cold Properties utility:
Cold Property
Calculations
Range of Validity
True Vapour Pressure @ 100°F
(37.8°C)
Vapour Pressure method of selected
property package
P>1.5 kPa
Reid Vapour Pressure @ 100°F
(37.8°C)
Vapour pressure of system when
vapour:liquid ratio by volume is 4:1
P>1.5 kPa
Flash Point
As per API 2B7.1
150°F<ASTM D86 10% (or
NBP)<1150°F, -15°F<Flash
Point<325°F
Pour Point
As per API 2B8.1
140<MW<800, 1<API gravity<50,
-110°F<Flash Point<140°F
Refractive Index
As per API 2B5.1-1
70<MW<600, 97°F<NBP<1000°F,
0.63<sg<1.1, 1.35<Refractive Index
at 20°C<1.65
Cetane Index (Diesel Index)
Proprietary method
300°F<D86 10%<700°F
Research Octane Number (R.O.N.)
Proprietary method
D86 50% ~420°F
Viscosity at 100°F (37.8°C)
See the Viscosity section in Appendix A - Property Methods and
Calculations in Simulation Basis manual.
Viscosity at 210°F (98.6°C)
See the Viscosity section in Appendix A - Property Methods and
Calculations in Simulation Basis guide.
ASTM D86 Distillation Curve
API Figure 3A1.1 (1963)
51°F<TBP 10%<561°F
P/N/A (mol%)
As per API 2B4.1
MW>70
To add the Cold Property Utility, select Utilities under Tools in the
Menu Bar, highlight Cold Properties, and press the Add Utility button.
Attach a stream to the utility from the Object Navigator, accessed via
the Select Stream button.
Figure 8.8
8-12
Utilities
8-13
The Notes page can be used to write notes and it has the same
functionality as of a Notepad.
The Properties tab displays the following properties:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
True Vapour Pressure
Reid Vapour Pressure
Flash Point
Pour Point
Refractive Index
Cetane Index
Research Octane Number
Viscosity at 100°F (37.8°C) and 210°F (98.6°C)
The BP/PNA tab displays the ASTM Distillation Curve (ASTM D86 10%,
30%, 50%, 70%, 90% Points), and the P/N/A mole percents.
Figure 8.9
The Dynamics tab allows you to control how often the utility gets
calculated when running in Dynamic mode (refer to the Dynamics subheading in Section 8.1 - Boiling Point Curves for more information).
To ignore this Utility during calculations, select the Ignored check box.
HYSYS will disregard the utility entirely until you restore it to an active
state by clearing the check box.
8-13
8-14
Critical Property
8.4
Critical Property
The Critical Property Utility calculates both the true and pseudo critical
temperature, pressure, volume and compressibility factor for a fully
defined stream.
8.4.1
Quick Start
Before the Critical Property Utility is accessed, set up a Fluid Package
using the Peng Robinson property method and the required
components. Install the stream Feed.
MATERIAL STREAM [Feed]
Tab [Page]
Worksheet
[Conditions]
Workhsheet
[Composition]
Input Area
Entry
Temperature
60.0000 °F
Pressure
600.0000 psi
Molar Flow
100.0000 lbmole/hr
Nitrogen Mole Frac
0.0068
CO2 Mole Frac
0.0138
C1 Mole Frac
0.4827
C2 Mole Frac
0.1379
C3 Mole Frac
0.0690
i-C4 Mole Frac
0.0621
n-C4 Mole Frac
0.0552
i-C5 Mole Frac
0.0483
n-C5 Mole Frac
0.0414
n-C6 Mole Frac
0.0345
n-C7 Mole Frac
0.0276
n-C8 Mole Frac
0.0207
Access the Critical Property utility by selecting Utilities under Tools in
the Menu Bar. Choose Critical Properties from the list of utilities and
press the Add Utility button.
The general procedure for the Critical Property Utility is as follows:
8-14
1.
On the Critical Property view, change the name of the utility, if
desired.
2.
Press the Stream button.
3.
Select the stream Feed from the Object Navigator.
4.
View the critical property analysis for the selected stream in the
Calculated Property Values group box.
Utilities
8-15
Critical Property Analysis
Select Feed from the Object Navigator and examine the critical
property values for the stream.
Figure 8.10
The Dynamics tab allows you to control how often the utility gets
calculated when running in Dynamic mode (refer to the Dynamics subheading in Section 8.1 - Boiling Point Curves for more information).
8.4.2
True and Pseudo Critical
Properties
The Critical Properties utility displays two sets of critical properties,
true and pseudo critical properties. True Critical Properties are those
properties calculated using the mixing rules associated with the
property package chosen. Pseudo Critical Properties use simple linear
models to estimate the critical properties of a mixture. They are often
very different from the true critical points and have no real physical
significance, but sometimes are used in empirical correlations.
Mathematically, the pseudo critical temperature, pressure and
compressibility (Tpc, Ppc and Zpc) are defined as:
n
T pc =
∑ yi Tci
(8.1)
i=1
8-15
8-16
Data Recon
n
P pc =
∑ yi Pci
(8.2)
i=1
n
Z pc =
∑ yi Zci
(8.3)
i=1
where: yi = mole fraction of component i.
n = total number of components in mixture
Tci = the critical temperature of component i
Pci = the critical pressure of component i
Zci = the critical compressibility of component i
The remaining pseudo critical property, pseudo critical volume vpc, is
calculated using the following relationship:
Z pc T pc R
v pc = --------------------P pc
8.5
(8.4)
Data Recon
The Data Recon utility is a component of the HYSYS.RTO real-time
optimization package available as a plug-in to the basic HYSYS
software package. The Data Recon utility is one of two utilities used by
HYSYS.RTO to provide the primary interface between the flowsheet
model and the solver. Their primary purpose is to collect appropriate
optimization objects which are then exposed to solvers to meet a
defined solution criteria.
Please refer to the HYSYS.RTO User’s manual for details concerning the
use of this utility. This manual details all features and components
related to the HYSYS real time optimization package.
If your current HYSYS version does not support RTO, contact your local
Hyprotech representative for more details.
8-16
Utilities
8.6
8-17
Depressuring
The Depressuring utility allows you to examine temperature and
pressure profiles during simulated gas blowdowns and pressure
letdowns of vessels under plant emergency conditions. The contents of
vessels are represented by streams of known composition. You can
specify liquid and vessel volumes or have HYSYS calculate these values
based on the molar flowrate and liquid fraction of the stream in
question. The three operation modes available are fire, adiabatic and
isothermal. You can examine the results of the depressuring
calculations in tabular or graphical format.
The Depressuring utility can be used to simulate the depressuring of
gas, gas-liquid filled vessels, pipelines and systems with several
connected vessels or piping volumes depressuring through a single
valve. References to “vessel” in this guide can also be “piping” or
“combinations of the two.”
There are four types of depressuring calculation available:
Calculation
Description
Fire Mode
Used to simulate plant emergency conditions that could
occur during a plant fire. Pressure, temperature and flow
profiles are calculated for the application of an external
heat source to a vessel, piping or combination of items.
Heat flux into the fluid is user defined. You must not have
a wetted area specified for this calculation
Wetted Fire
Mode
As above except that the Heat flux into the fluid is
calculated from the API equations for a fire to a liquid
containing vessel. A wetted area for the vessel is
required. This wetted area is the area used for heat
transfer in the model
Adiabatic Mode
Used to model the gas blowdown of pressure vessels or
piping. No external heat is applied. Heat flux between the
vessel wall and the fluid is modelled as the fluid
temperature drops due to the depressurisation.
The heat transfer coefficient can be input by the user or
can be calculated by HYSYS from the vessel fluid’s
vapour properties.
When it is estimated by HYSYS, the heat transfer
coefficient is estimated from the “wetted” area and the
vessel volume input by the user. The “wetted area”
supplied should be equal to the total surface area of the
vessel, not the area in contact with the liquid.
Typical use of this mode is the depressuring of
compressor loops on emergency shutdown.
Isothermal
Mode
The temperature of the vessel fluid remains constant.
HYSYS determines the necessary heat flux required
achieving isothermal depressuring.
8-17
8-18
Depressuring
To illustrate the versatility of the depressuring utility, two examples will
be shown. The first will demonstrate the use of Fire mode for a network
of vessels and the second will show the depressuring utility in Adiabatic
mode. Both example sessions use a common initial setup, including the
fluid package and installed streams.
8.6.1
Quick Start - Fire Wetted
Example
The following example will illustrate the use of the Depressuring utility
in Fire Mode for a network of vessels. The primary use of the fire mode
analysis is to simulate plant emergency conditions. To model the events
which would occur during a plant fire, HYSYS calculates the time
dependent pressure and temperature profiles of a fluid during the
application of an external heat source to a vessel or to a group of
vessels.
Initial Setup
First, install a Fluid Package using the Peng Robinson property method
and the required components. The network of two vessels will be
represented by the streams Tank1 and Tank2. Install the streams as
shown. Note that the flows have been set to 1 lbmole/hr however these
values are not necessary for the calculation.
MATERIAL STREAM [Tank1]
Tab [Page]
Worksheet
[Conditions]
Worksheet
[Composition]
8-18
Input Area
Entry
Temperature
75.0000 °F
Pressure
600.0000 psi
Molar Flow
1.0000 lbmole/hr
Methane Mole Frac
0.5600
Ethane Mole Frac
0.2000
Propane Mole Frac
0.1000
i-Butane Mole Frac
0.0500
n-Butane Mole Frac
0.0500
i-Pentane Mole Frac
0.0200
n-Pentane Mole Frac
0.0200
Utilities
8-19
MATERIAL STREAM [Tank2]
Tab [Page]
Worksheet
[Conditions]
Worksheet
[Composition]
If the vessel and liquid
volumes are not specified,
HYSYS will calculate the vessel
volume based on a one hour
liquid volume (liqvol)
flowrate and the liquid
volume as the vessel volume
multiplied by the liquid
fraction of the stream.
Attach Stream button
Input Area
Entry
Temperature
75.00 °F
Pressure
600.0 psi
Molar Flow
1.000 lbmole/hr
Methane Mole Frac
0.17792
Ethane Mole Frac
0.19832
Propane Mole Frac
0.19252
i-Butane Mole Frac
0.13511
n-Butane Mole Frac
0.14921
i-Pentane Mole Frac
0.07191
n-Pentane Mole Frac
0.07501
Access the Depressuring utility by choosing Utilities under Tools in the
Menu Bar. Highlight Depressuring and press the Add Utility button.
Generalized Procedure
1.
On the Design tab, change the name of the utility, if desired.
2.
Change the Unit Set to Field.
3.
In the Vessel Parameters group box, click the Attach Stream button
which opens the Object Navigator. Select streams Tank 1 from the
Object list box and press the OK button. Select the an empty cell
and repeat the same procedure to add stream Tank 2.
4.
Enter the Vessel Volume for both streams as 1600 ft3.
5.
Specify Liquid Volumes of 500 ft3 and 1300 ft3 for Tank1 and
Tank2, respectively.
8-19
8-20
Depressuring
6.
Operation Mode Setup
button
Move to the Operation Mode Setup page. Since we have a Wetted
Area of 200 ft2 and 500 ft2 for Tank 1 and Tank2, respectively, enter
a value of 700 ft2 for the Wetted Area. The view should appear
similar to Figure 8.11
Figure 8.11
Fire Wetted mode, which is
available only if a wetted area
has been supplied, replaces
Fire mode in this situation.
To simulate a pressure buildup, specify a relief pressure
greater than the settle out
pressure.
8-20
7.
Examine the combined vessel liquid volume, total volume, wetted
area, settle out temperature and settle out pressure.
8.
The mode of operation is selected on the Operation Mode Setup
page. For this example, Fire mode is required, but since wetted
areas were supplied previously, Fire Wetted mode will
automatically be used by HYSYS.
9.
To simulate a pressure increase, specify a Relief Pressure of 630
psia, which is above the combined vessel settle out pressure. The
relief valve will not open until the vessel pressure has equalled or
surpassed the relief pressure. The Final Pressure is set to 300 psia.
Set Pressure Steps parameter to 60.
Utilities
Heat Flux Parameter Setup
button
8-21
10. Switch to the Heat Flux Parameter Setup page of the Design tab to
view the equation and the parameters of the externally applied
heat flux. Click Initialize Heat Parameters. The Heat Flux
Parameter Setup page, as shown in Figure 8.12, is produced.
Figure 8.12
Press the Equation Help button on
the Heat Flux or Valve Eqns tab for
details on the available equations.
11. Switch to the Valve Parameters Setup page.
12. Select the Masoneilan option from the Equation drop down list. In
the Av or Cv field enter the value 50.
13. Press the Green Light button to calculate.
Valve Parameters Setup button
8-21
8-22
Depressuring
Depressuring Results
To edit a plot, object inspect
the plot area and select Graph
Control from the menu. For
details on manipulating plots,
refer to Section 6.4 - Graph
Control.
14. Switch to the Graphical Results tab to examine graphical
representations of time dependent plots for the depressuring
calculations. Select a radio button to determine the y-axis variable:
P-T (Pressure - Temperature), Inventory, Liq. Inventory, Vented
Flow, Blow Down or Composition.
Figure 8.13
15. On the Table Results tab, you can examine the results of the
depressuring calculations in tabular format.
8.6.2
Quick Start - Adiabatic
Example
The following example will illustrate the use of Adiabatic mode for the
Depressuring Analysis. The Adiabatic operation mode can model the
gas blowdowns of pressure vessels. There is no external heat being
applied to the vessel in this mode. However, there is a heat flux created
between the vessel wall and the fluid as the fluid temperature drops
because of the pressure reduction.
For this example you will require the stream Tank 2 specified in Section
8.6.1 - Quick Start - Fire Wetted Example.
8-22
Utilities
8-23
Adiabatic Input
The specifications and modifications to the defaults, as shown below,
are required for the adiabatic mode example. Complete each tab with
the information shown.
ADIABATIC INPUT MODIFICATIONS
Tab [Page]
Input Area
Entry
Stream
Tank2
Design
Vessel Volume
1600 ft3
[Vessel Parameters]
Liquid Volume
1300 ft3
Design
[Operation Mode]
Design
Wetted Area
500 ft2
Mode
Adiabatic
Relief Pressure
600 psi
Final Pressure
300 psi
Isentropic Efficiency
25%
Vess. Material Specific Heat
0.12 Btu/lbF
Vessel Mass
13000 lb
Design
Valve Equation
Masoneilan
[Valve Parameters]
Cv
50
[Heat Flux Parameters]
Adiabatic mode requires the specification of an isentropic efficiency in
percentage. The resulting range of values can be anywhere between
zero, which represents an isenthalpic process, and one hundred
percent, which represents an isentropic expansion.
The use of the tern Fluid in the
depressuring utility refers to a
composite mixture of vapour and
liquid phases. The Heat Transfer
Coefficient value used on the Heat
Flux Parameters page should
reflect the relative volumes of each
phase when estimating.
Although there is no external source of heat applied to the vessel, heat
is transferred from the vessel wall to the fluid. The variables used in the
heat transfer during the depressuring are specified. The heat transfer
area corresponds to the supplied wetted area and cannot be modified
from the Heat Flux page. HYSYS calculates heat transfer to the liquid
only and neglects the heat transfer effects to the vapour.
Press the Green Light button to run the depressuring utility.
8-23
8-24
Depressuring
Results
To edit a plot, object inspect
the plot area and select Graph
Control from the menu. For
details on manipulating plots,
refer to Section 6.4 - Graph
Control.
On the Graphical Plots tab, choose the P-T radio button to examine the
temperature profiles of the fluid, the vessel wall and the valve. You will
need to change the y-axis and remove the pressure plot.
Figure 8.14
8.6.3
Design Tab
Figure 8.15
The traffic lights displayed on the Design tab are used to control the
utility. There are three lights.
• Green - Runs the Depressuring utility
• Red - Stops the Depressuring utility
• Yellow - Restarts the utility after is has been stopped
8-24
Utilities
8-25
Vessel Parameters Setup Page
Figure 8.16
Attach Stream button
On the Vessel Parameters Setup page you must choose the stream(s)
that represent the fluid you wish to depressure. This is done by clicking
the Attach Stream button and selecting one of the available streams
from the Object Navigator as shown in Figure 8.17.
Figure 8.17
You may also remove or change the streams to be used by clicking
either the Remove or Edit buttons.
The following fields are available for each stream chosen:
8-25
8-26
Depressuring
Vessel\Liquid Volume Fields
For each stream selected for depressuring, HYSYS requires the Vessel
Volume and the normal expected Liquid Volume of the vessel i.e.: at the
normal liquid level. If the feed stream is two phase the composition of
the liquid will be calculated from this.
You have three options for specifying these fields:
• If you do not provide values for the Vessel Volume or Liquid
Volume, HYSYS will calculate values based on a 1 hour
residence time. The resulting values will be:
Mass Flow
Vessel Volume = -------------------------------- × 1 hour
Mass Density
(8.5)
Liquid Volume = Liquid Volume Flow of Liquid Phase × 1 hour
(8.6)
• If you specify only the Vessel Volume, HYSYS estimates the
Liquid Volume using a relationship similar to Equation (8.6)
except the “1 hour” term is replaced by the vessels new
residence time (i.e. Vessel Volume/Volumetric Flow). The
remainder of the vessel is assumed to be filled with equilibrium
vapour.
• If you specify both Liquid and Vessel volumes then the head
space will be filled with equilibrium vapour.
Operation Mode Setup Page
On this page you must specify how the depressuring calculation will be
done. This page consists of six fields that require specification.
Figure 8.18
8-26
Utilities
8-27
Mode
Fire Wetted mode is
automatically used by HYSYS
when in Fire mode and a
wetted area is specified.
From this drop down field you must select the required depressuring
mode. The available choices are: Fire Mode, Adiabatic Mode and
Isothermal Mode. (See Section 8.6 - Depressuring Introduction for a
description of the 4 modes).
Relief Pressure
This field’s value will depend on the mode chosen:
Depressuring Mode
Relief Pressure Value
Adiabatic type
depressurisation
The relief pressure is set to the settle out pressure of
the sources.
Fire relief
Could be equal to the design pressure of the vessel
or piping; i.e. the set pressure of the relief valves on
the system. If the relief pressure in Fire mode is
higher than the settleout pressure then the heat flux
will initially raise the system pressure up to the relief
pressure, thus determining the time for the relief
valve to actually lift.
Depressuring Time
The Depressuring Time is the time you wish this operation to take. It is
defaulted as 15 minutes (900 sec) based on API 521, but you can alter
this if required.
Final Pressure
Final Pressure is defaulted as atmospheric. Based on API it is normal to
depressure to 50% of the starting pressure or to 100 psig (6.89 barg),
however, if the depressuring time is reached (for API 521, 15 minutes)
before the Final Pressure achieved calculations will stop. You may alter
the Final Pressure value if required.
Pressure Steps
HYSYS will stop the depressuring calculations when either the final
pressure, the depressuring time or the number of calculation steps is
reached. For simple systems, 30 pressure steps should be adequate; if
not, increase this number.
8-27
8-28
Depressuring
Note: If the system conditions
at settle out are such that the
vapour is superheated, HYSYS
will not allow a liquid
inventory. The settle out
conditions for mixed sources
and volumes are calculated on
a constant enthalpy, volume
and mass basis.
Wetted Area
Wetted area is the area of the vessel that is used to calculate the heat flux
to the fluid. The way in which this is used depends on the mode chosen
in the Mode field. This value represents the total wetted area of all of
the specified vessels.
Calculation Mode
Area Usage
Fire/Wetted Fire Mode
Heat flux into the fluid is calculated from the API
equations for a fire to a liquid containing vessel. The
wetted area is the heat transfer area.
Adiabatic
Heat flux between the fluid and the vessel wall is
calculated from the user-specified area and the temp
difference. Heat transfer coefficient is either user
specified at a fixed value or if left blank HYSYS will
calculate it at each time step. The user specified
area is the “wetted area” entered by the user. The
heat transfer coefficient is specified or calculated
from vapour properties. If the heat transfer
coefficient is calculated by HYSYS, the calculation
methods used are based on heat transfer from the
entire vessel, and the user should enter a “wetted
area” equivalent to the total surface area.
Settle Out Temperature and Pressure
Once the individual vessels are specified HYSYS initiates a Volume/
Enthalpy analysis (flash) on the mixture. The analysis determines the
required pressure and the temperature such that Total Vessel and
Liquid Volumes of the mixture equal the sum of the Volumes for the
individual vessels, as well as matching the mixture Enthalpy to the sum
of the individual Enthalpies. The calculated Temperature and Pressure
for this mixture are termed the Settle Out Temperature and Pressure.
In the case of an Individual vessel, the reported Settle Out Temperature
and Pressure will be the system conditions. The exception is in the case
where you specify the Liquid Volumes equal to the Total Vessel Volume,
the Settle Out Pressure which will be reported is the pressure necessary
to produce some vapour at the current temperature.
Heat Flux Parameter Setup Page
Press the Equation Help button on
for details on the available
equations.
8-28
The information required by the Heat Flux page of the Design tab will
depend on the mode chosen in the Operation Mode drop down box
found on the Operation Mode Setup page.
Utilities
8-29
Fire Mode
Figure 8.19
When depressuring in Fire mode, five coefficients C1 to C5 are required
specifications in order to set up the following generalised equation:
Vt
Q = C 1 + C 2 t + C 3 ( C 4 – T ) + C 5  ------
 V 0
(8.7)
As an example, you could model the standard heat transfer equation:
Q = UA∆T
(8.8)
By setting C1, C2 and C5 to zero. Set C3 to UA and C4 to the constant
temperature in the DT term.
The Heat Flux Parameters page for depressuring in Wetted Fire mode
is very similar to the view observed in Fire mode. Three coefficients C1
to C3 need to be specified in order to set up the following equation,
which is an extension to the standard API equation for flux to a liquidcontaining vessel.
Q = C 1 ⋅ [ wetted area(time=t) ]
C2
(8.9)
8-29
8-30
Depressuring
where:

LiqVol(time=t) 
wetted area(time=t) = wetted area(at time=0) ×  1 – C 3 1 – --------------------------------------- 
LiqVol(time=0)


(8.10)
Adiabatic Mode
Figure 8.20
The Adiabatic depressuring mode brings up the Adiabatic group box
which contains the following fields:
Isentropic Efficiency
The depressuring utility does not take momentum effects into account
when doing the energy balance. This can have a large effect on the final
temperatures (15 degrees plus, when you dealing with very fast flows).
If you are depressuring in Adiabatic mode, you need the isentropic
efficiency %, which, if you choose the correct value, can bring the
temperatures into line. The following table gives a description of the
boundary values for this field.
8-30
Utilities
Isentropic Efficiency%
Description
0%
The fluid will not lose enthalpy during the expansion
(isenthalpic) but the entropy will change, as this is an
irreversible process.
100%
The fluid utilises a required amount of enthalpy
during the expansion to maintain constant molar
entropy.
8-31
The correct value to use is the subject of much debate. Studies have
shown that 100% gives a good accord with experimental data for gas
filled systems. For liquid containing systems values of 40-70% are
generally used. Higher values yield lower final temperatures for the
fluid.
Vessel Heat Transfer Area
The Vessel Heat Transfer Area is the surface area of vessel or piping in
contact with the fluid that will be used to calculate the temperatures by
heat balance between the fluid and the wall. For a gas filled vessel this is
the total vessel internal surface area. For liquid containing vessels the
area exposed to the liquid volume should be used since the Heat
Transfer Coefficient for a liquid is much higher than that for a gas. If the
user wishes to assume vapour heat transfer properties, they can be
estimated by HYSYS (the “wetted area” should be equivalent to the
entire vessel area). If the user wishes to liquid heat transfer properties,
the user should enter the HTC, and only the wetted surface area should
be entered.
Vessel Material Specific Heat Capacity/Vessel Mass
The Vessel Material Specific Heat of the metal and Vessel Mass are
required if you wish to calculate the average vessel wall temperature on
depressurisation.
Typical values of vessel specific heat are:
Material
Specific Heat
Mild steel
420 J/kgC
Titanium
523 J/kgC
Stainless steel
510 J/kgC
Copper
385 J/kgC
Aluminium
880 J/kgC
Brass
370 J/kgC
8-31
8-32
Depressuring
Heat Transfer Coefficient
HYSYS does not take into
consideration the heat
transfer from the air to the
vessel. The only energy
transfer is from the mass of the
vessel to the fluid.
The Heat Transfer Coefficient refers to the metal to fluid interface. No
heat transfer between the environment and the vessel is included. This
is considered reasonable because the system would see very low
temperatures during the depressuring which would mean the vessel
exterior would probably be insulated.
Isothermal Mode
Heat Flux information is not required for this mode.
Valve Parameters Setup Page
Figure 8.21
Press the Equation Help button on
for details on the available
equations.
Choosing the Valve Equation
The units specified for the
valve equations pertain only
to the equations as viewed on
this tab; they are not the same
as the units used in the
simulation.
8-32
The Valve Equation is selected from the Equation drop down box, you
have four options:
Utilities
Equation
8-33
Description
F = C1 ( P1 ρ1 )
where:
(8.11)
C2
C1 = valve constant
C2 = default power term
P1 = upstream pressure
Supersonic
r1 = upstream density
Use this for modelling systems when no detailed information
is available on the valve. In general the constant C2 will never
vary from 0.5 and the flow through the valve will then be
proportional to C1. One specific exception to this is the
modelling of constant flow depressurisation. In this case set
C2 to 0 and C1 to the required constant flow rate.
( P 1 + P back ) ( P 1 – P back )
F = C 1 -------------------------------------------------------------- ρ 1
P1
where:
C2
(8.12)
C1 = valve constant
C2 = default power term
P1 = upstream pressure
Pback = back pressure or valve outlet pressure
r1 = upstream density
Subsonic
If the pressure in the vessel is such that there is sub critical
flow (generally upstream pressure less than twice
backpressure), then you have no option but to use the
Subsonic Equation. This equation is used in the same
instances as the Supersonic equation except when you have
subsonic flow. In applying this equation you are required to
supply Pback or the valve back pressure. By specifying Pback
to be slightly less than the Relief Pressure, it is possible to
have your depressuring analysis cycle between pressure
build up and relief. You should ensure a reasonable pressure
differential, and you may wish to increase the number of
pressure steps for the analysis.
8-33
8-34
Depressuring
Equation
The default values of C1 are
only accurate for the standard
SI and Field pressure, mass
flow, and density units. If
changes are made to these
standard units C1 should be
adjusted to ensure consistency.
For example, if your units of
pressure had been changed to
bar, 16.67 should be used for
C 1.
Description
F = C1 Cv Cf Yf ( P1 ρ1 )
where:
C2
(8.13)
C1 = 1.6663 (SI default)
= 38.86 (Field default)
Cv = valve co-efficient
Cf = critical flow factor
Pup = upstream pressure
rup = upstream density
Masoneilan
y = expansion factor
yf = y - 0.148 y3 (the max value of yf is 1)
Taken from the Masoneilan catalogue, this equation can be
used for general depressuring valves to flare. Often the Cv for
a valve is known from vendor data so when Masoneilan is
selected the appropriate valve C1 and C2 will be automatically
set as well as the units. DO NOT change these unless you
have a justified reason to do so. HYSYS will estimate a valve
Cv based on the input data for the sources and depressuring
criteria.The user must adjust this initial Cv in order to ensure
that all criteria are fully satisfied.
F = C 1 43200A v K term ( g c P 1 ρ 1 k )
where:
C2
(8.14)
C1 = dimensionless constant = 2.625*C
C = co-efficient of discharge
43200 = dimensional constant
Av = valve orifice area
General
gc = dimensionless constant = 1.0 kg.m/N.s2 (32.17 lb.ft/
lbf.s2)
k = ratio of specific heats (Cp/Cv)
P1 = upstream pressure
r1 = upstream density
C2 = equation exponent (= 0.5)
This equation is take from Perry’s Chemical Engineering
Handbook. Use it if you know the valve throat area. Note that
this equation makes certain limiting assumptions concerning
the characteristics of the orifice.
8-34
Utilities
8.6.4
You may notice a temperature
rise in the vessel towards the
end of the depressuring. This is
due to the fact that the heat
transfer from the vessel mass is
such that it overcomes the
temperature loss due to the
expansion of the fluid in the
vessel.
8-35
Tabular Results Tab
Figure 8.22
The Tabular Results tab allows you two view the results in two types of
printed format.
• Standard
• Classic
Standard format is displayed in Figure 8.22. This format is specified by
clicking the Standard radio button in the Results Format group box.
There are eight different sets of results that can be displayed in the
table:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
P-T vs. Time,
Inventory vs. Time,
Liq. Inventory vs. Time,
Vented Flow vs. Time,
Blowdown vs. Time,
Heat Transfer vs. Time,
Compositions vs. Time and
Phys. Props vs. Time.
The Classic format is specified by clicking the Classic radio button in
the Results Format group box. The Classic format is displayed in Figure
8.23. In order to generate the results for this format the Generate
Classic Results check-box must be activate.
8-35
8-36
Depressuring
Figure 8.23
The Classic format displays all of the depressuring design information
as well as all of the information that can be displayed in the Standard
format in one form.
8.6.5
Graphical Results Tab
Figure 8.24
To edit a plot, object inspect
the plot area and select Graph
Control from the menu. For
details on manipulating plots,
refer to Section 6.4 - Graph
Control.
8-36
The Graphical Results tab allows you to examine the results of the
depressuring analysis in graphical form. You may observe:
Utilities
•
•
•
•
•
•
8-37
Pressure - Temperature over time
Inventory over time
Liq. Inventory over time
Vented Flow over time
Blow Down over time
Composition over time
8.6.6
Notes Tab
The Notes tab provides a text editor where you can record any
comments or information regarding the Decompression utility or
pertaining to your simulation in general.
8.6.7
Modelling Specific Systems
Modelling A Compressor Loop System
Suppose you wished to model the depressuring of system such as the
one shown in Figure 8.25.
Figure 8.25
The loop in question contains 4 input volumes:
Input Volume
Stream
Vessel
Volume
suction piping
Feed
2 m3
suction drum
Feed
5 m3
discharge piping
Product
2 m3
exit cooler
Product
1 m3
Liquid
Volume
0.75 m3
8-37
8-38
Depressuring
To model the depressuring of this system first add the following
streams:
MATERIAL STREAM [Feed]
Tab [Page]
Input Area
Entry
Worksheet
[Conditions]
Temperature
15 °C
Worksheet
[Composition]
Pressure
40 bar
Methane Mole Frac
0.60000
Ethane Mole Frac
0.20000
Propane Mole Frac
0.10000
i-Butane Mole Frac
0.05000
n-Butane Mole Frac
0.05000
MATERIAL STREAM [Product]
The composition of the
Product stream is simply the
vapour phase of the Feed
stream.
Tab [Page]
Input Area
Worksheet
[Conditions]
Temperature
40 °C
Pressure
100 bar
Methane Mole Frac
0.663472
Worksheet
[Composition]
Entry
Ethane Mole Frac
0.203300
Propane Mole Frac
0.079220
i-Butane Mole Frac
0.029061
n-Butane Mole Frac
0.024947
From the Tools menu select the Utilities option. This should bring up
the Available Utilities view. From the list box on the right side of the
view select Depressuring and press the Add Utility button.
Fill the Depressuring property view as shown below:
UTILITY [Depressuring]
Note that HYSYS assumes an
instantaneous settleout across
the system. In practise the
blowdown valve will normally
open as soon as the ESD valves
are closed and consequently
the initial flow of gas through
this valve will reflect the fluid
in the suction drum.
8-38
Tab [Page]
Design
[Vessel Parameters]
Input Area
Entry
Stream Name
Feed
Product
Vessel Volume
7 m3
3 m3
Liquid Volume
0.75 m3
<empty>
Mode
Adiabatic
Relief Pressure
55.85 bar
Design
Depress Time
15 mins
[Operation Mode]
Final Pressure
27.93 bar
Pressure Steps
30
Wetted Area
<empty>
Utilities
8-39
UTILITY [Depressuring]
Note that HYSYS assumes an
instantaneous settleout across
the system. In practise the
blowdown valve will normally
open as soon as the ESD valves
are closed and consequently
the initial flow of gas through
this valve will reflect the fluid
in the suction drum.
Tab [Page]
Input Area
Entry
Design
Isentropic Efficiency
70%
[Heat Flux
Parameters]
Vess. Specific Heat
420 kJ/kg/C
Vessel Mass
6000 kg
Valve Equation
Masoneilan
C1
If Upstream Pressure
units are in kpa 1.6663, if
the Upstream Pressure
units are in bar 16.663
Design
[Valve Parameters]
Leave the Cv on the Valve Eqns tab as initially estimated by HYSYS and
click Calculate.
Sizing the Relief Valve
HYSYS will run until either the final pressure, pressure calculation steps
or time limit is reached. When this is done, examine the Tabular
Results tab and verify that your final pressure has been reached. If the
time limit is reached but not the final pressure, then increase the Cv of
the valve. If the final pressure is reached before the time limit, then
decease the valve Cv. Using a quick trial and error process you should
arrive at a Cv of 2.07 as being the required valve size.
Note that for gas filled vessels the depressuring time will be
approximately inversely proportional to the Cv. However, for two phase
systems, the liquid behaviour during depressurisation may complicate
the blowdown volume significantly and this relationship may not be
valid.
The depressuring utility can be often slow due to the number of
flash calculations performed. If the fluid you are depressuring
contains a number of components that have zero flow or very
small flow these will add to the calculation time.
For example if you are depressuring the compressor circuit
shown above, the stream definition will contain all the
components used in the simulation including any
hypotheticals, NBP cuts and water. In practice the actual
composition at this point in the process will consist of the
lighter hydrocarbons only. If you wish to do repetitive
depressuring evaluation consider removing all the components
with insignificant content.
Note that selecting higher isentropic efficiencies in the
adiabatic mode will slow down the calculations.
8-39
8-40
Derivative
8.7
Derivative
The Derivative utility is a component of the HYSYS.RTO real-time
optimization package available as a plug-in to the basic HYSYS
software package. The Derivative utility is one of two utilities used by
HYSYS.RTO to provide the primary interface between the flowsheet
model and the solver. Their primary purpose is to collect appropriate
optimization objects which are then exposed to solvers to meet a
defined solution criteria.
Please refer to the HYSYS.RTO User’s manual for details concerning the
use of this utility. This manual details all features and components
related to the HYSYS real time optimization package.
If your current HYSYS version does not support RTO, contact your local
Hyprotech representative for more details.
8.8
Envelope
The Envelope utility allows you to examine relationships between
selected parameters, for any stream of known composition, including
streams with only one component. Vapour-Liquid Envelopes may be
plotted for the following variables:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pressure-Temperature
Pressure-Volume
Pressure-Enthalpy
Pressure-Entropy
Temperature-Volume
Temperature-Enthalpy
Temperature-Entropy
For the Pressure-Temperature envelope, quality lines and a hydrate
curve can also be added to the plot. The remaining curves allow the
inclusion of Isocurves (Isotherms or Isobars).
Since the Envelope is calculated on a dry basis, you must be careful
when applying the utility to multi-component mixtures that contain
H2O or any other component which can form a second liquid phase.
Note also that the Envelope is restricted to the Peng Robinson and
Soave Redlich Kwong equations of state.
8-40
Utilities
8-41
The Envelope utility will be illustrated using stream FEED (Peng
Robinson property method):
MATERIAL STREAM [FEED]
Tab [Page]
Worksheet
[Conditions]
Worksheet
[Composition]
Input Area
Entry
Temperature
60.0000 °F
Pressure
600.0000 psi
Molar Flow
100.0000 lbmole/hr
Nitrogen Mole Frac
0.0069
CO2 Mole Frac
0.0138
Methane Mole Frac
0.4827
Ethane Mole Frac
0.1379
Propane Mole Frac
0.0690
i-Butane Mole Frac
0.0621
n-Butane Mole Frac
0.0552
i-Pentane Mole Frac
0.0483
n-Pentane Mole Frac
0.0414
n-Hexane Mole Frac
0.0345
n-Heptane Mole Frac
0.0276
n-Octane Mole Frac
0.0206
To add the Envelope utility, select Utilities under Tools in the Menu Bar,
highlight Envelope, and select the Add Utility button.
8.8.1
Connections
You may attach a stream from the Object Navigator by pressing the
Select Stream button. For this example, select stream FEED. The Plots
tab will immediately be shown for the selected stream.
Figure 8.26
8-41
8-42
Envelope
On the Connections page, the Critical Temperature and Pressure are
calculated, as well as the Cricondentherm and Cricondenbar.
The Dynamics tab allows you to control how often the utility gets
calculated when running in Dynamic mode (refer to the Dynamics subheading in Section 8.1 - Boiling Point Curves for more information).
Note that you may ignore this Utility during calculations by selecting
the Ignored check box. HYSYS will disregard the utility entirely until
you restore it to an active state by clearing the check box.
8.8.2
Plots
On the Plots tab, select a radio button in the Envelope Type group to
display the associated envelope.
By pressing the Table button, you can access the envelope results in
tabular format. Simply select an option from the drop down list. All
Isocurves and Quality lines associated with the individual envelopes
will be transferred to the table.
The various available envelopes will now be covered in more detail.
Pressure-Temperature Envelope
Select the PT envelope in the Envelope Type group.
Figure 8.27
8-42
Utilities
8-43
The Vapour-Liquid envelope for a quality of 1.0 is automatically
displayed. This is actually represented by two curves; one with a vapour
fraction of 1.0 and the other having a liquid fraction of 1.0. These curves
meet at the stream critical point. You may plot additional envelopes for
different qualities simply by typing the desired quality (between 0 and
1) in the Quality 1 and Quality 2 input cells. In this example, the
envelope for a quality of 0.9 is shown. A quality of 0.9 is represented by
two curves; one with a vapour fraction of 0.9 and the other having a
liquid fraction of 0.9.
Activate the Hydrate check box to have HYSYS calculate and display the
hydrate temperature curve for pressures up to the cricondenbar.
Further discussion on the calculation of hydrates can be found in
Section 8.9 - Hydrate Formation.
You may clear all non-default curves by selecting the Clear button.
8.8.3
PV-PH-PS Envelopes
Figure 8.28
If you select the PV radio button, the Pressure-Volume Envelope is
displayed. Selecting the PH radio button will display the PressureEnthalpy Envelope, while selecting the PS radio button will display the
Pressure-Entropy Envelope.
For each of these Envelopes, you may display a maximum of three
Isotherms (constant temperature curves) by entering values in the
Curves group.
8-43
8-44
Envelope
Shown in Figure 8.28 is the Pressure-Enthalpy envelope for stream
FEED, with 223°F and 288°F Isotherms.
You may clear all curves (except the default) at any time by selecting the
Clear button.
8.8.4
TV-TH-TS Envelopes
If you select the TV radio button, the Temperature-Volume Envelope is
displayed. Selecting the TH radio button will display the TemperatureEnthalpy Envelope, while selecting the TS radio button will display the
Temperature-Entropy Envelope.
For each of these Envelopes, you may display up to three Isobars
(constant pressure curves). Simply enter the desired pressure(s) in the
Curves group.
Figure 8.29
Shown in Figure 8.29 is the Temperature-Entropy envelope for stream
FEED, with a 300 psi Isobar.
As before, you may clear all non-default curves at any time by selecting
the Clear button.
8-44
Utilities
8.9
Hydrates formation prediction
is restricted to the Peng
Robinson and Soave Redlich
Kwong equations of state.
8-45
Hydrate Formation
The Hydrate Formation utility will calculate the incipient solid
formation point for gas hydrates. The predictive models are based on
fundamental thermodynamic principles and use equation-of-state
generated properties in calculating the equilibrium conditions. These
predictive models can therefore be applied to various compositions
and extreme operating conditions with a greater degree of reliability
than one might expect with empirical expressions or charts. Note also
that a hydrate curve can be plotted with the Envelope utility.
8.9.1
Stream Settings
You can set the name of the utility as well as the stream for which this
utility will be calculated. You may select a stream from the Object
Navigator, which is accessed by pressing the Select Stream button.
Figure 8.30
The Dynamics tab allows you to control how often the utility gets
calculated when running in Dynamic mode (refer to the Dynamics subheading in Section 8.1 - Boiling Point Curves for more information).
Note that you may ignore this Utility during calculations by selecting
the Ignored check box. HYSYS will disregard the utility entirely until
you restore it to an active state by clearing the check box.
For this example we are defining two streams, FEED and INHIBITOR,
as shown below (use the Peng Robinson property method). The
Hydrates Formation utility will be used to determine the hydrate
forming conditions before and after injection of the methanol inhibitor
8-45
8-46
Hydrate Formation
.
MATERIAL STREAM [FEED]
Tab [Page]
Worksheet
[Conditions]
Worksheet
[Composition]
Input Area
Entry
Temperature
5.0000 °C
Pressure
7000.0000 kPa
Molar Flow
50.0000 kgmole/hr
Nitrogen Mole Frac
0.0590
Methane Mole Frac
0.7091
Ethane Mole Frac
0.0468
Propane Mole Frac
0.0192
n-Butane Mole Frac
0.0078
n-Pentane Mole Frac
0.0078
CO2 Mole Frac
0.1404
H2O Mole Frac
0.0099
Methanol Mole Frac
0.0000
MATERIAL STREAM [INHIBITOR]
Tab [Page]
Worksheet
[Conditions]
Worksheet
[Composition]
8-46
Input Area
Entry
Temperature
5.0000 °C
Pressure
7000.0000 kPa
Molar Flow
10.0000 kgmole/hr
Nitrogen Mole Frac
0.0000
Methane Mole Frac
0.0000
Ethane Mole Frac
0.0000
Propane Mole Frac
0.0000
n-Butane Mole Frac
0.0000
n-Pentane Mole Frac
0.0000
CO2 Mole Frac
0.0000
H2O Mole Frac
0.2000
Methanol Mole Frac
0.8000
Utilities
8.9.2
8-47
Hydrate Formation at
Stream Conditions Group
Figure 8.31
The Hydrate Formation status at the current stream conditions are
shown on the Connection tab.
Hydrate Formation
Status
Description
Hydrate Formation
Flag
Displays the status of hydrate formation. There are
two possibilities, Will Form and Will NOT Form.
Hydrate Type
Formed
Will display the types of Hydrate formed. In this
example, for stream FEED, hydrate types I and II are
formed. It is possible that Ice will form first, in which
case HYSYS will display the message Ice Forms
First in the appropriate field. If the temperature is
higher than the formation temperature, then No
Types will appear in this field.
Calculation Mode
Possibilities are Vapour Phase, Free Water Found
and Assume Free Water. HYSYS has the capability
of predicting the incipient solid formation point for
systems consisting of gas hydrates in equilibrium
with a free-water phase or for systems without a
free-water phase. Note that it is not necessary for a
free-water phase to be present for hydrate formation.
For either case, the correct model will be used to
predict the incipient point for solid hydrates. If water
is not specified as a component, HYSYS assumes
the stream to be saturated with water.
The only requirement for hydrate formation is that some water must be
present in either the vapour or condensed hydrocarbon phase with
hydrate forming components. Once favourable pressure and
temperature conditions are reached (high pressures or low
8-47
8-48
Hydrate Formation
temperatures), the mixture of hydrate-forming molecules and water
molecules will form a non-stoichiometric solid phase. Note that these
conditions can be well above the freezing point of water or well before
the point where free water or ice would drop out.
The hydrate formers are limited to molecules that are small enough to
fit into the cavities formed by the host water lattice structure. These
include low molecular weight paraffinic hydrocarbons up to n-butane,
some olefins, and some of the smaller non-hydrocarbon components
such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulphide.
In many cases, you will run into processing situations where there will
be free water present and hydrate formation would be a serious
concern, such as after chilling wet reservoir fluids, or in cryogenic
processing with very low water content (undersaturated vapour). A
completely rigorous approach is used within HYSYS for determining at
what point a solid hydrate phase forms. As such, you do not have to be
concerned with specifying the proper model for the solid prediction.
Note that if water is not included as a component, the utility will
assume the stream to be saturated with water and will use the correct
model for predicting the hydrate point.
There are instances where water is specified as a component and the
stream is undersaturated such that no free water forms during the
search. In this case, a different model specifically developed for
predicting the incipient point for hydrate formation in equilibrium
with a specified water content will be used. As in the other model, it can
be used for determining the hydrate point in the vapour or condensed
hydrocarbon phase.
The model used for predicting the incipient hydrate point for hydrates
in equilibrium with free water is based on the original equilibrium
model proposed by van der Waals and Platteeuw1 and later modified by
Parrish and Prausnitz2. The same model has been incorporated and
enhanced by Hyprotech for its hydrate predictions. The equation of
state is used to predict the properties of the hydrate-forming
components in equilibrium with the solid hydrate phase. This can be
used for predicting hydrate formation in the vapour or condensed
hydrocarbon phase, commonly referred to as vapour and liquid phase
hydrates respectively. A detailed description of the mechanisms
involved in hydrate formation and the concepts used in the
formulation of the predictive model are given in the above references.
A similar approach is used for predicting the hydrate point for systems
without free water present, with the exception that the fugacity of water
8-48
Utilities
8-49
in the corresponding hydrocarbon phase and the hydrate lattice are
taken into account. A conceptual description of the model is given in
the articles by Sloan, Khoury and Kobayashi3 and Ng and Robinson4.
8.9.3
Formation Temperature at
Stream Pressure
Figure 8.32
If you select the Hydrate P/T page, you will see the Formation
Temperature at which hydrates are formed, at the stream pressure. The
Hydrate Type and Calculation Mode are also shown for the hydrate
which would form at this formation temperature. The Hydrate Types
and Calculation Modes are discussed in the previous section.
For stream FEED, the Formation Temperature at the Stream Pressure of
7000 kPa is 13.24°C.
8.9.4
Formation Pressure at
Stream Temperature
Figure 8.33
On the same page, the Formation Pressure at which hydrates are
formed is shown, at the stream temperature. The Hydrate Type and
Calculation Mode are also shown for the hydrate which would form at
this formation pressure. The Hydrate Types and Calculation Modes are
discussed in the Hydrate Formation section.
For stream FEED, the Formation Pressure at the Stream Temperature of
5°C is 2169 kPa.
8-49
8-50
Hydrate Formation
8.9.5
Hydrate Inhibition
To avoid or inhibit the formation of hydrates, you have a number of
available options. You can either set the operating conditions to be
outside the predicted equilibrium curve for hydrates, or inject inhibitor
solvents such as glycols or alcohols to suppress the formation of
hydrates. The solvents serve as antifreeze agents and depress the
freezing conditions of hydrates.
To inhibit the formation of hydrates of a given stream in the Flowsheet,
you must install a stream which contains the solvent (e.g., either
methanol or glycol). Use the MIXER operation to mix it with the
process stream, and then access the Hydrate utility to find the new solid
hydrate formation condition. HYSYS will also report if the solid solvent
phase forms before the hydrates do (i.e., solid methanol or glycol
solution). These equilibrium conditions have all been fitted from
known phase diagrams. The eutectic point formed by the solvent
mixture results in a solid methanol or glycol phase if a high
concentration is used.
In setting up a Flowsheet for hydrate inhibition, you must ensure that
the conditions of the solvent injection stream are all sufficiently
defined (i.e., Temperature, Pressure, flow rate and composition) so that
the property package can flash the mixed stream. As a result of solvent
injection, the hydrate-forming conditions will be reduced due to
association of the inhibitor with the water in the current phase (i.e.,
vapour or liquid). Also note that since three phase thermodynamics are
used to perform the flash calculation, the phase distribution of the
components, including water and the solvent, will be calculated
rigorously. Therefore, solvent losses in the hydrocarbon liquid and
vapour phases are properly taken into account.
The PR equation of state was not originally designed for non-ideal
components such as methanol and glycols. You should ensure that the
resulting distribution of the components in all phases is satisfactory,
especially if three phases exist. The solubility of methanol in the
hydrocarbon and aqueous phases has been optimized with the PR
Equation of State for the methanol-HC-water VLE. You may wish to
further adjust the PR interaction parameters to meet your own
specifications.
Overall, this approach should be more accurate than using
Hammerschmidt’s equation which was developed more for dilute
solutions of antifreeze agents. The Hammerschmidt equation applies
only for typical natural gas mixtures and for solute concentrations less
8-50
Utilities
8-51
than 20 mole per cent. Although it has been applied for cases beyond
this region with reasonable success, this has been attributed to a
number of compensating factors. For validation of this model, refer to
GPA Research Report RR-66.
8.9.6
Hydrate Inhibition Example
In this example, a methanol stream of 80 mole percent methanol and
20 mole percent water (stream INHIBITOR) is injected into stream
FEED at a molar flow rate of 10 kgmole/h and is then separated in a
three-phase separator. The temperature of the streams for this part of
the example is -5°C. The solid utility is used to determine the hydrate
forming conditions after the injection of the methanol inhibitor.
For the remainder of this example, set the temperature of
streams FEED and INHIBITOR to -5 °C.
Install the MIXER operation to combine streams INHIBITOR and FEED
to produce Stream MIX.
Figure 8.34
8-51
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Parametric Utility
Now install the THREE-PHASE SEPARATOR, completing the
Connections page as shown. All other defaults will be used.
Figure 8.35
The hydrate temperature of streams FEED and Vapour can be
calculated to determine the effectiveness of the inhibitor.
The hydrate formation temperature of stream FEED is 13.24°C. The
hydrate formation temperature of stream Vapour is -41.6°C. The
methanol reduces the hydrate temperature by about 55°C.
8.10
Parametric Utility
The Parametric utility is a set of tools for building a Parametric model
(PM) within the HYSYS environment. The utility integrates Neural
Network (NN) technology into its framework. The major function of the
Parametric Utility is to approximate an existing HYSYS model with a
Parametric model.
Using a Parametric model with neural network capability to
approximate a HYSYS model will significantly improve the robustness
of the model and reduce its calculation time thereby improving overall
on-line performance. The accuracy of the model will depend upon the
data available and the type of model being approximated
The object of analysis can be a collection of unit operations, an entire
flowsheet, or a number of selected variables. Using input and output
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Utilities
8-53
data sets as training data, the neural network algorithm will determine
the values of the Parametric model parameters. This step is called
training but can also be referred to as regression or identification.
8.10.1 Neural Networks
Neural Networks provide a cost effective modeling tool, and can extend
the capabilities of traditional statistics, modeling and control. They can
be applied in both linear and non-linear systems where first principles
modeling is costly or difficult.
Neural Networks provide very flexible and powerful techniques for data
analysis, and can be used for:
•
•
•
•
•
Dynamic and Static Process Modeling
Nonlinear and Adaptive Control
Inferential Predictions
Time Series Prediction
Multivariate Pattern Recognition
8.10.2
Refer to Section 10.3 - Parametric
Unit Operation of the Steady State
Modelling manual for details on
the Parametric Unit Operation.
Variables
The parameters of the Parametric model are determined either through
HYSYS simulation runs or based on historical plant data (the latter also
requires the use of the Parametric unit operation). The following
terminology is used to describe the variable types used in the
Parametric model:
Observable Variables
Observable variables can be either input or output variables within the
HYSYS PFD Model. When HYSYS is used to generate training datasets
for the Parametric model, a number of simulation runs will be
performed. During the simulation run, the simulation solution engine
will calculate each operation in the HYSYS PFD. The observable
variables are the HYSYS variables whose values are known and used as
training data when calculating the Parametric model.
It is important to note that observable input and output variables may
each include both input and output stream variables. A HYSYS model
parameter with a varying value can be either an observable input
variable or an observable output variable within the Parametric model.
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Parametric Utility
Manipulated Variables
The manipulated variables are the variables being modified in the
Parametric Utility and are obtained from the HYSYS PFD model
simulation.
Training Variables
Training variables are a combination of both the Observable and
Manipulated variables used to develop the Parametric model. The term
training refers to the task of using the data sets available as a form of
“learning” that in effect, fits the model parameters to the specifications.
The Parametric model approximates the HYSYS model in the sense
that, given the same values for the training input variables, the values of
the output variables from the Parametric model must be close to the
values of the output variables from the HYSYS model.
It is important to realize that there are no methods for training neural
networks that can “magically” create information that is not contained
in the training data. The neural network model is only as good as its
training data.
8.10.3
1.
The Parametric Utility can be accessed by selecting Utilities under
Tools in the Menu Bar. Choose Parametric Utility from the list in
the Available Utilities view and press the Add Utility button.
2.
On the Options tab, change the Name of the utility, if desired.
3.
Select the Type of application for the Parametric model. The
choices are:
•
•
•
•
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Generalized Procedure
A collection of Unit Operations
Whole flowsheet
Selection of variables for sensitivity analysis
Unknown.
4.
Press the Next button to continue to the Configuration tab.
5.
On the Configuration tab, press the Select Unit Operation button
to open the Target Object view and select the desired flowsheet
objects to be used in the Parametric model. The Object Filter
group filters the available objects by type. The Objects for
Reconciliation group lists all currently selected objects.
6.
Press the Accept List button once you are satisfied with your
selections.
Utilities
7.
The Configuration tab view will now list all Manipulated and
Observable variables to be used in the model. You can examine a
list of both variable types by selecting the Manipulated or
Observable radio button which will display the appropriate table.
8.
Use the Selected check box within the table and selection buttons
to select/un-select or remove variables from the lists (see figure
below).
9.
Specify Low Limit and/or High Limit values if you wish to change
the range that the Parametric model will work in. The default value
is flowsheet value ±10%. (see figure below)
8-55
Figure 8.36
Selected
check boxes
Limit values
10. Press the Accept Configuration button once you are satisfied with
the current variable selection. The Parametric model will now be
built based on the selected Manipulated and Observable variables.
11. Press the Next button to continue to the Data tab.
12. Select the Create as new button and select a file name and location
to save the training datasets to be created.
13. You may want to modify the Number of DNS field before
generating HYSYS data. The DNS is the number of data sets
produced that corresponds to the number of HYSYS runs that will
be initiated to generate the data.
14. Press the Generate Data button which will initiate the HYSYS
simulation engine to generate training data for the Parametric
model based on the HYSYS model. The trace window will display
calculation status information for each simulation run.
15. Access the Training tab and select the Init/Reset button to reset the
data window.
16. Press the Train button which will initiate the Parametric Utility
training engine. The data sets generated on the Data tab will now
be used to “train” the neural network model.
17. The View Table and View Graph buttons display comparisons
between data generated by the Parametric model and the original
data generated by the HYSYS model.
18. Press the Next button to move to the Validation tab. This is the final
step in developing a Parametric model.
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Parametric Utility
19. You may modify validation settings by selecting the Validation
Setup button.
20. If you are satisfied with the validation settings, press the PM runs
button to run the Parametric model validation. Since the
Parametric model is very efficient, these calculations should be
almost instantaneous.
21. Next, press the Hysys runs button to run the HYSYS model
validation. Since these calculations are based on the HYSYS
simulation engine, they may take longer to complete.
Modifying variables from the
HYSYS flowsheet which are now
defined as observable variables
according to the Parametric model
will not have any effect on the
output results (i.e. the flowsheet
will not recalculate new values).
22. Validation is now complete and you may view the validation results
using the View Tables and View Graph buttons.
23. On the Options tab, selecting the Embedded into Hysys Flowsheet
checkbox will replace the current HYSYS model within the PFD
with the Parametric model.
When embedding a Parametric model into the HYSYS flowsheet, the
HYSYS model will be replaced by the Parametric model. This change
will be transparent from the flowsheet side and all replaced streams,
unit operations, variables etc. will look the same. However, when
manipulated variables are altered on the flowsheet, the calculation
engine will run the simulation using the Parametric model rather than
the HYSYS model, which will result in exceptionally faster convergence
times.
8.10.4
PM Utility View
The PM Utility view is composed of several tabs listed in the following
table along with a brief description:
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Tab
Description
Options
Allows you to specify name, application type and
calculation options.
Configuration
Allows you to select HYSYS objects to be
included as variables (manipulated or
observable) in the Parametric model.
Data
Allows you to generate datasets for use in
training the Parametric model.
Training
Initiates the training algorithm to determine
parameters for the Parametric model.
Validation
Allows you to validate the Parametric model
using validation data.
Utilities
8-57
Options Tab
The Options tab allows you to specify the Name, Type of Application
and various Calculation Options.
Figure 8.37
In the Type of Application group, various options exist for selecting the
components to be approximated with the Parametric model:
• A collection of Unit Operations - This option allows the user
to select various unit operations from the current HYSYS
flowsheet. For the Parametric model to make sense, all unit
operations selected must be connected within the flowsheet.
• Whole flowsheet - This option selects the entire flowsheet for
analysis and thus the entire flowsheet becomes a Parametric
model.
• Selected variables for sensitivity analysis - This option
allows the user to select individual variables from the flowsheet
rather than entire unit ops.
• Unknown - This option specifies an unknown application type.
Selecting the Advanced option mode allows you to set the handling for
stream cutters (Manual or Automatic).
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Parametric Utility
Figure 8.38
Configuration Tab
The Configuration tab allows the selection of Manipulated and
Observable variables for the Parametric model.
Figure 8.39
Stream cutting options
Selects/Un-selects
entire list of variables
8-58
Toggles between Manipulated
and Observable variable lists
Removes un-selected
variables from list
Utilities
8-59
Parametric Utility Configuration
The Parametric Utility Configuration group displays the various
Parametric model configuration options. The following buttons are
available:
Select Unit Operations button
The Select Unit Operations button opens the Target Object view, which
allows the selection of objects for reconciliation. These objects can be
in the form of streams, unit operations and logicals. The Filter group
allows objects to be filtered based on category.
The objects selected for use in the Parametric model are listed in the
Objects for Reconciliation group list.
Figure 8.40
The Accept List button accepts the changes and obtains all variables
known to the selected objects from the HYSYS flowsheet. Both
Manipulated and Observable variables will be listed in the
Configuration tab view.
Build Unit Op Info List button
The Build Unit Op Info List button builds (or updates) a list of variables
(Manipulated and Observable) based on the unit operations selected.
The operation obtains all variables known to the selected objects in the
HYSYS flowsheet and categorizes them as either Manipulated or
Observable.
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Parametric Utility
Add a Variable button
The Add a Variable button allows the user to add variables from the
selected unit operations to either the Manipulated or the Observable
variable list. If the Manipulated radio button has already been selected
from the Configuration tab, the Select Input Variable view will appear
and allow the selection of additional Manipulated variables.
Figure 8.41
If the Observable radio button were selected, a similar Select
Observable Variables view will appear and allow the selection of
additional Observable variables.
Accept Configuration button
Once you are satisfied with your selections of Observable and
Manipulated variables, the Accept Configuration button will accept the
current variable configuration and allow you to access the Data tab.
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Data Tab
The Data tab allows the configuration and generation of input and
output data sets for the Parametric model based on HYSYS simulations.
Training data sets are generated by using stepwise changes to the
manipulated input variables to produce varying output results.
Figure 8.42
When setting up a model for the
first time, select this radio button
Select this button
to generate
training data.
When setting up your Parametric model for the first time, click the
Create as new radio button. Data will be written to an external file
based on the default name and location (path) listed:
Figure 8.43
If you wish to choose a specific file name use the Create as new button
that allows you to name and create a new file to store your data.
Later, if you wish to add to the number of datasets used for training,
thereby increasing the accuracy of your Parametric model, choose the
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Parametric Utility
Append radio button. Data will be written to a an external file based on
the default name and location listed as shown in Figure 8.43.
If your wish to choose a specific file name use the Append button,
which will allow you to name and create a new file to store your data.
If you have changed the models configuration, you should not
append to existing data sets.
The Data File Setup group displays information related to the training
data file to be generated by the Parametric Utility. The Number of DSN
field defines the number of datasets that will be generated using the
HYSYS model. Increasing this number increases the likelihood that the
Parametric model will be a “good fit” for the flowsheet model, however
the data will take longer to generate.
Training Tab
The Training tab allows the generation of a Parametric model based on
the HYSYS training data. Data sets generated on the Data tab are used
as training variables. The training algorithm will determine the
parameter values of the neural network model based on the input and
output datasets. The end result will be a Parametric model which
approximates its HYSYS model counterpart.
Figure 8.44
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Utilities
8-63
A number of buttons exist for selecting various training options:
Button
Description
Init/Reset
Select this button first before running the training
algorithm or whenever you wish to reset the
Parametric model.
Confirm
Allows you to confirm the current training
configuration.
Train
Initiates the training algorithm to train the neural
network based on the data sets generated by the
HYSYS model.
View Table...
Allows the viewing of training data in table format.
Compares the HYSYS training data with
Parametric model data.
View Graph...
Allows the viewing of training data in graphical
format. Compares the HYSYS training data with
Parametric model data.
The Sub-group models group allows filtering of neural network data by
either Simple or MLP (Multilayer Preceptrons) or both groups
combined (All), The Display Mode group displays model data based on
the radio button selected.
Figure 8.45
You can also change the number of hidden layers in the MLP and the
number of cycles (i.e. number of times the data is presented to the
nodes). Changing these may affect the efficiency of your model.
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Parametric Utility
Validation Tab
The Validation tab is the final phase in developing a Parametric model.
On this tab, validation of the model is performed by generating
validation points using both the Parametric model and the HYSYS
model and comparing the results.
Figure 8.46
A number of buttons exist for selecting various validation options:
8-64
Button
Description
Validation Setup
Allows you to configure validation setup options
which include the Number of Validation Points
and the Random Speed used in generating the
validation points.
PM runs
Runs the Parametric model to generate
validation data based on the Parametric model.
Hysys runs
Runs the HYSYS model to generate validation
data based on the HYSYS model.
View Table...
Allows the viewing of validation data in table
format. Compares the HYSYS validation data
with Parametric model data.
View Graph...
Allows the viewing of validation data in graphical
format. Compares the HYSYS validation data
with Parametric model data.
Utilities
8-65
The Display Mode group allows you to display either the entire
validation data (All radio button) or just the validation range and error
(Validation radio button). The Filter group filters objects based on four
radio button selections. Objects are filtered differently depending upon
whether they are Manipulated or Observable.
Figure 8.47
8.11
Pinch Utility
Pinch technology is a methodology which is used to optimize the use of
process heat exchange and utilities in complicated processes. The
HYSYS Pinch utility provides the necessary tools to apply the pinch
principles in the design of efficient heat exchanger networks. For
further pinch analysis information, refer to the text by Marsland5.
You can attach any combination of heat exchangers, LNG operations,
heaters or coolers to the Pinch utility. The only requirement being that
each operation is solved so the Pinch calculations can be performed.
8.11.1
Quick Start
As an example of the use of the Pinch Utility, the heat exchanger
network example outlined in Optimizer chapter of the Steady State
Modelling guide will be re-visited. If you do not have the case
constructed, complete Section 11.5.1 - Part I: Solving Multiple UA
Exchangers of the Steady State Modelling manual.
Access the Available Utilities view by selecting Utilities under Tools in
the Menu Bar. Select Pinch Utility and press the Add Utility button. The
Connections tab of the Pinch Utility property view will be displayed.
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8-66
Pinch Utility
Figure 8.48
On this page, you can attach any combination of heat exchangers, LNG
operations, heaters and coolers. Press the Select Heat Exchange Object
button to access the Object Navigator. The object list will be filtered
such that only the three heat exchangers in the case are displayed. You
will only be able to attach one heat exchanger at a time. When you have
attached the three exchangers, the unit names will appear in the Heat
Exchangers box on the Connections tab and the Pinch utility
calculations will be completed.
On the Side Results tab, examine the Inlet Temperature, Outlet
Temperature and Molar Flow of each pass attached to the Pinch utility.
In this example, there are six sides since three heat exchangers are used.
Figure 8.49
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Utilities
8-67
You could activate the Ignored check box to have HYSYS completely
ignore the utility. To restore the utility to an active state, the check box
must be cleared.
The various results of the Pinch utility can be examined on the Pinch
Results tab.
Figure 8.50
The results which can be examined include:
• Hot Pinch Temperature
• Cold Pinch Temperature
• Minimum Approach - temperature difference between the Hot
Pinch and Cold Pinch.
• Average Temperature at Pinch
• Enthalpy Change at Pinch
• Cold Utility
• Hot Utility
• Number of Points - the number of intervals used in the Pinch
utility calculations.
• Minimum Approach Target - specifiable minimum approach
temperature.
• Cold Utility Target - specifiable cold utility enthalpy value.
• Hot Utility Target - specifiable hot utility enthalpy value.
On the Plots tab, you can view the Sink and Source Composite Curves
or the Grand Composite Curve. Make your selection from the Graph
Type drop down list. The Composite Curves for the heat exchanger
network is shown below. Notice that the Pinch is also displayed on this
plot.
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Pinch Utility
Figure 8.51
The Table page shows a tabular report of what is seen on the Plots page.
You can view temperatures of the Sink and Source, the LMTD and
Enthalpy Change for each interval.
Figure 8.52
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Utilities
8.12
8-69
Pipe Sizing
With the Pipe Sizing utility you can perform design calculations on any
of the case streams. Results include pipe schedule, pipe diameter,
Reynolds number, friction factor, etc.
8.12.1
Quick Start
For this example, we will be creating a single stream and using the Pipe
Sizing utility to determine the size the pipe required.
Starting the Simulation
Create a new case and add a fluid package. Select Peng Robinson as the
property package and include the components listed in the following
table:
Property Package
Components
Peng Robinson
Methane, Ethane, Propane, i-Butane, nButane, i-Pentane, n-Pentane, Hexane,
Heptane, Octane
Access the Session Preferences view by selecting Preferences on the
Tools menu. Change the unit set to Field units. Create the stream Feed.
Name
Feed
Temperature [F]
50.00
Pressure [psia]
480.0
Molar Flow [lbmole/hr]
1000
Comp Mole Frac [Methane]
0.1702
Comp Mole Frac [Ethane]
0.1473
Comp Mole Frac [Propane]
0.1132
Comp Mole Frac [i-Butane]
0.1166
Comp Mole Frac [n-Butane]
0.1066
Comp Mole Frac [i-Pentane]
0.0963
Comp Mole Frac [n-Pentane]
0.0829
Comp Mole Frac [n-Hexane]
0.0694
Comp Mole Frac [n-Heptane]
0.0558
Comp Mole Frac [n-Octane]
0.0417
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Pipe Sizing
After installing the Feed stream, access the Property Table utility.
Choose the Utilities option under Tools in the Menu Bar. Select Pipe
Sizing from the Available Utilities view and then press the Add Utility
button.
Generalized Procedure
When the Pipe Sizing property view appears, you can supply the
required input and examine the results of the calculations. A systematic
approach to the utility is outlined:
1.
On the Connection page, change the name of the utility, if desired.
2.
Press the Select Stream button and choose a stream for the analysis
from the Object Navigator.
3.
Choose the desired Calculation type. The options include:
• Max. Diameter
• Pressure Drop
4.
Based on the calculation type selected you can now enter the
required information to complete the calculation
• Max. Diameter - the input required includes the pipe schedule
and the pressure drop in the pipe.
• Pressure Drop - the input required includes the pipe schedule
and the pipe diameter.
5.
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Examine the results of the pipe sizing utility on the Results page.
Utilities
8.12.2
8-71
Pipe Sizing View
On the Connection page you must choose the stream that represent the
pipe you wish to size. This is done by clicking the Select Stream button
and selecting one of the available streams from the Object Navigator as
shown in Figure 8.53.
Figure 8.53
You may also remove or change the streams to be used by clicking
either the Remove or Edit buttons.
Figure 8.54
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8-72
Pipe Sizing
The following fields are available for each stream chosen.
Object
Description
Calculation Type
Allows you to choose between two calculation
types: Max. Diameter and Pressure Drop.
Allows you to select a pipe schedule. You are
given four selections to choose from:
Schedule
•
•
•
•
None
Schedule 40
Schedule 80
Schedule 160
Diameter
If you have chosen Pressure Drop as your
calculation type then you will have to enter a
value for the pipe’s actual inner diameter. HYSYS
will then calculate the pressure drop.
Pressure Drop
If you have chosen Max. Diameter as your
calculation type then you will have to enter a
value for the pressure drop. HYSYS will then
calculate the pipe’s actual inner diameter
diameter.
Once HYSYS has finished calculating the results can be view on the
Results page of the Performance tab.
Figure 8.55
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Utilities
8.13
8-73
Property Table
The Property Table utility allows you to examine property trends over a
range of conditions in both tabular and graphical formats. Using a
stream of known composition, you target two independent variables
and their respective ranges of interest. The range of each independent
variable is distinct and can be set as either an incremental range or a
selection of specific values. Next, you relate which dependent variables
are to be displayed at each combination of the independent variables.
8.13.1
Quick Start
For this example, the phase splits for a system of ethanol, water and nhexane using the NRTL activity model is examined. On the Binary
Coeffs tab of the Fluid Package property view, select the UNIFAC LLE
radio button and press the ALL Binaries button.
Creating a Fluid Package
1. Property Package
Activity Model - NRTL
2. Components
Ethanol, H2O, n-Hexane
3. Interaction Parameters
Estimate the unknowns using the
UNIFAC LLE estimation technique
MATERIAL STREAM [Stream1]
Tab [Page]
Worksheet
[Conditions]
Worksheet
[Composition]
Input Area
Entry
Temperature
150.0000 °F
Pressure
14.7 psi
Molar Flow
1000.0000 lbmole/hr
Ethanol Mole Frac
0.6500
H2O Mole Frac
0.1500
n-Hexane Mole Frac
0.2000
After installing Stream1, access the Property Table utility. Choose the
Utilities option under Tools in the Menu Bar. Select Property Table
from the Available Utilities view and then press the Add Utility button.
Generalized Procedure
When the Property Table property view appears, you can supply the
required input and examine the results of the calculations. A systematic
approach to the utility is outlined:
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Property Table
One of the independent
variables must be either
Pressure or Temperature. If
the first variable selected is not
Temperature or Pressure, the
drop down list for the second
variable will be limited to
Temperature, Pressure and
Not Set.
1.
On the Connections page of the Design tab, change the name of
the utility, if desired.
2.
Press the Select Stream button and choose a stream for the analysis
from the Object Navigator.
3.
Identify one or two independent variables in the Variable 1 and
Variable 2 (if desired) input cells. The options include:
•
•
•
•
•
4.
Pressure
Temperature
Vapour Fraction
Enthalpy
Entropy
You can now select the Mode for the independent variable(s).
There are two options:
• Incremental - the input required includes the number of
increments, and values for the upper and lower bounds. The
dependent variable(s) are calculated at each increment within
the range.
• State - you can input an unlimited number of specific values for
the independent variable.
If you select a component
related property, such as
Component Mole Fraction,
you must also select the
components that you require
for this property.
5.
For the incremental variable(s), specify an upper bound, a lower
bound and the number of increments.
6.
For the state variable(s), specify values for the independent
variables in the State Values matrix.
7.
Switch to the Dep. Prop page.
8.
Press Add to select dependent variables from the Object Navigator.
9.
Repeat steps 8 until all dependent variables have been identified.
10. Press the Calculate button.
11. Examine the results of the property table utility in graphical form
on the Plots page or in tabular form on the Table tab.
12. On the Plots page, highlight a dependent variable in the Y Variable
group and press the View Plot button.
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8-75
Independent Variables
For this example, complete the Connections page as shown.
Figure 8.56
Stream1 is selected from the Object Navigator as the stream for which
the analysis will be completed.
The independent variables are:
• Pressure, State mode
• Temperature, Incremental mode
The dependent variables will be examined over a temperature range of
100 °F at a constant pressure of 14.7 psi.
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Property Table
Dependent Variables
Figure 8.57
Select the Dep. Prop page. On this view, the dependent variables will be
selected. The selection of the liquid phase mole fraction is shown. The
following dependent properties will be examined in the analysis:
• Molar Enthalpy
• Mole Fraction of Liquid Phase
• Mole Fraction of Aqueous Phase
Start the calculations by pressing the Calculate button.
Plots
Figure 8.58
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Utilities
8-77
The Plots page allows you to display the results of the Property Table
utility calculations in a graphical format. Select the Molar Enthalpy as
the y-variable by highlighting it in the Y Variable group. Press the View
Plot button.
See Section 6.4 - Graph
Control of the User’s Guide for
details on customizing plots.
The Molar Enthalpy versus Temperature plot is shown. To make
changes to the plot appearance, access the Graph Control property
view. Object inspect the plot area and select Graph Control.
Figure 8.59
Table
A table listing the results of the property table calculations can be
viewed on the Table page. The tab, shown in Figure 8.60, lists the
independent variables, the dependent variables and the phases present
at the given conditions.
The phase column indicates the phases which have been detected at
each pair of independent property values. The V indicates vapour, L
indicates a light liquid (hydrocarbon rich) phase, and H indicates the
presence of a heavy liquid (aqueous) phase.
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Property Table
Figure 8.60
Dynamics
The Dynamics tab allows you to control how often the utility gets
calculated when running in Dynamic mode (refer to the Dynamics subheading in Section 8.1 - Boiling Point Curves for more information).
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Utilities
8.14
8-79
Tray Sizing
With the Tray Sizing utility you can perform design and rating sizing
calculations on part or all of a converged column. Packing or tray
information can be specified relating to specific tower internals such as
tray dimensions or packing sizes, design flooding and pressure drop
specifications. Results include tower diameter, pressure drop, flooding,
tray dimensions, etc.
8.14.1
Quick Start
Use of the tray sizing utility requires a converged column. For this
example, an 18 stage depropanizer with a full reflux condenser will be
installed prior to accessing the utility.
Starting the Simulation
Create a new case and add a fluid package. Select Peng Robinson as the
property package and include the components listed in the following
table:
Property Package
Components
Peng Robinson
Methane, Ethane, Propane, i-Butane, nButane, i-Pentane, n-Pentane, Hexane,
Heptane, Octane
Access the Session Preferences view by selecting Preferences on the
Tools menu. Change the unit set to Field units. Create the stream DeC3
Feed, which will be the feed for the column:
MATERIAL STREAM [DeC3 Feed]
Tab [Page]
Worksheet
[Conditions]
Input Area
Entry
Temperature
50.00
Pressure
480.0
Molar Flow
1000
8-79
8-80
Tray Sizing
MATERIAL STREAM [DeC3 Feed]
Tab [Page]
Worksheet
[Composition]
Input Area
Entry
Methane Mole Frac
0.1702
Ethane Mole Frac
0.1473
Propane Mole Frac
0.1132
i-Butane Mole Frac
0.1166
n-Butane Mole Frac
0.1066
i-Pentane Mole Frac
0.0963
n-Pentane Mole Frac
0.0829
n-Hexane Mole Frac
0.0694
n-Heptane Mole Frac
0.0558
n-Octane Mole Frac
0.0417
Add a distillation column DeC3. The two column specifications include
the mole fraction of propane in the bottoms liquid and the mole
fraction of isobutane in the overhead vapour.
The input required to complete the installation of the column is
presented in the following table:
Please note that in order to
directly specify the distillation
column DeC3 in the manner
described by this table (i.e. tab
by tab) the Use Input Experts
checkbox found on the
Options page of the
Simulation tab in the Session
Preferences property view
should be de-activated.
DISTILLATION COLUMN [DeC3]
Tab [Page]
Design
[Connections]
Parameters
[Profiles]
8-80
Input Area
Entry
No. of Stages
18
Feed Streams
(Stage)
DeC3 Feed (9)
Condenser Type
Full Reflux
Ovhd Vapour
Ovhd
Bottoms Liquid
Bttms
Reboiler Duty
RebQ
Condenser Duty
CondQ
Condenser Pres.
200 psi
Cond Delta P
0 psi
Reboiler Pres.
205 psi
Utilities
8-81
Complete the two column specifications as shown:
Figure 8.61
Once both specifications have been input, switch to the Monitor page
of the Design tab and deactivate the specifications for Reflux Ratio and
Overhead Vapour Rate. Check the Activate box for both component
fraction specifications that were created. HYSYS will begin solving and
the column will converge.
8.14.2
Tray Sizing — Design
The Tray Sizing utility is accessed by selecting Utilities under Tools in
the menu bar. Select Tray Sizing from the Available Utilities view and
press the Add Utility button.
The Auto Section feature
creates tower sections of
constant diameter based on
the parameters you specify.
The Auto Section feature in HYSYS provides a good starting point for
the tray section analysis. In the following steps, you will attach the main
tray section of DeC3 to the utility and use the Auto Section functionality
to divide the tower into sections:
1.
On the Setup page, change the name of the utility, if desired.
2.
Press the Select TS button to access the Object Navigator. Choose
Main TS for the DeC3 column and press OK.
3.
Press the Auto Section button.
8-81
8-82
Tray Sizing
4.
Ensure that in the Internal Type group, the Valve radio button is
chosen. Use the default values for Area Tolerance and NFP
Diameter Factor.
Figure 8.62
8-82
5.
Once the Auto Section Information dialog has been completed as
shown in Figure 8.62, press the Next button and the Tray Section
Information window appears.
6.
In order to Auto Section, HYSYS requires the input of design
parameters specific to the tower in addition to the selected tower
internals. Complete the Setup tab as shown in Figure 8.63. Change
Utilities
8-83
the Tray Thickness to 0.134 inches, (10 ga.)and the Max Tray
Flooding to 82%. All other parameters can be left at their default
values.
Figure 8.63
7.
Press the Complete AutoSection button. HYSYS proceeds with the
Auto Section calculations. The Auto Section view is automatically
closed, and you are placed on the Setup tab of the main Tray Sizing
Utility property view. A summary of the three tray sections
calculated is shown on the Setup page. The tray sections created
are listed below with their corresponding tray ranges.
Tray Section
Tray Range
Section_1
1-8
Section_2
9-10
Section_3
11-18
8-83
8-84
Tray Sizing
8.
Switch to the Performance tab for a more detailed description of
the generated Auto Section output. It is apparent that the design
calculated is well within tolerances.
Figure 8.64
9.
On the Trayed page, HYSYS displays tray-by-tray information for
the highlighted section. By selecting the corresponding radio
buttons, information on Pressure Drop, Downcomer, or Flooding
can be displayed for each tray section.
Figure 8.65
8-84
Utilities
8-85
10. The Plot page displays either tables of values or plots for a number
of column variables, such as the plot shown in Figure 8.66.
Figure 8.66
Tray Sizing — Rating Part I
The sections that HYSYS has designed can be manipulated in a rating
analysis.
1.
To show how close to the design limit a smaller diameter would
have been, create a section identical to Section_2 by returning to
the Setup page, highlighting Section_2 and pressing the Copy
Section button. Create two other arbitrary sub-sections by clicking
the Add Section button twice. Specify new tray ranges as shown in
Figure 8.67. Note that the tray type (valve) is not changed.
8-85
8-86
Tray Sizing
Figure 8.67
8-86
2.
On the Specs page highlight the Mode option in Section_4 and
select the Rating drop-down option.
3.
Enter a value of 1 for the Number of Flow Paths and 4 feet into the
Tray Diameter cell. HYSYS will automatically calculate the result.
Utilities
4.
8-87
Select the Performance tab, Results page and highlight the cell
containing Section_4. As seen from Figure 8.68, the weir loading
has not exceeded the design parameter of 120 USGPM/ft.
Figure 8.68
Notice that HYSYS has determined 2.00 and 4.50 foot diameters for
Section_5 and Section_6.
8.14.3
Tray Sizing — Rating Part II
Using HYSYS, it is possible to evaluate packed versus trayed columns by
changing the internal type from trayed to packed.
1.
Using valve tray internals, the calculated diameter for Section_6 is
4.50 feet. In order to compare the performance of the same section
using Packing, go to the Specs page, highlight Secton_6 and select
the Packed option from the Internals drop-down.
2.
Choose Jaeger TriPacks - Plastic 1_inch from the Packing Type drop
down list.
8-87
8-88
Tray Sizing
Figure 8.69
3.
The section re-calculates automatically.
4.
Select the Results page and choose the Packed radio button from
the Selection Results group. The Results tab should match Figure
8.70.
Figure 8.70
8-88
Utilities
8-89
The differences in some of the key parameters when Section_6 is
calculated as a trayed versus a packed section are listed in the table
below:
Parameter
Trayed Section
Packed Section
Diameter (ft)
4.5
3.5
Pressure Drop (psi)
0.3760
0.6246
Maximum Flooding (%)
61.87
47.61
8.15
Tray Sizing Manager
The Tray Sizing utility is accessed by selecting Utilities under Tools in
the menu bar. Choose the Tray Sizing option from the Available
Utilities view and press the Add Utility button when it becomes
activated.
Figure 8.71
After the Tray Sizing utility has been created, the utility’s property view
is opened. This is the main view used for setting up the utility and
accessing the results. This view has two tabs, Design and Performance,
and associated pages, as listed in the following table:
Tab
Design
Performance
Page
Description
Setup
Manages the column sizing sections.
Specs
Calculation mode and common tower sizing parameters.
Tray Internals
Detailed internal specifications.
Results
Overall comparative section results and detailed tray
sizing information.
Trayed
Pressure Drop, Downcomer and Flooding results across
the column.
Table
Tray section physical property profiles in tabular form.
Plot
Tray section physical property profiles in graphical form.
8-89
8-90
Tray Sizing Manager
Note that you can set the default parameters for the Tray Sizing
utility from the Preferences view (select Tools, then
Preferences in the Menu Bar). On the Tray Sizing tab, the
defaults for auto section parameters, trayed section and packed
section setups can be set.
8.15.1
The buttons on the Setup page
remain greyed-out until a tray
section is attached to the
utility.
Each Tray Sizing utility that is added must correspond to a single
column flowsheet tray section. The tray section for which the sizing is
desired has to be specified before starting any calculations. Select the
Select TS button located in the top right corner of the tab; select the
desired tray section from the resulting column navigator.
There are four buttons at the bottom of the matrix on the Setup page
that allow you to manipulate the number of tray sections attached to
your utility.
Figure 8.72
8-90
Setup Page
Utilities
Button
Function
Add Section
Adds a new tray sizing section with the entire span of the
target tray section used as the default size, see Figure
8.72. This may be changed to a shorter span, if desired,
by changing the start and end stages. A preliminary
design calculation is automatically performed using all
HYSYS default sizing parameters.
Copy Section
You can copy any section already created by selecting
the section and then this button.
Auto Section
Automatically calculates the sections in your column.
See Section 8.15.5 - Auto Section for more
information.
Remove Section
Deletes the selected section. Note that HYSYS does not
ask for confirmation before removing the section.
8-91
HYSYS allows you to create multiple stage sections so that you are able
to compare column configurations with different internal types.
Therefore, a given span of tray section stages may be sized more than
once within a single Tray Sizing utility. However, a give stage may not be
included in more than a one active section.
At the bottom of the page there are two fields, the % Liquid Draw and
Use Tray Vapour to Size.
The % Liquid Draw allows you to specify the percentage of side liquid
draws to be used in the tray sizing calculations. When you specify a
liquid percent HYSYS assumes that draw percentage is sitting on the
tray. The default value of 0% means that no additional liquid is
assumed to be on the tray. So if you enter100%, flooding will increase
because you have an additional volume of liquid equal to the draw rate
sitting on the tray. This percentage will be equivalent for all trays with
draws, you can not specify different percentages for different draws on
different trays.
If you have vapour feed(s) attached to your column, HYSYS can size the
particular tray to which it is attached either using the vapour feed to the
tray section, or the vapour flow leaving it. You can specify which
method HYSYS uses with the Use Tray Vapour to Size drop-down.
Selection
Calculation Method
Always Yes
HYSYS will use the vapour flow leaving the tray
section to size the tray to which a vapour feed is
attached for all calculations. The effect of the feed on
the tray sizing is considered.
Always No
HYSYS will use the vapour feed to the section to
size the tray for all calculations. The effect of the
feed is not considered for this method.
8-91
8-92
Tray Sizing Manager
Selection
Calculation Method
Ask Each Time
Prior to calculating the Tray Sizing utility, HYSYS will
ask you to specify whether to use feed to or vapour
flow from the tray as a basis. A message box for
each vapour feed to your column will appear prior to
the calculations.
In addition to the start and end stages, the following information is
available for each section:
• Type of tower internals
• Calculation mode
• Sizing calculation information
Tower Internals
The Tray Sizing Utility provides the option of specifying each section’s
internal type. Tower internals are broken into four groups:
•
•
•
•
Sieve
Valve
Packed
Bubble Cap
Packed Sections
Packed towers are calculated using either Robbins or Sherwood-LevaEckert design correlations for predicting pressure drop and liquid holdup. The tower internals can be selected on the Specs and Tray Internals
pages of the utility property view. You are able to specify the packing
type and other parameters specifically related to the packed tower
calculations on these pages, as well.
Trayed Sections
The trayed column internals are defined as sieve, valve or bubble cap.
Some tray configuration parameters are common to all tray types.
There is also a unique set of parameters for each individual tray type.
The tower internals can be selected on the Tray Internals page of the
utility property view.
8-92
Utilities
8-93
The calculation methods for the different trays are defined below:
• Valve tray calculations are based on the Glitsch, Koch and
Nutter valve tray design manuals.
• Sieve tray calculations are based on the valve tray manuals for
tray layout, and Mass-Transfer Operations by Treybal,
(McGraw-Hill) for pressure drop, weeping and entrainment
calculations.
• Bubble tray calculations are based on the method described in
Design of Equilibrium Stage Processes by Bufford D. Smith,
(Wiley & Sons).
Section Calculation Modes
Note that you can only change
the Calculation Mode on the
Specs page. On the Setup
page, the mode is view-only.
The tray sizing utility has two calculation modes:
• Design
• Rating
Design Mode
In Design mode, HYSYS allows you to perform a design sizing based on
the vapour and liquid traffic in the tower. Available design
specifications for trayed and packed sections include the type of tower
internals, maximum allowable pressure drop, and maximum allowable
flooding. For trayed sections the maximum allowable downcomer
backup, maximum allowable weir loading, and various other tray
parameters may also be specified.
Rating Mode
In Rating mode, HYSYS allows you to perform rating calculations based
on a specified tower diameter and fixed tray configuration. If desired,
some of the tray dimensions may be left unspecified and HYSYS will
automatically calculate design values for them. To perform a rating on a
packed section, only the tower diameter is required.
Sizing Calculation Information
There are additional features that provide information on the
calculation methods for each tray section:
•
•
•
•
Active Check Box
Status
Design Limit
Limiting Stage
8-93
8-94
Tray Sizing Manager
Active Check Box
When the Active check box is selected for a column section on the
Setup tab, values calculated in the tray sizing utility are used in the
actual column calculations. More than one section may be active in a
tray sizing utility. However, the same stage may not be included in more
than one active section.
Before updating the column flowsheet with the information from the
tray sizing utility, you must change the default arrangement of the
pressure profile information in the Column Sub-Flowsheet. On the
Profiles page of the Parameters tab (in the Column Runner view), the
top and bottom stage pressures must be specified instead of the
condenser and reboiler pressures. The condenser and reboiler delta P
specifications do not need to be changed. Run the column and then
return to the utility.
If your column is in a recycle,
there is no automatic update
of the pressure profile, it must
be done manually.
On the Tray Sizing Setup page activate those calculated column
sections that you wish to use in your simulation. Proceed to the
Performance tab, Results page and select the Export Pressures button,
which will export the pressure information to the column runner.
Status
This field indicates the status of the tray sizing calculation. The status
will read either Complete or Incomplete on a section by section basis.
Design Limit
This field indicates the design specification that was the last to be
satisfied. The five design specifications are:
•
•
•
•
•
Minimum diameter
Pressure drop
Flooding
Weir loading (trayed sections only)
Downcomer backup (trayed sections only)
This is the critical design specification that is closest to being exceeded
if the tower is sized any smaller. For trayed sections, HYSYS uses
individual design limits for the required active area and the required
downcomer area design calculations.
8-94
Utilities
8-95
Limiting Stage
This is the stage in the sizing section on which the design hinges. It is
the stage that is closest to exceeding the design specifications.
For trayed towers, there are two limiting trays; one for the tray that was
closest to exceeding the design specification while satisfying the
section’s active area needs, and another one for satisfying the
downcomer area.
8.15.2
Design Specifications
The Specs page of the utility view allows you to specify the column
internals for each section. The following tables outline the available
design and tray configuration parameters for the sizing utility.
Design Parameters
Parameter
Trayed Section
Packed Section
Design Correlation
4
Foaming Factor
4
4
Flooding
4
4
Pressure Drop
4
4
Downcomer Backup
4
Weir Loading
4
Tray Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Valve
Sieve
Bubble
Number of Flow Paths
4
4
4
Tray Spacing
4
4
4
Tray Thickness
4
4
4
Weir Height
4
4
4
Downcomer Type
4
4
4
Downcomer Clearance
4
4
4
Design Manual
4
Hole Area
4
4
Hole Diameter
4
Hole Spacing
4
Hole Pitch
4
Valve Density
4
Valve Thickness
4
Orifice Type
4
Bubble Cap Slot Height
4
8-95
8-96
Tray Sizing Manager
8.15.3
Specs Page
Figure 8.73
The Section Name, Start and End Trays, Internals and Mode displayed
on this page are common with the Setup page. However, it is only on
the Specs page that you are able to change the calculation mode for the
section.
Number of Flow Paths
This value represents the number of independent flow paths per tray.
Usually a smaller tower diameter can be obtained by using multi-pass
trays. However, with more flow paths, there is a reduction in the
number of valves or sieve holes that can be placed on the tray This
may result in an increase in the pressure drop, an increase in
downcomer backup, and a loss in tray efficiency. The following are
general guidelines relating the number of flow paths and the tower
diameter:
8-96
Number of Passes
Min. Diameter (ft)
Pref. Diameter (ft)
2
5
6
3
8
9
4
10
12
5
13
15
Utilities
8-97
If the number of flow paths is not specified, HYSYS will start at one pass
and increase the number of passes until the minimum diameter for
that number of flow paths is reached. If a smaller number of flow paths
is required, a new value may be entered that overrides the calculated
NFP. This is accomplished on the Specs tab. A new solution will be
calculated as soon as the new NFP is entered.
Figure 8.74 summarizes the basic physical layouts of the flow paths
available.
Figure 8.74
Tray for Properties
This field is available only in Rating mode. You can specify which tray
is used to calculate properties for the column.
8-97
8-98
Tray Sizing Manager
Tray Spacing
The tray spacing is the vertical distance between trays. Some general
guidelines for tray spacing follow:
Expected Tower Diameter (ft)
Suggested tray Spacing (in)
---
12 (minimum)
Up to 4
18 - 20
4 - 10
24
10 - 12
30
12 -24
36
The default value is 24 inches.
Valve and Tray Material Thickness
Since material thickness is often described in terms of gauge, the
following table is provided for quick conversions between gauge and
inches:
Gauge
Thickness (in)
20
0.037
18
0.050
16
0.060
14
0.074
12
0.104
10
0.134
The default tray thickness is 0.125 inches.
Foaming Factor
This is a measure of the foaming tendency of the system. In general, a
lower foaming factor results in a lower overall tray efficiency and
requirements for a larger tower diameter.
General Foaming Classification
8-98
Foaming Factor
Non Foaming Systems
1.00
Low Foaming Tendencies
0.90
Moderate Foaming Tendencies
0.75
High Foaming Tendencies
0.6
Utilities
8-99
Foaming factors typically seen in some common systems include the
following:
Absorbers
Foaming Factor
Ambient Oil (T > 0°F)
0.85
Low Temp Oil (T < 0°F)
0.95
DGA/DEA/MEA Contactor
0.75
Glycol Contactor
0.65
Sulfinol Contactor
1.0
Crude/Vacuum Tower
Foaming Factor
Crude or Vacuum Fractionation
1.00
Fractionators
Foaming Factor
Hydrocarbon
1.00
Low MW Alcohols
1.00
Rich Oil DeC1 or DeC2 (top)
0.85
Rich Oil DeC1 or DeC2 (Btm)
1.0
Refrigerated DeC1 or DeC2 (top)
0.80
Refrigerated DeC1 or DeC2 (btm)
1.00
General Hydrocarbon Distillation
1.00
MEA/DEA Still
0.85
Glycol/DGA Still
0.80
Sulfinol Still
1.00
H2S Stripper
0.90
Sour Water Stripper
0.50 - 0.70
O2 Stripper
1.00
Maximum Pressure Drop
The maximum allowable pressure drop per tray may be entered as a
height of liquid. If it is not specified, a default maximum of 4 inches of
liquid is used. For packed sections, the specification is supplied on a
pressure drop per height of packing basis. The default specification is
0.5 inches of water per foot of packing.
Maximum Flooding
The column is sized such that for the given vapour and liquid traffic,
the tower flooding will not exceed this specification on any stage. The
maximum recommended value is 85% for normal service and 77% for
8-99
8-100
Tray Sizing Manager
vacuum or low pressure drop applications. These values will yield
approximately 10% entrainment. For diameters under 36 inches a
reduced flooding specification of 65 - 75% should be used. A lower
value may be specified to allow for contingencies, such as increased
capacity. If not specified, a maximum flood factor of 82% is used for flat
orifice trays and 77% for venturi orifice trays.
Packed Section Input
Packed tower information can be specified on in the three following
parameters. Default values are provided for all packing parameters with
the exception of the packing type and the packed section diameter.
Packing Correlation
The Robbins correlation, which is the default selection, is noted to be
better at predicting pressure drop and liquid holdup, particularly with
newer packing materials. It is valid only at liquid loadings < 20000 lb/hr.
ft2. The SLE (Sherwood-Leva-Eckert) correlation should be selected for
towers operating above this range.
HETP
The height factor HETP relates packed towers and tray towers. The
value refers to the height of packing that is equivalent to a theoretical
plate. For design purposes, the most accurate HETP factors are those
published by packing manufacturers.
Packing Material
The packing type can be accessed on the Internals tab of the utility. A
list of the available packing types is shown in the following table.
8-100
Packing Type
Material
Packing Type
Material
Ballast Rings
M,P
Jaeger_VSP_SS
M
Ballast Plus Rings
M
Koch-Sulzer(BX) Structured
S
Ballast Saddles
P
Lessing Experimental
M
Berl Saddles
C
Levapacking
P
Cascade MiniRing
M,P,C
Maspak
P
Chempak
M
Montz A-2 Structured
S
Flexipac Mellapac
S
Neo-Kloss Structured
S
Flexirings
M
Norton Intalox Metal Tower Packing
M
Utilities
Packing Type
Material
Packing Type
8-101
Material
Gempak
S
Nutter Rings
M
Glitsch Grid
S
Pall Rings
M,P
Goodloe
S
Protruded
M
Wire Coil Packing
M
Raschig Rings 1/32 in wall
CSteel
Hy-Pak Rings
M
Raschig Rings 1/16 in wall
CSteel
Hyperfil
S
Raschig Rings
C, Carbon
Intalox Saddles
C
Super Intalox Saddles
P
Jaeger MaxPack SS
M
Tellerettes
P
Jaeger Tripacks
P
Cross-Partition Rings
C
The materials used for the different packings (unless otherwise noted) are: Metal(M), Plastic(P), Ceramic(C),
and Metal Structured(S).
Sieve Tray Flooding Method
The method used to mode sieve tray flooding may be specified using
the drop-down box at the bottom of the view. The options are:
• Minimum Csb
• Original Csb
• Fair’s Modified Csb
8.15.4
Tray Internals Page
Figure 8.75
8-101
8-102
Tray Sizing Manager
If the sizing section is specified as having trayed internals (Sieve, Valve
or Bubble Cap), then the internals may be further specified on this
page. There are certain column parameters that are common to all
trayed columns. You may specify these parameters, or leave them at
their default values.
Sieve Tray Parameters
The input available for the configuration of the sieve tray is similar to
the valve tray with the exception of the tray input data.
Hole Pitch
Hole pitch refers to the distance between the centers of two adjacent
holes. HYSYS requires the hole pitch to be within 1.5 to 5 times the hole
diameter. The default hole pitch is 0.5 inches.
Hole Diameter
The default value for the hole diameter is are 0.187 inches.
Valve Tray Parameters
The valve tray is the default tray type for trayed columns in design
mode. Defined here are the design parameters specific to valve trays:
Valve Material Density
A table of typical materials used for valves and their associated
densities follows:
Valve Material
8-102
Density (lb/ft3)
Carbon Steel
480
Stainless Steel
510
Nickel
553
Monel
550
Titanium
283
Hastelloy
560
Utilities
8-103
Hole Area (% of Active Area)
Note: The Hole Area can also
be specified for Bubble Cap
trays.
The hole area is the percentage of the active area that is occupied by the
valve holes. The default is 15.3%, which corresponds to 12 valves, each
having a diameter of 1 17/32 inches, per square foot.
For bubble cap trays, the default hole area is also 15.3%, which
corresponds to 12 bubble caps, each having a diameter of 1 17/32
inches, per square foot.
Valve Orifice Type
This is the shape of the hole that is punched in the plate for the valve. As
shown in Figure 8.76, there are two types of orifices: Venturi and
Straight. The straight orifice is used for normal service, while the
Venturi orifice is used for low pressure drop applications.
Figure 8.76
Design Manual for Flooding Calculations
Results are presented for flooding calculations from three industry
standard design manuals (Glitsch, Koch or Nutter). Any one of the three
methods may be selected as the basis for comparison with the
maximum allowable % of flood design specification.
The default design manual is Glitsch.
Bubble Cap Trays
Bubble Cap Slot Height
The default slot height is 1.0 inch. This value represents the height of
the slots around the base of the bubble caps, through which the gas and
liquid are allowed to flow.
8-103
8-104
Tray Sizing Manager
Common Tray Parameters
Side Weir Type
This parameter is used to specify the side weir type only. There are two
types of weirs available: straight and relief. A relief weir lengthens the
side weir without increasing the downcomer area. The relief weir
sweeps back, then across the tray, enclosing some active area, as shown
in Figure 8.77. A straight weir follows the edge of the downcomer.
Figure 8.77
A relief weir is used for high liquid loads or where a low pressure drop is
required, while straight weirs are used for normal service. HYSYS uses a
straight weir as the default. However, if the weir loading is above the
maximum, a relief weir will be included to alleviate the problem. If a
relief weir is installed by HYSYS and a straight weir is desired, a straight
weir may be re-specified and the tray rerun in rating mode.
Weir Height
The weir height is the distance from the tray to the top of the weir. A
weir height of 2 inches is used in most applications. However, a smaller
height can be used for low pressure drop or vacuum services. A larger
weir height is used to obtain longer residence times (e.g., for chemical
reaction services).
The default value for weir height is 2 inches. In general, you can use the
following:
8-104
Tray Spacing
Weir Height (in)
12
1.5
12 - 24
2
>24
2.5
Utilities
8-105
Maximum Allowable Weir Loading
The weir loading is a measure of the liquid loading on the weirs. Values
of 60 - 120 USGPM/ft are typical. Weir loading may be reduced by
increasing the number of flow paths or installing a relief weir. A weir
loading as high as 240 USGPM/ft can sometimes be tolerated. If the
weir loading is not specified, a default value of 96 USGPM/ft is used.
Downcomer Type
There are two types of downcomers available: vertical and sloped. A
sloped downcomer has a narrower width at the bottom. This allows
more active area and more valves per tray, and also results in a lower
pressure drop. Due to cost considerations a vertical downcomer is used
for normal service and is the default in HYSYS.
Downcomer Clearance
The downcomer clearance is the distance between the bottom of the
downcomer and the tray. The area available for liquid flow under the
downcomer is dependent upon this height.
A minimum seal of 0.5 inches is normally recommended. For high
liquid velocities and the resulting high pressure drop, this may be
reduced. If the downcomer clearance is not specified, a height of 0.5
inches less than the weir height is used. Since the weir height default is
2 inches, this translates to a downcomer clearance default of 1.5 inches.
Maximum Allowable Downcomer Backup
The allowable downcomer backup is measured as the percentage of the
tray spacing that the liquid level in the downcomer is allowed to reach.
This value represents the average for all the downcomers on the tray. If
not specified, a value of 40% is used for services with a vapour density
greater than 3 lb/ft3, 50% for normal densities, and 60% for densities
less than 1 lb/ft3.
The remaining fields on this page are available only when in Rating
mode. See the Section - Column Rating for more information.
8-105
8-106
Tray Sizing Manager
8.15.5
The Auto Section routine is not
available until a tray section
has been selected on the Setup
tab of the tray sizing utility.
Auto Section
The Auto Section function is an optional method in design mode.
When using Auto Section, HYSYS automatically calculates the sections
for a column. They are then transferred onto the main utility Setup tab
where you can edit, copy, or delete sections. Auto Section will provide
you with an excellent starting point in the design of a tower by
performing a summary sizing of the tray section and splitting it into
sections of constant diameter, as appropriate.
The sections that HYSYS determines during its analysis are
automatically available for you to edit, rename, or delete.
HYSYS allows you to specify the internal type, as well as values for the
criteria that are used to start a new section. The two criteria that the
user may specify to establish tower sections are:
• Area Tolerance
• NFP Diameter Factor
Figure 8.78
Area Tolerance
The Area Tolerance defines the magnitude of change in the calculated
area that will cause the start of a new section. HYSYS first performs a
design for stage i, using the current parameters for the chosen internals,
and the NFP for the current section (valve, sieve, and bubble trays only)
to determine the required area. This area is compared to the minimum
and maximum areas for the current section, which HYSYS retains.
8-106
Utilities
8-107
If the magnitude of difference for either comparison exceeds the Area
Tolerance, a new section is started beginning at stage i. The previous
section will be assigned the maximum diameter for that section. If the
calculated area for stage i is outside the range defined by the minimum
and maximum for the section but does not exceed the tolerance, the
calculated area for stage i will replace the appropriate stored value.
NFP Factor
When the comparison of areas is complete, HYSYS will recalculate the
required area of each stage using a different Number of Flow Paths. This
area is compared with the previously calculated area for each stage. If
the magnitude of the change is greater than the NFP Diam Factor, a
new section is started.
The entire column is stepped off in the above manner according to the
Area and NFP guidelines and sections of constant diameter, number of
flow paths, active area, and downcomer area are defined for the tower.
When this initial sizing is complete, HYSYS re-rates each tray based on
a diameter calculated from the maximum downcomer and active area
required for trays in that section. This value is available on the Results
tab of the utility property view. The limiting factor(s) for each section
are displayed on the Setup tab.
Using Auto Section, you are required to specify the tray internal type,
either Sieve, Valve, Bubble Cap or Packed. In addition, you have the
option of specifying the parameters for the chosen configuration. If no
parameters are specified, HYSYS uses values from its default set.
Column Rating
Column sections may be rated using the Rating Calculation Mode on
the Specs page. Select Rating from the drop-down list in the title bar, as
shown in Figure 8.79.
Figure 8.79
8-107
8-108
Tray Sizing Manager
If you modify the Main Flowsheet or Column Sub-Flowsheet, the tray
sizing utility redesigns and rerates all of the sections based on the
current configuration using the new stage by stage traffic, physical and
transport property information from the column Sub-Flowsheet.
Trayed Section Rating
For trayed sections, the minimum required information for HYSYS to
calculate the section performance includes the number of flow paths
and the column diameter.
If desired, you can supply the following downcomer widths on the Tray
Internals page:
•
•
•
•
Side top and optional bottom
Centre top and optional bottom
Off-side top and optional bottom
Off-centre top and optional bottom
The optional bottom width allows for the specification of sloped
downcomers. Downcomer widths that are not supplied will be
calculated at optimal design values for the given number of flow paths.
The remaining tray configuration parameters can be specified as
discussed in Section 8.15.2 - Design Specifications. Once rating
parameters have been set, the Calculate button on the Specs tab must
be pressed before HYSYS will complete the rating calculations.
Packed Section Rating
For packed sections, the required information for HYSYS to calculate
the section performance includes both the Section Diameter and the
Tray for Properties on the Tray Internals page.
The remaining tray configuration parameters can be specified as
discussed in Section 8.15.2 - Design Specifications. Once rating
parameters have been set, HYSYS will complete the rating calculations.
If HYSYS is unable to complete the calculations, this will be indicated
on the property view status bar. To view the warnings generated, go to
the Results page of the Performance tab and select the View Warnings
tab.
8-108
Utilities
8.16
Refer to Chapter 6 - User
Properties of the Simulation
Basis manual for detailed
information concerning User
Properties.
8-109
User Properties
The User Property utility allows you to define new properties based on
the composition of a stream. You select the Mixing Rule formula as well
as the Mixing Basis. Each component in the stream has its own
property value specified and the total property value is calculated for
the current composition of the stream. Possible uses of the User
Property include as a specification in a distillation column or as a target
variable in an ADJUST operation.
8.16.1
Quick Start
To illustrate one application of the User Property utility, part of a simple
refrigeration gas plant is simulated. The Higher Heating Value will be
installed as a user property.
Install a Fluid Package using the Peng Robinson property method and
the required components of the FEED stream. Define the stream FEED,
which will be used as the main feed for the case.
MATERIAL STREAM [FEED]
Tab [Page]
Worksheet
[Conditions]
Worksheet
[Composition]
Input Area
Entry
Temperature
60.0000 °F
Pressure
600.0000 psi
Molar Flow
144.0000 lbmole/hr
C1 Mole Frac
0.48611
C2 Mole Frac
0.13889
C3 Mole Frac
0.06944
i-C4 Mole Frac
0.05556
n-C4 Mole Frac
0.06250
i-C5 Mole Frac
0.04167
n-C5 Mole Frac
0.04861
n-C6 Mole Frac
0.04861
n-C7 Mole Frac
0.02778
n-C8 Mole Frac
0.02083
8-109
8-110
User Properties
Install the following unit operations and logicals.
SEPARATOR [SEP]
Tab [Page]
Design
[Connections]
Design [Parameters]
Input Area
Entry
Inlet
FEED
Vapour Outlet
SEPVAP
Liquid Outlet
SEPLIQ
Pressure Drop
0 psi
SEPARATOR [LTS SEP]
Tab [Page]
Design
[Connections]
Design [Parameters]
Input Area
Entry
Inlet
COLDGAS
Vapour Outlet
LTSVAP
Liquid Outlet
LTSLIQ
Pressure Drop
0 psi
HEAT EXCHANGER [GAS-GAS]
Tab [Page]
Design
[Connections]
Design [Parameters]
Input Area
Entry
Tube Side Inlet
SEPVAP
Tube Side Outlet
COOLGAS
Shell Side Inlet
LTSVAP
Shell Side Outlet
SALESGAS
Tubeside Delta P
10 psi
Shellside Delta P
10 psi
HEAT EXCHANGER [CHILLER]
Tab [Page]
Design
[Connections]
Design [Parameters]
Work Sheet
[Conditions]
8-110
Input Area
Entry
Tube Side Inlet
COOLGAS
Tube Side Outlet
COLDGAS
Shell Side Inlet
C3-3
Shell Side Outlet
C3-4
Tubeside Delta P
10 psi
Shellside Delta P
0.1 psi
COLDGAS
Temperature
0 °F
Utilities
8-111
BALANCE [DP]
Tab [Page]
Connections
Input Area
Entry
Inlet Streams
SALESGAS
Outlet Streams
DEWPT
Auto Calculation
Check this box
Parameters
Balance Type
Mole
DEWPT Vapour
Fraction
1
Work Sheet
DEWPT Pressure
815 psi
ADJUST [LTSTEMP]
Tab [Page]
Connections
Parameters
Input Area
Entry
Adjusted Variable
COLDGAS
Temperature
Target Variable
DEWPT Temperature
Spec. Target Value
14.0 °F
Method
Secant
Tolerance
0.001 °F
Step Size
2 °F
Minimum
-4 °F
Maximum
20 °F
Maximum Iterations
10
SET [DEL T]
Tab [Page]
Input Area
Entry
Target Y
SALESGAS
Temperature
Source X
SEPVAP
Mulitplyer
1
Offset
10
Connections
Parameters
Access the User Property utility by selecting Utilities under Tools in the
Menu Bar. Choose User Property from the list and press the Add Utility
button.
Generalized Procedure
Refer to the Chapter 6 - User
Properties of the Simulation
Basis guide for explanations
of the various terms.
1.
On the Connections tab, change the name of the utility, if desired.
2.
Press the Select Stream button and choose a stream from the
Object Navigator.
3.
Press the Add Property button.
8-111
8-112
User Properties
Press the View Formulae
button to view the selected
Mixing Rule formula.
4.
You can now change the property parameters:
• Name
• Mixing Basis (Fraction or Flow): Mole, Mass, Liquid Volume
• Mixing Rule: Algebraic, Log, Index.
5.
Repeat steps #3 and #4 until all properties have been defined for
the stream.
6.
Switch to the Prp. Values tab.
7.
Highlight the User Property from the Selected Property group box.
8.
Input the property values for each component in the Property
Values group box.
9.
Modify the two formula parameters to more accurately reflect your
property formula.
10. Repeat steps #7 through #9 for each User Property.
11. Switch back to the Connections tab to view the current value of the
User Property in the Property Results cell.
Design Tab
Figure 8.80
A Higher Heating Value for the product stream SALESGAS should be
installed as the User Property. Press the Select Stream button and
choose the stream from the Object Navigator.
Press the Add Property button. Complete the Connections page as
shown. The Mole Fraction basis is used in the Algebraic Mixing Rule
8-112
Utilities
8-113
equation. You can view the equation structure by pressing the View
Formulae button. The algebraic equation has the following format:
N
( P mix )
F1
= F2 ×
∑ ( x ( i )P ( i )
i=1
F1
)
(8.15)
Pmix - total user property value
P(i) - property value for component
x(i) - component fraction
F1, F2 - specifiable equation parameters
The Property Results cell will show a value of 0.0000 until the user
property has been defined.
Property Values Tab
On the Performance tab (Prp. Values page), enter the component
property values. Leave the mixing rule equation parameters at their
default values. The total property value can be viewed on the
Connections tab. The SALESGAS stream has a Higher Heating Value of
9.862E+05.
Figure 8.81
8-113
8-114
Vessel Sizing
8.17
For a comprehensive costing
and sizing software package
for your entire case, Economix
is available. See your nearest
office or agent for details.
Vessel Sizing
The Vessel Sizing utility allows you to size and cost installed separator,
tank and reactor unit operations. You can select a vertical or horizontal
orientation for the separator. To obtain a more effective analysis for
your vessel, changes can be made to the default parameters provided
by HYSYS.
8.17.1
Quick Start
Prior to performing the cost analysis of the separator, the vessel and its
attached streams must be installed. First, install a Fluid Package using
the Peng Robinson property method and the required components for
the Feed stream.
Create the stream Feed with the following specifications:
MATERIAL STREAM [Feed]
Tab [Page]
Worksheet
[Conditions]
Worksheet
[Composition]
Input Area
Entry
Temperature
60.0000 °F
Pressure
600.0000 psi
Molar Flow
5000.0000 lbmole/hr
Methane Mole Frac
0.4861
Ethane Mole Frac
0.1389
Propane Mole Frac
0.0694
i-Butane Mole Frac
0.0625
n-Butane Mole Frac
0.0556
i-Pentane Mole Frac
0.0486
n-Pentane Mole Frac
0.0417
n-Hexane Mole Frac
0.0486
n-Heptane Mole Frac
0.0278
n-Octane Mole Frac
0.0208
Input Area
Entry
SEPARATOR [Sep]
Tab [Page]
Design
[Connections]
Design [Parameters]
8-114
Inlet
Feed
Vapour Outlet
SepVap
Liquid Outlet
SepLiq
Pressure drop
0 psi
Duty
0 kJ/hr
Utilities
8-115
To begin the vessel sizing analysis, choose the Utilities option under
Tools in the Menu Bar. Highlight Vessel Sizing and press the Add Utility
button.
Generalized Procedure
Pressing the Set Defaults
button will return ALL of the
original data provided by
HYSYS.
1.
On the Connections page, change the name of the utility, if
desired.
2.
Press the Select Separator button and choose the vessel for the
analysis from the Object Navigator.
3.
Select a radio button for the Orientation of the vessel: Horizontal
or Vertical.
4.
On the Sizing page, select the following specifications from the
Available Sizing Specifications group. Specifications can be added
or removed from the Active Sizing Specifications using the Add
Specs or Remove Specs button, respectively. The following
specifications are particular to the orientation of the separator:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
5.
View the various equations by
pressing the Equation Help
button.
On the Construction page, specify any of the following
information:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
HYSYS recalculates after each
change is made on the
Parameters tab or on the
Construction tab.
6.
Max. Vapour Velocity
Diameter
L/D Ratio
Vapour Space Height
Demister Thickness
Liquid Residence Time
Liquid Surge Height
Total Length - Height
Nozzle to Demister
Demister to Top
LLSD (Low Level Shut Down)
Total Separator Height
Chemical Engineering Index
Material Type: Carbon Steel, SS 304, SS 316, Aluminium
Mass Density
FMC (material of fabrication factor)
Allowable Stress
Shell Thickness
Corrosion Allowance
Modify the factors used in the sizing and cost equations on the
Cost Parameters tab. These factors deal with the Base Cost, Shell
Thickness, Accessories Cost and Shell Mass.
8-115
8-116
Vessel Sizing
7.
View the results of the cost analysis on the Costing tab. The Base
Cost, Associated Cost and Total Cost are listed in $US.
8.
A summary of the Vessel Results is provided on the Results tab.
Cost Analysis - Horizontal vs. Vertical
Horizontal
On the Connections page, press the Select Separator button. From the
Object Navigator, select SEP as the vessel for the analysis.
Figure 8.82
Complete the Sizing page and Construction page, as shown in Figure
8.83 and Figure 8.84, for the Horizontal separator. Select the Max. Vap.
Velocity specification from the Available Sizing Specifications group
and press the Add Spec button. Set the value as 6.56 ft/s. Change the
default L/D Ratio value to 5.Move the Diameter specification to the
Active Sizing Specification group and specify a 5 ft diameter for the
vessel.
If the diameter is not specified, HYSYS will change the value
when the vessel orientation is switched.
8-116
Utilities
8-117
Figure 8.83
The separator is constructed from carbon steel. Change the Shell
Thickness. The Shell Mass will be calculated as 29141.65 lbs.
Figure 8.84
All of the Cost Parameters will be left at their default values.
On the Costing page, the Base Cost for the separator is shown. The
Associated Cost incorporates the amount required for the purchase of
additional equipment, such as ladders and platforms. All dollar values
are in $US. HYSYS determines the total cost of a horizontal orientation
of SEP to be $35690.00.
8-117
8-118
Adjust Operation with Utility Target
Figure 8.85
Vertical
To examine what the resulting design would be for a vertical
orientation, select the Vertical radio button on the Parameters page.
For this preliminary comparison between the horizontal and vertical
orientations simply change the orientation to Vertical. HYSYS will then
produce a sizing and costing analysis.
As can be seen on the Costing page, the vertical separator is more
expensive than the horizontal separator. Although the calculated shell
weights are virtually the same, the cost of producing a vertical separator
is significantly higher.
Figure 8.86
8.18
Adjust Operation with
Utility Target Object
A powerful feature of the Utilities is the ability to incorporate them in
the ADJUST Operation. For example, you may wish to determine the
amount of Inhibitor that should be mixed with a Feed Stream (see
Section 8.9 - Hydrate Formation) such that the hydrate formation
temperature is reduced to -40°C. The streams are defined as follows,
using the Peng Robinson property method:
8-118
Utilities
8-119
MATERIAL STREAMS [FEED, INHIBITOR]
Tab [Page]
Worksheet
[Conditions]
Worksheet
[Composition]
Input Area
FEED Entry
INHIBITOR Entry
Temperature
-5.0000 °C
-5.0000 °C
Pressure
7000.0000 kPa
7000.0000 kPa
Molar Flow
50.0000 kgmole/hr
0.0000 kgmole/hr
Nitrogen Mole Frac
0.0590
0.0000
Methane Mole Frac
0.7091
0.0000
Ethane Mole Frac
0.0468
0.0000
Propane Mole Frac
0.0192
0.0000
n-Butane Mole Frac
0.0078
0.0000
n-Pentane Mole Frac
0.0078
0.0000
CO2 Mole Frac
0.1404
0.0000
H2O Mole Frac
0.0099
0.2000
Methanol Mole Frac
0.0000
0.8000
Note that the flow rate of stream INHIBITOR is initially set to 0 kgmole/
hr.
First, you will need to set up a MIXER operation to combine streams
FEED and INHIBITOR, and attach the Hydrate Utility to stream MIX.
MIXER [MIX-100]
Tab [Page]
Input Area
Entry
Inlets
FEED
Outlet
MIX
INHIBITOR
Connections
Finally, set up the ADJUST Operation such that the molar flowrate of
stream INHIBITOR will be adjusted until the hydrate formation
temperature of stream MIX is reduced to -40°C.
8-119
8-120
References
Figure 8.87
The Molar Flow of
INHIBITOR is
adjusted...
...until the Hydrate
formation
temperature of
stream MIX;...
...meets the
Target Value of
40°C.
-
When the ADJUST has solved, you can view the results in the
Workbook. To meet a Hydrate formation temperature of -40°C, the
molar flow of INHIBITOR has been increased to 1.219 kgmole/hr.
For more information on the
Adjust operation, see Section
10.1 - Adjust of the Steady
State Modelling manual.
Figure 8.88
8.19
8-120
References
1
van der Waals, J.H., Platteuw, J.C., Advan Chem Phys, 2, 1 (1959).
2
Parrish, W.R., Prausnitz, J.M., I.E.C. Proc Des Dev, 11, 26 (1972).
3
Sload, E.D., Khoury, F., Kobayashi, R., I.E.C. Fundam, 15, 318 (1976).
4
Ng, H.J., Robinson, D.B., Ind Eng Chem Fundam, 19, 33 (1980).
5
Marsland, R.H., “A User Guide on Process Integration for the Efficient
Use of Energy”, Insitution of Chemical Engineers, England, 1982.
Index
A
Active View 1-15
Adding Components
See Basis Environment.
Adjust Operation
utility target object 8-118
Annotations 3-52
changing font and colours 3-54
editing in PFD 3-52, 3-53
moving and sizing labels 3-53
Area Tolerance
See Column Sizing Utility.
Auto Section.
See Column Sizing Utility.
Axes
formatting 6-20
B
Basis Environment
entering 7-15
selecting components 1-32
Basis Manager 1-31
adding fluid packages 1-31
menu bar commands 7-59
Boiling Point Curve Utility 8-4
cold properties 8-8
critical properties 8-7
example 8-6
plots 8-8
Boiling Ranges 7-16
Boundary Label
See Flowsheet.
Button Bar 1-12
C
Calculation/Responsiveness Button 1-11
Case
Snap Shot 5-33
states 5-33
Case Studies
3-dimensional graph control 5-44
adding 5-38
display properties 5-41
multi-dimensional graphing 5-43
removing 5-39
setup 5-39
Closing a Case 7-8
Closing Views 1-29
Cold Properties Utility 8-12
Colour Schemes 3-30
setting preferences 7-50
Column
accessing PFDs 3-23
disabling input experts 7-34
menu 7-59
packed section rating 8-108
PFD 3-13
sizing utility 8-79
subflowsheet environment 2-6
tray section display in PFD 3-39
trayed section rating 8-108
Column Sizing Utility 8-79
area tolerance 8-106
auto section 8-106
calculation information 8-93
calculation modes 8-93
design 8-81
design specifications 8-95
generic tower parameters 8-96
material thickness 8-104
NFP factor 8-107
packed section input 8-100
packed sections 8-92
quick start 8-69, 8-79
tray spacing 8-98
Trayed Sections 8-92
trayed sections 8-92
I-1
I-2
Component Maps 2-19
Confirm Mode Switches 7-34
Copy Command 7-9
Copy Stream Conditions
See Streams.
Critical Properties
See Utilities.
Critical Properties Utility
analysis 8-15
quick start 8-14
true and pseudo 8-15
Cursors
changing default 7-54
Cut Command 7-9
D
Data Historian.
See Strip Charts.
Data Recorder
deleting a scenario 5-36
deleting states 5-36
setup 5-36
DataBook 5-15
adding scenarios 5-33
case studies tab 5-37
data recorder tab 5-33
process data tables tab 5-17
strip charts tab 5-20
variables tab 5-16
DCS 7-29
Decanter Example.
See Flowsheet.
Deleting
confirm mode 7-34
PFDs 3-16
Dependent Variables
See Property Table Utility.
Depressuring Utility 8-17
compressor loop system 8-37
connections 8-25
heat flux 8-28
plots 8-36
quick start 1 8-18
quick start 2 8-22
types 8-17
valve equations 8-32
vessels 8-35
Depressuring Utiliy
adiabatic mode 8-30
I-2
fire mode 8-29
mode 8-27
relief pressure 8-27
DeskTop 1-11
button bar 1-12
main features 1-11
Desktop Preferences 7-35
Desktop Setup
See Preferences.
Drop Down Lists 1-26
During 7-16
DXF Files 6-16
Dynamic Preferences 7-38
E
Edit Menu
cut/ copy/ paste commands 7-9
Enter Basis Environment 7-15
Envelope Utility 8-40
connections 8-41
PF-PH-PS 8-43
plots 8-42
pressure-temperature 8-42
TV-TH-TS 8-44
Environments 2-4
advantages 2-9
column subflowsheet 2-6
entering build 5-10
main flowsheet 2-6
oil characterization 2-5
relations 2-7
simulation 2-5
simulation basis 2-4
subflowsheet 2-6
Event Scheduler 7-14
Export Flowsheet Button 7-11, 7-13
Extensions 7-56
F
Face Plates
menu bar commands 7-28
opening 3-25
preferences 7-35
File Menu 1-30, 7-4
closing a case 7-8
save 7-7
starting a simulation 7-4
Files
Hyprotech file picker 7-48
Index
saving locations 7-49
Files Preferences 7-48
Fire Mode
See Depressuring Utility.
Flowsheet
adding utilities 5-50
automatic naming of objects 7-36
blank flowsheets 2-22
boundary label 2-34
column 2-3
decanter example 2-23
feed and product connections 2-16
information transfer 2-14
multi-level architecture 2-12
navigation 5-8
object browser 5-7
parameters 2-17
special elements 1-10
tags 2-15
transfer basis 2-34
user variables 7-18
Flowsheet Analysis
using the PFD 3-19
Flowsheet Menu
boiling ranges property view 7-16
fluid packages 7-21
reaction package 7-18
user properties 7-21
Flowsheet Object Browser 5-7
Fluid Packages 7-21
in subflowsheets 2-11
Fly-by Information Boxes 3-21
Flybys 7-37
Fonts
changing default 7-52
Format Editor 6-23
Format Preferences 7-44
G
Graph Control 6-18
axes tab 6-20
data page tab 6-19
legend tab 6-22
plot area tab 6-23
title tab 6-21
I-3
preferences 7-35
Hot Keys 1-20
Hydrate Formation Utility 8-45
formation pressure 8-49
formation temperature 8-49
hydrate inhibition 8-50
hydrate inhibition example 8-51
stream conditions 8-47
stream settings 8-45
HYSIM
case limitations 7-6
HYSIM Case
opening in HYSYS 7-5
reading 7-5
I
Icons
changing default preferences 7-53
changing icons on PFD 3-43
wire frame/3D 3-44
Information Transfer 2-14
Input
Editing 1-28
numerical 1-25
supplying 1-24
Text 1-24
Input Experts Option 7-34
Installing
templates 2-37
Installing Operations
with property view access 1-45
without property view access 1-46
Installing Streams
with property view access 1-35
without property view access 1-36
Integrator 7-14
Interface
elements 1-4
flowsheet elements 1-10
objects 1-6
Interface Basics 1-4
Interface Terminology 1-13
L
Legend 6-22
H
M
Help Options 7-62
Home View
Macro Language Editor 7-32
Mapping 2-19
I-3
I-4
Menu Bar
access 7-3
basis 7-59
closing a case 7-8
column 7-59
edit 7-9
file 7-4
flowsheet 7-17
help 7-62
PFD 3-14, 7-26
printing 6-4
saving 7-7
simulation 7-10
simulation navigator 7-18
starting a simulation 7-4
tools 7-27
window 7-60
workbook 7-25
Modal Views 1-18
Moving
between views 1-22
through a view 1-21
To Up/Downstream Object 1-23
Moving to the Up/Downstream Object 1-23
Multi-Flowsheet Architecture 1-5
N
Naming Preferences 7-36
Navigation 5-8
between flowsheets 2-14
Neueral Networks See Parametric Utility.
NFP Factor
See Column Sizing Utility.
Non-Modal Views 1-18
O
Object Browser 5-7
Object Deselection 3-36
Object Filter 5-9
Object Inspection 3-4
Object Moving 3-36
Object Navigator 1-9, 5-9
multi-flowsheet navigation 2-14
Object Palette 1-33
installing operations 1-34
installing streams 1-35
opening and closing 7-18
Object Selection
multiple in PFD 3-35
I-4
single in PFD 3-34
Object Status Window 5-46
object inspection 5-47
Objects 1-6
finding 7-18
optimization 7-18
selecting for utility 5-10
Oil Characterization Environment
See Environments.
Oil Output Settings 7-16
Oils Preferences 7-57
Operations
analysis 5-5
connecting in PFD 3-12
deleting from workbook 4-10
deletion 1-51
installation 1-44, 7-17
installation example 1-47
installing from object palette 1-34
installing from workbook 4-5
performance 5-5
subflowsheet 2-10
Optimizer 7-13
P
Package Properties 7-57
Packed Towers
See Column Sizing Utility.
Pan/Zoom Functions.
See PFD.
Parametric Utility 8-52
Paste Command 7-9
Performance Page 7-39
PFD
adding annotations 3-52
aligning objects 3-37
auto positioning 3-36
auto-scrolling 3-45
break connection button 3-7, 3-14
cloning objects 3-19
colour schemes 7-50
column tables 3-30
connecting logical operations 3-13
connecting operations to streams 3-11
connecting streams and operations 3-10
connecting two operations 3-12
creating new objects 3-11
Cut/Copy/Paste 3-19
Cut/Paste Functions 3-17
Index
deleting streams and operations 3-9
disconnecting streams and operations 3-13
Exporting Objects 3-18
hiding objects 3-54
Importing Objects 3-18
installing streams and operations 3-9
label variables 3-21
line segments
adding bend points 3-48
alignment 3-51
line straightening 3-50
moving 3-48
removng bend points 3-50
manipulating objects 3-34
menu bar options 7-26
modes 3-6
multi-pane 3-55
object transformation 3-42
object variable table 3-26
open PFD option 3-24
printing 6-7
printing as a DFX file 6-16
quick route 3-8
rebuilding 3-52
rerouting streams 3-46
show/hide sub-flowsheet objects 3-24
sizing objects 3-38
stream label options 3-21
swap connections 3-41
swap connections button 3-7
table properties 3-26, 3-28
tables 3-26
thick stream line 3-45
tools 3-5
view 1-8
PFD Colour Schemes 3-30
adding query colour scheme 3-32
changing 3-31
deleting query colour scheme 3-33
editing query colour scheme 3-33
selecting 3-31
PFD Modes
attach 3-6
move 3-6
size 3-6
PFD Notebook 3-15
deleting a PFD 3-16
installing a new PFD 3-15
renaming a PFD 3-16
I-5
Pinch Utility
quick start 8-65
results 8-67
Pipe Sizing Utility 8-69
Playback
See Script Manager.
Plots
printing 6-8
Plottable Properties 7-58
Point Properties 7-58
Preference Set
colours 7-50
cursors 7-54
fonts 7-51
icons 7-53
sounds 7-56
Preferences
extenstions tab 7-56
oil input 7-57
reports tab 7-45
resources tab 7-50
simulation tab 7-33
stream configuration 7-57
tray sizing 7-57
variables tab 7-40
Prererences
files tab 7-48
Print Spec Flowsheet Tab 7-11, 7-13
Printer Setup 6-9
Printing
menu bar command 7-8
operation specsheets 6-6
PFD 3-57, 6-7
plots 6-8
snap shots 6-3, 6-9
stream specsheets 6-7
workbook specsheets 6-5
Printing Options 6-4
Property Table Utilites
independent variables 8-75
Property Table Utility 8-73
dependent variables 8-76
plots 8-76
quick start 8-73
tables 8-77
Property View
accessing 1-16
flowsheet analysis 5-3
locating 5-10
I-5
I-6
pages 1-17
tabs 1-17
Property Views
cells 1-17
highlight location 1-18
modal vs. non-modal 1-18
Q
Quick Route 3-8
R
Reaction Package 7-18
adding 7-19
opening 7-18
Real Format Editor
See Format Editor.
Recording
See Script Manager.
Report Builder
contents tab 6-11
page setup tab 6-14
Report Manager 6-10
Report Preferences 7-45
Reports 6-10
company info 7-47
creating 6-11
datasheets 7-46
deleting 6-15
editing 6-14
format/layout 7-45
printing 6-15
Resource Preferences 7-50
S
Saving
file locations 7-49
save as 7-7
workspace 7-60
Saving a Case
save all 7-7
Saving a Simulation 7-7
Scenarios
adding to databook 5-33
deleting 5-36
recording states 5-34
states 5-33
viewing in data recorder 5-34
Script Manager 7-30
playback 7-31
I-6
recording 7-30
Scroll Bars 1-26
Selecting Items 1-19
Show Name Only 4-10
Simulation Basis Environment
See Environments.
Simulation Menu
enter basis environment 7-15
event scheduler 7-14
integrator 7-14
main properties 7-11
Oil Output Settings 7-16
optimizer 7-13
view equations 7-15
Snap Shot
See Case.
See Printing.
Sorting Information 4-20
Sounds 7-56
Specsheets
printing 6-5
workbook 6-5
Starting a Simulation 1-30
using the menu bar 7-4
States
See Case.
Stream Configuration Preferences 7-57
Streams
adding utilities 5-49
allowing multiple connections 7-34
analysis 5-4
bend points 3-48
copy conditions 1-38
deleting 1-51
deleting from workbook 4-10
installation example 1-38
installing 1-38, 7-17
installing from object palette 1-34
installing from workbook 4-5
manual routing 3-47
package properties 7-57
PFD label options 3-21
property view 1-9
quick route mode 3-46
rerouting on PFD 3-46
spec stream as 1-37
view new upon creation 7-34
Strip Charts
adding 5-21
Index
curves 5-24
deleting 5-22
graph control 5-27
graphical line properties 5-30, 5-31
historical data 5-32
interval markers 5-25
manipulating 5-24
object inspection 5-26
viewing 5-22
zooming 5-26
Sub-Flowsheets
viewing from workbook 4-9
Subflowsheets
advantages 2-11
capabilities 2-11
components 2-11
connections 2-15
installing 2-22
parameters 2-17
property view 2-15
transfer basis 2-18
variables 2-21
Summary View 1-8, 1-52
Swapping Connections in the PFD 3-7
T
Template Tag 2-33
Templates 2-32
accessing PFDs 3-23
creating 2-36
exported connections 2-33
exported variables 2-35
feed and product streams 2-34
information 2-32
installed simulation basis 2-33
installing 2-37
reading 2-38
reading existing 2-22
refrigeration loop example 2-39
Terminology
Structure 1-10
Tool Commands 7-27
Tool Tips Preferences 7-37
Tools Menu
DCS 7-29
face plates 7-28
macro language editor 7-32
preferences 7-32
script manager 7-30
I-7
Trace Window 5-46
object inspection 5-48
Transfer Basis
flash types 2-34
See Flowsheet.
Tray Sizing
% Liquid Draw 8-91
Use Tray Vapour to Size 8-91
Tray Sizing Preferences 7-57
Trayed Sections
See Column Sizing Utilility.
True and Pseudo Critical Properties
See Critical Properties Utility.
U
Unit Sets
adding conversions 7-42
adding new 7-40
deleting conversions 7-43
viewing conversions 7-42
Units Preferences 7-40
User Properties 7-21
adding 7-24
User Properties Utilility 8-109
User Properties Utility
generalized procedure 8-111
quick start 8-109
Utilities
adjust operation target 8-118
attaching 5-48
available utilities 8-3
boiling point curves 8-4
procedure 8-4
cold properties 8-12
column sizing 8-79
critical property 8-14
deletion 5-53
depressuring 8-17
envelope 8-40
hydrate formation 8-45
parametric 8-52
pinch 8-65
pipe sizing 8-69
property table 8-73
tray sizing 8-79
user properties 8-109
vessel sizing 8-114
viewing 5-52
I-7
I-8
V
Valve Equations
See Depressuring Utility.
Variable Navigator 5-11
navigator scope 5-13
Vessel Sizing Utility
cost analysis 8-116
generalized procedure 8-115
quick start 8-114
View Equations 7-15
W
Wetted Area
See Depressuring Utility.
Window
menu bar commands 7-60
Windows Functionality 1-4
Workbook
accessing objects 4-6
deleting objects 4-10
installing a stream 4-5
installing operations 4-5
new tabs 4-12
object sort 4-20
opening 4-4
page setup 4-11
re-order variables 4-17
selecting variables 4-15
tables on PFD 3-26
variable sets 4-17
variable sort 4-21
view 1-7
Workbook Menu
commands 7-25
Workbook Tabs
deletion 4-18
editing 4-14
exporting/importing 4-18
new 4-12
Workspace
loading 7-61
Z
Zoom Buttons
PFD 3-5
preview 6-6
I-8
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