- Rockwell Automation

Reference Manual
PlantPAx Process Automation System
System Release 2.0
Important User Information
Solid-state equipment has operational characteristics differing from those of electromechanical equipment. Safety
Guidelines for the Application, Installation and Maintenance of Solid State Controls (publication SGI-1.1 available from
your local Rockwell Automation® sales office or online at http://www.rockwellautomation.com/literature/) describes some
important differences between solid-state equipment and hard-wired electromechanical devices. Because of this difference,
and also because of the wide variety of uses for solid-state equipment, all persons responsible for applying this equipment
must satisfy themselves that each intended application of this equipment is acceptable.
In no event will Rockwell Automation, Inc. be responsible or liable for indirect or consequential damages resulting from
the use or application of this equipment.
The examples and diagrams in this manual are included solely for illustrative purposes. Because of the many variables and
requirements associated with any particular installation, Rockwell Automation, Inc. cannot assume responsibility or
liability for actual use based on the examples and diagrams.
No patent liability is assumed by Rockwell Automation, Inc. with respect to use of information, circuits, equipment, or
software described in this manual.
Reproduction of the contents of this manual, in whole or in part, without written permission of Rockwell Automation,
Inc., is prohibited.
Throughout this manual, when necessary, we use notes to make you aware of safety considerations.
WARNING: Identifies information about practices or circumstances that can cause an explosion in a hazardous environment,
which may lead to personal injury or death, property damage, or economic loss.
ATTENTION: Identifies information about practices or circumstances that can lead to personal injury or death, property
damage, or economic loss. Attentions help you identify a hazard, avoid a hazard, and recognize the consequence.
SHOCK HAZARD: Labels may be on or inside the equipment, for example, a drive or motor, to alert people that dangerous
voltage may be present.
BURN HAZARD: Labels may be on or inside the equipment, for example, a drive or motor, to alert people that surfaces may
reach dangerous temperatures.
IMPORTANT
Identifies information that is critical for successful application and understanding of the product.
Allen-Bradley, Rockwell Software, Rockwell Automation, PlantPAx Process Automation System, ControlLogix, CompactLogix, FactoryTalk Directory, FactoryTalk Historian, FactoryTalk AssetCentre, FactoryTalk View ME,
FactoryTalk View SE, FactoryTalk View Studio, FactoryTalk Services Platform, FactoryTalk Activation, FactoryTalk Alarms and Events, FactoryTalk Batch, CENTERLINE, PanelView Plus, RSLinx Classic, RSLinx Enterprise,
Logix5000, RSLogix 5000, RSNetWorx for ControlNet, RSNetWorx for DeviceNet, FLEX Ex, FLEX I/O, PhaseManager, RSView SE Client, RSView Studio, ControlFLASH, and TechConnect are trademarks of
Rockwell Automation, Inc.
Trademarks not belonging to Rockwell Automation are property of their respective companies.
Summary of Changes
This manual revision concentrates on the implementation recommendations that
apply to all PlantPAx systems. Information not specific to the PlantPAx system or
focused on system procurement was removed.
New and Updated
Information
This table contains some of the changes made to this revision.
Topic
Page
Core control components have been split into two sections:
System Element Recommendations
17
System Application Recommendations
31
Chapter 7, Maintenance Recommendations, has been added to assist with
maintaining and monitoring your PlantPAx system.
67
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3
Summary of Changes
Notes:
4
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
Table of Contents
Preface
Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Chapter 1
System Architecture
Recommendations
Architecture Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Critical System Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Procurement Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
15
15
16
Chapter 2
System Element
Recommendations
PlantPAx Software Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process Automation System Server (PASS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Up the FactoryTalk Directory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PASS Server Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engineering Workstation (EWS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operator Workstation (OWS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simplex Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Skid-based Controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Redundant Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining I/O Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sizing Control Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process Controller I/O Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AppServ-HMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AppServ- HMI Redundancy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
18
19
20
20
20
21
21
22
23
24
25
27
30
30
Chapter 3
System Application
Recommendations
Controller Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process Controller Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Periodic Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller Project Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller Tag Optimization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Add-On Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process Controller Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FactoryTalk View Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Log Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PlantPAx Library of Process Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alarm Implementation Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HMI Classic Alarm Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General FactoryTalk Alarm Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FactoryTalk Server-based Alarm Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FactoryTalk Device-based Alarm Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the PlantPAx Library of Process Objects for Alarms . . . . . . .
Application Development Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
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31
32
33
33
35
36
38
39
40
41
41
42
42
42
43
43
5
Table of Contents
Chapter 4
Infrastructure
Recommendations
Operating System Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Domains and Workgroups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Domain Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windows Workgroup Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internet Information Server (IIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Server and Workstation Time Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating System Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disable Windows Error Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet Switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller and I/O Ethernet Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
45
46
47
47
48
49
50
50
51
52
53
Chapter 5
Field Device Integration
Recommendations
Device Configuration Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FactoryTalk AssetCentre for Enterprise Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EtherNet/IP I/O Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EtherNet/IP I/O Communication Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ControlNet I/O Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ControlNet I/O Communication Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DeviceNet Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DeviceNet Communication Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HART Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HART Communication Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Communication Options. . . . . . . . . . . .
PROFIBUS PA Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PROFIBUS PA Communication Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
56
56
56
57
58
58
59
59
60
60
61
62
62
Chapter 6
Batch Management and Control FactoryTalk Batch Critical System Attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Install FactoryTalk Batch Client Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Recommendations
FactoryTalk Batch Application Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Batch Guidelines for Logix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
6
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
Table of Contents
Chapter 7
Maintenance
Recommendations
Maintaining Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Microsoft Updates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Antivirus Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rockwell Automation Software/Firmware Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Considerations when Upgrading Software and Firmware . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check Paging Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Monitoring Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Index
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
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67
68
68
69
69
71
71
72
7
Table of Contents
Notes:
8
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
Preface
The PlantPAx™ Process Automation System is a defined set of standard Rockwell
Automation Integrated Architecture products that are configured in a prescribed
way to provide optimal performance as a process automation system. When
combining PlantPAx core system components, tools and utilities, with other
Rockwell Automation and partners products, the result is unmatched
automation system flexibility, scalability, and expandability when solving
continuous batch as well as high-speed discrete applications.
Whereas the PlantPAx Selection Guide is used to assist with equipment
procurement after defining system requirements, this Reference Manual
elaborates on what you need to know to set up a PlantPAx system (as
shown in Figure 1).
Figure 1 - Reference Manual Scope
System Architecture
System Element
System Application
Infrastructure
Field Device
Batch
Maintenance
Reference Manual
32204-MC
The Reference Manual content is organized in logical order—from configuring
system elements to developing applications.
You do not need to read the sections in sequential chapter order. If you already
have configured workstations and servers—for example, defining the required
FactoryTalk® Directory—you can skip to other sections, such as network and
field device recommendations.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
9
Preface
These documents contain additional information concerning related products
from Rockwell Automation.
Additional Resources
Table 1 - Additional Documentation
Resource
Description
System Core
FactoryTalk View SE Edition User Manual, publication
VIEWSE-UM006
Provides details on how to use this software package for developing and running human-machine interface (HMI)
applications that can involve multiple users and servers, distributed over a network.
FactoryTalk View SE Installation Guide, publication
VIEWSE-IN003
Contains procedures for installing FactoryTalk View SE software.
FactoryTalk Alarms and Events System Configuration Guide,
publication FTAE-RM001
Provides details on how to install, configure, and use FactoryTalk Alarms and Events services as part of a FactoryTalkenabled automation system.
ControlLogix System User Manual,
publication 1756-UM001
Explains how to use traditional and extreme environment ControlLogix controllers.
ControlLogix Enhanced Redundancy System User Manual,
publication 1756-UM535
Provides information on the installation and configuration for an enhanced redundancy controller system for
greater availability.
Logix5000 Controllers Design Considerations Reference
Manual, publication 1756-RM094
Details how to design and optimize Logix5000 controller applications.
Logix5000 Controllers Common Procedures Programming
Manual, Publication 1756-PM001
Provides links to a collection of programming manuals that describe how you can use procedures that are common to all
Logix5000 controller projects.
Logix5000 Controllers General Instructions Reference
Manual, publication 1756-RM003
Provides programming controller applications by using relay ladder instructions.
Logix5000 Controllers Advanced Process Control and Drives
Instructions Reference Manual, publication 1756-RM006
Provides details on process control and drives instructions.
Logix 5000 Controllers Execution Time and Memory Use
Reference Manual, publication 1756-RM087
Provides a complete listing of all instruction execution time and memory usage information for Logix5000 controllers,
firmware revision 18.11 (except ControlLogix 1756-L7x controllers that use firmware revision 18.12), in your
RSLogix 5000 programming software, version 18.00, program.
1756 ControlLogix Controllers Technical Data,
publication 1756-TD001
Contains specifications for ControlLogix controllers.
PlantPAx Server and Workstation User Manual, publication
7477-UM001
Explains how to configure prepackaged PlantPAx servers and workstations.
Infrastructure
PlantPAx Process Automation System Selection Guide,
publication PROCES-SG001
Provides an overview of the three typical process architectures: independent, centralized,
and distributed.
EtherNet Design Considerations Reference Manual,
publication ENET-RM002
Explains the infrastructure components that allow this open network to communicate seamlessly throughout a plant,
from shop floor to top floor.
Ethernet-to-the-Factory 1.2 Design and Implementation
Guide, publication ENET-TD001
Provides collaborative design guidelines based on the Cisco Ethernet-to-the-Factory solution and the Rockwell
Automation Integrated Architecture solution.
Stratix 8000 and 8300 Ethernet Managed Switches
Software User Manual, publication 1783-UM003
Details how to configure and maintain managed switches.
ControlNet Coax Media Planning and Installation Guide,
publication CNET-IN002
Provides procedures for planning, installing, and implementing a ControlNet network.
ControlNet Fiber Media Planning and Installation Guide,
publication CNET-IN001
ControlNet Modules in Logix5000 Control Systems User
Manual, publication CNET-UM001
Field Device Integration
FactoryTalk AssetCentre Installation Guide,
publication FTAC-IN004
Provides installation instructions for monitoring your factory automation system.
FactoryTalk AssetCentre Product Profile,
publication FTALK-PP001
Explains this tool for securing, managing, versioning, tracking, and reporting automation-related asset information
across your entire enterprise.
10
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
Preface
Table 1 - Additional Documentation
Resource
Description
1756 ControlLogix Communication Modules Specifications
Technical Data, publication 1756-TD003
Contains specifications for the ControlLogix network communication modules.
Ethernet Design Considerations Reference Manual,
publication ENET-RM002
Explains the infrastructure and components for the EtherNet/IP protocol, a control and information platform for
industrial environments and time-critical applications.
EtherNet/IP Modules in Logix5000 Control Systems User
Manual, publication ENET-UM001
Explains Logix5000 tools that are used in EtherNet/IP topologies and network operation.
FOUNDATION Fieldbus System User Manual,
publication 1757-UM012
Publications provide design, configuration, and specifications for fieldbus devices and the 1757-FFLD and 1757-FFLDC
linking devices.
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Considerations
Reference Manual, publication RSFBUS-RM001
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Linking Device Technical Data,
publication 1757-TD003
ControlLogix HART Analog I/O Modules User Manual,
publication 1756-UM533
Contains information on how to install, configure, and troubleshoot ControlLogix HART
analog I/O modules.
Promass 83 Flowmeter via PROFIBUS PA to the PlantPAx
Process Automation System, publication PROCES-AP022
Provides procedures for the design and implementation of PROFIBUS PA equipment.
DeviceNet System Quick Reference,
publication DNET-QR001
Provides procedures for configuring applications on the DeviceNet network.
CENTERLINE® Motor Control Centers with EtherNet/IP,
publication 2100-TD031
Publications detail the EtherNet/IP network that offers a full suite of control, configuration, and data collection services.
Batch
PhaseManager User Manual,
publication LOGIX-UM001
Explains how to define a state model for your equipment and develop equipment phases.
FactoryTalk Batch Installation Guide,
publication BATCH-IN011
Provides information and procedures for installing FactoryTalk Batch software.
FactoryTalk Batch User's Guide,
publication BATCH-UM011
Provides a complement of FactoryTalk recipe management, component guidelines, and software installation
procedures.
You can view or download publications at
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/literature. To order paper copies of
technical documentation, contact your local Allen-Bradley distributor or
Rockwell Automation sales representative.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
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Preface
Notes:
12
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
Chapter
1
System Architecture Recommendations
The PlantPAx Process Automation System is a defined combination of standard
Rockwell Automation Integrated Architecture (IA) products that are configured
in a prescribed way for optimal performance as a process automation system. This
section provides a description of the architectures and system elements that you
can use to assemble a PlantPAx system, and the system performance attributes
that you should be able to achieve when following the recommendations of
this manual.
The following table describes what this chapter contains and where to find
specific information.
Topic
Page
Architecture Classes
14
System Elements
15
Critical System Attributes
15
System Procurement Tools
16
Rockwell Automation characterizes a process automation system based on its size
or architecture class. A ‘characterized’ (system tested) classification yields system
performance data and recommended hardware and software configurations. The
classes of PlantPAx architecture offer system scalability while organizing IA
products consistent with process industry expectations.
The architecture classes shown in the illustration are described as the following:
• Independent system architecture for single unit control
• Centralized system architecture for area control
• Distributed system architecture for plant-wide operations.
Distributed
Centralized
Independent
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
13
Chapter 1
System Architecture Recommendations
Architecture classes define system capabilities that can be scaled by modifying the
same system elements.
Architecture Classes
Architecture
Description
System Elements
Independent
An independent class architecture uses a single computer to perform hosting,
engineering, and operational functions.
• Single computer serves as the PASS, EWS, and OWS
Centralized
The centralized system is a multi-client configuration that supports the concept of
automating a single production or process area. The system elements can provide
main control room operation and enable you to mount operator workstations
locally throughout the production facility. The centralized system expands the
independent system by adding workstations and controllers.
• 1 dedicated PASS (see System Elements )
• As many as 5 EWS for the development and maintenance of
the system
• As many as 8 OWS for the interactive graphical interface
• Additional application servers for batch management,
process information, or asset management if applicable
• Multiple MWS, typically laptops
Distributed
The distributed system is a multi-server, multi-client configuration that supports
automating a process with semi-independent areas. The distributed class
architecture expands on the centralized class by adding application servers to
interconnect multiple process areas into a system.
A distributed system can have up to four control areas.
Each of the four control areas supports these elements.
• 1 dedicated PASS.
• Up to three additional AppServ-HMI to support additional
processing areas and clients
• As many as 5 EWS
• As many as 8 OWS per PASS or AppServ-HMI
• Additional application servers for batch management,
process information, or asset management if applicable
The diagram shows an example of PlantPAx system architecture utilizing the
EtherNet/IP network. This example could be a centralized or distributed
architecture class.
EWS
Application Servers
Domain
Controller
PASS
Multiple OWS
ETHERNET
Logix5562
POWER
RUN
ETHERNET
Logix5562
POWER
RUN
OK
REM
PROG
ANALOG INPUT
ANALOG INPUT
ST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
RS232
BAT
RUN
ETHERNET
I/O
FORCE
RXD TXD
OK
RXD TXD
OK
B
A
B
A
AC INTPUT
FLT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O
ST 8 9 10 1112131415 K
FLT 8 9 10 1112131415
DIAGNOSTIC
ST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O
ST 8 9 10 1112131415 K
RUN
DIAGNOSTIC
RUN
ETHERNET
I/O
FORCE
OK
REM
PROG
ANALOG INPUT
ST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
RS232
BAT
DIAGNOSTIC
ETHERNET
Logix5562
POWER
ST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
FLT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O
ST 8 9 10 1112131415 K
FLT 8 9 10 1112131415
RXD TXD
OK
RXD TXD
OK
B
A
B
A
ANALOG INPUT
FLT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O
ST 8 9 10 1112131415 K
FLT 8 9 10 1112131415
DIAGNOSTIC
ETHERNET
Logix5562
RUN
I/O
FORCE
PROG
ANALOG INPUT
RXD TXD
OK
DIAGNOSTIC
Module
Status
Module
Status
NODE:
Relay
Output
120 VAC
Input
Module
Status
Network
Status
Network
Status
Network
Status
NODE:
NODE:
NODE:
1
2
7 3
1734
OB8E
220VAC
Input
0
5 1
6 2
7 3
1734
IB8
120V
220 VAC
Output
4 0
5 1
6 2
3
1734
IM4
24VDC
Source
Output
4 0
2
3
1734
IA4
24VDC
Sink
Input
1
2
7 3
1734
OW4
0
1
5 1
6 2
3
220 VAC
Input
0
4 0
0
1
2
14
NODE:
Module
Status
Module
Status
Network
Status
Network
Status
NODE:
DeviceBus
Status
1734-ADNX
B
NODE:
Module
Status
Module
Status
Module
Status
Network
Status
Network
Status
DeviceNet
Status
DIAGNOSTIC
3
1734
OA4
RXD TXD
OK
B
A
B
A
AC INTPUT
AC INTPUT
ST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O
ST 8 9 10 1112131415 K
FLT 8 9 10 1112131415
OK
REM
OK
DIAGNOSTIC
ST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
FLT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O
ST 8 9 10 1112131415 K
RS232
BAT
RUN
RXD TXD
ST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O
ST 8 9 10 1112131415 K
Device-level Ring Topology
POWER
PROG
ST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
FLT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O
ST 8 9 10 1112131415 K
FLT 8 9 10 1112131415
DIAGNOSTIC
OK
REM
1734
IM4
A
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
ANALOG INPUT
ST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
RS232
BAT
RUN
ETHERNET
I/O
FORCE
ANALOG INPUT
FLT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O
ST 8 9 10 1112131415 K
FLT 8 9 10 1112131415
DIAGNOSTIC
AC INTPUT
ST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
FLT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O
ST 8 9 10 1112131415 K
FLT 8 9 10 1112131415
DIAGNOSTIC
ST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O
ST 8 9 10 1112131415 K
DIAGNOSTIC
System Architecture Recommendations
Chapter 1
System elements are specific IA products grouped to provide process system
functionality.
System Elements
System Element
Independent Class
Centralized Class
Distributed Class
Process automation system
server (PASS)
Single computer serves as PASS, EWS, and OWS
in an independent workstation
One PASS required and includes:
• FactoryTalk Directory server
• HMI server
• Data server
One PASS required and includes:
• FactoryTalk Directory server
• HMI server
• Data server
Engineering workstation
(EWS)
Included in independent workstation
• 1 EWS required
• Can have as many as 5 EWS
• 1 EWS required
• Can have as many as 5 EWS
Operator workstation (OWS)
Included in independent workstation
8 remote clients
8 remote clients for PASS
8 additional remote clients per AppServ-HMI
Process controller(1)
1…5 ControlLogix® controllers
1…6 ControlLogix controllers
1…6 ControlLogix controllers per PASS
1…6 ControlLogix controllers per AppServHMI
Application servers
None
One AppServ-Batch
One AppServ-Information Management
One AppServ-Batch for each set of six
controllers
One AppServ-Information Management
(1) Controller count based on fully-loaded L63 controllers. Actual controller count allowed may vary based on controller selection and loading.
Critical System Attributes
A critical system attribute (CSA) is a visible performance indicator of a
system-wide characteristic to define or identify if a system is working at a
specified level. CSAs are pass/fail attributes.
Critical system attributes do the following:
• Determine system limits
• Establish system rules
• Establish system recommendations
• Measure system element and system infrastructure performance
The following critical system attributes were used to verify performance during
process system characterization.
Table 2 - CSA Performance Indicators
Critical System Attribute
Performance
Display callup (paint time)
A noncached display is called up by the operator and ready for operator use within 2 seconds.
Display update
The display updates control information within 1 second.
Steady state alarm time
Steady state alarms occurring at 20 per second are timestamped within 1 second.
Alarm burst time
All alarms in a burst of 1000 alarms are timestamped within 3 seconds.
Recovery
A system element returns to full operation within 5 minutes of the restoration after a failure or loss.
Data logging
The system supports local (HMI) data logging of 200 points once a second.
Operator-initiated control
Operator-initiated actions are loaded into the controller and the feedback for the operator action is within 2 seconds.
Batch server: operator action time
An operator batch command has been acted on by the controller in 1 second.
Batch server: server action time
A server batch command has been acted on by the controller in 1 second.
Batch server: controller action time
Batch status events display on the operator workstation within 1 second.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
15
Chapter 1
System Architecture Recommendations
System Procurement Tools
The following chapters of this manual contain recommendations and
considerations for implementing your system. If you have not selected or
procured your PlantPAx system architecture and components (see page 18),
see the PlantPAx Selection Guide for more information, including use of the
Integrated Architecture Builder (IAB) tool.
Rockwell Automation offers the IAB tool to help create a bill of material for an
automation system. This graphical software tool helps you select hardware that
includes controllers, I/O, networks, drives, cabling and wiring, motion control,
and other devices.
IAB also includes a Process System Estimator (PSE) to size your process control
hardware. By entering data of your system requirements, an optimal architecture
can be defined to feed into the IAB tool.
See http://www.rockwellautomation.com/en/e-tools/configuration.html .
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
Chapter
2
System Element Recommendations
PlantPAx system elements refer to the individual servers, clients, and controllers
that comprise a PlantPAx system. These building blocks are the foundation of
your system architecture.
The following table describes what this chapter contains and where to find
specific information.
Topic
Page
PlantPAx Software Components
18
Process Automation System Server (PASS)
18
Engineering Workstation (EWS)
20
Operator Workstation (OWS)
20
Process Controller
21
AppServ-HMI
30
Plant Asset
Management
Process
Information
Plant Ethernet
Batch
Management
Engineering
Workstation
Operator Workstations
Process Control
EtherNet/IP
Variable Speed Drives
Process
Controllers
ETHERNET
Logix5562
POWER
RUN
I/O
ANALOG INPUT
ST
FLT
FORCE
RS232
BAT
RUN
ETHERNET
Logix5562
POWER
RUN
I/O
ANALOG INPUT
ST
FLT
FORCE
RS232
BAT
RUN
I/O Network
EtherNet/IP
ST
FLT
OK
REM
PROG
RXD TXD
OK
B
A
ST
FLT
OK
REM
PROG
RXD TXD
OK
B
A
Process Automation
System Servers
Master Control Centers
AC INTPUT
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7O
8 9 10 1112131415 K
ST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O
ST 8 9 10 1112131415 K
8 9 10 1112131415
DIAGNOSTIC
DIAGNOSTIC
AC INTPUT
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7O
8 9 10 1112131415 K
ST 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 O
ST 8 9 10 1112131415 K
8 9 10 1112131415
DIAGNOSTIC
DIAGNOSTIC
Local, Distributed, and Intelligent I/O
Module
Status
Module
Status
NODE:
NODE:
Module
Status
Module
Status
Module
Status
NODE:
NODE:
Network
Status
Network
Status
Network
Status
NODE:
NODE:
Module
Status
Module
Status
Module
Status
Network
Status
Network
Status
Network
Status
Network
Status
DeviceNet
Status
NODE:
DeviceBus
Status
Relay
Output
1734-ADNX
0
120 VAC
Input
4
1
2
3
1734
OW4
5
1
6
2
7
3
0
1
2
3
3
1734
IM4
24VDC
Source
Output
4
1
2
1734
IA4
24VDC
Sink
Input
220 VAC
Input
0
0
1734
IB8
0
5
1
6
2
7
3
120V
220 VAC
Output
4
1734
OB8E
5
1
6
2
7
3
220VAC
Input
0
0
1
2
3
1734
OA4
1734
IM4
Valves and
Instrumentation
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
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Chapter 2
System Element Recommendations
PlantPAx Software
Components
Integrated Architecture software components and versions that comprise the
PlantPAx system release 2.0 include the following:
• RSLogix™ 5000 software, version 19.x
• FactoryTalk View software, version 6.00.00
• FactoryTalk® Batch software, version 11.00.00
• FactoryTalk® AssetCentre software, version 4.00.00
• FactoryTalk VantagePoint software, version 3.00.00
• FactoryTalk® Historian software, version 2.20.00
Additional tools and libraries are available that, when combined with Integrated
Architecture software components, greatly enhance PlantPAx capabilities. For
example, the PlantPAx Process Library is a predefined library of control code,
faceplates, and display elements designed to allow a process user to quickly
assemble large applications with proven strategies and expected results.
See Chapter 3 for more information.
Process Automation System
Server (PASS)
The process automation system server (PASS) is a required system
element that contains these Rockwell Automation Integrated Architecture
software components.
Software Components
Description
FactoryTalk® Network Directory server(1)
Secures information from multiple Rockwell Automation software components across multiple computers and allows
central administration throughout the PlantPAx system. In this way, application components, such as display and
security settings, can be stored in their original environments and made available to the entire PlantPAx system
without the need for duplication.
See Set Up the FactoryTalk Directory on page 19 for more information.
FactoryTalk® Activation server(1)
FactoryTalk Activation is part of the FactoryTalk® Services Platform. It allows FactoryTalk-enabled products to be
activated via files generated by Rockwell Automation over the internet. This server essentially manages the files
required to license Rockwell Automation products on the PlantPAx system.
FactoryTalk View HMI server
The human-machine interface (HMI) servers are configured within your FactoryTalk View Site Edition (SE) application.
It stores HMI project components, such as graphic displays, and serves these components to Operator Workstations
(OWS) upon request. The HMI server also can manage tag databases and log historical data. Multiple HMI servers can
exist on the PlantPAx system. See AppServ-HMI on page 30 for more information.
FactoryTalk View Data server
The Data server component provides access to information from the process controllers to the HMI server and OWS
station. FactoryTalk® View supports two types of data servers: Rockwell Automation Device servers
( RSLinx® Enterprise) and OPC Data servers. The Data server mentioned in PlantPAx documentation generally refers to
the Rockwell Automation Device servers. Data servers are configured within your FactoryTalk View SE application.
Multiple data servers can exist on the PlantPAx system. See AppServ-HMI on page 30 for more information.
FactoryTalk View Alarms and Events server
The Alarms and Events server is an optional component on the PASS that makes alarm information from controllers and
servers available to all subscribing OWS stations. Alarms and Events servers are configured within your FactoryTalk
View SE application. There are two types of Alarms and Events servers: device-based alarm and event servers (that is,
configured as an option to the data server), and server-based alarm and event servers (configured as a separate
component). The Alarms and Events server mentioned in PlantPAx documentation refers to the Alarms and Events
server that is used for server-based alarms. You can have up to two Alarms and Events servers on the PlantPAx system.
These may exist on the PASS or an AppServ-HMI. See Alarm Implementation Recommendations on page 41 for
more information.
Optional
FactoryTalk® Batch client software
If a Batch Application server is being used on the system, FactoryTalk Batch client components are required to support
replication of batch-related objects on the displays to the OWS.
(1) In redundant PASS configurations, these components are included on the primary PASS only. See PASS Server Redundancy on page 20 for more information.
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System Element Recommendations
IMPORTANT
Chapter 2
If you are using FactoryTalk® Batch, the batch components should be installed
before any other FactoryTalk components. See page 64 for details.
If a domain is used, add the PASS to the domain before installation.
See page 45 for details.
Set Up the FactoryTalk Directory
Before starting a project, you must install FactoryTalk Directory services on the
PASS. The FactoryTalk Directory server manages applications that may exist on
multiple clients and servers on separate computers on the PlantPAx system.
IMPORTANT
It is required to have a username and password with Administrator privileges
to install FactoryTalk software and to specify a FactoryTalk Directory location.
Use the same username and password for all FactoryTalk installations on the
PlantPAx system.
After Rockwell Automation software components are installed, you need to
specify the FactoryTalk Directory location on all servers and workstations.
Specify the location as follows:
• Localhost on the PASS server
• Name of the PASS server on each APPServ-HMI, OWS, EWS,
and so forth
Do these configuration steps.
1. On each server and workstation hosting a PASS, Application Server, EWS,
or OWS, choose Start/Programs/Rockwell Software/FactoryTalk Tools/
Specify FactoryTalk Directory Location.
The FactoryTalk Directory Server Location Utility appears. .
2. In the Computer hosting directory server (connected) box, do
the following:
a. Type localhost if you are configuring the PASS server.
b. Click Browse and select the PASS server name if configuring an
Application Server, EWS, or OWS.
c. Click OK.
See the FactoryTalk View SE Installation Guide, publication
VIEWSE-IN003, for more information on FactoryTalk View installations.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
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Chapter 2
System Element Recommendations
PASS Server Redundancy
The following PASS Server software components can be made redundant:
• FactoryTalk View HMI Server
• FactoryTalk View Data Server
• FactoryTalk View Alarm and Event Server
All of these can be made redundant through the server properties dialog box
within the FactoryTalk View application. When enabling redundancy in
FactoryTalk® View Studio, select the option to ‘Continue using the secondary
server even when the primary server becomes available again’ to avoid excessive
switchovers and to be able to manage replication of application changes made
before or after the switchover occurs.
The FactoryTalk Directory server does not require redundancy. The FactoryTalk
Directory information is cached on each computer that is participating in a
distributed application. If the FactoryTalk Directory server computer is
disconnected from the network or fails, the OWS, EWS, and other application
servers can continue to access everything within the application as long as the
computer had previously accessed the FactoryTalk Directory server.
The engineering workstation (EWS) is the central location for monitoring and
maintaining the system operation.
Engineering Workstation
(EWS)
Software components that need to be installed include the following:
• RSLogix™ 5000 Professional Edition
• RSNetWorx™ for ControlNet™ depending on your architecture
requirements
• FactoryTalk View Site Edition Studio and Client
• FactoryTalk Batch Client software
If a batch application server is used, the FactoryTalk Batch client and editor
components are required to configure the FactoryTalk Batch system and setup
the FactoryTalk objects on the displays.
Operator Workstation (OWS)
The operator workstation (OWS) provides a graphical interface for the operator;
it’s not meant to support development or maintenance activities. The OWS is a
client of either a PASS server or AppServ-HMI.
Software components that need to be installed include the following:
• FactoryTalk View Site Edition (SE) client software
The OWS also may contain clients for non-core application servers, such as
FactoryTalk Batch, FactoryTalk® Historian, or FactoryTalk® AssetCentre.
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
System Element Recommendations
Chapter 2
This section describes the components and sizing attributes for simplex,
skid-based, and redundant controllers.
Process Controller
Simplex Controller
Simplex controller hardware components are the ControlLogix family of
products in a non-redundant configuration.
Table 3 - Simplex Controller Hardware
Hardware
Product
Process controller(1)
ControlLogix 1756-L61, 1756-L62, or 1756-L63 controller
ControlLogix 1756-L72, 1756-L73, or 1756-L74 controller
EtherNet/IP interface
• 1756-EN2TR/B, 1756-EN3TR, 1783-ETAP (supports device-level ring topology)
• 1756-EN2T, 1756-ENBT, 1756-EWEB, 1756-EN2F, 1783-ETAP1F, 1783-ETAP2F. The fiber 1783-ETAP modules support
device-level ring topology.
ControlNet interface
• 1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R
• 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR
(1) If environmental conditions warrant, you can use an extreme temperature controller, for example, the 1756-L74XT.
Table 4 - Simplex ControlLogix Controller Sizing
Attribute(1)
1756-L61
1756-L62
1756-L63(2)
1756-L72
1756-L73
1756-L74
1756-L75
User memory
2 MB
4 MB
8 MB
4 MB
8 MB
16 MB
32 MB
Total I/O recommended, max
375
750
1500
750
1500
2250
2250
Total tags, max
15,625
31,250
62,500
31,250
62,500
112,500
112,500
Recommended control strategies, max(3)
60
125
250
125
250
450
450
Total control strategies @ 250 ms, max
60
125
125
125
250
250
250
Total control strategies @ 500 ms, max
60
125
250
125
250
450
450
Tags/sec delivered to data server, max(4) (5)
10,000
10,000
10,000
20,000
20,000
20,000
20,000
(1) These values are maximum limits. You may not be able to achieve all of these in a single controller.
(2) For a PlantPAx system, we recommend that you use only the controller platforms characterized in this table. If 1756-L64 or 1756- L65 controllers are used, be aware that the additional management of
the extended memory space may impact the CPU utilization of the controller when compared to a 1756-L63 controller (typically 10…15%).
(3) Representative control strategy (PID loop) includes 1 analog input, 1 analog output, 1 PIDE instruction, 8 logic/math instructions, and up to 8 configured alarms with PlantPAx process objects and
native instructions.
(4) Assumes RSLinx® Enterprise software, version 5.30.00, at 10 K/sec per instance.
(5) We recommend that you configure alarming by using FactoryTalk Alarm and Events server-based alarms. See Alarm Implementation Recommendations on page 41.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
21
Chapter 2
System Element Recommendations
Skid-based Controller
PlantPAx supports small-footprint controllers from the CompactLogix™ family
for skid-based or small, local applications.
Table 5 - Skid-based Controller Hardware
Hardware
Product
Process controller
CompactLogix 1769-L23E, or 1769-L35E controller
Table 6 - Skid-based Controller Sizing
Attribute(1)
CompactLogix 1769-L23E
CompactLogix 1769-L35E
User memory
0.5 MB
1.5 MB
Total I/O recommended, max
80
250
Total tags, max
4000
12,800
Recommended control strategies, max(2)
10
30
Total control strategies @ 250 ms, max
10
30
Total control strategies @ 500 ms, max
10
30
Tags/sec delivered to data server, max(3)
3000
3000
(1) These values are maximum limits. You may not be able to achieve all of these in a single controller.
(2) Representative control strategy (PID loop) includes 1 analog input, 1 analog output, 1 PIDE instruction, 8 logic/math instructions, and up to 8 configured alarms with PlantPAx process objects and
native instructions.
(3) Assumes RSLinx Enterprise software, version 5.30.00, at 10 K/sec per instance.
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
System Element Recommendations
Chapter 2
Redundant Controllers
ControlLogix controllers support enhanced redundancy on ControlNet and
EtherNet/IP networks.
Table 7 - Redundant Controller Hardware
Hardware
Product
Process controller(1)
ControlLogix 1756-L63 controller
ControlLogix 1756-L73, 1756-L74, or 1756-L75 controller
Do not combine 1756-L6x and 1756-L7x controllers in a redundant chassis.
Redundancy module
• 1756-RM
Controller data and I/O memory
Each controller in the redundancy chassis has enough memory to store twice the amount of controller data and I/O
memory.
The increase of memory usage provides for a bumpless transfer during a switchover to make sure the secondary Logix
controller has the same values in its output image as the primary Logix controller. This prevents a switchover to a
secondary controller with a mixture of old and new
data memory.
See ‘Understand ControlLogix Redundancy Memory Usage’ in Knowledgebase Answer ID 28972 at http://
rockwellautomation.custhelp.com for more information. You must have a Rockwell Automation support agreement.
Redundant EtherNet/IP network
A redundant Ethernet network is based on architecture topology and requires multiple Ethernet interfaces: 1756-EN2T,
1756-EN2TR/B, 1756-EN3TR
Redundant ControlNet network
A redundant ControlNet network requires a ControlNet interface that supports redundant media: 1756-CN2R or 1756CN2RXT
Identical ControlNet modules are placed in the same slot of both chassis of the redundant pair.
ControlNet modules are identical in redundancy firmware revision and in series.
(1) If environmental conditions warrant, you can use an extreme temperature controller, for example, the 1756-L74XT.
Table 8 - Redundant ControlLogix Controller Sizing
Attribute(1)
1756-L63(2)
1756-L73
User memory
8 MB
8 MB
16 MB
32 MB
Total I/O recommended, max
750
750
1500
2250
Total tags, max
31,250
31,250
62,500
125,000
Recommended control strategies, max(3)
125
125
250
450
Total control strategies @ 250 ms, max
60
120
120
120
Total control strategies @ 500 ms, max
120
125
220
220
Tags/sec delivered to data server, max(4) (5)
10,000
20,000
20,000
20,000
1756-L74
1756-L75
(1) These values are maximum limits. You may not be able to achieve all of these in a single controller.
(2) For a PlantPAx system, we recommend that you use only the controller platforms characterized in this table. If 1756-L64 or 1756- L65 controllers are used, be aware that the additional management of the
extended memory space may impact the CPU utilization of the controller when compared to a 1756-L63 controller (typically 10…15%).
(3) Representative control strategy (PID loop) includes 1 analog input, 1 analog output, 1 PIDE instruction, 8 logic/math instructions, and up to 8 configured alarms with PlantPAx process objects and
native instructions.
(4) Assumes RSLinx Enterprise software, version 5.30.00, at 10 K/sec per instance.
(5) We recommend that you configure alarming by using FactoryTalk Alarm and Events server-based alarms. See Alarm Implementation Recommendations on page 41.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
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Chapter 2
System Element Recommendations
Determining I/O Count
The I/O count for controller sizing is often determined directly from the
application P&ID or plant design.
On existing systems where only classic I/O (for example, 4…20 mA, 24V DC dry
contacts, and so forth) is used, the I/O count can be determined by the number
of I/O channels available on the I/O cards.
When you have integrated smart devices, such as drives on transmitters on an
EtherNet/IP network, any signal from the device used by your control strategy is
considered an I/O point.
One I/O channel per each I/O point on an I/O module.
One I/O channel per
each device in a
networked, motor
control center.
One I/O channel per each device.
For example, an I/O count for a system comprised with the following:
• Two 8-channel 4…20 mA input cards
• One 8-channel 4…20 mA output cards
• Two 16-channel 24V DC dry-contact input cards
• One MCC with six drives on EtherNet/IP
– Each drive provides six signals to the control strategy: speed reference,
actual speed, start, stop, running, and fault.
• Two Coriolis meters on PROFIBUS PA, with each meter providing
three signals for flow, temperature, and density.
The I/O count example has the following calculation:
4…20 mA AI
4…20 mA AO
24V DC DI
MCC
Smart instruments
2 x 8 = 16
1x8= 8
2 x 16 = 32
6 x 6 = 36 (6 AI, 6 AO, 12 DI, 12 DO)
2 x 3 = 6 (6 AI)
___
Controller I/O count
98
TIP
24
When calculating I/O count for controller sizing, it is good practice to add spare
capacity to allow for project changes or future enhancements. This could be
accounted for by spare channels on existing systems or by adding spare
as a percentage.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
System Element Recommendations
Chapter 2
Sizing Control Strategies
A control strategy encompasses all of the application code required to implement
a specific control function. This includes the I/O, controller code, display
elements, and faceplates.
Using the control strategy model, we are able to estimate the following
system parameters:
• HMI server tags on scan (alarm tags, display tags, data log tags, event
detector tags, and derived tags)
• Controller memory usage
• Controller execution time
• Field device variables and health
HMI Server
Process Information servers collect
the process and system data for use
in managing the process.
PASS/Data Server
Operator interface, such as graphics and faceplates, presents
system information to the human operator.
Controllers execute application code to control
the process and communicate with the
supervisory level.
A system is considered working when it is performing at a specified level within
established system boundaries. By estimating the size of control strategies, you
have a better prediction of system performance.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
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Chapter 2
System Element Recommendations
The amount of resources consumed by the system elements to support a control
strategy provides a ‘footprint’. To size systems, these base control strategies have
been established as system footprints:
• Simple digital
• Complex digital
• Simple analog (non PID)
• Simple analog (PID)
• Complex analog (cascaded PID)
• Digital indicator
• Analog indicator
The example diagram shows an example of the application code required for an
analog indicator control strategy. Each physical device maps to a controller code
element and to a display element and faceplate. System sizing takes into account
other loading concerns related to the control strategy, such as data logging
and alarming.
Figure 2 - Analog Indicator Example
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
System Element Recommendations
Chapter 2
The table shows details in Figure 2 for these base control strategies.
Table 9 - Base Control Strategy Estimated Loading
Control Strategy
Controller Execution Time (ms)
Controller Memory (KB)
Simple regulatory
0.68
8.7
Complex regulatory
1.39
11.9
Simple digital
0.33
5.1
Complex digital
1.08
13.5
Analog indicator
0.28
3.3
Digital indicator
0.11
2.5
The following occurs when using redundant controllers:
• Scan rate increases 2…3 times.
• Memory use increases 1.1…1.2 times.
Actual impact to control strategy loading when using redundant controllers can
vary depending on the instructions used.
See the ControlLogix Enhanced Redundancy System User Manual,
publication 1756-UM535, for more information.
Process Controller I/O Considerations
The requested packet interval (RPI) is a user-configured interval of time that
determines when an I/O module’s data is sent to a process controller. This
interval defines the slowest rate at which a module multicasts its data. When the
specified time frame elapses, the module multicasts data to the controller.
Setting the RPI faster (specifying a smaller number) than what your application
needs wastes network resources, such as ControlNet schedule bandwidth,
network processing time, and CPU processing time.
Table 10 - I/O Considerations
Attribute
Consideration
I/O configuration properties
• Specify an RPI that is two times faster than task execution:
– 250 ms task requires a 125 ms RPI
– 100 ms task requires a 50 ms RPI
• Often RPI defined by the inherent properties of the signal being measured. For example temperature measurement
changes slower.
• Use compatible module for keying option on I/O cards configuration.
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System Element Recommendations
Table 10 - I/O Considerations
Attribute
Consideration
ControlNet network
• Set the network update time (NUT) equal to or less than the fastest RPI of the I/O modules and produced-consumed
tags in the system. For example, if your fastest RPI is 10 ms, set the NUT to 5 ms for more flexibility in scheduling the
network.
• Set the RPI to a binary multiple of the NUT. For example, if the NUT is 10 ms, select an RPI such as 10, 20, 40, 80, 160
ms, and so forth.
• All I/O should be unscheduled to be able to add ControlNet modules at runtime. (See I/O Module Runtime/Online
Considerations.) Dedicate one ControlNet network to I/O communication only.
• Unscheduled I/O requires a connection to each module, so the number of modules supported depends on the
number of connections supported by the communication module. On the dedicated I/O network, make sure of the
following:
– No HMI traffic
– No MSG traffic
– No programming workstations
– No peer-to-peer interlocking in a multi-processor system architecture
EtherNet/IP network
See Chapter 4 for infrastructure recommendations.
I/O Module Runtime/Online Considerations
With the PlantPAx system, you can add modules to the Controller Organizer in
RSLogix 5000 software when the controller is in Run mode.
• You can add the 1756 I/O modules to the local chassis, remotely via the
unscheduled portion of a ControlNet network, and remotely via an
EtherNet/IP network.
• You can add the 1757-FFLDC linking device remotely to the unscheduled
portion of a ControlNet network and the 1757-FFLD linking device
remotely via an EtherNet/IP network.
Table 11 - Online Addition of Module and Connection Types
1756 Module Type and
Communication Method
In Local Chassis
Offline
Runtime
In Remote Chassis Via a ControlNet Network
In Remote Chassis Via an
EtherNet/IP Network
Offline
Offline
Runtime
Runtime
Scheduled
Unscheduled
Scheduled
Unscheduled
Analog - direct
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Generic third-party - direct
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
1756-DNB
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
1756-DHRIO
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
1756-CNx - no connection
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
N/A
N/A
1756-CNx - rack-optimized
N/A
N/A
Yes
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
1757-FFLDx linking device
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
1757-FFLDCx linking device
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
N/A
N/A
1788HP-EN2PA-R
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
1788HP-CN2PA-R
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
N/A
N/A
1756-ENx - no connection
Yes
Yes
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
1756-ENx - rack-optimized
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
Generic EtherNet/IP
third-party - direct
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
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System Element Recommendations
Chapter 2
When you design your network, review these considerations if you are going to
add I/O modules at runtime.
Table 12 - Adding I/O Modules at Runtime
Design Issue
Consideration
I/O modules
Currently, only 1756 I/O modules can be added at runtime.
Leave space in the local chassis, remote chassis on a ControlNet network, or remote chassis on an EtherNet/IP network
for the I/O modules that you want to add.
Input transmission rate
Make sure each RPI works for the data you want to send and receive.
Make sure the added I/O does not depend on change-of-state data.
Network topology
On a ControlNet network, install spare taps so you can add 1756 I/O modules at runtime without disrupting the
network. Each tap must be terminated so as to not ground out the system. Check the ControlNet system requirements
to determine how many spare taps your network can support.
• In a ControlNet network with redundant cabling, you can break the trunk and add a new tap, but redundant cabling
is lost during the module installation.
• In a ControlNet ring, add a new drop off the rung or add new nodes off the coax and disrupt only part of the
network.
• You could remove a single existing node and add a repeater off of the drop. Then re-add the existing node and add
any new nodes off of the new segment.
On EtherNet/IP, reserve some connection points on the switch so that you can connect additional nodes or switches in
the future.
Network configuration
On a ControlNet network, plan which communication can be scheduled or can be unscheduled.
On an EtherNet/IP network, all communication is Immediate and occurs based on a module’s RPI (also referred to as
unscheduled).
If you know that you will need a new chassis with digital modules in the future, configure the network and add it to the
I/O configuration tree as rack-optimized. Then inhibit the communication adapter until you need the chassis.
Network performance
You can add I/O modules at runtime until you impact the capacity of the communication module. Make sure you have
sufficient communication modules for the connections you plan to add.
See the Logix5000™ Controllers Design Considerations Reference Manual,
publication 1756-RM094, for more information.
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Chapter 2
System Element Recommendations
AppServ-HMI
Use these guidelines when gauging whether to implement an additional
AppServ-HMI for your PlantPAx system.
• When you have more than one type of data server (such as
RSLinx Enterprise or OPC data servers).
• When you want to balance the load (you are at > 40% CPU of
your PASS or existing AppServ-HMI).
• For creating logical area; for example, you want to perform routine
maintenance on a server for one area without affecting other areas.
The AppServ-HMI includes the following Rockwell Automation Integrated
Architecture™ software components.
Software Component
Description
FactoryTalk View HMI server
The HMI server stores HMI project components, such as graphic displays, and serves these components to Operator
Workstations upon request. The HMI server also can manage tag databases and log historical data. HMI servers are
configured within your FactoryTalk View SE application.
FactoryTalk View Data server
The Data server component provides access to information from the process controllers to the HMI server and
OWS station. FactoryTalk View supports two types of data servers: Rockwell Automation Device servers
( RSLinx Enterprise) and OPC Data servers. The Data server mentioned in PlantPAx documentation generally refers to
the Rockwell Automation Device servers. Data servers are configured within your FactoryTalk View SE application.
Multiple data servers can exist on the PlantPAx system.
FactoryTalk View Alarms and Events server
The Alarms and Events server is an optional component on the PASS that makes alarm information from controllers and
servers available to all subscribing OWS stations. Alarms and Events servers are configured within your FactoryTalk
View SE application. There are two types of Alarms and Events servers: device-based alarm and event servers (that is,
configured as an option to the data server), and server-based alarm and event servers (configured as a separate
component). The Alarms and Events server mentioned in PlantPAx documentation refers to the Alarms and Events
server that is used for server-based alarms. You can have up to two Alarms and Events servers on the PlantPAx system.
These may exist on the PASS or an AppServ-HMI.
Optional
FactoryTalk® Batch client software
If a Batch Application server is being used on the system, FactoryTalk Batch client components are required to support
replication of batch-related objects on the displays to the OWS.
AppServ- HMI Redundancy
All the Application Server-HMI software components can be made redundant
through the server properties dialog box with the FactoryTalk View application.
When enabling redundancy in FactoryTalk® View Studio, select the option to
‘Continue using the secondary server when the primary server becomes available
again’ to avoid excessive switchovers and to be able to manage replication of
application changes made before or after the switchover occurs.
Follow these guidelines for redundant HMI servers.
• Avoid implementing HMI server redundancy until system testing
or commissioning
• Initially, HMI server files should be copied from the primary to the
secondary server. The Replication button can be used after initial copy.
• Alarm states are synchronized between HMI servers during
runtime automatically.
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Chapter
3
System Application Recommendations
After initial installation of the system elements, there are system application
recommendations to follow when creating application specific code. These
recommendations help to make sure of optimal performance of the
PlantPAx system.
The engineering workstation (EWS) supports system configuration, application
development, and maintenance functions. This is the central location for
monitoring and maintaining the system’s operation.
The following table describes what this chapter contains and where to find
specific information.
Controller Recommendations
Topic
Page
Controller Recommendations
31
FactoryTalk View Recommendations
38
PlantPAx Library of Process Objects
40
Alarm Implementation Recommendations
41
Application Development Resources
43
This section contains integral information for maximizing your controller and
network resources. We strongly recommend that you review these topics for
system application efficiency.
Process Controller Configuration
Using RSLogix 5000 software, configure your controllers and tasks by using the
following recommendations.
Table 13 - Controller and Task Recommendations
Attribute
Recommendation
Tasks
A task provides scheduling and priority information for a set of one or more programs. Place your logic in periodic tasks.
Create multiple periodic tasks to align with the appropriate scan rate based on the logic it contains. For example:
• Fast (100…250 ms) for discrete control, such as motors and pumps
• Medium (250 …500 ms) for flow and pressure loops or analog inputs
• Slow (1000…2000 ms) for temperature, phases, batch sequencing
Reduce the number of tasks created to improve controller performance.
Do not use a continuous task. See Using Periodic Tasks on page 32.
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Chapter 3
System Application Recommendations
Table 13 - Controller and Task Recommendations
Attribute
Recommendation
Task Properties
• To limit the amount of task switching, we recommend that priority be assigned based on scan rate, with faster tasks
getting higher priority (configured by entering a lower number). Do not use the same priority for multiple tasks.
• Set the watchdog to at least three times the task period. This specifies how long a task can run before triggering a
major fault.
• Inhibit or delete unused tasks.
• To allow for communication load, it’s recommended that the total execution time of all tasks is less than half of your
fastest task rate. For example, if your fastest periodic task runs at 500 ms, the total execution time of all tasks should
be < 250 ms.
• CPU utilization varies based on communication status. When you are online, you can monitor the execution of your
tasks from the Monitor tab of the Task Properties window. (1)
• An overlap is a condition where a task (periodic or event) is triggered while the task is still executing the previous
scan. You should also check that you are not experiencing task overlap by verifying the task overlap count is 0.
Controller Properties -Advanced
The system overhead time slice does not need to be set when a continuous task is not configured.
Controller Properties - Memory
• It’s recommended to keep 50% of available data and logic memory available for communication.
• The amount of data and logic memory the controller needs varies depending on the state of communication based
on the number and type of tags that are accessed by applications, such as the HMI and Historian. Therefore, it’s
recommended to leave enough data and logic memory capacity to handle the communication.
• When you are offline, you can estimate how much controller memory your project requires by using the Memory
tab of the Controller Properties dialog box. When you are online, this tab displays actual memory usage of the
controller (including memory used for communication).
• Online, you can also view the maximum used memory as communication occurs from this tab.
(1) See Process Controller Utilization on page 36 for more information.
See Table 25 on page 69 for more information on controller memory.
Using Periodic Tasks
For PlantPAx system recommendations and sizing tools to work properly, the
continuous task that is created by default in the RSLogix5000 software should be
deleted or changed to a periodic task. If left as the default, the continuous task
runs in the background of the controller as the lowest priority task. Any
controller CPU time not allocated to other operations or tasks is used to execute
the continuous task.
When the continuous task completes, it restarts automatically. System overhead
time defines the amount of time the controller has available for communication
and interrupts the continuous task for communicating to HMI devices,
processing MSG instructions, and alarm instruction processing.
Continuous task is very good for high-speed discrete applications where the main
goal is to execute code as fast as possible. We recommend not using the
continuous task on the PlantPAx system for the following reasons:
• Time-based operations, such as a PID algorithm, do not function
accurately when run in a continuous task.
• Removal of the continuous task improves predictability of the controller
free-time available for communication to the system.
• Removal of the continuous task allows for a more accurate view of the
controller loading at run time. With continuous task, controller loading is
always 100%.
• Removal of the continuous task reduces the amount of task switching that
improves overall application and system performance.
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Chapter 3
Controller Project Considerations
Configure the tasks in the process controller by using the following
recommendations.
Table 14 - Process Controller Recommendations
Attribute
Recommendation
Tags
See Controller Tag Optimization.
Add-On Instructions
See Using Add-On Instructions on page 35.
Produced and consumed tags
A single produced and consumed tag can contain multiple combinations of data. For example, up to 120 REALs
or 100 REALs and 640 BOOLs.
Group produced and consumed tags into a user-defined structure to reduce the number of connections to the
controller.
Use the same data type for the produced and consumed tags in each controller that uses that data.
Make sure the number of consumers configured for a produced tag is the actual number of controllers consuming it to
reduce the number of connections to the controller.
On produced tags, the maximum consumers configured counts against your total connection count so make it the
actual number of connections or set it at the expected number to be in the future.
Always use a handshake when transferring data between controllers through health data or manually configured
diagnostics.
Messaging
There is a maximum of 32 cached message connections from message instructions and
block-transfers combined.
Cache messages only when the message needs to be maintained all the time. If a message instruction is infrequent
then make sure cached connection is unchecked.
Always use message reads, never do message writes.
When messaging between controllers, use DINTs where possible.
Message instructions consume a connection when it is a CIP data table read, write, or generic (if selected).
Controller Tag Optimization
When configuring displays, we recommend that you use direct tag referencing to
access data from the controller directly without creating an HMI tag. This
requires less configuration steps and is easier to maintain.
Use DINT and REAL data types whenever possible. Mathematical routines in
the controller consume less memory when DINT and REAL data types are used.
A user-defined data type (UDT) lets you organize data to match your machine or
process. Additional advantages of a UDT include the following:
• One tag contains all the data related to a specific system activity. This
keeps related data together and easier to locate, regardless of its data type.
• Each individual piece of data (member) gets a descriptive name. This
automatically creates an initial level of documentation for your logic.
• You can use the data type to create multiple tags with the same data layout.
For example, you can use a UDT to store all the parameters for a tank, including
temperatures, pressures, valve positions, and preset values. Create a tag for each of
your tanks based on that data type.
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Chapter 3
System Application Recommendations
You can create a UDT when online or offline. However, you can only modify an
existing UDT definition when offline.
General Recommendations
• Define tags in arrays and a UDT whenever possible. Tag data that is
packed into an array is sent more efficiently to the HMI than if you were
using scattered tag data.
• When defining a UDT, group BOOL tags together whenever possible.
Inside the controller memory, BOOL tags must align on 8-bit boundaries.
But, if they are placed adjacent to each other they can share the same byte
and use less memory and communication bandwidth.
• BOOL data types that are not members of an array or structure use 4-bytes
of controller memory. When communicating multiple BOOL tags
between controllers or to displays, use a UDT or array to consolidate
multiple BOOL tags into a single word.
• Define a tag naming convention that minimizes the length of the tag
names. Long tag names can decrease the bandwidth available for
communicating data.
See the Logix5000 Controllers I/O and Tag Data Programming Manual,
publication 1756-PM004, for more information.
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Chapter 3
Using Add-On Instructions
Add-On Instructions are reusable codes that contain encapsulated logic that can
streamline implementing your system. This lets you create your own instruction
set for programming logic as a supplement to the instruction set provided
natively in the ControlLogix firmware. An Add-On Instruction is defined once
in each controller project, and can be instantiated multiple times in your
application code as needed.
In RSLogix5000, you can view the routines within an Add-On Instruction
instance online, animated with just that instance's value as if it were an
individually defined routine. Add-On Instructions also can be source protected,
which means users without the source key cannot edit the Add-On Instruction
definition. To protect intellectual property, routines and local tags can also be
hidden on protected Add-On Instructions, if desired.
The use of Add-On Instructions can save time by creating sets of commonly used
instructions. They can be shared between projects to create a common library of
instructions to accelerate engineering from project to project. Add-On
Instructions also can be signed with a specific data and time, so that revisions of
Add-On Instructions can be managed between projects.
Add-On Instructions can be used to create device-level instructions, like a valve
controller or standard calculation, where each instance is configured but the
source definition is unlikely to change. Like a native instruction, the definition of
an Add-On Instruction cannot be modified online. Therefore, it’s important that
you fully test all configuration options before implementing an Add-On
Instruction on your production system.
The PlantPAx Library of Process Objects uses Add-On Instructions. See page 40
for more information.
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Chapter 3
System Application Recommendations
Process Controller Utilization
Free Process controller CPU time is required to handle communications,
abnormal conditions, and other transient loads. Therefore, it’s important to
consider CPU utilization when implementing the application code.
When defining the application code, make sure the CPU utilization of the
process controller can accommodate these values:
• In the development environment, CPU utilization should be less than 50%
to allow for the additional CPU load that will be experienced in the
production environment.
• During the operation of the system, the CPU utilization should be
monitored, especially after a change to the application code, and should
never exceed 75%.
• During the design of the application code, it is important to account for
software components, such as FactoryTalk View or Historian, that are
actively collecting data from the controller, to make sure CPU utilization is
less than 75% to allow for communication with the supervisory system
elements (EWS, OWS, Information server).
There are two options for reviewing controller loading:
• Task Monitor - Available from RSLogix 5000 software on the EWS.
• L_CPU Add-On Instruction - Preferred method of monitoring, viewable
from HMI screens and available from the Knowledgebase Answer
ID 62682 at http:/rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
Task Monitor
If your process controller contains periodic tasks only (see page 32), use the
RSLogix 5000 Task Monitor tool.
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System Application Recommendations
Chapter 3
Processor Utilization (L_CPU)
The Logix Controller CPU Utilization (L_CPU) Add-On Instruction monitors
the Logix controller executing it and is used in place or addition to the Task
Monitor to provide more system-specific controller loading information.
Information includes controller CPU utilization, communication usage, memory
usage, and task scan times. This data provides information for diagnosing
communication, controlling responsiveness issues, or in tuning the performance
of control tasks for optimum controller performance.
The diagram in Figure 3 shows a properly loaded controller for
the following:
• Allocation code execution, I/O processing is less than 70% CPU
• Expected communication is less than 30% CPU
Figure 3 - CPU Utilization
27.07%
Communication Time
9,785 Tags/Second
100 ms Task
37.69%
Application Code
Execution
250 ms Task
500 ms Task
13.10%
I/O /System Processing
22.14%
Null Time
System Processing Time
System Background Task Time
See the Process Add-On Instructions: Processor Utilization (L_CPU) in the
Knowledgebase Answer ID 62682
at http:/rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
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Chapter 3
System Application Recommendations
FactoryTalk View
Recommendations
38
For implementing FactoryTalk View SE software for a process system operator
interface, follow these guidelines:
• Run FactoryTalk View Studio software on the EWS during runtime. Do
not run FactoryTalk View Studio software on the server (PASS or
AppServ-HMI) during runtime operation.
• Set the FactoryTalk View SE servers to start automatically on start up on
the AppServ-HMI and PASS. Let the servers fully start up before starting
the client computers.
• Do not run remote desktop clients on the AppServ-HMI or PASS.
• Do not use the remote desktop for system development.
• Any 1 Area contains only 1 server of any type (HMI or Data). This will
prevent the failure of one data server from affecting any others that are in
the same area. This will also prevent potential performance problems.
• Minimize the number of areas accessed on one display.
• Use global objects to display the status of a control module or device when
the information to be displayed is stored in a tag structure within Logix
(for example, UDT or AOI) and there are many identical instances. A
global object is a display element that is created once and can be referenced
multiple times on multiple displays in an application. When changes are
made to the original (base) object, the instantiated copies (reference
objects) are automatically updated. Use of global objects, in conjunction
with tag structures in ControlLogix, can help ensure consistency and save
engineering time.
• When using global objects, observe the following recommendations to
ensure optimal display call-up performance:
– Base global objects are stored in FactoryTalk View in global object
displays (.ggfx files). If you have a large number of base global objects
defined, do not put them all in a single global object display. Try to
organize your global object displays logically, trying to keep an average
of 30 base global objects per global object display while minimizing the
number of different global object displays referenced by a single
standard display.
– Limit the number of global object instances on a single display to
40 or less.
– As global objects may be instantiated multiple times, the performance
impact of their design is amplified by their number of instances.
Therefore, design global objects carefully to reduce the number of
objects, expressions and animations used within the base object.
• Limit the number of dynamic references on a display to 1,000 references
(HMI or direct reference tags). Be aware that each global object instance
may represent multiple references, and global objects are allowed to
reference other global objects. This improves display call up performance.
• Use derived tags for complex expressions or alarm functions that are
repeatedly used within graphic displays (for example, alarm expressions).
This reduces HMI server load.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
System Application Recommendations
Chapter 3
• Do not create derived tags that depend on the results of other derived tags.
Derived tag processing is not sequential.
• Avoid use of VBA when possible. VBA runs as a single-threaded process, so
if VBA is performing badly, the entire HMI can perform badly.
Data Log Recommendations
Data logging uses the FactoryTalk View SE application data log capability, and
should be used for only short-term data retention (typically less than a 24-hour
period). Data is stored on the PASS or AppServ-HMI of operator-defined
process variables to aid in controlling the process. Data logging is for storing a
minimal number of data (for example, no more than 50 data log points per
controller). For long-term data storage or to collect a large number of data points,
use the FactoryTalk Historian software.
Configure data logging to the following:
• Log to a separate drive from the system drive (for example, file set, absolute
path is D:\Logfiles)
• Delete oldest file after 10 days to conserve disk space, if necessary
• Set logging to periodic for a consistent system load
• Set to logging to on change for infrequently changing data
• Set interval to 1 second or greater
• Defragment data drive (usually drive D) daily with a third-party package
for better retrieval performance.
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Chapter 3
System Application Recommendations
PlantPAx Library of Process
Objects
The PlantPAx Library of Process Objects is a predefined library of controller
code (Add-On Instructions), display elements (global objects), and faceplates
that let you quickly assemble large applications with proven strategies, rich
functionality, and known performance. This library is available from the
Knowledgebase Answer ID 62682 at http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com,
complete with instruction documentation.
Step 3: Access a faceplate from the
global object at runtime for control
and maintenance.
Step 1: Drop and
configure AOI.
Step 2: Drop the global
object on display and
assign to AOI instance.
45827
The PlantPAx Library of Process Objects is supported through Rockwell
Automation Technical Support as long as the Add-On Instructions have not been
modified from the original deployment.
You can use library objects other than the PlantPAx collection. For example, you
can choose to develop your own library, or use the PlantPAx elements and
faceplates as guides. Using a library of consistent elements will improve the
maintainability and efficiency of your PlantPAx system.
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System Application Recommendations
Alarm Implementation
Recommendations
Chapter 3
PlantPAx offers two options for configuring alarms: HMI classic alarming and
FactoryTalk Alarm and Events.
Table 15 - Alarm Options
Alarm Options
Description
HMI Classic Alarming
Using FactoryTalk View, you would configure alarms as a property of a HMI tag in the HMI server.
Advantages
• Only architecture supported for FactoryTalk View ME
(PanelView Plus)
• Support for a high number of alarms (40,000 per HMI
server of which 10,000 can be
analog tags)
FactoryTalk® Alarms and Events
Disadvantages
• Limited visualization objects
• Limited alarm logging functionality
• Logs alarm in local time (as configured in the HMI
server)
Alarms can be configured in the controller or in a FactoryTalk View server. Device-based alarms (ALMA, ALMD) are
subscribed to by the RSLinx Enterprise server when the option is enabled.
Server-based alarms (digital, level, or deviation) are configured in a tag Alarm and Event server.
Advantages
• Includes complete set of visualization components
(Alarm summary, Alarm banner, Alarm Status Explorer,
and so forth)
• Native ability to log alarm history to SQL database
• Logs alarm in UTC time
Disadvantages
• No support for PanelView™ Plus platform (FactoryTalk
View ME)
• Lower number of supported alarms per system
(20,000) and alarms and attached clients per
system (20 OWS)
FactoryTalk Alarms and Events (FTAE) supports device-based alarms (ALMA
and ALMD instructions in the controller) and server-based alarms (level,
discrete, or deviation alarms). FTAE device-based and server-based alarms can
co-exist in a single application.
For your PlantPAx system, we recommend that you use FTAE server-based
alarms. Use device-based alarms for only the most critical or time-critical alarms.
HMI Classic Alarm Recommendations
• Only use HMI Classic Alarms if your application doesn’t support the use
of FactoryTalk Alarms and Events.
• Use alarm handshaking only for critical alarms to reduce the number of
tags that must be held on scan in large applications.
• When making changes to the HMI tag database related to alarming, run
the AlarmAcceptEdits command to make effective all alarm changes made
since the last AlarmOn command. When using redundant HMI servers,
AlarmAcceptEdits may cause the alarm synchronization between the
primary and secondary server to stop because the configuration in the
primary and secondary servers no longer match. To address this, after
changes are made, replicate them to the secondary HMI server. Monitor
the status of the secondary server to make sure it returns to Standby status.
• The number of HMI classic alarms per application should be limited to
40,000 total, of which no more than 10,000 can be analog tags.
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System Application Recommendations
General FactoryTalk Alarm Recommendations
• Use an alarm class to group alarms based on their function. For example,
groupings that make it easier for operators to identify alarms related to bad
I/O, controller deviation, device failures, or valves that fail to open or
close.
• Use a tag naming convention that lets you group alarms by location to
enable rolled up indicators by using alarm expressions in FactoryTalk
View SE to retrieve alarm counts by name.
• The number of FactoryTalk alarms per application should be limited to
20,000 total.
FactoryTalk Server-based Alarm Recommendations
• The Tag Alarm and Event server and the Data server, which collects the
information for the Tag Alarm and Event server, must both be hosted on
the same server.
• An application is limited to two Tag Alarm and Event servers per
application.
• For large applications, consider separating the data server used for alarms
and events from the data server used for display data. You can do this by
creating a separate AppServ-HMI that contains only the alarm and events
server and its associated data server.
• Whenever possible, use Digital Alarms to perform the alarm detection in
the controller to generate a Boolean indication of the alarm condition.
• Use the import and export features in FactoryTalk View SE when you need
to configure a large number of alarms.
FactoryTalk Device-based Alarm Recommendations
• An application is limited to two RSLinx Enterprise servers with
FactoryTalk Alarms and Events (FTAE) enabled.
• For large applications, consider separating the data server used for
device-based alarms from the data server used for display data. You can do
this by creating a separate AppServ-HMI that contains only the
RSLinx Enterprise server with FTAE enabled.
• We recommend that you use ALMA and ALMD instructions for only the
most critical or time critical alarms. There are no hard-coded limitations,
but when ALMA and ALMD are used, we recommend limiting the
number of instructions to 250 per redundant controller, 1000 per L6x
simplex controller, or 2000 per L7x simplex controller.
• Be aware that controller scan time and memory usage is variable with the
use of FTAE instructions depending on the states of the controller. Large
alarm bursts can have a significant impact on controller CPU utilization.
For example:
– Controller memory used for buffering by each subscriber (RSLinx
Enterprise) = 100 KB
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System Application Recommendations
Chapter 3
– Example execution times:
ALMD in a 1756-L63 controller with no alarm state changes: 8 μs
ALMD in a 1756-L63 controller with alarm state changes: 35 μs
In redundant controller configurations, crossloading of redundancy can
add up to 70 μs per ALMD instruction.
See the Logix5000 Controllers Execution Time and Memory Use
Reference Manual, publication 1756-RM087, for more information.
Using the PlantPAx Library of Process Objects for Alarms
The PlantPAx Library uses a dedicated Add-On Instruction, titled P_ALARM,
for each configurable alarm in the library elements. Documentation is provided
with the Process Library to describe how to connect the Add-On Instruction
instances with the HMI server for Classic Alarming or with Tag Alarm and Event
Server for FactoryTalk Alarming.
We do not recommend the use of Classic Alarming and FactoryTalk Alarm and
Events together in a single application. However, we do recommend the use of
HMI Classic Alarming for your FactoryTalk® View ME applications and
FactoryTalk Alarm and Events Alarming for your FactoryTalk View SE
application, which can both talk to the same controller.
Application Development
Resources
The following resources are available for use to assist with developing
your application.
Topics and Tools
Description
Where To Find Information
PlantPAx Library
Diagnostic objects and enhanced process instructions to
accelerate system engineering. See page 40 for details.
See the Knowledgebase Answer ID 62682 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
FactoryTalk Diagnostic sample displays
Sample graphics to display RSLinx Enterprise
sample counters.
See the Knowledgebase Answer ID 30148 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
Server status displays
Sample code is provided to determine a server’s current
status and state by using VBA and displaying the status on
the HMI screen.
See the Knowledgebase Answer ID 44624 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
PlantPAx Preferred Integration tools
Add-On Instructions and pre-defined faceplates for
Endress+Hauser field devices.
See the Knowledgebase Answer ID 60185 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
Rockwell Automation Integrated Architecture tools
These tools can assist you in understanding, planning, and
configuring an Integrated Architecture System.
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/solutions/
integratedarchitecture/resources.html
Rockwell Automation sample code
Sample code and tools for configuring and programming
Rockwell Automation products, including Rockwell
specific faceplates.
http://samplecode.rockwellautomation.com/idc/groups/
public/documents/webassets/sc_home_page.hcst
FactoryTalk® Batch implementation tools
Batch tools for collecting, organizing, reporting, and
visualizing FactoryTalk View data.
See the following Knowledgebase Answer IDs at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com:
• 62367
• 62372
• 67642
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Chapter 3
System Application Recommendations
Notes:
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Chapter
4
Infrastructure Recommendations
The PlantPAx system infrastructure is built on an IT infrastructure based on
commercial off-the-shelf technologies, such as Microsoft Windows, and open
network technologies to allow for seamless integration between system elements
and to higher-level business systems.
This chapter outlines recommendations for setting up the infrastructure
components to achieve optimal performance of the PlantPAx system.
Operating System
Recommendations
Topic
Page
Operating System Recommendations
45
Network Recommendations
51
The following recommendations apply regardless of the size or complexity of the
system operation.
Domains and Workgroups
We recommend that PlantPAx servers and workstations be members of a
Windows domain. However, workgroups are supported for systems with
10 or fewer workstations and servers.
Configuration
Details
Workgroup - decentralized administration
(10 or fewer computers)
Workgroup advantages:
• No domain controller (Windows Server OS) to purchase or maintain.
• Recommended only for small PlantPAx applications where user accounts do not change often
Workgroup rules:
• All workstation and server system elements in a single PlantPAx system must be members of the same workgroup
• All users participating in the workgroup must be members of the Administrators group
• Create the same set of user accounts and passwords on every computer in a FactoryTalk View application
Domain - centralized administration
Domain advantages:
• One place to manage Users, Groups, and Security settings
• Recommended for larger PlantPAx applications, or environments with changing user accounts
Domain rules:
• All workstation and server system elements in a single PlantPAx system must be members of the same domain
• PlantPAx server system elements should not be used as domain controllers.
• Required for systems with more than 10 computers
• The domain controller should be its own independent computer with no other application software.
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Chapter 4
Infrastructure Recommendations
Domain Recommendations
We recommend that all PlantPAx system servers and workstations be a member
of a domain. Follow these additional recommendations:
• Windows Active Directory (AD) domains include the concept of a ‘forest’,
which can consist of a single ‘domain tree’ or multiple domain trees.
TIP
A domain tree can consist of a single (parent) domain or multiple
(child) domains. A single forest, single tree, single domain
configuration is recommended. In a Windows 2008 Active Directory,
both domains and forests have individual
functional levels.
• We recommend configuring at least two domain controllers in the domain.
These domain controllers will replicate automatically to provide high
availability and an online configuration backup.
• Add the PASS as a member of the domain before developing your
FactoryTalk View application.
• The domain servers also must be configured to include Domain Name
Service (DNS), which lets you identify devices by name rather than
IP addresses.
• Configure time synchronization throughout a domain.
• New and existing active directory domains should have operations verified
by using Microsoft’s Domain Controller Diagnostics (Dcdiag.exe) utility.
This utility is included with the Windows support tools on the operating
system CD and can also be downloaded from Microsoft.
IMPORTANT
46
Do not install the Windows domain controller on the PlantPAx PASS server or
application servers.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
Infrastructure Recommendations
Chapter 4
Windows Workgroup Recommendations
PlantPAx can use a Windows workgroup network environment for systems using
10 or fewer computers. However, if you are using a Windows XP operating
system you must turn off simple file sharing and fast user switching on each
PlantPAx server and workstation in the workgroup.
Do these steps to turn off simple file sharing in Windows XP.
1. On the desktop or in Windows Explorer, right-click My Computer and
select Explore.
2. On the Tools menu, select Folder Options.
The Folder Options dialog box appears.
3. In the View tab under Advanced settings, clear the Use simple file sharing
check box.
Do these steps to turn off fast user switching in Windows XP.
1. Open the Windows Control Panel, and double-click User Accounts.
2. Click the Change the way Users Log on and Off link.
3. Clear the Use Fast User Switching check box.
4. Click Apply Options.
Internet Information Server (IIS)
The Internet Information Server (IIS) provides graphics displays and other
file-based components from the HMI server on the PASS or AppServ-HMI to
OWS and EWS workstations by using Web-based Distributed Authoring and
Visioning (WebDAV). WebDAV is an extension to the HTTP protocol that
facilitates editing and managing files across multiple users and workstations.
In addition, when OWS and EWS workstations issue FactoryTalk View
commands that must be run on the HMI server, the commands are sent by
using the IIS platform.
Therefore, the IIS software is a required component on the PASS and
AppServ-HMI servers. We recommend against the installation of IIS on any
other system elements.
See Chapter 2 of the FactoryTalk View Site Edition Installation Guide,
publication VIEWSE-IN003, for more information.
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Chapter 4
Infrastructure Recommendations
Server and Workstation Time Synchronization
System time synchronization is important so that the internal clocks in the
controllers, workstations, and servers reference the same time for any event or
alarm that may occur. Configure the PASS, App-servers, OWS, and EWS to use a
single server (for example, a domain controller) as their time reference and keep
their clocks tightly synched to it.
Computer Time Synchronization
The Windows Time service uses the network time protocol (NTP) to
synchronize computer clocks on the network from the domain controller. Each
computer in the process system uses the domain controller as the authoritative
time source and synchronizes their clock to it. Check the Event Viewer System
log of each computer to verify that the time is updated properly.
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Infrastructure Recommendations
Chapter 4
After configuring the domain controller for time synchronization, you can use
the Windows w32tm command line tool to identify any time difference between
an individual computer and the domain controller. This command measures the
time difference.
w32tm /stripchart /computer:<target>[/period:<refresh>] [/
dataonly]
Parameter
Identifies
computer:<target>
The computer to measure the offset against.
period:<refresh>
The time between samples, in seconds. The default is 2 s.
dataonly
To display only the data without graphics.
The w32tm / resync command manually forces a computer to resynchronize
its clock to the domain controller as soon as possible and resets error statistics.
Operating System Optimization
The following recommendations will enhance the performance of your
operating system:
• Turn off Windows automatic updates to prevent compatibility issues with
existing PlantPAx components on your workstations.
See Maintenance Recommendations for more information on how to
apply Microsoft patches to your PlantPAx system.
• Disable operating system themes, which allow for personalized computer
effects such as sounds and icons. These types of elements diminish
processor speed when running some FactoryTalk View SE graphic
components, such as alarm summaries.
• Disable or uninstall all third-party firewalls on a workstation before
installing FactoryTalk View SE software, which is compatible only with
the built-in Windows operating system firewall.
• Data Execution Prevention (DEP) should be turned on for workstations
running FactoryTalk View SE components. This security feature protects
against viruses and other security threats by preventing unauthorized
programs from running executable program code.
• Remove Enhanced Security Configuration (ESC) from workstations
running FactoryTalk View SE software. The Windows 2008 security
settings protect servers by limiting how users can browse the Internet on a
computer, but can hinder FactoryTalk clients connecting to application
servers.
• Disable Windows error reporting.
See page 50.
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Chapter 4
Infrastructure Recommendations
Disable Windows Error Reporting
There is an error-reporting feature included with most versions of Windows that
can be used to report computer and program errors to Microsoft. However,
disabling this feature will free up computer resources since Microsoft currently
does not forward any error information to Rockwell Automation. We
recommend that this feature be disabled on PlantPAx servers and workstations.
Do these steps to disable error reporting on an individual computer.
1. To open the System Properties dialog box, choose Start/Setting/
Control Panel/System.
2. On the System Properties dialog box, select the Advanced tab and click the
Error Reporting button.
The Error Reporting dialog box displays.
3. Select the default Disable error reporting option.
If you don’t want to see any type of error message, clear the But Notify Me
When Critical Errors Occur check box.
4. Click OK twice.
To disable Error Reporting on multiple computers in a Windows domain
environment, use the Group Policy Editor for the domain. The policy settings
are located in Computer Configuration/Administrative Templates/System/
Error Reporting.
When you configure these policy settings, they will override any adjustments to
error reporting that are made via the Control Panel procedures.
Virtualization
Virtualization breaks the dependency between operating system and physical
hardware, allowing multiple virtual machines to run different operating systems
and applications from varying locations on the same server. You also have the
ability to upgrade hardware without replacing the operating system on individual
workstations.
Rockwell Automation supports virtualization on VMWare's ESXi architecture
for the PASS, EWS, OWS, and application servers.
Contact a Rockwell Automation Support Representative for more information.
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Infrastructure Recommendations
Network Recommendations
Chapter 4
The Ethernet network provides the communication backbone for the
supervisory network for the workstations, servers, and the controllers.
• Configure all communication interfaces to operate at 100 MB, full duplex
(do not use autonegotiate) for 10/100 network adapters.
• Disable power saving for the Network Interface Card (NIC) that connects
a workstation to other devices on the network. The power-saving feature
turns off the network card when not in use and this may interfere with
network throughput.
• If multiple DCOM protocols are installed and set up on a workstation, to
make sure that DCOM communications function correctly, remove all
protocols other than TCP/IP.
• Use static IP addresses.
• Consider cable type for environmental conditions.
Type
Details
Fiber-optic
•
•
•
•
•
Shielded twisted pair
• Use Category 5e, 6, or 6a cables and connectors
• Use termination sequence 568A for industrial applications
Long distances
Near high magnetic fields, such as induction-heating processes
For extreme high-noise environments
For poorly grounded systems
For outdoor applications
Refer to these publications for additional information:
• For fiber cable specifications and an example of dB loss, see Appendix C in
the EtherNet/IP Modules Installation Instructions, ENET-IN002.
• For selecting architecture, see the EtherNet Design Considerations
Reference Manual, publication ENET-RM002, or the PlantPAx Selection
Guide, publication PROCES-SG001.
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Chapter 4
Infrastructure Recommendations
Ethernet Switches
The supervisory network should have managed switches that direct specific
messages to multicast groups. Do not use unmanaged switches. The behavior of
an unmanaged switch is to flood multicast packets to all ports within the
same VLAN.
• The first switch that Rockwell Automation equipment touches should
have IGMP snooping enabled. IGMP snooping enables switches to
forward multicast packets only to ports that are part of a particular
multicast group.
Select the switch depending on the network functionality.
Table 16 - Ethernet Switches
If
Then
Recommended Media
• Supervisory
• Routing information to other networks
Layer 3 switches
• Stratix 8300
• Cisco Catalyst 3760G or equivalent
• Cisco Catalyst 3750 or equivalent
Fiber(1)
• Connecting control hardware, sensors, and
workstations
• Isolated networks
Layer 2 switches
• Stratix 8000
• Stratix 6000
• Cisco Catalyst 29xx or equivalent
1585-series copper media
High availability at switch level
Layer 3 switch
• Stackwise 3760G or equivalent
Fiber(1)
(1) For uplink cables between Layer 2-3, fiber is recommended for 1 GB connectivity.
For more information, see these resources:
– Ethernet switches -- Ethernet Design Considerations Reference
Manual, publication ENET-RM002.
– Ethernet switch configuration -- Converged Plantwide Ethernet
(CPwE) Design and Implementation Guide,
publication ENET-TD001.
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Chapter 4
Controller and I/O Ethernet Adapters
The EtherNet/IP network also supports controller downlinks and connections
to remote I/O and field device interfaces.
Table 17 - EtherNet/IP Interface
Category
Product
Description
ControlLogix controller interface
1756-EN2T, 1756-EN2TR,1756-EN2F
1756-ENBT
1756-EWEB
ControlLogix EtherNet/IP scanner.
1757-FFLD2
1757-FFLD4
EtherNet/IP to FOUNDATION Fieldbus linking device. Supports two or four H1
FOUNDATION Fieldbus networks.
1788HP-EN2PA-R(1)
HIPROM Technologies, EtherNet/IP to PROFIBUS PA linking device. Supports
redundant PA media and DLR capable Ethernet.
(1) Can be ordered directly from HIPROM Technologies; not a Rockwell Automation product catalog number.
Follow these EtherNet/IP communication module guidelines:
• Disable keying on EtherNet/IP communication modules
• Cannot bridge EtherNet/IP I/O modules across networks; I/O modules
have to be in either a local or remote chassis, not bridged through
backplanes
• Ethernet communication modules must be in a separate rack if you are
using a rack-optimized communication format
• Use the Ethernet modules diagnostic page to monitor these fields:
– Speed and duplex are at fixed 100/Full
– Current CIP MSG connections are within limits
– Current CIP I/O connections are within limits
– Make sure there are no connection timeouts
– Current TCP Connections are within limits
– Packets/second counters should be within each device’s capacity
– Make sure there are no missed I/O packets
– Make sure Ethernet module use is ≤80%
– Media counters should be near 0 and not incrementing
– In Error and Out Error counters should be near 0 and not incrementing
– Rejected packet counters should be near 0 and not incrementing
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Chapter 4
Infrastructure Recommendations
Notes:
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
Chapter
5
Field Device Integration Recommendations
Modern field devices, such as drives and flow transmitters, are often
microprocessor-based. These smart devices provide digital data that is used for
commissioning, maintenance, troubleshooting, and most importantly, control.
Smart field devices use two-way digital protocols for communication. Common
field device communication options on the PlantPAx system include
EtherNet/IP, DeviceNet, ControlNet, FOUNDATION Fieldbus, PROFIBUS
PA networks or by using HART.
See http://www.rockwellautomation.com/solutions/process/
integrationdocs.html for more information on these methods.
Additionally, many other networks and I/O protocols can be integrated into the
PlantPAx system. For more information on Encompass third-party products, see
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/encompass.
The following table describes what this chapter contains and where to find
specific information.
Device Configuration Options
Topic
Page
Device Configuration Options
55
EtherNet/IP I/O Recommendations
56
ControlNet I/O Recommendations
57
DeviceNet Recommendations
58
HART Recommendations
59
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Recommendations
60
PROFIBUS PA Recommendations
62
There are many options for configuring field devices, including the following:
• Field device vendor tools
• Interface directly on the field device
• Handheld devices for selected field device networks or protocols
• Enterprise-wide solution by using FactoryTalk AssetCentre
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Chapter 5
Field Device Integration Recommendations
FactoryTalk AssetCentre for Enterprise Solution
FactoryTalk AssetCentre software is a server-based, centralized tool that lets you
manage field devices from multiple vendors, networks, and protocols from one
common platform. FactoryTalk AssetCentre software leverages FDT technology
that standardizes the communication interface between field devices and host
systems. This allows any device to be accessed from FactoryTalk AssetCentre
software regardless of the communication method.
The FDT interface also allows FactoryTalk AssetCentre software to integrate
many different kinds of devices, including handheld diagnostic tools.
For more information, see the following publications:
• FactoryTalk AssetCentre Product Profile, publication FTALK-PP001
• FDT website at http://www.fdtgroup.org
The EtherNet/IP protocol is a multi-discipline, control and information
platform for use in industrial environments and time-critical applications.
EtherNet/IP uses standard Ethernet and TCP/IP technologies and an open,
application layer protocol called the Common Industrial Protocol (CIP). A
growing number of field devices, including flow transmitters and drives, are
available that support TCP/IP.
EtherNet/IP I/O
Recommendations
EtherNet/IP I/O Communication Options
• Configure all communication cards to operate at 100 MB, full duplex
(do not use auto negotiate).
• Disable keying on Ethernet communication modules.
• You cannot bridge EtherNet/IP I/O modules across networks. I/O
modules have to be in either a local or remote chassis, not bridged
through backplanes.
Table 18 - EtherNet/IP Interface
Category
Product
Description
ControlLogix controller interface
1756-EN2T, 1756-EN2TR,1756-EN2F
1756-ENBT
1756-EWEB
ControlLogix EtherNet/IP scanner.
1757-FFLD2
1757-FFLD4
EtherNet/IP to FOUNDATION Fieldbus linking device. Supports two or four H1
FOUNDATION Fieldbus networks.
1788HP-EN2PA-R
EtherNet/IP to PROFIBUS PA linking device from HIPROM Technologies, a Rockwell
Automation company. Supports redundant PA media and DLR capable Ethernet.
See the documentation listed in Additional Resources on page 10 for more
information.
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Field Device Integration Recommendations
ControlNet I/O
Recommendations
Chapter 5
The ControlNet network is an open, control network for real-time,
high-throughput applications. The ControlNet network combines the
functionality of an I/O network and a peer-to-peer network, providing
high-speed performance for both functions.
Setting
Details
ControlNet I/O
Maximum:
• 5 controllers can have a rack-optimized, listen-only connection to the module
• 64 I/O modules on a unscheduled, remote I/O ControlNet network
• 80% ControlNet module use
– For 1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R modules, this means 2048 I/O modules Controlnet module.
– For 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR modules, this means 1024 I/O modules per ControlNet module.
• 25...50 ms RPI
• Unscheduled
• 20 ControlNet interface modules per controller
Use 1756-CN2R module in local chassis.
If changes are made to the ControlNet configuration, upload the configuration to make sure it gets backed up to the
RSLogix 5000 project.
Follow these guidelines for ControlNet networks.
• When configuring the ControlNet network, select Optimize and re-write
schedule for all connections.
• A ControlNet node can transmit 480 bytes of scheduled data in a single
network update time (NUT).
• I/O modules on ControlNet can be unscheduled to allow adding
I/O online.
• Do not use more than 80% of the ControlNet module.
• Keep SMAX and UMAX values as small as possible to
improve performance.
• Do not leave any ControlNet node addressed 99 (this is the default address
on some new devices).
• If changes are done to the ControlNet configuration, make sure it gets
backed up to the RSLogix 5000 program by doing an upload.
• Maximum of five controllers with a rack-optimized, listen-only connection
to the module.
• Maximum of 64 I/O modules on an unscheduled remote I/O
ControlNet network.
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Chapter 5
Field Device Integration Recommendations
ControlNet I/O Communication Options
In a PlantPAx system, the ControlNet network supports controller downlinks
and connections to remote I/O and field device interfaces.
Table 19 - ControlNet Interface
Category
Product
Description
ControlLogix controller interface
1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R
1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR
ControlLogix ControlNet scanner.
1757-FFLDC2
1757-FFLDC4
ControlNet to FOUNDATION Fieldbus linking device. Supports two or four H1
networks. Compatible with ControlLogix redundancy and redundant ControlNet
media.
1788HP-CN2PA-R
ControlNet to PROFIBUS PA linking device from HIPROM Technologies, a Rockwell
Automation company. Supports redundant PA media and redundant ControlNet
media.
See the documentation listed in Additional Resources on page 10 for more
information.
DeviceNet Recommendations
The DeviceNet network is an open, device-level network that provides
connections between simple industrial devices (such as sensors and actuators)
and higher-level devices (such as PLC controllers and computers).
Follow these guidelines for ControlNet networks.
• There is a maximum of 40 nodes on a DeviceNet network.
• Size DeviceNet networks for at least 20% expansion.
• Keep DeviceNet communication modules in the local chassis. If the
DeviceNet communication module is in a remote chassis, set the input and
output sizes to match the data configured in RSNetWorx™ for DeviceNet™
software.
• Never have anything set to the default node address of 62 (reserved for
personal computer) or 63 (reserved for new device to be configured).
• Set the scanner address to node 0.
• Auto device replace (ADR) can take devices installed with the default
node address of 63 and place them in the configuration at the missing node
address and download configuration parameters to the new device.
•
•
•
•
58
ADR only has 1 MB worth of data. Some large drives contain 10 KB so
networks may need to be split across multiple scanners. When configuring
ADR, upload all network devices first so that the ADR files contain the
correct configuration. For ADR, key the Vendor, Product Type, Product
Code, Major Revisions, and Minor Revisions.
Auto Address Recovery should be disabled.
Configuration Recovery should be enabled.
Store EDS files in a common location so they can be installed on
engineering workstations.
Create logic to monitor network health for critical applications.
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Field Device Integration Recommendations
Chapter 5
• Extended attributes are explicitly messaged back instead of continually
polled.
• Keep the Interscan Delay ≥ 5 ms.
• Keep data sizes to 8 bytes or less to prevent fragmentation, which reduces
bandwidth.
• Set DeviceNet scanner RPI time to half the scan rate of the fastest task in
the controller that uses data on that DeviceNet network, but not less than
2 ms.
• Always set the input and output words in the local chassis to the maximum
number when adding the DeviceNet scanner to the I/O tree to allow for
online expansion in the future.
• Use Background poll when possible.
• Keep (Foreground to Background Poll Ratio) * (Interscan Delay) > 75 ms.
• Instead of Automapping, you can DINT align data and map to the
multiplier of node address:
((Node Address) * 2 = Local:2:I.Data[6].0)
DeviceNet Communication Options
In a PlantPAx system, the DeviceNet network connects networked
control devices.
Table 20 - DeviceNet Interface
Category
Product
Description
ControlLogix controller interface
1756-DNB
ControlLogix DeviceNet scanner.
See the documentation listed in Additional Resources on page 10 for more
information.
HART Recommendations
HART is an open protocol designed to provide digital data over 4…20 mA
analog signals.
Follow these guidelines for connectivity to a HART I/O card.
• Only enable HART data on the channels that are capable of receiving
HART data.
• Data updates are dependent on the number of channels enabled, and the
interface card used (for example, if there are shared modems or dedicated
modems for each channel).
• If using HART data for control, check the data quality bits.
• For controlling fast loops, use only the 4...20 mA output of the instrument
for control instead of the extended HART data.
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HART Communication Options
The PlantPAx system interfaces both directly and via remote I/O modules to
provide a single termination point to gather analog process variables and the
additional HART digital data.
Table 21 - HART Interface
Category
Product
Description
Chassis-based I/O modules
1756-IF8H, 1756-OF8H
1756-IF16H
ControlLogix analog I/O modules with the following:
• Standard profiles in RSLogix 5000 software
• DTMs
MVI56-HART
ProSoft Technology, HART multi-drop communication interface module for
ControlLogix system for use in FactoryTalk AssetCentre Process Device Configuration
or other asset management system based on
FDT Technology (IEC-62453, ISA103).
1734-sc-IF4H
Spectrum Controls, analog input module with HART for POINT I/O.
1769-sc-IF4IH, 1769-sc-OF4IH
Spectrum Controls, analog, isolated input and output modules with HART for
Compact I/O.
1794-IE8H, 1794-OE8H
1794-IF8IH, 1794-OF8IH
1797-IE8H, 1797-OE8H
FLEX™ analog I/O and FLEX Ex™ analog I/O modules with the following:
• Standard profiles in RSLogix 5000 software
• DTMs
EtherNet/IP interface
Spectrum Controls, HART I/O with an EtherNet/IP interface.
See the Encompass website for Spectrum product offerings.
Wireless HART adapter
Pepperl+Fuchs, wireless HART adapter.
See the Encompass website for Pepperl+Fuchs product offerings.
Handheld device
Endress+Hauser, handheld configuration and diagnostic device.
See the Encompass website for Endress+Hauser product offerings.
Distributed I/O modules
Multiplexers/gateways
Network configuration
See the documentation listed in Additional Resources on page 10 for more
information.
FOUNDATION Fieldbus
Recommendations
The FOUNDATION Fieldbus network is a protocol designed for robust,
distributed control of process control systems with field devices.
Follow these guidelines for FOUNDATION Fieldbus networks.
• The number of devices on an H1 segment depends on the following
factors:
– Area and classification
– Power supply voltage
– Amount of current each device consumes
– System update time
– Resistance of the segment cable.
• The voltage specification for the H1 segment is 9…32V DC. We
recommend that you use a 24V DC Fieldbus Foundation power supply
and be sure to keep the voltage above 13V DC at the farthest end of
the segment.
• We recommend that you keep the H1 segment below 8…10 devices for
maximum performance.
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Field Device Integration Recommendations
Chapter 5
• The update time (macrocycle) for the H1 network is determined by the
bandwidth that each device fills. This data is provided in the device’s DD
files. Typical marcocycles are 500 ms, 750 ms, 1 s.
• Terminators reduce noise on segments caused by signal reflections at the
end of an open cable. One terminator on each end of the H1 trunk is
needed for proper operation.
• Use power supplies and power conditioners with built-in short-circuit
protection. Redundant power supplies are available.
• One, and only one, Link Active Scheduler (LAS) can be present on each
H1 segment at one time. You might have one frame where a device is
reporting an error, then a gap of silence; a device transmitting data, then
another gap of silence; and so forth. The LAS directs this traffic. Another
device can be a backup LAS.
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Communication Options
PlantPAx systems communicate with FOUNDATION Fieldbus devices through
EtherNet/IP and ControlNet linking devices.
Table 22 - FOUNDATION Fieldbus Interface
Category
Product
Description
EtherNet/IP interface
1757-FFLD2
1757-FFLD4
Bridge from an Ethernet network to either two or four H1 networks.
ControlNet interface
1757-FFLDC2
1757-FFLDC4
Bridge from a ControlNet network to either two or four H1 networks; compatible
with ControlLogix redundancy and redundant ControlNet media.
FOUNDATION Fieldbus network
components
Power conditioning
Pepperl+Fuchs, FOUNDATION Fieldbus components, such as valve couplers, surge
protectors, terminators, distributors, and power products.
See the Encompass website for Pepperl+Fuchs product offerings.
Terminators
Segment protection
Configuration software
9308 series RSFieldbus software
Configure FOUNDATION Fieldbus devices.
See the documentation listed in Additional Resources on page 10 for more
information.
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Chapter 5
Field Device Integration Recommendations
The PROFIBUS PA network connects automation systems and process control
systems with field devices such as flow, pressure, and temperature transmitters.
PROFIBUS PA
Recommendations
Follow these guidelines for PROFIBUS PA networks.
• PROFIBUS PA is a master-slave network.
• The number of devices on a PA segment depends on the following factors:
– Area and classification
– Power supply voltage
– Amount of current each device consumes
– System update time
– Resistance of the segment cable.
• The voltage specification for the PA segment is 9…32V DC. We
recommend that you use a 24V DC PA power supply and be sure to keep
the voltage above 13V DC at the farthest end of the segment.
• We recommend that you keep the PA segment below 24 devices for
maximum performance.
• The cycle time for the PA network is determined by the bandwidth that
each device fills. This data is provided in the device’s GSD files.
• Terminators reduce noise on segments caused by signal reflections at the
end of an open cable. One terminator on each end of the PA trunk is
needed for proper operation.
PROFIBUS PA Communication Options
PlantPAx systems communicate with PROFIBUS PA devices through
EtherNet/IP and ControlNet linking devices.
Table 23 - PROFIBUS PA Interface
Category
Product
Description
PROFIBUS interface
1788HP-EN2PA-R
EtherNet/IP to PROFIBUS PA linking device from HIPROM Technologies, a Rockwell
Automation company. Supports redundant PA media and DLR capable Ethernet.
Linking device includes power conditioning.
1788HP-CN2PA-R
ControlNet to PROFIBUS PA linking device from HIPROM Technologies, a Rockwell
Automation company. Supports redundant PA media and redundant ControlNet
media. Linking device includes power conditioning.
Power conditioning
Linking devices have built-in power conditioning. Product is from HIPROM
Technologies, a Rockwell Automation company.
Junction boxes
Intelligent junction box PAR-JB (4 junctions) and PAR-JB6 (6 junctions) support
redundancy and do not require separate power supplies. Product is from HIPROM
Technologies, a Rockwell Automation company.
Power conditioning
Pepperl+Fuchs, PROFIBUS components, such as valve couplers, surge protectors,
terminators, distributors, and power products.
See the Encompass website for Pepperl+Fuchs product offerings.
PROFIBUS network components
PROFIBUS network components
Terminators
Segment protection
See the documentation listed in Additional Resources on page 10 for more
information.
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Chapter
6
Batch Management and Control
Recommendations
PlantPAx batch management and control includes two options for a
scalable solution:
• Controller-based single unit or multiple independent unit solution
(LBSM)
• AppServ-Batch for a comprehensive batch solution (FactoryTalk Batch)
Logix Batch and Sequence Manager (LBSM) is the controller-based solution
consisting of controller code and visualization elements for use on Logix5000
and FactoryTalk View software.
Refer to the PlantPAx Selection Guide and Knowledgebase Answer ID 62366 at
http://www.rockwellautomation.custhelp.com for more information on LBSM.
AppServ-Batch uses FactoryTalk Batch software for a comprehensive,
server-based solution that leverages core Logix functionality (PhaseManager™).
This chapter provides basic setup information for a comprehensive batch
solution by using FactoryTalk Batch software.
The following table describes what this chapter contains and where to find
specific information.
FactoryTalk Batch Critical
System Attributes
Topic
Page
FactoryTalk Batch Critical System Attributes
63
Install FactoryTalk Batch Client Components
64
FactoryTalk Batch Application Guidelines
65
Batch Guidelines for Logix
65
The following critical system attributes (CSA) were used to verify performance
for FactoryTalk Batch during process system characterization.
Table 24 - FactoryTalk Batch CSA
Batch Critical System Attribute
Performance
Idle state - start command
The time from the start command to the first scan of the running routine is no more than 1 second.
Running state - hold command
The time from the hold command to the first scan of the holding routine is no more than 1 second.
Running state - stop command
The time from the stop command to the first scan of the stopping routine is no more than 1 second.
Running state - abort command
The time from the abort command to the first scan of the aborting routine is no more than 1 second.
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Chapter 6
Batch Management and Control Recommendations
Table 24 - FactoryTalk Batch CSA
Batch Critical System Attribute
Performance
Held state - restart command
The time from the restart command to the first scan of the restarting routine is no more than 1 second.
Held state - stop command
The time from the stop command to the first scan of the stopping routine is no more than 1 second.
Held state - abort command
The time from the abort command to the first scan of the aborting routine is no more than 1 second.
Phase fail transition
The time from the phase failure initiation to the held state is no more than 1 second.
Phase transition time
The time from for one phase to complete and another to start is no more than 1 second.
Install FactoryTalk Batch
Client Components
When using FactoryTalk Batch on a PlantPAx system, the FactoryTalk Batch
components should be the first items installed on the PASS, AppServ-HMI,
OWS, and EWS. This is because FactoryTalk Batch software version 11.00.00
requires FactoryTalk® Services Platform CPR9 SR2 to be on the workstation
when it is installed, and the other Rockwell Automation Integrated Architecture
components in PlantPAx System Release 2.0 require CPR9 SR3.
The following is the order that the components should be installed.
1. Install all components of FactoryTalk Batch on the Application Server
HMI.
Make sure that the Network Directory is selected for control of the batch.
2. Install FactoryTalk Batch client components on the PASS, AppServ-HMI,
and OWS.
3. Install FactoryTalk Batch client and configuration components on
the EWS.
4. Continue installations with the other integrated architecture components,
including:
– FactoryTalk View software on the PASS, AppServ-HMI, and OWS
– FactoryTalk View and RSLogix 5000 software on the EWS
The FactoryTalk Batch client components are required on the PASS and
AppServ-HMI to support replication of batch-related objects on the displays to
the OWS. It is required on the EWS to configure the batch-related objects on
the displays.
See Knowledgebase Answer ID 116925 a
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com for more information on FactoryTalk
Batch software version 11.00.00 installation and FactoryTalk Services Platforms.
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Batch Management and Control Recommendations
Chapter 6
FactoryTalk Batch
Application Guidelines
In a FactoryTalk Batch application, follow these guidelines:
• The naming of batch phases exactly matches the phase name in the
controller. For example, AREA01_PC1_PM_EP_AddA is a phase name.
• Automatic uploads and downloads satisfy most needs. There still are
situations where custom code is necessary to request parameters and
upload reports.
• Some phases use the transfer of control feature to change recipe parameters
dynamically. The ControlLogix phase manager logic requests parameters
manually using the controller PXRQ instruction.
Batch Guidelines for Logix
Use PhaseManager to develop the equipment phases in the Logix controller. The
following guidelines for configuring phases apply for both FactoryTalk Batch
and LBSM:
• All phase names in all of the controllers must have a unique name.
• In each phase, the running routine should keep track of what step it is
executing by using a step index variable (part of the equipment phase
user-defined structure).
• If you are using sequencer logic (SFC) for state logic programming, the
restarting state routine must reset the running SFC back to a specific
sequence step, based on which step the running SFC was in when the
phase received the Hold command, and on what actions the Holding state
routine took with the equipment controlled.
• If a timer runs across many phase state routines (for example, a phase that
runs an agitator that does not stop when Held, but you must keep track of
the time that the agitator ran), add a Prestate routine to the phase program
and put the timer in there. Use an enable bit that is set and reset within the
phase state routines to control it.
• For SFC, any conditional code that is required for transitions (such as a
transition to the next step on a timer done) should be implemented by
using separately defined phase tags as opposed to step tag attributes. This
prevents errors when copying sequencer logic, because the SFC editor
automatically assigns new step and transition tag names.
• Select an equipment phase action on loss of communication with an
external procedure (such as a FactoryTalk Batch application). For example,
select Hold.
• Equipment Module Acquire requests (phase ownership) should be cleared
in the phase Resetting state.
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Chapter 6
Batch Management and Control Recommendations
Notes:
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Chapter
7
Maintenance Recommendations
Good maintenance practice will keep your PlantPAx system running efficiently.
This chapter provides some recommendations for monitoring and maintaining
your PlantPAx system.
The following table describes what this chapter contains and where to find
specific information.
Maintaining Your System
Topic
Page
Maintaining Your System
67
Monitoring Your System
69
Services and Support
72
When installing PlantPAx system elements, we recommend that you use the
operating systems and Rockwell Automation software and firmware versions as
specified in the PlantPAx Selection Guide, publication PROCES-SG001. The
selection guide specifies the optimal performance in accordance to sizing criteria.
The software versions for PlantPAx System Release 2.0 are listed on page 18.
Microsoft Updates
Microsoft releases a range of security updates, operating system, and other
software updates. Rockwell Automation qualifies certain MS updates that
potentially impact Rockwell Automation software products. The results of these
patch qualifications are published on Knowledgebase Answer ID 35530
at http://www.rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
We recommend that you do not apply or install Microsoft updates until they are
qualified by Rockwell Automation. Before implementing qualified MS updates,
you should verify them on a non-production system, or when the facility is nonactive, to ensure that there are no unexpected results or side effects.
You can contact Rockwell Automation Technical Support if additional
information or details are required.
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Chapter 7
Maintenance Recommendations
Antivirus Software
It is best practice to have antivirus software installed on your PlantPAx servers
and workstations. See Knowledgebase Answer ID 35330 for more information
on compatibility and considerations when installing antivirus software.
Rockwell Automation Software/Firmware Updates
We recommend that you periodically review and update the available software
patches and firmware updates for the Rockwell Automation components on your
PlantPAx system. Before implementing Rockwell Automation updates, you
should verify them on a non-production system, or when the facility is
non-active, to ensure that there are no unexpected results or side effects.
For Rockwell Automation software (that is, FactoryTalk View, Factory Talk
Batch, FactoryTalk Historian SE, and FactoryTalk AssetCentre), Rockwell
Automation provides the Patch Validator tool. This tool verifies the current file
version installed, the expected file version (based on the version of Patch
Validator user), and completes installation of patch roll-up.
The Patch Validator tool is available for download via the Knowledgebase
Answer ID 30393.
For Rockwell Automation firmware, Rockwell Automation provides a System
Ferret tool that can be installed on the EWS to collect device serial numbers, and
revisions of all devices through RSLinx® Classic software. System Ferret is
available through ab.com as an Integrated Architecture Productivity Tool; see
http://www.ab.com/go/iatools.
The devices and firmware listed can be compared against the latest firmware
compatible with your Logix firmware version by reviewing the firmware
compatibility. You also can download the latest firmware release at
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/support/ControlFlash/.
Use the ControlFLASH™ Utility through RSLogix 5000 software to update
firmware as documented in the ControlFLASH Firmware Upgrade Kit User
Manual , publication 1756-UM105.
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Maintenance Recommendations
Chapter 7
Considerations when Upgrading Software and Firmware
When installing a new PlantPAx system, we recommend that you use the
specifications in the PlantPAx Selection Guide , publication PROCES-SG001.
When updating software or firmware versions, you should verify the impact on
performance and memory utilization before implementing the upgrade on the
production system. For FactoryTalk View or ControlLogix platforms, you should
carefully review the release notes and verify the impact of the upgrade on
performance and memory utilization.
You should also verify the compatibility of the upgraded version with the other
software and operating systems in use on your PlantPAx system. Compatibility
information can be found on Knowledgebase Answer ID 42682.
Another tool (http://www.rockwellautomation.com/compatibility/#/scenarios)
lets you compare features and compatibilities of different products and
firmware revisions. You can contact Rockwell Automation Technical Support for
assistance.
Monitoring Your System
Certain system attributes can be monitored to determine the health of the
PlantPAx system. The table below provides monitoring recommendations.
Table 25 - PlantPAx System Monitoring Recommendations
System Attribute
How To Monitor
Description
FactoryTalk View HMI Server Status
In FactoryTalk View Studio, in the Explorer window,
right-click the HMI server’s icon, and then click
Server Status. You also can create a server monitoring
screen as described in Knowledgebase Answer ID 44624.
Make sure the Primary server status is active. Changes
made using FactoryTalk View Studio will always occur on
the "active" server. If the Primary HMI server computer is
or was down, then the Secondary could be the active
server.
You do not want your HMI server project edits to occur on
the Secondary HMI server computer because the
replication operation works only in one direction, from the
Primary HMI server to the Secondary HMI server. If you
accidently do your editing on the Secondary HMI project,
when you eventually replicate the Primary HMI server
project it will overwrite the Secondary HMI server project
and all the editing that was done will be overwritte
and lost.
Windows Event Logs
Event Viewer (Windows Administration Tools)
Browse the following logs looking for errors or warnings:
• Application Event Log
• Security Event Log
• System Event Log
FactoryTalk Diagnostics
Event Viewer (Windows Administration Tools)
or
FactoryTalk Tools Diagnostic Viewer
Browse looking for errors or warnings.
IIS Logs
Default location is
c:\Windows\system32\Logfiles\W3SVC1, but the actual
location can be determined from the Internet Information
Server Manager.
Look for return codes 400-404 or 500-503.
(IIS - Troubleshooting HTTP error codes)
See the Knowledgebase Answer ID 39618 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
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Maintenance Recommendations
Table 25 - PlantPAx System Monitoring Recommendations
System Attribute
How To Monitor
Description
Server and Workstation CPU Utilization
Windows Administration Tool PerfMon (Performance
Monitor)
See Knowledgebase Answer ID 31196 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com .
The CPU utilization for the PASS, App-Servers, and OWS
computers should be 40% or less during steady-state
operation.
In PerfMon, CPU Utilization is \\<Computer
Name>\Processor_Total\% Processor Time
Server Paging File Utilization
Windows Administration Tool PerfMon (Performance
Monitor)
See Knowledgebase Answer ID 31196 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com .
Paging File Utilization can be found in the Microsoft
Performance Monitor tool, but monitoring:
\\<ComputerName>\Paging File(\??\C:\pagefile.sys)\%
Usage
Windows Alerter and Messenger services
See Knowledgebase Answer ID 64958 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com .
Paging is the process of locating a page of data in physical
memory that is currently not being used and transferring
it to virtual memory to free up memory for active
processing tasks. But, this process of moving pages of data
back-and-forth between memory and virtual memory can
slow down a system. Generate an alert if Paging
Utilization exceeds 90 percent.
See Check Paging Utilization on page 71 for details.
Controller CPU Utilization
L_CPU
or
RSLogix 5000 Controller Properties
or
RSLogix 5000 Task Monitor
Free CPU time is required to handle communications,
abnormal conditions, and other transient loads.
• Outside of production environment (before connecting
FactoryTalk View and Historian clients), recommend
50% free CPU time.
• When in production environment (while FactortTalk
View and Historian are connected), recommend 25%
free CPU time.
We don't recommend using a continuous task. However, if
one is used, it is import that system overhead time slice is
set to allow for 25% space CPU capacity under normal
loading.
Controller Memory Utilization
L_CPU
or
FactoryTalk View Predefined
or
RSLogix 5000 Controller
For simplex controllers, follow these guidelines:
• Outside of production environment (before connecting
FactoryTalk View and Historian clients), we recommend
50% free memory to support communications and
handling of abnormal conditions.
• When in production environment (while FactoryTalk
View and Historian are connected), we recommend
30% free memory to support handling of abnormal
conditions.
Maintain greater than 50% free memory available at all
times for redundant controllers.
Controller User Tasks (last scan, max scan, overlap)
L_TaskMon or RSLogix 5000 Task Properties Window
Make sure you are not experiencing task overlap by
verifying the task overlap count is 0. Task overlap indicates
that the controller may be overloaded and may not be
executing as expected.
Controller Minor Faults
RSLogix 5000 Controller Properties Window
Make sure you are not experiencing any minor faults. This
may slow your controller execution time or may indicate
some other problem with your user logic.
Packets per second
L_CPU or RSLinx Enterprise pre-defined tags
Make sure the packets per second is less than 300 on the
1756-l7x controller and less than 200 on the 1756-L6x
controller. If you have more than one data server topic
pointing to the controller, you have to add the packets per
second for each topic to get a total.
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Maintenance Recommendations
Chapter 7
Check Paging Utilization
Virtual memory is the use of hard disk space to supplement the amount of
physical memory (RAM) that is available to the computer. Windows cannot
process data directly from virtual memory. If Windows needs to do something
with data that is in virtual memory, it must move the page containing the needed
data from virtual memory into physical memory. This process is called paging.
Windows must use CPU cycles and even a portion of RAM just to manage the
paging process. Furthermore, hard disk access times are measured in milliseconds,
as opposed to RAM access times that are measured in nanoseconds. Therefore,
the paging process can waste a lot of server resources to move pages of data back
and forth between memory and virtual memory.
Thrashing is a term for nearly constant paging. If the hard disk is running
constantly with no visible results and a very sluggish response time, the system
may be thrashing. Paging Utilization percentage can be used to indicate this
condition to the user.
The appropriate Paging Utilization percentage can depend on the virtual
memory setup on the server. It is best to baseline the paging file performance and
set alert limits when performance significantly deviates from this baseline. For
example, generate alert if Paging Utilization > 90%.
Additional Monitoring Resources
The Counter Monitor tool is installed with the FactoryTalk Services Platform
(FTSP) on the PASS and AppServ-HMI. It is located on the drive where FTSP is
installed under Program Files/Common Files /Rockwell/ countermonitor.exe.
Counter Monitor provides the ability to monitor the runtime values of counters
and strings that are made available by network clients for diagnostic purposes.
You also can use the Counter Monitor tool to take a snapshot of the current
status and submit it to Rockwell Automation Technical Support.
Rockwell Automation also provides tools to collect log files for submission to
technical support.
The Rockwell Software Data Client program can browse the FactoryTalk
directory to see all tags in the directory. It can also get live data from any tag. The
Rockwell Software® Data Client program does not automatically load the
application. Before you use it, you must make sure the application is open by
either opening the application from any computer with RSView® Studio or by
running an RSView® SE Client™.
For more information, see these references depending on your operating system:
• Knowledgebase Answer ID 31073 - Log Reader Tool (XP,
Windows 2003)
• Knowledgebase Answer ID 453900 - (Windows 7, Server 2008)
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Chapter 7
Maintenance Recommendations
Services and Support
System Support offers technical assistance that is tailored for process automation
systems. These services are available through TechConnectSM contracts. Some of
the features include the following:
• Highly experienced team of engineers with training and systems
experience
• Process support at a systems-level provided by process engineers
• Unlimited online support requests
• Use of online remote diagnostic tools
• Access to otherwise restricted TechConnect Knowledgebase content
• Technical Reference Library DVD
• 24-hour, seven days per week, 365 days per year of phone-support coverage
upgrade option
For more information, contact your local distributor or Rockwell Automation
representative or visit http://www.rockwellautomation.com/support.
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Glossary
The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout this manual.
For definitions of terms not listed here, refer to the Allen-Bradley Industrial
Automation Glossary, publication AG-7.1.
Add-On Instruction (AOI) An Add-On Instruction contains user-defined code that has logic encapsulated
into pre-validated modules, and can be reused without modification. This lets
you create standardized libraries that can both reduce project development time
and support costs.
application server The application server (AppServ) is a server in addition to the Process
Automation System Server (PASS) that is typically a FactoryTalk Directory client
of the PASS. There could be an AppServ-HMI for a FactoryTalk View
application, AppServ-Batch for a FactoryTalk Batch application, or
AppServ-History for an Historian application.
architecture An architecture is a representation of a control and software system, as well as the
process and discipline for effectively implementing the designs for such a system.
An architecture conveys the information content of the related elements
comprising a system, the relationships among those elements, and the rules
governing those relationships.
characterization A characterization is the operation and collection of performance data for a
representative process system to determine scalability, stability, and usability of a
specific system configuration. A characterization is the following:
• Aimed at defining a complete system.
• Used to determine if the system is performing at specified level.
• Used to identify usability issues.
• Used to check and create rules, relationships, limits, and recommendations
for system elements
client A client is hardware (personal computer) and software that provides an interface
with a link into a system server application. In the Rockwell Automation
architecture, a client is a computer loaded with runtime software.
control strategy A control strategy is a system footprint to show the complexity of the following:
• Data servers
• Information storage
• Operator interface (graphics, faceplates)
• Control code (sequence, procedure, phases)
• I/O
Control strategies are used to determine a set of comprehensive process system
footprints that establish a representative system loading that can be measured to
identify a process system's boundaries and limitations (implementation rules).
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
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Glossary
critical system attribute (CSA) A critical system attribute (CSA) is a customer-facing characteristic that defines
or identifies whether the system is performing as expected. CSAs are specific,
visible indicators of overall system performance and usability.
CSAs have specified parameters that must be maintained and that set the base
operational requirements for the system. These parameters determine pass or fail
(follow up) of a system test. For example, screen paint time < 2 seconds and
screen refresh < 1 second.
There are many other attributes associated with system elements such as
controller loading, computer loading, and network settings that must be
configured properly in order to maintain system CSAs.
development software Development software is a program that is used to configure various system
components and not required at runtime. For example, RSLogix 5000 software
and FactoryTalk View software.
display object A display object is a functional group of display elements with animations.
engineering workstation (EWS) The engineering workstation (EWS) provides system configuration,
development and maintenance functions of the PlantPAx system. The EWS
contains development software, including FactoryTalk View SE Studio and
RSLogix 5000 software.
FactoryTalk directory software FactoryTalk Directory software defines were system data is located to allow for
quicker access. FactoryTalk Directory software provides a common address book
of factory resources that are shared among FactoryTalk-enabled products.
FactoryTalk services platform The FactoryTalk Services Platform (FTSP) is a service-oriented architecture (see
SOA) that delivers value through FactoryTalk-enabled products. This platform
reduces the customer learning curve and project engineering time through
commonality and reuse. For example, activation, FactoryTalk Directory, security,
diagnostics, audit, live data, and alarms and events.
global object An object that is created once and can be referenced multiple times on multiple
displays in an application.
historian An historian is a data collection system with the following components:
collection, storage, compression, retrieval, reports, and analysis. Historian
functions include raw sampling, compression, storage, retrieval, reconstitute,
analyze, summarize, and present (reports and displays).
historical data Historical data is data that is used for the long term analysis of past operation.
Historical data is typically retrieved.
Integrated Architecture (IA) Integrated Architecture (IA) is the identifying name of Rockwell Automation
group of products that use Rockwell Automation core-enabling technologies.
The PlantPAx Process Automation System is a defined set of IA products
configured in a prescribed way to provide optimal performance as a process
automation system.
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Glossary
operator workstation (OWS) The operator workstation (OWS) provides the graphical view and interface into
the process. The workstation is a client of either a PASS or AppServ-HMI.
PlantPAx Process Automation A defined set of standard Rockwell Automation Integrated Architecture
System products that are configured in a prescribed way to provide optimal performance
as a process automation system.
Process Automation System Server The Process Automation System Server (PASS) is the core PlantPAx system
(PASS) server allowing central administration throughout the PlantPAx system. The
PASS is a required component.
RSLinx software RSLinx software is the communication driver (data server) for computer-based
programs to access information in Rockwell Automation controllers. There is
RSLinx Classic software and RSLinx Enterprise software. FactoryTalk View SE
software uses RSLinx Enterprise software to directly access tags.
server Software component that serves data to an application (for example, data server).
Typically, server software components are installed on server-class computers.
system attribute A system attribute is an operational functionality that can be manipulated or
measured and is used to establish the operational boundaries or system capability.
For example workstation memory, number of parameters on a screen, and
number of control loops. A system attribute can be independent or dependent.
system element System element is a distinctive system entity made up of a combination of
hardware and software products that support an identifiable system function or
role. A system element can be manipulated to vary system operation or capability.
For example, engineering workstation (EWS), operator workstation (OWS),
process automation system server (PASS), controller unit (chassis, power supply,
controller), an I/O unit (chassis, power supply, module).
system infrastructure System infrastructure is the commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software
required to enable system elements to work together as a system. For example,
network switches, computers, and so forth.
system server A system server expands the scope of a system by providing support for additional
system capacity or optional system functions. For example, the Process
Automation System Server (PASS) is a required component for all centralized
and distributed process systems. The PASS provides central name resolution and
system-wide, FactoryTalk services. The PASS provides the capability to distribute
information to the OWS and add to optional application servers to increase the
scope of the process system.
User -defined tag (UDT) Tags that you create once and reuse in multiple templates, multiple times.
workstation A workstation is a computer running development, configuration, and optionally
maintenance software. A workstation is not a server.
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Glossary
Notes:
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
Index
A
activation
FactoryTalk 18
adapters
Ethernet I/O 53
additional resources 10
Add-On Instruction
controller 33
definition 73
description 35
L_CPU 37
P_ALARM 43
advanced
controller properties 32
alarms
and events server
FactoryTalk 18
device-based 42
FactoryTalk recommendations 42
HMI classic 41
implementation 41
server-based 42
antivirus
software 68
application
FactoryTalk Batch guidelines 65
server
definition 73
element 15
system recommendations 31
AppServ-HMI
considerations 30
redundancy 30
architecture
builder tool 16
centralized 14
classes 14
critical system attribute 15
definition 73
distributed 14
independent 14
PlantPAx 13
recommmendations 13
attributes
CSA 15
FactoryTalk Batch 63
redundant controller 23
B
batch
critical system attribute 63
documentation 11
equipment phases 65
management 63
recommendations 63
server
FactoryTalk 18
BOOL tags 34
C
cable types 51
cache
messages 33
centralized
architecture 14
characterization
definition 73
system tested 13
classic
HMI alarming 41
classification
architecture 14
client
definition 73
compatibility
system 67
components
PASS 18
PlantPAx software 18
configuration
controller 31
FactoryTalk directory 19
considerations
AppServ-HMI 30
controller project 33
EtherNet/IP interface 56
process controller I/O 27
upgrade 69
continuous
task 32
control
batch management 63
strategies 25
strategy
analog indicator 26
definition 73
ControlFLASH 68
controller 27
Add-On Instructions 33
advanced 32
configuration 31
count 15
element 15
LBSM 63
load 36
memory 32
project considerations 33
properties advanced 32
simplex 21
skid-based 22
tags 33
optimization 33
count
controllers 15
I/O determination 24
CPU
utilization 36
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
77
Index
critical
system attribute 15, 63
definition 74
example
control strategy 26
data log loading 39
loading 27
D
F
data
log loading 39
server
FactoryTalk 18
definition
infrastructure 45
PlantPAx 9
description
Add-On Instruction 35
EWS 20
OWS 20
PASS 18
development software
definition 74
device-based
alarms 42
directory
FactoryTalk 18
location utility 19
display object
definition 74
distributed
architecture 14
documentation
batch 11
field devices 10
infrastructure 10
system core 10
domain and workgroup
recommendations 45
FactoryTalk
activation server 18
alarm recommendations 42
alarms and events server 18
batch server 18
data server 18
device-based alarms 42
directory
configuration 19
directory server 18
directory software
definition 74
HMI server 18
recommendations 38
server-based alarms 42
services platform
definition 74
FactoryTalk Batch
application guidelines 65
CSA attributes 63
system elements 64
FactoryTalk View SE
OWS 20
field device
documentation 10
firmware
updates 68
footprint
control strategy 26
FTAE
device- and server-based 41
E
element
application server 15
EWS 15
overview 17
OWS 15
PASS 15
process controller 15
recommendations 17
system 15
engineering workstation
definition 74
equipment phases
batch 65
error
reporting 50
Ethernet
I/O adapters 53
switches 52
EWS
description 20
element 15
software 20
78
G
global object
definition 74
glossary 73
grouped
elements 15
guidelines
FactoryTalk Batch 65
PhaseManager 65
H
hardware
redundant controller 23
simplex controller 21
skid-based 22
historian
definition 74
historical data
definition 74
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
Index
O
HMI
classic alarming 41
server
FactoryTalk 18
I
I/O
considerations 27
determining count 24
process controller considerations 27
runtime 28
IAB
tool 16
IIS
graphics and components 47
implement
alarms 41
independent
architecture 14
infrastructure
definition 45
documentation 10
recommendation 45
integrated architecture
builder tool 16
definition 74
L
L_CPU
Add-On Instruction 37
LBSM
controller-based 63
load
control strategy 27
controller 36
data log 39
example 27
localhost
PASS server 19
M
maintenance
recommendations 67
memory
controller properties 32
messages
cache 33
monitor
tasks 36
N
network
recommendations 51
time protocol 48
objects
process library 40
operating system
optimization 49
recommendations 45
operator workshop
definition 75
optimize
controller tags 33
operating system 49
options
alarms 41
process library 40
overview
system elements 17
OWS
description 20
element 15
FactoryTalk View SE 20
P
P_ALARM
Add-On Instruction 43
PASS
definition 75
description 18
element 15
redundancy 20
system element 18
patches
updates 68
performance
critical system attribute 15
periodic tasks 32
PhaseManager
guidelines 65
PlantPAx
architecture 13
definition 9
infrastructure 45
selection guide 16
software 18
system definition 75
process
controller sizing 21
library objects 40
library recommendations 43
system estimator 16
processor
element 15
procurement
tools 16
produced and consumed
controller tags 33
properties 32
controller memory 32
tasks 32
PSE
tool 16
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
79
Index
R
recommendations
alarms 41
architecture 13
batch 63
controller 31
domain 46
FactoryTalk 38
FactoryTalk alarms 42
infrastructure 45
maintenance 67
network 51
operating system 45
process library 43
system application 31
system elements 17
tasks 31
UDT tags 34
workgroup 45, 47
redundancy
AppServ-HMI 30
controller hardware 23
controller sizing 23
PASS configurations 18
PASS server 20
reference
manual scope 9
reporting
errors 50
RSLinx software
definition 75
runtime
I/O considerations 28
S
scope
reference manual 9
server
definition 75
server-based
alarms 42
simplex
controller hardware 21
controller sizing 21
sizing
control strategies 25
process controller 21
redundant controller 23
skid-based controller 22
skid-based
controller hardware 22
controller sizing 22
software
antivirus 68
EWS 20
IIS 47
PlantPAx 18
updates 67
strategies
control sizing 25
80
support
services 72
switches
Ethernet 52
synchronization
commands 49
server and workstation time 48
system
application recommendations 31
attribute definition 75
compatibility 67
core documentation 10
element definition 75
elements 15
FactoryTalk Batch 64
ferret tool 68
infrastructure definition 75
overhead time slice 32
procurement 16
server definition 75
support 72
tested 13
T
tags
controller 33
naming convention 34
task
continuous 32
monitor 36
periodic 32
properties 32
recommendations 31
technical
support 72
tested
system 13
time
workstation and server synchronization 48
tool 68
ControlFLASH utility 68
IAB 16
procurement 16
PSE 16
system ferret 68
update software 68
U
UDT
controller tags 33
definition 75
tag recommendations 34
update
firmware 68
patches 68
software 67
tools 68
upgrade
considerations 69
user-defined tag
definition 75
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
Index
utilization
CPU 36
V
virtualization 50
W
workgroup
recommendations 45
workstation
definition 75
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
81
Index
Notes:
82
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
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Publication PROCES-RM001F-EN-P - October 2011
Supersedes Publication PROCES-RM001E-EN-P - January 2010
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