SD3-A1 (Connection and Operation)

Safety Laser Scanner
SD3-A1
User's Manual
Connection and Operation
ME-SD3A1CON-05
2015.10
panasonic.net/id/pidsx/global
About the instruction manual (connection and operation) of the SD3-A1
and the SD3SOFT instruction manual (software operation)
The instruction manual (connection and operation) for the SD3-A1 contains important
information on proper usage of laser scanner and usage in accordance with intended
purpose. For additional information on the configuration of the SD3-A1, please refer to
the SD3SOFT instruction manual (software operation).
It is essential to observe all information in the instruction manual (connection and
operation) and in the instruction manual (software operation), especially the safety notes.
The instruction manual (connection and operation) and the instruction manual (software
operation) must be kept in a safe place. They must be available during the entire period
when the SD3-A1 is in use. Documents are also automatically installed on the PC when
SD3SOFT is installed and can be viewed at any time with the Help menu.
Safety and warning notices are identified by the symbol
.
References to important information are identified by the symbol
.
References to the safety of laser devices are identified with the symbol
.
Panasonic Industrial Devices SUNX Co., Ltd. is not liable for damage caused by improper
usage. The user must also be familiar with all the SD3-A1 manuals to be able to use the
system properly.
English and Japanese version of this instruction manuals are original.
Version: V5.5
k Reprinting and duplication is prohibited in whole or in part without prior approval of
Panasonic Industrial Devices SUNX Co., Ltd..
2
Contents
1
Approvals ......................................................................................................................................... 6
1.1
Approval and declaration of EC conformity............................................................................ 6
1.2
Specialized technical terms and abbreviations ...................................................................... 7
Directives and standards....................................................................................................... 8
1.3
2
System Overview ............................................................................................................................. 9
2.1
Brief description and functional principle of the SD3-A1 ....................................................... 9
2.2
Special features of the SD3-A1............................................................................................11
3
Safety Notes and Usage in Accordance with Intended Purpose .............................................13
3.1
General safety notes ............................................................................................................13
3.2
Usage requirements and usage in accordance with intended purpose...............................13
3.3
Restrictions for use...............................................................................................................14
3.4
Information related to detection zone changeover...............................................................15
3.5
General information related to determining detection zone contours ..................................16
3.6
Additional safety notes for stationary use ............................................................................17
3.7
Additional safety notes for mobile use .................................................................................18
4
Applications for the SD3-A1 .........................................................................................................19
4.1
Stationary safeguarding of the danger area.........................................................................19
4.2
Access guarding by passage monitoring .............................................................................20
4.3
Safeguarding of danger points based on hand and arm protection.....................................21
4.4
Mobile safeguarding of automatic guided vehicles ..............................................................22
4.5
Protecting transporter trolleys against collisions ..................................................................22
4.6
Guarding the sides on AGVs ................................................................................................23
4.7
Other possible applications ..................................................................................................24
5
Information for Planning and Mounting......................................................................................25
5.1
Attachment and dimensions .................................................................................................26
5.2
Installing adjacent laser scanners ........................................................................................26
5.2.1 Constructive measures.........................................................................................................26
5.2.2 Adjusting adjacent laser scanners........................................................................................27
5.3
Information on setting the dimensions of detection zones ...................................................28
5.3.1 Methods of configuring detection zones using the PC.........................................................28
5.3.2 Range of the detection zone, resolution...............................................................................28
5.3.3 Range of the warning zone, resolution.................................................................................29
5.3.4 Range of the measurement field ..........................................................................................30
5.3.5 Required detection zone additions Z....................................................................................30
5.4
Safeguarding stationary danger zones ................................................................................31
5.4.1 The purpose of safeguarding ...............................................................................................31
5.4.2 Mounting position .................................................................................................................31
5.4.3 Mounting height ....................................................................................................................32
5.4.4 Recommendations for mounting to prevent unmonitored zones .........................................32
5.4.5 Additions ...............................................................................................................................36
5.4.6 System availability ................................................................................................................36
5.4.7 Restart interlock....................................................................................................................37
5.4.8 Calculating the detection zone dimensions for safeguarding an area .................................38
5.5
Access protection .................................................................................................................43
5.5.1 Object of protection ..............................................................................................................43
5.5.2 Installation position ...............................................................................................................43
5.5.3 Safety-relevant settings, and calculation of the safety distance ..........................................43
5.5.4 Definition of the reference boundary ....................................................................................44
3
5.6
Protecting danger points....................................................................................................... 45
5.6.1 Object of protection ..............................................................................................................45
5.6.2 Installation position ...............................................................................................................45
5.6.3 Safety-related settings, and calculation of the safety distance ............................................45
5.6.4 Defining the reference boundary ..........................................................................................47
5.7
Safeguarding mobile machines ............................................................................................48
5.7.1 The purpose of safeguarding ...............................................................................................48
5.7.2 Installing adjacent laser scanners ........................................................................................48
5.7.3 Mounting position .................................................................................................................48
5.7.4 Mounting height ....................................................................................................................48
5.7.5 Recommendations for mounting to prevent unmonitored zones .........................................49
5.7.6 Additions ...............................................................................................................................51
5.7.7 System availability ................................................................................................................52
5.7.8 Restart ..................................................................................................................................52
5.7.9 Calculating the dimensions of the detection zone of an AGV application ...........................53
5.7.10 Side guarding configuration on AGVs ..................................................................................56
6
Details on Switching Over Detection and Warning Zones........................................................57
6.1
Sequence of zone pair switchovers .....................................................................................57
6.2
Practical AGV application (example)....................................................................................59
7
Functions of the SD3-A1...............................................................................................................62
7.1
Restart ..................................................................................................................................62
7.2
Channels for zone pair changeovers, FP 1 to FP 4 .............................................................62
7.3
Alarm 1 (X1-5) ......................................................................................................................63
7.4
Alarm 2 (X1-15) ....................................................................................................................63
7.5
OSSD 1 (X1-12) and OSSD 2 (X1-11).................................................................................64
7.6
Data communication.............................................................................................................64
8
Integrating the SD3-A1 into Machine Controls ..........................................................................64
8.1
Integrating the SD3-A1 with external wiring with relays and
eightfold zone pair changeover ............................................................................................65
8.2
Connecting the SD3-A1 to a safety sequence circuit with manual restart,
relay monitoring, without zone pair changeover ..................................................................67
8.3
Connecting the SD3-A1 to a PLC with corresponding safety level
(Category 3 or higher, EN 954) and zone pair changeover .................................................68
9
Electrical Connection....................................................................................................................69
9.1
Electrical power supply.........................................................................................................69
9.2
Connecting the PC and control cables to the scanner.........................................................69
9.3
Connector assembly.............................................................................................................70
9.4
Points to consider when preparing and laying the cables....................................................70
9.5
Interface pin assignments ....................................................................................................71
10
Commissioning..............................................................................................................................73
10.1 Hardware and software requirements ..................................................................................73
10.2 Installing “SD3SOFT” and starting up the SD3-A1 ..............................................................73
10.3 SD3-A1 status indicator........................................................................................................75
10.4 Status information of the SD3-A1.........................................................................................77
10.5 Restart and device swap-out ................................................................................................78
4
11
Maintenance and Testing..............................................................................................................79
11.1 Test before first startup by person qualified and authorized to perform the task ................79
11.2 Extended shutdown of the SD3-A1 ......................................................................................79
11.3 Regular tests by a person qualified and authorized to perform the task .............................80
11.4 Daily test by with test piece performed by responsible operating personnel.......................80
11.4.1 Checklist for daily test of stationary applications by responsible operating personnel........ 81
11.4.2 Checklist for daily test of mobile applications by responsible operating personnel............. 82
11.5 Checklist for testing stationary applications .........................................................................83
11.6 Checklist for testing mobile applications ..............................................................................85
11.7 Replacing the optical window ...............................................................................................87
11.7.1 General information: .............................................................................................................87
11.7.2 Initial measurement of the new optical window....................................................................89
11.7.3 Procedure when using the SD3SOFT user software version 1.09 or later..........................90
11.8 Cleaning................................................................................................................................91
11.8.1 Cleaning the optical window when dirty ...............................................................................91
11.8.2 Cleaning the optical window; cleaning diffusing light panes ................................................92
12
Delivery Package ...........................................................................................................................93
12.1 Disposal ................................................................................................................................93
12.2 Accessories and spare parts ................................................................................................94
12.3 Coding of the control cable X1 .............................................................................................95
13
Technical Data ...............................................................................................................................96
13.1 Test pieces ...........................................................................................................................96
13.2 Detection zone......................................................................................................................96
13.3 Detection zone additions ......................................................................................................97
13.4 Warning zone........................................................................................................................97
13.5 Contour measurement..........................................................................................................97
13.6 Electrical power supply.........................................................................................................98
13.7 Inputs ....................................................................................................................................98
13.8 Outputs .................................................................................................................................98
13.9 Software................................................................................................................................99
13.10 Interfaces ..............................................................................................................................99
13.11 Optics....................................................................................................................................99
13.12 Environment and material ..................................................................................................100
13.13 Dimensional drawings of the SD3-A1 ................................................................................101
13.14 Dimensional drawings of the mounting system..................................................................102
14
Diagnostic Codes and Causes...................................................................................................103
15
CE Marking Declaration of Conformity .....................................................................................106
5
1
Approvals
1.1
Approval and declaration of EC conformity
EC type examination in accordance with
DIN EN 61496 - 1 and IEC 61496 - 3
TUV
PRODUCT SERVICE GMBH IQSE
Ridlerstr. 65 80339 Munich
6
1.2
Specialized technical terms and abbreviations
AGV
Automatic Guided Vehicle (FTS in German)
AOPD
Active Optoelectronic Protective Device
AOPDDR
Active Optoelectronic Protective Device responsive to Diffuse
Reflection
EDM
External Device Monitoring
Monitoring of external control parts (relay monitoring)
ESPE
Electro-Sensitive Protecting Equipment (BWS in German)
N.O.
Normal open contact
OSSD
Output Signal Switching Device Safety-relevant switch output
PC
Personal Computer
DZ
Detection Zone (SF in German)
Reset
Defined Reset or SD3-A1
RS-232
RS-232 interface
RS-422
RS-422 interface
ZP
Zone Pair (contains 1 × detection zone and 1 × warning zone)
(FP in German)
WZ
Warning Zone (WF in German)
Table 1.2-1:
Specialized technical terms and abbreviations
7
1.3
Directives and standards
The following directives and standards are of critical importance for the implementation of laser
scanner. Directives providing particularly relevant information for users of such systems are
marked with an asterisk (*).
EU Directive / Standard
Designation
EU Directives
2006/42/EC
EU Machinery Directive
2004/108/EC
EMC Directive
2011/65/EU
RoHS Directive
A Standards
ISO 12100
Safety of machinery - General principles for design
Risk assessment and risk reductionbasic concepts
*
ISO 13852
Safety of machinery - safety distances to prevent danger
zones being reached by the upper limbs
*
ISO 13849-1: 2006
Safety of machinery - Safety related parts of control
systems; Part 1: General principles for design
ISO 13855
Safety of machinery. The positioning of protective
equipment in respect of approach speeds of parts of the
human body
B1 Standards
*
B2 Standards
IEC 60204-1
Safety of machinery - Electrical equipment of machines Part 1: General requirements
IEC 60825-1
Safety of laser products - Part 1: Equipment classification
and requirements
IEC 61496-1
Safety of machinery.
Electro-sensitive
equipment. General requirements and tests
protective
*
IEC 61496-3
Safety of machinery - Electro-sensitive protective
equipment - Part 3: Particular requirements for Active
Opto-electronic Protective Devices responsive to Diffuse
Reflection (AOPDDR)
*
DIN EN 775
Industrial robots - Safety
*
DIN EN 1525
Safety of industrial trucks - Driverless trucks and their
systems
*
DIN EN 12895
Industrial trucks - Electromagnetic compatibility
C Standards
8
Directive / Standard
Designation
National Standards
DIN 15185-2
Table 1.3-1:
Warehousesystems with powered industrials trucks
*
Directives and standards
This list does not claim to be complete. In certain cases, the concrete requirements of the
application will necessitate the application of additional Directives and standards!
2
System Overview
2.1
Brief description and functional principle of the SD3-A1
The SD3-A1 is an optical distance sensor that takes two-dimensional measurements. It
could also be referred to as an optical area radar device. The sensor uses a rotating
deflecting unit to periodically emit light pulses within a working range of 190°.
If these pulses strike a person or an object, the reflected light is received and evaluated
by the SD3-A1. The scanner calculates the precise coordinates of the person or object
based on the travel time of the reflected light and the current angle of the deflecting unit.
If the person or object is within the bounds of a previously defined area called a detection
zone, a safety-oriented switching function is performed. This switching function causes
the semiconductor outputs to be switched OFF. The safety-oriented switching function
cannot be reset until the detection zone is clear. Depending on the operating mode, the
reset can be initiated either automatically or manually.
9
Fig. 2.1-1:
The 190° angle range of the SD3-A1 is divided into 0.36° angle
segments.
A laser diode coupled with transmitter optics produces focused light pulses. These pulses
are projected across the monitored surface by a rotating mirror in such a way that a light
pulse is triggered in each of the angle segments within 40ms (scanning rate: 25 scans/s).
Fig. 2.1-2:
Functional principle of the SD3-A1
The SD3-A1 can detect people up to a distance of 4.0m even if they are wearing very
dark clothing or exhibit a low degree of reflectance. Dangerous movements are brought to
a standstill by two failsafe semiconductor outputs.
10
Objects (min. 150 × 150mm) are detected up to a distance of 15m (corresponds to the
warning zone) and signaled by way of a non-safety-related semiconductor output.
Eight programmable zone pairs (each of which consists of one detection zone and one
warning zone) enable the scanner to be optimally adapted to the needs of each particular
application.
The SD3-A1 can be implemented not only on machines and systems (stationary
safeguarding of danger zones), but also on vehicles (mobile safeguarding of transport
vehicles).
Due to its wide range of measurement and its non-contact, electro-sensitive
measurement principle, the SD3-A1 can be effectively used as a protective device for
virtually any application.
2.2
Special features of the SD3-A1
x
Eight freely programmable detection zones (up to a maximum of 4m)
x
Eight freely programmable warning zones (up to a maximum of 15m)
x
Expanded monitoring range of up to 190°
x
ConfigPlug for easy device exchange without configuration expense
x
Compact design (W × D × H: 140mm × 135mm × 155mm)
x
Light weight (2kg)
x
Low power consumption requirements (300mA, plus the load at the outputs)
x
Two types of interfaces at one Sub-D jack (RS-232 and RS-422)
x
User-friendly software
11
12
3
Safety Notes and Usage in Accordance with Intended Purpose
3.1
General safety notes
The protective function of the devices can be negatively affected, however, if they are
used improperly or not in accordance with their intended purposes. If this occurs, it may
not be possibly to safeguard danger areas completely or at all, which may result in
danger to life and / or limb for persons who are in the general area of the machines or
systems.
Caution – laser radiation!
The SD3-A1 is a laser device belonging to laser class 1. The valid legal and local
regulations for operating laser systems must be complied with.
Avoid positioning the scanner at eye level.
3.2
Usage requirements and usage in accordance with intended purpose
The relevant regulations for machine safety apply for the use of the laser scanner
SD3-A1. Responsible authorities (for example professional trade unions, OSHA) are also
available for questions related to safety. In general, the following usage requirements
must be observed:
x
This device has been developed / produced for industrial use only.
x
If the scanner is enclosed in a protective housing, additional window material, such
as plastic or glass must not be used as it may impair the detection.
x
Avoid touching the scanner optical window and the six diffusing light screens.
x
The SD3-A1 is not suitable for use as a protective device:
- if it is possible that dangerous fluids will be spewed out or objects will be ejected.
- for machines with long braking times (max. depth of the detection zone: 4m)
x
The SD3-A1 corresponds to Type 3 in accordance with IEC 61496-1 and 3. A safety
category of 3 in accordance with EN 954-1 can be achieved with the SD3-A1 if all
other elements in the safety chain are set up to stop the dangerous motion in
accordance with that safety category.
x
The electrical connection of the SD3-A1 to the control system must only be made by
an electrician.
x
The 24V DC (+20% / -30%) power supply must be ensured by a safe network
disconnect in accordance with IEC 742. The same requirements apply to all
connected input and output circuits.
13
3.3
14
x
The 24V DC power must be supplied to the scanner through a separate branch with
a 1.25A delayed action fuse in the control cabinet.
x
You must ensure that protective caps are screwed onto interfaces X1 and X2. This
will protect the interfaces against dust.
x
The safety output has a double design. The two OSSDs must always be included in
the shut-off circuit of the machine in such a manner that either of the two is
completely sufficient by itself to turn OFF the motion that presents a danger.
x
The alarm output 1 (Pin 5 on X1) must not be used to switch safety-related signals.
x
System tests (of the scanner, machine, control components and switch components)
may only be performed when they do not result in potential hazards for people.
x
Tampering with or making changes to the SD3-A1 can result in the loss of the safety
function.
x
Only expert trained personnel is allowed to perform startup, maintenance, parameter
settings or detection zone configurations. Familiarity with the safety notes in this
instruction manual (connection and operation) and in the instruction manual
(software operation) for the “SD3SOFT” program constitutes part of this expert
knowledge.
x
The password required for configuring safety-relevant parameters must be kept in a
secure location by the safety official. Information about password levels can be
found in the instruction manual (software operation) for the “SD3SOFT”.
x
If the machine is designed for start interlock / manual restart, all detection zones
must be checked before enable - no one is permitted in the danger area.
Restrictions for use
x
Glass, highly reflective materials such as mirrors (reflectance > 10.000%), or objects
that do not reflect any light back to the sensor can falsify the measurement result.
More information is available in Chapter 5.3.5.
x
Do not expose the SD3-A1 to flying sparks (for example a welding flash). Doing so
may cause damage to the optical window.
x
Vapor, smoke, dust and all particles visible in the air have a significant negative
effect on measurement values and will result in the semiconductor outputs being
turned OFF.
x
Avoid extreme variations in temperature.
x
Make sure that the following types of light sources are not present on the scanning
plane:
Laser light from one or more other scanners or sensors
Infrared light
Fluorescent light
Stroboscopic light
Please consider as well Chapter 5.2.
3.4
x
It must not be used for vehicles with internal combustion engines.
x
The SD3-A1 is conceived for use inside enclosed spaces and with the operating
parameters listed in the technical specifications (temperature, humidity, shock,
vibration, etc.). Please refer to the list of parameters in Chapter 13.
x
Avoid having reflective surfaces (such as glass, mirrors, retro-reflectors, etc.) at fixed
contours in the scanning plane. If this is not possible, an additional detection zone
must be provided.
Information related to detection zone changeover
If alternating operation is included in the design, and thus detection zone changeover, the
activation and effect of the detection zone in question must match the alternating
operating mode.
x
The new detection zone must be activated before turning OFF the previous
detection zone. The time at which the changeover is made must be based on a risk
analysis.
x
Braking paths, response and coast-down times must be taken into consideration
(for example overlapping detection zones).
x
A “Start interlock” function is provided.
x
If the machine has a restart key, it must not be possible to operate it from inside the
detection zones. All danger areas must be visible from the position of the button.
Before releasing the start / restart interlock, all detection zones must be tested. No
one is permitted inside the danger areas.
x
There must be no unmonitored zones inside the danger areas.
x
There must be no possibility for direct access to the danger area that shortens the
necessary safety distance (use a protective grid, for example).
x
The information on required detection zone additions in Chapter 5 must be
observed.
15
3.5
General information related to determining detection zone contours
x
x
Access to the detection zone in the dangerous area is not permitted.
x
When setting the dimensions of the detection zone, you must comply with the
formulas cited in Chapters 5.4.8 and 5.7.9! Be sure to comply with higher-level
machine standards (e.g. DIN EN 1525) if applicable.
These contain individual specifications, for example, on points of access to the
danger zone and, if applicable, detection zone additions that must be given special
consideration.
They also provide information on how to measure safety distances at machines.
x
Detection zones with a radius smaller than 20cm (at or close to the scanner) are not
admissible. 20cm is the preset minimum contour.
x
When setting the dimensions of the detection zones, please comply with the
maximum angle range stated in the technical specifications (Chapter 13.11).
x
Needle-shaped detection zone contours are not permitted, since they do not ensure
any protective effect. For additional information, please refer to the SD3SOFT user
software (Chapter entitled “Definition of detection zones”).
x
Due to possible measurement errors, every detection zone has an additions area in
which detection is not guaranteed under all conditions. Please consider as well
Chapter 5.3.5. Read Chapter 5.4.6 and 5.7.7 for information on optimizing system
availability.
x
The required safety distances must be taken into account when making detection
zone configurations. Safety distances are calculated according to formulas found in
either the machine-specific C standards or the general B standards IEC 61496-3 in
combination with DIN EN 999 (see Section 2 and 5 of the standard). Tolerance fields
and / or additions (make sure to consider Chapter 5.4 and 5.7).
x
After the detection zones have been set, make a printout of the following
information:
x
16
Shadow effects (e.g. surfaces or areas located behind stationary objects) must be
considered. As a rule, insufficient safeguarding must be adequately supplemented
by further safety measures such as protective grid, light curtains, and the like!
Detection zone contour with the X and Y coordinates
Date
Serial number of the scanner
Name of the safety official
When calculating the additions, be sure to consider whether the dust algorithm is
deactivated or activated (see Chapter 5.3.5).
3.6
x
When calculating the safety distances, be sure to consider all delay times, such as
the response time of the scanner, response time of the control elements, and
braking times and / or stopping times of the machine / system or AGV! Variations in
delay time caused by factors such as reduced braking power must also be taken into
consideration.
x
The effectiveness of the switch-off function must be tested along the defined contour
of the detection zone during the initial startup and subsequent to any changes made
to a machine or system.
x
The effectiveness of the switch-off function must be tested for the detection zone
contours along the entire driving route during the initial startup and following any
changes made to an AGV.
x
In the event that there is insufficient room available to allow the full dimensions of a
detection zone, for example because of the position of the scanner, additional safety
measures (e.g. protective grids) must be installed.
x
Following each definition of and change to the detection zones, the configuration
must be checked to see whether the possibility of people standing in the danger
zone as well as any barriers provided have been considered by an appropriate
layout of the detection zone(s).
Additional safety notes for stationary use
x
If the danger zone can be accessed from the side, and if the detection zone cannot
be extended sufficiently in this direction, additional safety measures (e.g. protective
grids) must be installed.
x
We recommended marking the contour of the detection zone on the floor by painting
a colored line or applying colored adhesive tape.
x
Check the mounting regularly (in particular, the angle of inclination) in order to
guarantee the reliability of detection.
17
3.7
18
Additional safety notes for mobile use
x
There are additional requirements for the use of scanners on automatic guided
vehicles (AGV) and transporter trolleys according to DIN EN 1525.
x
If possible, expanded detection zones to each side should be provided in order to
safeguard access from the side and directly in front of the vehicle.
x
If is it not possible to completely safeguard the contour of the vehicle including its
trailer and the dimensions of its load while making curves, additional protective
devices such as switch strips must be attached to the side of the vehicle.
x
There must be a minimum safety distance SAB of 500mm to the side of the vehicle
on both sides. A one-sided minimum safety distance is admissible in certain
exceptional cases. The specifications of DIN EN 1525 must be complied with.
x
The basic value of the detection zone width for an AGV corresponds to the
maximum vehicle width including the trailer and the dimensions of the load plus the
detection zone additions ZS. Furthermore, the greatest possible lateral shift of the
AGV while making curves must be considered when defining detection zones.
x
If the SD3-A1 is mounted on vehicles, the mounting (especially the angle of
inclination), the vehicles' braking power, and if applicable, play in the vehicle
guidance (the difference between the optimum and actual line of guidance) must be
regularly checked in order to guarantee the reliability of detection.
4
Applications for the SD3-A1
Due to its continuous coverage of the area, its wide range, and the ability to select among
eight zone pairs, the SD3-A1 is able to handle even complex applications.
4.1
Stationary safeguarding of the danger area
The SD3-A1 is used to safeguard dangerous working areas at machines and systems
where both constant and variable demands are placed on the geometrical shape of the
detection zone. The aim is to prevent people from entering the danger zone or reaching
the danger point with their upper and / or lower extremities, at the same time without
impeding the production process.
The SD3-A1 can be mounted directly at the machine table or on the side or in front of the
machine.
Fig. 4.1-1:
Danger area guarding at stationary machinery with two alternating work
areas
Please comply with the safety notes in Chapter 3 and Chapter 5.4.7. For an example of
how to calculate detection zone measures, please refer to Chapter 5.4.8.
19
4.2
Access guarding by passage monitoring
Access guarding by passage monitoring (whole body trip control) is a suitable method
when the access to a machine or to a hazardous zone can be precisely defined in
structural terms, and there is no other unprotected access to the area. It is best to mount
the laser scanner above the passage in question, in vertical alignment. In order to secure
the protective equipment, laser scanner and fence against inadvertent misadjustment and
manipulation, the detection zones of the SD3-A1 must be defined on the basis of a
reference boundary. In this operating mode, the scanner will use the polled environment
as a reference and so check for changes in the layout of the protective equipment, as well
as checking every one of the individual measurements it carries out with a view to
detecting an intrusion. An example of the configuration of the SD3-A1 to give access
protection by passage monitoring will be found in Chapter 5.5.
Fig. 4.2-1:
20
Access guarding by whole body trip control with system check of a
reference boundary
4.3
Safeguarding of danger points based on hand and arm protection
If the machine operator, in close proximity to the danger zone, needs to halt the
hazardous movement of the machine or to coordinate the handling of workpieces or their
removal from the machine, the machine must be provided with protection at the danger
point. To safeguard danger points in this way a protective system needs to be installed.
The SD3-A1 is certified as a system providing hand and arm protection, and is able in
such a situation to guarantee flexible safety conditions in the workplace. This may be
combined with alternation of the detection zones. In order to safeguard the protective
equipment, laser scanner and side-mounted panels (which serve as a reference and
provide additional access protection) against inadvertent misadjustment or manipulation,
the detection zones of the SD3-A1 must be defined on the basis of a reference boundary.
An example of the configuration of the SD3-A1 for the protection of danger points based
on hand and arm protection may be found in Chapter 5.6.
Fig. 4.3-1:
Safeguarding of danger points based on hand and arm protection with
alternation of detection zones
21
4.4
Mobile safeguarding of automatic guided vehicles
For this application, the SD3-A1 is installed on automatic guided vehicles in order to
monitor the vehicle path. The aim is to detect people or objects in the path of the vehicle
and to automatically bring the vehicle to a halt. Safety systems available up to now, such
as bumpers or safety bars, have allowed only very low driving speeds to be maintained.
In contrast, using the SD3-A1 as a non-contact “advance bumper” results in the creation
of a substantially larger safety zone.
The vehicles can move faster, and down times are reduced to the necessary minimum.
Fig. 4.4-1:
Safeguarding an automatic guided vehicle
Please comply with the safety notes in Chapter 3. For an example of how to calculate
detection zone measures, please refer to Chapter 5.7.9.
4.5
Protecting transporter trolleys against collisions
Transporter trolleys are generally guided along a system of rails or grooves in the floor.
Hence the vehicle paths are usually just slightly wider than the trolleys themselves. This
represents an increased hazard for people, since it is impossible to get out of the way of
the trolley. For this reason, transporter trolley are used in enclosed areas equipped with
suitable access safeguarding.
22
Fig. 4.5-1:
Safeguarding a transporter trolley
Please comply with the safety notes in Chapter 3 and Chapter 5.7.8.
In these cases, the SD3-A1 is used to detect people or objects in the vehicle path and
then automatically bring the vehicle to a halt. Select “Manual restart” mode.
The demands placed on the geometrical shape of the detection zone are determined by
the vehicle width, speed, stopping distance and response time. Here as well, factors such
as additions in the direction of travel for tolerances in the measurement value and
reduced braking power due to wear and tear must be taken into consideration.
4.6
Guarding the sides on AGVs
In addition to the danger area guarding of the path of an AGV application, in some
cases it is also necessary to set up a side guarding. This side guarding detects people
in the space between vehicle and conveyor, or detects people that stand on the
conveyor edge in the vehicle area. Furthermore, the side guarding also enables the
correct position of the load to be monitored, so that a transport with overhanging load is
not initiated.
23
Fig. 4.6-1:
Bild 6.3-1 guarding the sides on AGVs
Please observe the safety notes in Chapter 3. An example for the side guarding
configuration on AGVs can be found in Chapter 5.7.9 and 5.7.10.
4.7
24
Other possible applications
x
Object and contour measurement
x
Logistics (counting, measuring, controlling)
x
Projection control (e.g. in fully automatic parking ramps or lots)
x
Safeguarding or monitoring enclosed spaces
x
and many more
5
Information for Planning and Mounting
It is essential that the following key points be complied with so that the SD3-A1 can
provide optimum performance:
x
The SD3-A1 must be placed so that areas of access to the danger zone being
monitored are completely covered by the detection zone.
x
The mounting position of the scanner should provide protection from humidity, dirt
and extreme temperatures below 0°C or over 50°C.
x
The mounting position must be selected in such a way as to minimize the possibility
of mechanical damage. Additional protective cover panels or safety bars must be
installed at exposed positions.
x
Reinforcements, cover panels, mounting niches, and other machine elements may
not in any way impair the field of view of the scanner.
x
If there are areas of shadow caused by fixed obstacles that were defined as part of
the detection zone boundary, these should be safeguarded (e.g. by protective grids)
in order to prevent people standing in them from being able to suddenly enter the
detection zone. This point must be taken into account in the hazard analysis of the
machine or system.
x
Be sure that there are no retro-reflectors or highly reflective surfaces made of metal
or ceramic in the area of the detection zone and at the height of the scanning plane.
Such objects can cause measurement errors.
x
In order to ensure a consistent detection height at every point of the detection zone,
the scanner – and hence the scanning plane – must be placed parallel to reference
section.
x
If the “Restart interlock” function is included, the restart button must be located
outside the detection zone in a place that is visible from the entire danger area.
x
If the scanner is used without a start interlock or startup test with automatic start /
restart, a startup warning (visual or acoustic) must be provided.
x
The scanner must not be used as an aid for climbing. If there is any risk, a suitable
diagonal protection (45°) should be set up.
Please comply with the safety notes in Chapter 3, Chapter 5.4.7 and 5.7.8.
25
5.1
Attachment and dimensions
For attaching the SD3-A1, four drill holes are located at the back of the unit. Any laser
scanner installation point is possible with mounting. The SD3-A1 can, for example, also
be mounted on the head or inclined facing down.
The mounting system MS-SD3-1 is available as an accessory offering following
advantages:
x Speeds up the mounting process by providing screws that are accessible from the
front.
x
Allows vertical inclinations of up to 9°, either up or down, infinitely adjustable within
this range.
x
Allows lateral tilting of up to approx. 9° to either side from the midpoint setting,
infinitely adjustable within this range.
x
Enables quick replacement of the scanner without requiring realignment.
For information on which parts and dimensions are required for mounting, please refer to
Chapter 13.13 and 13.14.
5.2
Installing adjacent laser scanners
The SD3-A1 has been developed in a way that prevents several laser scanners from
interfering with one other as much as possible.
An increase in the response time can, however, be caused by the installation of several
adjacent laser scanners. If none of the constructive measures (section 5.2.1) described in
the following sections or the specific adjustment (section 5.2.2) are implemented, then
the SD3-A1 response time set and shown in the configuration and diagnosis
software (SD3SOFT) is extended by 40ms. This extension in the response time must
be taken into account when calculating the safety distance!
5.2.1
Constructive measures
The direct external light irradiation from laser scanners of the same kind (905nm laser
light wavelength) in a line and at the same installation height can be prevented with
shielding plates at scan level. Shielding, as high as the scanner front screen and flush
with the front housing edge, is sufficient. The same also applies with installation in parallel
alignment and overlapping of the scan levels.
26
a = SD3-A1
c = Detection zones
Fig. 5.2-1:
5.2.2
b
d
= Machine (view from above)
= Shield plate, flush with the housing
Shielding to prevent direct irradiation
Adjusting adjacent laser scanners
In order to prevent faulty deactivation and scanners interfering with each other as much
as possible, when using several laser scanners you must install these as shown in the
following examples. Installation on the basis of the MS-SD3-1 mounting system makes
precise adjustment significantly easier.
Installation with height offset or a crossed alignment also prevents interference from
beam reflections onto surrounding objects. When safeguarding danger zones, please
also ensure that it is not possible to crawl under the detection zone, so that gaps do not
occur with access guarding.
Fig. 5.2-2:
Installation with height offset (parallel alignment)
Fig. 5.2-3:
Installation without height offset (crossed alignment)
27
Fig. 5.2-4:
5.3
Opposing installation without height offset (crossed alignment)
Information on setting the dimensions of detection zones
The hazards caused by machines and systems place a wide range of demands on safety
distances and detection zones which must be appropriately defined.
5.3.1
Methods of configuring detection zones using the PC
With its SD3SOFT configuration and diagnostic software, the SD3-A1 offers various
methods for setting the configurations of detection zones.
Numerical input
A separate dialog within the user program “SD3SOFT” allows the right, left and front
edges of the detection zone to be set using numerical values in mm.
Graphic input
A separate dialog within the user program “SD3SOFT” allows the basic contours of the
detection zone to be entered. The contours can be adapted infinitely to the desired size of
the detection zone. The following shapes are available:
x
circle
x
rectangle
x
polygon
In addition, the contours can be infinitely varied by:
x
changing
x
limiting and
x
deleting
partial segments as desired
5.3.2
Range of the detection zone, resolution
The maximum range of the detection zone SMAX 4m (including the additions) for an object
with a diameter of 70mm and a reflectance factor of 1.8% (e.g. black corduroy). The
reference point of the measurement is the axis of the rotating mirror on the scanner
64mm behind the front edge of the scanner.
28
5.3.3
Range of the warning zone, resolution
A maximum range of 10m is available for an object with a diameter of 100mm. The
maximum available range for an object with a diameter of 150mm is 15m. Both of these
figures assume a reflectance factor of 20%.
Resolution in mm
a = Detection zone
b = Warning zone
c = Measurement field
Fig. 5.3-1:
Detecting objects in the detection zone and in the warning zone. The
reference point of the distance measurement is the axis of the rotating
mirror.
29
5.3.4
Range of the measurement field
The maximum distance for contour measurement at a reflectance factor of 80% (white
gypsum) is 50m.
Remission in %
a = Detection zone
b = Measurement field
Fig. 5.3-2:
5.3.5
Detection of objects depending on the reflectance factor. The reference
point of the distance measurement is the axis of the rotating mirror.
Required detection zone additions Z
The SD3-A1 is equipped with a selectable dust algorithm to ensure optimum freedom
from interference.
The following detection zone additions must be taken into account:
Addition ZSM if dust
suppression is deactivated
83mm
Addition ZSM if dust
suppression is activated
83mm (for a detection zone size < 3.5m)
100mm (for a detection zone size • 3.5m)
Activation and deactivation of the function is performed by SD3SOFT.
30
If retro-reflectors or very shiny surfaces, such as polished or enameled metals or
ceramics, may possibly be present in the scanning plane, the following table applies:
Addition ZREFL if retroreflectors or very shiny,
surface-treated materials
(e.g. metals and ceramics)
are present in the scanning
plane
0mm for reflectors more than 1.2m behind the
detection zone line
110mm for reflectors up to 1.2m behind the
detection zone line
Z = ZSM + ZREFL
Z
ZSM
ZREFL
5.4
= Required detection zone addition, in mm
= Measurement error of the scanner, in mm
= Addition for considering reflectors, in mm
Safeguarding stationary danger zones
Please comply with the safety notes in Chapter 3.
5.4.1
5.4.2
The purpose of safeguarding
is for protection:
x
to protect people when entering a danger zone
x
to protect people from reaching a danger point with their extremities
x
to protect objects from the danger of collision due to variable machine or part
movements.
Mounting position
The SD3-A1 can be mounted either in a stationary position (e.g. on a wall or a machine)
or on moving parts (e.g. machine table).
The qualified installer must ensure that the mounting position of the SD3-A1 allows the
danger zone to be monitored completely.
If a restart button is being used, make certain that the entire detection zone area can be
viewed by the person pressing the button. It must not be possible to activate the button
from the danger area.
Refer to the safety notes in Chapter 3.6 with regard to lateral access into the danger
zone.
31
5.4.3
Mounting height
According to DIN EN 999, the lowest admissible height of the scanning plane for people,
as measured from the base level, is calculated according to the following formula:
HMIN = 15 × (d - 50mm)
HMIN
= Lowest admissible scanning plane from the base level
d
= Resolution of the scanner in mm (object size = 70mm throughout the detection
zone).
The admissible height range of the SD3-A1 scanning plane lies between 0mm
(presettings leg detection) and 1,000mm above the base level. If the application requires
a scanning plane higher than 300mm, or if children have access to the area, the analysis
of the danger zone must consider the hazard caused by persons crawling below the
scanning plane.
5.4.4
Recommendations for mounting to prevent unmonitored zones
Unmonitored zones can result if the scanner is mounted onto a protruding attachment or
if the contour of the machine / system is varied in depth.
32
5.4.4.1
Recessed installation (undercut) under the machine table
The undercut must be at least as deep as the zone not monitored by the detection zone
lateral to and in front of the scanner. The minimum depth ZUMIN is 135mm. If it is possible
to recess the scanner, this is allowed up to a maximum of 40mm; the depth of the
undercut is reduced by the depth value of the recess. If the mounting system is being
used, the necessary dimensions of the undercut depth must be increased accordingly
(see Chapter 13.13 and 13.14). The height of the undercut must be limited to prevent
people from being able to step beneath it.
Fig. 5.4-1:
Recessed scanner installation with undercut
The additional safeguarding required for the particular application must be taken into
account.
Please note that the undercut must cover any unmonitored zones.
33
5.4.4.2
Recessed installation within the machine contour
Furthermore, the scanner can be recessed into the contours of a machine. The recess
can have a depth of up to 40mm without the mounting system MS-SD3-1, or up to 65mm
with the mounting system MS-SD3-1. This is in reference to detection zones that cover an
angle range of 180°. If it is not possible to comply with these values, or if unmonitored
zones result due to the shape or movement of the machine, additional safety measures
must be taken.
The effectiveness of the detection zones can be optimized by changing the depth at
which the scanner is installed, or by adjusting the angle range (e.g. from 180° to 190°).
For information on how to configure the scanner in this way, please refer to the instruction
manual (software operation) for the SD3SOFT.
Fig. 5.4-2:
Recessed installation within the machine contour
If it is not possible to mount the SD3-A1 directly onto the machine, it can also be
positioned lateral to or across from the machine.
34
5.4.4.3
External mounting lateral to or across from the machine
Fig. 5.4-3:
Lateral external scanner mounting without an undercut
If the machine contour runs parallel to the 90° beam of the laterally placed SD3-A1, the
distance between the detection zone boundary and the machine may not exceed 35mm.
Fig. 5.4-4:
Mounting the scanner across from the machine with an undercut
35
5.4.5
Additions
The axis of the rotating mirror (midpoint of the scanner) is of critical importance when
configuring the detection zones. This axis is assigned a value of 64mm from the front
edge of the scanner when calculating detection zones.
Add 83mm or 100mm for the maximum radial measurement error ZSM as described in
Chapter 5.3.5.
Add an addition ZREFL as described in Chapter 5.3.5 if reflectors could be present in the
area.
Please note that safety additions must principally be added to the safety distance
throughout the entire detection zone.
In other words, additions may not be added to just one side or only to certain sections.
Please consult the operating instructions provided by the machine or system
manufacturer.
5.4.6
System availability
There must be a buffer distance of 83mm between the surrounding contour and the
detection zone contour (including the additions). This distance increases the up-time of
the machine or system since it prevents the surrounding contour from being detected as
relevant for generating a switch-off signal. If there is an undercut across from the scanner
that is impossible for a person to step beneath (see Fig. 5.4-4), the depth of the undercut
can be calculated according to the following formula:
ZUMIN
= Z +83mm - d
ZUMIN
= Depth of the undercut, in mm
Z
d
= Required detection zone additions, in mm
= Resolution of the scanner (d = 70mm)
This is possible since it is absolutely certain that a person will be detected in front of the
undercut.
Furthermore, the dust algorithm of the SD3-A1 can be implemented if floating particles
may be present in the area. This algorithm, which can be activated in the user program
“SD3SOFT”, prevents the machine or system from being switched OFF unintentionally.
Please note Chapter 5.3.5.
If the danger zone analysis allows a multiple evaluation, detection errors caused by
floating particles can be decreased. The number of evaluations that is decisive for the
response time of the scanner (TSCAN), and thus also requires a larger detection zone, can
be set in the user program “SD3SOFT”.
In the event of an error event that lasts only briefly (for example the effect of extraneous
light) the scanner performs a one-time reboot. If automatic startup / restart are activated,
the scanner turns the OSSDs back ON after this brief error event, and after the detection
zone has been free for about 25s. This one-time reboot results in an additional increase
in availability. This function does not have any effect if detection zone activation is faulty.
If startup test, startup interlock and / or manual restart are included, they will not be
removed.
36
Safety notes:
Automatic startup / restart must only be used in cases where there is absolutely no
possibility that the effective detection zone could be entered or bypassed in some other
way. Depending on the hazard assessment, visual and / or acoustic startup warnings
should be provided.
If parameters are set for the function “Manual restart”, the required enable from the
startup / restart button affects all detection zones and is independent of any detection
zone changeover. If the current detection zone is manually enabled, this enable also
applies even if the system switches to another detection zone and this detection zone
becomes free! If startup / restart interlock is in effect in the current detection zone, it is
also in effect for the other detection zone to which the system switches even if this
detection zone is free.
5.4.7
Restart interlock
The SD3-A1 is equipped with a restart interlock function. You can select or deselect this
function as needed to connected restarting of the machine to a manual approval. It affects
all detection zones and does not depend on any detection zone changeovers. For
information on how to configure the scanner appropriately, please refer to SD3SOFT
(Section: “Safety-relevant parameters” folder).
The restart button must be mounted so that
x
the entire danger zone (or detection zone area ) can be viewed from the operating
position.
x
it is not possible to directly step or reach into the danger zone or danger point from
the operating position.
The button refer to the areas to be enabled in a easily understandable manner.
Please comply with the safety notes in Chapter 3 and 5.4.6.
37
5.4.8
Calculating the detection zone dimensions for safeguarding an area
According to IEC 61496-3 and DIN EN 999, the following formulas apply for calculating
the safety distance and the minimum depth of the detection zone when the direction of
approach runs parallel to the detection zone:
S
C
S
K
38
=
=
(K × T) + C
1,200mm – 0.4H
CMIN
HMIN
HMAX
=
=
=
850mm
15 (d – 50mm)
1,000mm
= Safety distance, minimum distance from the danger zone to the point of
detection, to the plane of detection, or to the detection zone, in mm
= Approach speed of a person or a person’s body parts (1,600mm/s), in mm/s
T
= Lag time of the entire system (response time and braking time until standstill),
in s
C
= Safety-related constant to consider entry into the danger zone before the
protective device is triggered, in mm
CMIN
= Minimum value of the safety-related constant (850mm), in mm
H
= Height of the scanning plane from the reference point, in mm
HMIN
= Minimum height of the scanning plane from the reference plane, in mm
HMAX
= Maximum height of the scanning plane from the reference plane, in mm
d
= Resolution of the scanner (70mm throughout the detection zone), in mm
5.4.8.1
Additions and minimum depth of detection zone
The sum of the system-specific and application-specific detection zone additions (see
Chapter 5.3.5) is calculated according to the following formula:
ZTOT = ZSM + ZREFL + ZAU
ZTOT
= Sum of the system-specific and application-specific detection zone additions,
in mm
ZSM
= Scanner measurement error, in mm
ZREFL
= Addition of the reflectors taken into account, in mm
ZAU
= Addition for application-specific undercut, in mm
The depth of the detection zone, with reference to the direct distance between the danger
zone and the detection point or line, is calculated according to the following formula:
ST = (K × (TSCAN + TMACH + ( TLAG × LLAG ))) + C + ZTOT
ST
K
TSCAN
TMACH
TLAG
LLAG
C
5.4.8.2
= Depth of detection zone, distance from danger area to detection point or line,
including system and application-specific additions, in mm
= Approach speed of a person or a person’s body parts (1,600mm/s), in mm/s
= Response time of the scanner, in s
= Response time of the machine or system, in s
= Lag time of the entire system, in s
= Factor for increase in lag time
= Safety-related constant, in mm
Maximum range of detection zone
SMAX =
ST2 + SBDIFF2
SBDIFF = GBDIFF + S + Z
SMAX
ST
SBDIFF
GBDIFF
S
Z
= Maximum range of the detection zone considering the diagonals, in mm
= Depth of the detection zone, in mm
= Largest width of the detection zone between the axis of the rotating mirror
and the outer edge of the detection zone, in mm
= Largest width of the danger zone between the axis of the rotating mirror and
the boundary of the danger zone, in mm
= Safety distance, minimum distance from the danger zone to the point of
detection, to the plane of detection, or to the detection zone, in mm
= Required detection zone additions, in mm
39
Fig. 5.4-5:
40
Considering the maximum measurement distance when safeguarding an
area
5.4.8.3
Sample calculation of the depth of a detection zone
This example is based on the following application data (see 5.4-5):
Largest width between the axis of
the rotating mirror and the
boundary of the danger zone
GBDIFF
700mm
Access speed
K
1,600mm/s (constant)
Response time of the SD3-A1
(adjustable)
TSCAN
0.08s
Response time of the machine or
system
TMACH
0.1s
Stopping time or lag time of the
machine or system
TLAG
0.5s (time for braking the
dangerous movement until
standstill)
Factor for increase in lag time
LLAG
1.1 (fixed addition to account for
increased lag time)
Addition for system-specific
measurement error
ZSM
83mm (when dust algorithm is
switched OFF)
Addition caused by the mounting
position that is selected
ZAU
125mm (distance between the
front edge of the undercut to the
beam axis of the scanner)
Height of the sensor
scanning plane
H
300mm
Safety-related constant
C
1,200mm – 0.4 × Height H
= 1,080mm
The formula
S = ( K × ( TSCAN + TMACH + ( TLAG × LLAG ))) + C
results in a safety distance of:
S = (1,600mm/s × (0.08s + 0.1s + (0.5s × 1.1))) + 1,080mm = 2,248mm
The formula
ST = S + ZSM + ZAU
results in the detection zone depth:
ST = 2,248mm + 83mm + 125mm = 2,456mm
41
5.4.8.4
Sample calculation of a maximum range of a detection zone
The formulas:
SMAX
=
ST2 + SBDIFF2
SBDIFF = GBDIFF + S + ZSM
yield, under consideration of the width of the danger zone results in the maximum
distance to be monitored:
SMAX =
2,456mm2 + 3,031mm2
SBDIFF = 700mm + 2,248mm + 83mm = 3,031mm
SMAX = 3,901mm
5.4.8.5
Sample calculation of an undercut
This example is based on the following application data. If the scanner is mounted across
from the machine (see Fig. 5.4-4), the undercut dimension can be reduced by d = 70mm.
The formula
ZUMIN = Z + 83 mm – d
results in a minimum undercut:
ZUMIN = 83 mm + 83 mm – 70 mm = 96 mm
It is not allowed for a person to be able to step beneath the undercut.
Fig. 5.4-6:
42
The undercut
5.5
Access protection
Please have regard to the general safety notes in Chapter 3.
5.5.1
Object of protection
The object of protection is the safeguarding
x
of individuals when they access a danger zone.
The SD3-A1 will detect the passage of individuals and the intrusion of an entire human
body into the scanning field of the laser scanner.
5.5.2
Installation position
Access protection is based on passage monitoring. This is a suitable system when the
access to a machine or to a hazardous zone can be precisely defined in structural terms,
and there is no other unprotected access to the area. In addition, the danger area must
be open to inspection, and the button for manual triggering of the restart interlock must
be situated outside the area. It is best if the laser scanner is firmly installed above the
passage in question, in vertical alignment and in such a way that it cannot be manipulated.
Care must be taken to ensure that the positioning of the laser scanner SD3-A1 does not
leave any areas through which a person might slip through without being detected. The
distance of the scanning field limiting the passage and the boundaries of the detection
zone must be defined in such a way that no gaps measuring more than 150mm can arise.
5.5.3
Safety-relevant settings, and calculation of the safety distance
To safeguard the protective equipment against inadvertent misadjustment or
manipulation, the detection zones of the SD3-A1 must be defined on the basis of a
reference boundary. In addition, the response time must be defined as 80ms and the
restart interlock must be set.
To enable the system to recognize an entire human body, the laser scanner must have a
resolution of 150mm. These safety-related settings will be automatically enabled in the
SD3SOFT configuration and diagnosis software when the presetting ”Passage
monitoring” has been selected.
For effective passage monitoring, a safety distance S must be observed between the
detection zone of the laser scanner and the danger zone. The SD3-A1 can fulfill its
protective function only if it has been installed and positioned in such a way as to allow for
an adequate safety distance. The safety distance ensures that no body part whatever can
reach the danger point until the hazardous movement of the machine has come to a
complete standstill.
43
The safety distance for an access protection system may be calculated, based on EN 999
by means of the following formula:
S
= K×T+C
S
=
Safety distance, in mm
K
=
Approach velocity, in mm/s
T
=
Overall time of delay, in s,
a total consisting of:
C
Here = 1,600mm/s
Response time of the laser scanner
Here = 80ms
Overtravel time of the machine including the
controls
Based on measurement of
overtravel time
=
Added margin on account of the possibility
Here = 850mm
of manual intrusion
Please also have regard, in this connection, to the diagrams given in this chapter.
5.5.4
Definition of the reference boundary
Fig. 5.5-1:
44
Access protection by passage monitoring with system check of a
reference boundary
The reference boundary must cover at least two sides of the detection zone. The
detection zone itself must be defined in such a way that no gaps can arise through which
a person could pass through the passage without being detected. The reference
boundary is defined with reference to the non-moving parts of the passage. These will
then be constantly monitored by the laser scanner, so that any individuals intruding or
other manipulative intervention will be detected beyond the possibility of doubt. In defining
the reference boundary, please also have regard to the indications given in the instruction
manual (software operation) for the SD3SOFT configuration and diagnosis software.
5.6
Protecting danger points
Please have regard to the general safety notes in Chapter 3.
5.6.1
Object of protection
The object of protection is the safeguarding
x
of individuals who work with a machine or spend time in the danger zone
associated with it.
The SD3-A1 will detect the body parts of individuals and the intrusion of these body parts
into the scanning field of the laser scanner. In this operating mode, hand and arm
protection is effectively realised.
5.6.2
Installation position
Safeguarding of danger points on the basis of hand and arm protection is a suitable
method if the machine operator, in close proximity to the danger zone, needs to halt the
hazardous movement of the machine or to coordinate the handling of workpieces or their
removal from the machine. It is best if the laser scanner is firmly installed above the
danger zone, in such a way that it cannot be manipulated. The health and safety officer
must ensure that the installation position of the SD3-A1 does not leave any areas free
through which manual intrusion could be effected. If appropriate, additional protective
facilities should be installed to exclude any possibility of the operator’s reaching over or
around or getting behind the barrier. To prevent the latter, the distance from the scanning
field to the machine table must not be more than 75mm. This can be guaranteed if
suitable screens are installed for the monitoring of the reference boundary (see the
illustrations in this chapter).
5.6.3
Safety-related settings, and calculation of the safety distance
In order to safeguard the protective equipment against inadvertent misadjustment and
manipulation, the detection zones of the SD3-A1 must be defined on the basis of a
reference boundary. To make it possible to recognise the hand or arm of a person, the
laser scanner must have a resolution of 30 or 40mm. These safety-related values will be
automatically set in the SD3SOFT configuration and diagnosis software when the
presetting “Hand protection” or “Arm protection” has been selected. At the same time the
detection zone limits will be limited to 1.60m or 2.20m, and cannot be extended beyond
this.
45
To safeguard the danger point, a safety distance S must be observed between the
detection zone of the laser scanner and the danger zone. The SD3-A1 can fulfill its
protective function only if it has been installed and positioned in such a way as to allow for
an adequate safety distance. The safety distance ensures that no body part whatever can
reach the danger point until the hazardous movement of the machine has come to a
complete standstill.
The safety distance S when safeguarding a danger point may be calculated, based on EN
999, by means of the following formula:
S
= K×T+C
S
=
Safety distance in mm
K
=
Approach velocity in mm/s
At a close distance of 500mm, a velocity of 2,000mm/s should be assumed.
If the calculation involves a distance in excess of 500mm, K may be taken
to be 1,600mm/s. But in this case the safety distance is subject to a
minimum value of 500mm.
T
C
=
=
Overall time of delay in seconds,
a total consisting of:
Response time of the laser scanner
Adjustable, max. 200ms
Overtravel time of the machine including the
controls
Based on measurement of
overtravel time
8 × (d - 14) in mm
Added margin dependent on the depth of penetration of the detection zone,
based on the resolution of the laser scanner: C (30mm) = 128mm, C
(40mm) = 208mm
d
=
The resolution to which the laser scanner
has been set
Here = 30mm or 40mm
In this connection please also have regard to the illustrations given in this chapter.
46
5.6.4
Defining the reference boundary
Fig. 5.6-1:
Safeguarding of danger point based on hand and arm protection with
monitoring of a reference boundary
The reference boundary must cover at least two sides of the detection zone. The
detection zone itself must be defined in such a way that no gaps can arise through which
or over which a person could reach without being detected. The detection zone must also
provide safeguards against a person getting behind the barrier. This can be very
effectively managed by screening the sides of the danger zone. The reference boundary
should be defined with reference to the non-moving parts of the screen arrangement.
The detection zone must be defined as large enough to ensure an overlapping greater
than the tolerance zone of the reference boundary. The detection zone will then be
constantly monitored so that any body parts intruding or other manipulative intervention
will be detected beyond the possibility of doubt. In defining the reference boundary,
please also have regard to the indications given in the instruction manual (software
operation) for the SD3SOFT configuration and diagnosis software.
47
5.7
Safeguarding mobile machines
Please comply with the safety notes in Chapter 3.
5.7.1
The purpose of safeguarding
is for protection:
5.7.2
x
to protect people when entering variable danger zones
x
to protect objects located in the vehicle path
x
to protect the automatic guided vehicle and its load
Installing adjacent laser scanners
The SD3-A1 has been developed in a way that prevents several laser scanners from
interfering with one other as much as possible.
An increase in the response time can, however, be caused by the installation of several
adjacent laser scanners. If none of the constructive measures (section 5.2.1) described
in the following sections or the specific adjustment (section 5.2.2) are implemented, then
the SD3-A1 response time set and shown in the configuration and diagnosis
software (SD3SOFT) is extended by 40ms. This extension in the response time must
be taken into account when calculating the safety distance!
5.7.3
Mounting position
For the purpose of safeguarding the path of a vehicle, the SD3-A1 is mounted on the
front of a vehicle (in each direction of travel), preferably in the center.
The scanner, and hence the beam axis, must be aligned horizontally in order to achieve a
consistent scanning height.
Please comply with the safety notes in Chapter 3.7.
5.7.4
Mounting height
As a rule, the scanner should be mounted as low as possible in order to prevent people
from crawling beneath the detection zone. This specification is limited due to such factors
as uneven floors or the deflection of the springs in the AGV.
The maximum mounting height must be selected so that an object (cylinder with a
diameter of 200mm in the prone position) is reliably detected (see DIN EN 1525). The
detection must be tested at the position of maximum depth within the detection zone. For
AGV applications, sufficient resolution of detection is achieved when an object (upright
cylinder) with a diameter of 70mm can be detected throughout the detection zone.
48
Fig. 5.7-1:
Mounting height on an AGV
Depending on the application, further additions may be necessary. Additional information
is available in Chapter 5.7.6.
5.7.5
Recommendations for mounting to prevent unmonitored zones
The creation of unmonitored zones is dependent upon the following factors:
x
the vehicle width
x
the design of the vehicle (e.g. attachments, shape)
x
the position of the scanner
x
the installation depth
x
the selected angle range.
If the detection zone of a SD3-A1 mounted on an AGV does not cover the entire front of
the vehicle, you can prevent the creation of unmonitored zones by changing the
installation depth of the scanner or by adjusting the angle range (from 180° to 190°).
49
If this is not possible due to constructional limitations, additional safety measures such as
mechanical cover panels, switch strips or bumpers must be implemented.
Please comply with the safety notes in Chapter 3.7.
Fig. 5.7-2:
50
Three possibilities for mounting the SD3-A1 onto an AGV
5.7.6
Additions
The axis of the rotating mirror (midpoint of the scanner) is of critical importance when
configuring the detection zones. This axis is assigned a value of 64mm from the front
edge of the scanner when calculating detection zones.
Add 83mm or 100mm for the maximum radial measurement error ZSM as described in
Chapter 5.3.5.
Add an addition ZREFL as described in Chapter 5.3.5 if reflectors could be present in the
area.
Without information from the AGV manufacturer, take into account the wear and tear on
the brakes by adding an addition LSTOP of at least 10% of the braking distance, as long as
this is not already included in the braking distance SSTOP.
If there is a very small distance between the bottom of the AGV and the floor, the
detection difference between the leg and the toes must be considered in the calculation.
For AGVs with a floor clearance of less than 120mm, an addition ZAFLR must be added.
This refers only to the travel of direction.
Fig. 5.7-3:
Diagram for calculating the addition to compensate for inadequate AGV
floor clearance
51
5.7.7
System availability
There must be a buffer distance of 83mm between the surrounding contour and the
detection zone contour (including the additions). This distance increases the up-time of
the AGV, since it prevents the surrounding contour from being detected as relevant for
generating a switch-off signal due to a measurement error.
Furthermore, the dust algorithm of the SD3-A1 can be implemented if floating particles
may be present in the area. This algorithm can be activated in the user program
“SD3SOFT” and prevents the AGV from being switched OFF unintentionally. Please note
Chapter 5.3.5.
If the danger zone analysis allows a multiple evaluation, detection errors caused by
floating particles can be decreased. The number of evaluations that is decisive for the
response time of the scanner (TSCAN), and thus also requires a larger detection zone, can
be set in the user program “SD3SOFT”.
In the event of an error event that lasts only briefly (for example the effect of extraneous
light) the scanner performs a one-time reboot. If automatic startup / restart are activated,
the scanner turns the OSSDs back ON after this brief error event, and after the detection
zone has been free for about 25s. This one-time reboot results in an additional increase
in availability. This function does not have any effect if detection zone activation is faulty.
If startup test, startup interlock and / or manual restart are included, they will not be
removed.
Safety notes:
Automatic startup / restart must only be used in cases where there is absolutely no
possibility that the effective detection zone could be entered or bypassed in some other
way. Depending on the hazard assessment, visual and / or acoustic startup warnings
should be provided.
If parameters are set for the function “Manual restart”, the required enable from the
startup / restart button affects all detection zones and is independent of any detection
zone changeover. If the current detection zone is manually enabled, this enable also
applies even if the system switches to another detection zone and this detection zone
becomes free! If startup / restart interlock is in effect in the current detection zone, it is
also in effect for the other detection zone to which the system switches even if this
detection zone is free.
5.7.8
Restart
At least 2s must elapse following the release of a violated detection zone before the AGV
is allowed to startup again (in accordance with DIN EN 1525). The restart can be initiated
either manually or automatically. In case of automatic restart, the delay time of up to 10s
can be set in advance using the program “SD3SOFT”. If a restart button is provided, it
must be mounted outside the danger zone at a position from which the entire danger
zone can be viewed. The areas that will be released must also be referred to in an easily
understandable manner. The startup / restart interlock affects all detection zones and
does not depend on any detection zone changeovers.
Please comply with the safety notes in Chapter 3 and Chapter 5.7.7.
52
5.7.9
Calculating the dimensions of the detection zone of an AGV application
Following are the specifications and calculation examples for the mobile safeguarding of
automatic guided vehicles..
According to IEC 61496-3, the following formulas apply for calculating the safety distance:
S = (VMAXAGV × T) + SSTOP
VMAXAGV = Maximum speed of the AGV, in mm/s
= Response time of the scanner and the AGV, in s
T
SSTOP = Braking distance of the AGV until standstill, in mm
5.7.9.1
Direction-related minimum depth of the detection zone and additions
The depth of the detection zone in the direction of travel, with respect to the distance
between the edge of the roadway and the boundary of the detection zone, is calculated
according to the following formula:
ST = VMAXAGV × ( TSCAN + TAGV ) + ( SSTOP × LSTOP ) + ZTOT
=
ST
VMAXAGV =
TSCAN =
=
TAGV
LSTOP =
=
ZTOT
Depth of the detection zone in the direction of travel, in mm
Maximum speed of the AGV, in mm/s
Response time of the scanner, in s
Response time of the AGV, in s
Factor for wear and tear on the brakes
Total of the system- and application-specific additions in the direction of
travel in mm
ZTOT = ZSM + ZREFL + ZAFLR + ZAU
ZSM
ZREFL
ZAFLR
ZAU
5.7.9.2
=
=
=
=
Scanner measurement error, in mm
Addition of the reflectors taken into account, in mm
Addition for inadequate floor clearance by the AGV, in mm
Application-specific addition, in mm
Maximum range of detection zone
ST2 + SBDIFF2
SMAX =
SBDIFF = GBDIFF + ZS
SMAX
ST
SBDIFF
GBDIFF
ZS
=
=
=
=
=
Maximum range of the detection zone, in mm
Depth of the detection zone in the direction of travel, in mm
Largest width of the detection zone, in mm
Largest width of the danger zone, in mm
Sum of the system- and application-specific additions to the side, in mm
ZS = ZSM + ZREFL + ZAU
ZSM
ZREFL
ZAU
= Scanner measurement error, in mm
= Addition of the reflectors taken into account, in mm
(see Chapter 5.3.5)
= Application-specific addition, in mm
53
Fig. 5.7-4:
Considering the maximum measurement distance for safeguarding
AGVs
In accordance with DIN EN 1525, a minimum safety distance of 0.5m width between the
vehicle and its environment must be maintained.
54
5.7.9.3
Sample calculation of the depth of a detection zone
This example is based on the following typical application data (without access against
the direction of travel and without retro-reflectors):
Largest width of the danger zone
from the axis of the rotating mirror
= GBDIFF
1,400mm
Maximum speed
= VMAXAGV
1,800mm/s
Response time SD3-A1 (selectable)
= TSCAN
0.08s
Response time of AGV control
= TAGV
0.1s
Braking distance
= SSTOP
1,900mm
Factor for wear and tear on the brakes
= LSTOP
1.1 (fixed addition to account for
wear and tear on the brakes)
Measurement error
= ZSM
83mm
Distance between AGV and floor
= ZAFLR
90mm (results in an addition of
50mm according to Fig. 5.7-3 for
calculating the addition for
inadequate floor clearance)
The formula
S = VMAXAGV × (TSCAN + TAGV) + (SSTOP × LSTOP)
results in a safety distance of:
S = 1,800mm/s × (0.08s + 0.1s) + (1,900mm × 1.1)
= 2,414mm
The formula
ST = S + ZSM + ZREFL + ZAFLR + ZAU
results in the following required depth of the detection zone in the direction of travel:
ST = 2,414mm + 83mm + 0mm + 50mm + 0mm = 2,547mm
5.7.9.4
Sample calculation of a maximum range of a detection zone
The formula
ST2 + SBDIFF2
SMAX =
SBDIFF = GBDIFF + ZS
yields, under consideration of the width of the danger zone results in the maximum
distance to be monitored:
2,547mm2 + 1,483mm2
SMAX
=
SBDIFF
= 1,400mm + 83mm = 1,483mm
SMAX
= 2,947mm
55
5.7.10
Side guarding configuration on AGVs
All previous considerations and the Chapter 5.7.9 (Calculating the dimensions of the
detection zone of an AGV application) also apply for side guarding on AGVs. With AGVs
that drive along conveyor segments it should always be ensured that big enough
undercut is provided (see also, details in Chapter 5.4.4). If the structure of the conveyor
segment does not allow an undercut, then it must be assumed that a person is in the
space between the vehicle and the conveyor. This is especially the case with spaces of
more than 100mm. This person in the space between vehicle and conveyor should be
detected simultaneously with a person in the driveway, which must be taken into
consideration with the dimensioning of the detection and warning zones.
The same safety distance calculations therefore apply.
A laser scanner resolution of 150mm is required to detect an entire person. This safetyrelevant setting is automatically set in the SD3SOFT configuration and diagnostics
software with selection of the "person detection" presetting. The definition of a reference
contour as with access guarding is not necessary, as the approach of the person to be
protected is made in the direction of the detection zone! If the conveyor segment height is
over 500mm and the distance between vehicle and conveyor is more than 100mm, then
the detection zone between vehicle and conveyor can be aligned. With conveyor segment
heights below 500mm there is the increased danger of the conveyor segment being
crossed over. In this case the alignment of the detection zone with the conveyor edge
guarantees detection of a person at this point. If a laser scanner resolution finer than
150mm is additionally required for the safe position detection of the load, then this can
also be selected in this application. The person in the in between space continues to be
safely detected.
56
6
Details on Switching Over Detection and Warning Zones
During the course of an optimum machine utilization an alternate infeed or machining
cycle often occurs, which brings the most diverse danger areas with it. Automated guided
vehicle system applications by their very nature include various danger areas, depending
on the operating status. If the approach or presence of people is now to be expected in
these areas, the need exists of a precisely adjusting safety system. With its eight
switchable and freely configurable detection and warning zones (zone pairs), the SD3-A1
satisfies multifaceted requirements with regard to guarding the most diverse applications.
The definition of the necessary zone pair contours is possible with the convenient and
easy to use configuration and diagnostics software, "SD3SOFT".
The zone pairs are activated via the connection of 24V DC to the corresponding control
inputs, FP 1 to FP 4, which are provided on the X1 plug of the scanner. Please find
detailed information on the scanner connection in Chapter 7.2 and Chapter 9.
If the SD3-A1 is to be restarted or switching is to be made between different zone pairs,
the following points must be observed:
x
The zone pair planned for the start must be defined with special consideration of the
danger areas valid for this moment.
x
The sequence of the monitoring zones to be activated must ensure that the lower
threshold of the application-related detection zone minimum values is never
crossed.
x
With selection of zone pair 8 the monitoring function of the scanner is deactivated,
i.e. no detection zones are monitored and the safety outputs (OSSDs) remain
constantly active! With zone pair 8 the laser scanner may not be started. Zone pair 8
is planned for application-related situations in which it has been absolutely ensured
that there is no danger for any people present. These are, for example, vehicles with
crawler mode or in completely partitioned OFF and secured areas, vehicles in
approach mode in the area of loading or parking positions, as well as machines in
the "setup" operating mode.
Please observe the connection and interface assignment in Chapter 9.5 and the safety
notes in Chapter 3.
6.1
Sequence of zone pair switchovers
The SD3-A1 safety laser scanner has eight detection / warning zones. Switchover
between these zone pairs is possible at all times, provided the operating situation allows
this. During the switchover process the SD3-A1 monitors the zone pair activated before
the switchover until a new one has been clearly activated. The rules for the switchover
depend on the amount of the selected zone pairs and their numbers. The procedures
described in the following tables apply.
57
Table 6.1-1 applies with activation (start or switchover) of zone pairs 1 to 8.
Zone pair
Control input
FP 1 – FP 2 – FP 3 – FP 4
1
1 - 0 - 0 - 0
Zone pair 1 is active
2
0 - 1 - 0 - 0
Zone pair 2 is active
3
0 - 0 - 1 - 0
Zone pair 3 is active
4
0 - 0 - 0 - 1
Zone pair 4 is active
5
1 - 1 - 1 - 0
Zone pair 5 is active
6
1 - 1 - 0 - 1
Zone pair 6 is active
7
1 - 0 - 1 - 1
Zone pair 7 is active
8
0 - 1 - 1 - 1
Zone pair 8 is active
Table 6.1-1:
Connection of control inputs FP 1 to FP 4 with activation of zone pairs
1 to 8
The following points also apply for the switchover:
x
The switchover must be made within 40ms, i.e. after 40ms one of the input
connections shown in Table 6.1-1 must be valid and provided stable. During the
switchover time the old zone pair is monitored; the new one after max. 80ms.
x
The switchover process executed by the control unit must concur with the laser
scanner’s configuration, which was set beforehand with SD3SOFT.
If these points are not observed the laser scanner will fail within 40ms and will show this
with the additional 2Hz flashing of the green LED 1.
58
6.2
Practical AGV application (example)
The following example shows the sequence of zone pair changeovers for an efficiently
implemented AGV under consideration of the ambient conditions. Please observe the
particular danger zone analysis for each detection zone in combination with the
corresponding route segments. Also note the safe sequences of changeovers and starts.
For information on programming the startup detection zones (detection zones enabled for
starting up the scanner) and on determining the sequence in which the detection zones
are to be activated, please see the instruction manual (software operation) for the
SD3SOFT.
Activating
an ZP
AGV position
Deactivating
an ZP
AGV control of
position
ZP 1
Straight section
ZP 2
2m before the curve
ZP 1
Low speed
ZP 3
Beginning of the curve
ZP 2
Steering lock - curve
ZP 1
Straight section
ZP 3
Steering lock - straight
High speed
High speed
FP = 1 × detection zone + 1 × warning zone
Table 6.2-1:
Practical AGV application
If the AGV is controlled by a PLC, for instance, which corresponds to Category 3 or
higher according to DIN EN 954-1, the previous zone pair (ZP) can be deactivated
immediately after the next zone pair has been activated, with no time delay.
This results in a faster switching sequence.
The applicable safety directives and standards as well as the operating instructions for
the systems must be strictly complied with.
59
Fig. 6.2-1:
60
Example of a zone pair changeover for an AGV on a curved route
Fig. 6.2-2:
Example of zone pair changeover with combined with reducing speed of
the AGV
61
7
Functions of the SD3-A1
The SD3-A1 is equipped with the X1 and X2 interfaces. The following functions are
available through them:
7.1
Restart
Depending on the operating state, the restart input X1-2 has several functions:
x
Enables the restart interlock following the interruption of a detection zone
x
Enables the start interlock following a system start
x
Restarts after a device error has been eliminated
x
Recognizes a defined enable signal
after a device error
after a detection zone interruption for enabling the restart interlock
To activate the functions, apply 24V to input X1-2. In the meantime, the safety outputs
OSSD 1 and OSSD 2 are switched OFF; the indicator at the scanner (LED 3) is lit up red.
The duration of the signal must be between 0.12s and 5s.
The restart input X1-2 must be connected to an external, permanently installed button.
X1-2 must not be connected with the remaining controls in order to prevent an unintended
release with a restart pulse under some circumstances.
Force-guided, normally closed contacts can be monitored in the restart circuit (relay
monitoring).
Please note the Chapter 5 (Information for Planning and Mounting) and 9.1 (Electrical
power supply).
7.2
Channels for zone pair changeovers, FP 1 to FP 4
To activate the zone pairs, apply 24V (see Chapter 9.1) to the following inputs:
x
X1-4 (FP 1)
x
X1-6 (FP 2)
x
X1-7 (FP 3)
x
X1-8 (FP 4)
The following points also apply for the switchover:
x
The switchover must be made within 40ms, i.e. after 40ms one of the input
connections shown in Table 6.1-1 must be valid and provided stable. During the
switchover time the old zone pair is monitored; the new one after max. 80ms.
x
The switchover process executed by the control unit must concur with the laser
scanner’s configuration, which was set beforehand with SD3SOFT.
If these points are not observed the laser scanner will fail within 40ms and will show this
with the additional 2Hz flashing of the green LED 1.
62
7.3
Alarm 1 (X1-5)
As long as the output X1-5 is switched ON, the system signals trouble-free operation.
If it is switched OFF, the following states are reported:
x
Interruption of the warning zone is shown by the continuously lit LED 2 in the
indicator field of the scanner.
x
Warning state:
For instance, the system may detect a slight dirt buildup on the optical window. To
signal this state, LED 5 on the scanner flashes (2Hz). The user should clean the
optical window before it gets dirtier; waiting too long will cause a device error to be
reported and the outputs OSSD 1 and OSSD 2 to be switched OFF.
x
Device error:
Such as an erroneous reference measurement or extreme dirt buildup on the optical
window. This state is signaled by LED 5 flashing quickly (4Hz).
Both the reporting of a warning zone interruption and the signaling of the warning and
error state can be selected either separately or in combination. This procedure is
described in the instruction manual (software operation) for the program “SD3SOFT”.
Output X1-5 is equipped with an internal electronic current limit to protect it against
damage from overload.
7.4
Alarm 2 (X1-15)
As long as the output X1-15 is switched ON, the system signals trouble-free operation.
If it is switched OFF, the following states are reported:
x
Warning state:
For instance, the system may detect a slight dirt buildup on the optical window. To
signal this state, LED 5 on the scanner flashes (2Hz). The user should clean the
optical window before it gets dirtier; waiting too long will cause a device error to be
reported and the outputs OSSD 1 and OSSD 2 to be switched OFF.
x
Device error:
Such as an erroneous reference measurement or extreme dirt buildup on the optical
window. This state is signaled by LED 5 flashing quickly (4Hz).
Output X1-15 is equipped with an internal electronic current limit to protect it against
damage from overload.
63
7.5
OSSD 1 (X1-12) and OSSD 2 (X1-11)
When the detection zone is interrupted, the two semiconductor outputs switch OFF and,
by way of elements such as positively guided relays, cause the monitored machine(s) to
shut down.
It is not admissible to control different safety circuits with a single OSSD. Connected
loads must exhibit a low-pass behavior in accordance with the plausibility control
conducted by the scanner (fg ” 1kHz, CL ” 100nF). The OSSDs are equipped with
aninternal electronic current limit to protect them against damage from overload.
For some sample connections, see Chapter 8.
7.6
Data communication
The interface X2 allows the SD3-A1 to support two types of connections to the PC.
Communication via the X2 connector in RS-232 mode does not require any further
bridging. To enable data transfer in RS-422 mode, connect pin 5 with pin 6. The scanner
automatically adjusts itself to the appropriate transfer type and baud rate.
The interface (X2) is used for
x
configuring and setting parameters for the SD3-A1
x
transferring measurement data while the scanner is in operation
x
evaluating the coordinates during parameter setting (e.g. for AGV applications)
x
advanced status and control diagnostics.
Guard operation is only permitted with the PC cable (X2) or dummy connected screwed
ON. This also applies for transport and storage.
Please note the pin assignments specified in Chapter 9.5. For additional information on
using the X2 interface, refer to the instruction manual (software operation) for the
program “SD3SOFT”.
8
Integrating the SD3-A1 into Machine Controls
The following examples illustrate possibilities for integrating the SD3-A1 into machine
controls.
Once the operating voltage pin X1-3 (+UB) has been connected to pin X1-1 (GND) and a
detection zone has been activated (X1-4, X1-6, X1-7 or X1-8), the unit is ready for
operation.
Please see the point “Define Detection / Warning Zones” in the instruction manual
(software operation) for the program “SD3SOFT”.
64
8.1
Integrating the SD3-A1 with external wiring with relays and
eightfold zone pair changeover
In this connection example, the restart interlock function is provided by the connected
command unit “start interlock”, which applies the voltage of 24V to the input RESTART
X1-2. The SD3-A1 itself must be configured using the “SD3SOFT” user software so that
the operating mode “with restart interlock” is active.
Fig. 8.1-1:
Wiring the SD3-A1 with evaluation of the OSSDs, zone pair changeover
and restart interlock (example)
Relays K1 and K2 must have forced contacts. They are operated directly at the two
failsafe semiconductor outputs OSSD 1 (X1-12) and OSSD 2 (X1-11).
Relay K3 has a deenergizing delay. A suitable mechanism must be provided for
extinguishing sparks. Please note that doing this will cause the switching time to be
extended.
Channels “x” and “y” must be integrated for Category 3 in accordance with DIN EN 954-1.
Integrating one channel based on “z” is only permitted with a one-channel control system
and taking into consideration the results of a risk analysis.
Serial machine controls are admissible only insofar the valid regulations allow.
65
Fig. 8.1-2:
Wiring the SD3-A1 with evaluation of the OSSDs, zone pair changeover,
restart interlock and static relay monitoring
Relays K1 and K2 must have forced contacts. They are operated directly at the two
failsafe semiconductor outputs OSSD 1 (X1-12) and OSSD 2 (X1-11).
A suitable mechanism must be provided for extinguishing sparks. Please note that doing
this will cause the switching time to be extended.
Channels “x” and “y” must be integrated for Category 3 in accordance with DIN EN 954-1.
Integrating one channel based on “z” is only permitted with a one-channel control system
and taking into consideration the results of a risk analysis.
Serial machine controls are admissible only insofar the valid regulations allow.
66
8.2
Connecting the SD3-A1 to a safety sequence circuit with
manual restart interlock, relay monitoring, without zone pair
changeover
Fig. 8.2-1:
Wiring the SD3-A1 with manual restart interlock and relay monitoring,
and without zone pair changeover
In this example, the relay monitoring is performed by an external safety module (e.g.
SF-C13). Relays K4 and K5 must be equipped with positively guided contacts. A suitable
mechanism must be provided for extinguishing sparks. Please note that doing this will
cause the switching time to be extended.
Please refer to the operating instructions for the components.
Channels “x” and “y” must be integrated for Category 3 in accordance with DIN EN 954-1.
Integrating one channel based on “z” is only permitted with a one-channel control system
and taking into consideration the results of a risk analysis.
Serial machine controls are admissible only insofar the valid regulations allow.
67
8.3
Connecting the SD3-A1 to a PLC with corresponding safety
level (Category 3 or higher, EN 954) and zone pair changeover
Fig. 8.3-1:
Connecting the SD3-A1 to a failsafe PLC with a safety level (at least
Category 3, EN 954) and zone pair changeover (example)
All switching functions in this sample connection are controlled directly by the PLC.
The changeover of 4 zone pairs is achieved by way of the inputs X1-4 (FP 1), X1-6 (FP 2)
X1-7 (FP 3) and X1-8 (FP 4).
For applications in which the scanner must be separately enabled for its detection zone,
the signal can be given either by the machine controls or by connecting a command unit
for restart interlock. The SD3-A1 itself must be configured using the “SD3SOFT” user
program so that the operating mode “with restart interlock” is active.
68
9
Electrical Connection
9.1
Electrical power supply
The SD3-A1 requires a direct voltage of 24V and 8W of power plus the load at the
outputs (max. 25W).
The power must be supplied by way of an external 1.25A, semi time-lag fuse (e.g. in an
electronics cabinet). In addition, a permanent current of 2.5A must be ensured before
safeguarding begins in order to guarantee that the fuse will be triggered in case of a fault.
In keeping with electrical safety requirements, the power to the SD3-A1 all connected
input and output circuits must be provided by a power supply unit with protective isolation
from a safety transformer according to IEC 742 or comparable (this also applies for the
use of battery chargers for AGV applications).
9.2
Connecting the PC and control cables to the scanner
Two connector adapters with cable screw coupling are supplied with the SD3-A1. Two of
these are needed to accommodate the 9-pin Sub-D connector and the 15-pin Sub-D jack
(PC cable and control cable). A housing is used as protection of the X2 interface when
data communication with the PC is not desired.
The cable screw couplings can accommodate cable diameters from 6.5mm to 10.5mm.
Fig. 9.2-1:
Preparing the connectors
69
The connector adapter of control cable X1 must be connected with interface X1 and
screwed tightly to the SD3-A1. The connector adapter of cable X2, or else the X2 dummy
cap (without a cable), must also be screwed tightly to the SD3-A1. Screw thread bolts are
located on the top of the scanner housing for this purpose. If one of the two connection
housings is missing, the SD3-A1 no longer meets the requirements of protection type 65.
For information on the assignment of the connector, please refer to Chapter 2.2 and 9.5.
9.3
Connector assembly
Every connector adapter consists of the following individual parts:
9.4
x
Housing with sealing ring and fastening nuts
x
Cable screw coupling (M16) with dummy plugs
x
Sub-D9 connector and / or Sub-D15 jack, each with a solder connection
Points to consider when preparing and laying the cables
x
The cross-section of cable X1 must be at least 0.5mm2.
x
The outer diameter of the cable must be between 6.5mm and 10mm.
x
The maximum cable length for X1 is 50m.
x
The maximum cable length for X2 is 10m (for RS-232).
x
The maximum cable length for X2 is 50m (for RS-422, twisted pair).
x
Use shielded cables.
x
Connect the cable shielding with PE to the electronics cabinet only.
x
The cables must not be laid loose.
Scanner control cables may not be laid in a stand parallel to power supply cables for
machines. This minimizes the effects of inductive interference factors from motors
carrying high current. In addition, the cables should be laid so that they cannot be
damaged (e.g. by being crushed or pinched).
Cabling prepared for connection to the scanner is available as an optional accessory in
various lengths and for both interfaces. For further information, see Chapter 13.
70
9.5
Interface pin assignments
Pin assignments for connector X1
PIN
Signal
Description
1
GND
Power supply ground
2
Restart
Input, scanner reset, and connecting of the restart button
3
UB
24V DC power supply; protected by a 1.25A delayed-action
fuse
4
FP 1
Zone pair control input
5
Alarm 1
Semiconductor output that switches OFF when the warning
zone is violated as well as for warning messages such as
“optical window slightly dirty”, error messages such as “optical
window very dirty”, and for internal errors (the functions can
also be selected in combination).
6
FP 2
Zone pair control input
7
FP 3
Zone pair control input
8
FP 4
Zone pair control input
9
Reserved
Internally connected
10
Reserved
Internally connected
11
OSSD 1
Semiconductor output, switches OFF when the detection zone
is violated, Channel 1
12
OSSD 2
Semiconductor output, switches OFF when the detection zone
is violated, Channel 2
13
Reserved
Internally connected
14
Reserved
Internally connected
15
Alarm 2
Semiconductor output with shut-off when warning and
malfunction message
Table 9.5-1:
Pin assignments for connector X1
71
Pin assignments for connector X2 used as an RS-232 port
PIN
Signal
Description
1
Reserved
Internally connected
2
TxD
Data communication, transmit
3
RxD
Data communication, receive
4
Reserved
Internally connected
5
GND / shield Ground / shield
6
RS-232
Internally connected
7
N.C.
Do not assign
8
N.C.
Do not assign
9
Reserved
Reserved for testing purposes
Table 9.5-2:
Pin assignments for connector X2 used as an RS-232 port
Pin assignments for connector X2 used as an RS-422 port
PIN
Signal
Description
1
Tx +
Data communication, receive
2
Tx -
Data communication, receive
3
Rx -
Data communication, transmit
4
Rx +
Data communication, transmit
5
GND / shield Ground / shield
6
RS-422
Select RS-422 interface by connecting a bridge to pin 5
7
NC
Do not assign
8
NC
Do not assign
9
Reserved
Reserved for testing purposes
Table 9.5-3:
Pin assignments for connector X2 used as an RS-422 port
For the pin arrangement, please refer to Chapter 2.2 and 9.5 in the instruction manual
(connection and operation) of the SD3-A1.
72
10
Commissioning
Communication with the PC needs to be established so that the SD3-A1 can be
configured and the detection zones and warning zones can be programmed. This is also
necessary for displaying the measurement contours and for the system check.
The program “SD3SOFT”, which is included with delivery, makes this easy and
convenient to do. Refer to the instruction manual (software operation) to find additional
important information and helpful explanations.
10.1
Hardware and software requirements
The following components are required for the initial startup:
x
SD3-A1
x
RS-232 interface cable (1:1, without cross-connection)
x
Shielded control cable for the power supply and for activating a zone pair
x
Power supply that meets the requirements specified in Chapter 9.1
x
PC, color monitor
x
“SD3SOFT” program
The PC should fulfill the following requirements:
10.2
x
Intel® processor, Pentium® class or higher (or compatible models such as AMD® or
Cyrix®)
x
At least 64MB RAM
x
CD drive
x
Hard drive with at least 50MB of free memory (more if detection zone data and / or
configuration data are going to be stored)
x
Mouse
x
Interface RS-232 (serial)
x
Microsoft® Windows 95 / 98 / NT® / 2000 / XP® / 7
Installing “SD3SOFT” and starting up the SD3-A1
x
First, run the installation program “start.exe” in order to install the program on the
PC.
x
Start the software by calling up the program.
x
Connect the control cable and the PC cable.
x
Then apply the supply voltage to the SD3-A1. The scanner will now attempt to
communicate with the PC; this process is displayed on the screen.
73
x
When the connection between the SD3-A1 and the PC was successful, you can
enter the appropriate password and then change the parameters and zone pairs of
the SD3-A1 to meet the needs of the particular application.
The standard password to be entered in the access level “Authorized User” of
the SD3-A1 is: “SD3SUNX”. Please note that the password must be changed
following the initial configuration of the scanner, and that the data carrier must be
kept locked up in a secure location.
x
The SD3-A1 is ready for operation once the scanner settings and detection zone
configurations have been transferred.
Every SD3-A1 is factory-equipped with the maximum safety parameters. For this reason,
first the device settings and then the detection zones must be adapted to the
requirements of the application before the scanner is put into operation. After configuring
the scanner, remove the PC interface cable from position X2, put on the dummy cap
provided with delivery, and screw it tight.
For a list of parameters, please see the instruction manual (software operation) for the
SD3SOFT.
Please observe Chapter 11, Maintenance and Testing.
74
10.3
SD3-A1 status indicator
There are five LEDs located on the front of the scanner behind the cover with the matte
finish. These LEDs indicate the status of the SD3-A1.
Fig. 10.3-1:
The SD3-A1 status indicator
75
Meaning of the individual LEDs
LED
Color
Function / Meaning
1
Green
• Sensor function is active, active
detection zone is free
• Fault input zone pairs, Light
flashing at 2Hz
2
Yellow
• Configuration conflict, Light
flashing at 4Hz
• Warning zone is assigned
3
Red
OSSD outputs are switched OFF
4
Green
OSSD outputs are switched ON
Pictograph
ok.
STOP
ok.
5
Table 10.3-1:
76
Yellow
• Constantly lit: Start interlock
Restart interlock
• Flashing slowly (1): Warning
message (approx. 2Hz)
Optical window dirty
• Flashing quickly (((1))): device
message (approx. 4Hz)
Meaning of the SD3-A1 LED displays
10.4
Status information of the SD3-A1
Scanner display
LED numbers
1 2 3 4 5
Indicator
Status
–
–
1
0
–
LED 3
The OSSD outputs are switched OFF
(e.g. during booting).
1
0
0
1
0
LED 1
LED 4
The sensor function is active (measurement
operation without an interruption of the
activated zone pair). The OSSDs are switched
“active high”.
1
1
0
1
0
LED 1
LED 2
LED 4
The sensor function is active (measurement
operation without a violation of the activated
detection zone). Violation of the activated
warning zone. The OSSDs are switched
“active high”.
0
1
1
0
–
LED 2
LED 3
Violation of the warning zone. Violation of the
detection zone. The OSSDs are switched OFF.
1
0
0
1
(1)
LED 1
LED 4
LED 5
The sensor function is active (measurement
operation without a violation of the activated
detection zone). The OSSDs are switched
“active high”. Warning message signaled by
slow flashing at approx. 2Hz (e.g. with optical
window dirty)
0
0
1
0 (((1)))
LED 3
LED 5
The OSSDs are switched OFF.
Fault message indicated by fast flashing at
about 4Hz (e.g. with defect or safety-related
fault)
1
0
1
0
1
LED 1
LED 3
LED 5
The sensor function is active (measurement
operation without an interruption of the
activated zone pair).
The OSSDs are switched OFF. Restart
interlock is active.
0
1
1
0
1
LED 3
LED 5
Interruption of the zone pair.
The OSSDs are switched OFF.
Restart interlock is active.
1 = LED is lit up
0 = LED is dark
– = Undefined
Table 10.4-1:
Status information of the SD3-A1
Upon delivery, the SD3-A1 is programmed with the largest possible detection zone and
with activated startup interlock and manual restart. For this reason, LED 5 is constantly lit
up when the scanner is switched ON. When starting up your SD3-A1, please modify the
parameters to meet the specific needs of your application.
77
10.5
Restart and device swap-out
The SD3-A1 can be connected via the X1 standard plug or the ConfigPlug with integrated
configuration memory. With a restart the laser scanner starts in every case with the
configuration that was set when it went out of operation. Thereafter a technical expert
does not have to look at it, but the test in accordance with the specifications for daily
testing must be performed.
With a device exchange, however, the procedure is different!
When the X1 standard plug is used the configuration must be transferred with the PC to
the replacement device. All procedures and specifications of the first startup apply here. A
technical expert should look at the device!
If the ConfigPlug is used with integrated configuration memory, the SD3-A1 reads the
saved configuration automatically from the ConfigPlug when it is switched ON. The
ConfigPlug must be clearly identified with a nameplate and the switch in the plug must be
at the "1" (left) default position. During the startup with the automatic configuration
read-back, the laser scanner signals the successful transfer with a brief flashing of the
two yellow LEDs 2 and 5. In this case it does not have to be looked at by a technical
expert, but the test in accordance with the specifications for daily testing must also be
performed.
Fig. 10.5-1:
78
SD3-A1 ConfigPlug with switch setting "1"
11
Maintenance and Testing
When placing the system in service for the first time, when it has been out of service for
some time, after conversions and repair work, make certain the scanner and any other
safety parts are checked specifically for the application and operation by the responsible
trained specialist. This must be done taking into consideration applicable local
requirements, especially for directives on machines and using work material and work
safety directives. If the correct functionality is not clearly confirmed or if safety-related
parameters have been changed, turn OFF the machine or vehicle immediately.
Provisional measures are not permitted.
Please comply with the safety notes in Chapter 3!
11.1
11.2
Test before first startup by person qualified and authorized to
perform the task
x
Check in accordance with the directives cited above, using the checklists provided
following if necessary to verify that the protective equipment has been properly
attached is connected to the control system electrically and that its effect works in
all operating modes of the machine or vehicle.
x
The result of the test must be documented, along with the scanner setting, in an
understandable form. Printouts of scanner parameters and all defined detection
zone contours must be included with the materials. Keep these where they are
inaccessible for unauthorized personnel.
x
During initial startup, you should anticipate unexpected behavior in the machine or
vehicle. Because of this, people must be kept out of the danger area.
x
Operating personnel must be instructed by trained specialists before starting work.
Instruction is part of the area of responsibility of the machine operator.
x
Ensure that a daily test is performed. Please take note in this regard of the “Daily
test with the test piece performed by responsible operating personnel”.
Extended shutdown of the SD3-A1
If a system is taken out of operation and the SD3-A1 is placed in storage for later use
with other machines / vehicles, the factory settings should be restored. Please see the
chapter entitled “Set default configuration values” in the instruction manual (software
operation) for the SD3SOFT.
79
11.3
Regular tests by a person qualified and authorized to perform the
task
Regular tests must be performed taking into consideration applicable local requirements,
especially for directives on machines and using work material and work safety
directives. The purpose of these tests is to discover changes (for example lag times) or
manipulations on a machine, vehicle or piece of safety equipment.
To do this, see the checklists under Chapter 11.5 or 11.6
11.4
x
Have the effectiveness of the safety equipment checked within the required periods,
but at least once a year by a trained and knowledgeable person.
x
The checklists mentioned above are ideal for regular tests, especially checks for
safety-related changes to the machine, the vehicle or the piece of safety equipment.
Daily test by with test piece performed by responsible operating
personnel
The SD3-A1 is a safety-oriented laser scanner of Category 3. It is extremely important,
however, to check the effectiveness of the detection zone with the test piece daily or after
a shift change. This ensures that if the parameters or operating mode is changed, the
protective function is ensured at every point in the detection zone.
80
11.4.1
Checklist for daily test of stationary applications by responsible operating
personnel
1) Are there any problems in the external state of the protective
equipment, the cable, cable connections and any command
devices?
Yes
No
2) Are the fastening screws in the mounting system firmly
tightened?
Yes
No
3) Are the fastening screws in the SD3-A1 firmly tightened?
Yes
No
4) Are both protective caps (X1 and X2) screwed on and are the
firmly in place?
Yes
No
5) Do the safety equipment and command devices show any
safety-relevant changes or gaps in safety (e.g. changes in
access possibilities or changes in the surrounding area)?
Yes
No
6) If the protective function of the SD3-A1 is present for all
required monitoring cases (e.g. testing the switch-off function
with a test piece along the detection zone contour), the LED 3
for SD3-A1 must light up with each attempt and the movement
that poses a danger must be stopped immediately. Possibility of
danger to the person running the test must be excluded?
Yes
No
7) Is the startup test / restart interlock (if there is one) working?
Yes
No
8) Does the base marking match the detection zone contour?
Yes
No
9) Do the necessary detection zones match the configuration
protocol?
Yes
No
10) If correct functionality is not certain or id the SD3-A1 LED 5 is
flashing, take the machine out of operation immediately. Are any
doubts resolved?
Yes
No
If the answer to any of the questions above is No, the machine should be checked by a
trained specialist.
81
11.4.2
Checklist for daily test of mobile applications by responsible operating personnel
1) Are there any problems in the external state of the protective
equipment, the cable, cable connections and any command
devices?
Yes
No
2) Are the fastening screws in the mounting system firmly
tightened?
Yes
No
3) Are the fastening screws in the SD3-A1 firmly tightened?
Yes
No
4) Are both protective caps (X1 and X2) screwed on and are the
firmly in place?
Yes
No
5) Do the safety equipment and command devices show any
safety-relevant changes or gaps in safety (e.g. by widening the
vehicle)?
Yes
No
6) If the protective function of the SD3-A1 is present for all
required monitoring cases (e.g. testing the switch-off function
with a test piece along the detection zone contour, the LED 3 for
SD3-A1 must light up with each attempt and the movement that
poses a danger must be stopped immediately. Possibility of
danger to the person running the test must be excluded)?
Yes
No
7) Does the vehicle actually stop within the limits defined by the
responsible specialist (test of switch-off function using a test
piece. Is the possibility of danger to the person running the test
excluded)?
Yes
No
8) Is the startup test / restart interlock (if there is one) working?
Yes
No
9) Do the necessary detection zones match the configuration
protocol?
Yes
No
10) If correct functionality is not certain or id the SD3-A1 LED 5 is
flashing, take the vehicle out of operation immediately. Are any
doubts resolved?
Yes
No
If the answer to any of the questions above is No, the vehicle should be checked by a
trained specialist.
82
11.5
Checklist for testing stationary applications
The following checklist represents an aid. It helps in, but does not replace the test before
the initial startup as well as the regular tests performed by a trained specialist.
1) Is the mounting position and adjustment of the SD3-A1 correct
and is the possibility of misusing the SD3-A1 (for example to
climb on excluded)?
Yes
No
2) Is the external condition of the additional safety equipment and
control devices free of problems?
Yes
No
3) Are all connection pieces and connection cables in flawless
condition?
Yes
No
4) Are the two safety outputs (OSSDs) connected to the following
machine control system in accordance with the corresponding
safety category?
Yes
No
5) Are the following switch elements that are controlled by the
SD3-A1, for example contactors with forced contacts or safety
valves monitored by the feedback loop (EDM)?
Yes
No
6) Does the actual connection of the SD3-A1 to the machine
control system match the circuit diagrams?
Yes
No
7) Was the safety distance calculated according to the applicable
formulas for safeguarding danger areas and is this minimum
distance observed between the detection zone contour and the
danger areas?
Yes
No
8) Is the effect of any potentially reflective surfaces taken into
consideration with an addition in the calculation of the safetyrelated distance? As an alternate solution, have the surfaces
been changed (e.g. matted)?
Yes
No
9) Does the risk assessment take into account the fact that
detection zone heights above 300mm are considered high
enough to crawl under in the Standard (EN 999)?
Yes
No
10) Is access to the danger area only possible through the activated
detection zone of the SD3-A1 in question, or are other entrance
or access possibilities safeguarded with suitable safety parts, for
example guard fences?
Yes
No
11) Is the possibility of being between the activated detection zone
and the danger area reliably ruled out?
Yes
No
12) Is an installed protection to prevent walking behind (e.g.
undercut) in effect?
Yes
No
13) Is the SD3-A1 able to cover the entire danger area? Are dead
zones excluded?
Yes
No
83
84
14) Has the effectiveness of the activated detection zone been
tested with the black test piece (70mm diameter)?
Yes
No
15) Does the base mark match the correctly identified detection
zone?
Yes
No
16) Is the start / restart button for resetting the SD3-A1 positioned
according to requirements and does it work properly?
Yes
No
17) Does the SD3-A1 work in all necessary operating modes and
during the entire motion of the machine that is causing a
hazard?
Yes
No
18) Is the motion causing the hazard stopped when electrical power
to the SD3-A1 is disconnected and is a confirmation of the start
/ restart button necessary to reset the machine after the power
is restored?
Yes
No
19) Are all test and parameter inaccessible to unauthorized
personnel?
Yes
No
20) Is an identifying sign placed on the machine for the daily test of
the SD3-A1 where it is clearly visible for operating personnel?
Yes
No
11.6
Checklist for testing mobile applications
The following checklist represents an aid. It helps in, but does not replace the test before
the initial startup as well as the regular tests performed by a trained specialist.
1) Is the mounting position and adjustment of the SD3-A1 correct
and is the possibility of misusing the SD3-A1 (for example to
climb on excluded)?
Yes
No
2) Is the external condition of the additional safety equipment and
control devices free of problems?
Yes
No
3) Are all connection pieces and connection cables in flawless
condition?
Yes
No
4) Are the two safety outputs (OSSDs) connected to the following
vehicle control system in accordance with the corresponding
safety category?
Yes
No
5) Are the following switch elements that are controlled by the
SD3-A1, for example contactors with forced contacts or safety
valves monitored by the feedback loop (EDM)?
Yes
No
6) Does the actual connection of the SD3-A1 to the vehicle control
system match the circuit diagrams?
Yes
No
7) Has the safety distance for safeguarding automatic guided
vehicles (AGV) been calculated and observed according to
applicable formulas?
Yes
No
8) Is the effect of any potentially reflective surfaces taken into
consideration with an addition in the calculation of the safetyrelated distance? As an alternate solution, have the surfaces
been changed (e.g. matted)?
Yes
No
9) Does the risk assessment take into consideration the fact that
the height of the detection zone must be as low as possible
(DIN EN 1525)?
Yes
No
10) Is an installed protection to prevent walking behind (recessing
the SD3-A1) in effect?
Yes
No
11) Has the effectiveness of the activated detection zone been
tested with the black test pieces (70mm diameter standing and
200mm diameter on their sides)?
Yes
No
12) Is the start / restart button for resetting the SD3-A1 positioned
according to requirements and does it work properly?
Yes
No
13) Does the SD3-A1 work in all necessary operating modes and
during the entire motion of the vehicle that is causing a hazard?
Yes
No
85
86
14) Is the motion causing the hazard stopped when electrical power
to the SD3-A1 is disconnected and is a confirmation of the start
/ restart button necessary to reset the vehicle after the power is
restored?
Yes
No
15) Are all test and parameter inaccessible to unauthorized
personnel?
Yes
No
16) Is an identifying sign placed on the machine for the daily test of
the SD3-A1 where it is clearly visible for operating personnel?
Yes
No
11.7
Replacing the optical window
11.7.1
General information:
x
Only professionally trained personnel are permitted to replace optical windows.
x
Be careful everything stays clean during all jobs (If possible, work in a dust-free
environment. An adverse environment is not good for working on the device).
1) Loosening the housing parts
Loosen the four Allen screws on the rear
housing wall.
Take the two housing parts carefully apart
from each other and place them on a level
surface.
2) Dismounting the optical window
Loosen the screws on the fastening
straps.
Remove the fastening straps
Press the old optical window out through
the rear (through the housing)
87
3) Checking the condition of the scanner
Please do not fail to observe:
Check the mirror, optics and housing parts to
make certain they are free of dust. Dry if
necessary with a dry, oil-free, light jet of
compressed air with appropriate components.
Do not touch any parts in the device.
Avoid leaving fingerprints (grease from
fingers may cause the device to function
improperly).
4) Inserting the new optical window
Hold the new optical window by the sides
and carefully insert it in the correct
position, pressing the optical window
together slightly as you do so. Make
certain the rubber seal is not damaged.
Make certain it is in the groove in the
housing designed for that purpose.
Check to make sure the optical window is
seated correctly. There should be no gap
between the optical window and the
housing that lets light through.
Then fasten the new optical window in
place again with the fastening straps. As
you screw in the screws, you can apply a
little pressure on the outermost edge of
the optical window with your thumbs. The
new fastening strap (which has been
available since 2002) is the one to use.
88
5) Assembling the housing
When assembling the housing, note that
the two retaining bolts slide into the rubber
sleeves provided for them. To do this,
carefully join the two housing parts on a
level surface.
After that, carefully screw in the screws on
the rear wall of the housing, working back
and forth around the circle from screw to
screw.
Remove any finger prints on the optical
window
11.7.2
Initial measurement of the new optical window
After the optical window has been properly mounted, it is essential to perform a
calibration of the optical window. Correct functionality of the scanner cannot be
guaranteed without calibrating the optical window!
Please note: The calibration should be performed with an ambient temperature of +20°C
to +25°C!
Safety Notes: The optical window (dark red) must be clean and in new condition.
Dirty and scratched panes must not be calibrated and used. They would represent a
safety risk since the laser light would be weakened under some circumstances.
89
11.7.3
Procedure when using the SD3SOFT user software version 1.00 or later
1) Starting the PCs
2) Connection of X1 (electrical power supply with zone pair activated) and X2 (RS-232
cable 1:1)
3) Start SD3SOFT user software
4) Select the “Authorized user” access level
5) Confirm the echo data shown by the scanner
6) Click on the “Calibrate optical window monitoring” icon under “System data”
7) Start the optical window calibration with “Calibration” (lasts a few seconds, typically
with values between 100 and 700).
8) Click on the “Close” button
90
11.8
Cleaning
11.8.1
Cleaning the optical window when dirty
Different methods will work better under different conditions depending on load and
medium. What is the best approach?
Note:
SD3-A1 clean sets are available for cleaning the optical
window. They contain a special cleaning agent and
suitable cleaning cloths. Two sizes are available. For
more information, see the chapter entitled “Accessories
and spare parts”.
Please note:
Generally it is sufficient to remove particles relatively
quickly moving the cleaning cloth horizontally. If
cleaning takes longer (for example because of
fingerprints), the scanner will report the fault in optical
window monitoring (after cleaning, press “Restart”).
Description
Solution
Particles, loose, abrasive
• Remove with no contact using suction or blow off
with oil-free air
• Wipe clean with a cleaning cloth, wiping in one
direction only
Particles, loose, not abrasive
• Suction off with no contact or blow off with oil-free air
• Wipe clean with a cleaning cloth, wiping in one
direction only
Particles, adhering
• Wet or moisten the cloth with cleaning agent
• Wipe clean with a cleaning cloth, wiping in one
direction only
Particles, statically charged
• Suction off with no contact
• Wipe clean with cloth moistened in cleaning agent
Particles / drops, greasy
• Wet or moisten the cloth with cleaning agent
• Wipe clean with a cleaning cloth, wiping in one
direction only
Drops of water
• Wipe clean with a cleaning cloth, wiping in one
direction only
Drops of oil
• Wet or moisten the cloth with cleaning agent
• Wipe clean with a cleaning cloth, wiping in one
direction only
Fingerprints
• Wet or moisten the cloth with cleaning agent
• Wipe clean with a cleaning cloth, wiping in one
direction only
Scratches
• Replace optical window
91
11.8.2
Cleaning the optical window; cleaning diffusing light panes
The front and light panes and diffusion screens must be washed depending on the load
on the application in question. Generally this is a quick process.
Fig. 11.8-1:
Cleaning the optical window
Sharp cleaning materials and / cloths that scratch must never be used!
Fig. 11.8-2:
Cleaning diffusing light panes
Note:
Dirt can often be eliminated in a work step. If the optical window is cleaned within 4
seconds, the scanner is not turned OFF.
Note:
The order designations are available in Chapter 12.2.
92
12
Delivery Package
The basic unit consists of:
12.1
x
SD3-A1
x
SD3-A1 connector, complete, 15-pin, interface X1
x
SD3-A1 connector, complete, 9-pin, interface X2
x
Instruction manual (connection and operation) for SD3-A1, instruction manual
(software operation) for SD3SOFT, Configuration and Diagnostic Software
SD3SOFT on CD-ROM including the SD3SOFT instruction manual.
x
Mounting screws, 4 pieces
x
Instruction manual (safety instructions) for SD3-A1
Disposal
Laser scanners that are no longer in use must be disposed of in an appropriate manner.
93
12.2
Accessories and spare parts
Brief description
Description
MS-S3-1
SD3-A1 mounting system for securing and adjusting the
SD3-A1
SD3-DEMO-24V
SD3-A1 configuration and test equipment, 24V DC
SD3-CP-C5
SD3-A1 control cable with ConfigPlug, ready-made at
scanner side, 5m, straight
SD3-CP-C10
SD3-A1 control cable with ConfigPlug, ready-made at
scanner side, 10m, straight
SD3-CP-C25
SD3-A1 control cable with ConfigPlug, ready-made at
scanner side, 25m, straight
SD3-CP-C50
SD3-A1 control cable with ConfigPlug, ready-made at
scanner side, 50m, straight
SD3-CP-C10-L
SD3-A1 control cable with ConfigPlug, ready-made at
scanner side, 10m, angled
SD3-RS232-C3
SD3-A1 PC cable, RS-232, ready-made on both sides, 3m
SD3-RS232-C5
SD3-A1 PC cable, RS-232, ready-made on both sides, 5m
SD3-RS232-C10
SD3-A1 PC cable, RS-232, ready-made on both sides,
10m
SD3-CP
ConfigPlug for SD3-A1, straight, without cable, for
automatic configuration at device exchange
SD3-RS232
SD3-A1 plug, sock., 15 pins, for X1 interface
SD3-PS
SD3-A1 plug, sock., 9 pins, for X2 interface
SD3-RS232-L
SD3-A1 plug, sock., 15 pins, for X1 interface, cable routing
to the rear
SD3-PS-L
SD3-A1 plug, sock., 9 pins, for X2 interface, cable routing
to the rear
SD3-CLEAN1
Cleaning fluid for synthetic materials, 150ml, 25 cleaning
cloths, soft and lint-free
SD3-CLEAN2
Cleaning fluid for synthetic materials, 1,000ml, 100
cleaning cloths, soft and lint- free
SD3-WINDOW
SD3-A1 scanner optical window with seal
Table 12.2-1:
94
Accessories and spare parts for the SD3-A1
12.3
Coding of the control cable X1
The following table defines the pin assignments for the 15-pin connector cable
Pin No.
Color code
Meaning
1
Black
GND
2
Blue
Restart
3
Red
UB
4
Orange
FP 1
5
Yellow
Alarm 1
6
Green
FP 2
7
Violet
FP 3
8
Gray
FP 4
9
N.C.
10
N.C.
11
White
OSSD 1
12
White / Black
OSSD 2
13
N.C.
14
White / Brown
15
Brown
Table 12.3-1:
Alarm 2
Coding of the control cable X1
95
13
Technical Data
13.1
Test pieces
The following test pieces are defined for the purpose of controlling the effectiveness of
the monitoring function by the detection zones:
13.2
x
Cylinder, 500mm in length, reflectance factor 1.8% ±0.2%, for stationary
applications, diameter: 30, 40, 50, 70, 150mm
x
Cylinder, 1,000mm in length, 200mm in diameter, reflectance factor 1.8% ±0.2%, for
mobile systems (e.g. AGV).
Detection zone
SD3-A1
Detection range
at a resolution of 30mm
at a resolution of 40mm
at a resolution of 50mm
at a resolution of 70mm
at a resolution of 150mm
Reflectance factor
Min. 1.8%
Min. adjustable range
200mm
Detection range of test piece
from housing
Min. 0mm
Response time
Min. 80ms (2 scans)
Adjust. up to 640ms (16 scans)
Number of detection zones
8 (changeover via switch inputs)
Output
2 failsafe PNP transistor outputs, 24V / 250mA
Safety category
Requirement class 4 as per DIN V 19250, fail-safe,
Category 3 / PLd as per EN ISO 13849-1: 2006, Type 3
as per DIN EN 61496-1 and IEC 61496-3, SIL 2 acc. to
IEC 61508
Startup
The startup test and start interlock can be adjusted
separately.
Restart
Automatic or manual, adjustable from 160ms to10s
Table 13.2-1:
96
1.60m
2.20m
2.80m
4.00m
4.00m
Technical data – detection zone
13.3
Detection zone additions
Addition with deactivated dust
suppression
83mm
Addition for activated dust
suppression
83mm (for a detection zone size < 3.5m)
100mm (for a detection zone size • 3.5m)
Addition if retro-reflectors or very
shiny surfaces such as certain
metals or ceramics are present in
the scanning plane
0mm (more than 1.2m behind the detection zone
line)
110mm (in the detection zone or up to 1.2m behind
detection zone line)
Table 13.3-1:
13.4
Warning zone
Detection range
0 to 15m
Reflectance factor
Min. 20%
Object size
150 × 150mm
Response time
Double evaluation: 80ms (corresponds to 2 scans),
up to 16 scans can be selected (640ms)
Number of warning zones
8 (selectable via switch inputs)
Output
PNP transistor output, max. 100mA
Table 13.4-1:
13.5
Detection zone additions
Technical data – warning zone
Contour measurement
Measurement range
0 to 50m
Reflectance factor
Min. 20%
Output
Serial interface RS-232 (10m), RS-422 (50m)
Radial resolution
5mm
Lateral resolution
0.36°
Table 13.5-1:
Technical data – contour measurement
97
13.6
Electrical power supply
Power supply
24V DC +20% / -30%, supply according to IEC 742
with safety transformer or comparable for DC / DC
converters
Overload protection
Provide by 1.25A semi-delay fuse in the electronics
cabinet
Current consumption
Approx. 300mA (use a power supply with 2.5A)
Power consumption
8W at 24V, plus the output load
Excess voltage protection
Over-voltage protection with safe end cut-off
Voltage drops
In accordance with DIN EN 61496-1
Non-fused ground conductor
Connection not allowed
Table 13.6-1:
13.7
Technical data – electrical power
Inputs
Restart / reset
For connecting a command device for operating
mode “with restart interlock” and / or device reset,
24V DC, insulated by photocoupler
Zone pair changeover
For selecting among 8 zone pairs via 5 control
cables with internal monitoring (zone pair = 1
detection zone and 1 warning zone), 24V DC,
insulated by photocoupler
Signal definition
High / logical 1
Low / logical 0
Table 13.7-1:
13.8
98
16 to 30V
<3V
Technical data – inputs
Outputs
Detection zone
2 × failsafe semiconductor output, PNP, max.
250mA, short-circuit monitored, overload protected
Warning zone / Dirt / Fault
2 × PNP transistor output, max. 100mA
Load characteristics, maximum
Low pass behavior, limit frequency fg ” 1kHz,
CLoad ื 100nF
Leakage current
0.1mA or less
Maximum load capacity
0.1μF
Length load line
Maximum 50m with diameter of 0.5mm2
Level high (OSSD active)
Level low (OSSD inactive)
Level high (alarm active)
Level low (alarm inactive)
UB - 3.2V
< 2.0V
UB - 4V
< 2.0V
Table 13.8-1:
Technical data – outputs
13.9
Software
SD3SOFT under Windows® 95 / 98 / 2000 / NT® /
XP® / 7 with safe protocol for programming
User software
Table 13.9-1:
Technical data – software
13.10 Interfaces
RS-232, RS-422
For device configuration and data exchange
Table 13.10-1: Technical data – interfaces
13.11 Optics
Angle range
Max. 190°
Angle resolution
0.36°
Lateral tolerance
without mounting system
with mounting system
±0.18° (with respect to the back wall of the housing)
±0.22° (with respect to the mounting surface)
Scanning rate
25 scans/s or 40ms/scan
Laser protection class
Class 1, as per EN 60825-1: 1994 + A1: 2002 + A2:
2001
Wavelength: 905nm
Repeat frequency: 25kHz
Table 13.11-1: Technical data – optics
99
13.12 Environment and material
Protection type
IP65 in accordance with IEC 60529
Operating temperature
0 to +50°C
Storage temperature
-20 to +60°C
Humidity
DIN 40040 Table 10, Identifying letter E
(moderately dry)
PFHd (Probability of dangerous
failure per hour)
1.57 ɯ 10-7
MTTFd (Mean time to dangerous
failure)
More than 100 years
Dimensions
140 × 155 × 135 (W × H × D) in mm
Distance from the middle of the
scanning plane to the bottom
edge of the housing
48.75mm
Distance from front edge of the
housing to the axis of the rotating
mirror
64mm
Connection
2 connectors (plugged in from above)
Control cable length X1
Max. 50m at a cable cross-section of 0.5mm2,
shielded
Connect shield with PE to the electronics cabinet
only
Data cable length X2 RS-232
Max. 10m
Data cable length X2 RS-422
Max. 50m (twisted pair)
Housing
Die-cast aluminum, plastic
Weight
Approx. 2kg
Dynamic stress across 3 axles
In accordance with IEC 60068 Part 2 - 6,
10 to 150Hz, max. 5G
Continuous shock across 3 axes
In accordance with IEC 60068 Part 2 - 29, 10G,
16ms
Interference immunity
In accordance with DIN EN 61496-1 (corresponds
to requirements for type 4); additionally in
accordance with DIN 40839-1 / 3 test pulses 1, 2,
3a, 3b and 5 (not used for vehicles with internal
combustion engines)
Rotating mirror drive
Brushless direct-current motor
Rotating mirror bearing
Maintenance-free ball bearing
Table 13.12-1: Technical data on the environment and material
100
13.13 Dimensional drawings of the SD3-A1
101
13.14 Dimensional drawings of the mounting system
102
14
Diagnostic codes and causes
Location
Description
No.
Cause
102
Processing of commands,
processing of messages
2
Data transmission error on the X2
interface
103
Control of command
processing
2
Data transmission error on the X2
interface
104
Processing of commands,
Processing of configuration
2
Data transmission error on the X2
interface
105
Processing of commands,
generation of output
messages
6
Function, access, command not
permitted with currently selected
access level
201
Processing of the receive
protocol
4
Too much data sent over the X2
interface. Message will be
overwritten by new message
302
Processing of the transmit
protocol
2
The verification of displayed data
remained unacknowledged for too
long.
306
Output of measurement
values
5
Previous message not yet
completely output
801
Event processing
2
Event memory cannot be read,
internal fault
805
Processing of the commands
to the event memory
6
Event memory cannot be
transferred. Data transmission
error on interface X2
1002
Motor control during
initialization
1
Motor does not reach rated speed
after start. Internal fault.
1002
Motor control during
initialization
2
Motor speed not constant after
start. Internal fault.
1110
Test of the switch outputs.
4
Switch outputs (OSSD) have a
state other than the one the
scanner expected. Possible wiring
or control error
1110
Test of the switch outputs.
5
Switch output (OSSD) cannot be
switched OFF
1110
Test of the switch outputs.
6
Switch output (OSSD) cannot be
switched ON
1111
Short circuit test of switch
outputs
7
Short circuit of a switch output
(OSSD) with ground
1111
Short circuit test of switch
outputs
8
Short circuit of a switch output
(OSSD) with Vcc
1606
Motor speed monitoring
4
Motor speed deviation, zero pulse
not detected properly, internal fault
1607
Monitoring of duration of a
scan
5
Motor speed deviation, motor not
at rated speed
103
104
Location
Description
No.
Cause
1705
Processing of field monitoring
light barrier data
1
Signal of a light barrier in optical
window monitoring is under the
lower limit. Dirty optical window
1705
Processing of field monitoring
light barrier data
2
Signal of a light barrier of optical
window monitoring is above the
upper limit. Fluid media on the
optical window
1906
Test of the external watchdog
1
Watchdog is not enabling the
OSSDs. There may be a wiring or
control error
1906
Test of the external watchdog
2
Watchdog not switching OFF the
OSSDs. Internal fault
1906
Test of the external watchdog
5
Switch outputs (OSSD) have a
state other than the one the
scanner expected. Possible wiring
or control error
1906
Test of the external watchdog
6
Watchdog not switching the cut-off
path for the laser. Internal fault
1907
Test of the external watchdog
4
Event detected by watchdog,
watchdog switched OFF (motor
speed deviation), scanner housing
may be rotating
1907
Test of the external watchdog
7
Event detected by watchdog,
watchdog switched OFF (motor
speed deviation), scanner housing
may be rotating
2002
Processing of parameter
commands
12
The verification of displayed data
remained unacknowledged for too
long.
2007
Verification of parameter data
received
18
The date of the detection zone
currently being transferred is older
than the date of the detection zone
in the scanner
2201
Area monitoring
5
Number of measurements in the
scan too small due to motor speed
error or switch-off of the watchdog.
Internal fuse faulty
2302
Control of software sequence
1
Error occurred while starting the
scanner. Sequential error
2401
Reference measurement on
the dark reference element
10
No distance value can be
calculated for reference
measurement.
Glare from another source of light
(905nm) or deviation in motor
rotation speed
Location
Description
No.
Cause
2401
Reference measurement on
the dark reference element
13
No removal value can be
calculated for reference
measurement. Dust in device
because connector housing or
dummy connector not screwed on
2402
Reference measurement on
the light reference element
10
No distance value can be
calculated for reference
measurement.
Glare from another source of light
(905nm) or deviation in motor
rotation speed
2701
Processing of messages for
system diagnostics
1
Invalid diagnostic command
received. Software and firmware
incompatible
2702
Processing of requests for
diagnostics data
3
Invalid diagnostic value requested.
Software and firmware incompatible
2800
Processing of inputs for
detection zone changeover
2
2 detection zones active longer
than 1s
2800
Processing of inputs for
detection zone changeover
3
The detection zone changeover
that occurred does not correspond
to the requirement programmed in
the scanner.
2800
Processing of inputs for
detection zone changeover
4
More than 2 detection zones
selected during operation
2800
Processing of inputs for
detection zone changeover
6
Unevaluatable data or defective
data quality for activation of
detection zone
2800
Processing of inputs during
scanner operation
8
No detection zone activated during
scanner operation
2801
Test of inputs for detection
zone changeover
1
Error during testing of inputs for
detection zone changeover,
internal fault
2802
Initialization of detection zone
changeover
3
The detection zone deactivation
that occurred does not correspond
to the requirement programmed in
the scanner.
2802
Initialization of detection zone
changeover
4
More than 2 detection zones
selected during power-ON
2802
Initialization of detection zone
changeover
6
Unevaluatable data or defective
data quality for deactivation of
detection zone
2802
Initialization of inputs during
power-ON
8
No detection zone activated during
scanner starting
3016
Monitoring the access
authorization with one-time
password
11
Confirmed one-time password was
entered incorrectly
Table 14.0-1:
Diagnostic codes and causes
105
15
CE Marking Declaration of Conformity
Itemized Essentials of EC Declaration of Conformity
Manufacturer’s Name:
Panasonic Industrial Devices SUNX Co., Ltd.
Manufacturer’s Address:
2431-1, Ushiyama-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 486-0901, Japan
EC Representative’s Name:
Panasonic Marketing Europe GmbH Panasonic Testing Center
EC Representative’s Address:
Winsbergring 15, 22525 Hamburg,Germany
Product: Electro-Sensitive Protective Equipment
Model Name: Safety Laser Scanner SD3-A1
Trade Name: Panasonic
Application of Council Directive:
-
2006/42/EC Machinery Directive
2004/108/EC EMC Directive
2011/65/EU RoHS Directive
Tested according to:
-
EN ISO 13849-1: 2008 (Cat. 3, PL d)
IEC 61508: 2010 (SIL 2)
EN 62061: 2005+A1: 2013 (SIL CL 2)
IEC 61496-1: 2012
IEC 61496-3: 2008
EN 55022: 2003
IEC 60825-1/A2: 2001
Type Examination: Certified by TÜV SÜD Product Service GmbH
Ridlerstrasse 65 80339 München Germany
106
107
Please contact ..........
■ Overseas Sales Division (Head Office): 2431-1 Ushiyama-cho, Kasugai-shi, Aichi, 486-0901, Japan
■ Telephone: +81-568-33-7861 ■ Facsimile: +81-568-33-8591
panasonic.net/id/pidsx/global
For sales network, please visit our website.
October, 2015 PRINTED IN JAPAN
© Panasonic Industrial Devices SUNX Co., Ltd. 2015
ME-SD3A1CON-05
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