CM3156 EN DMx Internal Drivers App Note 011813.indd

CM3156 EN DMx Internal Drivers App Note 011813.indd
Application Note
SKF Multilog On-line System DMx
Internal drivers
Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
An introduction to SKF Multilog DMx internal drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compensation modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ECP libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The SKF Multilog DMx Sales Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assembling a system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
Commissioning a standard system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fitting the probe, extension cable and compensation modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading the library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the channel and associating the library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Infinite gap calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ECP calibration curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
5
5
5
6
7
Maintenance and troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Routine maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
An infinite gap calibration cannot be achieved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
The infinite gap calibration is not stored . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
When might an infinite gap calibration have to be redone? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
What if an infinite gap calibration is not possible? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
One or more internal drivers do not appear to be working properly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
When a system is not entirely “standard” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
When is a custom ECP library required? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
What is an extended range application?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Creating a custom ECP library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
What if compensation modules are not available?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
What are discrete components? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
What determines the values of the discrete components? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
What specifications of discrete components should be used? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Appendix A – SKF compensation modules and libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Technical support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2
Overview
An introduction to SKF Multilog DMx internal
drivers
A traditional single channel eddy current probe (ECP) driver is
specifically ordered pre-matched and pre-calibrated to a particular
probe type, tip/coil size, system length, measurement range and
target material.
Contrast this with an SKF Multilog DMx module, where the internal drivers have been kept fully general, consistent with the theme of
“configurability” that has driven much of the SKF Multilog DMx
design.
An SKF Multilog DMx CMMA 9010/9910 module has four internal
ECP drivers (channels 1 to 4), while a CMMA 9020/9920 contains
two (channels 3 and 4). To customize an SKF Multilog DMx driver for
a particular application normally requires all* of the following three
elements to be in place:
• Compensation module – Matches the probe / extension cable
combination to the SKF Multilog DMx driver hardware and provides control of oscillation amplitudes and frequencies. There will
be a specific compensation module for each channel. Compensation modules are designed to operate with special, cut to nominal
length extension cables; see The SKF Multilog DMx Sales Tool section later in this document († page 4).
• An ECP library – Provides a number of coefficients that the SKF
Multilog DMx can use to linearize the probe signal to be able to
provide proper gap/vibration data. There will be a different library
for each channel, optimized for the hardware (probe type, tip/coil
size, system length and compensation module), measurement
range and target material.
• An ECP infinite gap calibration – A spot calibration that enables
the SKF Multilog DMx to calculate from the associated library,
linearization coefficients that are optimized for the actual probe,
extension cable, compensation module and SKF Multilog DMx
hardware in use.
The sections that follow describe each of the above in more detail.
* For use as a tacho source (rather than measurement source), a linearization library and infinite gap calibration are not actually required, but compensation components should still be installed to optimize the ECP probe
and extension cable to the SKF Multilog DMx hardware.
Software
SKF Multilog DMx Manager and SKF Multilog DMx Toolbox are the
two software packages that support the configuration aspects of the
SKF Multilog DMx.
When working with an SKF Multilog DMx module, always bear in
mind that the configuration seen in software may not reflect the SKF
Multilog DMx module unless an upload is actioned and that configuration changes made in software will not be implemented in the
module unless a download is made. If using both packages, be aware
that changes made in one will generally mean that information in the
other is now out of date and will need to be refreshed.
In addition, any configuration changes, even when downloaded, may
not be permanently stored onboard the SKF Multilog DMx module
unless the appropriate procedure has been followed.
Refer to the relevant manual or help file for more detailed
guidance.
Compensation modules
For directly connected eddy current probes, the internal SKF Multilog
DMx driver circuit broadly matches to the attached probe and extension cable by use of compensation components. While these could
consist of a separate capacitor and resistor fitted to the base terminals, the fitting of individual discrete components can now be
avoided by using SKF manufactured compensation modules.
Because SKF compensation modules are potted, they provide
improved environmental and mechanical protection, as compared to
a solution that uses discrete components.
Fig. 1. Compensation modules fitted on SKF Multilog DMx ECP inputs 3
and 4.
These compensation modules contain the specific component values
required for a particular combination of SKF Multilog DMx ECP channel, connected probe type and system cable length. For easy identification, three of the compensation module faces are marked to indicate:
• Generic probe type; for example: SKF CMSS (68)
• System cable length in meters (10M)
• Intended SKF Multilog DMx ECP channel (4)
The corresponding compensation module part number for the above
example would be CMMA 968-10-4.
Appendix A († page 15) provides a list of available compensation
modules, or identify the correct compensation module by using the
SKF Multilog DMx Sales Tool spreadsheet.
3
ECP libraries
The processing required to linearize the probe signal will vary
depending on the target material, the probe system (i.e., cable)
length and the measurement range. Any particular ECP library will
reflect specific requirements in these areas and the compensation
module that has been fitted.
You will need to download libraries (one for each channel where an
SKF Multilog DMx internal driver is in use) to the SKF Multilog DMx
module before the system can be put into service.
The library files (file extension: ecp) contain reference information
on how the library and the linearization coefficients have been
derived, specific setup information for the module to execute probe
calibration and acceptance limits to validate the initial probe system
calibration process.
Although the format of all ECP library files is the same, two library
types are defined for use with the SKF Multilog DMx module:
1 Default ECP libraries – These are libraries provided by SKF for
standard SKF probe and extension cable combinations. Default
libraries are generated using an AISI 4140 steel target and will
have indices in a reserved range between 1 and 10999.
Appendix A († page 15) includes a list of available default libraries, or you can identify the appropriate library index by using the
SKF Multilog DMx Sales Tool spreadsheet. The available default
ECP libraries are included in the SKF Multilog DMx Data Sources
Install and will be copied to the folder: ...\SKF\DMx\StdLib.
2 Custom ECP Libraries – These are user generated libraries that
are allocated an index between 11000 and 65534. Custom libraries may be used, for example, when no standard library exists, to
optimize accuracy for a specific probe system or shaft material, to
accommodate special or unusual circumstances, and for non-SKF
probe types. The procedure that allows a user to create libraries is
described in a later section.
The SKF Multilog DMx Sales Tool
The SKF Multilog DMx Sales Tool is a spreadsheet that provides guidance as to what components and accessories are needed to assemble a complete SKF Multilog DMx system. This includes ECP related
elements (Compensation modules and Standard libraries) as well as
power supply, communications and relay output hardware.
Compensation modules are designed to operate with special, cut
to nominal length, extension cables. The correct part numbers for
these extension cables, designated by a “D” code in the length field,
are included in the SKF Multilog DMx Sales Tool.
Fig. 2. Screenshot from the SKF Multilog DMx Sales Tool.
4
For the latest version of the SKF Multilog DMX Sales Tool, please
contact CMC San Diego Customer Service Group.
Assembling a system
For each channel using an internal SKF Multilog DMx driver, verify
that the following information is known:
1
2
3
4
5
Target SKF Multilog DMx channel number
Probe manufacturer and type
System cable length
Target material
Required linearized measurement range
Based on 1, 2 and 3, check to see if a compensation module is
available.
• If not, then discrete components will have to be sourced by you
and a custom library will have to be developed by you.
Is the target material confirmed as AISI 4140 steel?
• If not, then a custom library in required.
Based on 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, check to see if an existing library is
available.
• If not, then a custom library will have to be developed by you.
If a compensation module and a default library are both available,
then the prerequisites are in place and all that remains is to bring the
different elements together in the same place to perform an infinite
gap calibration.
•
•
•
•
Fit the probe and extension cable.
Fit the compensation components.
Power the SKF Multilog DMx and load the required library.
Configure the SKF Multilog DMx channel and associate that library
with it.
• Perform and store an infinite gap calibration.
• Confirm the performance of the system with a calibration curve.
• If required, in the SKF Multilog DMx channel configuration, replace
the nominal sensitivity value by the actual verified sensitivity.
Note that the infinite gap calibration requires that the probe tip be in
“free air”, so it is usually more conveniently performed before fitting
the probe to the machine.
Commissioning a standard system
Fitting the probe, extension cable and
compensation modules
By default, the SKF Multilog DMx base (CMMA 9000) is delivered
with short-circuit jumpers installed for each ECP input. It is strongly
recommended that these short-circuit jumpers are left in place for
any ECP channels that are not being used. This can also include
channels 1 and 2 of a base that is being used with an SKF Multilog
DMx CMMA 9920. (There is no ECP channel 1 or 2 on a CMMA 9920,
but the links will do no harm.)
The following sequence of activities is advised for SKF Multilog
DMx installation and ECP system installation:
1 Power-down the SKF Multilog DMx or remove the electronics
module from its base.
2 Install the eddy current probe and extension cable to the
designated ECP input (at the coaxial, SMC, connector).
3 Remove the default ECP short-circuit jumper from the designated
ECP terminals.
•
•
•
•
ECP1: 17-18
ECP2: 21-22
ECP3: 25-26
ECP4: 29-30
Only remove short circuit jumpers on the channels where probes
have been connected.
4 Install appropriate compensation modules at the terminal block
locations where the jumpers have been removed.
5 Re-power the SKF Multilog DMx or reinstall the electronics
module.
Adherence to the above procedure will minimize the possibility of a
nuisance trip of the internal SKF Multilog DMx ECP power supply
and/or more permanent damage to its circuits.
Loading the library
ECP libraries are permanently stored on the SKF Multilog DMx module. A maximum of four different libraries can be accommodated at
any one time, and these can be freely linked to physical ECP channels.
Libraries can be downloaded to an SKF Multilog DMx module from
SKF Multilog DMx Manager or SKF Multilog DMx Toolbox.
The help files associated with the software provide further detailed
guidance on how to use these features.
Alternatively, the library download can be a part of the channel
configuration process, as below.
Configuring the channel and associating the
library
In SKF Multilog DMx Manager, an internal driver ECP input can be
chosen by making the following selections from the General tab of
measurement channel properties:
• Transducer type: Displacement
• ECP Type: Direct ECP*
An eddy current tab is now enabled, and from it:
• The active library can be selected
Or the library can be downloaded (if not already present), using:
• Load ECP library from file (and then activated)
There is a user descriptive field for “Probe Reference Information”,
which the user should complete. Ideally, this would contain the probe
serial number or other reference to the actual probe that will be
fitted.
The user manual and help files associated with the SKF Multilog
DMx Manager software provide further detailed guidance on how to
use these features.
Where a channel is already suitably configured it can also be
associated with its library (or the association changed), using SKF
Multilog DMx Toolbox:
• ECP Tools tab, Link Library to Channel
The linked library should be the one that has been specifically
developed for that channel.
* Note: If ECP type: Direct ECP is not available, check the module type and
channel number. On a CMMA 9920, internal ECP drivers are only available
on channels 3 and 4.
• SKF Multilog DMx Manager: Module Properties, ECP Libraries
tab
• SKF Multilog DMx Toolbox: ECP Tools tab, Download ECP Library
5
Infinite gap calibration
An infinite gap calibration can be performed
using either SKF Multilog DMx Manager or
SKF Multilog DMx Toolbox. Key prerequisites
for both are identical:
• The channel must be properly configured
as Displacement – (Direct) ECP type.
• There must be a library associated to or
linked to that channel.
• The probe, extension cable and
compensation module must be installed.
• The probe must be positioned in free-air
(no target present).
• As per best practice, all other ECP channels must be fitted with their probes and
compensation modules, or their inputs
shorted.
With these in place, the infinite gap calibration process can begin. In either software,
the process is similar and follows the following general steps:
Fig. 3. Calibrate dialog.
• An automatic check that the prerequisites are in place
• Reading of the library file and displaying some relevant information to the user
• Allowing a period of signal settling after the calibration is initiated
• After settled (and when judged valid) the user can finalize the
calibration
In SKF Multilog DMx Manager, the infinite gap calibration process is
initiated from the Eddy current tab of measurement channel
properties.
• Calibrate Probe: the dialog in fig. 3 then displays
In SKF Multilog DMx Toolbox, the infinite gap calibration process is
initiated from the ECP Tools tab:
• Calibrate ECP Channel: the dialog in fig. 4 then displays
Fig. 4. DMx ECP Data dialog.
6
It is generally useful to separately maintain a
record or backup of the infinite gap calibrations that have been performed. Backup
(export or export all) and a range of calibration management functions can be accessed
via SKF Multilog DMx Toolbox:
Select the ECP Tools tab, calibration
management to access these facilities. SKF
Multilog DMx Toolbox’s on-line help provides
further details on the functionality.
Before putting the probe into service, it
would be normal practice to “run a probe
curve”.
Fig. 5. DMx ECP Calibration Location Management dialog.
ECP calibration curves
“Running a probe curve” should exercise the
system over the required measurement
range, with ideally a representative sample
of the actual shaft material to show that it
meets the application requirements. It is an
important step in the process, as it proves
that the library is accurate for both the probe
and the actual target material. The end user
will usually ask the system provider/installer
to provide a calibration curve for each
channel.
It will require that the probe is mounted in
a probe gapper, so that the probe/target gap
can be adjusted in increments and measurement data can be stored at each point. In
SKF Multilog DMx Toolbox, the curve acquisition process is initiated from the ECP Tools
tab:
• Linearization Curves: the dialog in fig. 6
then displays
Fig. 6. ECP Linearized Curve Data Acquisition dialog.
7
On completion, this utility provides an Excel based calibration report
that summarizes the calibration check and shows how well the
measurement setup performs.
Fig. 7. Sample Calibration Report.
8
The two key measures of accuracy are Deviation from a Straight Line
(DSL) and Scale Factor Error (SFE). While both measures are independently graphed with their API670 acceptance limits marked in
red, they share interdependency such that adjustments to the sensitivity value away from the nominal value can be used to minimize the
position error. Fig. 8 shows just such an example where a modification to the sensitivity reduces the DSL to within ±0.25 mil across the
working range. For a nominal 200 mV/mil sensitivity system, API670
allows ±5% or an allowable range of 190 to 210 mV/mil.
Fig. 8. Minimizing DSL error, example.
As the input sensitivity of each channel of the SKF Multilog DMx is
individually configuration († fig. 9), the calibration curve tool can be
used to provide optimum settings for the actual channel sensitivity.
Note that based on the recommendations from the report, the user
will have to manually reconfigure the SKF Multilog DMx module, noting the comments made in the Software section († page 3) of this
document about the need for downloading.
Fig. 9. Configuring a specific sensitivity in SKF Multilog DMx Manager.
9
Maintenance and troubleshooting
Routine maintenance
Periodically, check the security of the ECP connections:
• Check the tightness of the coaxial (SMC) connectors connecting
the extension cable to the SKF Multilog DMx base and (where
applicable) the in-line connector between the probe cable and the
extension cable.
• Ensure any in-line connectors (typically, the probe to extension
cable connection) are properly sleeved or insulated from local
ground.
• Check the tightness of the screw terminals to which compensation
module or discrete components are fitted.
During more intrusive maintenance (removal or replacement of
probes / extension cables), power down or remove the SKF Multilog
DMx as per best practice (see the Assembling a system section,
† page 4).
In all cases, follow any site specific requirements for system override and/or isolation before commencing any maintenance on the
SKF Multilog DMx system.
An infinite gap calibration cannot be achieved
The infinite gap calibration process includes checks by software that
the oscillation frequency and amplitude is within the limits of the
library. The most common reasons for a failure to calibrate are as
follows:
• Incorrect combination of probe, extension cable, compensation
module or library
• Initiating a calibration when the probe is not in “free air”
• Incorrect placement of the compensation module or loose wiring
• Insecure coaxial connection (probe to extension cable or extension
cable to SKF Multilog DMx base)
• Defective probe or extension cable
Double check all the above before proceeding.
If no fault can be found in the setup that might explain a failure to
achieve an acceptable infinite gap calibration, then this suggests that
the library is not suitable for the actual hardware being used. In these
circumstances, consider creating a custom library for this channel.
If the infinite gap amplitude and frequency data have very low values and are not responsive in the expected way, refer to the section
One or more internal drivers do not appear to be working properly
(† page 11) and check that the SKF Multilog DMx internal power
supply protection has not been activated.
10
The infinite gap calibration is not stored
Infinite gap calibrations for a directly attached ECP are stored against
the channel number, library index and probe reference.
If a new set of calibration data is to be stored, the SKF Multilog
DMx will first check to see if an existing calibration can be over-written. If all three parameters match, that record will be updated; if no
matching record is identified, then an empty record will be used.
An empty record is defined as one for which there is no corresponding library loaded (within the four library locations available).
Given that there are 16 calibration locations, the likelihood of there
being no record that is either free or is to be updated is small.
The possibility remains, however, that there may be situations
where all 16 records appear committed and where manual intervention will be required to clear a space.
In such circumstances, use SKF Multilog DMx Toolbox to manage
the calibration locations, deleting at least one record to allow a fresh
infinite gap calibration to be stored. The location of the “free” record
within the list is unimportant.
When might an infinite gap calibration have to
be redone?
As an infinite gap calibration enables the SKF Multilog DMx to calculate linearization coefficients that are optimized for the actual probe,
extension cable, compensation module and SKF Multilog DMx channel hardware, it is recommended that if any of these need to be
changed*, then the infinite gap calibration data should be refreshed.
What if an infinite gap calibration is not
possible?
If an infinite gap condition cannot be physically achieved, it may be
permissible to continue to use the earlier data, or to perform infinite
gap calibration using spare sensor components, while accepting that
there may be some accuracy degradation due to manufacturing tolerances between the exchanged parts.
Common reasons why an infinite gap calibration is not possible
include:
• A running repair; activating a redundant probe, changing extension cable, compensation module or SKF Multilog DMx module.
Use existing data.
• No existing data, probe already installed. Use spare probe, ideally
from the same manufacturing batch, for infinite gap calibration.
* Any changes should be “like for like”. If the probe type or extension cable
length and compensation module is changed, a fresh library and a new
infinite gap calibration will be required.
One or more internal drivers
do not appear to be working
properly
While either SKF Multilog DMx Toolbox or
SKF Multilog DMx Manager Software can be
used to troubleshoot, SKF Multilog DMx
Toolbox is the preferred tool. In SKF Multilog
DMx Toolbox, ECP Tools contains the relevant utilities. As in the example below for
channel 3, ensure that:
1 The channel is configured for a direct ECP
and the relevant library is loaded to the
SKF Multilog DMx and linked (activated) to
that channel: ECP Tools tab, Link Library
to Channel († fig. 10).
2 There is an infinite gap calibration (with
correct channel, library ID and reference):
ECP Tools tab, Calibration Management
(† fig. 11).
Fig. 10. DMx Activate ECP Library dialog.
Fig. 11. DMx ECP Calibration Location Management dialog.
Note: If not known, the probe reference can
be viewed in SKF Multilog DMx Manager,
Measurement Channel Properties, on the
Eddy Current tab.
3 Confirm the probe oscillation frequency:
ECP Tools tab, Get ECP Data († fig. 12).
Note: Read the display carefully, paying
particular attention to the scientific notation
used to display the oscillation frequency.
Expected values are in the range 500 kHz to
1 200 kHz. A value around 94 kHz or
94E+3 Hz is not normal and would indicate
no oscillation.
4 If the expected probe and extension cable
are in place, any required compensation
Fig. 12. DMx ECP Data dialog.
components are fitted, yet multiple ECP
channels appear not to be working, conTo confirm this:
sider checking whether the SKF Multilog DMx internal (5VA1)
power supply is still present and correct.
• Power off the SKF Multilog DMx module or remove the electronics
module from its base
The loss of this supply may be temporary (the internal protection cir• Short out any ECP inputs that are open (no probe connected)
cuit has momentarily activated then latched) or permanent (some
• Remove external wiring to the tacho or logic inputs (if any)
failure is preventing the internal protection circuitry from resetting
• Power on the SKF Multilog DMx module or reinstall the electronics
on a power cycle). Symptoms of a loss of supply may be as follows:
module
• Finally, measure DC volts between terminals 38 and 54 (the tacho
• Incorrect Internal ECP operation (possibly positive gap voltages
input)
reported)
• If the measured voltage is about 5V and the internal drivers are
• A CMMA 9910 module being reported as a CMMA 9920 module
now OK, then the trip was temporary and the latched condition
• Probably also experiencing tacho failure
has been successfully reset.
• If a value very different from 5V is measured (probably < 1V), then
the conclusion is that the SKF Multilog DMx has suffered an
internal hardware failure and will need to be replaced.
11
When a system is not entirely
“standard”
When is a custom ECP library required?
Even if there are suitable compensation modules available, a custom
library may still be required in the following circumstances:
• There is no default library available for these systems
• The target material is different from the default library
• The required measurement range is different from the default
library (extended range application)
For systems where compensation modules are not available, custom
libraries (and usually also discrete compensation components) will
always be required.
What is an extended range application?
The maximum measurement range of an ECP system is ultimately
limited by the diameter of the coil in the probe tip. The standard or
published range of a traditional ECP system is one that can be
achieved by any example of that type while meeting relevant accuracy requirements.
An extended range application is one where a custom SKF Multilog
DMx library is created to maximize the usable range of a particular
probe. For a CMSS 65 (5 mm) probe, this might extend the usable
range from 80 to perhaps 100 mil. The larger the probe, the better
the potential for decent extended range performance, but always at
some cost (increase in ISF or DSL errors must be expected). A judgment has to be made in each case as to whether the trade-off
between range and accuracy is acceptable.
Note that extended range applications with gaps greater than
120 mil at a nominal sensitivity of 200 mV/mil will result in gap voltages greater than –24 V being reported. This is of no consequence to
the SKF Multilog DMx and the TX OK window can be extended to
accommodate the higher negative voltage values.
Creating a custom ECP library
The simplest situations to deal with will be where compensation
modules are available for the selected probe system, but a custom
library is required (perhaps because of a different target material or
measurement range requirement, etc.).
Custom ECP libraries are created using SKF Multilog DMx Toolbox
and the process is initiated from the ECP Tools tab:
• Create ECP library: the dialog in fig. 13 then displays
Fig. 13. Create DMx Eddy Current Probe Library dialog.
12
Once an initial assessment of the infinite gap oscillation amplitude
and frequency has been made, the process will require that the
probe is mounted in a probe gapper, so that the probe/target gap can
be adjusted in increments and non-linearized measurement data
can be stored at each point. The software will analyze that data to
provide a library that will satisfactorily linearize the probe output.
The help files associated with the software provide further detailed
guidance to the user on this process. Once the custom library is
available, the process of commissioning the system follows that of a
“standard” system:
• Load the library and associate it
• Instigate an infinite gap calibration
• Check performance with an ECP calibration curve
Generating a custom library for probe systems for which there are no
compensation modules available requires some careful planning
before attempting to create a library:
• At what frequency shall the channel operate?
• Will there be sufficient separation to other ECP channels on this
module?
It is recommended that during custom library generation, all channels other than the one for which the library is being prepared are
shorted.
The initial assessment of the infinite gap oscillation amplitude and
frequency will now comprise several steps:
• First determine the capacitance required to achieve the target
oscillation frequency, noting that increasing added capacitance
lowers the frequency, reducing the added capacitance increases
the frequency.
• The added capacitance will also affect the infinite gap voltage, but
at this point the focus should be on achieving the required oscillation frequency.
• If two capacitors are required, connecting them in parallel sums
their capacitance (CTOTAL pF = C1 pF + C2 pF).
• Secondly, optimize the voltage level. The non-linearized voltages
are unlike those that might normally be associated with ECP systems. The measurement range is ±400 mV (absolute maximum)
and in any setup, infinite gap will produce the highest (most positive) voltage.
• For standard measurement ranges (80/100 mils), an infinite gap
voltage between +100 mV and +250 mV is recommended.
• For increased range applications, an infinite gap voltage between
+250 and +350 mV is recommended.
• In general, the aim is to arrange that, at infinite gap with the
appropriate capacitance fitted, the output voltage is in the range
+100 to +350 mV.
• If the voltage is too high, it can be reduced by fitting a resistor or (if
one is already fitted) reducing its value. If the voltage is too low,
either remove or increase the value of any resistor that has been
fitted.
Before attempting to create custom libraries where no compensation
modules are available, a sufficiently good range of suitable quality
discrete components must be on hand (refer to the following
sections).
Where multiple libraries corresponding to differing ranges might
be needed, consider collecting the non-linearized data over the longest range required. That measurement data (automatically stored in
an Excel file) can then be post processed by SKF Multilog DMx Toolbox as/when required, to produce libraries optimized for shorter
ranges without needing to acquire further measurement data from
the actual probe.
What if compensation modules are not
available?
When deploying probe systems for which compensation modules are
not available, discrete compensation components (and custom
libraries) will be required.
What are discrete components?
Discrete components offer a way of accommodating probe types or
system cable lengths for which compensation modules may not be
available. They will usually consist of two separate (discrete)
components, a resistor and a capacitor, fitted to each channel. The
capacitance influences the frequency of oscillation.
• Higher added value results in lower oscillation frequency, same as
a longer extension cable.
Note that to maintain long term reliability of the connection, only one
wire per terminal (one component per terminal pair) is recommended. If two components (usually capacitors) have to be fitted in
the same position, consider first soldering them together at the correct pitch for the SKF Multilog DMx terminals (5 mm) to ease handling and installation.
What determines the values of the discrete
components?
As additional protection against cross-talk, the added compensation
components should be used to provide frequency separation
between channels to avoid that any modulation or beating between
them might appear as a genuine signal.
Therefore, typically, when the same probe systems are fitted to all
channels, the compensation components fitted to each channel will
be different.
Slight exceptions to the above can occur, where:
1 The probe systems are already different (say one at 5 m and one
at 10 m).
Here, added capacitance (if any) should maintain or reinforce the
difference in frequency.
2 There are 15 m systems, where, due to the inherent high (system
cable) capacitance, no added capacitance is possible.
Here, deploy only one 15 m system per SKF Multilog DMx or use
nominal 15 m systems where the actual system cable lengths are
> 10 m (32.8 ft.), but different between the channels.
Added resistance may still be required to optimize signal levels.
3 Tacho channels (ECP3 or ECP4)
The resistor is then used to achieve voltage levels in an optimum
range.
Here, compensation components are still advised, but no library is
required, as no digital linearization is taking place.
• Lower resistance value added reduces the voltage at the input.
Highest voltages are to be found when no resistor is fitted. Note that
this does not correspond to zero added resistance, but to an infinite
value of added resistance.
The SKF Multilog DMx base provides two duplicate sets of
terminals for the ECP inputs:
•
•
•
•
ECP1: 17-18, 1-2
ECP2: 21-22, 5-6
ECP3: 25-26, 9-10
ECP4: 29-30, 13-14
Be aware that while the two sets of terminals allow one capacitor
and one resistor to be added without “doubling up” on any of the terminals, the range of component values available (capacitors especially) may mean that two rather than one capacitor have to be fitted
to achieve an optimum solution.
The compensation modules are similarly designed to achieve frequency separation between the channels, while supporting mixed
use of the channels (different probe systems on different channels). The target frequencies for each channel are as follows:
Table 1
Target frequencies
Frequency (MHz)
Channel
number
Low (–3.2%)
Nominal
High (+3.2%)
1
2
3
4
0.866
0.930
0.994
1.058
0.895
0.961
1.027
1.093
0.924
0.992
1.060
1.128
13
Whenever possible, the combination of system cable and added
capacitance should be such as to replicate as closely as practicable
the above frequency separations (>50 kHz) if not the frequencies
themselves*.
* If a mixed system (using some channels with compensation modules and
some with discrete components) is planned, extra effort to replicate the
frequencies should be made.
The values of C and R that are required cannot be easily predicted,
but will become apparent during testing with actual hardware; refer
to the Creating a custom ECP library section († page 12) for an outline of the procedure for determining suitable component values. A
range of typical values that it is useful to have available is listed in the
section discussing the required specification of discrete components.
In addition, the component values used in the compensation modules themselves provide at least an indication of typical values.
Note that the added capacitance required to achieve the same
oscillation frequency in 10 m systems (as compared to 5 m) reduces
as the additional cable introduces capacitance.
What specification of discrete components
should be used?
Where individual leaded components are being used (rather than
pre-assembled and potted compensation modules), the following
specifications can be used as a guide:
• Resistors: Metal film, 0.1% tolerance, 15 ppm temperature
stability, 0.25 W
– Example: Welwyn RC55Y precision resistor
– Typical range: 3k70 – 4k02 – 4k22 – 4k53 – 4k75 – 5k11 –
5k23 – 5k49 – 5k76 – 6k04 – 6k19 – 6k49 – 6k98 – 7k50 –
8k06 – 10k0 – 11k0 – 13k0 – 16k0
The influence of resistance values much greater than 16k is usually
small and little different from leaving the resistor out (infinite resistance added).
• Capacitors: C0G* ceramic, 100 V
– Example: Murata radial C0G ceramic
– Typical range: 10 pF, 22 pF, 33 pF, 47 pF, 100 pF, 150 pF,
220 pF, 270 pF, 330 pF, 470 pF, 560 pF
Preferably, a 5 mm pitch and avoid any with a very short lead length
(pitch and lead length only so as to fit the SKF Multilog DMx terminals more easily). Also avoid any component types that are
unmarked.
* C0G is an EIA three character code for a ceramic dielectric material with the
lowest capacitance/temperature dependence. Same as NP0 type.
14
Table 2
Component values
CMSS 65 – 5 m (16.4 ft.) system
Channel
number
Capacitance (pF)
Resistance (kΩ)
1
2
3
4
650 (330 + 220 + 100)
540 (270 + 270)
403 (220 + 150 + 33)
330
11.30
7.87
6.34
5.49
Table 3
Component values
CMSS 65 – 10 m (32.8 ft.) system
Channel
number
Capacitance (pF)
Resistance (kΩ)
1
2
3
4
330
220
100
0
51.00
15.00
8.66
6.34
Table 4
Component values
CMSS 68 – 5 m (16.4 ft.) system
Channel
number
Capacitance (pF)
Resistance (kΩ)
1
2
3
4
780 (680 + 100)
620 (470 + 150)
492 (470 + 22)
385 (270 + 100 + 15)
11.50
7.68
6.34
5.36
Table 5
Component values
CMSS 68 – 10 m (32.8 ft.) system
Channel
number
Capacitance (pF)
Resistance (kΩ)
1
2
3
4
430 (330 + 100)
270
150
66 (33 + 33)
1 000.00
15.00
9.09
6.81
Appendix A
SKF compensation modules and libraries
An overview of currently available compensation modules follows:
Table A1
Compensation modules
Part number
SKF probe type
System length
SKF Multilog
DMx channel
Library
CMMA965-5-1
CMMA965-5-2
CMMA965-5-3
CMMA965-5-4
65
65
65
65
5 m (16.4 ft.)
5 m (16.4 ft.)
5 m (16.4 ft.)
5 m (16.4 ft.)
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
CMMA 65-05m-4140-080mil-5001
CMMA 65-05m-4140-080mil-5002
CMMA 65-05m-4140-080mil-5003
CMMA 65-05m-4140-080mil-5004
CMMA965-10-1
CMMA965-10-2
CMMA965-10-3
CMMA965-10-4
65
65
65
65
10 m (32.8 ft.)
10 m (32.8 ft.)
10 m (32.8 ft.)
10 m (32.8 ft.)
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
CMMA 65-10m-4140-080mil-6001
CMMA 65-10m-4140-080mil-6002
CMMA 65-10m-4140-080mil-6003
CMMA 65-10m-4140-080mil-6004
CMMA968-5-1
CMMA968-5-2
CMMA968-5-3
CMMA968-5-4
68
68
68
68
5 m (16.4 ft.)
5 m (16.4 ft.)
5 m (16.4 ft.)
5 m (16.4 ft.)
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
CMMA 68-05m-4140-090mil-9001
CMMA 68-05m-4140-090mil-9002
CMMA 68-05m-4140-090mil-9003
CMMA 68-05m-4140-090mil-9004
CMMA968-10-1
CMMA968-10-2
CMMA968-10-3
CMMA968-10-4
68
68
68
68
10 m (32.8 ft.)
10 m (32.8 ft.)
10 m (32.8 ft.)
10 m (32.8 ft.)
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
CMMA 68-10m-4140-090mil-10001
CMMA 68-10m-4140-090mil-10002
CMMA 68-10m-4140-090mil-10003
CMMA 68-10m-4140-090mil-10004
Note: Listed libraries are generated using an AISI 4140 steel target.
Source: DMx Sales Tool 2013-01-16 Protected.xls.
Technical support
For additional information on SKF products, contact:
SKF USA Inc.
Condition Monitoring Center – San Diego
5271 Viewridge Court
San Diego, California 92123 USA
Telephone: +1 858-496-3400
Fax: +1 858-496-3531
Web: www.skf.com/cm
For technical support, contact:
• [email protected] (North America, South America and Asia)
or
• [email protected] for customers in EMEA region (Europe,
Middle East and Africa)
15
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