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User’s Manual
Usage of Three-Terminal Regulators
Document No. G12702EJ8V0UM00 (8th edition)
Date Published May 2000 N CP(K)
©
Printed in Japan
2000
[MEMO]
2
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
The application circuits and the circuit constants in this document are only examples, and not intended for
use in the actual design of application systems for mass-production.
• The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Before using this document, please
confirm that this is the latest version.
• Not all devices/types available in every country. Please check with local NEC representative for availability
and additional information.
• No part of this document may be copied or reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written
consent of NEC Corporation. NEC Corporation assumes no responsibility for any errors which may appear in
this document.
• NEC Corporation does not assume any liability for infringement of patents, copyrights or other intellectual property
rights of third parties by or arising from use of a device described herein or any other liability arising from use
of such device. No license, either express, implied or otherwise, is granted under any patents, copyrights or other
intellectual property rights of NEC Corporation or others.
• Descriptions of circuits, software, and other related information in this document are provided for illustrative
purposes in semiconductor product operation and application examples. The incorporation of these circuits,
software, and information in the design of the customer's equipment shall be done under the full responsibility
of the customer. NEC Corporation assumes no responsibility for any losses incurred by the customer or third
parties arising from the use of these circuits, software, and information.
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the possibility of defects cannot be eliminated entirely. To minimize risks of damage or injury to persons or
property arising from a defect in an NEC semiconductor device, customers must incorporate sufficient safety
measures in its design, such as redundancy, fire-containment, and anti-failure features.
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The quality grade of NEC devices is "Standard" unless otherwise specified in NEC's Data Sheets or Data Books.
If customers intend to use NEC devices for applications other than those specified for Standard quality grade,
they should contact an NEC sales representative in advance.
M7D 98. 12
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
3
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................
5
2. BASIC STRUCTURE OF A POWER SUPPLY IC.......................................................................
5
2.1
2.2
Structure of a Bipolar IC ...........................................................................................................................
About Power Supply IC Equivalent Circuits..............................................................................................
5
6
3. BASIC CIRCUITS OF A POWER SUPPLY IC ............................................................................
7
3.1
3.2
3.3
Basic Circuits ...........................................................................................................................................
7
Operating Principles of Adjustable Output Types..................................................................................... 11
Operating Principles of Low Saturation Types ......................................................................................... 12
4. POWER SUPPLY IC APPLICATION CIRCUITS .......................................................................... 13
4.1
4.2
Typical Circuit Connection........................................................................................................................ 13
Application Circuit Set .............................................................................................................................. 17
5. PRECAUTIONS ON APPLICATION ............................................................................................... 22
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
Shorting Input Pins and Ground Pins .......................................................................................................
Floating Ground Pins ...............................................................................................................................
Applying Transient Voltage to Input Pins..................................................................................................
Reverse Bias Between Output Pin and GND Pin .....................................................................................
Precautions Related to Low Saturation Types .........................................................................................
Thinking on Various Protection Circuits....................................................................................................
22
22
23
23
24
24
6. POWER SUPPLY IC DATA SHEET APPEARANCE AND DESIGN METHODS..................... 24
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
4
Absolute Maximum Ratings......................................................................................................................
Recommended Operating Conditions ......................................................................................................
Electrical Specifications............................................................................................................................
Design Methods .......................................................................................................................................
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
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24
25
28
1. INTRODUCTION
NEC produces a variety of ICs for power supplies that differ in their on-chip functions and usage. Within these,
large quantities of three-terminal regulators have come to be used to configure stabilized power supplies easily using
few external components.
However, the occurrence of unexpected irregularities when designing power supply circuits also has increased.
Therefore, this manual starts with the basic structure of the main bipolar process that is used in ICs for power
supplies and gives precautions pertaining to actual applications.
2. BASIC STRUCTURE OF A POWER SUPPLY IC
As mentioned in chapter 1, a power supply IC mainly uses a bipolar process. Understanding the structure of an
IC that uses a bipolar process also is useful for applications.
2.1 Structure of a Bipolar IC
The following elements can be made into an IC in a general bipolar process.
NPN transistor
PNP transistor
Resistor
Capacitor
Figures 2-1 through 2-3 show the structure of each.
Figure 2-1. Structure of NPN Transistor and PNP Transistor
NPN transistor
Separation region
Separation region
Collector
p
PNP transistor
n+
Base
p
Emitter
n+
n
p
n+
Separation region
Base p Collector p
n
n+
Emitter
p
p
n+
P-type substrate
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
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Figure 2-2. Structure of Resistor
Base diffused resistor
Base pinch resistor
Separation region
Separation region
Resistor
electrode
+
P-type diffusion n diffusion layer
Resistor
Pinch
layer
electrode
region
P-type diffusion
Resistor
layer
electrode
Separation
region
n+
n
p
Epitaxial layer
Resistor electrode
electrode
n
p
n+
p
n+
P-type substrate
Figure 2-3. Structure of Capacitor
MOS capacitor
Junction capacitor
− +
Separation region
Oxide
layer
Separation region
AI electrode
n
n+
p
n+
p
p
n
Separation region
p
n+
P-type substrate
P-type substrate
There is a point to heed in applying power supply ICs. It is that a method known as "junction separation" is used
as the method of electrically separating each of the elements above. By connecting a separation region so that it is
formed by a P-type semiconductor and is the same lowest potential as the substrate, the element region and the
separation region are electrically separated and insulated by being in (PN junction) reverse bias states. If for some
reason the potential of this separation region becomes a higher potential than the element region (for example the
NPN transistor collector region in Figure 2-1), normal operation cannot be expected since the PN junction enters a
forward bias state and the separation state between the elements cannot be maintained. For example, when using a
positive output three-terminal regulator, the GND pin always must be made a lower potential than the potential of
other pins.
2.2 About Power Supply IC Equivalent Circuits
Equivalent circuits that are shown in data sheets are so designated assuming the premise of the preceding
section (that separation regions and substrate are made the lowest potential). Be careful not to reference these
when this premise is violated.
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User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
3. BASIC CIRCUITS OF A POWER SUPPLY IC
3.1 Basic Circuits
Although the basic circuits that make up a power supply IC differ according to the product type, the following
elements are necessary.
<1> Reference voltage circuit
<2> Error amplifier
<3> Active load (constant current circuit)
<4> Output stage power transistor
<5> Startup circuit
The following protection circuits also are on-chip.
<6> Overcurrent protection circuit
<7> Limiting circuit for securing safe operating area (SOA)
<8> Overheat protection circuit
Figure 3-1 shows a block diagram of a power supply IC.
Figure 3-1. Power Supply IC Block Diagram
INPUT
Current
source
Startup
circuit
Reference
voltage
Protection
circuit
Series bus
transistor
+
−
Error amplification
circuit
OUTPUT
RB
Split resistor
RA
GND
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
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The operation of each block is explained in simple terms below.
<1> Reference voltage circuit
The reference voltage circuit, which determines the output voltage of the power supply IC, is an extremely
important part within the circuit. The method for configuring this circuit is as follows.
• Band gap reference method: Use the forward characteristic between the base and emitter of the transistor.
The possibility of making the reference voltage 2 V or less is a feature of this method.
Figure 3-2 shows the principles of the band gap reference method. Figure 3-3 is a simple circuit diagram
of the band gap reference reference voltage used in the µPC7800A Series.
Figure 3-2. Band Gap Reference Circuit
V+
VREF = VBE3 + R2 ( KT ln R2 )
R3 q
R1
I
R1
VREF
R2 ∆VBE
R3
R2
Q3
Q2
VBE
Q1
∆VBE
R3
GND
The reference voltage is as follows.
VREF = VBE3 + (IC2 + IB3) • R2
= VBE3 +
R2
R3
(∆VBE) + IB3 • R2
R2
.
=. VBE3 +
R3
KT
q
ln
R2
R1
................................................................................................................ (3 - 3)
The temperature coefficient is as follows.
∂VREF
∂T
=
∂VBE3
∂T
+
K
q
•
R2
R3
ln
R2 ..............................................................................................................
(3 - 4)
R1
By optimally choosing the ratio of
obtained.
8
R2
R3
•
R2
, a temperature compensated reference voltage is known to be
R1
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
Figure 3-3. (Simplified) Band Gap Reference Circuit of µPC7800A Series
VIN
VREF
GND
<2> Error amplifier
This circuit controls the output voltage by detecting and comparing the reference voltage created by the
reference voltage circuit and the resistor split output voltage. If VOUT is the output voltage and VREF is the
reference voltage (refer to Figure 3-1), the following relationship holds.
VOUT =
A
β (1 + A)
VREF ........................................................................................................................ (3 - 1)
Here, A is the open loop gain of the error amplifier and β = RA / (RA + RB).
<3> Active load (constant current circuit)
Expression (3 - 1) becomes the following if the open loop gain A of the error amplifier is sufficiently large
compared to 1.
.
VOUT =. VREF/ β
A small bias current and high resistance are realized by using a constant current circuit in the error amplifier
load to make A 60 to 80 dB.
<4> Output stage power transistor
The output stage power transistor supplies current to the load. Although normally a Darlington form NPN, the
low saturation type of power supply IC uses a PNP single transistor.
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
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<5> Startup circuit
A power supply IC has an on-chip constant current circuit for use as an error amplifier load or for biasing the
reference voltage circuit. A constant current circuit, which consists of paired transistors, does not begin to
operate as long as the diode connected transistors are not in a steady bias state. A startup circuit therefore
is set up and it biases the active load at power-on to cause normal operation to begin whether the
temperature of the transistors is low or high.
<6> Overcurrent protection circuit
This is a protection circuit for preventing the load current from exceeding the current capacity of the output
stage power transistor. It restricts the base current of the output stage power transistor by biasing the current
restriction transistor more deeply in accordance with the voltage drop in the current detection resistor inserted
in the load current route.
<7> Limiting circuit for securing safe operating area (SOA)
The limiting circuit for securing SOA operates to cut down the output current if the voltage between input and
output (voltage between the collector and emitter of the output stage power transistor) becomes large so that
the safe operating area of the output stage power transistor is not exceeded.
If the voltage difference between input and output exceeds the breakdown voltage (7 to 8 V) of a Zener diode
connected between input and output, it limits the base current of the output stage power transistor by biasing
the current limiting transistor more deeply using the breakdown current.
Since the larger the voltage
difference between input and output the more the base current of the output stage power transistor is limited,
the load characteristic is a "foldback" type drooping characteristic as a result.
Figure 3-4 shows the parts of a general overcurrent protection circuit and limiting circuit for securing SOA.
Figure 3-4. Example of Overcurrent Protection Circuit and Limiting Circuit for Securing SOA
(µPC7800A Series)
Limiting circuit for securing SOA
INPUT
Q16
Q17
Output stage transistor
Q15 : Current limiting
transistor
R11 : Current detection resistor
OUTPUT
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User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
<8> Overheat protection circuit
The overheat protection circuit prevents destruction of the IC by cutting off output if the temperature of the
chip itself increases too much.
Figure 3-5 shows the parts of an overheat protection circuit. Q12, which is biased to the extent that it is not
ON in a normal operating state, is completely ON at 150°C to 200°C accompanying a decrease in VBE when
the temperature of the chip increases. When Q12 is ON, it cuts off the output voltage by absorbing the base
current of the output stage power transistor.
Figure 3-5. Example of Overheat Protection Circuit (µPC7800A Series)
INPUT
Q16
Q17
OUTPUT
Q12 : Overheat protection
transistor
GND
The overheat protection circuit is designed to operate at temperatures exceeding the absolute maximum
rating (generally 150°C).
Therefore, if the overheat protection circuit has operated, the IC should be
considered to have been exposed to an abnormal state and positive use of the overheat protection circuit
should be avoided (so a separate circuit is needed to perform power supply overheat protection).
3.2 Operating Principles of Adjustable Output Types
An adjustable output type (µPC317, µPC337) differs from a fixed output voltage type in that it uses a method for
configuring an output voltage setting voltage circuit externally so that an arbitrary output voltage can be set
externally.
Figure 3-6 is the block diagram of a variable output voltage type. The output voltage is controlled by comparing
the voltage between external resistors RA and RB and the reference voltage VREF in the error amplifier.
Moreover, each block is connected between INPUT and OUTPUT and the current needed in each block (circuit
operating current) is output from the OUTPUT pin.
Therefore, the outflow current from the ADJ pin becomes
negligible and its affect on the output voltage value can be ignored.
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
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Figure 3-6. Adjustable Output Type Block Diagram
INPUT
Current
source
Protection
circuit
+
−
Startup
circuit
Reference
voltage source
OUTPUT
VREF
ADJ
RB
RA
Output
voltage
setting
circuit
VO
3.3 Operating Principles of Low Saturation Types
All of the power supply ICs discussed so far use Darlington connected NPN type transistors in the output stage.
Therefore, the voltage difference between input and output that is needed to operate these power supply ICs cannot
be lower than the voltage between the base and emitter of the Darlington connected output stage transistor (0.7 V ×
2 = 1.4 V). A low saturation type power supply IC makes it possible to operate with a small voltage difference
between input and output by using a PNP transistor as the output stage transistor (refer to Figure 3-7).
Figure 3-7. Differences Between General Power Supply IC and
Low Saturation Type Output Stage Configurations
(a) General power supply IC
(b) Low saturation type power supply IC
OUT
IN
IN
OUT
0.7 V
0.7 V
GND
GND
Configurations other than this are nearly identical to a general power supply IC. Figure 3-8 shows a block
diagram.
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User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
Figure 3-8. Low Saturation Type Block Diagram
INPUT
Startup
circuit
Limiting circuit
for securing
SOA
Reference
voltage
circuit
Error
amplifier
Drive
circuit
Series path transistor
(PNP type)
OUTPUT
Overheat
protection
circuit
Overcurrent
restriction
circuit
GND
4. POWER SUPPLY IC APPLICATION CIRCUITS
4.1 Typical Circuit Connection
<1> Fixed output voltage type
Figure 4-1 shows an example of a typical circuit connection. Check the data sheet for each product type for
the values of input and output capacitors.
Figure 4-1. Example of Typical Circuit Connection (Single Power Supply Output)
CIN : If the wiring from a smoothing circuit to the
D1
three-terminal regulator is long, there may be
INPUT
OUTPUT
Three-terminal regulator
CIN
CO
+
oscillation.
Therefore, add a 0.1 to 0.47 µF
capacitor with superior voltage and temperature
D2
characteristics near the input pin.
CO : This
always
must
be
added
for
oscillation
prevention in the case of a negative voltage threeterminal regulator. For an application in which
the load current changes suddenly, also add 10
to 100 µF of electrical capacitors for output voltage
transient response improvement.
D1 : Although not needed for standard applications, this
is necessary when the time constant on the load
side is long and there is a residual voltage in CO for
some time after the power supply is cut and
backward voltage is applied to the regulator IC.
D2 : Needed when there is a possibility of OUTPUT
being lower potential than GND.
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
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Figure 4-2 is an example of a typical connection for obtaining a positive and negative power supply. The diodes
between output and GND are for preventing latchdown at startup and are absolutely necessary in the case of loads
shown by solid lines. Without the diodes, current flows in the separation regions between elements as described in
chapter 2 and the output voltage does not rise (refer to Figure 4-3).
Figure 4-2. Example of Typical Circuit Connection (Dual Power Supply Output)
Di2
+VOUT
Positive voltage
3-terminal
regulator
+VIN
CIN
Load A
Co
Di1
Load
GND
Di1'
CIN'
Co'
Negative voltage
3-terminal
regulator
−VIN
Load B
−VOUT
Di2'
CIN, CO, CIN', CO': As in the sample circuit for a single power supply load, these sometimes are needed depending
on circuit conditions.
Di1, Di1'
: Absolutely necessary for loads shown by solid lines, in which a load current flows from
+VOUT toward -VOUT.
This is to prevent regulator output on either side from being latched down by differences
occurring in the rise of regulator output voltage due to smoothing circuit capacitor capacity
differences or the like.
Note that these are not specifically needed in the case of only those loads shown by dashed
lines.
Di2, Di2'
: As in the sample circuit for a single power supply load, these sometimes are needed
depending on the application circuit.
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User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
If the output pin becomes a lower potential than GND, the P type separation region and n type output pin (NPN
transistor) enter a forward bias state and the "parasitic transistor" shown with dashed lines is formed. When this
occurs, it is connected to the adjacent transistors and does not operate normally.
Figure 4-3. Example of Power Supply IC Cross Section Diagram (Latchdown)
Separation Output
region
NPN transistor
NPN transistor
n p
n p
p
p
p
n
n
p
<2> Adjustable output voltage type
When a voltage not included in a fixed output voltage type is needed or the output voltage is to be adjusted
and used, even a fixed output voltage type can be used by floating the GND as described later, but voltage
precision and drift become a problem. An adjustable output voltage type is useful in such cases.
Figure 4-4 shows an example of the typical connection. Since a bias current for the operation of each block
inside the IC flows from INPUT to OUTPUT as described in section 3.2, be careful of the load current. By
selecting 240 Ω as R1 as in the sample typical connection even when there is no load, no problems arise
since a current of
1.25 V / 240 Ω = 5.2 mA
flows to OUTPUT.
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
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Figure 4-4. Example of Typical Connection Circuit (Adjustable Output Power Supply)
Input INPUT
CIN
0.1µF
OUTPUT
µ PC317
ADJ
+
CADJ
R1
240 Ω
Output
VO
D1
+ CO
1µF
R2
Note This example is for a positive voltage.
For a negative voltage (µPC337), D1 and capacitor polarity are reversed.
CIN
: Since there may be oscillation if the wire leading from a smoothing circuit to a three-terminal regulator is
long (15 cm or more), add a capacitor near the input pin.
CO
: For an application in which the load current changes suddenly, add a 10 µF or more capacitor for output
voltage transient response improvement (and add 10 µF to CADJ at the same time).
CADJ
: Connecting a 10 µF capacitor parallel to R2 can improve the ripple rejection rate (approximately 20 dB)
and increase oscillation stability.
In this case, diode D1 is needed for to prevent application of backward voltage on an output short circuit.
R1, R2 : These are resistors for setting the output voltage. The output voltage VO is determined as follows.
VO = 1 +
R2
R1
• VREF + IADJ • R2
R2
.
=. 1 +
• VREF
R1
Table 4-1 shows the relationship between typical output voltages and R2.
Table 4-1. Settings of Output Voltage Setting Resistor R2
Output Voltage VO (V)
Note
R2 Setting
2.5
240
5.0
720
12
2064
24
4368
30
5520
(Ω)
Note TYP. values
<3> Low saturation type
The standard method of use is the same as for a general fixed output voltage type (see Figure 4-1).
However, the capacitor connected to the output must have a greater capacity than in a general power supply
IC. In addition, note that the output voltage cannot be adjusted by inserting a resistor or the like in the GND
pin as described later.
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User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
4.2 Application Circuit Set
This circuit set mainly is filled in for positive output voltage three-terminal regulators. However, the circuits also
can be applied to negative voltage three-terminal regulators by changing the polarity of parts employed.
1. High output current circuit
(without short circuit protection)
VIN
Drives the base of an external transistor using a threeterminal regulator.
Here R1 is determined as follows.
IOUT
Q1
IO VOUT
IN
R1
OUT
GND
C2
0.1 µ F
2. High output current circuit
(with short circuit protection)
R2
IO VOUT
IREG
VBE1
R1
+ IREG(MAX.) … (4.2)
In this circuit, the output current has an actual range
that is 5 to 6 times the three-terminal regulator rating.
VBE2
I1(MAX.) =
R2
the output current is as follows.
Q2
IN
OUT
GND
C1
0.1 µ F
IO(MAX.) = I1(MAX.) + IREG(MAX.)
R1 0.4 Ω
2Ω
IO VOUT
R1
=
I1
IREG
IO(MAX.) =
IN
C1
0.1 µ F
R2
IREG
R3 6 Ω
D1
+ IREG(MAX.) …..………..……….….…. (4.3)
R2
D1 cancels VBE at Q1.
Q1 and three-terminal current distribution is determined
by R1 and R2.
I1
Q1
VBE2
=
C2
0.1 µ F
3. High output current circuit
(with short circuit protection)
R2
hFEI(MIN.)
This is an expansion of circuit 1. Current detection is
performed using R2.
Therefore, since the current at Q1 is restricted by
I1
Q1
R1
VIN
…………………….…. (4.1)
IOUT
IO = hFE1(MIN.) IREG(MAX.) −
C1
0.1 µ F
R1
6Ω
IREG(MAX.) −
IREG
6Ω
VIN
VBE1
R1 =
OUT
GND
……………………….…………….…… (4.4)
R1 + R2
R1
• IREG(MAX.) …………………..….. (4.5)
C2
0.1 µ F
Caution Absolutely do not connect output pins in parallel to increase the current capacity of a threeterminal regulator. If the output voltage becomes unbalanced, certain ICs operate in a restricted
current vicinity and current hardly flows in certain ICs, and furthermore the current may flow in
reverse. Also refer to 15 Wired OR.
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
17
4. High input voltage circuit
R1 =
IOUT
Q1
VIN
This circuit can be used when the input voltage exceeds
the rating.
IN
R1
VOUT
OUT
GND
C1
0.1 µ F
VIN − VZD
IOUT(MAX.)
………………………………….… (4.6)
hFE1(MIN.)
Moreover, if the load current changes little, a resistor
can be used.
C2
0.1 µ F
ZD
5. High input, high output voltage circuit
(without short circuit protection)
VIN
IN
C1
VOUT
OUT
GND
0.1 µ F
R1
C2 0.1
µF
D
Using the fact that the current flowing out from the GND
pin of the three-terminal regulator is practically constant,
add Zener Di to the GND pin to raise only the Zener
portion of the voltage. R1 supplies idling to the Zener. It
also is possible to use a resistor, but this is inferior to
the Zener from a stability standpoint.
D is needed as load short circuit protection. In addition,
the input voltage must be set within a range that holds
the voltage difference between input and output to the
ratings even on a short circuit.
ZD
6. High input, high output voltage circuit
Note
(with short circuit protection )
VIN
R1
4.7 kΩ
Q2
IN
R2
1 kΩ
Q1
ZD
18
VOUT
OUT
GND
C1
0.1 µ F
D1
This circuit combines circuits 4 and 5. The circuit made
up of Q1, Q2, and D1 is a preregulator.
The output voltage is as follows.
C2
0.1
µF
VOUT = VO(REG) + VZD ..…………………………....... (4.7)
D2 protects against reverse bias in the GND and OUT
pins on a load short circuit.
D2
Note
D1 or ZD must be selected so that the voltage
difference between input and output of the threeterminal regulator is kept within ratings even on a
load short circuit.
In addition, D2 must have low forward voltage.
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
7. Remote shutdown circuit
D1
VIN
Q1
IN
R1
VOUT
OUT
GND
C1
0.1µ F
R2
Control the output voltage using a preregulator set up
ahead of the three-terminal regulator.
The control input is as follows.
At "H" level: Normal output
At "L" level: Output interruption
In addition, D1 is added to prevent reverse bias between
the input and output pins of the three-terminal regulator.
C2
0.1 µ F
Control
Q2
R3
8. Slow startup circuit (without short circuit protection)
VIN
IN
VOUT
OUT
GND
R2
IBIAS
D1
C1
0.1µ F
R3
R1
This circuit moderates the rise time of the output
voltage.
At power-on, this is the three-terminal regulator's
specific output voltage, after which it gradually rises to
its final value.
The initial output voltage is
VO1 = VO(REG) .........…………………………......... (4.8)
Q1
C2
The output voltage after stabilization is
VOUT
VO2 = VO(REG) + R1
VO final value
R2
…………. (4.9)
T .=. −CR ln 0.01 [s] ........………………………....
(4.10)
Delay time T
Power on
Time
9. Adjustable output voltage circuit
(without load short circuit protection)
IN
C1
VO(REG)
Furthermore, the delay can be represented as follows if
expecting up to 99% of the final value.
VO(REG)
VIN
IBIAS +
The Zener diode in the circuit shown in 5 is replaced by
a resistor.
VOUT
OUT
GND
0.1 µ F IBIAS
C2
0.1µF
R2
D1
R1
VOUT = VO(REG) + R1
IBIAS +
VO(REG)
R2
………… (4.11)
Use a voltage difference between input and output that
is within the three-terminal regulator ratings.
For a load short circuit or capacity load, the diode
shown using dashed lines is needed and in particular a
low forward voltage is needed.
Note that applications using the adjustable output three-terminal
regulator µPC317 are superior in output voltage precision and
stability.
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
19
10. Adjustable output voltage circuit
(0.5 to 10 V, without short circuit protection)
Splits the fixed output voltage VO(REG) of the threeterminal regulator using R4 and R5 and compares with
the output voltage VOUT value split using R1 and R2.
The output voltage can be represented as follows.
10 µ F
+
µ PC7805A
+VIN
VOUT
IN
OUT
GND
R4
0.1 µ F
VO(REG) 910 Ω
C1
R5
9.1 kΩ −
R1
+
R2
µ PC741
−VIN R3
10
kΩ
VOUT =
R4
R4 + R5
× VO(REG) ×
R1 + R2
R1
…………. (4.12)
C2
0.1 µ F
10 µ F
+
RD6.2EB
11. Adjustable output voltage circuit (7 to 30 V)
VIN
IN
VOUT
OUT
GND
−
C1
0.1 µ F
µ PC741
R1 10 kΩ
+
This is similar to the circuits shown in 5 and 8. Since it
uses op amplifier µPC741 with a single power supply,
the lowest value of the output voltage can be no lower
than the sum of the output saturated voltage of the
µPC741 and the output voltage of the three-terminal
regulator.
C2
0.1 µ F
R2
12. Tracking regulator circuit
+VIN
IN
+VOUT
OUT
GND
0.1 µ F
C2
C1
0.1 µ F
A tracking regulator is configured using a power
transistor with one positive voltage three-terminal
regulator.
The positive voltage is the fixed voltage of the threeterminal regulator. The negative voltage can be
changed arbitrarily by the split ratio of R1 and R2.
Thus the negative voltage output is as follows.
R1
− VOUT =
C3
0.1 µ F
µ PC741
• VOUT ……………………………. (4.13)
D1 protects against reverse bias between the base and
emitter of the transistor at power-on.
R2
D1
−VOUT
Tf1
20
R1
−
+
−VIN
R2
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
13. Tracking regulator circuit
+ VIN
+ VOUT
IN
C1
OUT
GND
0.1 µ F
0.1 µ F
C2
C3
0.1 µ F
C4
+
− VIN
0.1 µ F
GND
IN
OUT
R1
µPC741
−
R1
R2
R2
− VOUT
14. Positive and negative dual power supply circuit
(using positive voltage three-terminal regulators)
IN
This power supply has superior tracking characteristics
due to using an op amplifier and one positive and one
negative voltage three-terminal regulator.
The GND pin of each three-terminal regulator is driven
in common by the op amplifier output.
Favorable tracking characteristics are obtained by
making R1 = R2. Moreover, bias current errors also can
be canceled if the resistor R1//R2 is added between the
non-inverting pin of the op amplifier and GND.
+ VOUT
OUT
GND
This is a positive and negative dual power supply that
uses two positive voltage three-terminal regulators.
D1 and D2 are low forward voltage diodes that are
absolutely necessary. They prevent output voltage
pulldown due to discrepancies in the startup timing of
each regulator.
D1
IN
GND
OUT
GND
D2
− VOUT
15. Wired OR
D1
VIN1
VOUT
When connecting the outputs of two or more threeterminal regulators, do it so that voltage from outside is
not added to the regulator output at D1 and D3.
D2 and D4 are connected to compensate for the lowering
of output by D1 and D3.
D2
D3
VIN2
D4
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
21
5. PRECAUTIONS ON APPLICATION
Do not use a three-terminal regulator under temperature conditions or voltage conditions that exceed the ratings.
Other precautions that are specific to three-terminal regulators are shown below.
5.1 Shorting Input Pins and Ground Pins
When a capacitor with a large capacity is connected to the load of a three-terminal regulator, if the input pin is
shorted to GND or the power supply is turned OFF, the voltage of the capacitor connected to the output pin is applied
between the output and input pins of the three-terminal regulator.
Figure 5-1
(a)
(b)
Discharge current
VOUT
IN
IN
OUT
VOUT
+
OUT
GND
+
GND
The withstand voltage between the output and input pins of a three-terminal regulator is approximately 0.7 V for a
low current with the output transistor base-emitter voltage.
Therefore, a diode like the one in Figure 5-1 (b) is effective against the reverse bias of the input and output pins.
Figure 5-1 (b) is for a positive voltage regulator. The diode direction is reversed for negative voltage.
5.2 Floating Ground Pins
Do not make the GND pin of a three-terminal regulator floating in the operating state. If it is made floating, an
input voltage that has not been stabilized is output unchanged. This is because the output stage power transistor is
biased by an overvoltage protection Zener or current mirror transistor leakage current. Since IC internal overheat
protection and the like do not operate normally in this case, there is a possibility of destruction if the load is shortcircuited or on an overload.
Be particularly careful when using a socket.
22
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
5.3 Applying Transient Voltage to Input Pins
A three-terminal regulator is destroyed if a higher voltage than the rating or a voltage more than 0.5 V lower than
the GND pin is applied to the input line. In cases in which such voltages are superimposed on the line, add a surge
suppressor using a Zener diode or the like.
Figure 5-2
(a)
+ VIN
(b)
IN
R
OUT
L
+ VO
IN
GND
GND
D1
C
OUT
C
ZD
5.4 Reverse Bias Between Output Pin and GND Pin
Figure 5-3
(a)
+ VIN
IN
(b)
VOUT
OUT
GND
IBIAS
External protection diode
ZD
VZ
In the sample application shown in Figure 5-3 (a), the voltage of the Zener diode is applied between the output
and GND pins of the three-terminal regulator when the load is short-circuited.
Inside the three-terminal regulator, a diode like that shown in Figure 5-3 (b) apparently is formed, but if a current
flows in this part, the three-terminal regulator is sometimes destroyed. Therefore, when using a GND like that shown
in Figure 5-3 (a) in a floating state, it is necessary to add a low forward voltage diode from the GND pin of the threeterminal regulator toward the output pin.
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
23
5.5 Precautions Related to Low Saturation Types
Since a low saturation type of power supply IC uses a PNP transistor in the output stage, particular care is
needed. In a low input state before the output voltage enters regulation state (such as at startup), a large circuit
current flows because the output stage transistor is saturated. Depending on the product, the circuit current is
decreased at startup by an on-chip rushing current prevention circuit, but even in this case a relatively large circuit
current flows compared to normal operation (For details, refer to the "Circuit operating current at startup I BIAS(S)" rating
of each product). Thus, care is needed in the following matters.
• On startup, be careful of the output capacity of the power supply on the input side and the output impedance,
since a circuit operating current flows in the input superimposed on the load current.
• It is not possible to adjust the output voltage by inserting a resistor or the like in the GND. This is because the
circuit operating current increases at startup.
Be sure to connect a low impedance type capacitor to the output to increase stability against abnormal oscillation.
5.6 Thinking on Various Protection Circuits
NEC power supply ICs, which have on-chip overcurrent protection circuits, limiting circuits for securing SOA, and
overheat protection circuits, are very difficult to destroy in their normal operating state.
Nonetheless, you should not design circuits that put too much confidence in these protection circuits. These
protection circuits are for protection against sudden accidents. To the best of your ability, avoid operating protection
circuits for long stretches of time. In particular, be careful using the overheat protection circuit since this is like
operating at a temperature exceeding the absolute maximum rating.
6. POWER SUPPLY IC DATA SHEET APPEARANCE AND DESIGN METHODS
6.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
This item shows values that must not be exceeded even momentarily under any usage conditions or test
conditions. Moreover, it is a mistake to think that use at the absolute maximum ratings is possible. Design should be
performed so that even in an abnormal state the equipment being considered leaves room for the absolute maximum
ratings.
In addition, it is assumed that GND is the lowest potential in the case of a positive output power supply and that
INPUT is the lowest potential in the case of a negative output power supply (see chapter 2).
6.2 Recommended Operating Conditions
If used under these conditions, it is possible to obtain output voltage precision as expected.
criterion for selecting a power supply IC.
24
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
Think of this as a
6.3 Electrical Specifications
NEC guarantees the minimum values and maximum values of electrical characteristics at the time of shipment.
Therefore, whether or not it is possible to satisfy the specifications of the power supply to be designed must be
determined by adequately investigating each rating and condition in each item of the electrical characteristics. Each
item of the electrical characteristics is described below (Since the explanations below are mainly for positive output
power supply ICs, reread them while reversing polarities for negative power supply ICs).
<1> Output voltage VO
This item is the most important rating in using a power supply IC. Pay attention to measurement conditions.
If power supply specifications are within this range of conditions, the expected precision (for example ±5%) is
obtained (see Figure 6-1).
Figure 6-1. Output Voltage Conceptualization (For µPC7805AHF) Guaranteed Range Inside Broken Lines
5.4
Output voltage VO (V)
5.2
5.0
4.8
VIN = 10 V
IO = 5 mA
−50
0
50
100
150
Junction temperature TJ (°C)
<2> Line regulation REGIN
When the input voltage increases, the output voltage also increases. This item shows how much the output
voltage changes when the input voltage VIN is varied within the measured conditions. As shown in Figure 62, output voltage changes nearly linearly with respect to input voltage. Therefore, it is possible to infer how
much the output voltage will change from the initial period when the initial input voltage is changed to a given
input voltage.
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
25
Figure 6-2. Line Regulation REGIN Conceptualization (For µPC7805AHF, VIN = 10 V Standard)
+30
+10
REGIN TYP.
REGIN MAX.
Input stability REGIN (mV)
+20
0
−10
TA = 25°C
IO = 500 mA
−20
0
5
10
15
20
25
Input voltage VIN (V)
<3> Load regulation REGL
Whereas REGIN is the change in output voltage with respect to input voltage, load regulation REGL shows the
change in output voltage with respect to load current (output current). When load current increases, output
voltage decreases nearly linearly. The output voltage for an arbitrary load current can be inferred in the same
way as REGIN (see Figure 6-3).
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User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
Figure 6-3. Load Regulation Conceptualization (For µPC7805AHF, IO = 500 mA)
−10
REGL MAX.
0
REGL TYP.
Load stability REGL (mV)
+10
−20
−30
TA = 25°C
VIN = 10 V
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
Output current IO (A)
<4> Quiescent current IBIAS
This is the bias current needed for each internal block of a power supply IC to operate. It flows from input
toward GND.
Applications that adjust output voltage by inserting a resistor in GND take this item into
account.
<5> Quiescent current change ∆IBIAS
This shows the change in IBIAS when the input voltage or load current changes.
<6> Ripple rejection rate R • R
The ripple voltage that appears in the output when a 120 Hz sine wave (minimum value and maximum value
of sine wave are noted in measured conditions) is input in the input is represented by the following
expression.
R • R = 20 log (VIN/VOripple) [dB]
If the frequency increases, R • R decreases mainly due to the frequency characteristics of the internal error
amplifier of the IC.
<7> Output noise voltage Vn
This shows the noise that occurs inside a power supply IC (mainly thought to be thermal noise).
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
27
<8> Peak output current IOpeak
This is the current at which the overcurrent protection circuit operates. It is defined as the output current
when the output voltage is lowered by 2% from its initial value.
As described in chapter 3, the overcurrent protection circuit operates together with the stable operation area.
Moreover, note that IOpeak decreases as temperature increases (negative temperature characteristic). Figure
6-4 shows the IOpeak-VIN-VO characteristics of the µPC7800A Series. For a nonlinear load such as a motor or
lamp, select a power supply IC that has sufficient leeway (50% or less of normal characteristic graph).
<9> Output short circuit current IOshort
This is the current that flows when output is short-circuited. Since most NEC power supply ICs have an onchip limiting circuit for securing SOA, the following relation holds.
IOshort < IOpeak
Like IOpeak, IOshort displays a negative temperature characteristic.
Refer to Figure 6-4 for temperature
characteristics of the output short circuit current and changes with respect to input voltage.
Figure 6-4. Example of IOpeak Characteristics (µPC7800A Series)
IOpeak- (VIN − VO) characteristic
Peak output current IOpeak (A)
3.0
2.5
2.0
TJ =
1.5
1.0
0°C
75° 25°
C
C
125
°C
0.5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Voltage difference between input and output VIN − VO (V)
6.4 Design Methods
(A) Input circuit design
Determine the capacity of a smoothing capacitor of an input circuit using an O.H. Shade graph or simulator
so that the minimum value of the input voltage is not lower than the measurement conditions of output
voltage.
At this time, connect a film capacitor between input and GND of the power supply IC separate from the
smoothing capacitor to prevent abnormal oscillation (refer to the data sheet of each product type for capacitor
values).
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User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
(B) Output circuit design
Check whether the load current used is a current no greater than the peak output current.
Connect a capacitor for abnormal oscillation prevention between output and GND of the power supply IC. If
transient load stability becomes a problem, make sure the capacitor is connected in parallel.
(C) Radiation design
The junction temperature can be calculated using the following expression.
TJ = (Rth(J-C) + θC-HS + θHS) • PD + TA ............................................................................................... (6.1)
Rth(J-C): Thermal resistance (junction to case)
θC-HS: Contact thermal resistance (includes thermal resistance of insulation sheet when using
insulation sheet)
θHS:
Thermal resistance of heatsink
PD:
Internal power dissipation of IC (PD = (VIN - VO) • IO + VIN • IBIAS)
TA:
Operating ambient temperature
Expression (6.1) is the calculation expression when using a heatsink. When not using a heatsink, such as in
the µPC78L00 Series, use the following expression.
TJ = Rth(J-A) • PD + TA ...................................................................................................................... (6.2)
Rth(J-A): Thermal resistance (junction to ambient air)
Use the values in the data sheets for Rth(J-C) and Rth(J-A) in expressions (6.1) and (6.2).
Since TJ, Rth(J-C), PD, and TA are given, find the thermal resistance of the heatsink θHS from them using
expression (6.1).
Figure 6-5 shows the thermal resistance of an aluminum board.
Since the heatsink
manufacturer produce heatsinks suited to power supply ICs, also consult the heatsink manufacturer.
Figure 6-5. Thermal Resistance of Aluminum Board
Thermal resistance of
heatsink θ HS (°C/W)
100
50
20
t = 1.5 mm
t = 3 mm
10
5
2
1
10
20
50 100 200
500 1000
Surface area of heatsink A (cm2)
If TJ is not within the design values, return to (A) or (B) and recalculate. An example of heatsink design is
shown next.
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
29
<1> Design objectives
Positive power supply using µPC7805AHF
Maximum output current
I O max. = 0.6 (A)
Maximum voltage difference between input and output
VDIF max. = 6 (V)
Maximum operating ambient temperature
T A max. = 60 (°C)
Maximum junction temperature
TJ max. = 100 (°C)
<2> Heatsink thermal resistance calculation
In a used state, the junction temperature TJ is the following.
TJ = (Rth(J-C) + θC-HS + θHS) • PD + TA ...................................................................................................... (6.3)
Rth(J-C): Thermal resistance (junction to case)
θC-HS: Thermal resistance (case to heatsink)
θHS:
Thermal resistance of heatsink
PD:
Power dissipation
Here, TJ max. = 100 (°C), TA max. = 60 (°C), θC-HS << 1 (°C/W), and Rth(J-C) = 5.0 (°C/W)
.
By substituting PD max. =. VDIF max. × IO max. = 3.6 (W) in expression (6.3), find the thermal resistance θHS needed
in the heatsink.
θHS =
TJ – T A
PD
– Rth(J-C) – θC-HS
= 6.1 (°C/W) .................................................................................................................................... (6.4)
<3> Determination of size of heatsink
From expression (6.4), the design objectives can be satisfied using a heatsink of 6.1 (°C/W).
Figure 6-5 shows the relationship between the thickness, surface area, and thermal resistance of an
aluminum board.
By using a 3 mm thick 60 cm2 aluminum board here, it can be seen that the heatsink will have the necessary
thermal resistance.
(Use example without heatsink)
The junction temperature TJ in the used state when not installing a heatsink is the following.
TJ = Rth(J-A) • PD + TA ........................................................................................................................ (6.5)
Rth(J-A): Thermal resistance (junction to ambient air) (free air)
PD:
Power dissipation
TA:
Operating ambient temperature
Setting TJ to 100°C or less in the used state is recommended.
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User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
Precautions when installing in a heatsink
• Make the convexity or concavity of the part installation surface of the heatsink 0.05 mm
or less.
• Spread silicon grease to a uniform thickness between the heatsink and part. Determine
the kind of grease on consulting the maker of the heatsink.
• Painting the heatsink black increases its effectiveness in radiating heat. However, if it is
close to a heat source, it has the reverse effect of absorbing heat.
• Use one of the insulating board bushings shown in Table 6-2.
• Cut a screw in a heatsink and absolutely do not use self-tapping screws to install one.
When installing a heatsink, if the tightening torque of a screw is too great, the fins can be distorted and the IC
damaged. Drive screws using a torque driver that can manage the tightening torque.
Table 6-1. Three-Terminal Regulator Tightening Torque
Markings
Tightening torque (N•m)
TO-126
2.0 × 10− to 4.1 × 10−
TO-220
3.1 × 10− to 5.1 × 10−
MP-45G
3.1 × 10− to 5.1 × 10−
3
3
3
3
3
3
Figure 6-6. Standard Installation Method for Heatsink Insulation
3 M screw
Flat washer
3 M screw
Flat washer
Insulating board
Insulating bushing
Spring washer
3 M nut
Heatsink
Heatsink
Flat washer
Spring washer
3 M nut
MP-45G
TO-220
Table 6-2. Recommended Insulating Bushings and Insulating Board
Code No.
Product Name
Quality of Materials
Material
Color
Insulating bushing
B-24
25K bushing U
Gelanex 3310
Light brown
Insulating board
S-7
MP-25 insulating board A
Polyester
Colorless, transparent
User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
Incombustibility
Grade
UL 94V-0
−
31
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User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
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User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
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User’s Manual G12702EJ8V0UM00
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