proces-rm001 - Literature Library

Reference Manual
PlantPAx Process Automation System
System Release 3.0 (2014 update)
PlantPAx Process Automation System
Important User Information
Read this document and the documents listed in the additional resources section about installation, configuration, and
operation of this equipment before you install, configure, operate, or maintain this product. Users are required to
familiarize themselves with installation and wiring instructions in addition to requirements of all applicable codes, laws,
and standards.
Activities including installation, adjustments, putting into service, use, assembly, disassembly, and maintenance are required
to be carried out by suitably trained personnel in accordance with applicable code of practice.
If this equipment is used in a manner not specified by the manufacturer, the protection provided by the equipment may be
impaired.
In no event will Rockwell Automation, Inc. be responsible or liable for indirect or consequential damages resulting from the
use or application of this equipment.
The examples and diagrams in this manual are included solely for illustrative purposes. Because of the many variables and
requirements associated with any particular installation, Rockwell Automation, Inc. cannot assume responsibility or
liability for actual use based on the examples and diagrams.
No patent liability is assumed by Rockwell Automation, Inc. with respect to use of information, circuits, equipment, or
software described in this manual.
Reproduction of the contents of this manual, in whole or in part, without written permission of Rockwell Automation,
Inc., is prohibited.
Throughout this manual, when necessary, we use notes to make you aware of safety considerations.
WARNING: Identifies information about practices or circumstances that can cause an explosion in a hazardous environment,
which may lead to personal injury or death, property damage, or economic loss.
ATTENTION: Identifies information about practices or circumstances that can lead to personal injury or death, property
damage, or economic loss. Attentions help you identify a hazard, avoid a hazard, and recognize the consequence.
IMPORTANT
Identifies information that is critical for successful application and understanding of the product.
Labels may also be on or inside the equipment to provide specific precautions.
SHOCK HAZARD: Labels may be on or inside the equipment, for example, a drive or motor, to alert people that dangerous
voltage may be present.
BURN HAZARD: Labels may be on or inside the equipment, for example, a drive or motor, to alert people that surfaces may
reach dangerous temperatures.
ARC FLASH HAZARD: Labels may be on or inside the equipment, for example, a motor control center, to alert people to
potential Arc Flash. Arc Flash will cause severe injury or death. Wear proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Follow ALL
Regulatory requirements for safe work practices and for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
Allen-Bradley, CENTERLINE, CompactLogix, ControlFLASH, ControlLogix, Encompass, FactoryTalk, FLEX Ex, FLEX I/O, Integrated Architecture, IntelliCENTER, Logix5000, PanelView, PhaseManager, PlantPAx,
POINT I/O, Rockwell Automation, Rockwell Software, RSLinx, RSLogix, RSNetWorx, RSView, Stratix 5700, Stratix 6000, Stratix 8000, Stratix 8300, and TechConnect are trademarks of Rockwell Automation, Inc.
Cisco is a trademark of Cisco Systems, Inc.
ControlNet, DeviceNet and EtherNet/IP are trademarks of the ODVA.
Intel is a trademark of the Intel Corporation.
Microsoft and Windows are trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation.
Trademarks not belonging to Rockwell Automation are property of their respective companies.
Summary of Changes
This manual revision concentrates on the implementation recommendations that
apply to all PlantPAx™ systems.
Changes throughout this revision are marked by change bars, as shown to the
right of this paragraph.
New and Updated
Information
This table contains some of the changes made to this revision.
Topic
Page
Updates the PlantPAx system rules for current software versions
18, 109
Guidelines for server elements were divided into virtual and traditional categories
19, 21, 22, 23,
23, 25, 26
Focuses on virtual infrastructure and recommendations
65
Lists virtual image templates
68
Adds resource pools for virtual machines with an example of CPU and memory allocation
72
Adds HART isolated analog modules
90
Provides guidelines for adding Motor Control Center devices
95
Adds new chapter for FactoryTalk Historian and FactoryTalk VantagePoint software components
101
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Summary of Changes
Notes:
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
Table of Contents
Preface
Purpose of Reference Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Chapter 1
System Architecture Overview
Architecture Classes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Critical System Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Procurement Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
15
16
16
Chapter 2
System Element Recommendations
PlantPAx Software Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process Automation System Server (PASS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PASS Server Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure the FactoryTalk Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engineering Workstation (EWS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operator Workstation (OWS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operator Workstation Application Server (AppServ-OWS) . . . . . . . . .
Independent Workstation (IndWS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information Application Server (Historian) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information Application Server (VantagePoint) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asset Management Application Server (AppServ-Asset) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Batch Management Application Server (AppServ-Batch) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simplex Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Redundant Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Skid-based Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining I/O Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sizing Control Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
18
19
20
21
22
22
23
23
24
25
26
27
27
28
29
30
31
Chapter 3
System Application
Recommendations
Controller Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Task Configuration and CPU Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Estimating Controller CPU Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tag and Memory Allocation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Intra-Controller Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process Controller I/O Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Add-On Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FactoryTalk View Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Log Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rockwell Automation Library of Process Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Application Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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46
47
50
51
52
53
54
5
Table of Contents
Chapter 4
Alarm System Recommendations
FactoryTalk Alarms and Events Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Library of Process Objects for Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alarm State Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Your Alarm System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
59
60
63
Chapter 5
Infrastructure Recommendations
Virtualization Advantages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtualization Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual PlantPAx Configuration Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resource Pool Allocation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VM Optimization Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Antivirus and Backup Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VMware Converter Best Practices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating System Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Domains and Workgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Domain Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windows Workgroup Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internet Information Server (IIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Server and Workstation Time Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating System Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
66
69
69
69
71
72
74
75
76
78
78
78
79
80
80
81
82
83
Chapter 6
Field Device Integration
Recommendations
6
Device Configuration Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FactoryTalk AssetCentre for Enterprise Solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EtherNet/IP Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EtherNet/IP I/O Communication Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ControlNet Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ControlNet I/O Communication Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DeviceNet Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DeviceNet Communication Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HART Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HART Communication Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Communication Options. . . . . . . . . . . .
PROFIBUS PA Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PROFIBUS PA Communication Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor Control Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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89
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90
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93
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Table of Contents
Chapter 7
Batch Management and Control
Recommendations
FactoryTalk Batch Critical System Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Batch Guidelines for Logix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Using a Redundant System with a FactoryTalk Batch Server . . . . . . . . . 99
Chapter 8
Information Management
Recommendations
FactoryTalk Historian Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tips and Best Practices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Architectural Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FactoryTalk VantagePoint Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tips and Best Practices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
101
102
102
102
102
Chapter 9
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintaining Your System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Microsoft Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Antivirus Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rockwell Automation Software/Firmware Updates . . . . . . . . . . . .
Considerations when Upgrading Software and Firmware . . . . . . .
Monitoring Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check Paging Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Monitoring Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
103
103
104
104
105
105
107
107
108
Appendix A
Software Components
System Element Software Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Glossary
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Index
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
Preface
The PlantPAx® Process Automation System is a modern distributed control
system (DCS). The system is built on a standards-based architecture by using
Integrated Architecture™ components that enable multi-disciplined control
and premier integration with the Rockwell Automation® intelligent motor
control portfolio.
Our scalable platform provides you with the flexibility to implement a system
that is tailored for your application. With the PlantPAx system, we prescribe a
very specific system architecture with defined system elements, each with a
specific responsibility, and detailed specifications.
Figure 1 - PlantPAx System Implementation and Documentation Strategy
START:
Requirements
Define and
Procure
Selection Guide
Build
Virtual Image Templates
Prep
Develop
Specific
Application
Quick Start
Reference Manual
Reference Manual
END:
Completed
System
Library of Process Objects
Library of Logix Diagnostic Objects
Library of Steam Table Instructions
46276
• Define and Procure - Helps you understand the elements of PlantPAx to
make sure that you buy the proper components.
• Build - Provides direction on how to implement the PlantPAx server
architecture to help develop your application.
• Prep - Provides guidance on how to get started and learn the best practices
for developing your application.
• Develop Specific Application - Contains the application-specific libraries
and objects that are used to construct your application that resides on the
PlantPAx architecture.
Purpose of Reference Manual
Whereas the PlantPAx Selection Guide is used to assist with system sizing and
procurement, this reference manual elaborates on the application rules you need
to follow to set up a PlantPAx system. The performance of the PlantPAx system is
dependent upon following the sizing guidelines and application rules that are
defined by these documents and the PlantPAx System Estimator (PSE).
The PlantPAx system does not require the use of the Rockwell Automation
Library of Process Objects or the PlantPAx Virtual Image Templates. Conversely,
if you use the library or the virtual image templates, you cannot achieve PlantPAx
system performance without following the guidelines of the selection guide and
reference manual.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
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Preface
These documents contain additional information concerning related products
from Rockwell Automation.
Additional Resources
Table 1 - Additional Resources
Resource
Description
System Core
PlantPAx System Application Templates Quick Start,
publication PROCES-QS001
Describes how to apply application templates to start development of your PlantPAx Process Automation System.
PlantPAx Hardware Specifications and Certifications,
publication PROCES-SR027
Provides information on PlantPAx system hardware specifications and certifications.
PlantPAx Sequencer Object Reference Manual,
publication PROCES-RM006
Provides a flexible controller-based step sequencing solution that reduces engineering time by automating common
operator procedures.
FactoryTalk View SE Edition User Manual, publication
VIEWSE-UM006
Provides details on how to use this software package for developing and running human-machine interface (HMI)
applications that can involve multiple users and servers, distributed over a network.
FactoryTalk Alarms and Events System Configuration Guide,
publication FTAE-RM001
Provides details on how to install, configure, and use FactoryTalk Alarms and Events services as part of a
FactoryTalk-enabled automation system.
ControlLogix System User Manual,
publication 1756-UM001
Explains how to use traditional and extreme environment ControlLogix® controllers.
ControlLogix Enhanced Redundancy System User Manual,
publication 1756-UM535
Provides information on the installation and configuration for an enhanced redundancy controller system for
greater availability.
Logix5000 Controllers Design Considerations Reference
Manual, publication 1756-RM094
Details how to design and optimize Logix5000™ controller applications.
Logix5000 Controllers Common Procedures Programming
Manual, Publication 1756-PM001
Provides links to a collection of programming manuals that describe how you can use procedures that are common to all
Logix5000 controller projects.
Logix5000 Controllers General Instructions Reference
Manual, publication 1756-RM003
Provides programming controller applications by using relay ladder instructions.
Logix5000 Controllers Advanced Process Control and Drives
Instructions Reference Manual, publication 1756-RM006
Provides details on process control and drives instructions.
Logix 5000 Controllers Execution Time and Memory Use
Reference Manual, publication 1756-RM087
Provides a complete listing of all instruction execution time and memory usage information for Logix5000 controllers in
your RSLogix 5000™ programming software, version 20.00, program.
PlantPAx Logix Batch & Sequence Manager Product Profile,
publication PROCES-PP004
Explains a controller-based batch and sequencing solution that leverages the Logix Control Platform and
FactoryTalk View software for integrated control and visualization.
Rockwell Automation Library of Process Objects,
publication PROCES-RM002
Provides an overview of the code objects, display elements, and faceplates that comprise the Rockwell Automation
Library of Process Objects.
Rockwell Automation Library of Logix Diagnostic Objects,
publication PROCES-RM003
Provides Add-On Instructions for monitoring and diagnostic information of Logix controllers.
Rockwell Automation Library of Steam Table Instructions,
publication PROCES-RM004
Provides Add-On Instructions for calculating temperature and pressure steam tables.
FactoryTalk View SE Installation Guide,
publication VIEWSE-IN003
Contains procedures for installing FactoryTalk View SE software.
Infrastructure
PlantPAx Process Automation System Selection Guide,
publication PROCES-SG001
Provides basic definitions of system elements and sizing guidelines for procuring a PlantPAx system.
Virtual Image Templates User Manual,
publication 9528-UM001
Describes how to use the PlantPAx virtual image templates for setting up virtual machines.
Ethernet Design Considerations Reference Manual,
publication ENET-RM002
Explains the infrastructure components that allow this open network to communicate seamlessly throughout a plant,
from shop floor to top floor.
Converged Plantwide Ethernet (CPwE) Design and
Implementation Guide, publication ENET-TD001
Provides collaborative design guidelines that are based on the Cisco Ethernet-to-the-Factory solution and the Rockwell
Automation Integration Architecture solution.
Troubleshoot EtherNet/IP Networks,
publication ENET-AT003
Provides guidelines for troubleshooting an EtherNet/IP network, such as setting speed and duplex.
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
Preface
Table 1 - Additional Resources
Resource
Description
Application Note: Segmentation Methods within the
Cell/Area Zone, publication ENET-AT004
Provides design considerations of network segmentation methodologies for the ControlLogix and
CompactLogix™ 5370 controllers.
Stratix/Infrastructure Product Family Quick Reference
Drawing, publication IASIMP-QR029
Illustration that shows options for connecting your plant network by using standard Ethernet technology.
Stratix 8000 and 8300 Ethernet Managed Switches
Software User Manual, publication 1783-UM003
Describes the embedded software features and tools for configuring and managing the Stratix 8000™ and
Stratix 8300™ Ethernet managed switches.
Stratix 6000 Ethernet Managed Switch User Manual,
publication 1783-UM001
The respective user manuals describe the embedded software features and tools for configuring and managing the
Stratix 6000™ and Stratix 5700™ Ethernet managed switches.
Stratix 5700 Ethernet Managed Switches User Manual,
publication 1783-UM004
ControlNet Coax Media Planning and Installation Guide,
publication CNET-IN002
Provides procedures for planning, installing, and implementing a ControlNet network.
ControlNet Fiber Media Planning and Installation Guide,
publication CNET-IN001
ControlNet Modules in Logix5000 Control Systems User
Manual, publication CNET-UM001
Product Compatibility and Download Center at
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/
rockwellautomation/support/pcdc.page
Website helps you find product-related downloads including firmware, release notes, associated software, drivers, tools
and utilities.
Field Device Integration
FactoryTalk AssetCentre Installation Guide,
publication FTAC-IN004
Provides installation instructions for monitoring your factory automation system.
FactoryTalk AssetCentre Product Profile,
publication FTALK-PP001
Explains this tool for securing, managing, versioning, tracking, and reporting automation-related asset information
across your entire enterprise.
1756 ControlLogix Communication Modules Specifications
Technical Data, publication 1756-TD003
Contains specifications for the ControlLogix network communication modules.
Ethernet Design Considerations Reference Manual,
publication ENET-RM002
Explains the infrastructure and components for the EtherNet/IP protocol, a control and information platform for
industrial environments and time-critical applications.
EtherNet/IP Modules in Logix5000 Control Systems User
Manual, publication ENET-UM001
Explains Logix5000 tools that are used in EtherNet/IP topologies and network operation.
EtherNet/IP and ControlNet to FOUNDATION Fieldbus
Linking Device, publication 1788-UM057
Describes the installation and operation of the 1788-EN2FFR and 1788-CN2FFR linking devices.
Converged Plantwide Ethernet (CPwE) Design and
Implementation Guide, publication ENET-TD001
Provides collaborative design guidelines that are based on the Cisco Ethernet-to-the-Factory solution and the Rockwell
Automation Integration Architecture solution.
1788-EN2PAR User Manual, publication 1788-UM056
Describes the installation and operation of the 1788-EN2PAR linking device.
1788-CN2PAR User Manual, publication 1788-UM055
Describes the installation and operation of the 1788-CN2PAR linking device.
ControlLogix HART Analog I/O Modules User Manual,
publication 1756-UM533
Contains information on how to install, configure, and troubleshoot ControlLogix HART
analog I/O modules.
Promass 83 Flowmeter via PROFIBUS PA to the PlantPAx
Process Automation System, publication PROCES-AP022
Provides procedures for the design and implementation of PROFIBUS PA equipment.
DeviceNet System Quick Reference,
publication DNET-QR001
Provides procedures for configuring applications on the DeviceNet network.
CENTERLINE Motor Control Centers with EtherNet/IP,
publication 2100-TD031
Describes cable system construction and components associated with an EtherNet/IP network that is factory installed in
CENTERLINE® 2100 and CENTERLINE 2500 and IntelliCENTER® motor control centers (MCCs).
CENTERLINE 2500 Motor Control Centers with EtherNet/IP
Network, publication 2500-TD003
E+H Instruments via HART to PlantPAx User Manual,
publication PROCES-UM002
Provides a step-by-step approach to integrating HART devices from Endress+Hauser into the PlantPAx system.
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Preface
Table 1 - Additional Resources
Resource
Description
Batch
PhaseManager User Manual, publication LOGIX-UM001
Explains how to define a state model for your equipment and develop equipment phases.
FactoryTalk Batch Installation Guide,
publication BATCH-IN011
Provides information and procedures for installing FactoryTalk Batch software.
FactoryTalk Batch User's Guide, publication BATCH-UM011
Provides a complement of FactoryTalk recipe management, component guidelines, and software installation
procedures.
Process Safety
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/products/
certification
Complete list of ControlLogix products that are certified for SIL 1 and SIL 2 applications
Using ControlLogix in SIL2 Applications Safety Reference
Manual, publication 1756-RM001
ControlLogix components supported in SIL 2 configurations
AADvance Solutions Handbook, publication ICSTT-RM447
Explains the features, performance, and functionality of the AADvance controller and systems. It sets out some
guidelines on how to specify a system to meet your application requirements.
AADvance System Build Manual, publication ICSTT-RM448
Provides experienced panel builders with information on how to assemble a system, switch on and validate the
operation of a controller.
AADvance Configuration Guide, publication ICSTT-RM405
Defines how to configure an AADvance controller by using the AADvance Workbench to meet your Safety Instrument
Function (SIF) application requirements.
AADvance Safety Manual, publication ICSTT-RM446
Defines mandatory standards and makes recommendations to safely apply AADvance controllers for a SIF application.
Explains how to use tradition al and extreme environment ControlLogix controllers.
AADvance Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, publication
ICSTT-RM406
Provides plant maintenance personnel with information on how to trace and repair a fault in an AADvance system and
perform routine maintenance tasks.
You can view or download publications at
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/literature. To order paper copies of
technical documentation, contact your local Allen-Bradley distributor or
Rockwell Automation sales representative.
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
Chapter
1
System Architecture Overview
The PlantPAx system uses a combination of standard Rockwell Automation
Integrated Architecture (IA) products that are configured in a prescribed way for
optimal performance as a process automation system. This section describes the
system elements and architectures that you can use to configure a
PlantPAx system.
The following table describes where to find specific information.
Topic
Page
Architecture Classes
14
System Elements
15
Critical System Attributes
16
System Procurement Tools
16
Rockwell Automation characterizes a process automation system based on its size
or architecture class. A ‘characterized’ (system tested) classification yields system
performance data and recommended hardware and software configurations.
This section describes how the classes of PlantPAx architecture offer
system scalability while organizing IA products to provide the performance and
functionality expected from a Distributed Control System (DCS).
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
13
Chapter 1
System Architecture Overview
The architecture classes that are shown in the illustration are described as
the following:
• System architecture with single station acting as a process automation
system server (PASS), operator workstation (OWS), and engineering
workstation (EWS)
• Distributed system architecture for single server with multiple OWS
and EWS
• Distributed system architecture for multiple servers and multiple OWS
and EWS
Distributed Architecture- Multiple PASS Servers
Distributed Architecture- Single PASS Server
Station Architecture
EtherNet/IP™
Logix5575
EtherNet/IP™
Logix5575
RUN FORCE SD
OK
RUN FORCE SD
OK
EtherNet/IP™
Logix5575
RUN FORCE SD
OK
OK
EtherNet/IP™
Logix5575
RUN FORCE SD
RUN FORCE SD
OK
EtherNet/IP™
Logix5575
EtherNet/IP™
Logix5575
OK
EtherNet/IP™
Logix5575
RUN FORCE SD
RUN FORCE SD
OK
EtherNet/IP™
Logix5575
RUN FORCE SD
OK
Architecture Classes
Architecture classes define referenced architecture based on the size of the
required system.
Architecture
Description
Station
A single station acting as a PASS, OWS, and EWS.
Distributed - Single PASS Server
This architecture has a single PASS server and supports multiple OWS s and EWSs.
Distributed - Multiple PASS Servers
This architecture has multiple PASS servers and supports multiple OWSs and EWSs. You can add PASS servers for more capacity or
to segregate servers by operating areas.
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
System Architecture Overview
Chapter 1
The diagram shows an example of PlantPAx system architecture by using the
EtherNet/IP network. This example is a distributed architecture with one or
more PASS servers.
EWS
Domain
Controller
PASS
Application Servers
Multiple OWS
Device-level Ring Topology
System elements are specific IA products grouped to provide process
system functionality.
System Elements
Table 2 - Architecture System Elements
System Element
Station
Distributed Class (single or multiple PASS)
PASS
Single computer serves as PASS, EWS, and OWS in an independent
workstation
One PASS required and includes the following:
• FactoryTalk Directory server
• HMI server
• Data server
• Alarms and Events Server
Additional PASS as needed (up to 10 servers or redundant server pairs)
EWS
Included in independent workstation
• 1 EWS required
• Can have as many as 5 EWS
OWS(1)
Included in independent workstation
Up to 10 remote clients per PASS; up to 50 for system
Process controller(1)
1...5 ControlLogix controllers
1...8 ControlLogix controllers per PASS (data server)
Application servers
AppServ-Asset Management as needed
AppServ-Batch as needed
AppServ-Information Management (Historian or Reporting) as needed
AppServ-Asset Management as needed
AppServ-Batch as needed
AppServ-Information Management (Historian or Reporting) as needed
AppServ-OWS as needed
(1) The actual number of OWS/controllers supported can vary based on controller selection, OWS configuration, and overall system loading. Use the PlantPAx System Estimator (PSE) to
verify your system design. The PSE lets you verify your application beyond these basic guidelines.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
15
Chapter 1
System Architecture Overview
Critical System Attributes
A critical system attribute (CSA) is a visible performance indicator of a
system-wide characteristic. CSAs are used to define or identify specified levels of
system operation. CSAs are evaluated on a pass/fail basis.
Critical system attributes do the following:
• Determine system limits
• Establish system rules
• Establish system recommendations
• Measure system element and system infrastructure performance
The following critical system attributes were used to verify performance during
process system characterization.
Table 3 - CSA Performance Indicators
Critical System Attribute
Performance
Display callup (paint time)
A noncached display is called up by the operator and ready for operator use within 2 seconds.
Display update
The display updates control information within 1 second.
Steady state alarm time
Steady state alarms occurring at 20 per second are timestamped within 1 second.
Alarm burst time
All alarms in a burst of 1000 alarms are timestamped within 3 seconds.
Recovery
A system element returns to full operation within 5 minutes of the restoration after a failure or loss.
Operator-initiated control
Operator-initiated actions are loaded into the controller and the feedback for the operator action is within 2 seconds.
Batch server: operator action time
An operator batch command has been acted on by the controller in 1 second.
Batch server: server action time
A server batch command has been acted on by the controller in 1 second.
Batch server: controller action time
Batch status events display on the operator workstation within 1 second.
System Procurement Tools
The following chapters of this manual contain recommendations and
considerations for implementing your system. If you have not selected or
procured your PlantPAx system architecture and components, see the
PlantPAx Selection Guide, publication PROCES-SG001, for more information.
The PlantPAx System Estimator (PSE), which is a part of the Integrated
Architecture Builder (IAB) software tool, helps you define a PlantPAx system.
The PSE wizard lets you specify your system architecture based on your
requirements, and verifies that your process control hardware is sized properly.
When the verification is complete, you can transfer the output of the PSE wizard
into the IAB tool to develop a bill-of-material for the system based on
your inputs.
See http://www.rockwellautomation.com/en/e-tools/configuration.html to
access the IAB tool.
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
Chapter
2
System Element Recommendations
PlantPAx system elements refer to the individual servers, clients, and controllers
that comprise a PlantPAx system. These building blocks are the foundation of
your system architecture.
The following table describes where to find specific information.
Topic
Page
PlantPAx Software Components
18
Process Automation System Server (PASS)
18
Engineering Workstation (EWS)
21
Operator Workstation (OWS) and Application Server (AppServ-OWS)
22
Independent Workstation (IndWS)
23
Information Application Server (Historian)
23
Information Application Server (VantagePoint)
24
Asset Management Application Server (AppServ-Asset)
25
Batch Management Application Server (AppServ-Batch)
26
Process Controller
27
Process Controller
27
Plant Asset
Management
Plant Ethernet
Batch
Management
Process
Information
Engineering
Workstation
Process Control
EtherNet/IP
Operator Workstations
Process
Controllers
Variable Speed Drives
EtherNet/IP™
Logix5575
EtherNet/IP™
Logix5575
RUN FORCE SD
I/O Network
EtherNet/IP
EtherNet/IP™
RUN FORCE SD
Process Automation
System Servers
Motor Control Centers
EtherNet/IP™
OK
OK
Local, Distributed, and Intelligent I/O
Module
Status
Module
Status
NODE:
NODE:
Module
Status
Module
Status
Module
Status
NODE:
NODE:
Network
Status
Network
Status
Network
Status
NODE:
NODE:
Module
Status
Module
Status
Module
Status
Network
Status
Network
Status
Network
Status
Network
Status
DeviceNet
Status
NODE:
DeviceBus
Status
Relay
Output
1734-ADNX
0
120 VAC
Input
4
1
2
3
1734
OW4
1
2
7
3
0
1
2
3
3
1734
IM4
24VDC
Source
Output
4
1
2
1734
IA4
24VDC
Sink
Input
220 VAC
Input
0
0
5
6
1734
IB8
0
5
1
6
2
7
3
120V
220 VAC
Output
4
1734
OB8E
1
2
7
3
220VAC
Input
0
0
5
6
1
2
3
1734
OA4
1734
IM4
Valves and
Instrumentation
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
17
Chapter 2
System Element Recommendations
Integrated Architecture software components and versions that comprise the
PlantPAx system release 3.0, include the following:
• RSLogix™ 5000 software, version 20.x
• FactoryTalk View software, version 8.0
• FactoryTalk Batch software, version 12.00
• FactoryTalk AssetCentre software, version 5.0 or later
• FactoryTalk VantagePoint software, version 5.0 or later
• FactoryTalk Historian software, version 4.0 or later
PlantPAx Software
Components
Performance guidelines are based on the use of the software versions listed above.
See Appendix A on page 109 for more software information.
For the latest compatible software information and to download associated
library tools, see the Product Compatibility and Download Center at http://
www.rockwellautomation.com/rockwellautomation/support/pcdc.page.
Process Automation System
Server (PASS)
The PASS server is a required system element that hosts these essential software
components to run the system.
Software Components
Description
FactoryTalk Network Directory (FTD) server(1)
Secures information from multiple Rockwell Automation software components across multiple computers and
provides central administration throughout the PlantPAx system. In this way, application components, such as display
and security settings, can be stored in their original environments and made available to the entire PlantPAx system
without the need for duplication.
See Configure the FactoryTalk Directory on page 20 for more information.
FactoryTalk Activation server(1)
The FactoryTalk Activation server is part of the FactoryTalk Services Platform. The server enables FactoryTalk-enabled
software products to be activated via files generated by Rockwell Automation over the internet. This server essentially
manages the files required to license Rockwell Automation products on the PlantPAx system.
FactoryTalk View HMI server
The human-machine interface (HMI) server is configured within your FactoryTalk View Site Edition (SE) application. The
HMI server stores HMI project components, such as graphic displays, and serves these components to OWSs upon
request. The HMI server also can manage tag databases and log historical data. Multiple HMI servers can exist on the
PlantPAx system.
FactoryTalk View Data server
The Data server component provides access to information from the process controllers to servers and workstations on
the PlantPAx system. FactoryTalk View software supports two types of data servers: Rockwell Automation Device
servers (RSLinx® Enterprise software) and OPC Data servers. The Data server mentioned in PlantPAx documentation
generally refers to the Rockwell Automation Device servers. Data servers are configured within your FactoryTalk View
SE application. Multiple data servers can exist on the PlantPAx system.
FactoryTalk View Alarms and Events server
The Alarms and Events server publishes information from controllers and servers available to all subscribing OWSs.
Alarms and Events servers are configured within your FactoryTalk View SE application. There are two types of Alarms
and Events servers: device-based and server-based. Device-based Alarms and Events servers are configured as an
option to the data server. Server-based Alarms and Events servers are configured as a separate component.
The Alarms and Events server mentioned in PlantPAx documentation refers to the Alarms and Events server that is
server-based. See Alarm System Recommendations on page 55 for more information.
Optional
FactoryTalk Batch client software
If a Batch Application server is being used on the system, FactoryTalk Batch client components are required to support
replication of batch-related objects on the displays to the OWS.
(1) In redundant PASS configurations, this component is included on the primary PASS only. See PASS Server Redundancy on page 19 for more information.
The PASS can be utilized as a data, HMI, and/or alarm server. You need to
determine how many PASS servers are needed for your architecture. See
the PlantPAx Process Automation System Selection Guide,
publication PROCES-SG001.
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System Element Recommendations
Chapter 2
PASS Server Redundancy
PASS servers can be configured as redundant for the following software
components:
• HMI server
• Data server
• Alarm server
IMPORTANT
When enabling redundancy in FactoryTalk View Studio software, select the
option to ‘Continue using the secondary server even when the primary server
becomes available again’ to avoid excessive switchovers and to be able to
manage replication of application changes made before or after the
switchover occurs. We recommend that you configure your HMI displays to
indicate when the system is running without backup.
The FactoryTalk Directory server does not require redundancy to maintain
availability of the system if the FTD server fails. The FTD information is cached
on each computer that is participating in a distributed application. If the FTD
server computer is disconnected from the network or fails, the OWS, EWS, and
other application servers can continue to access everything within the application
as long as the computer had previously accessed the FTD server.
Table 4.1 - PASS Virtual Requirements
Attribute
Product(1)
Virtual infrastructure
Required:
• 2 vCPU
• 4 GB vRAM min
Recommended CPU and memory allocation:
• High priority Resource pool(2)
Recommended hard drive sizing averages:(3)
• 40 input/output operations per second (IOPS)
• 35 reads/sec
• 5 writes/sec
Operating system
Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit (includes Microsoft Internet IIS with WWW service)
(1) All numbers and figures are referenced for initial sizing only. Actual performance can vary in final implementation.
(2) See Resource Pool Allocation on page 72.
(3) Check with your drive manufacturer for specifics. Manufacturers provide drives with varying amount of capacity at each speed.
Table 4.2 - PASS Traditional Requirements
Attribute
Product
Traditional infrastructure
The PASS must be installed on server-class hardware. The following are sample specifications based on PlantPAx
system characterization:
• Intel Xeon Multicore processor (4 cores or greater)
• 2.40 GHz CPU
• 4 GB RAM min
• Dual hard drives (one for application code; one for logging if data logging is used or for historian data collection
buffering if historian is used)
• Ethernet card that supports redundant media if NIC-teaming is used (If you plan to use a motherboard-NIC make sure
it supports redundant media)
Operating system
Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit (includes Microsoft Internet IIS with WWW service)
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
19
Chapter 2
System Element Recommendations
Configure the FactoryTalk Directory
Before starting a project, you must install FactoryTalk Directory (FTD) services
on the workstation hosting the FTD or the PASS. The FTD server manages
applications that can exist on multiple clients and servers on separate computers
on the PlantPAx system.
IMPORTANT
It is required to have a username and password with administrator
privileges to install FactoryTalk software and to specify a FTD location.
Use the same username and password for all FactoryTalk installations on the
PlantPAx system.
After Rockwell Automation software components are installed, you need to
specify the FTD location on all servers and workstations. Specify the location
as follows:
• Workstation hosting the FTD or localhost on the PASS
– We recommend the FTD be on its own independent station
• Name of the FTD workstation or server on each remaining PASS, OWS,
EWS, and so forth
Do these configuration steps.
1. On each server and workstation hosting a PASS, Application Server, EWS,
or OWS, choose Start>Programs>Rockwell Software>
FactoryTalk Tools>Specify FactoryTalk Directory Location.
The FactoryTalk Directory Server Location Utility appears.
2. In the Computer hosting directory server (connected) box, do
the following:
a. Type localhost if you are configuring the PASS server.
b. Click Browse and select the workstation or server name if
configuring an EWS, OWS, additional PASS server, and so forth.
c. Click OK.
d. Restart the server or workstation after making a change.
See the PlantPAx System Application Template Quick Start,
publication PROCES-QS001, for more information on setting up servers
and workstations on the FactoryTalk Directory.
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
System Element Recommendations
Chapter 2
The EWS supports system configuration, application development, and
maintenance functions. This is the central location for monitoring and
maintaining the system operation.
Engineering Workstation
(EWS)
If a batch application server is used, the FactoryTalk Batch client and editor
components are required to configure the FactoryTalk Batch system and set up
the FactoryTalk objects on the displays.
Table 5.1 - EWS Virtual Requirements
Attribute
Product(1)
Virtual infrastructure
Required:
• 2 vCPU
• 4 GB vRAM min
Recommended CPU and memory allocation:
• Normal priority Resource pool(2)
Recommended hard drive sizing averages:(3)
• 30 input/output operations per second (IOPS)
• 24 reads/sec
• 6 writes/sec
Operating system
Windows 7 Professional SP1 operating system, 64 bit
(1) All numbers and figures are referenced for initial sizing only. Actual performance can vary in final implementation.
(2) See Resource Pool Allocation on page 72
(3) Check with your drive manufacturer for specifics. Manufacturers provide drives with varying amount of capacity at each speed.
Table 5.2 - EWS Traditional Requirements
Attribute
Product
Traditional infrastructure
The EWS must be installed on workstation-class hardware. The following are sample specifications based on PlantPAx
system characterization.
• Intel Core 2 Duo
• 2.40 GHz CPU
• 4 GB RAM min
• Ethernet card that supports redundant media if NIC-teaming is used (If you plan to use a motherboard-NIC make
sure it supports redundant media)
Operating system
Windows 7 Professional SP1 operating system, 64 bit
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
21
Chapter 2
System Element Recommendations
Operator Workstation (OWS)
The OWS provides a graphical interface for the operator; it’s not meant to
support development or maintenance activities.
FactoryTalk View Site Edition (SE) client software must be installed on the
OWS. The OWS also can contain clients for non-core application servers, such
as FactoryTalk Batch, FactoryTalk Historian, or FactoryTalk AssetCentre.
Table 6.1 - OWS Virtual Requirements
Attribute
Product(1)
Virtual infrastructure
Required:
• 1 vCPU
• 2 GB vRAM min
Recommended CPU and memory allocation:
• Normal priority Resource pool(2)
Recommended hard drive sizing averages:(3)
• 15 input/output operations per second (IOPS)
• 10 reads/sec
• 5 writes/sec
Operating system
Windows 7 Professional SP1 operating system, 64-bit
(1) All numbers and figures are referenced for initial sizing only. Actual performance can vary in final implementation.
(2) See Resource Pool Allocation on page 72
(3) Check with your drive manufacturer for specifics. Manufacturers provide drives with varying amount of capacity at each speed.
Table 6.2 - OWS Traditional Requirements
Attribute
Product
Traditional infrastructure
The OWS must be installed on workstation-class hardware. The following are sample specifications based on PlantPAx
system characterization:
• Intel Core 2 Duo
• 2.40 GHz CPU
• 2 GB RAM min
• Ethernet card that supports redundant media if NIC-teaming is used (If you plan to use a motherboard-NIC make
sure it supports redundant media)
Operating system
Windows 7 Professional SP1 operating system, 64-bit
The AppServ-OWS uses Microsoft Remote Desktop Services (RDS) technology
to serve multiple instances of the OWS as thin clients from a single-server. Thin
clients can run applications and process data on a remote computer. The
AppServ-OWS is only configured to run FactoryTalk View SE clients and the
recommended limit is 10 clients per application server
Operator Workstation
Application Server
(AppServ-OWS)
Table 7 - AppServ-OWS Virtual Requirements
Attribute
Product(1)
Virtual infrastructure
Required:
• 4 vCPU
• 8 GB vRAM min
Recommended CPU and memory allocation:
• Normal priority Resource pool(2)
Recommended hard drive sizing averages:(3)
• 40 input/output operations per second (IOPS)
• 25 reads/sec
• 5 writes/sec
Operating system
Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit
(1) All numbers and figures are referenced for initial sizing only. Actual performance can vary in final implementation.
(2) See Resource Pool Allocation on page 72
(3) Check with your drive manufacturer for specifics. Manufacturers provide drives with varying amount of capacity at each speed.
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
System Element Recommendations
Independent Workstation
(IndWS)
Chapter 2
The IndWS combines the roles of the PASS, EWS, and OWS in one computer.
Table 8 - IndWS Traditional Requirements
Attribute
Product
Traditional infrastructure
The IndWS must be installed on workstation-class hardware.The following are sample specifications based on PlantPAx
system characterization:
• Intel Core 2 Duo
• 2.40 GHz CPU
• 8 GB RAM
• Ethernet card that supports redundant media if NIC-teaming is used (If you plan to use a motherboard-NIC make
sure it supports redundant media)
Operating system
Windows 7 Professional SP1 operating system, 64-bit
Information Application
Server (Historian)
The Information Management server can include a historian application to
collect, manage, and analyze data. A base installation of a FactoryTalk Historian
server is available via a virtual image template. For more information, see the
Virtual Image Templates User Manual, publication 9528-UM001.
Table 9.1 - AppServ-Info (Historian) Virtual Requirements
Attribute
Product(1)
Virtual infrastructure
Required:
• 2 vCPU
• 4 GB vRAM min
Recommended CPU and memory allocation:
• High priority Resource pool(2)
Recommended hard drive sizing averages:(3)
• 100 input/output operations per second (IOPS)
• 20 reads/sec
• 80 writes/sec
Operating system
Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit (includes Microsoft Internet IIS with WWW service)
(1) All numbers and figures are referenced for initial sizing only. Actual performance can vary in final implementation.
(2) See Resource Pool Allocation on page 72
(3) Check with your drive manufacturer for specifics. Manufacturers provide drives with varying amount of capacity at each speed.
Table 9.2 - AppServ-Info (Historian) Traditional Requirements
Attribute
Product
Traditional infrastructure
The Information Management server must be installed on server-class hardware:
• Intel Xeon Multicore processor (4 cores or greater)
• 2.40 GHz CPU
• 4 GB RAM min
• Dual hard drives (one for application code; one for logging)
• Ethernet card that supports redundant media if NIC-teaming is used (If you plan to use a motherboard-NIC make
sure it supports redundant media)
Operating system
Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit (includes Microsoft Internet IIS with WWW service)
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
23
Chapter 2
System Element Recommendations
Information Application
Server (VantagePoint)
The Information Management server can be used as a decision support tool by
installing VantagePoint software.
Table 10.1 - AppServ-Info (VantagePoint) Virtual Requirements
Attribute
Product(1)
Virtual infrastructure
Required:
• 2 vCPU
• 4 GB vRAM min
Recommended CPU and memory allocation:
• Normal priority Resource pool(2)
Recommended hard drive sizing averages:(3)
• 100 input/output operations per second (IOPS)
• 20 reads/sec
• 80 writes/sec
Operating system
Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit (includes Microsoft Internet IIS with WWW service)
(1) All numbers and figures are referenced for initial sizing only. Actual performance can vary in final implementation.
(2) See Resource Pool Allocation on page 72.
(3) Check with your drive manufacturer for specifics. Manufacturers provide drives with varying amount of capacity at each speed.
Table 10.2 - AppServ-Info (VantagePoint) Traditional Requirements
Attribute
Product
Traditional infrastructure(1)
The Information Management server must be installed on server-class hardware:
• Intel Xeon Multicore processor (4 cores or greater)
• 2.40 GHz CPU
• 4 GB RAM min
• Ethernet card that supports redundant media if NIC-teaming is used (If you plan to use a motherboard-NIC make
sure it supports redundant media)
Operating system
Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit (includes Microsoft Internet IIS with WWW service)
(1) A Microsoft Excel software license is required.
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
System Element Recommendations
Chapter 2
An asset management server (AppServ-Asset) is an extension to the PlantPAx
system that adds maintenance and plant operations to the system. This server
provides disaster recovery controller data, diagnostics, calibration, real-time
monitoring, as well as auditing equipment and network health to improve overall
resource availability.
Asset Management
Application Server
(AppServ-Asset)
Table 11.1 - AppServ-Asset Virtual Requirements
Attribute
Product(1)
Virtual infrastructure
Required:
• 2 vCPU
• 4 GB vRAM min
Recommended CPU and memory allocation:
• Normal priority Resource pool(2)
Recommended hard drive sizing averages:(3)
• 100 input/output operations per second (IOPS)
• 20 reads/sec
• 80 writes/sec
Operating system
Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit (includes Microsoft Internet IIS with WWW service)
(1) All numbers and figures are referenced for initial sizing only. Actual performance can vary in final implementation.
(2) See Resource Pool Allocation on page 72
(3) Check with your drive manufacturer for specifics. Manufacturers provide drives with varying amount of capacity at each speed.
Table 11.2 - AppServ-Asset Traditional Requirements
Attribute
Product
Traditional infrastructure
The Information Management server must be installed on server-class hardware:
• Intel Xeon Multicore processor (4 cores or greater)
• 2.40 GHz CPU
• 4 GB RAM min
• Dual hard drives (one for application code; one for logging)
• Ethernet card that supports redundant media if NIC-teaming is used (If you plan to use a motherboard-NIC make
sure it supports redundant media)
Operating system
Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit (includes Microsoft Internet IIS with WWW service)
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
25
Chapter 2
System Element Recommendations
The batch management server (AppServ-Batch) offers comprehensive batch
management, including recipe management, procedural control of automated
and manual processes, and material management. System size varies from small to
large and system requirements vary from simple to complex.
Batch Management
Application Server
(AppServ-Batch)
Table 12.1 - AppServ-Batch Virtual Requirements
Attribute
Product(1)
Virtual infrastructure
Required:
• 2 vCPU
• 4 GB vRAM min
Recommended CPU and memory allocation:
• Normal priority Resource pool(2)
Recommended hard drive sizing averages:(3)
• 100 input/output operations per second (IOPS)
• 20 reads/sec
• 80 writes/sec
Operating system
Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit (includes Microsoft Internet IIS with WWW service)
(1) All numbers and figures are referenced for initial sizing only. Actual performance can vary in final implementation.
(2) See Resource Pool Allocation on page 72
(3) Check with your drive manufacturer for specifics. Manufacturers provide drives with varying amount of capacity at each speed.
Table 12.2 - AppServ-Batch Traditional Requirements
Attribute
Product
Traditional infrastructure
The Information Management server must be installed on server-class hardware:
• Intel Xeon Multicore processor (4 cores or greater)
• 2.40 GHz CPU
• 4 GB RAM min
• Dual hard drives (one for application code; one for logging)
• Ethernet card that supports redundant media if NIC-teaming is used (If you plan to use a motherboard-NIC make
sure it supports redundant media)
Operating system
Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit (includes Microsoft Internet IIS with WWW service)
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This section describes the components and sizing attributes for simplex,
skid-based, and redundant controllers.
Process Controller
Simplex Controller
Non-redundant controllers are referred to as simplex controllers.
Table 13 - Simplex Controller Hardware Requirements
Category
Cat. No.
(1) (2)
Process controller
ControlLogix 1756-L71, 1756-L72, 1756-L73, or 1756-L74, or 1756-L75 controller
EtherNet/IP interface
• 1756-EN2TR, 1783-ETAP, 1783-ETAP1F, 1783-ETAP2F (supports device-level ring topology)
• 1756-EN2T, 1756-ENBT, 1756-EWEB, 1756-EN2F
• 1756-EN2TSC for supported secure connections
ControlNet interface (if applicable)
• 1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R
• 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR
(1) If environmental conditions warrant, you can use an extreme temperature controller, for example, the 1756-L74XT.
(2) For a PlantPAx system, we recommend that you use the 1756-L7x controller family. The 1756-L6x controller family is supported for existing applications. Use the PSE if sizing information is required.
Table 14 - Simplex ControlLogix Controller Sizing
Category(1)
1756-L71
1756-L72
1756-L73
1756-L74
1756-L75(2)
User memory
2 MB
4 MB
8 MB
16 MB
32 MB
Total I/O recommended, max
375
750
1500
2250
2250
Total tags, max
15,625
31,250
62,500
112,500
112,500
Recommended control strategies, max(3)
60
125
250
450
450
Total control strategies @ 250 ms, max
60
125
250
250
250
Total control strategies @ 500 ms, max
60
125
250
450
450
Tags/sec delivered to data server, max
10,000
20,000
20,000
20,000
20,000
(1) These values are recommended maximum limits. It’s possible that achieving all of these values in a single controller is not doable. For more detailed sizing, you can use the PSE (see page 16).
(2) The advantages to using the 1756-L75 controller is to maintain common spare parts with redundant systems or if you are doing some memory intensive storage not accounted for in the sizing model.
(3) Recommended maximum control strategies are based on all controller strategies being simple regulatory control. See Process Controller I/O Considerations on page 47.
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Redundant Controllers
ControlLogix controllers support redundancy on ControlNet and EtherNet/IP
networks. In a redundant controller system on PlantPAx, you need these components:
• Two 1756 chassis each set up the same with the following:
– Number of slots
– Modules in the same slots
– Redundancy firmware revisions in each module
– Two additional ControlNet or Ethernet nodes outside the redundant
chassis pair
• One 1756-RM2 module per chassis
Table 15 - Redundant Controller Hardware Requirements
Category
Cat. No.
Process controller(1)
ControlLogix 1756-L73, 1756-L74, or 1756-L75 controller
Redundancy module
1756-RM2(2)
Ethernet interface
• 1756-EN2TR, 1783-ETAP, 1783-ETAP1F, 1783-ETAP2F (DLR support)
• 1756-EN2T, 1756-ENBT, 1756-EWEB, 1756-EN2F (no DLR support)
ControlNet interface (if applicable)
• 1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R
• 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR
(1) If environmental conditions warrant, you can use an extreme temperature controller, for example, the 1756-L74XT.
(2) The PlantPAx system recommendation is to use only one redundant controller in a chassis with a 1756-RM2 redundancy module. While a 1756-RM2 module can support two controllers, the resulting
performance of each controller is not easily predicted.
Make sure each controller in the redundancy chassis has enough memory to store
twice the amount of controller data and I/O memory to support program
modifications. The increased memory usage in a redundant controller provides
for a bumpless transfer during a switchover to make sure the secondary Logix
controller has the same values in its output image as the primary Logix controller.
This prevents a switchover to a secondary controller with a mixture of old and
new data memory.
When using the PlantPAx System Estimator, the PSE accounts for additional
memory requirements required for redundancy as memory used.
Table 16 - Redundant ControlLogix Controller Sizing
Category(1)
1756-L73
1756-L74
1756-L75
User memory
8 MB
16 MB
32 MB
Total I/O recommended, max
750
1500
2250
Total tags, max
31,250
62,500
112, 500
Recommended control strategies, max(2)
125
250
450
Total control strategies @ 250 ms, max
120
120
120
Total control strategies @ 500 ms, max
125
220
220
Tags/sec delivered to data server, max
20,000
20,000
20,000
(1) These values are recommended maximum limits. It’s possible that achieving all of these values in a single controller is not doable. For more detailed sizing, you can use the PSE (see page 16).
(2) Recommended maximum control strategies are based on all controller strategies being simple regulatory control. See Process Controller I/O Considerations on page 47.
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Skid-based Controller
The PlantPAx process automation system is a complete, scalable system, from
single controller to a fully distributed set of equipment. You can easily integrate
skid-based equipment into the overall system.
The CompactLogix controller platform offers a solution for skid-based
equipment to be part of the overall PlantPAx system if the application requires
the following:
• Control of multiple loops for temperature, pressure, flow, or level
• Operating as a sub-system with sequencing and automation
• Controlled as part of the overall process, accepting reference inputs, and
delivering process variables to a supervisory controller
IMPORTANT
Be aware of memory usage within the CompactLogix family when
using Library objects. See the PlantPax System Application Templates
Quick Start, PROCES-QS001, for guidance of how to configure
CompactLogix controllers with the Library of Process Objects.
.
Table 17 - Skid-based Controller Sizing
Category(1)
CompactLogix 1769-L24ER - QBFC1B
CompactLogix 1769-L33ER
User memory
0.75 MB
2.0 MB
Total I/O recommended, max
80
250
Total tags, max
4000
12,800
Recommended control strategies, max(2)
10
30
Total control strategies @ 250 ms, max
10
30
Total control strategies @ 500 ms, max
10
30
Tags/sec delivered to data server, max
3000
3000
(1) These values are recommended maximum limits. It’s possible that achieving all of these values in a single controller is not doable. For more detailed sizing, you can use the PSE (see page 16).
(2) Recommended maximum control strategies are based on all controller strategies being simple regulatory control. See Process Controller I/O Considerations on page 47.
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Determining I/O Count
The I/O count for controller sizing is often determined directly from the
application P&ID or plant design.
On existing systems where only classic I/O (for example, 4…20 mA, 24V DC dry
contacts, and so forth) is used, the I/O count can be determined by the number
of I/O channels available on the I/O cards.
When you have integrated smart devices, such as drives or transmitters, on an
EtherNet/IP network, any signal from the device used by your control strategy is
considered an I/O point when using the PSE to size based on control strategies.
One I/O channel per
each device in a
networked, motor
control center.
One I/O channel per each I/O point on an I/O module.
One I/O channel per each device.
For example, an I/O count for a system comprised with the following:
• Two 8-channel 4…20 mA input cards
• One 8-channel 4…20 mA output cards
• Two 16-channel 24V DC dry-contact input cards
• One MCC with six drives
– Each drive provides six signals to the control strategy: speed reference,
actual speed, start, stop, running, and fault.
• Two Coriolis meters on PROFIBUS PA, with each meter providing
three signals for flow, temperature, and density.
The I/O count example has the following calculation:
4…20 mA AI
4…20 mA AO
24V DC DI
2 x 8 = 16
1x8= 8
2 x 16 = 32
6 x 6 = 36 (6 AI, 6 AO, 12 DI, 12 DO)(1)
2 x 3 = 6 (6 AI)
___
Controller I/O count
98
MCC
Smart instruments
TIP
When calculating I/O count for controller sizing, it is good practice to add spare
capacity to allow for project changes or future enhancements.
(1) By using this method, you are overusing alarm estimation. Our recommendation is to reduce the percentage of potential alarms
used in the PSE.
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Sizing Control Strategies
A control strategy encompasses all of the application code required to implement
a specific control function. This includes the I/O, controller code, display
elements, and faceplates.
By using the control strategy model, we are able to estimate the following
system parameters:
• Controller memory usage
• Controller CPU utilization
• Data server memory usage
• Communication bandwidth (tags/sec delivered to data server)
AppServ-Info/Historian
Process Information servers collect
the process and system data for use
in managing the process.
PASS/Data Server
Operator interface, such as graphics and faceplates, presents
system information to the user.
Controllers execute application code to control
the process and communicate with the
supervisory level.
By estimating the size of control strategies, you have a better prediction of
system performance.
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The amount of resources consumed by the system elements to support a control
strategy provides a ‘footprint’. To size systems, these base control strategies have
been established as system footprints in the PSE:
• Simple regulatory: This is a simple PID loop with a single analog input
and analog output.
• Complex regulatory: This is a more complex regulatory loop such as
PID controllers in a cascade configuration with two analog inputs and
one analog output.
• Simple 2-state discrete: A simple valve or motor with basic interlock logic
and a single digital input and output.
• Complex 2-state discrete: A valve or motor with complex interlock,
permissive, and restart inhibit logic that can have two digital inputs
and two digital outputs
• Complex regulatory non-PID: This can be a complex control strategy,
such as a loss in weight feeder, that can include an analog input, valves,
and a motor.
• Digital indicator: A digital input used for indication and/or alarm only.
• Analog indicator: An analog input used for indication and/or alarm only.
While this is not a comprehensive list of the types of strategies used in an
application, they do provide a reasonable set of examples that can be used to
approximate the loading of the majority of typical application code.
For each control strategy, we can estimate the footprint based on the following:
• Visualization Tags: The number of tags within the control strategy that
can be visualized through a display or faceplate on the OWS (inclusive of
operation, maintenance, and debug activities). This number affects server
and controller memory utilization.
• Historian Tags: The number of tags within the control strategy that are
typically brought into the historian. This number affects communication
bandwidth for example, active tags on scan/sec).
• # of Potential Alarms: The maximum number of alarms that can be
defined. It is assumed that not every alarm is configured for use. The
alarms used are configured in the server that contains the controller.
• Memory, KB: The amount of memory an instance of the control strategy
and its associated tags uses inside of a simplex controller.
• Execution time (microseconds): The amount of controller CPU time it
takes to run an instance of the control strategy under simulated loading
(this is inclusive of the cross loading time for redundant controllers).
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When a control strategy is instantiated, its impact to the controller is dependent
on task rate for the task containing a control strategy. A PID loop running every
250 milliseconds takes twice the CPU capacity as the same PID loop running
every 500 milliseconds.
Redundancy Considerations
The following occurs by using redundant controllers:
• Scan rate increases 2…3 times.
• Memory use increases 1.1…1.2 times.
– When looking at controller memory, you will not see the total memory
usage for redundancy. You need to calculate the actual memory that
is used.
IMPORTANT
Spare memory requirement also is increased in redundancy.
See the ControlLogix Enhanced Redundancy System User Manual,
publication 1756-UM535, for more information.
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Notes:
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3
System Application Recommendations
This section contains integral information for configuring controllers and other
applications on your PlantPAx system. We strongly recommend that you review
these topics to be sure the system is set-up and performing properly.
The following table describes where to find specific information.
Controller Recommendations
Topic
Page
Controller Recommendations
36
FactoryTalk View Recommendations
51
Rockwell Automation Library of Process Objects
53
Additional Application Resources
54
Logix controllers must be configured for optimal performance in process
applications. Using RSLogix 5000 software, follow these recommendations
when configuring your controllers:
• Use periodic tasks only, with minimum number of tasks used to define
execution speed, faster tasks getting higher priority (lower number).
• Set up monitoring of your controller utilization by using the L_CPU
Add-On Instruction.
• Specify a requested packet interval (RPI) that is two times faster than task
execution or based on inherent properties of the signal being measured.
For example, a 500 ms task requires a 250 ms RPI on each I/O card, but
temperature measurements can be set slower as they are unlikely to change
that quickly.
• Limit the number of synchronous copy commands (CPS) as these act as an
interrupt to the controller. Tasks that attempt to interrupt a CPS
instruction are delayed until the instruction is done.
• Use Compatible Keying for configuring I/O module cards. However, in a
validated environment you can use an Exact Match for keying.
For more information, see Electronic Keying in Logix5000 Control
Systems Application Technique, publication Logix-AT001.
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Table 18 shows memory and CPU recommendations for simplex and
redundant controllers.
Table 18 - Simplex and Redundant Controller Memory Recommendations
Environment
Simplex Controllers
Redundant Controllers
Outside of production environment (before connecting
FactoryTalk View and Historian clients)
50% free memory to support communication and
handling of abnormal conditions
>50% free memory at all times
50% free CPU time to handle communication, abnormal conditions, and other transient loads
In the production environment (while FactoryTalk View
and Historian are connected)
30% free memory to support handling of abnormal
conditions
>50% free memory at all times
25% free CPU time
50% free CPU time
Task Configuration and CPU Utilization
The controller operating system is a preemptive, multitasking system that is
IEC 61131-3 compliant. ControlLogix and CompactLogix controllers define the
schedule and priority of how programs are executed by using tasks.
Periodic Task Configuration
As we stated earlier, controllers configured for the PlantPAx system must use
periodic tasks only. PlantPAx system sizing rules and tools are dependent on this
specific execution configuration. For example, a controller is typically configured
with three periodic tasks:
• Fast task (100…250 ms) for discrete control, such as motors and pumps
• Medium task (250…500 ms) for flow and pressure loops or analog inputs
• Slow task (1000…2000 ms) for temperature, phases, batch sequencing
As shown in Table 19, a naming convention is used so that tasks are listed in
RSLogix 5000 software programming in the order of execution period: fastest to
slowest regardless of the tasks used. A dedicated task is created to monitor status
of the controller and other tasks. We recommend that you delete tasks not used
or create tasks only required by the application.
Table 19 - Recommended Task Configurations
Name
Type
Period (ms)
Priority (lower number
yields higher priority)
Watchdog (ms)
Disable Automatic
Output Processing
Task_A_50ms
Periodic
50
5
150
Unchecked
Task_B_100ms
100
6
300
Task_C_250ms
250
7
750
Task_D_500ms
500
8
1500
Task_E_1s
1000
9
3000
Task_F_2s
2000
10
6000
Task_G_5s
5000
11
15,000
Task_H_10s
10,000
12
30,000
_Controller_Status
1000
13
3000
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Each task that exists and is not inhibited has execution overhead. For sizing the
PlantPAx system, we estimate this overhead as 1000 μs per task. The PSE
calculates CPU utilization by calculating the required CPU time for the selected
quantity of control strategies in each task.
Although a project can contain multiple tasks, the controller executes only one
task at a time. If a periodic or event task is triggered while another task is
currently executing, the priority of each task tells the controller what to do. Make
sure your periodic task priorities are unique.
The total execution time of all the tasks should be less than half the execution
time of the lowest priority task or slowest task. For example, if you have a few
hundred I/O points in a controller and a fast loop in a 15 ms task that executes
every.5 ms, your other code could not be greater than 6.5 ms.
Follow these guidelines for task execution:
• Never use continuous tasks. Use periodic tasks only, with minimum
number of tasks used to define execution speed, faster tasks getting higher
priority (lower number).
A continuous task is created by default in RSLogix 5000 software. This
continuous task must be deleted. If left as the default, the continuous task
runs in the background of the controller as the lowest priority task. Any
controller CPU time that is not allocated to other operations or tasks is
used to execute the continuous task.
When the continuous task completes, it restarts automatically and is
stopped only by a system overhead time slice. The system overhead time
slice defines the amount of time the controller has available for
communication. Thus, an overhead time slice interrupts the continuous
task for communicating to HMI devices, processing MSG instructions,
and alarm instruction processing.
This limits the flexibility of the controller to apply resources to handle
abnormal conditions in communication. However, the overhead time slice
is ignored when a continuous task is not configured.
• Removal of the continuous task:
– Improves predictability of the controller CPU availability for
communication to the system
– Provides a more accurate view of the controller loading at run time.
With continuous task, controller loading is always 100%
– Reduces the amount of task switching that improves overall application
and system performance
• Time-based operations, such as a PID algorithm, do not function
accurately when run in a continuous task
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• Do not use more than three periodic tasks to maintain optimum CPU
performance. Batching can require more tasks, but we recommend that
periodic tasks be event tasks if not in a redundant controller.
Estimating Controller CPU Utilization
The PSE uses a sizing model to estimate controller CPU utilization in a
production environment. This calculation is as follows:
• Task Execution time is 1000 μs + sum of control strategy execution times
assigned to the task
• Total controller execution time is a summation of task execution times
normalized to the slowest task. For example:
250 ms Task Execution Time * 4 + 500 ms Task Execution Time * 2 +
1000 ms Task Execution time (if using 3 tasks: 250 ms, 500 ms,
and 1000 ms)
• Tasks without assigned control strategies are ignored. It is assumed that
these tasks are not created or are inhibited in the controller.
• CPU utilization is a percentage of the controller execution time/slowest
task rate
Higher priority tasks interrupt lower priority tasks if needed to run. When the
task interrupted is in progress, we call this task switching. A task switch adds
execution overhead as well. If your faster tasks have higher priority, task switching
does not occur in properly sized controllers. (A properly sized controller is when
the total execution time of all of the tasks is less than half of the fastest task rate.)
Hence, the PSE sizing model does not account for task switching when
estimating utilization.
When periodic tasks have the same priority, the controller task switches every
1 ms until tasks are completed, each switch adding 250 -> 25 μs. This is why it’s
important that periodic tasks are given separate priorities. In Logix, you have
up-to 15 user-defined priorities.
Keep in mind we want CPU load in a production environment to be 75% or less.
It's important to keep 25% CPU capacity as reserve to handle online edits, data
server switchover, and so forth. The PSE provides a warning when the calculated
CPU load > 70%.
A task overlap is when a task is interrupted too frequently or too long that it
doesn’t complete its execution before it is triggered again. Avoid task overlaps
that can be monitored by using the L_TaskMon Add-On Instruction.
For more general information on ControlLogix execution capabilities, see
the Logix5000 Controllers Design Considerations Reference Manual,
publication 1756-RM094.
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Estimating CPU Utilization Examples
The following examples show how configuration affects the sizing model and
actual CPU utilization. For all scenarios, we are assuming a 1756-L7x controller
that is running 100 PID loops (575 μs execution per loop).
Example 1: 100 PID loops in a single periodic task @ 100ms:
Task Execution Time: 1000 μs + (100 PID loops * 575 μs) = 58,500 μs
CPU = 58,500 μs /100,000 μs = 58.5% load
Example 2: 100 PID loops evenly split for two periodic tasks @ 100 ms but same priority:
Task 1 Execution: 1000 μs + (50 PID loops * 575 μs) = 29,750 μs
Task 2 Execution: 1000 μs + (50 PID loops * 575 μs) = 29,750 μs
The task switch occurs every 1 millisecond until both tasks complete. For
this example, we estimate the overhead for a task switch to be 25 μs.
47 task switches * 25 μs = 1175 μs
Total Execution time: 29,750 μs + 29,750 μs + 1175 μs = 60,675 μs
CPU = 60,675 μs /10,000 μs = 61%
In this scenario, loading is okay. However, because the PSE assumes proper
task configuration, it doesn’t account for the impact of the additional task
overhead or the task switching.
Example 3: 100 PID loops evenly split for two periodic tasks, first @ 50 ms, second @ 250 ms:
Task 1 Execution Time: 1000 μs + (50 PID loops * 575 μs) = 29,750 μs
Task 2 Execution Time: 1000 μs + (50 PID loops * 575 μs) = 29,750 μs
Total Execution per 250 ms = ((29,750 μs *5)+29,750 μs) = 178,500 μs
CPU Utilization: 178,500 μs / 250,000 μs = 71.4%
In this scenario, loading is not okay (> 70%). However, this matches the
PSE calculation that gives you a warning.
Example 4: Loops evenly split to 10 periodic tasks @ 100 ms and different priorities:
Task Execution per task: 1000 μs + (10 PID Loops * 575 μs) = 6750 μs
Total Execution time: 10 * 6750 μs = 67,500 μs
CPU = 67,500 μs / 10,000 μs = 67.5%
In this example, loading is near the desired limit but still okay (<70%). The
PSE assumes proper task configuration, but it doesn’t account for the
impact of the additional task overhead or the task switching (approximate
20% increase in CPU load).
The goal of the PlantPAx system recommendations and PSE is to make it simple
to size the system and provide assurance that everything works as expected. This
is a critical need. While the examples are simple; they illustrate how
configuration can impact load.
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Monitoring Controller CPU Utilization
Free process controller CPU time is required to handle communication,
abnormal conditions, and other transient loads. Therefore, it’s important to
consider CPU utilization when implementing the application code.
When defining the application code, make sure the CPU utilization of the
process controller can accommodate these values:
• In the development environment, CPU utilization is recommended to be
less than 50% to allow for the additional CPU load that is experienced in
the production environment.
• During the operation of the system, monitor the CPU utilization,
especially after a change to the application code, and it cannot exceed 75%.
• During the design of the application code, it’s important to account for
software components, such as FactoryTalk View or Historian. The
software is actively collecting data from the controller so be sure that CPU
utilization is less than 75% to allow for communication with the
supervisory system elements (EWS, OWS, Information server).
There are two options for reviewing controller loading:
• Task Monitor - Available from RSLogix 5000 software on the EWS. If
more than one task monitor is viewing a controller at the same time, it’s
possible controller data is not reporting correctly.
• Logix Controller CPU Utilization (L_CPU) Add-On Instruction - See
the Rockwell Automation Library of Logix Diagnostic Objects Reference
Manual, publication PROCES-RM003.
IMPORTANT
The L_CPU instruction is the preferred method to monitor controller
performance because the logic monitors the Logix controller that is being
executed. The controller is used in place of, or in addition to, the task monitor
to provide more system-specific controller loading information.
Controller loading includes controller CPU utilization, communication usage,
memory usage, and task scan times. This data provides information for
diagnosing communication, controlling responsiveness issues, or in tuning the
performance of control tasks for optimum controller performance.
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The diagram in Figure 2 shows a properly loaded controller for the following:
• Application code execution is less than 50% CPU
• Total execution including comms is less than 75% CPU
Figure 2 - CPU Utilization
6.67%
18.42%
Comms
220 Packets/Second
Comms IO Monitor
100 ms Task
250 ms Task
34.90%
Application Code
Execution (user)
500 ms Task
System Processing Time
0.24%
System
System Background
Task Time
39.77%
Null Time
For more information, see the Rockwell Automation Library of Logix Diagnostic
Objects Reference Manual, publication PROCES-RM003.
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Tag and Memory Allocation
Table 20 shows the memory of a controller is divided into several areas depending
on the type of controller.
Table 20 - Controller Memory Allocation
Controller Type
Storage
Memory
1756 ControlLogix
1768 CompactLogix
I/O tags
I/O memory
Produced/consumed tags
Communication via message (MSG) instructions
Communication with workstations
Communication with polled (OPC/DDE) tags that use RSLinx software(1)
Tags other than I/O, produced, or consumed tags
Data and logic memory
Logic routines (for example, control strategies)
Communication with polled (OPC/DDE) tags that use RSLinx software(1)
UDT and Add-On Instruction definition
1769-L2x CompactLogix
1769-L3x CompactLogix
These controllers do not divide their memory. They store all of the elements in one common memory area
(1) To communicate with polled tags, the controller uses both I/O data and logic memory.
When configuring displays, we recommend that you use direct tag referencing to
access data from the controller directly without creating an HMI tag. This
requires less configuration steps and is easier to maintain.
Use DINT and REAL data types whenever possible. Mathematical routines in
the controller consume less CPU resources when DINT and REAL data types
are used.
A user-defined data type (UDT) or Add-On-instruction data type lets you
organize data to match your machine or process. Additional advantages of using a
UDT or an Add-On Instruction include the following:
• One tag contains all the data related to a specific system activity. This
keeps related data together and easier to locate, regardless of its data type.
• Each individual piece of data (member) gets a descriptive name. This
automatically creates an initial level of documentation for your logic.
• You can use the data type to create multiple tags with the same data layout.
For example, you can use a UDT to store all the parameters for a tank,
including temperatures, pressures, valve positions, and preset values.
Create a tag for each of your tanks based on that data type.
You can create a UDT when online or offline. However, you can modify an
existing UDT definition when offline only.
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General Recommendations
• Define tags in arrays and a UDT whenever possible. Tag data that is
packed into an array is sent more efficiently to the HMI than if you were
using scattered tag data.
• When defining a UDT, group BOOL tags together whenever possible.
Inside the controller memory, BOOL tags must align on 8-bit boundaries.
But, if they are placed adjacent to each other they can share the same byte
and use less memory and communication bandwidth.
• BOOL data types that are not members of an array or structure use 4-bytes
of controller memory. When communicating multiple BOOL tags
between controllers or to displays, use a UDT or array to consolidate
multiple BOOL tags into a single word.
• Define a tag naming convention that minimizes the length of the tag
names. Long tag names can decrease the bandwidth available for
communicating data.
For more information, see the Logix5000 Controllers I/O and Tag Data
Programming Manual, publication 1756-PM004.
Estimating Controller Memory Utilization
The PSE uses a sizing model that is based on control strategies to estimate
controller memory utilization in a production environment. There are three
sources of memory that comprise this sizing model:
• Memory for base definitions - Base definition memory varies depending
on the amount of Add-On Instruction and UDT definitions in the
project. Loading all of the Rockwell Automation Library definitions takes
over 1 MB of memory, while loading the most common objects take much
less memory. By default, the PSE assumes a base load of 380 KB. This is
adjustable in the PSE system preferences, if needed.
For more information, see the PlantPAx System Application Templates
Quick Start, publication PROCES-QS001.
• Memory used by control strategies - See Monitoring Controller CPU
Utilization on page 40.
• Memory to support communication - The defined control strategies have a
number of visualization tags for each control strategy (inclusive of
operation, maintenance, and debug activities). During operation, the
controller uses controller memory to manage the connections to these tags
as they are accessed. The amount of memory used varies, but the PSE
estimates 16 bytes per tag.
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When controller redundancy is used, memory usage increases and additional
spare capacity is required to allow for run-time edits. The PSE sizing model
accounts for these needs by increasing the estimated amount of memory used to
enforce the same 75% of memory capacity limit for both simplex and redundant
controller types.
Estimate Memory Information Offline
To estimate how much controller memory your project requires, use the Memory
tab of the Controller Properties dialog box. For each of the memory areas of your
controller, the dialog box lets you estimate number of bytes for the following:
• Free (unused) memory
• Used memory
• Largest free contiguous block of memory
1. Using RSLogix 5000 software, click the controller properties icon to
access the Controller Properties dialog box.
Controller Properties icon
2. Click the Memory tab.
In the ‘Estimated Data and Logic Memory’ section, view the memory
information since the last estimate.
3. Click Estimate to re-estimate the amount of controller memory.
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Chapter 3
View Run-time Memory Information
When online with a controller, the Memory tab shows the actual memory usage
of the controller. While the controller is running, it uses additional memory for
communication. The amount of memory the controller needs varies depending
on the state of the communication.
The Memory tab of the controller includes a Max Used entry for each type of
memory. The Max Used values show the peak of memory usage as
communication occurs.
Click Reset All Max on the Memory tab to reset values.
For more information, see Chapter 2 in the Logix5000 Controllers Information
and Status Programming Manual, publication 1756-PM015.
Monitoring Controller Memory Utilization
We recommend that 50% of available logic and data memory be reserved for
design time of communication, online editing, and handling of abnormal events.
For simplex controllers, we recommend maintaining 25% of available logic and
data memory to handle online editing and connection handling in operation.
For redundant controllers, we recommend that you maintain greater than 50% of
logic and data memory available to handle online changes.
Memory usage can be monitored by using the L_CPU Add-On Instruction
(see page 40) or the RSLogix 5000 software application (see page 44).
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Intra-Controller Communication
There are two ways to set-up communications between controllers:
• Produced/consumed tags
• Messages
Table 21 - Compare Messages and Produced/Consumed Tags
Method
Benefits
Considerations
Read/write message
• Programmatically initiated
• Communication and network resources used when only needed
• Support automatic fragmentation and reassembly of large data
packets, up to as many as 32,767 elements
• Some connections can be cached to improve re-transmission time
• Generic CIP message useful for third-party devices
• Delay can occur if resources are not available when needed
• MSG instruction and processing impacts controller scan (system
overhead time slice)
• Data arrives asynchronous to program scan (use a programmatic
handshake or an UID/UIE instruction pair to reduce impact, no
event task support)
• Can add additional messages online in Run mode
Produced/consumed tag
• Configured once and sent automatically based on requested
packet interval (RPI)
• Multiple consumers can simultaneously receive the same data
from a single produced tag
• Can trigger an event task when consumed data arrives
• ControlNet resources are reserved up front
• Does not impact the scan of the controller
• Support limited to Logix5000 and PLC-5 controllers, and the
1784-KTCS I/O Linx and a few third party devices
• Limited to 500 bytes over the backplane and 480 bytes over
a network
• Must be scheduled when using ControlNet
• Data arrives asynchronous to program scan (use a programmatic
handshake or CPS instruction and event tasks to synchronize)
• Connection status must be obtained separately
• With RSLogix 5000 software version 17 and later, you can
configure status information for a produced/consumed tag
• On an EtherNet/IP network, you can configure produced/
consumed tags to use multicast or unicast connections
• Cannot create additional produced/consumed tags online in
Run mode.
We recommend using an array or user-defined tag for produce-consume
communication. As produce/consumed tags cannot be edited online, make sure
to include extra capacity that can be populated by mapping logic so additional
information can be shared as needed without requiring a download.
Table 22 - Process Controller Recommendations
Attribute
Recommendation
Produced and consumed tags
• A single produced and consumed tag can contain multiple combinations of data. For example, up to 120 REALs
or 100 REALs and 640 BOOLs.
• Group produced and consumed tags into a user-defined structure to reduce the number of connections to
the controller.
• Use the same data type for the produced and consumed tags in each controller that uses that data.
• Make sure the number of consumers configured for a produced tag is the actual number of controllers consuming it
to reduce the number of connections to the controller.
• On produced tags, the maximum consumers configured counts against your total connection count so make it the
actual number of connections or set it at the expected number to be in the future.
• Always use a handshake when transferring data between controllers through health data or manually
configured diagnostics.
Messaging
• There is a maximum of 32 cached message connections from message instructions and block-transfers combined.
• Cache messages when the message needs only to be maintained all the time. If a message instruction is infrequent
then make sure cached connection is unchecked.
• Always use message reads, never do message writes. This makes it easier to troubleshoot code.
• When messaging between controllers, use DINTs where possible.
• Message instructions consume a connection when it is a CIP data table read, write, or generic (if selected).
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Chapter 3
Process Controller I/O Considerations
The requested packet interval (RPI) is a user-configured interval of time that
determines when an I/O module’s data is sent to a process controller. This
interval defines the slowest rate that a module multicasts its data. When the
specified time frame elapses, the module multicasts data to the controller.
Setting the RPI faster (specifying a smaller number) than what your application
needs wastes network resources, such as ControlNet schedule bandwidth,
network processing time, and CPU processing time.
Table 23 - I/O Considerations
Attribute
Consideration
I/O configuration properties
• Specify an RPI that is two times faster than task execution:
– 250 ms task requires a 125 ms RPI
– 100 ms task requires a 50 ms RPI
• Often RPI defined by the inherent properties of the signal being measured. For example temperature measurement
changes slower than pressure.
• Use compatible module for keying option on I/O cards configuration. In a validated environment, you can use an
exact match for keying.
ControlNet network
• Set the network update time (NUT) equal to or less than the fastest RPI of the I/O modules and produced-consumed
tags in the system. For example, if your fastest RPI is 10 ms, set the NUT to 5 ms for more flexibility in scheduling
the network.
• Set the RPI to a binary multiple of the NUT. For example, if the NUT is 10 ms, select an RPI such as 10, 20, 40, 80, 160
ms, and so forth.
• Use unscheduled I/O to be able to add ControlNet modules at runtime. (See I/O Module Runtime/Online
Considerations.) Dedicate one ControlNet network to I/O communication only.
• Unscheduled I/O requires a connection to each module, so the number of modules supported depends on the
number of connections supported by the communication module. On the dedicated I/O network, make sure of the
following:
– No HMI traffic
– No MSG traffic
– No programming workstations
– No peer-to-peer interlocking in a multi-processor system architecture
EtherNet/IP network
See Chapter 6 for infrastructure recommendations.
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I/O Module Runtime/Online Considerations
Table 24 shows some of the modules that you can add to the Controller
Organizer in RSLogix 5000 software when the controller is in Run mode.
Table 24 - Online Addition of Module and Connection Types
Module Type and
Communication Method
In Local Chassis
Offline
Runtime
In Remote Chassis via a ControlNet Network
In Remote Chassis via an
EtherNet/IP Network
Offline
Offline
Runtime
Runtime
Scheduled
Unscheduled
Scheduled
Unscheduled
Digital -direct
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Digital-rack-optimized
N/A
N/A
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Analog - direct
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Generic third-party - direct
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
1756-DNB
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
1756-DHRIO
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
1756-CNx - no connection
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
N/A
N/A
1756-CNx - rack-optimized
N/A
N/A
Yes
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Generic ControlNet
third-party-direct
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
N/A
N/A
1788-EN2FFR linking device
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
1788-CN2FFR linking device
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
N/A
N/A
1788-EN2PAR
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
1788-CN2PAR
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
N/A
N/A
1715 Redundant I/O
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
1756-ENx - no connection(1)
Yes
Yes
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
1756-ENx - rack-optimized(1)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
Generic EtherNet/IP
third-party - direct
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
FLEX I/O™ and POINT I/O™
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
(1) 1756-EN2DN and 1756-EN2CN modules cannot be added online.
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Chapter 3
When you design your network, review these considerations if you are going to
add I/O modules at runtime.
Table 25 - Adding I/O Modules at Runtime
Design Issue
Consideration
I/O modules
Currently, 1756 I/O and 1715 modules can be added at runtime.
Leave space in the local chassis, remote chassis on a ControlNet network, or remote chassis on an EtherNet/IP network
for the I/O modules that you want to add.
Input transmission rate
Make sure each RPI works for the data you want to send and receive.
Make sure the added I/O does not depend on change-of-state data. When adding discrete input modules, unselect
Change of State to reduce network traffic.
Network topology
On a ControlNet network, install spare taps so you can add 1756 I/O modules at runtime without disrupting the
network. Each tap must be terminated so as to not ground out the system. Check the ControlNet system requirements
to determine how many spare taps your network can support.
• In a ControlNet network with redundant cabling, you can break the trunk and add a new tap, but redundant cabling
is lost during the module installation.
• In a ControlNet ring, add a new drop off the rung or add new nodes off the coax and disrupt only part of the
network.
• You could remove a single existing node and add a repeater off of the drop. Then re-add the existing node and add
any new nodes off of the new segment.
On EtherNet/IP, reserve some connection points on the switch so that you can connect additional nodes or switches in
the future.
Network configuration
On a ControlNet network, plan communication that can be scheduled or can be unscheduled.
On an EtherNet/IP network, all communication is Immediate and occurs based on a module’s RPI (also referred to as
unscheduled).
If you know that you need a new chassis with digital modules in the future, configure the network and add it to the
I/O configuration tree as rack-optimized. Inhibit the communication adapter until you need the chassis.
Network performance
You can add I/O modules at runtime until you impact the capacity of the communication module. Make sure you have
sufficient communication modules for the connections you plan to add.
See the Logix5000 Controllers Design Considerations Reference Manual,
publication 1756-RM094, for more information.
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Using Add-On Instructions
Add-On Instructions are reusable code objects that contain encapsulated logic.
Each object is provided as an importable Add-On Instruction that can be shared
between projects to create a common library of instructions to accelerate
engineering from project to project. Add-On Instructions also can be signed with
a specific date and time, so that revisions of Add-On Instructions can be managed
between projects.
This lets you create your own instruction set for programming logic as a
supplement to the instruction set provided natively in the ControlLogix and
CompactLogic firmware.
Add-On Instructions are defined once in each controller project, and can be
instantiated multiple times in your application code as needed. In RSLogix 5000
software, you can view the routines within an Add-On Instruction instance
online, animated with just that instance’s value as if it were an individually
defined routine.
Add-On Instructions can be source protected. Source protection does not let you
edit the instruction’s definition without a source key. To protect intellectual
property, routines and local tags also can be hidden on protected Add-On
Instructions.
Like a native instruction, the definition of an Add-On Instruction cannot be
modified online. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of Add-On
Instructions to implement control strategies. Control strategies are best
developed in a program, built from Add-On Instructions and native instructions.
It’s also important that you fully test all configuration options before
implementing an Add-On Instruction on your production system.
The Rockwell Automation Library of Process Objects uses Add-On Instructions.
For related information, see page 53 and page 59.
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FactoryTalk View
Recommendations
Chapter 3
For implementing FactoryTalk View SE software for a process system operator
interface, follow these guidelines:
• Run FactoryTalk View Studio software on the EWS during runtime.
• Configure the FactoryTalk View SE servers to start automatically on start
up on the PASS. Let the servers fully start up before starting the
client computers.
• In FactoryTalk View Studio software, areas can be used to organize your
distributed system. Configure an area for each server of any type. Areas can
contain areas. However, do not put more than one server in the root
location of an area. This helps prevent potential performance problems. In
addition, this name hierarchy can be visible externally, such as in the
historian or alarm database.
• Minimize the number of areas accessed on one display.
• Use global objects to display the status of a control module or device when
the information to be displayed is stored in a tag structure within Logix
(for example, UDT or AOI) and there are many identical instances. A
global object is a display element that is created once and can be referenced
multiple times on multiple displays in an application. When changes are
made to the original (base) object, the instantiated copies (reference
objects) are automatically updated. Use of global objects, in conjunction
with tag structures in the ControlLogix system, can help ensure
consistency and save engineering time.
• When using global objects, observe the following recommendations to be
sure of optimal display call-up performance:
– Base global objects are stored in FactoryTalk View in global object
displays (.ggfx files). If you have a large number of base global objects
defined, do not put them all in a single global object display. Try to
organize your global object displays logically, trying to keep an average
of 30 base global objects per global object display while minimizing the
number of different global object displays referenced by a single
standard display.
– Limit the number of global object instances on a single display to
40 or less.
– As global objects can be instantiated multiple times, the performance
impact of their design is amplified by their number of instances.
Therefore, design global objects carefully to reduce the number of
objects, expressions and animations used within the base object.
• Limit the number of dynamic references on a display to 1,000 references
(HMI or direct reference tags). Be aware that each global object instance
can represent multiple references. This improves display
call up performance.
• Use derived tags for complex expressions or alarm functions that are
repeatedly used within graphic displays (for example, alarm expressions).
This reduces HMI server load.
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• Do not create derived tags that depend on the results of other derived tags.
Derived tag processing is not sequential.
• Avoid use of VBA when possible. VBA runs as a single-threaded process so
it’s possible the application written in VB does not allow the HMI to
perform predictably.
Data Log Recommendations
Data logging uses the FactoryTalk View SE application data log capability. We
recommend that logging be used for short-term data retention only (typically less
than a 24-hour period). Data is stored on the PASS of operator-defined process
variables to aid in controlling the process. Data logging is for storing a minimal
number of data (for example, no more than 50 data log points per controller). For
long-term data storage or to collect a large number of data points, use the
FactoryTalk Historian software.
Consider the following when data logging:
• Log to a separate physical drive from the system drive (for example, file set,
absolute path is D:\Logfiles) This keeps data logging from affecting
system performance.
• Delete oldest file after 10 days to conserve disk space, if necessary
• Set logging to periodic for a consistent system load
• Set to logging to on change for infrequently changing data
• Set interval to 1 second or greater
• Defragment data drive (usually drive D) daily with a third-party package
for better retrieval performance.
OWS
PASS Server
EWS
PASS
APPServ-Batch
Remote Racks
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Rockwell Automation
Library of Process Objects
Chapter 3
The Rockwell Automation Library of Process Objects is a predefined library of
controller code (Add-On Instructions), display elements (global objects), and
faceplates that let you quickly assemble large applications with proven strategies,
rich functionality, and known performance.
Step 1: Import the Library
into the project.
Step 2: Drop and configure the
Add-On Instruction.
Step 4: Access small footprint ‘quick’
faceplates from the global object ar
runtime for basic operator control.
Step 5: Access the full faceplate from
the global object at runtime for
control, maintenance, and
configuration.
Step 3: Drop the global object on the
display and assign it to an Add-On
Instruction instance.
Add-On Instructions provide modules of code, with pre-defined functionality,
to create device-level instructions. When coupled to display elements and
faceplates in the FactoryTalk View Studio software program, these objects
streamline device configuration in a drag-and-drop environment (as shown in
the above illustration).
The display elements (global objects) have an associated faceplate that appears
when the display element is clicked. The faceplates do not require additional
configuration, including even when objects have additional support functions,
such as Run Time Monitor, Interlock Block, and so forth. The faceplates for
these extended functions are accessible from the faceplate.
The Library of Process Objects is supported through Technical Support
as long as the Add-On Instructions have not been modified from the
original deployment.
You can use library objects other than those provided by Rockwell Automation.
For example, you can develop your own library or use the process objects as
guides. By using a library of consistent elements, you improve the maintainability
and efficiency of your PlantPAx system.
For details on initiating objects and HMI displays, see the Rockwell Automation
Library of Process Objects Reference Manual, publication PROCES-RM002.
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Additional Application
Resources
The following resources are available for use to assist with developing
your application.
Topics and Tools
Description
Where To Find Information
PlantPAx System Application Templates Quick Start
Procedures for applying application templates to start
developing your PlantPAx system.
In Literature Library, see publication PROCES-QS001
FactoryTalk Diagnostic sample displays
Sample graphics to display RSLinx Enterprise
sample counters.
See the Knowledgebase Answer ID 30148 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
Server status displays
Sample code is provided to determine a server’s current
status and state by using VBA and displaying the status on
the HMI screen.
See the Knowledgebase Answer ID 44624 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
Rockwell Automation Integrated Architecture tools
These tools can assist you in understanding, planning, and
configuring an Integrated Architecture System.
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/solutions/
integratedarchitecture/resources.html
Rockwell Automation sample code
Sample code and tools for configuring and programming
Rockwell Automation products, including Rockwell
specific faceplates.
http://samplecode.rockwellautomation.com/idc/groups/
public/documents/webassets/sc_home_page.hcst
FactoryTalk Batch implementation tools
Batch tools for collecting, organizing, reporting, and
visualizing FactoryTalk View data.
See the following Knowledgebase Answer IDs at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com:
• 62367
• 62372
• 67642
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Chapter
4
Alarm System Recommendations
In the process industries, alarms are a critical function of a control system.
Effective alarm systems alert the operator to abnormal situations, providing for a
quick response. Effective alarm handling improves the productivity, safety, and
environment of a process plant.
There are industry standards that govern alarm management design and
engineering practices to guide you in developing effective alarm systems (for
example ANSI/ISA-18.2-2009, Management of Alarm Systems for the Process
Industries). This section does not cover the practices that are defined by these
standards, but does cover recommendations for implementing alarms on the
PlantPAx system within the context of these standards.
The following table describes where to find specific information.
Topic
Page
FactoryTalk Alarms and Events Software
55
Using the Library of Process Objects for Alarms
59
Alarm State Model
60
Monitoring Your Alarm System
63
FactoryTalk Alarms and Events Software
The primary method for generating alarms in the PlantPAx system is
FactoryTalk Alarms and Events software, herein referred to as the alarm system.
The alarm system supports device-based alarms (ALMA and ALMD instructions
in the controller) and tag-based alarms (digital, level, or
deviation alarms).
Device-based and tag-based alarms co-exist in an application. PlantPAx system
sizing rules and critical system attributes are based on the use of tag-based alarms.
While device-based alarms can be used, we recommend limiting their use to
enhance system performance.
See page 57 for more information.
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Chapter 4
Alarm System Recommendations
Figure 3 - FactoryTalk Services Platform
Alarm Characteristics
Description
1. Tag-based alarm monitoring
Tag-based alarms (digital, level, or deviation) are configured in a Tag Alarm and Event server. When an alarm condition is detected by a
controller, the server publishes the information to FactoryTalk Alarms and Events services.
2. Device-based alarm monitoring
The PlantPAx system sizing rules and critical system attributes are based on the use of FactoryTalk Alarms and Events tag-based alarms.
While device-based alarms can be used, we recommend a limited usage to enhance system performance. Device-based alarms, such as
ALMA, ALMD, are programmed via RSLogix 5000 software and then downloaded to Logix5000 controllers. The controller detects alarm
conditions and notifies RSLinx Enterprise of alarm states. A Rockwell Automation device server (RSLinx Enterprise software) extracts the
alarm information and publishes it to FactoryTalk Alarms and Events services.
3. FactoryTalk Alarm and Events services
Both device-based and tag-based alarms and events are published to FactoryTalk Alarms and Events services, which then routes the
information to FactoryTalk Alarms and Events objects that are hosted in FactoryTalk View software. The information also routes to the
alarm and event history log, and to diagnostic logs and audit logs.
4. Alarm and Event log
The Alarm and Event log is a component that installs silently as part of the alarms and events software. It manages connections between
alarm servers and databases and logs data from each alarm server to an alarm history database. You can use the Alarm and Event Log
Viewer to view and print data from alarm history databases. Third-party database tools can also retrieve, view, analyze, and print alarm
history information.
To use alarm and event logging, install Microsoft SQL Server separately, or use an existing Microsoft SQL Server database.
5. Alarm and event setup and monitoring FactoryTalk Alarms and Events includes a number of software components that let engineers and operators define alarm conditions,
configure alarm servers, view and interact with alarm conditions, and view and run reports on historical alarm information.
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Chapter 4
FactoryTalk Alarm and Event Features
As shown in Figure 3 on page 56, FactoryTalk Alarm and Event services have a
complete set of visualization components (alarm summary, alarm log viewer,
alarm banner, alarm status explorer).
Additional features include the following:
• Up to 10 alarm servers on the system to allow for logical segregation by
operator area; each server can be made redundant for fault tolerance
• Native ability to log alarm history to SQL database
• Ability to associate up to four additional tags with each alarm to store
additional process information with each alarm occurrence
• Ability to associate FactoryTalk View commands with alarms. For
example, a command can be used to open the process display associated
with the alarm from the Alarm and Event Summary or from the Alarm and
Event Banner
• Language switching for alarm messages
• Logs alarm in UTC time
The alarm system does not support PanelView™ Plus terminals, but the Library of
Process Objects supports mixed architectures (PanelView Plus terminals plus
distributed HMI) while managing the alarm state in the controller. See page 59
for more on the Library.
FactoryTalk Alarm and Event Recommendations
• When possible, allocate plant areas to separate PASS/alarm servers. When
you create alarm displays, configure the alarm objects, such as an alarm
summary, to subscribe only to required alarm servers.
• You can have up to 10 alarm servers in a PlantPAx system.
• The number of alarms per alarm server is limited to 10,000.
• Set tag-based alarm name based on the associated controller tag. For
example, controller tag MC101.Alm_FailToStart from a motor
instruction can be tied to tag-based alarm MC101_Alm_FailToStart.
• If you want to view a rolled up indication of alarms by role or display
within or across alarm servers, consider adding a prefix to the alarm name
on the server to identify the role or display. Alarm expressions can be used
to retrieve alarm counts by alarm name and alarm server. For example,
AE_InAlmUnackedCount(‘T1*’) returns a count of unacknowledged
alarms with tag names starting with T1.
See the FactoryTalk View Site Edition User's Guide,
publication VIEWSE-UM006, for more information on
alarm expressions.
• Using alarm expressions adds load to the alarm server. If multiple OWSs
need to display rolled-up indicators, use derived tags. Executing and
storing counts this way reduces load from duplicate requests on
alarm servers.
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• Don’t use alarm class for grouping by operator area (a prefix to the name
can be used for this purpose). Use an alarm class to identify alarms that
share common management requirements (for example, testing, training,
monitoring, and audit requirements). Do not use alarm class to identify
alarms by operator role or display because you cannot retrieve an alarm
count by class by using alarm expressions in FactoryTalk View software.
However, you can filter by class on the alarm displays.
• Use import and export features in FactoryTalk View SE software
when you need to configure a large number of alarms. The Library of
Process Objects includes the Alarm Builder tool that can help create your
alarm server configuration.
For more information, see the Rockwell Automation Library of Process
Objects Reference Manual, publication PROCES-RM002.
• Be aware that controller scan time and memory usage is variable with the
use of the ALMA or ALMD instructions, depending on the states of the
controller. Large alarm bursts can have a significant impact on controller
CPU utilization.
For example:
Controller memory used for buffering by each subscriber
(topic in the data server) = 100 KB
Example execution times:
– ALMD in a 1756-L73 controller with no alarm state changes: 7 μs
– ALMD in a 1756-L73 controller with alarm state changes: 16 μs
In redundant controller configurations, crossloading of redundancy can
add up to 70 μs per ALMD instruction.
• We recommend that you reserve the use of ALMA and ALMD
instructions for the most critical alarms. Although there are no hard-coded
limitations, we recommend limiting the number of instructions to
the following:
– 250 per redundant controller (1756-L6x or 1756-L7x),
– 1000 per 1756-L6x simplex controller
– 2000 per 1756-L7x simplex controller.
You can use the PSE for sizing the number of alarm instructions for a more
accurate limit based on your specific configuration. Be sure to add for
additional memory that is required to maintain the alarm subscription as it
is not accounted for in the PSE memory calculations.
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Using the Library of Process Objects for Alarms
The Library of Process Objects uses a dedicated Add-On Instruction, named
P_Alarm, for each alarm in each device for alarm detection and to provide an
interface to the tag-based alarm. Documentation is provided with the Process
Library to describe how to connect the Add-On Instruction instances with the
Tag Alarm and Event Server.
Following this method, P_Alarm is responsible for managing state and providing
status to process displays and faceplates. Each P_Alarm that is being used is
linked to a Digital Alarm on the alarm server to provide status to alarm displays
and alarm history.
Figure 4 - Alarms in PlantPAx Library
The Library of Process Objects approach includes the following advantages:
• Integration of alarms into library objects (Add-On Instructions, global
objects, and faceplates) for ease of engineering and deployment
• Supports mixed architectures (PanelView Plus terminals plus distributed
HMI) while managing the alarm state in the controller
• Flexible alarm management techniques are built-in into the P_Alarm
instruction
When using the Library of Process Objects, both the controller and server
maintain alarm information to provide status information where needed. For this
reason, proper configuration is critical.
Prior to FactoryTalk View 8 and PlantPAx Library 3.0, severity needed to be
managed carefully as it required configuration in both the controller, to drive
information on the process display, and the server, to drive the information on the
alarm summary and banner. With FactoryTalk View 8 and Library of Process
Objects 3.1 and later, severity in the server is linked to the configured severity in
the object.
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Alarm State Model
The alarm system provides three mechanisms to prevent prolonged indications of
an alarm in the alarm summary: Suppress, Shelve, and Disable.
The Shelve and Suppress states let you clear the alarm from the alarm summary or
banner while you are resolving a known alarm, without continuing to view the
alarm information once the alarm is acknowledged.
The Shelve state has a configurable timeout, after which the alarm is
automatically Unshelved and returned to the alarm summary. The Suppress
state does not have an automatic timeout. If the alarm is unacknowledged at the
time it is Shelved or Suppressed, it continues to appear on the alarm summary
and banner until it has been acknowledged, and subsequently removed from
these lists.
A Shelved or Suppressed alarm is still able to transition alarm status (except
becoming unacknowledged), send alarm state changes to subscribers, log state
changes in the historical database, and is responsive to other programmatic or
operator interactions. Follow these rules:
• When an alarm is Suppressed or Shelved, it continues to function
normally, monitor the In parameter for alarm conditions, and respond to
Acknowledge requests. All subscribers are notified of this event, and any
alarm messages generated while the alarm is in the Suppressed or Shelved
state include the Suppressed or Shelved status. An alarm cannot become
Unacknowledged while Shelved or Suppressed.
• When an alarm is Unsuppressed or Unshelved, all subscribers are notified
and alarm messages to subscribers no longer include the Suppressed or
Shelved status. If the alarm is active when Unsuppressed or Unshelved and
Acknowledge is required, the alarm becomes Unacknowledged.
Disable an alarm to take the alarm out-of-service in the control program. A
disabled alarm does not transition alarm status or gets logged in the historical
database. If the alarm is unacknowledged at the time it is Disabled, it continues to
appear on the alarm summary and banner until it has been acknowledged, and
subsequently removed from view. A disabled alarm can be re-enabled in the
Alarm Status Explorer in FactoryTalk View SE software:
• When an alarm is Disabled, all of its conditions are inactivated (InAlarm
is cleared) except the acknowledged status if unacknowledged. The
In parameter is not monitored for alarm conditions, but responds to
an acknowledged event. All subscribers are notified of this event.
• When an alarm is Enabled, it begins to monitor the In parameter for
alarm conditions. All subscribers are notified of this event. If the alarm
is active when Enabled and acknowledge is required, the alarm
becomes unacknowledged.
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Shelve, Suppress, and Disable states are all methods to suppress indication of
alarms, following ANSI/ISA-18.2-2009, Management of Alarm Systems for the
Process Industries. You can use Shelve, Suppress, and Disable functionality to
differentiate operator-initiated actions from design-initiated actions and
maintenance actions. See the following examples and accompanying notes.
Operator Actions
Use the Shelve state to initiate this action by the operator (equivalent to the
Shelve state in ISA 18.2).
The Program Unshelve command is provided so that the user has a means, by
using a small amount of programming, to Unshelve alarms based on an event, for
example End of Shift.
Program Actions
The controller must use the Suppress state to programmatically inhibit operator
notification (equivalent to the Suppress-by- Design state in ISA 18.2).
The Suppress state is intended for Suppress-By-Design functionality under
control of logic in accordance with ANSI/ISA-18.2-2009. If logging of alarm
transitions during suppression is not desired, use logic to suppress the input
condition to the alarm, or use the P_Alarm Add-On Instruction in the
Library of Process Objects, which does not generate new alarm transitions in the
Suppress state.
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Maintenance Actions
Use the Disable state to inhibit the alarm for maintenance purposes (equivalent
to Out-of-Service state in ISA 18.2).
The Disable state is intended for Out-of-Service functionality under control of
maintenance in accordance with ANSI/ISA-18.2-2009. If logging of alarm
transitions during Disable is desired, the Suppress state of the ALMA or ALMD
can be used instead if not required for Suppress-by-Design functionality under
control of logic.
Alarm, Return to Normal, Latching, and Acknowledgement
While Disabled, Suppressed, or Shelved, an acknowledged alarm does not
become unacknowledged.
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While Disabled, Suppressed, or Shelved, if acknowledge is required, an
unacknowledged alarm remains unacknowledged until it is acknowledged.
An alarm becomes unacknowledged if the alarm is InAlarm when an alarm
changes state to Enabled, Unsuppressed, and Unshelved.
Monitoring Your Alarm System
By using the alarm status explorer, you can browse all of your configured alarms
on a server or the entire system. Alarms also are filtered by the Shelved,
Suppressed, and Disabled options. The alarm explorer can be preconfigured as a
Shelved alarm display to let operators view a list of alarms.
ISA 18.2 provides alarm performance metrics and example target values that are
summarized in a single table of section 16.9 of the standard. Some key metrics
include the following:
1. Alarm rates: annunciated alarms per operator:
a. < 150 - 300 alarms per day
b. Average of 6…12 per hour
c. Average 1…2 per 10 minutes
2. Contribution of the top 10 most frequent alarms to the overall alarm load:
~<1…5% maximum, with action plans to address deficiencies
3. Number of alarms that remain in effect continuously for more than
24 hours (stale alarms): Less than 5, with plans to address
When using the FactoryTalk VantagePoint software with the alarm system,
reports are provided based on the above metrics.
1. Hourly Alarms Report (active count of alarms over 1- hour samples)
2. Alarm Distribution Report (percentage contribution of top 10 most
frequent alarms)
3. Alarm Frequency Report (top 10 most frequent alarms)
4. Standing Alarms Report (top 10 currently active alarms by duration)
5. Alarm Duration Report (top 10 alarms by duration)
Alarms can be filtered in FactoryTalk VantagePoint software by class, alarm name,
or alarm source so they can be broken down by operator role if required. More
information on these reports can be found on the Rockwell Automation
Knowledgebase Answer ID 68296
at http://www.rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
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Notes:
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5
Infrastructure Recommendations
The PlantPAx system infrastructure is built on an IT infrastructure based on
commercial off-the-shelf technologies, such as Microsoft Windows, and open
network technologies to allow for seamless integration between system elements
and to higher-level business systems.
This chapter outlines recommendations for setting up virtual or traditional,
physical infrastructure components to achieve optimal performance of the
PlantPAx system.
The following table describes where to find specific information.
Virtualization Advantages
Topic
Page
Virtualization Advantages
65
Virtual PlantPAx Configuration Recommendations
69
Operating System Recommendations
78
Network Recommendations
82
Virtualization is basically a consolidation of a number of physical servers onto a
more powerful machine that is capable of handling the increased load. Generally
physical servers use a small portion only of the total CPU, RAM, and I/O; it
makes sense to get more out of your hardware.
Table 26 - Reasons to Use Virtualization
Consideration
Description
Cost
Among the top reasons to use a virtualized system is to save money, including hardware,
human resource, or energy-related savings. An ideal virtualization plan can result in lower
equipment, power, management, and hardware costs. Most businesses review their current
situation and determine where they can save money.
Performance
Many dedicated servers are using about 20% of their computing capacity. This is a waste of
usable resource and a top consideration for using virtualization. Using your hardware to its
full potential is more difficult with a dedicated server environment.
Managing time
Many of the virtualization products have advanced management tools that help you to
monitor and review information quicker across more servers. This can reduce the human
resource needed and less third-party software that you have to learn along with less errors.
When you have more items to manage, the risk of making mistakes also increases.
Disaster recovery
Most virtualization software comes with a number of features that can increase server
up-time. If one virtual server fails, it opens instantly on another machine. Load balancing is
also easier. Many packages come with their own data backup solutions, such as 'snapshots'
to protect data. For a physical server, we have to opt for other backup and recovery options.
Point of failure
One of virtualization’s selling points is the ability to load balance servers easily.
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Table 26 - Reasons to Use Virtualization
Consideration
Description
Security
Setting up a security plan for a virtual server environment is easier because you can focus on
a universal security model rather than security for more hardware.
Ease in IT growth
Adding a new server or increasing RAM, CPU, or hard disk in a virtual environment is as easy
as pressing a few buttons. When you have to add a new physical server to your environment
it takes some planning. You have to purchase equipment and then load the operating
system, security patches, and plan out physically connecting the server to your network.
Using virtualization you typically can access another server within minutes by using a copy of
a virtual server.
Migration
Many virtualization products include software that helps you migrate applications from your
older dedicated servers to new virtual servers. System upgrades can be smoother as long as
you stay with similar virtualization products.
Virtualization Overview
Computer virtualization is the process of constructing a virtual (instead of
physical) computer hardware platform by executing virtual software tools
between the actual hardware and operating system (OS). By abstracting the OS
from the physical hardware, multiple virtual machines act like a ‘real computer’
but can run different operating systems and applications from varying locations
on the same server.
A virtual machine (VM) behaves exactly like a physical computer because the
VM contains its own ‘virtual’ CPU, RAM, hard disk drive, and network interface
card. The VM runs as an isolated guest OS installation. The terms ‘host’ and
‘guest’ help distinguish the software that is running on the actual machine (host)
and the software that is running on the VM (guest).
A layer of software, called a hypervisor, is inserted directly on the computer
hardware or on a host OS. A hypervisor, such as VMWare ESXi, lets multiple
operating systems (guests) run concurrently on a host computer (the actual
machine that the virtualization takes place). It presents a virtual operating
platform to the guest operating system and manages the execution of the guest
operating system.
A major benefit of a virtualized workstation is that critical hardware is not
exposed to harsh plant conditions. If a thin client is damaged, it is easily
replaced without any impact to the remote virtual machine. In contrast, if a
traditional desktop workstation is damaged, you likely have to rebuild the
software and hardware, costing time as well as money. In a virtualized setting, you
have the ability to upgrade hardware without replacing the operating system on
individual workstations.
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Rockwell Automation supports virtualization on VMWare's ESXi architecture
for the PASS, EWS, OWS, AppServ-OWS, and application servers. The software
images are available on the PlantPAx Virtual Image Templates that are delivered
as an Open Virtual Format (OVF). This format lets you deploy the templates by
using any virtualization platform.
IMPORTANT
The PlantPAx system does not require the use of the virtual image templates,
nor does their use merely indicate that you are operating a PlantPAx system.
Figure 5 - PlantPAx Virtualization Topology
OWS
Remote Desktop/PCOIP
(tablet)
vSphere Management
vSphere Client
(desktop)
Redundant
Switches
(gigabit NICs)
AppServ- OWS
Remote Desktop/PCOI
(thin client)
EWS
vShere Client/Remote
Desktop/PCOIP
(laptop)
Virtual
Machines
Physical Hosts
with ESXI
(server cluster)
Storage Array
(fiber/Ethernet)
In an extreme case it is theoretically possible to consolidate an entire simple
automation system virtually on to one physical machine. This is contingent upon
having a sufficiently powerful processor and adequate memory, as well as an
application that does not overtax the configuration.
In all practicality, a basic virtualized automation system generally uses three or
more host physical machines, or servers. This is preferred to distribute the
processing load, and more importantly, to provide a pool of available hardware so
that VMs could be restarted elsewhere in the event of a server failure. By
increasing the available pool of servers, you can extend the system into a higher
availability configuration.
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Before designing a virtualized PlantPAx system, we recommend that you have a
general understanding of the PlantPAx control system architectures and
sizing guidelines.
For more information, see the following:
• PlantPAx Process Automation System Selection Guide,
publication PROCES-SG001 -- Provides descriptions of system elements,
architectures, and sizing guidelines for procuring a PlantPAx system
• Virtual Images Templates User Manual, publication 9528-UM001 -Contains procedures for configuring virtual machines
Table 27 - Virtual Image Templates Software
Category
Cat. No.
Description
Virtual templates
9528-PAXVTENE
USB device that contains three virtual image templates (PASS, EWS, and OWS). Each
template contains a Microsoft Windows operating system, with all required
Rockwell Automation software pre-installed but not activated. A Microsoft
full-packaged product license is included.
9528-APPOWSENE
USB device that contains the virtual image template for AppServ-OWS. The
template contains a Microsoft Windows operating system, with all required
Rockwell Automation software pre-installed but not activated. A Microsoft
full-packaged product license is included.
IMPORTANT: Each client connecting to APPServ-OWS must have a valid
client license.
9528-APPHISTENE
USB device that contains the virtual image template for AppServ-Hist. The template
contains a Microsoft Windows operating system, with all required Rockwell
Automation software pre-installed but not activated. A Microsoft full-packaged
product license is included.
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Virtual PlantPAx
Configuration
Recommendations
Chapter 5
Once the basic architecture is developed, a virtualized PlantPAx system benefits
from a number of fundamental VMware configuration choices. Most of these
choices start with automatic settings, with adjustments made as required to
increase speed and improve redundancy.
Servers
The latest Intel™ processors offer on-board virtualization support. The Intel
Virtualization Technology in the BIOS must be switched on to take advantage of
the performance gains. To use Windows 7 as a VM operating system, the host
must be ESXi 4.0 Update 2 or ESXi 4.1 or later.
Hosts in the same cluster that have different processors are recommended to have
Enhanced vMotion Compatibility (EVC) enabled to support the vMotion
between hosts. EVC is enabled at the Datacenter/Cluster level. EVC is a
fundamental technology that facilitates virtual machine migrations between
different generations of CPUs, while vMotion is the utility used to make the
migrations. The ability to migrate VMs between servers while they are running
with the process completely transparent to any users is one of the leading benefits
of virtualization.
Storage
Network attached storage uses a software network adapter to connect with iSCSI
storage through Ethernet. Enable jumbo frames at the physical switch level and
also at the virtual switch port level. Jumbo Ethernet frames carry up to 9,000
bytes of payload (as opposed to the normal 1,500) and can offer increased data
throughput with reduced CPU utilization, but the network must be configured
to support jumbo frames from end to end.
When configuring the physical NICs on a host, set up NIC teaming in the virtual
switch configuration to enable greater bandwidth for storage traffic.
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Each virtual hard drive on a network is assigned a logical unit number (LUN) for
unique identification. A LUN is a logical unit number of a virtual partition in a
storage array. When assigning virtual hard drives from VM's to a LUN, be sure to
balance intensive and non-intensive I/O applications. This improves
performance by balancing I/O traffic across multiple hard drives. A typical LUN
size is between 400 GB and 800 GB. The maximum number of virtual machine
hard disks (VMDK) on a LUN can not exceed 30, as more VMDKs could
impact the performance because of disk queuing.
The LUN size is calculated by adding the total capacity (GB) of storage required
plus VM Swap File requirements and additional room for VM Snapshots. When
dividing the storage array into LUNs, the following equation can be used to
determine appropriate sizing.
Calculated LUN Size = GB Capacity + VM Swap File Requirements + Snapshot
Reservations
= 30*(average VM virtual disk size) + 30*(average VM RAM) + 15% of (30 x
average disk size).
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Virtual Networks
Connect VMs residing on the same ESXi server and same VLAN to use the same
virtual switch. If separate virtual switches are used and connected to separate
physical NICs, traffic routes separately through the wire and incur unnecessary
CPU and network overhead.
Speed and duplex settings mismatches are common issues that can cause network
problems. For ESXi, VMware recommends autonegotiate for both devices on the
ends of a network link. It is also acceptable to set both ends for ‘1000 MB / Full
Duplex’ or ‘100MB / Full Duplex’ if required by the network hardware.
IMPORTANT
If you connect a manually-configured device to an autonegotiate device
(duplex mismatch), a high rate of transmission errors can occur.
VMware systems demand a high level of network performance by nature, so any
methods to reduce bottlenecks are to be explored. One such method is NIC
teaming, where a single virtual switch can be connected to multiple physical
Ethernet adapters. A team defined in this way can share the traffic load and
provide a means of failover.
There are several options available for load balancing. The default is ‘route based
on the originating virtual switch port ID’, where traffic from a given virtual
Ethernet adapter is consistently sent to one physical adapter (unless there is a
failover). Another option lets the virtual switch to load balance between multiple
physical adapters. This is set by configuring EtherChannel link aggregation on
the Cisco switch and the load balancing setting is set to ‘route based on IP hash’
in the virtual switch.
A combination of NIC teaming and the Cisco Switch load balancing settings are
recommended for improved performance when accessing networked storage.
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Resource Pool Allocation
Resource pools group virtual machines (VMs) to provide dynamic allocation of
CPU and memory resources. Resource pools also contain child resource pools,
enabling very fine-grained resource allocation.
Resource allocation is done on an individual VM basis by using shares,
reservations, and limits. Setting these values on every VM is time-consuming, can
be error-prone, and doesn't scale effectively. Setting these values on a resource
pool is much more efficient, and the values dynamically readjust as VMs and host
resources are added and removed.
Generally, the hypervisor provides excellent scheduling. And, if hosts have
sufficient resources, you can leave the default settings alone. If you wish to control
the VMs that receive more priority or resources, it's more effective and less
error-prone to allocate the VMs at a resource pool level.
IMPORTANT
In a PlantPAx system, make sure that the PASS and Historian servers have
higher priority for consistent performance.
For each resource pool, you set CPU and memory shares, reservations,
expandable reservations, and limits, as shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6 - Setting Resource Pool Allocation
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We recommend that you build three resource pools with the server-type
allotment shown in Table 28.
Table 28 - Server Resource Pool Allocation
Resource Pool Name
CPU Shares
CPU Reservation
Memory Shares
Memory Reservation
Server or Workstation
High
High
50% of available host CPU Hz
High
Minimum as specified for each
virtual template
PASS
AppServ-Hist
Normal
Normal
Zero (0)
Normal
Zero (0)
EWS
OWS
AppServ-Asset
AppServ-Batch
AppServ-Info
AppServ-OWS
Low
Low
Zero (0)
Low
Zero (0)
FactoryTalk Directory
Domain Controller
An allocation of zero (0) means that no resources get locked from being used by
the hypervisor resource allocation algorithm. The Expandable and Unlimited
checkboxes need to be checked.
The CPU or memory shares are relative to any sibling resource pools or VMs.
Shares are used only during periods of contention and are always bound first by
any reservations or limits. In a well-designed PlantPAx system, sufficient
resources are available to all VMs in the resource pool, therefore, we suggest that
shares never be invoked. They are built to make sure the PASS and Historian can
consistently supply data in the case of contention.
Resource Pool Sizing Example
This example shows how to allocate resources based on system requirements.
System:
• 1 server with 2 quad-core CPUs (each core is 2.0 GHz)
• 32 GB of RAM
• Server has a total of 16 GHz of CPU to allocate to virtual machines
PlantPAx system:
• 4 PASS servers and 1AppServ-Hist — High resource pool
• 1 AppServ-OWS, 1 EWS, and 1 AppServ-Asset — Normal resource pool
• 1 FactoryTalk Directory and 1 domain controller — Low resource pool
Following the guidelines above, the High resource pool with get 50% of the CPU
allocated, or 8 GHz. These 8 GHz are further divided into 5 shares of 20%
automatically for each server in the resource pool. Each server receives roughly
1.6 GHz (8 GHz/5 servers) of CPU minimum allocation. The minimum
memory for each server used in the High resource pool is 4 GB. Minimum
memory allocated is 20 GB (4 GB x 5 servers).
The remaining 8 GHz CPU and 12 GB of RAM is used by the hypervisor
resource allocation algorithm to use where needed. The Normal resource pool
has priority over the Low resource pool, but there is no minimum resource
allocation due to the zeroes used for CPU and memory reservation.
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VM Optimization Recommendations
Consider these recommendations when configuring VMs with Rockwell
Automation applications:
• VMware offers options for manually assigning CPUs to VMs, called
CPU affinity. There can be situations that required this granular level of
control, but a general practice is to set VM CPU affinity when necessary
only. Accepting default settings generally results in the best performance.
• If it’s necessary to use a 32-bit guest operating system as a VM on a 64-bit
server, select the CPU/MMU virtualization to use software for the
instruction set, and Memory Management Unit (MMU) virtualization for
improved performance.
• Various options are available for hard drive controllers when provisioning a
Windows 2008 VM. Make sure to select the SCSI controller as LSILogic
Parallel, because by default it is LSILogic SAS. The hard drive still is
virtually handled, but Parallel is the recommended setting.
• While it’s possible for VMs to communicate with each other via the host
by using the network layer, this adds communication overhead. A better
option for VMs that must communicate frequently is to enable VM
Communication Interface (VMCI) on each VM. VMCI is recommended
for all PlantPAx system element VM's. VMCI offers fast and efficient
communication between VMs, and can approach speeds that are five times
greater than a normal internal network.
• There is an option to specify a provisioning policy when a VM or a virtual
disk is created. The provisioning policy can be ‘thick’ where the required
disk space is initially allocated, or it can be ‘thin’ where the disk space starts
small and is allocated as needed. However, for a VM to be compatible with
fault tolerance, it's recommended that the VM use Eager Zero Thick
Provisioning.
• Migrating a powered-on VM from one host to another that contains a
snapshot is not a supported function. See Antivirus and Backup
Recommendations for more information on snapshots.
• Enable the hardware acceleration feature under the advanced graphical
display settings to improve the mouse movement. We recommend that you
set the power options for high performance, with no sleeping
or hibernating.
• Encryption, backup, and defragment services are all examples of
components that can be disabled.
• VMware offers an optimization guide with a comprehensive list of services,
along with recommendations on which to disable. This guide is called
VMware View Optimization Guide for Windows 7.
• Another key is to maintain VMware Tools up-to-date inside each guest
operating system. When migrating or converting a VM from an older
version ESX server, a best practice is to remove the old Tools and install the
latest version.
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Antivirus and Backup Recommendations
VMs are susceptible to virus attacks just like their physical counterparts. Of
course, the same antivirus and malware applications used to help protect physical
machines can be deployed on VMs. When it comes to antivirus, malware, and
backup issues, VMs offer some significant benefits.
VMs are effectively ‘sandboxed’ from each other and the host, but it is possible for
services such as shared folders and network folders to facilitate VMs infecting
each other or the host. By defending the guest systems, protection programs help
ensure the integrity of the entire system.
In most installations, an antivirus package software program is required. The
PlantPAx system specifies Symantec Antivirus software and is the only antivirus
package that is qualified for use with the system.
The antivirus software must be configured on the VM in an optimal way to
maximize performance. The virus scans can be scheduled to take place during the
off-peak hours, and staggered to avoid the collision of application requests for
resources. Real-time virus scanning greatly impacts the performance of the
servers, so this feature can be disabled if possible. Excluding files such as databases
and swap files from virus scans further improves performance.
VMware is capable of taking VM ‘snapshots’ that capture the entire state of the
VM, including the memory and files. Snapshots are not considered to be a proper
backup strategy, but they can be used to restore a VM or file to a known ‘good’
point during testing or development. Snapshots can consume as much disk space
as the VM itself, and by using snapshots negatively impacts VM performance, so
care must be taken with their use.
Because a VM is really just a series of bundled files, it’s easier to back them up
than it is to back up a physical machine. VMware backups to disk are fast to make
as well as to restore. Options are available to back up VMs from the host level, or
to execute full, differential, and incremental backups from within the VM. If
running the backup agent in the VM, we suggest that it be scheduled to run
during off-peak hours.
Just like a physical system, in the event that malware damages files or causes data
loss, you need to have a solid backup and restore plan in place to allow the VM or
its contents to be reverted to a known ‘good’ state.
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VMware Converter Best Practices
In some cases, the virtualized automation system is created from scratch, but in
many other instances, migration from an existing PlantPAx system is required.
VMware vCenter Converter Standalone is the software tool used to convert
physical machines and third-party disk images into a VM format ready to deploy
in a virtualized system. The latest version of VMware Converter must always be
used.
We suggest that you use the following best practices when making conversions:
• Running vCenter Converter as a local administrator is fundamental to
avert any permission issues. Remote conversions are possible, but one must
still log in as administrator.
• As with all software installations, it is recommended to stop as many
running programs as possible. In particular, databases such as SQL must
have their services and applications stopped to avoid data file corruption.
Disabling real-time antivirus scanning is also recommend as it removes
another possible cause of conflict during the process.
• If the destination is an ESXi host, then connection to it can be made by
using the actual IP address instead of the DNS host name to circumvent
any connection issues. The source disk needs at least 200 MB of space to
support snapshot features used by Converter, and if the source partition is
larger than 256 GB, then it's necessary to increase the destination
datastore's block size above the 1 MB default.
• Never convert diagnostic or recovery partitions, or unrecognized file
systems. Also, refrain from modifying the recommended systems settings,
such as resizing partitions or adjusting network interface card (NIC)
quantities.
• Before running the application for the first time after conversion, adjust
the number of virtual NICs, customize the computer name, and assign the
IP addresses as needed for unique identification. Remove any unnecessary
virtual devices such as COM ports, floppy drives, and USB controllers.
• Start the VM in Safe Mode, and use the normal Windows functions to
remove any unnecessary devices, drivers, and other items. The idea is to
streamline the instance to the greatest extent possible. Restart in Normal
Mode and check the Event Log for any error messages that need to
be addressed.
• With the newly converted VM up and running normally, install VMware
Tools, and restart if required. For some systems it can be necessary to
customize the VM's identity further through the use of the Microsoft
SysPrep utility. In any case, be sure that the VM boots normally, and
confirm any static IP addresses, as well as reconnect any disconnected
virtual NICs.
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• Pay attention to the virtual disk type. Many times the conversion default is
for the VM to use an IDE virtual disk that can cause degraded
performance or even an initial failure to boot. The solution is to convert
the virtual IDE disk to a virtual SCSI disk. Follow detailed VMware
Knowledgebase instructions (at kb.vmware.com, search for ‘convert virtual
IDE to SCSI’) for the procedures.
• If any difficulties are experienced with the conversion process, try again
but reduce the number of optional settings. The latest specifics of VM
converting can be found by searching the VMware Knowledgebase for
topics such as ‘Converter Best Practices’.
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Operating System
Recommendations
The following recommendations apply regardless if you are using a virtual or
traditional environment and the size or complexity of the system operation.
Domains and Workgroups
We recommend that PlantPAx servers and workstations be members of a
Windows domain. However, workgroups are supported for systems with
10 or fewer workstations and servers.
Configuration
Details
Workgroup - decentralized administration
(allowed if 10 or fewer computers)
Workgroup advantages:
• No domain controller (Windows Server OS) to purchase or maintain.
• Recommended for small PlantPAx applications only where user accounts do not change often
Workgroup rules:
• All workstation and server system elements in a single PlantPAx system must be members of the same workgroup
• All users participating in the workgroup must be members of the Administrators group
• Create the same set of user accounts and passwords on every computer in a FactoryTalk View application
Domain - centralized administration
(recommended)
Domain advantages:
• One place to manage users, groups, and security settings
• Recommended for larger PlantPAx applications, or environments with changing user accounts
Domain rules:
• All workstation and server system elements in a single PlantPAx system must be members of the same domain
• PlantPAx server system elements must not be used as domain controllers.
• Required for systems with more than 10 computers
• The domain controller must be its own independent computer with no other application software.
Domain Recommendations
We recommend that all PlantPAx system servers and workstations be a member
of a domain. Follow these additional recommendations:
• Windows Active Directory (AD) domains include the concept of a ‘forest’
that can consist of a single ‘domain tree’ or multiple domain trees.
TIP
A domain tree can consist of a single (parent) domain or multiple
(child) domains. A single forest, single tree, single domain
configuration is recommended. In a Windows 2008 Active Directory,
both domains and forests have individual functional levels.
• We recommend configuring at least two domain controllers in the domain.
These domain controllers replicate automatically to provide high
availability and an online configuration backup. If you have a single
domain controller, and it goes offline, your system goes offline.
• The domain servers also must be configured to include Domain Name
Service (DNS) that lets you identify devices by name rather than
IP addresses.
• Configure time synchronization throughout a domain.
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• New and existing active directory domains must have operations verified
by using Microsoft’s Domain Controller Diagnostics (Dcdiag.exe) utility.
This utility is included with the Windows support tools on the operating
system CD and can also be downloaded from Microsoft.
IMPORTANT
Do not install the Windows domain controller on the PlantPAx PASS server or
application servers.
Windows Workgroup Recommendations
The PlantPAx system can use a Windows workgroup network environment for
systems with 10 or fewer computers. However, if you are using a Windows XP
operating system you must turn off simple file sharing and fast user switching on
each PlantPAx server and workstation in the workgroup.
Complete these steps to turn off simple file sharing in the Windows XP
operating system.
1. On the desktop or in Windows Explorer, right-click My Computer and
choose Explore.
2. From the Tools menu, click Folder Options.
The Folder Options dialog box appears.
3. Under Advanced settings, click the View tab and clear the Use simple file
sharing checkbox.
Complete these steps to turn off fast user switching in the Windows XP
operating system.
1. Open the Windows Control Panel, and double-click User Accounts.
2. Click the Change the way Users Log on and Off link.
3. Clear the Use Fast User Switching checkbox.
4. Click Apply Options.
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Internet Information Server (IIS)
The Internet Information Server (IIS) provides graphics displays and other
file-based components from the HMI server on the PASS to OWS and EWS
workstations by using Web-based Distributed Authoring and Visioning
(WebDAV). WebDAV is an extension to the HTTP protocol that facilitates
editing and managing files across multiple users and workstations.
In addition, when OWS and EWS workstations issue FactoryTalk View
commands that must be run on the HMI server, the commands are sent by
using the IIS platform.
Therefore, the IIS software is a required component on the PASS. We
recommend against the installation of IIS on any other system elements.
See Chapter 2 of the FactoryTalk View Site Edition Installation Guide,
publication VIEWSE-IN003, for more information.
Server and Workstation Time Synchronization
System time synchronization is important so that the internal clocks in the
controllers, workstations, and servers reference the same time for any event or
alarm that occurs. Configure the PASS, App-servers, OWS, and EWS to use a
single server (for example, a domain controller) as their time reference and keep
their clocks tightly synched to it.
Computer Time Synchronization
The Windows Time service uses the network time protocol (NTP) to
synchronize computer clocks on the network from the domain controller. Each
computer in the process system uses the domain controller as the authoritative
time source and synchronizes their clock to it. Check the Event Viewer System
log of each computer to verify that the time is updated properly.
After configuring the domain controller for time synchronization, you can use
the Windows w32tm command line tool to identify any time difference between
an individual computer and the domain controller. This command measures the
time difference.
w32tm /stripchart /computer:<target>[/period:<refresh>] [/dataonly]
Parameter
Identifies
computer:<target>
The computer to measure the offset against.
period:<refresh>
The time between samples, in seconds. The default is 2 s.
dataonly
To display the data only without graphics.
The w32tm/resync command manually forces a computer to resynchronize its
clock to the domain controller as soon as possible and resets error statistics.
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Operating System Optimization
The following recommendations enhance the performance of your
operating system:
• Turn off Windows automatic updates to prevent compatibility issues with
existing PlantPAx components on your workstations.
See Maintenance Recommendations for more information on how to
apply Microsoft patches to your PlantPAx system.
• Disable operating system themes that provide personalized computer
effects such as sounds and icons. These types of elements diminish
processor speed when running some FactoryTalk View SE graphic
components, such as alarm summaries.
• Disable or uninstall all third-party firewalls on a workstation before
installing FactoryTalk View SE software, which is compatible only with
the built-in Windows operating system firewall.
• Activate Data Execution Prevention (DEP) for workstations running
FactoryTalk View SE components. This security feature protects against
viruses and other security threats by preventing unauthorized programs
from running executable program code.
• Remove Enhanced Security Configuration (ESC) from workstations
running FactoryTalk View SE software. The Windows 2008 security
settings protect servers by limiting how users can browse the Internet on a
computer, but can hinder FactoryTalk clients connecting to application
servers.
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Network Recommendations
The Ethernet network provides the communication backbone for the
supervisory network for the workstations, servers, and the controllers:
• Configure all communication interfaces to operate at the fastest speed
possible for your hardware configuration, full duplex for 10/100 network
adapters. See Important below for autonegotiate.
IMPORTANT
The speed and duplex settings for the devices on the same Ethernet
network must be the same to avoid transmission errors.
• Fixed speed and full duplex settings are more reliable than
autonegotiate settings and are recommended for some applications.
• If the module is connected to an unmanaged switch, leave
Autonegotiate port speed and duplex checked or communication can
be impaired.
• If you force the port speed and duplex with a managed switch, the
corresponding port of the managed switch must be forced to the same
settings or the module fails.
• If you connect a manually-configured device to an autonegotiate
device (duplex mismatch), a high rate of transmission errors can occur.
• Disable power saving for the Network Interface Card (NIC) that connects
a workstation to other devices on the network. The power-saving feature
turns off the network card when not in use, which can interfere with
network throughput.
• If multiple DCOM protocols are installed and set up on a workstation, to
make sure that DCOM communication functions correctly, remove all
protocols other than TCP/IP.
• Use static IP addresses.
• Consider cable type for environmental conditions.
Type
Details
Fiber-optic
•
•
•
•
•
Shielded twisted pair
• Use Category 5e, 6, or 6a cables and connectors
• Use termination sequence 568A for industrial applications
Long distances
Near high magnetic fields, such as induction-heating processes
For extreme high-noise environments
For poorly grounded systems
For outdoor applications
Refer to these publications for additional information:
• For correcting a duplex mismatch, see Troubleshoot EtherNet/IP
Networks, publication ENET-AT003.
• For fiber cable specifications and an example of dB loss, see Appendix C
in the EtherNet/IP Modules Installation Instructions,
publication ENET-IN002.
• For selecting architecture, see the EtherNet Design Considerations
Reference Manual, publication ENET-RM002, or the PlantPAx Selection
Guide, publication PROCES-SG001.
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Ethernet Switches
The supervisory network must have managed switches that direct specific
messages to multicast groups. Do not use unmanaged switches. The behavior of
an unmanaged switch is to flood multicast packets to all ports within the
same VLAN.
The first switch that Rockwell Automation equipment touches must have IGMP
snooping enabled. IGMP snooping enables switches to forward multicast packets
to ports that are only part of a particular multicast group.
IMPORTANT
All applications require proper configuration to achieve the best system
performance. If you do not configure the managed switch, it’s possible that
system performance can be adversely affected. We recommend that you
contact your system administrator if there are any doubts on the installation
and configuration.
Select the switch depending on the network functionality.
If
Then
Recommended Media
• Supervisory
• Routing information to other networks
Layer 3 switches
• Stratix 8300
• Cisco Catalyst 3560G or equivalent
• Cisco Catalyst 3750x or equivalent
• Cisco Catalyst 3850
Fiber(1)
• Connecting control hardware, sensors, and
workstations
• Isolated networks
Layer 2 switches
Stratix 8000™
Stratix 6000™
Stratix 5700™
Cisco Catalyst 2960G or equivalent
Layer 2/3 Services Router
Stratix 5900™
Layer 2 Wireless Access Point/Workgroup Bridge
Stratix 5100™
1585-series copper media
High availability at switch level
Layer 3 switch
• Cisco Catalyst 3750x or equivalent
• Cisco Catalyst 3850
Fiber(1)
(1) For uplink cables between Layer 2-3, fiber is recommended for 1 GB connectivity.
For more information, see these resources:
• Ethernet switches -- Ethernet Design Considerations Reference Manual,
publication ENET-RM002
• Ethernet switch configuration -- Converged Plantwide Ethernet (CPwE)
Design and Implementation Guide, publication ENET-TD001
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Notes:
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Chapter
6
Field Device Integration Recommendations
Modern field devices, such as drives and flow transmitters, are often
microprocessor-based. These smart devices provide digital data that is used for
commissioning, maintenance, troubleshooting, and most importantly, control.
Smart field devices use two-way, digital protocols for communication. Common
field device communication options on the PlantPAx system include
EtherNet/IP, ControlNet, DeviceNet, FOUNDATION Fieldbus,
PROFIBUS PA networks or by using HART.
This section provides general recommendations for configuring tools on the
networks and HART protocol mentioned above to gather real-time information
and diagnostics to make well-informed business decisions.
Additionally, many other networks and I/O protocols can be integrated into the
PlantPAx system. For more information on Encompass™ third-party products, see
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/encompass.
The following table describes where to find specific information.
Topic
Page
Device Configuration Options
86
EtherNet/IP Recommendations
86
ControlNet Recommendations
88
DeviceNet Recommendations
89
HART Recommendations
90
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Recommendations
91
PROFIBUS PA Recommendations
93
Motor Control Recommendations
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Device Configuration Options
There are several options for configuring field devices, including the following:
• Handheld devices for selected field device networks or protocols
• Manually configuring some instruments by using the local interface
• Enterprise-wide solution by using FactoryTalk AssetCentre
FactoryTalk AssetCentre for Enterprise Solution
FactoryTalk AssetCentre software can be used as a centralized tool that lets you
manage field devices from multiple vendors, networks, and protocols from one
common platform. FactoryTalk AssetCentre software leverages FDT technology
that standardizes the communication interface between field devices and host
systems. This functionality lets any device to be accessed from FactoryTalk
AssetCentre software regardless of the communication method.
The FDT interface also enables FactoryTalk AssetCentre software to integrate
many different kinds of devices, including handheld diagnostic tools.
For more information, see the following publications:
• FactoryTalk AssetCentre Product Profile, publication FTALK-PP001
• FDT website at http://www.fdtgroup.org
The EtherNet/IP protocol is a multi-discipline, control, and information
platform for use in industrial environments and time-critical applications.
EtherNet/IP uses standard Ethernet and TCP/IP technologies and an open,
application layer protocol that is called the Common Industrial Protocol (CIP).
EtherNet/IP
Recommendations
A growing number of field devices, including flow transmitters and drives, are
available that support EtherNet/IP.
Table 29 - EtherNet/IP Interfaces
Category
Product
Description
ControlLogix controller interface
1756-EN2T, 1756-EN2TR,1756-EN3TR,
1756-EN2F
1756-ENBT
1756-EN2TSC
ControlLogix EtherNet/IP bridge.
1756-EWEB
Same as the 1756-ENBT but does not support Ethernet I/O control nor
produced/consumed tags.
1788-EN2FFR
EtherNet/IP to FOUNDATION Fieldbus linking device. Supports H1 FOUNDATION
Fieldbus network. Compatible with ControlLogix redundancy. Built-in functionality
for the Ethernet DLR.
1788-EN2PAR
EtherNet/IP to PROFIBUS PA linking device. Supports PA media. Compatible with
ControlLogix redundancy. Built-in functionality for the Ethernet DLR.
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EtherNet/IP I/O Communication Options
Follow these guidelines for EtherNet/IP networks:
Network
• Configure all communication interfaces to operate at the fastest speed
possible for your hardware configuration, full duplex for 10/100 network
adapters. See the Important below for autonegotiate.
IMPORTANT
The speed and duplex settings for the devices on the same Ethernet
network must be the same to avoid transmission errors.
• Fixed speed and full duplex settings are more reliable than
autonegotiate settings and are recommended for some applications.
• If the module is connected to an unmanaged switch, leave
Autonegotiate port speed and duplex checked or communication can
be impaired.
• If you force the port speed and duplex with a managed switch, the
corresponding port of the managed switch must be forced to the same
settings or the module fails.
• If you connect a manually-configured device to an autonegotiate
device (duplex mismatch), a high rate of transmission errors can occur.
• When expanding the I/O configuration tree, make sure your I/O module
RPI is two times faster than the periodic task that you are using.
• As you expand the I/O configuration tree, devices will affect the
CIP/TCP count differently. Never use more than 80% of the available
connections for the bridge modules.
• I/O packets per second (pps) describes an implicit message rate (Class 1).
An I/O Comms Utilization value approaching or above 80% can
necessitate an adjustment to the RPI.
• HMI packets per second (pps) describes an explicit message rate (Class 3).
RSLinx connections and message instructions generate CIP traffic. HMI
traffic is TCP-based, not UDP-based.
• The combination of implicit and explicit messaging provides a total
utilization for a device. If you add implicit messaging (I/O), it takes
bandwidth from the HMI because it has higher priority than HMI
messaging. The combination of CIP implicit (highest priority) and CIP
explicit (second priority) cannot exceed 100% use.
Devices
• Consider packets per second (see notes above) for performance if using
many devices.
• Use compatible keying on Ethernet communication modules. In a
validated environment, you can use an exact match for keying.
See the documentation listed in Additional Resources on page 10 for
more information.
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The ControlNet network is an open, control network that combines the
functionality of an I/O network and a peer-to-peer network, providing
high-speed performance for both functions.
ControlNet
Recommendations
ControlNet I/O Communication Options
In a PlantPAx system, the ControlNet network supports controller downlinks
and connections to remote I/O and field device interfaces. The network is
unaffected when devices are connected or disconnected from the network.
Table 29 - ControlNet Interface
Category
Product
Description
ControlLogix controller interface
1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R
1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR
ControlLogix ControlNet scanner.
1788-CN2FFR
ControlNet to FOUNDATION Fieldbus linking device. Supports H1 FOUNDATION
Fieldbus networks. Compatible with ControlLogix redundancy and redundant
ControlNet media.
1788-CN2PAR
ControlNet to PROFIBUS PA linking device. Supports redundant PROFIBUS PA media
and redundant ControlNet media. Compatible with ControlLogix redundancy.
Follow these guidelines for ControlNet networks:
Network
• When configuring the ControlNet network with RSNetWorx™ for
ControlNet software, select Optimize and re-write the schedule for
all connections.
If changes are made to the ControlNet configuration, upload the
configuration to make sure it gets backed up to the RSLogix 5000 project.
• Use a maximum of five controllers with a rack-optimized, listen-only
connection to the module.
• Use a maximum of 64 I/O modules on an unscheduled remote I/O
ControlNet network.
• Use a maximum of 20 ControlNet interface modules per controller.
Devices
• A ControlNet node can transmit 480 bytes of scheduled data in a single
network update time (NUT).
• I/O modules on ControlNet can be unscheduled to allow adding
I/O online.
• Do not leave any ControlNet node addressed 99 (this is the default address
on some new devices).
See the documentation listed in Additional Resources on page 10 for
more information.
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DeviceNet Recommendations
Chapter 6
The DeviceNet network is an open, device-level network that provides
connections between simple industrial devices (such as sensors and actuators)
and higher-level devices (such as PLC controllers and computers).
DeviceNet Communication Options
In a PlantPAx system, the DeviceNet network connects networked
control devices.
Table 30 - DeviceNet Interface
Category
Product
Description
ControlLogix controller interface
1756-DNB
ControlLogix DeviceNet scanner.
Follow these guidelines for DeviceNet networks:
Network
• Connect up to 48 devices to the scanner when an average amount of data
input and outputs is used.
• Use a maximum of 80% of the available scanner input and output memory.
• If you use more input and output device data, we recommend that you
reduce the number of devices. For example, an MCC device, such as a soft
starter, with all the available data enabled can use up to 40 bytes for input
and 40 bytes for output. In this scenario, the maximum devices that we
recommend connecting to the scanner is 10.
• To make sure the network is within limits, calculate the amount of input
and output memory that the scanner needs.
• We recommend disabling Auto Address Recovery. If enabled, in some
scenarios like a power outage, two devices can auto-recover to the
same address.
• Store EDS files in a common location so they can be installed on
engineering workstations.
Scanner
• Keep DeviceNet communication modules in the local chassis. If the
communication module is in a remote chassis, set the input and output
sizes to match the data configured in RSNetWorx for DeviceNet software.
• Never have any device set to the default node address of 62 (reserved for
personal computer) or 63 (reserved for new device to be configured).
• Set the scanner address to node 0.
• Keep the Interscan Delay ≥ 5 ms.
• Set DeviceNet scanner RPI time to half the scan rate of the fastest task in
the controller that uses the DeviceNet network, but not less than 2 ms.
• Use Background poll when possible. Keep (Foreground to Background
Poll Ratio) * (Interscan Delay) > 75 ms.
See the documentation listed in Additional Resources on page 10 for
more information.
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HART is an open protocol designed to provide digital data over 4…20 mA
analog signals.
HART Recommendations
HART Communication Options
The PlantPAx system interfaces both directly and via remote I/O modules to
provide a single termination point to gather analog process variables and the
additional HART digital data.
Table 31 - HART Interface
Category
Product
Description
Chassis-based I/O modules
1756-IF8H, 1756-OF8H
1756-IF16H
ControlLogix analog I/O modules with the following:
• Standard profiles in RSLogix 5000 software
• DTMs
1756-IF8IH, 1756-OF8IH
ControlLogix analog isolated I/O modules.
MVI56-HART
ProSoft Technology(1), HART multi-drop communication interface module for
ControlLogix system for use in FactoryTalk AssetCentre Process Device Configuration
or other asset management system based on FDT Technology (IEC-62453, ISA103).
1734sc-IE4CH, 1734sc-IE2CH
Spectrum Controls(1), analog and Ethernet I/O with HART for POINT I/O™ modules.
1734sc-OE2ICH
Spectrum Controls, isolated analog output with HART for POINT i/O modules.
1769sc-IF4IH, 1769sc-OF4IH
Spectrum Controls, isolated analog input and output modules with HART for
Compact I/O.
1794-IE8H, 1794-OE8H
1794-IF8IH, 1794-OF8IH
1797-IE8H, 1797-OE8H, IF8IHNFXT
Rockwell Automation, analog I/O with HART for FLEX™ I/O and FLEX Ex™ I/O
modules.
See the Technical Data and Selection Guide, publications 1794-TD018, 1794-SG002.
Multiplexers/gateways
WirelessHART gateway
Pepperl+Fuchs(1), wireless HART gateway.
Network configuration
Field Xpert SFX350, Field Xpert SFX370
Endress+Hauser(1), handheld configurations and diagnostic devices.
Distributed I/O modules
(1) For more information on Encompass™ third-party products, see http://www.rockwellautomation.com/encompass.
Follow these guidelines for connectivity to a HART I/O card:
Network
• For 8-channel HART cards, only enable HART data on the channels that
are connected to HART devices and you want to receive HART data.
Enabling unused channels reduces system resources and performance.
• For 16-channel HART cards, there is no decrease in system performance
by enabling all channels.
Devices
• If using HART data for control, check the data quality bits.
• For controlling fast loops, use only the 4...20 mA output of the instrument
for control instead of the extended HART data.
For more information, see the following resources:
• E+H Instruments via HART to PlantPAx User Manual,
publication PROCES-UM002
• Documentation listed in Additional Resources on page 10
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Chapter 6
The FOUNDATION Fieldbus network is a digital, two-way, multi-drop
communication link among multiple intelligent field devices and
automation systems.
FOUNDATION Fieldbus
Recommendations
FOUNDATION Fieldbus Communication Options
The PlantPAx system communicates with FOUNDATION Fieldbus devices
through EtherNet/IP and ControlNet linking devices.
Table 32 - FOUNDATION Fieldbus Interface
Category
Cat. No.
Description
EtherNet/IP interface
1788-EN2FFR
EtherNet/IP to FOUNDATION Fieldbus linking device. Supports H1 FOUNDATION
Fieldbus network. Compatible with ControlLogix redundancy. Built-in functionality
for the Ethernet DLR.
ControlNet interface
1788-CN2FFR
ControlNet to FOUNDATION Fieldbus linking device. Supports H1 FOUNDATION
Fieldbus networks. Compatible with ControlLogix redundancy and redundant
ControlNet media.
FOUNDATION Fieldbus network
components
Power conditioning
Both linking devices have built-in power conditioning.
1788-FBJB4R
Intelligent junction box supports redundancy, includes four drop ports.
1788-FBJB6
Intelligent junction box with six drop ports.
Network components
Pepperl+Fuchs(1), FOUNDATION Fieldbus components including the following:
• Terminators
• Segment protection
• Power products
(1) For more information on Encompass™ third-party products, see http://www.rockwellautomation.com/encompass.
Follow these guidelines for FOUNDATION Fieldbus networks:
Simplex controllers
• We recommend a maximum of 32 fieldbus segments.
• Use 8…12 devices per segment.
• Use only two terminators per bus segment to prevent distortion and
signal loss. Some linking devices have built-in terminators but typically
terminators are placed at the ends of the trunk.
Redundant controllers
• We recommend a maximum of 16 fieldbus segments.
• Use 8…12 devices per segment.
• Use only two terminators per bus segment to prevent distortion and
signal loss. Terminators are placed at the ends of the trunk.
IMPORTANT
Each linking device, whether configured with a simplex or redundant
controller, can support one H1 segment.
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Network
• To make sure the fieldbus network is within limits, add up your field device
connections per segment to estimate controller I/O memory.
• Ground the network cable only to the distribution side. Do not
connect either conductor of the linking device to ground to prevent
communication loss.
• Amount of load and voltage drop determine maximum cable length. For
example, the more field devices and junction boxes added to the cable
increases the load, which increases signal attenuation. Likewise, the bigger
the load and longer the cable, the bigger the voltage drop.
• The voltage specification for the H1 segment is 9…32V DC. We
recommend that you use a 24V DC, 1 A Fieldbus Foundation power
supply and be sure to keep the voltage above 13V DC at the farthest end of
the segment.
• Signal quality can be adversely affected by placing the cable near motors,
high-voltage, or high-current cables.
• The update time (macrocycle) for the H1 network is determined by the
bandwidth that each device fills. This data is provided in the device’s
DD files.
Devices
• The linking device is a direct link between field devices on a Logix
platform and the EtherNet/IP or ControlNet networks.
• Each linking device in the scanner uses four CIP connections in
the controller.
• Built-in power conditioners reduce installation space requirements and
open- and short-circuit protection guards against line faults.
• The RSLogix 5000 Add-On Profile (AOP) and graphical user-interface
provides for online device configuration. New devices are automatically
shown in the Live List.
• Add-On Profile (AOP) diagnostics that include an on-board oscilloscope
report linking device and network statistics, such as noise and signal level
and bad termination.
• Multiple levels of device and media redundancy are supported, including
ring and dual trunk.
See the documentation listed in Additional Resources on page 10 for
more information.
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Field Device Integration Recommendations
Chapter 6
The PROFIBUS PA network connects automation systems and process control
systems with field devices such as flow, pressure, and temperature transmitters.
PROFIBUS PA
Recommendations
PROFIBUS PA Communication Options
The PlantPAx system communicates with PROFIBUS PA devices through
EtherNet/IP and ControlNet linking devices.
Table 33 - PROFIBUS PA Interface
Category
Cat. No.
Description
PROFIBUS interface
1788-EN2PAR
EtherNet/IP to PROFIBUS PA linking device. Supports redundant PROFIBUS PA media
and redundant ControlNet media. Compatible with ControlLogix redundancy.
Built-in functionality for the Ethernet DLR.
1788-CN2PAR
ControlNet to PROFIBUS PA linking device. Supports redundant PROFIBUS PA media
and redundant ControlNet media. Compatible with ControlLogix redundancy.
Power conditioning
Both linking devices have built-in power conditioning.
1788-FBJB4R
Intelligent junction box supports redundancy, includes four drop ports.
1788-FBJB6
Intelligent junction box with six drop ports.
Network components
Pepperl+Fuchs, PROFIBUS PA components including the following:
• Terminators
• Segment protection
• Power products
See the Encompass website for Pepperl+Fuchs product offerings.
PROFIBUS network components
Follow these guidelines for PROFIBUS PA networks:
Simplex controllers
• We recommend a maximum of 32 PROFIBUS segments.
• Use 15…20 devices per segment.
Redundant controllers
• We recommend a maximum of 16 PROFIBUS segments.
• The PROFIBUS PA segment is split between two physical ports. Use
up to 10 devices per port.
Network
• PROFIBUS PA is a master-slave network.
• To make sure the PROFIBUS network is within limits, add up your field
device connections per segment to estimate controller I/O memory.
• Ground the network cable only to the distribution side. Do not
connect either conductor of the linking device to ground to prevent
communication loss.
• Amount of load and voltage drop determine maximum cable length. For
example, the more field devices and junction boxes added to the cable
increases the load, which increases signal attenuation. Likewise, the bigger
the load and longer the cable, the bigger the voltage drop.
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Chapter 6
Field Device Integration Recommendations
• The voltage specification for the PROFIBUS PA segment is 9…32V DC.
We recommend that you use a 24V DC PA power supply and be sure to
keep the voltage above 13V DC at the farthest end of the segment.
• Signal quality can be adversely affected by placing the cable near motors,
high-voltage, or high-current cables.
Devices
• The linking device is a direct link between PROFIBUS PA devices and
the EtherNet/IP or ControlNet networks, with no intermediate
PROFIBUS DP (decentralized peripherals) layer required.
• Each linking device in the scanner uses four CIP connections in
the controller.
• Built-in power conditioners reduce installation space requirements and
open- and short-circuit protection guards against line faults.
• The RSLogix 5000 Add-On Profile (AOP) and graphical user-interface
provides for online device configuration. New devices are automatically
shown in the Live List.
• Add-On profile (AOP) diagnostics that include an on-board oscilloscope
report linking device and network statistics, such as noise and signal level
and bad termination.
• Multiple levels of device and media redundancy are supported, including
ring and dual trunk.
See the documentation listed in Additional Resources on page 10 for
more information.
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Field Device Integration Recommendations
Motor Control
Recommendations
Chapter 6
Rockwell Automation offers two low-voltage motor control centers (MCC) that
integrate control and power in one centralized location. The CENTERLINE®
2100 or CENTERLINE 2500 MCCs can house starters, soft-starters, and drives
to meet IEC, UL, and NEMA standards.
Devices
• Each MCC Ethernet/IP device consumes one TCP and CIP connection.
Using the 1756-EN2TR module, the maximum connections supported
are 256 CIP connections and 128 TCP connections.
• Following the 1756-EN2TR module guidelines, we cannot exceed 80%
of the maximum connections. Therefore, it’s not recommended to
use more than 100 MCC Ethernet/IP devices in a single 1756-EN2TR
bridge module.
If it is necessary to use more than 100 MCC Ethernet/IP devices, it is
recommended to add one more 1756-EN2TR bridge module, splitting the
communication to balance the bridges’ load.
• It is not recommended to use more than 150 devices in a single Simplex
controller. Considering this limit, the expected CPU load is almost in
recommended limits. In this scenario, we are using only the MCC
Ethernet/IP components with the Rockwell Automation Library of
Process Objects.
But, in a typical application, it is necessary to have other devices and
objects in the same controller. This means there is a possibility that you
cannot achieve the maximum 150 Ethernet/IP MCC components. It
depends on your specific application. The PSE helps to determine
these loads.
• Another important consideration is to use an adequate requested packet
interval (RPI) to each device. We recommend that the RPI is half-speed of
the task that is using the device. The default RPI timing can sometimes
overuse the communication resources.
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Chapter 6
Field Device Integration Recommendations
Notes:
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Chapter
7
Batch Management and Control
Recommendations
PlantPAx batch management and control includes two options for a
scalable solution:
• Controller-based single unit or multiple independent unit solution, called
Logix Batch and Sequence Manager (LBSM)
• AppServ-Batch for a comprehensive batch solution (FactoryTalk Batch)
LBSM is the controller-based solution consisting of controller code and
visualization elements for use on Logix5000 and FactoryTalk View software.
Refer to the PlantPAx Selection Guide and Knowledgebase Answer ID 62366 at
http://www.rockwellautomation.custhelp.com for more information on LBSM.
AppServ-Batch uses FactoryTalk Batch software for a comprehensive,
server-based solution that leverages Logix functionality (PhaseManager™). This
chapter provides basic setup information for a comprehensive batch solution by
using FactoryTalk Batch software.
The following table describes where to find specific information.
Topic
Page
FactoryTalk Batch Critical System Attributes
98
Batch Guidelines for Logix
98
Using a Redundant System with a FactoryTalk Batch Server
99
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Chapter 7
Batch Management and Control Recommendations
FactoryTalk Batch Critical
System Attributes
The following critical system attributes (CSA) were used to verify performance
for FactoryTalk Batch during process system characterization.
Table 34 - FactoryTalk Batch CSA
Batch Critical System Attribute
Performance
Idle state - start command
The time from the start command to the first scan of the running routine is no more than 1 second.
Running state - hold command
The time from the hold command to the first scan of the holding routine is no more than 1 second.
Running state - stop command
The time from the stop command to the first scan of the stopping routine is no more than 1 second.
Running state - abort command
The time from the abort command to the first scan of the aborting routine is no more than 1 second.
Held state - restart command
The time from the restart command to the first scan of the restarting routine is no more than 1 second.
Held state - stop command
The time from the stop command to the first scan of the stopping routine is no more than 1 second.
Held state - abort command
The time from the abort command to the first scan of the aborting routine is no more than 1 second.
Phase fail transition
The time from the phase failure initiation to the held state is no more than 1 second.
Phase transition time
The time from for one phase to complete and another to start is no more than 1 second.
Batch Guidelines for Logix
98
Phases can be developed by using PhaseManager to provide maximum
modularity and reusability.
• In each phase, the running routine can keep track of what step it is
executing by using a step index variable (part of the equipment phase
user-defined structure).
• If you are using sequencer logic (SFC) for state logic programming, the
restarting state routine must reset the running SFC back to a specific
sequence step, based on the step the running SFC was in when the phase
received the Hold command, and on what actions the Holding state
routine took with the equipment controlled.
• A Prestate routine is a state that can be added to each phase and always
evaluated. The Prestate routine can be used to keep active or enable
functionality (for example, a phase that runs an agitator that does not stop
when Held, but you must keep track of the time the agitator ran).
• For SFC, any conditional code that is required for transitions (such as a
transition to the next step on a timer done) can be implemented by using
separately defined phase tags as opposed to step tag attributes. This
prevents errors when copying sequencer logic.
• For more information, see these resources:
• PhaseManager User Manual, publication LOGIX-UM001.
– Instructions on setting up and using a Logix5000 controller with
equipment phases.
• Factory Talk Batch PhaseManager Users Guide,
publication BATCH-UM011.
– Specifics on using PhaseManager with FactoryTalk Batch software.
• Tips on Using PhaseManager with FactoryTalk Batch,
publication FTALK-WP001.
– White paper with best practice for PhaseManager.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
Batch Management and Control Recommendations
Chapter 7
If your system requirements include the batch not going to hold on a controller
switchover, you need to use both a ControlNet bridge module and an EtherNet/
IP bridge module to connect to the FactoryTalk Batch server. If batch hold upon
controller switchover is acceptable, you can connect to the FactoryTalk Batch
server directly from an EtherNet/IP module placed in the redundant chassis.
Using a Redundant System
with a FactoryTalk Batch
Server
This illustration demonstrates one method of bridging the ControlNet network
of the redundant system to the EtherNet/IP network that the FactoryTalk Batch
server is running on.
FactoryTalk Batch Server
Workstation or HMI
EtherNet/IP Network
Primary ControlLogix Chassis
Logix 556x
%
.
4
,
Secondary ControlLogix Chassis
Logix 556x
,
2
-
#
.
2
%
.
4
Logix 556x
Logix 556x
,
,
2
-
#
.
2
Fiber-optic Cable
%
.
4
#
.
2
ControlNet Redundant Module
EtherNet/IP Network
To Remote I/O
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
46286
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Chapter 7
Batch Management and Control Recommendations
Notes:
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Chapter
8
Information Management Recommendations
Information Management application servers (AppServ-Info) are used for data
collection (such as a FactoryTalk Historian server) or decision support (such as a
FactoryTalk VantagePoint server).
IMPORTANT
We recommend that you host FactoryTalk Historian and FactoryTalk
VantagePoint applications on separate information management servers.
The following table describes where to find specific information.
Topic
Page
FactoryTalk Historian Overview
101
Tips and Best Practices
102
Architectural Best Practices
102
FactoryTalk VantagePoint Overview
102
Tips and Best Practices
FactoryTalk Historian
Overview
102
This section provides fundamental best-practice guidelines for implementing
FactoryTalk Historian Site Edition (SE) software on PlantPAx systems.
The FactoryTalk Historian SE product is a co-developed with OSIsoft and, while
it shares many of the same features and functionality available in their Plant
Information (‘PI’) product, the development, documentation, and support of the
FactoryTalk Historian SE software is owned by Rockwell Automation. With that
in mind, references to ‘OSIsoft’ and ‘PI’ are included in the product and
the documentation.
In a PlantPAx system, the FactoryTalk Historian SE software collects, stores, and
manages data from the plant in the PlantPAx system. The software includes these
hardware and software components:
• Data Sources - Plant floor devices and instruments that generate data,
typically controllers. Other Data Sources can include external databases.
• Historian SE Interfaces - Compresses and stores the collected data and
acts as a data server for Microsoft Windows-based client applications. It’s
also possible to use the Historian SE server to interact with data that is
stored in external systems.
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Chapter 8
Information Management Recommendations
• Historian SE Server - Compresses and stores the collected data and acts as
a data server for Microsoft Windows-based clients applications. It is also
possible to use the Historian SE Server to interact with data that is stored
in external systems.
• Historian SE Clients - Microsoft Windows-based applications that are
used by plant personnel to visualize the Historian SE data.
Tips and Best Practices
For access to the collection of tips and best practices, refer to Knowledgebase
Answer ID 56070 - FactoryTalk Historian SE Tips and Best Practices TOC
at https://www.rockwellautomation.custhelp.com
Architectural Best Practices
The following distributed system is representative of how the components
can be configured:
• AppServ-Info Historian: Historian SE Server
• PASS: Historian SE Interface, FTLD
• AppServ-Info Reporting: Historian SE Client
• AppServ-OWS, OWS, EWS: Historian SE Client
FactoryTalk VantagePoint
Overview
This section provides fundamental best-practice guidelines for using FactoryTalk
VantagePoint software on a PlantPAx system.
FactoryTalk VantagePoint provides unified access to virtually all manufacturing
and plant data sources, and produces web-based reports, such as dashboards,
trends, X-Y plots, and Microsoft Excel software reports. The FactoryTalk
VantagePoint Trend tool and add-on alarm reports provide users of the PlantPAx
system with advanced analytics.
Tips and Best Practices
For access to the collection of tips and best practices, refer to Knowledgebase
Answer ID 59149 - FactoryTalk VantagePoint EMI Tips and Best Practices TOC
at https://www.rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
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Chapter
9
Maintenance Recommendations
Good maintenance practice keeps your PlantPAx system running efficiently. This
chapter provides some recommendations for monitoring and maintaining your
PlantPAx system.
The following table describes where to find specific information.
Maintaining Your System
Topic
Page
Maintaining Your System
103
Monitoring Your System
105
Services and Support
108
When installing PlantPAx system elements, we recommend that you use the
operating systems and Rockwell Automation software versions and firmware
revisions as specified in the PlantPAx Selection Guide, publication
PROCES-SG001. The selection guide specifies the optimal performance in
accordance to sizing criteria.
The software versions for PlantPAx System Release 3.0 are listed on page 18.
Microsoft Updates
Microsoft releases a range of security updates, operating system, and other
software updates. Rockwell Automation qualifies certain MS updates that
potentially impact Rockwell Automation software products. The results of these
patch qualifications are published on Knowledgebase Answer ID 35530
at http://www.rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
We recommend that you do not apply or install Microsoft updates until they are
qualified by Rockwell Automation. Before implementing qualified MS updates,
we recommend that you verify them on a non-production system, or when the
facility is non-active, to be sure there are no unexpected results or side effects.
You can contact Rockwell Automation Technical Support if additional
information or details are required.
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Chapter 9
Maintenance Recommendations
Antivirus Software
It is best practice to have antivirus software installed on your PlantPAx servers
and workstations. See Knowledgebase Answer ID 35330
at http://www.rockwellautomation.custhelp.comfor more information on
compatibility and considerations when installing antivirus software.
Rockwell Automation Software/Firmware Updates
We recommend that you periodically review and update the available software
patches and firmware updates for the Rockwell Automation components on your
PlantPAx system. Before implementing Rockwell Automation updates, we
recommend that you verify them on a non-production system, or when the
facility is non-active, to be sure there are no unexpected results or side effects.
For Rockwell Automation software (that is, FactoryTalk View, Factory Talk
Batch, FactoryTalk Historian SE, and FactoryTalk AssetCentre), Rockwell
Automation provides the Patch Validator tool. This tool verifies the current file
version installed, the expected file version (based on the version of Patch
Validator used), and completes installation of patch roll-up.
The Patch Validator tool is available for download via the Knowledgebase
Answer ID 30393 at http://www.rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
For Rockwell Automation firmware, Rockwell Automation provides a System
Ferret tool that can be installed on the EWS to collect device serial numbers, and
revisions of all devices through RSLinx Classic software. System Ferret is
available through ab.com as an Integrated Architecture Productivity Tool; see
http://www.ab.com/go/iatools.
The devices and firmware listed can be compared against the latest firmware
compatible with your Logix firmware revision by reviewing the firmware
compatibility. You also can download the latest firmware release at
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/support/ControlFlash/.
Use the ControlFLASH™ Utility through RSLogix 5000 software to update
firmware as documented in the ControlFLASH Firmware Upgrade Kit
User Manual, publication 1756-UM105.
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Maintenance Recommendations
Chapter 9
Considerations when Upgrading Software and Firmware
When installing a new PlantPAx system, we recommend that you use the
specifications in the PlantPAx Selection Guide, publication PROCES-SG001.
When updating software versions or firmware revisions, we recommend that you
verify the impact on performance and memory utilization before implementing
the upgrade on the production system. For FactoryTalk View or ControlLogix
platforms, we recommend that you review the release notes and verify the impact
of the upgrade on performance and memory utilization.
You also can verify the compatibility of the upgraded version with the other
software and operating systems in use on your PlantPAx system. See the Product
Compatibility and Download Center at www.rockwellautomation.com.
Another tool (http://www.rockwellautomation.com/compatibility/#/scenarios)
lets you compare features and compatibilities of different products and
firmware revisions. You can contact Rockwell Automation Technical Support for
assistance.
Monitoring Your System
Certain system attributes can be monitored to determine the health of the
PlantPAx system. The table below provides monitoring recommendations.
Table 35 - PlantPAx System Monitoring Recommendations
System Attribute
How To Monitor
Description
FactoryTalk View HMI Server Status
In FactoryTalk View Studio, in the Explorer window,
right-click the HMI server’s icon, and then choose
Server Status. You also can create a server monitoring
screen as described in Knowledgebase Answer ID 44624
at http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
Make sure the Primary server status is active. Changes
made by using FactoryTalk View Studio software always
occurs on the ‘active’ server. If the Primary HMI server
computer is or was down, then the Secondary could be the
active server.
You do not want your HMI server project edits to occur on
the Secondary HMI server computer because the
replication operation works only in one direction, from the
Primary HMI server to the Secondary HMI server. If you
accidently do your editing on the Secondary HMI project,
when you eventually replicate the Primary HMI server
project, it overwrites the Secondary HMI server project and
all the editing done is overwriten and lost.
Windows Event Logs
Event Viewer (Windows Administration Tools)
Browse the following logs looking for errors or warnings:
• Application Event Log
• Security Event Log
• System Event Log
FactoryTalk Diagnostics
Event Viewer (Windows Administration Tools)
or
FactoryTalk Tools Diagnostic Viewer
Browse looking for errors or warnings.
IIS Logs
Default location is
c:\Windows\system32\Logfiles\W3SVC1, but the actual
location can be determined from the Internet Information
Server Manager.
Look for return codes 400-404 or 500-503.
(IIS - Troubleshooting HTTP error codes)
See the Knowledgebase Answer ID 39618 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
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Chapter 9
Maintenance Recommendations
Table 35 - PlantPAx System Monitoring Recommendations
System Attribute
How To Monitor
Description
Server and Workstation CPU Utilization
Windows Administration Tool PerfMon (Performance
Monitor)
See Knowledgebase Answer ID 31196 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com .
The CPU utilization for the PASS, App-Servers, and OWS
computers is recommended to be 40% or less during
steady-state operation.
In PerfMon, CPU Utilization is \\<Computer
Name>\Processor_Total\% Processor Time
Server Paging File Utilization
Windows Administration Tool PerfMon (Performance
Monitor)
See Knowledgebase Answer ID 31196 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com .
Paging File Utilization can be found in the Microsoft
Performance Monitor tool, but monitoring:
\\<ComputerName>\Paging File(\??\C:\pagefile.sys)\%
Usage
Windows Alerter and Messenger services
See Knowledgebase Answer ID 64958 at
http://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com .
Paging is the process of locating a page of data in physical
memory that is currently not being used and transferring
it to virtual memory to free up memory for active
processing tasks. But, this process of moving pages of data
back-and-forth between memory and virtual memory can
slow down a system. Generate an alert if Paging
Utilization exceeds 90 percent.
See Check Paging Utilization on page 107 for details.
Controller CPU Utilization
L_CPU
or
RSLogix 5000 Controller Properties
or
RSLogix 5000 Task Monitor
Free CPU time is required to handle communication,
abnormal conditions, and other transient loads.
• Outside of production environment (before connecting
FactoryTalk View and Historian clients), we recommend
50% free CPU time.
• When in production environment (while FactoryTalk
View and Historian are connected), we recommend
15% free CPU time for online edits and connection
handling.
Only use periodic tasks.
Controller Memory Utilization
L_CPU
or
FactoryTalk View Predefined
or
RSLogix 5000 Controller
For simplex controllers, follow these guidelines:
• Outside of production environment (before connecting
FactoryTalk View and Historian clients), we recommend
50% free memory to support communication and
handling of abnormal conditions.
• When in production environment (while FactoryTalk
View and Historian are connected), we recommend
30% free memory to support handling of abnormal
conditions.
Maintain greater than 50% free memory available at all
times for redundant controllers.
Controller User Tasks (last scan, max scan, overlap)
L_TaskMon or RSLogix 5000 Task Properties Window
Make sure you are not experiencing task overlap by
verifying the task overlap count is 0. Task overlap indicates
that the controller could be overloaded and not executing
as expected.
Controller Minor Faults
RSLogix 5000 Controller Properties Window
Make sure you are not experiencing any minor faults. This
can slow your controller execution time or can indicate
some other problem with your user logic.
Packets per Second
L_CPU or RSLinx Enterprise pre-defined tags
Make sure the packets per second is less than 300 on the
1756-L7x controller and less than 200 on the 1756-L6x
controller. If you have more than one data server topic
pointing to the controller, you have to add the packets per
second for each topic to get a total.
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Maintenance Recommendations
Chapter 9
Check Paging Utilization
Virtual memory is the use of hard disk space to supplement the amount of
physical memory (RAM) that is available to the computer. Windows cannot
process data directly from virtual memory. If Windows needs to process data that
is in virtual memory, it must move the page containing the needed data from
virtual memory into physical memory. This process is called paging.
Windows must use CPU cycles and even a portion of RAM just to manage the
paging process. Furthermore, hard disk access times are measured in milliseconds,
as opposed to RAM access times that are measured in nanoseconds. Therefore,
the paging process can waste a lot of server resources to move pages of data back
and forth between memory and virtual memory.
Thrashing is a term for nearly constant paging. If the hard disk is running
constantly with no visible results and a very sluggish response time, the system is
thrashing. Paging Utilization percentage can be used to bring this condition to
your attention.
The appropriate Paging Utilization percentage can depend on the virtual
memory set up on the server. It is best to baseline the paging file performance and
set alert limits when performance significantly deviates from this baseline. For
example, generate alert if Paging Utilization > 90%.
Additional Monitoring Resources
The Counter Monitor tool is installed with the FactoryTalk Services Platform
(FTSP) on the PASS. It is on the drive where FTSP is installed under Program
Files/Common Files /Rockwell/ countermonitor.exe.
Counter Monitor provides the ability to monitor the runtime values of counters
and strings that are made available by network clients for diagnostic purposes.
You also can use the Counter Monitor tool to take a snapshot of the current
status and submit it to Rockwell Automation Technical Support.
Rockwell Automation also provides tools to collect log files for submission to
technical support.
The Rockwell Software Data Client program can browse the FactoryTalk
directory to see all tags in the directory. It can also get live data from any tag. The
Rockwell Software® Data Client program does not automatically load the
application. Before you use it, you must make sure the application is open by
either opening the application from any computer with RSView® Studio or by
running an RSView SE Client™.
For more information, see these references depending on your operating system:
• Knowledgebase Answer ID 31073 - Log Reader Tool (XP,
Windows 2003)
• Knowledgebase Answer ID 453900 - (Windows 7, Server 2008)
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Chapter 9
Maintenance Recommendations
Services and Support
System Support offers technical assistance that is tailored for process automation
systems. These services are available through TechConnectSM contracts. Some of
the features include the following:
• Highly experienced team of engineers with training and systems
experience
• Process support at a systems-level provided by process engineers
• Unlimited online support requests
• Use of online remote diagnostic tools
• Access to otherwise restricted TechConnect Knowledgebase content
• Technical Reference Library DVD
• 24-hour, seven days per week, 365 days per year of phone-support coverage
upgrade option.
For more information, contact your local distributor or Rockwell Automation
representative or visit http://www.rockwellautomation.com/support.
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Appendix
A
System Element Software Components
Table 36 shows the typical software for the system element components that
comprise your PlantPAx system.
Table 36 - System and Software Requirements
Element
Category
Description
PASS
Operating system
• Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit
• Microsoft SQL 2008 server R2 Express
• Microsoft .NET Framework 4
Rockwell Automation software
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
FactoryTalk Services Platform software, version 2.70.00
FactoryTalk Diagnostic software, version 2.70.00
FactoryTalk View Site Edition Server software, version 8.00.00
FactoryTalk Activation Manager software, version 3.62.01
FactoryTalk Alarm and Event software, version 2.70
Rockwell Automation x64 Driver, version 1.1.15
RSLinx Enterprise software, version 5.70.00
FactoryTalk Historian SE 4.00 Live Data Interface Suite software, version 1.03.114
Operating system
•
•
•
•
Windows 7 Professional SP1 operating system, 64-bit
Microsoft SQL 2008 server R2 Express
Microsoft .NET Framework 1.1
Microsoft .NET Framework 4
Rockwell Automation software
• FactoryTalk View SE Studio and Client software, version 8.00.00
• FactoryTalk Services Platform
– FactoryTalk Services Platform software, version 2.70.00
– RSLinx® Classic software, version 3.60.00
– RSLinx Enterprise software, version 5.70.00
• FactoryTalk Activation software, version 3.62.01
• RSLogix™ 5000 Professional software, version 20.00.00(1)
– RSNetWorx™ for DeviceNet software
– RSNetWorx for ControlNet software
– RSNetWorx for Ethernet software
– RSLogix Architect software
– ControlFLASH™ software
– RSLogix 5000 Fuzzy Designer software (activated separately)
– RSLogix Emulate 5000 software
• FactoryTalk Asset Centre Client software, version 5.00.00
– Process Device Configuration software, version 4.00.00
– Rockwell Automation DTM Collection
• FactoryTalk Historian SE 4.00 Management Tools, version 1.03.114
• Microsoft Excel 2010 en-US, 32-bit (optional)(2)
Operating system
• Windows 7 Professional SP1 operating system, 64-bit
• Microsoft .NET Framework 4
Rockwell Automation software
•
•
•
•
EWS
OWS
FactoryTalk View SE Client software, version 8.00.00
FactoryTalk Services Platform software, version 2.70.00
FactoryTalk Activation software, version 3.62.01
FactoryTalk Historian Connectivity software, version 1.4.2.15
(1) Multiple versions of RSLogix 5000 software can coexist on the EWS. Therefore, additional versions also can be installed, if necessary.
(2) Provides use of FactoryTalk Historian Add-In.
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Appendix A
System Element Software Components
Table 36 - System and Software Requirements
Element
Category
Description
AppServ-OWS
Operating system
• Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit
• Microsoft .NET Framework 4
Rockwell Automation software
Same requirements as listed for OWS Rockwell Automation software
Operating system
• Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit
• Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2 Express
• Microsoft .NET Framework 4
Rockwell Automation software
•
•
•
•
Operating system
• Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit
• Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2 Standard
• Microsoft .NET Framework 4.5
Rockwell Automation software
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
FactoryTalk Services Platform software, version 2.60.00
FactoryTalk Diagnostics software, version 2.60.00
FactoryTalk Activation Manager software, version 3.60.00
FactoryTalk Historian SDK software, version 1.4.2.445
OPC Core Components (x86), version 105.1
Microsoft Excel 2010 en-US, 32-bit
FactoryTalk VantagePoint server software, version 6.00.00
Operating system
•
•
•
•
Windows 2008 R2 SP1 operating system, 64-bit
Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2 Standard
Microsoft .NET Framework 1.1
Microsoft .NET Framework 4
Rockwell Automation software
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
FactoryTalk Services Platform software, version 2.60.00
FactoryTalk Diagnostic software, version 2.60.00
FactoryTalk Asset Centre Server software, version 5.00.00
FactoryTalk Activation Manager software, 3.60.00
FactoryTalk Alarm and Event software, version 2.60.00
Rockwell Automationx64 Driver, version 1.1.11
RSLinx Enterprise software, 5.60.00
RSLinx Classic software, version 3.60.00
FactoryTalk Asset Centre Client software, version 5.00.00 (optional)
– Process Device Configuration software, version 4.00.00
– Rockwell Automation DTM Collection
AppServ-Info
(Historian)
AppServ-Info
(VantagePoint)
AppServ-Asset
110
FactoryTalk Services Platform software, version 2.60.00
FactoryTalk Diagnostics software, version 2.60.00
FactoryTalk Historian Site Edition software, version 4.00.00
FactoryTalk Activation Manager software, version 3.60.00
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
Glossary
The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout this manual.
For definitions of terms not listed here, refer to the Allen-Bradley Industrial
Automation Glossary, publication AG-7.1.
Add-On Instruction Add-On Instructions are reusable code objects that contain encapsulated logic
that can streamline implementing your system. This lets you create your own
instruction set for programming logic as a supplement to the instruction set
provided natively in the ControlLogix firmware. An Add-On Instruction is
defined once in each controller project, and can be instantiated multiple times in
your application code as needed.
alarm An audible and/or visible means of indicating to the operator an equipment
malfunction, process deviation, or abnormal condition requiring a response.
alarm event A push notification from the alarm object to the alarm subscriber indicating a
change in alarm state.
alarm management The processes and practices for determining, documenting, designing, operating,
monitoring, and maintaining alarm systems.
alarm object The alarm system element that owns the alarm; it is responsible for indentifying
alarms, managing the state, and generating alarm events.
alarm priority An attribute of In-Alarm event that informs you of the salience of the event.
alarm system The collection of hardware and software that detects an alarm state,
communicates the indication of that state to the operator, and records changes in
the alarm state.
application server The application server (AppServ) is a server in addition to the Process
Automation System Server (PASS) that is typically a FactoryTalk Directory client
of the PASS. Examples are AppServ-Batch for a FactoryTalk Batch application or
AppServ-History for an Historian application.
architecture An architecture is a representation of a control and software system, as well as the
process and discipline for effectively implementing the designs for such a system.
An architecture conveys the information content of the related elements
comprising a system, the relationships among those elements, and the rules
governing those relationships.
characterization A characterization is the operation and collection of performance data for a
representative process system to determine scalability, stability, and usability of a
specific system configuration. A characterization is the following:
• Aimed at defining a complete system
• Used to determine if the system is performing at specified level
• Used to identify usability issues
• Used to check and create rules, relationships, limits, and recommendations
for system elements
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111
Glossary
client A client is hardware (personal computer) and software that provides an interface
with a link into a system server application. In the Rockwell Automation
architecture, a client is a computer loaded with runtime software.
control strategy A control strategy is a system footprint to show the complexity of the following:
• Data servers
• Information storage
• Operator interface (graphics, faceplates)
• Control code (sequence, procedure, phases)
• I/O
Control strategies are used to determine a set of comprehensive process system
footprints that establish a representative system loading that can be measured to
identify a process system's boundaries and limitations (implementation rules).
critical system attribute (CSA) A critical system attribute (CSA) is a customer-facing characteristic that defines
or identifies whether the system is performing as expected. CSAs are specific,
visible indicators of overall system performance and usability.
CSAs have specified parameters that must be maintained and that set the base
operational requirements for the system. These parameters determine pass or fail
(follow up) of a system test. For example, screen paint time < 2 seconds and
screen refresh < 1 second.
There are many other attributes associated with system elements such as
controller loading, computer loading, and network settings that must be
configured properly to maintain system CSAs.
development software Development software is a program application that is used to configure various
system components and not required at runtime. For example, RSLogix 5000
software, FactoryTalk View Studio software.
display object A display object is a functional group of display elements with animations.
engineering workstation (EWS) The engineering workstation (EWS) provides system configuration,
development and maintenance functions of the PlantPAx system. The EWS
contains development software, including FactoryTalk View SE Studio and
RSLogix 5000 software.
FactoryTalk directory software FactoryTalk Directory software defines were system data is stored for access.
FactoryTalk Directory software provides a common address book of factory
resources that are shared among FactoryTalk-enabled products.
FactoryTalk services platform The FactoryTalk Services Platform (FTSP) is a service-oriented architecture (see
SOA) that delivers value through FactoryTalk-enabled products. This platform
reduces the customer learning curve and project engineering time through
commonality and reuse. For example, activation, FactoryTalk Directory, security,
diagnostics, audit, live data, and alarms and events.
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
Glossary
global object An object that is created once and can be referenced multiple times on multiple
displays in an application.
historian An historian is a data collection system with the following components:
collection, storage, compression, retrieval, reports, and analysis. Historian
functions include raw sampling, compression, storage, retrieval, reconstitute,
analyze, summarize, and present (reports and displays).
historical data Historical data is data that is used for the long term analysis of past operation.
Integrated Architecture (IA) Integrated Architecture (IA) is the identifying name of Rockwell Automation
group of products that use Rockwell Automation core-enabling technologies.
The PlantPAx Process Automation System is a defined set of IA products
configured in a prescribed way to provide optimal performance as a process
automation system.
operator workstation (OWS) The operator workstation (OWS) provides the graphical view and interface into
the process. The workstation is a client of either a PASS or AppServ-HMI.
PlantPAx Process Automation The PlantPAx system has all the core capabilities expected in a world-class
System distributed control system (DCS). The system is built on a standards-based
architecture by using Integrated Architecture components that enable
multi-disciplined control and premier integration with the Rockwell
Automation® intelligent motor control portfolio.
Process Automation System Server The Process Automation System Server (PASS) is the core PlantPAx system
(PASS) server allowing central administration throughout the PlantPAx system. The
PASS is a required component.
RSLinx software RSLinx software is the communication driver (data server) for computer-based
programs to access information in Rockwell Automation controllers. There is
RSLinx Classic software and RSLinx Enterprise software. FactoryTalk View SE
software uses RSLinx Enterprise software to directly access tags in a controller.
server Software component that serves data to an application (for example, data server).
Typically, server software components are installed on server-class computers.
system attribute A system attribute is an operational functionality that can be manipulated or
measured and is used to establish the operational boundaries or system capability.
For example workstation memory, number of parameters on a screen, and
number of control loops. A system attribute can be independent or dependent.
system element A system element is a distinctive system entity made up of a combination of
hardware and software products that support an identifiable system function or
role. A system element can be manipulated to vary system operation or capability.
For example, engineering workstation (EWS), operator workstation (OWS),
process automation system server (PASS), and controller.
system infrastructure System infrastructure is the commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software
required to enable system elements to work together as a system. For example,
network switches, computers, and so forth.
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
113
Glossary
system server A system server expands the scope of a system by providing support for additional
system capacity or optional system functions. For example, the Process
Automation System Server (PASS) is a required component for all centralized
and distributed process systems. The PASS provides central name resolution and
system-wide, FactoryTalk services. The PASS provides the capability to distribute
information to the OWS and add to optional application servers to increase the
scope of the process system.
User -defined Data Type (UDT) Tag types that you create once and reuse in multiple tag templates, multiple
times.
workstation A workstation is a computer running development, configuration, and optional
maintenance software. A workstation is not a server.
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Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
Index
A
activation
FactoryTalk 18
additional resources 10
virtualization 68
Add-On Instruction
definition 111
advantages
virtualization 65
alarm
and events server
FactoryTalk 18
definition 111
event
definition 111
management
definition 111
object
definition 111
priority
definition 111
system
definition 111
antivirus
software 104
application
server
definition 111
system recommendations 35
architecture
builder tool 16
centralized 14
critical system attribute 16
definition 111
distributed 14
independent 14
multiple PASS servers 14
PlantPAx 13
recommmendations 13
single PASS server 14
workstation 14
attributes
CSA 16
FactoryTalk Batch 98
B
batch
critical system attribute 98
documentation 12
equipment phases 98
management 97
recommendations 97
server
FactoryTalk 18
best practices
FactoryTalk Historian 102
C
cache
messages 46
centralized
architecture 14
characterization
definition 111
system tested 13
client
definition 112
compatibility
system 103
components
FactoryTalk Historian 101
PASS 18
PlantPAx software 18
configuration
FactoryTalk directory 20
virtual recommendations 69
considerations
EtherNet/IP interface 87
process controller I/O 47
updates 105
control
batch management 97
strategies 31
strategy
definition 112
ControlFLASH 104
controller 47
simplex 27
count
I/O determination 30
critical
system attribute 16, 98
definition 112
D
data
log loading 52
server
FactoryTalk 18
definition
infrastructure 65
PlantPAx 9
description
EWS 21
OWS 22
PASS 18
development software
definition 112
directory
FactoryTalk 18
location utility 20
display object
definition 112
distributed
architecture 14
cable types 82
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
115
Index
documentation
batch 12
infrastructure 10
system core 10
domain and workgroup
recommendations 78
E
element
overview 17
recommendations 17
engineering workstation
definition 112
equipment phases
batch 98
Ethernet
switches 83
EWS
description 21
software 21
example
data log loading 52
guidelines
PhaseManager 98
H
hardware
simplex controller 27
historian
definition 113
information management 101
historical data
definition 113
HMI
server
FactoryTalk 18
I
I/O
considerations 47
determining count 30
process controller considerations 47
runtime 48
IAB
F
FactoryTalk
activation server 18
alarms and events server 18
batch server 18
data server 18
directory
configuration 20
directory server 18
directory software
definition 112
HMI server 18
recommendations 51
services platform
definition 112
FactoryTalk Batch
CSA attributes 98
FactoryTalk Historian
best practices 102
components 101
overview 101
FactoryTalk VantagePoint
business intelligence 102
FactoryTalk View SE
OWS 22
firmware
updates 104
footprint
control strategy 32
G
global object
definition 113
glossary 111
116
tool 16
IIS
graphics and components 80
independent
architecture 14
information management
Historian, VantagePoint 101
infrastructure
definition 65
documentation 10
recommendation 65
virtualization 66
integrated architecture
builder tool 16
definition 113
L
library
Rockwell Automation process objects 53
load
data log 52
localhost
PASS server 20
M
machines
virtual 74
maintenance
recommendations 103
messages
cache 46
multiple hosts
virtualization 67
multiple PASS serevers
architecture 14
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
Index
N
network
recommendations 82
time protocol 80
networks
virtualization 71
O
objects
process library 53
operating system
optimization 81
recommendations 78
operator workshop
definition 113
optimize
operating system 81
options
process library 53
overview
system elements 17
OWS
description 22
FactoryTalk View SE 22
P
PASS
definition 113
description 18
redundancy 19
system element 18
patches
updates 104
performance
critical system attribute 16
PhaseManager
guidelines 98
PlantPAx
architecture 13
definition 9
infrastructure 65
selection guide 16
software 18
system definition 113
process
controller sizing 27
library objects 53
procurement
tools 16
produced and consumed
controller tags 46
R
recommendations
architecture 13
batch 97
domain 78
FactoryTalk 51
infrastructure 65
maintenance 103
network 82
operating system 78
system application 35
system elements 17
workgroup 78, 79
redundancy
PASS configurations 18
PASS server 19
reference
manual scope 9
Rockwell Automation
library of process objects 53
RSLinx software
definition 113
runtime
I/O considerations 48
S
scope
reference manual 9
server
definition 113
virtualization 69
simplex
controller hardware 27
single PASS server
architecture 14
sizing
control strategies 31
process controller 27
snapshots
virtual machines 75
software
antivirus 104
EWS 21
IIS 80
PlantPAx 18
updates 103
storage
virtualization 69
strategies
control sizing 31
support
services 108
switches
Ethernet 83
synchronization
commands 80
server and workstation time 80
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
117
Index
system
application recommendations 35
attribute definition 113
compatibility 103
core documentation 10
element definition 113
ferret tool 104
infrastructure definition 113
procurement 16
server definition 114
support 108
tested 13
T
VM
antivirus/backup recommendations 75
recommendations 74
VMWare converter
best practices 76
W
workgroup
recommendations 78
workstation
architecture 14
definition 114
technical
support 108
tested
system 13
time
workstation and server synchronization 80
tool 104
ControlFLASH utility 104
IAB 16
procurement 16
system ferret 104
update software 104
topology
virtualization example 67
U
UDT
definition 114
update
considerations 105
firmware 104
patches 104
software 103
tools 104
user-defined tag
definition 114
V
vantagepoint
information management 101
virtual
machines 74
snapshots 75
virtualization
additional resources 68
advantages 65
configuration recommendations 69
infrastructure 66
multiple hosts 67
networks 71
servers 69
storage 69
toplogy example 67
VMWare converter 76
118
Rockwell Automation Publication PROCES-RM001I-EN-P - September 2014
Rockwell Automation Support
Rockwell Automation provides technical information on the Web to assist you in using its products.
At http://www.rockwellautomation.com/support you can find technical and application notes, sample code, and links to
software service packs. You can also visit our Support Center at https://rockwellautomation.custhelp.com/ for software
updates, support chats and forums, technical information, FAQs, and to sign up for product notification updates.
In addition, we offer multiple support programs for installation, configuration, and troubleshooting. For more
information, contact your local distributor or Rockwell Automation representative, or visit
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/services/online-phone.
Installation Assistance
If you experience a problem within the first 24 hours of installation, review the information that is contained in this
manual. You can contact Customer Support for initial help in getting your product up and running.
United States or Canada
1.440.646.3434
Outside United States or Canada
Use the Worldwide Locator at http://www.rockwellautomation.com/rockwellautomation/support/overview.page, or contact your local
Rockwell Automation representative.
New Product Satisfaction Return
Rockwell Automation tests all of its products to help ensure that they are fully operational when shipped from the
manufacturing facility. However, if your product is not functioning and needs to be returned, follow these procedures.
United States
Contact your distributor. You must provide a Customer Support case number (call the phone number above to obtain one) to your
distributor to complete the return process.
Outside United States
Please contact your local Rockwell Automation representative for the return procedure.
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