Call for Proposals for Period 93

ESO Call for Proposals – P93
Proposal Deadline: 01 October 2013, 12:00 noon CEST
Call for Proposals
ESO Period 93
Proposal Deadline: 1 October 2013,
12:00 noon Central European Summer Time
Issued 2 September 2013
Preparation of the ESO Call for Proposals is the responsibility of the ESO Observing Programmes
Office (OPO). For questions regarding preparation and submission of proposals to ESO telescopes,
please contact the ESO Observing Programmes Office, opo@eso.org.
The ESO Call for Proposals document is a fully linked pdf file with bookmarks that can be viewed
with Adobe Acrobat Reader 4.0 or higher. Internal document links appear in red and external
links appear in blue. Links are clickable and will navigate the reader through the document (internal
links) or will open a web browser (external links).
ESO Call for Proposals Editor: Gaitee A.J. Hussain
Approved:
Tim de Zeeuw
Director General
v
Contents
I
Phase 1 Instructions
1
1 ESO Proposals Invited
1.1 Important recent changes (since Periods 91 and 92) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Important reminders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Foreseen changes in the upcoming periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Getting Started
2.1 Exposure Time Calculators . . . . .
2.2 The ESOFORM Proposal package .
2.2.1 ESOFORM: Important notes
2.3 Proposal Submission . . . . . . . . .
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1
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3 Visitor Instruments
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II
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Proposal Types, Policies, and Procedures
4 Proposal Types
4.1 Normal Programmes . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Monitoring Programmes . . . . . . . .
4.3 Large Programmes . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Target of Opportunity . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1 Rapid Response Mode (RRM)
4.5 Guaranteed Time Observations . . . .
4.6 Proposals for Calibration Programmes
4.7 Director’s Discretionary Time . . . . .
4.8 Host State Proposals . . . . . . . . . .
4.9 Non-Member State Proposals . . . . .
4.10 VLT-XMM proposals . . . . . . . . . .
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observations .
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6 Policy Summary
6.1 Who may submit, time allocation policies . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Requesting use of non-standard observing configurations . . . . .
6.3 Policy regarding offered/available observing configurations . . . .
6.4 Observing programme execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.1 Service Mode run execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5 Phase 2 Service Mode policy: constraints and targets are binding
6.6 Pre-imaging runs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7 Data rights, archiving, data distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.8 Publication of ESO telescope results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.9 Press Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5 Observing Modes
5.1 Visitor Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 ToO programme execution during VM
5.1.2 Delegated Visitor Mode . . . . . . . .
5.2 Service Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 Service Mode policies . . . . . . . . .
III
Appendix
A Acronyms
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27
27
1
Part I
Phase 1 Instructions
1
ESO Proposals Invited
The European Southern Observatory (ESO) invites proposals for observations at ESO telescopes during Period 93 (1 April 2014 – 30 September 2014). The following instruments are
offered in this period:
La Silla
EFOSC2 (ESO Faint Object Spectrograph 2)
HARPS (High Accuracy Radial velocity Planetary Searcher)
SofI (Son of ISAAC)
Paranal
AMBER (Near-infrared interferometric instrument)
CRIRES (Cryogenic high-resolution IR Échelle Spectrograph)
FLAMES (Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph)
FORS2 (FOcal Reducer/low dispersion Spectrograph 2)
KMOS (K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph)
MIDI (MID-infrared Interferometric instrument)
NAOS-CONICA (High Resolution NIR Camera and Spectrograph)
OmegaCAM (Wide Field Imager for the VST at Paranal)
SINFONI (Spectrograph for INtegral Field Obs. in the NIr)
UVES (UV–Visual Échelle Spectrograph)
VIMOS (Visual Multi-Object Spectrograph)
VIRCAM (VISTA InfraRed CAMera)
XSHOOTER (UV–Visual–NIR medium resolution échelle spectrograph)
Chajnantor
LABOCA (Large Apex BOlometer CAmera)
SABOCA (Submillimetre APEX Bolometer CAmera)
SHFI (Swedish Heterodyne Facility Instrument)
CHAMP+ (Carbon Heterodyne Array of the MPIfR)
FLASH (First Light APEX Submillimeter Heterodyne receiver)
There are more details on the offered instruments and the ESO facilities on the Period 93
Instrumentation and Facilities page. The main characteristics of all instruments offered at
La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor in this call are described in the Instrument summary table.
The ESO proposal submission deadline is:
1 October 2013,
12:00 noon Central European Summer Time.
Please note it is the PI’s responsibility to resolve any verification or upload problems related to the
instrument configuration, LaTeX file or associated figures well before the deadline. ESO cannot
provide support beyond 11:00 CEST on the day of the deadline. The online receiver will switch off
at 12:00 CEST . No submissions or amendments to submitted proposals can be accepted after this
time.
2
In each submitted proposal, one single person, the Principal Investigator (PI), must be identified
as being principally responsible for that proposal. By submitting a proposal the PI agrees that
he/she and his/her collaborators will act according to ESO’s policies and regulations (including the
conditions specified in the present Call for Proposals) if observing time is granted.
Any questions about policies or the practical aspects of proposal preparation should be addressed to the ESO Observing Programmes Office, opo@eso.org. Enquiries related to the technical requirements of the planned observations should be sent to the User Support Department
(usd-help@eso.org) for Paranal and Chajnantor and to lasilla@eso.org for La Silla. Enquiries
can also be made through the Ask for help link in the User Portal, which is listed under “Other
Services”.
Part I of this Call for Proposals provides information on how to complete and submit a Phase 1
proposal to ESO and Part II describes the policies and procedures regarding proposing for, carrying
out, and publishing ESO observations.
1.1
Important recent changes (since Periods 91 and 92)
• General changes
– Call for Proposals: The ESO Call for Proposals document has been modified and
significantly shortened. All technical details related to the available facilities, telescopes
and instruments are now available solely through the ESO webpages. This Call for
Proposals document outlines the main news concerning the call, provides guidelines on
how to prepare and submit an ESO observing proposal, and outlines the policies that
apply to accepted ESO programmes.
Information on the available instruments can be found via the La Silla Paranal Observatory
Call for Proposals webpage. News items related to the technical capabilities of the
ESO instruments have been moved to the Recent Changes webpage. Further useful information can be accessed from the Phase 1 Important Links for Period 93 webpage;
e.g., statistics on telescope pressure and definitions of observing constraints .
– Public Spectroscopic Surveys with VIMOS: Letters of intent are solicited by a
deadline of 15 October 2013 for Public Spectroscopic Surveys with VIMOS.
– Monitoring Programmes: The OPC Working Group and the ESO Users Committee
have recommended the introduction of Monitoring Programme proposals. These proposals enable users to request a limited amount of time to monitor targets over more than
one period. Proposers should use the normal proposal template with the appropriate
macro in order to apply for a Monitoring Programme. See Section 4.2 for the detailed
definition of a Monitoring Programme and the instruments offered for this programme
type.
No Monitoring Programmes will be allowed on La Silla, VISTA or VST telescopes. On
APEX and Paranal telescopes, Monitoring Programmes are subject to the same instrument restrictions as Large Programmes (see below).
– Large Programmes: See Section 4.3 for the detailed definition of a Large Programme
and the instruments offered for this programme type. On APEX, Large Programmes
will not be accepted for the PI instruments, CHAMP+ and FLASH. As in previous periods, Large Programmes will not be accepted for either VIRCAM or OmegaCAM. The
following VLT/VLTI instruments are also unavailable for Large Programmes: CRIRES,
XSHOOTER, VIMOS, NACO, SINFONI, AMBER, MIDI and the VLTI Visitor Instrument.
The reasons for these restrictions are given below. Note that these instruments are also
not available for Monitoring Programmes for the same reasons.
∗ CRIRES will be transformed into a cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph; as a consequence, the instrument will be taken out of operations for approximately one year
likely starting in P95;
∗ XSHOOTER will likely be taken out of operations for several months to install redesigned ADC systems during Period 94 or 95;
3
∗ VIMOS has a significant number of existing and foreseen commitments, including a
commitment to start a new ESO Public Survey;
∗ NACO is only offered until the Nasmyth A focus of UT4 is required for AOF-related
activities;
∗ SINFONI will be affected by the installation of the AOF in 2014; in addition, it will
be taken out of operations likely late in Period 95 or in Period 96, so that its Integral
Field Unit, SPIFFI, can be integrated into ERIS;
∗ During Period 94 preparatory work required for the installation of the second generation VLTI instruments will take place in the VLTI Laboratory. As a consequence,
MIDI will be decommissioned and the VLTI Visitor Instrument will not be available;
∗ AMBER may be affected by possible future changes.
– Observing conditions: The definitions of the observing conditions for Phase 1 and
Phase 2 can be found on the Observing Conditions webpage. Please note in particular
the change of the minimum moon distance for grey conditions since Period 92.
– Guaranteed Time Observations (GTO) will be carried out in Period 93 with
AMBER, HARPS, KMOS, MIDI, OmegaCAM, SINFONI and the VLTI
Visitor Instrument. For details about the planned observations, please see
http://www.eso.org/sci/observing/teles-alloc/gto/93.html.
• Paranal
– Information regarding changes affecting Paranal instruments and facilities can be found
at http://www.eso.org/sci/facilities/lpo/cfp.html.
– VLT-XMM proposals: Proposals are invited for scientific programmes requiring both
VLT(I) and XMM-Newton observations (Section 4.10). These proposals may be submitted for the next XMM-Newton cycle, which extends over ESO Periods 93 and 94.
However, proposers should take the limited availability of some of the VLT(I) instruments in Periods 93 and 94 into account; see the Large Programme item above and
Section 1.3 for details on instrument availability.
– Distribution of VLT instruments: Note that in Period 93 the distribution of instruments on the UTs will be: UT1 (CRIRES + FORS2 + KMOS), UT2 (FLAMES +
UVES), UT3 (XSHOOTER+VIMOS), UT4 (NACO + SINFONI).
– KMOS will start operations in Period 92.
– As of Period 92, XSHOOTER has been offered on the Cassegrain focus of UT3. In
Period 93, XSHOOTER will offer a new imaging mode with the Acquisition and Guiding
camera. This mode allows the users to take images of the fields of their object in various
bands for photometric purposes in combination with slit or IFU spectroscopic observations.
– SPHERE installation is expected to take place during Period 92 on the Nasmyth A
platform of UT3. Comissioning of the instrument will take place during Period 93. As a
consequence ISAAC is being decommissioned in Period 92 and is no longer offered.
– VISIR is not offered in Period 93.
– MUSE will undergo commissioning during Period 93.
– HAWK-I will be temporarily removed from the UT4 Nasmyth A focus during Period 93,
and until it is necessary for AOF-related activities.
– NACO will be temporarily offered on the UT4 Nasmyth A focus during Period 93, until
the focus is necessary for AOF-related activities. Only a reduced list of modes are offered
during this period. For additional details, see the recent changes webpage or the NACO
User Manual.
– VLT Laser Guide Star: Since February 2013, PARLA, a prototype of the laser used
by the coming Adaptive Optics Facility, has replaced PARSEC, within the Laser Guide
Star Facility (LGSF). Thanks to the increase in delivered power and large improvement
in reliability, the number of nights during which the LGSF can be used every month is
significantly increased.
4
– No focus is available for a visitor instrument on the VLT in Period 93.
– OMEGACAM: only Chilean and GTO programme proposals are accepted on the VST
in Period 93 in order to ensure the timely progress of the ongoing Public Surveys.
– VLTI:
∗ VLTI-ATs: No new baseline is offered in Period 93. Note that station J3
may not be accessible during part of the period, in which case it will be replaced by station I1. For a list of all the offered baselines in Period 93, see the
VLTI Configurations Overview page
∗ MIDI: Given the arrival of the second generation VLTI instruments, ESO cannot
guarantee the availability of MIDI after Period 93.
∗ VLTI Visitor Instrument: Given the arrival of the second generation VLTI instruments, ESO cannot guarantee the availability of a VLTI visitor focus beyond
Period 93.
PIONIER is a Visitor Instrument which has combined four AT or UT beams since
October 2010. In Period 93, VLTI users have the possibility to submit proposals
for PIONIER provided they have the agreement of the instrument PI, Dr. JeanBaptiste Le Bouquin (Jean-Baptiste.Lebouquin[AT]obs.ujf-grenoble.fr) at least two
weeks prior to submitting their proposal. Large or Monitoring Programmes with
PIONIER will not be accepted. Additional information relevant to the submission
of PIONIER proposals can be found on the Recent Changes web page. After
obtaining the instrument PI’s approval, proposers should enter SpecialVLTI in the
\ObservingRun macro and the relevant information in the Visitor Instrument page
in the ESOFORM template.
• La Silla
– Additional information regarding changes affecting La Silla instruments and facilities can
be found at http://www.eso.org/sci/facilities/lpo/cfp.html.
– 3.6-m: A large fraction (45%) of the available science time is committed to ongoing Large
Programmes in Period 93 (see the Telescope Pressure webpage). Large programmes
on the 3.6-m telescope can span up to Period 97.
Proposers are encouraged to submit high quality Normal Programmes on the 3.6-m telescope. The success rates of Normal Programmes suggest that these programmes can be
very competitive despite the substantial ongoing Large Programme commitment. Please
see the article by Aerts, Hussain & Patat in the next release of The ESO Messenger
(Volume 153) for more information and a comparison of the success rates of 3.6-m Large
Programmes and Normal Programmes between Periods 82-92.
– NTT: A fraction (20%) of the available science time on the NTT telescope is committed to
ongoing programmes (see the Telescope Pressure webpage), with a significant number
of dark and grey nights already committed. Bright time programmes are particularly
solicited for the NTT. Large programmes on the NTT can span up to Period 97.
– 2.2-m: Time on the 2.2-m telescope is no longer offered through the ESO call for proposals.
• Chajnantor
– Observing with APEX: Information on the available APEX instruments and capabilities can be found on the Observing with APEX page. Additional information regarding changes affecting APEX instruments and facilities can be found at
http://www.eso.org/sci/facilities/lpo/cfp.html.
– APEX: For a detailed description of the APEX instrument capabilities and links to
observing time calculators see the APEX instrumentation page. During Period 93,
the ESO time slots are expected to be scheduled in late March, mid June and late July.
The exact distribution of the observing time between the APEX partners can be found
on the APEX web pages. Time-critical observations should only be requested during
the ESO runs.
5
– Large Programmes with APEX using Poor PWV conditions: In order to make
the best use of the time where the PWV is high (PWV>2 mm) ESO invites Large
Programmes for those conditions. Poor PWV large programmes must be clearly identified
as such in Boxes 5 and 8 of the large programme proposal form. Ideally a “Poor PWV
LP Programme” therefore consists of a large sample of targets covering a wide RA range.
The proposal must demonstrate that the scientific goals can be reached with only a
significant subset of the observations completed. Poor PWV-LPs may cover up to 4
consecutive semesters.
– SABOCA: In Period 93, SABOCA may only be available in June and July 2014. ESO
may decide to execute accepted SABOCA programmes with ARTEMIS instead if the
first commissioning of the ARTEMIS instrument shows a better performance at 350 µm.
– SHFI:
∗ APEX-1: Large proposals for PWV>2mm conditions are encouraged.
∗ APEX-T2: APEX-T2 is offered conditional to a successful repair mission planned
in January 2014. THz observations require excellent weather conditions (PWV<0.2
mm).
– FLASH and CHAMP+: These PI instruments are offered to the ESO community on
a collaborative basis with MPIfR. Large programmes or time critical observations with
PI instruments will not be accepted. Users who would like to use FLASH or CHAMP+
must contact the instrument PI, Dr. Rolf Guesten (rguesten[AT]mpifr-bonn.mpg.de), at
least two weeks prior to submitting their proposal. Members of the PI team should be
included as CoIs on the proposal.
The operation of these PI instruments requires the presence of the instrument team so
all ESO FLASH and CHAMP+ observations will be scheduled on fixed dates; the exact
dates have not been determined yet.
– FLASH: FLASH observations will be done by the PI team during a maximum of 3 days.
Preference will be given to proposals using the dual-beam, wide-bandwidth capabilities
of FLASH due to limited ESO observing time.
– Z-Spec: This PI instrument is not offered in Period 93.
1.2
Important reminders
• General information
– ESO User Portal: Proposals are submitted via a web upload procedure using the online tool, Web Application for Submitting Proposals (WASP). This requires users to first
log in to the ESO User Portal at: http://www.eso.org/UserPortal. See Section 2.2
for more details.
– Duration of one night: Proposers are reminded that one night in visitor mode is
defined to be 8 hours in even periods and 10 hours in odd periods on all ESO telescopes.
– The information provided in the proposal is binding: All observing runs must be
executed as described in the proposal. Deviations from the proposal (either by observing
different targets or by using different instrument modes or different constraints) may be
allowed only under exceptional circumstances and after approval by ESO (see Section 6.5).
– OPC evaluation of proposals: Proposers should keep in mind the need for each OPC
panel to cover a broad range of scientific areas; proposals may not fall within the main
area of specialisation of any of the panel members. Proposers should make sure that the
context of their project and its relevance for general astrophysics, as well as the recent
related results, are emphasised in a way that can be understood by their peers regardless
of their expertise.
– The ESO Science Archive Facility: This facility is the repository of all raw
data collected at the La Silla Paranal Observatory. It also contains selected processed data products. Please refer to the homepage of the Science Archive Facility at
http://archive.eso.org for a complete list of the data holdings and associated links.
6
– Duplications: Proposers are strongly advised to use the Science Archive Facility
to check if observations equivalent to the proposed ones have been performed already.
Proposers must check that their planned observations are not duplicating Guaranteed
Time proposals for Period 93: GTO for Period 93 or ongoing Public Survey observations.
– Access to Service and Visitor Mode data: The ESO Science Archive Facility is the
sole access point to data obtained with ESO telescopes. Principal Investigators of Service
and Visitor Mode programmes and their data delegates have access to their proprietary
raw data as soon as the data have been ingested in the ESO Archive, which typically
happens a few hours after the observation. The data access is provided through the
ESO User Portal. The CalSelector archive service combines the science files with any
ancillary files that are needed to process the data, (e.g. acquisition images, calibrations,
etc.).
Please note that the 1-year proprietary period starts as soon as the data are made electronically available to the PI through the ESO Science Archive Facility.
– Public Surveys: Nine public imaging surveys are being carried out on the VISTA and
VST telescopes. Public spectroscopic surveys are being carried out on the NTT telescope
(EFOSC2 & SOFI), and on the UT2 telescope (FLAMES/GIRAFFE & UVES). Further
details are available on the ESO Public Surveys Projects webpage. There is a new
Call for Public Spectroscopic Surveys with VIMOS; see Section 1.1 for more details.
– Overheads: Proposals must include all overheads when computing the total observing
time request for both Service Mode and Visitor Mode runs (see the Overheads webpage).
– Non-standard observing configurations: The use of non-standard instrumental
modes, configurations or filters requires the prior approval by the ESO User Support
Department. A detailed justification should be sent to usd-help@eso.org at least two
weeks before the proposal submission deadline. If proposers wish to use non-standard
filters on cryogenic instruments, further restrictions apply. See Section 6.2 for more
details.
– Backup programme: Although Phase 1 proposals requesting Visitor Mode do not need
to include backup targets and/or a backup programme, the observer should prepare one
in case of unfavourable weather conditions. The original science goals must be adhered
to in this backup scenario. Approval of a backup programme must be sought at least one
month in advance of the observing run through the change request form as described in
Section 5.1.
– The ESO Science Data Products Forum: This is a platform that enables users of
ESO instruments to share ideas, methods, software and data to assist with the preparation
of science data products from ESO telescopes. Users are encouraged to contribute on
any topic related to the reduction, calibration and analysis of science data from ESO
instruments.
• Paranal
– Observing mode on the VLT: Departures from the observing mode requested by the
proposers may be implemented by ESO so as to achieve a balanced distribution between
Service Mode and Visitor Mode.
Proposers should request Service Mode for observations that benefit from the shortterm scheduling flexibility allowed by this mode. Proposers may identify runs that lend
themselves for observations in either Service or Visitor Mode by specifying one of the
modes using the alternative run feature in Box 3 of the ESOFORM Phase 1 proposal
form. Please note that if a certain instrument mode is offered exclusively in either Service
Mode or Visitor Mode then this overrides these scheduling considerations.
– Service Mode OBs: Service Mode Observation Blocks (OBs) including all overheads
can last up to a maximum of 1 hour. This rule also applies to concatenated OBs in most
cases. Users are encouraged to read the Service Mode rules for more details. Longer
OBs have to be specifically requested and justified at Phase 2 via a waiver request, which
is evaluated by the Observatory.
7
– Pre-imaging for VLT instruments and modes: A separate pre-imaging run
must be specified in the proposal (to be executed in Service Mode). Failure to do so will
result in the deduction of the time necessary for the pre-imaging from the allocation to
the main part of the project (see Section 6.6).
– Monitoring in Service Mode: Monitoring a target in Service Mode in a particular
period is carried out on a best effort basis only, i.e. a monitoring sequence in any
particular period may be interrupted by long periods of unsuitable weather conditions
or Visitor Mode scheduling. All the time needed to observe one target in one period
should be included in one single run; these can be split into the single epoch observations
using a time-linked series in version 3 of the Phase 2 Preparation Tool (P2PP) (see
Section 5.2.1 for more information).
– Rapid Response Mode (RRM): FORS2, UVES, XSHOOTER and SINFONI continue
to be offered in this mode in Period 93. RRM observations that correspond to events
with exceptional characteristics may be activated during either Service Mode or Visitor
Mode runs, over which they have observational priority, unless the Service or Visitor
mode runs involve strictly time-critical observations. For details on the RRM policies,
see Section 4.4.1.
– VISTA: Due to ongoing Public Surveys only a limited amount of open time is available
on VISTA; these observations are carried out in Service Mode only and for restricted
Right Ascension ranges. Open time proposals should clearly justify the scientific goals
and why they are not achievable through the scheduled public survey observations. Only
those proposals that have complementary constraints and coordinate ranges with respect
to public survey observations may be scheduled, as the highest priority is given to advance
public surveys on VISTA.
– Calibration Plans: ESO has implemented calibration plans for all Paranal instruments.
The primary purposes of these plans are to assure data quality, monitor instrument
performance and calibrate science observations. Based on these plans, calibration data are
obtained for certain standard instrument modes on a regular basis. Paranal calibration
data are reviewed on a daily basis by Paranal Science Operations and the Garching Data
Processing and Quality Control group. A brief summary of the calibration plan for each
instrument is available online from the VLT/VLTI Pipelines & Calibration Plans
webpage.
Please read the appropriate user manual and online documentation carefully, as not all
instrument modes and/or configurations are covered to the same level of detail by the
current calibration plans.
∗ Service Mode runs: The calibrations specified in the respective Calibration Plans
are obtained systematically by the Observatory and do not need to be requested by
the proposers. Proposals for Service Mode runs should only request the time needed
for their science observations and, if applicable, night-time calibrations beyond those
listed in the published Calibration Plans (including all operational overheads).
∗ Visitor Mode runs: Night-time calibrations are the responsibility of the visiting
observer with the following exception: up to approximately 30 minutes per night
will be used by the observatory staff to obtain standard ESO calibrations. The
ESO-obtained data will be used to monitor instrument performance and to assure
a baseline calibration accuracy within the ESO Science Archive Facility. ESO does
not guarantee that these standard calibration data will be sufficient to calibrate the
Visitor Mode science observations to the accuracy desired by the observer. Proposers
should plan accordingly for Visitor Mode runs.
– Data Reduction software: In collaboration with the various instrument consortia,
ESO has undertaken to implement data reduction pipelines for the most commonly used
VLT/VLTI instrument modes. A brief summary of VLT/VLTI pipeline availability and
functionality for each instrument is available from the VLT/VLTI Pipelines page.
– Quality Control and Instrument Trending: The ESO pipelines are used to monitor the performance of the various instruments and their temporal trends. Extensive
information about Paranal data handling and processing (e.g. zero points, colour terms,
wavelength solutions) is maintained on the ESO Quality Control web pages.
8
• La Silla
– Support during observing runs and transportation schedule: A streamlined
operation is in effect in La Silla. Technical and logistical support will be delivered as
usual by ESO staff, but no specific support astronomer is assigned. Please note that
the transportation schedule to and from La Silla may have an impact on the arrival
and departure days of the observers at the site. Please check the online instructions for
visiting astronomers.
– Large Programmes on NTT and the 3.6-m telescopes may span up to Period 97.
– There is a minimum length of 3 nights for runs to be executed with La Silla telescopes. Proposals including La Silla runs with a duration of less than 3 nights will
be rejected at submission time by the automatic proposal reception system, with three
exceptions:
1. There is no minimum duration for runs to be carried out with Visitor Instruments
(see Section 3). However, in order to minimise the overheads associated with their
installation and removal, such instruments are normally scheduled in blocks including
several contiguous runs; the length of these combined blocks is typically greater than
3 nights.
2. On the NTT, users can apply for combined runs using both EFOSC2 and SOFI. The
total duration of each of these runs must be at least three nights. The combined runs
must be requested using the instrument name “SOFOSC”. Details are also available
in the ESOFORM User Manual.
3. There is no minimum duration for runs of Calibration Programmes.
Note that the minimum duration requirement for La Silla is applicable to each individual
run of a proposal involving a La Silla instrument (see Section 4 for more information
about the definition of “programme” and “run”). More generally, proposals for long
runs are strongly encouraged on the La Silla telescopes. Splitting of runs in half nights
(e.g. a 3-night run spread over 6 half nights) should be avoided as much as possible as it
may be impossible to schedule.
– Pre-imaging: Pre-imaging frames for EFOSC2 will have to be obtained at the beginning
of the spectroscopic run. The resulting lower efficiency should be taken into account in
the computation of the required execution time for the run.
• Chajnantor
– APEX: This telescope is offered in Service Mode only. In exceptional cases (e.g. moving
targets), remote observing from Bonn (in collaboration with MPIfR) can be considered.
Proposals requesting time from different APEX partners are required to mention the
amount of time requested from MPIfR, Sweden or Chile in Box 5. Observations will be
done for up to 24 hours per day, but users should be aware that afternoon conditions
are often significantly worse than night or morning. Observations using high frequency
instruments (SHFI/APEX-T2, SHFI/APEX-3, SABOCA) should avoid the afternoon.
APEX users should ensure that their proposal meets the following requirements:
∗ specify if time is requested from other APEX partners in the macro, \SpecialRemarks
(Box 5);
∗ specify the requested PWV using the macro, \Target (Box 11), for their project to
allow a better distinction between observations requesting a range of atmospheric
transparencies;
∗ either indicate an appropriate off-source position or request time to find such a position if they wish to observe extended line-emitting regions;
∗ merge all observations for any APEX instrument into a single run (note that this also
applies for the different receivers of SHFI). For Large Programmes this restriction
should be understood as a single run per instrument and per period. Separate runs
should be specified for observations in different periods.
9
1.3
Foreseen changes in the upcoming periods
• CRIRES will be transformed into a cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph; as a consequence,
the instrument will be taken out of operations for approximately one year likely starting in
Period 95.
• X-SHOOTER will likely be taken out of operations for several months to install re-designed
ADC systems during Period 94 or 95;
• SINFONI will be taken out of operations possibly in late Period 95, as its Integral Field Unit
SPIFFI will be integrated in ERIS which is expected to be installed during Period 99.
• Activities related to the installation of the Adaptive Optics Facility on UT4 –
Yepun
– The installation of GRAAL, the adaptive optics module for HAWK-I, is expected to
take place on Nasmyth A during Period 94.
– The installation of the 4LGSF is expected to take place late in Period 94.
– GALACSI, the adaptive optics module for MUSE, is expected to be installed on Nasmyth
B during Period 95.
– The installation of the Deformable Secondary Mirror and re-commissioning of the telescope is expected to take place during Period 95; as a consequence, UT4 will not be
available for approximately 2 months.
– The commissioning of the AOF and AOF-related systems is expected to require monthly
slots of up to 7 days during possibly 2 years.
• It is expected that MIDI and the VLTI Visitor Instrument will not be available during
Period 94.
• ZEUS-2: Pending successful commissioning, the redshift (z) and Early Universe Spectrometer
(ZEUS-2) may be offered as a PI instrument during future periods. ZEUS-2 is a broadband spectrograph covering 7 telluric windows covering 200 to 850 µm. For details, see
Ferkinhoff et al. 2010.
2
Getting Started
Observing proposals must contain a scientific case, a summary of the proposed observing programme,
a list of desired instrument modes and configurations, a target list, and a precise definition of required
observing conditions (seeing, atmospheric transparency, lunar illumination, etc.).
In addition, a calculation of the number of hours/nights of observing time needed to accomplish
the scientific goals must be carried out and summarized in the proposal. It is therefore important
that proposers consult technical documentation or instrument experts regarding the instrument
capabilities and sensitivities. The overheads webpage provides more details on how calculate
overheads with different instrument setups using the Phase 2 Preparation Tool (P2PP).
The definitions of the observing conditions for Phase 1 and Phase 2 can be found on the
Observing Conditions webpage.
The following sections give some additional information and references that should be useful to
proposers.
2.1
Exposure Time Calculators
Exposure Time Calculators (ETCs) for ESO instruments are accessible directly on the ESO Web.
For La Silla and Paranal instrumentation:
http://www.eso.org/observing/etc
10
For APEX instrumentation please go to:
http://www.apex-telescope.org/instruments.
Links to useful proposal preparation software tools (e.g. the Object Observability Calculator,
Airmass Calculator, Digitized Sky Survey) can be found at:
http://www.eso.org/sci/observing/tools.html.
Information on standard stars and sky characteristics, as well as additional tools, are available at
http://www.eso.org/sci/facilities/paranal/sciops/tools.html.
The parameters used by the ETCs are based on data collected during instrument commissioning and
operations. The ETC parameters are frequently updated and changes will be reflected by the running
“version number”. To help the observatory staff assess the technical feasibility of observations,
proposers are requested to specify the version number of the ETC they used in the section “9.
Justification of requested observing time and observing conditions” of their proposals.
Please check the ESO web pages for the ETC version to be used in Period 93. Please note that
while the sky background values used in the ETCs generally reflect actual conditions on Paranal,
they do not account for local effects such as the zodiacal light.
Proposers of VLTI observations should check the feasibility of their proposed observations with the
visibility calculator “viscalc”, available from the ETC page. At Phase 2, users are also encouraged
to select a suitable calibrator star for their planned observations using the CalVin tool, available
also from http://www.eso.org/observing/etc.
Service Mode proposers are reminded (see Section 6.5) that the requested observing conditions are
binding in Phase 2, hence proposers should check the exact definition of seeing in the ETC used to
estimate the observing time necessary to complete the programme. They should also ensure that the
observing conditions specified in the proposal are consistent with these requirements. The same is
true for the requested sky transparency and lunar phase. Non-photometric sky transparency can be
simulated by adding 0.1/0.2 mag to the object magnitude for CLEAR/THIN–CIRRUS conditions
respectively.
2.2
The ESOFORM Proposal package
All Phase 1 proposals must be prepared using the ESOFORM Proposal Package configured for
Period 93 as the package is updated every period. The ESOFORM package may be obtained by
logging into the ESO User Portal following the instructions at:
http://www.eso.org/sci/observing/phase1/esoform.html
The “ESOFORM User Manual” in the proposal package describes in detail how to fill the LATEX
template, and the information required to prepare a valid proposal.
2.2.1
ESOFORM: Important notes
• Definition of Service Mode and Visitor Mode runs: An observing programme, as
described in a single proposal, may consist of one or more runs. Multiple runs should only
be requested for observations with different instruments, for different observing modes (e.g.,
service mode, visitor mode or pre-imaging runs). Proposers should split Visitor Mode observations at different epochs (e.g., due to different target RAs) into separate runs. Conversely,
Service Mode runs should not be split according to time-critical windows, or used to group
targets according to their Right Ascensions.
• Scheduling constraints must be specified correctly as the telescope schedules are prepared
using software that relies on accurate constraints (Alves 2005, The ESO Messenger, 119, 20).
Observing/scheduling constraints that are not indicated or that are inaccurately specified in
BOX 12 of ESOFORM are unlikely to be taken into account by the scheduler. Retrofitting
scheduling constraints after the release of the schedule is not possible.
11
• Monitoring programme proposals: Proposers can now apply for Monitoring Programmes
to monitor targets over several periods. Monitoring Programme proposals should be prepared
using the normal template form, template.tex. The Monitoring Programme type should
be specified in this form as follows: \ProgrammeType{MONITORING}. More guidelines on the
definition and preparation of Monitoring Programme proposals are given in Section 4.2 and
the ESOFORM User Manual.
• Precipitable water vapour (PWV) constraints: PWV constraints must be specified for
CRIRES and all APEX instruments in the “Additional Notes” column of the Target macro.
Please see the ESOFORM User Manual for more details.
• Proposal resubmissions: If the proposal is a re-submission of an old proposal then the
OPC comments must be addressed in this new submission.
• VLT-XMM Proposals: Proposers must indicate in the ESOFORM if they are applying for
VLT-XMM time under the ESA-ESO agreement (see Section 4.10). VLT-XMM proposals may
include observing runs to be executed in Period 93 and/or in P94.
2.3
Proposal Submission
Proposals must be submitted in their final version by the submission deadline:
1 October 2013,
12:00 noon Central European Summer Time.
This is done via a web upload procedure that can only be accessed by logging into the ESO User
Portal at:
http://www.eso.org/UserPortal.
Please note that the ESO deadline will be strictly enforced: users should plan accordingly. It
is the PI’s responsibility to resolve any verification or upload problems related to the instrument
configuration, LaTeX file or associated figures. The online receiver will switch off at 12:00 CEST
on the day of the deadline; ESO cannot provide support with problem proposal submissions after
11:00 CEST . Requests for submissions or amendments after the deadline will not be considered.
In order to efficiently verify and submit your proposal, please note that:
• Postscript figures are not accepted. The proposals are compiled using the pdfLATEX
package which accepts only PDF (up to version 1.4) and JPEG file formats. Please note that
there is a size limit of 1MB for each figure to be uploaded.
• Always compile your proposal locally with pdfLATEX. Some of the checks are made at the
LATEX level and checking your proposal in this way will save you time. If there are errors
please read the output carefully in order to identify the problem.
• Further checks are made by the web software (“the receiver”), which uploads your proposal
and checks that it complies with ESO’s requirements. The receiver allows you to verify your
proposal without actually submitting it. You should take advantage of this feature to
check that your proposal is technically correct well before the Phase 1 deadline.
This can be done by verifying a “skeleton” version of the proposal early; this version should
contain all the technical details but not necessarily the full scientific description. This will
ease the final submission process considerably.
• Plan ahead! Over past periods, congestion of the proposal submission system has repeatedly
occurred in the last few hours before the proposal deadline, leading to delays in response
time that occasionally exceeded 1 hour. Try to submit proposals at least one day before the
deadline and avoid “last-minute stress”.
12
At the end of the submission procedure an acknowledgment page is displayed with the Proposal
ID. Please print it as a receipt. The PI of the proposal and the submitter will also receive later
a confirmation ticket via email, but the acknowledgment page is the official receipt. If you
are not sure if your proposal has successfully entered the system, do not re-submit it but rather
contact ESO at esoform@eso.org.
Neither proposals nor corrections to proposals that are submitted after the deadline will be considered.
3
Visitor Instruments
Visitor instruments can be mounted at the VLTI, the NTT, the 3.6-m telescope and at APEX in
order to permit innovative observations by teams with their stand-alone instruments or to test new
instrumental concepts for the development of new facility instruments.
No focus for visitor instruments is available on the VLT in Period 93.
The requirements for visitor instruments are substantially reduced compared to the requirements
for fully integrated facility instruments. A set of guidelines on how to propose a visitor instrument
and technical information is available through the links below:
For visitor instruments on the VLTI:
http://www.eso.org/sci/facilities/paranal/instruments/vlti-visitor/.
Technical information on the interface for VLTI Visitor Instruments can be found at:
http://www.eso.org/sci/facilities/paranal/instruments/vlti-visitor/requirements.html.
Technical information on the interface to the NTT and 3.6-m telescope is at:
http://www.eso.org/sci/facilities/lasilla/instruments/visitor/VisitorInstruments.pdf.
For visitor instruments on APEX:
http://www.eso.org/sci/facilities/apex/instruments/apex-visitor/index.html.
13
Part II
Proposal Types, Policies, and Procedures
4
Proposal Types
For Period 93 the list of proposal types is:
• Normal Programmes
• Monitoring Programmes
• Large Programmes
• Target of Opportunity
• Guaranteed Time Observations
• Calibration Programmes
• Director’s Discretionary Time
All proposals except Director’s Discretionary Time (DDT) proposals must be submitted by the
current deadline. DDT proposals may be submitted at any time.
Only the Normal and Large Programme template forms should be used for the preparation of
proposals. An observing programme, as described in a single proposal, may consist of several runs,
e.g. for observations with different instruments, or to be executed in different observing modes
or at different epochs for Visitor Mode observations. Proposals for Visitor Mode observations
(Section 5.1) must request time in nights, proposals for Service Mode observations (Section 5.2)
must request time in hours. Note that any given proposal may request a mix of Visitor/Service Mode
observations provided that they are split into separate runs. The definition of a single run differs
for Service Mode and Visitor Mode observations; further guidelines are available in Section 2.2.1.
• Please note: All proposers (Service and Visitor Mode) must include time for all overheads
(telescope + instrument) in their proposals (see the Overheads webpage).
4.1
Normal Programmes
Most of the observing time on ESO telescopes will be allocated to Normal Programmes in
Period 93. Proposers must use the standard LATEX template (Section 2.2). The scientific case of
the programme may take up to two pages including attachments (figures or tables). The scientific
description contains two sections:
A) Scientific Rationale
B) Immediate Objective
Attachments such as figures are optional and are restricted to the second page of the scientific
description, though the respective fraction of the occupied by the scientific description and by the
figures is left to the discretion of the proposer.
If the proposal contains runs requesting La Silla telescopes and instruments, the duration of each
such run must be at least 3 nights, except for runs using Visitor Instruments or for combinations of
contiguous EFOSC2 and SOFI runs (totalling at least 3 nights).
14
Table 1: Available Instruments for Normal Programmes
Telescope
Instrument keywords
UT1
UT2
UT3
UT4
VLTI
VISTA
VST
APEX
NTT
3.6
CRIRES, FORS2, KMOS
FLAMES, UVES
VIMOS, XSHOOTER
NACO, SINFONI
AMBER, MIDI, SpecialVLTI1
VIRCAM
OMEGACAM2
CHAMPP3 , FLASH3 , LABOCA, SABOCA, SHFI, SpecialAPEX
SOFI, EFOSC2, SpecialNTT
HARPS, Special3.6
1
In order to propose for the VLTI Visitor Instrument, PIONIER, proposers should first contact the
instrument PI (see Section 1.1).
2
OMEGACAM is only available for Chilean Normal programmes (and GTO) in the Period 93.
3
CHAMP+ and FLASH are APEX PI instruments, in order to propose the use of these instruments
the instrument PI must be contacted at least two weeks prior to submitting the proposal (see
Section 1.1).
4.2
Monitoring Programmes
Monitoring Programmes (MPs) are only accepted on some instruments (see Table 2). Section 1.1
explains the reasons why the other instruments are not offered for Monitoring Programmes. Please
see the ESOFORM User Manual for more information on how to specify instruments in the proposal
template.
An ESO Monitoring Programme is defined by the criteria listed below.
• A programme requiring less than 100 hours of ESO telescope time. For ESO telescopes, one
night in visitor mode is defined to be 8 hours in even periods and 10 hours in odd periods.
• Both Service Mode and Visitor Mode observations are allowed.
• MP proposals must request a minimum of 2 periods and can span up to 4 periods.
• MPs will be judged in the same way as normal programmes but must be amongst the highest
ranked programmes in order to be scheduled.
• For APEX instruments, observations for approved MPs can only be carried out in ESO time.
Hence, targets can only be monitored with a bi-monthly cadence at best.
• ToO programmes cannot be submitted as Monitoring Programmes (Section 4.4).
Table 2: Available Instruments for Monitoring Programmes
1
Telescope
Instrument keywords
UT1
UT2
APEX1
FORS2, KMOS
FLAMES, UVES
LABOCA, SABOCA, SHFI
APEX observations for approved MPs can only be carried out in the ESO time-slots.
Monitoring programme proposals should be prepared using the appropriate macro in the LATEX
template for normal proposals, template.tex. See the ESOFORM User Manual for more details.
15
4.3
Large Programmes
Table 3: Available Instruments (Large Programmes)
Telescope
Instrument keywords
UT1
UT2
APEX
NTT
3.6
FORS2, KMOS
FLAMES, UVES
LABOCA, SABOCA, SHFI
SOFI, EFOSC2, SpecialNTT
HARPS, Special3.6
Large Programmes are only accepted on some instruments in Period 93 (see Table 3). Section 1.1
explains the reasons why the other instruments are not available for Large Programmes. Please see
the ESOFORM User Manual for more information on how to specify instruments in the proposal
template.
Up to a maximum of 30% of the observing time distributed by the OPC on the VLT/VLTI can be
allocated to Large Programmes. An ESO Large Programme is defined by the criteria listed below.
• A programme requiring a minimum of 100 hours of ESO telescope time. For ESO telescopes,
one night in visitor mode is defined to be 8 hours in even periods and 10 hours in odd periods.
• A programme that has the potential to lead to a major advance or breakthrough in the field
of study, has a strong scientific justification, and a plan for a quick and comprehensive effort
of data reduction and analysis by a dedicated team.
• Large Programmes can span from 1 to 4 periods (i.e. up to a maximum of two consecutive
years) for Paranal instruments. For La Silla instruments LPs can span up to Period 97.
• A good organisational structure of the proposing team, availability of resources and relevant
expertise must be demonstrated.
• ToO programmes cannot be submitted as Large Programmes (Section 4.4).
A special LATEX template must be used for Large Programmes (Section 2.2). The proposers may
use a total of three pages (not including figures) for the four sections of the scientific description:
A)
B)
C)
D)
Scientific Rationale
Immediate Objective
Telescope Justification
Observing Mode Justification (Visitor or Service)
An additional 2 pages of attachments are permitted. Proposers of Large Programmes should keep in
mind that the entire OPC (hence also non-experts in a specific field) as well as the specialised OPC
panels will be evaluating their proposal, and that they should clearly explain the relevance
of the proposed programme to general astrophysics.
If a Large Programme proposal contains runs requesting La Silla telescopes and instruments, the
duration of each such run must be at least 3 nights.
Proposers should be aware that the PIs of successful proposals for Large Programmes are required
to provide all data products (processed images and spectra, catalogues) to the ESO archive by the
time their scientific results are published in a refereed journal. Guidelines for the submission of
these data products, including a description of the required metadata and formats, can be found at
http://www.eso.org/sci/observing/phase3.html. Proposers are invited to write an email to
usd-help@eso.org for further information.
During the period of execution of a Large Programme, and upon its completion, the PI will be
invited by ESO to report to the OPC on the programme’s preliminary results. He/she may also
be asked to give a more comprehensive presentation of the outcome of the programme at an ESO
Large Programme workshop, similar to those of May 19-21, 2003 and of October 13-15, 2008.
16
4.4
Target of Opportunity
Normally, up to 5% of the available ESO general observing time may be used for Target of
Opportunity (ToO) proposals. For events with exceptional characteristics ESO will also consider
overriding Visitor Mode observations.
ESO recognises two categories of Targets of Opportunity:
1. Unpredictable ToOs are those concerning unpredictable astronomical events that require
immediate observations. The occurrence of such events cannot be anticipated on a sufficient timeframe to allow them to be the subject of a proposal prepared by the regular
proposal submission deadline. They qualify for allocation of Director Discretionary
Time. Corresponding applications for observing time should be submitted as DDT proposals
(Section 4.7) and not as ToO proposals.
2. Predictable ToOs are those concerning predictable events in a generic sense only. These
are typically (but not limited to) known transient phenomena and follow-up or coordinated
observations of targets of special interest. Proposals aimed at studying such events are, in the
ESO proposal terminology, ToO proposals.
ToO proposals must be submitted using the Normal Programme ESOFORM template. Proposals
should be for generic targets and/or times. However, if accepted by the OPC the programme will
not be executed until the PI (or his/her delegate) contacts ESO to request its activation after the
predicted event has occurred. The observing strategy must be the one approved by the OPC, and
the triggers may not exceed the allocated time and number of triggers granted. The observations will
be conducted in Service Mode and, in exceptional cases, ongoing programmes may be interrupted.
Read more on ToO policy.
As ToO programmes may require a mixture of ToO runs and normal runs proposers are requested
to specify the type of runs (TOO or normal) in the tenth (final) field of the \ObservingRun macro
of the ESOFORM LATEX template. A more detailed description and examples can be found in the
ESOFORM package) User Manual.
ToO runs are defined as runs for which the target cannot be known more than one week before
the observation needs to be executed. Such runs will be scheduled for execution upon receipt of
an activation trigger by ESO; the target (and observing time) information will be inserted by the
observatory support staff into generic Observation Blocks (OBs) submitted by the PI at Phase 2.
Targets that are unknown at Phase 1 proposal submission time but can be observed more than one
week after they have been identified should be observed as part of normal (non-ToO) runs. The
related OBs should be defined or updated by the PI once the target is known. The OBs should be
stored in the ESO database with the complete information needed to allow them to be executed as
part of the regular Service Mode queues.
Note that users submitting a ToO programme will need to indicate the number of targets per run
and the requested number of triggers per target using the appropriate macros in the LATEX template.
A trigger is defined as the request for execution of one Observation Block with a given instrument
at a given epoch. Similar observations to be executed with the same instrument at different epochs
count as different triggers, as do observations with different instruments at the same epoch.
Any observing request by other groups at the time an event occurs (e.g. a DDT proposal), with
exactly the same scientific goal and aiming at observing the same object, will be rejected by ESO.
ToO programmes are not carried over to the following periods.
ToO proposers should bear in mind that ToO proposals are ranked across OPC categories by the
whole OPC (hence including non-experts in their specific field). They should therefore clearly
explain the relevance of the proposed programme to general astrophysics.
4.4.1
Rapid Response Mode (RRM)
ESO continues to offer VLT Rapid Response Mode (RRM). During Period 93, FORS2 on UT1,
UVES on UT2, XSHOOTER on UT3, and SINFONI on UT4 are available in RRM.
17
RRM proposers should note that:
• A RRM trigger is a special ToO trigger that can only be activated up to 4 hours after
an event. If a longer time span has passed since the event, observations should be requested
through normal ToO triggers.
• As with ToO programmes, proposers will need to indicate in the LATEX template the number
of targets per run and the requested number of triggers per target.
• RRM runs have to be specified as separate runs in the ESOFORM template.
Upon receiving an encoded alert indicating the coordinates of the target and the associated
Observing Block (OB) to be executed, any ongoing integration will automatically be terminated
and the RRM OB will be executed. Depending on the instrument and the target position, the telescope/instrument will be at the location of the target within about 6 minutes following the arrival
of the alert at Paranal. Depending on the target brightness and instrument mode target acquisition
may take some more time.
RRM observations in Period 93 are subject to the following restrictions:
• The requested instrument must already be in operation. No change of instrument (and telescope focus) is accepted by the automatic RRM system.
• RRM activations will be accepted during Service Mode and Visitor Mode runs. They have
overriding priority over other observations, unless the latter are strictly time-critical.
Additionally, the following instrument specific restrictions apply:
• UVES can only be used with standard wavelength settings;
• FORS2 can only be used in the broad-band imaging, long slit spectroscopic, imaging polarimetric and spectro-polarimetric modes;
• SINFONI is available in NGS and noAO mode but not in LGS mode;
The delivery of the encoded alerts to the Paranal Observatory is entirely the responsibility of the
PI. Successful PIs will be asked to provide a set of OBs by the Phase 2 deadline, to be certified for
execution as is done for other Service Mode runs. Details on the activation mechanisms and the
preparation of RRM observations can be found at the Phase 2 RRM Observation page.
4.5
Guaranteed Time Observations
Guaranteed Time Observations (GTO) arise from contractual obligations of ESO vis–à–vis the
external consortia who build ESO instruments (see the GTO Policy page). Guaranteed Time
Observers must submit proposals for their GTO time using the Normal Programme templates, and
by the standard proposal deadline. All GTO proposals will be evaluated and ranked together with
Normal Programme proposals to provide feedback to the GTO teams on the scientific standing of
their GTO programmes. In exceptional cases, badly ranked GTO proposals may not be scheduled.
The policies describing the obligations of Guaranteed Time Observers are defined in Appendix 2 of
the ESO Council document ESO/Cou-996.
In general, GTO runs must be conducted in Visitor Mode (Section 5.1). The only exceptions are
those explicitly stated in the contractual agreement between ESO and the corresponding external
consortium. However ESO may exceptionally transfer some GTO runs from Visitor Mode to Service
Mode for operational reasons (such as the availability of VLTI baselines or the availability of the
LGSF).
Some GTO programmes require ToO runs1 (see Section 4.4). If this is the case then this should be
specified in the ESOFORM package using the \ObservingRun macro of the LATEX template.
1 The possibility for GTO teams to request ToO observations as part of their guaranteed time is restricted to those
cases in which this option is explicitly mentioned in the GTO contract.
18
4.6
Proposals for Calibration Programmes
ESO operates a large number of complex instruments with many possible configurations and observing modes. Although the Observatory executes a rigorous calibration plan for each instrument, ESO
does not have the resources to fully calibrate all potential capabilities of all instruments. On the
other hand, the astronomical community has expressed interest to perform calibrations for certain
uncalibrated or poorly calibrated modes, or to develop specialized software for certain calibration
and data reduction tasks. ESO introduced the Calibration Programmes in order to allow users to
complement the existing calibration of ESO instruments and to fill gaps in the calibration coverage
that might exist.
Up to 3% of all the available observing time may be made available for calibration proposals.
Calibration Programmes will be evaluated by the OPC with a view to balancing the added calibration
value for future science with the more immediate return of the regular science proposals of the
current period. Calibration Programmes are reviewed by ESO with regards to their technical and
operational feasibility.
Successful proposers will be required to deliver documentation, and data products and software to
ESO to support future observing programmes. The raw calibration data, as well as the advanced
calibration products that are obtained as part of Calibration Programmes are non-proprietary and
made available to the entire community through the ESO archive, and the respective instrument
Web pages. Scientific publications that make use of the data or results of Calibration Programmes
will have to reference the corresponding proposals.
Calibration Programme proposals must be submitted using the ESOFORM template for Normal
Programmes. In Box 7A (entitled “Scientific rationale”) the proposers should clearly state the limits
of the existing calibration plan and the expected improvement that can result from the proposed
observations. Moreover the proposal should emphasise the relevance and the overall scientific gain of
the calibration techniques and products resulting from these observations. Calibration Programmes
do not pertain to any of the standard OPC categories (A, B, C or D), since in general they are
not directly related to a unique scientific area: the special subcategory code L0 should be used to
distinguish them. The PIs of Calibration Programmes are required to deliver to ESO the resulting
Advanced Data Products within one year of the completion of the corresponding observations. The
procedure to be followed is described at http://www.eso.org/sci/observing/phase3.html.
4.7
Director’s Discretionary Time
Up to 5% of the available ESO general observing time may be used for Director’s Discretionary
Time (DDT) proposals in the current period. Only DDT proposals belonging to one of the following
categories will be considered:
• proposals of ToO nature requiring the immediate observation of a sudden and unexpected
astronomical event,
• proposals requesting observations on a highly competitive scientific topic,
• proposals asking for follow-up observations of a programme recently conducted from groundbased and/or space facilities, where a quick implementation should provide break-through
results,
• proposals of a somewhat risky nature requesting a small amount of observing time to test the
feasibility of a programme.
DDT programmes that have target of opportunity runs should mark their corresponding Run Types
as “TOO” in the \ObservingRun macro. See the ESOFORM User Manual for more details. DDT
programmes involving TOO runs should also fill in the \TOORun macros in the ESOFORM proposal
template as instructed.
Approved DDT proposals are carried out in Service Mode on Paranal and Chajnantor, or in Visitor
Mode override on La Silla. Very few non-time-critical DDT proposals are foreseen to be approved
19
so proposers should provide a clear justification (in Box 8b of the application form) why the programme should be considered for DDT allocation and why it was not submitted through the regular
OPC channel. In the absence of such a justification, the proposal will not be considered for DDT
allocation, and the proposers will be encouraged to resubmit their proposals for the next appropriate
OPC submission deadline. As a general rule, proposals originally submitted to the OPC that were
not allocated time must not be submitted as DDT proposals.
DDT proposals may be submitted at any time. They must be prepared using the special ESOFORM
DDT template. Proposers must upload the DDT ESOFORM template and submit their DDT
proposals by registering and logging into the ESO User Portal. You can find more details at:
http://www.eso.org/sci/observing/phase1/esoform.html
DDT proposals are reviewed at ESO and approved by the Director General. Urgent requests must
be clearly identified in Box 5 (Special Remarks) of the application form.
4.8
Host State Proposals
Qualifying proposals whose PI is affiliated with an institute of the Host State (Chile) are counted
as Host State Proposals. The designation as Host State Proposal is independent of the fraction of
non-member state CoI’s.
4.9
Non-Member State Proposals
A Non-Member State Proposal is a proposal where 2/3 or more of the proposers are not
affiliated to ESO member state institutes, independently of the nationality of the proposers and of
the affiliation of the PI. Non-member state proposals are submitted in the usual way, but a separate
set of criteria are used for the review of such proposals (Section 6.1). This non-member state policy
does not apply to the host state, Chile, whose participation is regulated by the “Interpretative,
Supplementary and Amending Agreement” to the 1963 Convention (Sects. 4.8 and 6.1).
4.10
VLT-XMM proposals
With the aim of taking full advantage of the complementarity of ground-based and space-borne
observing facilities, ESA and ESO have agreed to establish an environment for those scientific
programmes that require observations with both the XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory and the
ESO VLT(I) telescopes to achieve outstanding and competitive results.
By agreement with the XMM-Newton Observatory, ESO may award up to 290 ksec (∼80 hours) of
XMM-Newton observing time. Similarly, the XMM-Newton project may award up to 80 hours of
ESO VLT observing time. This applies to the duration of an XMM-Newton cycle, which normally
extends over two ESO observing periods. However, proposers should take the limited availability of
some of the VLT(I) instruments in Periods 93 and 94 into account as detailed in this section. See
Section 1.1 for more details regarding instrument availability during these periods.
Proposers wishing to make use of this opportunity will have to submit a single proposal in response
to either the XMM-Newton or the ESO call for proposals: proposals for the same programme submitted to both observatories will be rejected. To submit a proposal to ESO, the Normal Programme
template must be used. Such a proposal will be reviewed exclusively by the OPC. A proposal submitted to the XMM-Newton Observatory will be reviewed exclusively by the XMM-Newton OTAC.
Proposals that request different amounts of observing time on each facility should be submitted to
the Observatory for which the greatest amount of time is required. The primary criterion for the
award of observing time is that both VLT and XMM-Newton data are required to meet the scientific
objectives of the proposal. The project does not need to require simultaneous XMM-Newton and
ESO telescope observations. Targets of Opportunity and “Triggered Observations” are excluded
from this cooperative programme.
It is the proposers’ responsibility to provide a full and comprehensive scientific and technical justification for the requested observing time on both facilities. Both the ESO and XMM-Newton ob-
20
servatories will perform feasibility checks of the approved proposals. They each reserve the right to
reject any observation determined to be unfeasible for any reason. The rejection by one Observatory
could jeopardize the entire proposed science programme.
Apart from the above the general policies and procedures currently in force for the final selection
of the proposals, the allocation of observing time, the execution of the observations, and the data
rights remain unchanged for both ESO and the XMM-Newton Observatory.
5
Observing Modes
In Period 93, most VLT and VLTI instruments will be offered in two modes: Visitor Mode (VM)
and Service Mode (SM). These modes have been extensively described in the Data Flow Operations
section of the December 1997 and June 1998 issues of The ESO Messenger (see also an article
on Service Mode scheduling in the September 2001 issue). As part of the Phase 1 proposal,
investigators will have to specify and justify which mode they desire. While every effort will be
made to follow the proposed observing mode, ESO does reserve the right to allocate time in a mode
that is different from the one requested. Note especially the restrictions of available modes detailed
in Sects. 5.1 and 5.2, and the policy in Section 6.3.
The telescope, as well as the instruments, will be operated by observatory staff only. The astronomer
interfaces with the telescope/instruments via Observation Blocks (OBs), produced using the Phase
2 Proposal Preparation (P2PP) tool. Observers use P2PP 2.13.1 for La Silla observations and
P2PP 3 for Paranal observations.
5.1
Visitor Mode
In Visitor Mode (VM) the astronomer is physically present at the observatory during the observations. Each approved VM run will be allocated specific calendar nights. One of the programme
investigators will travel to the Observatory and execute the observations. Visitor Mode is not offered
on VST, VISTA or APEX.
For all ESO instruments data acquisition will be done by executing Observation Blocks (OBs), i.e.
observing sequences specified by the astronomer that are based on templates provided by ESO. VM
investigators will be encouraged to construct their OBs before arriving on the site using P2PP. At the
telescope OBs can be created or further modified in real-time (with the exception of VIMOS MOS
and FORS2 MXU mode). VM investigators will be required to arrive on Paranal before the start
of their observing run as follows: 24 hours for UVES, and 48 hours for all other instruments. On
La Silla, Visiting Astronomers shall arrive 1 to 2 days before the start of the observations, and may
leave the site up to 1 to 2 days after the end of their observing run according to the transportation
schedule (see the La Silla Science Operations page). Note that programmes must be executed
as specified and approved at Phase 1. The proposer should prepare a backup/alternative programme
to be executed in place of the primary programme if the observing conditions are not ideal. The
original science case and goals should be followed. Such backup programmes must be approved
by ESO prior to the observing run. The corresponding requests must be submitted via the webbased form available at http://www.eso.org/sci/observing/phase2/ProgChange/. If the
conditions prevent the Visiting Astronomer’s primary programme to be executed the telescope will
be used for the execution of Service Mode observations; assuming no backup programme is in place
and that Service Mode observations are allowed on that telescope. Raw data are available for
download shortly after acquisition.
Please note that VM proposers must include overheads for all science exposures. Guidelines
are provided in the Overheads page.
In general, the observatory does not compensate for weather or technical losses of observing time.
However, under exceptional circumstances, the Director of the Observatory may decide to compensate losses of observing time. Under exceptional circumstances, the Director of the Observatory
may decide to interrupt Visitor Mode observation to allow Service Mode observations.
21
5.1.1
ToO programme execution during VM observations
VM observations may be interrupted by time-critical DDT or ToO programmes. As far as possible,
the execution of observations for such programmes will be confined to scheduled Service Mode
periods. Under exceptional circumstances, the Director of the Observatory may decide to interrupt
VM runs to allow ToO observations. ToO runs in the Rapid Response Mode (RRM) may also
interrupt VM observations (see Section 4.4.1).
5.1.2
Delegated Visitor Mode
ESO reserves the right to allocate telescope time in Delegated Visitor Mode (DVM) instead of regular
Visitor Mode (VM) for any runs with a justified need for VM observations and whose duration is
smaller than one night. The final decision will be based on the technical feasibility reports and the
Principal Investigators will be informed of their DVM time allocation via the web letters.
Delegated VM observations are scheduled on specific dates/slots as if they were regular Visitor Mode
runs, but they are executed by an ESO staff member, in close contact (e.g. via phone, Skype or
video link) with the Principal Investigator, or someone the PI designates to serve as the liaison with
the Observatory. More details, including all requirements concerning the preparation of DVM runs
are provided on the Paranal Sciences Operations webpage.
5.2
Service Mode
About 60% of the total time available for observations on Paranal will be carried out in Service
Mode (SM). SM is also the only mode supported for APEX, VST and VISTA. It is not offered on
any La Silla telescope.
Investigators with runs allocated in SM time will be required to specify their programme by submitting a Phase 2 package in advance to ESO. This package consists of OBs, finding charts, a Readme
form and, if applicable, ephemerides. Observers intending to submit proposals to be executed in
SM may find it useful to familiarize themselves with the Phase 2 Service Mode guidelines. Once
the OBs are completed, they will be submitted to ESO for verification and acceptance.
Accepted OBs will be executed by ESO staff based on their OPC recommended priority and a
proper match between the requested and the actual observing conditions. An article about SM
scheduling appeared in The ESO Messenger (2001, v. 105, p. 18). The article helps proposers
understand how they may optimize their use of this observing mode, and it should be considered
compulsory reading for SM proposers. SM PIs and their data delegates have direct access (via their
personal ESO User Portal account) to their own raw proprietary data as soon as the data is ingested
in the ESO Archive. Note that in Service Mode the proprietary period for a given science file starts
as soon as the data are made electronically available to PIs or to those to whom they have delegated
their data access rights.
Please note that SM proposers must include overheads for all science exposures. Guidelines
are provided in the Overheads page.
ESO will absorb all the time required to complete the calibration sequences to the level of
accuracy foreseen in the calibration plan as well as overheads associated with such calibrations. More information on the Paranal Calibration plans can be found from the VLT/VLTI
Pipelines & Calibration Plans webpage and the respective instrument User Manual. If those
calibrations are not adequate, the SM proposer must include time for any additional calibrations
including overheads.
Proposers are especially encouraged to request Service Mode (on Paranal) if their programme involves Target of Opportunity events or synoptic observing, or if they require the best observing
conditions (which occur at unpredictable intervals). Further information on SM observing may be
found in the Service Mode Guidelines.
22
5.2.1
Service Mode policies
To ensure the efficiency of Service Mode (SM) observing, ESO has implemented a number of rules,
procedures and limitations on SM runs. They need to be carefully taken into account at the time
of preparing an application for SM observations and are summarized here. Please note that these
items have important consequences on the way that execution overheads must be taken into account.
Please consult the Phase 2 webpages for the latest information on SM policies and SM OB rules.
Proposers should note that Phase 1 constraints are binding (see Section 6.5).
• Some observing strategies cannot be supported in Service Mode; in particular, realtime decisions about complex OB sequencing, or decisions based on the outcome of previously
executed OBs (like adjustment of integration times or execution of some OBs instead of others).
• Observation Blocks (OBs) execution. OBs are executed non-contiguously (with the
exception of OBs within the concatenation scheduling containers; see Programmes with
linked time-requirements below). Since efficient SM operations require continuous flexibility
to best match the OB constraints with actual observing conditions, OBs for a given run are
normally scheduled non-contiguously. It is thus not possible to reduce acquisition overheads
by requiring the sequential execution of OBs with the same target field.
• Multi-mode, multi-configuration OBs are normally not permitted in SM. Although
multiple configurations within one OB may sometimes reduce overheads, scheduling and calibrating such OBs is extremely inefficient and can increase the calibration load to an unsustainable level. Examples of such multi-configuration OBs are those combining imaging and
spectroscopy in a single OB, spectroscopy with multiple grisms or central wavelength settings,
or imaging with a large number of filters (although most imagers allow multiple broadband
filters in one OB). Multi-configuration OBs are accepted only if duly justified and authorized
by means of a Phase 2 Waiver Request.
• OB Total Execution Time. Proposers should make sure that all overheads, including
telescope presetting and acquisition overheads have been properly included.
• OB execution times must be below 1 hour. This rule also applies to concatenated OBs in
most cases. Long OBs and concatenated OBs are more difficult to schedule and execute within
the specified constraints because of the unpredictable evolution of the observing conditions.
OBs taking more than one hour to execute are not normally accepted. Proposers are especially
encouraged to plan for OBs substantially shorter than one hour if the execution conditions
are particularly demanding, as the fulfillment of all the constraints during the entire execution
time becomes more unlikely as the OB becomes longer. Please see the “Service Mode OBs”
item in Section 1.2 for more information.
• Fulfillment of Phase 2 constraints: ESO will consider an OB as successfully executed if
all the conditions in the constraint set are fulfilled. OBs executed under conditions marginally
outside constraints by no more than 10% of the specified value will not be scheduled for reexecution. Adaptive Optics-assisted observations within 50% of the requested Strehl ratio
will not be repeated (assuming that other constraints are suitably met). VLTI OBs executed
marginally outside the specified LST intervals by no more than 30 min will not be scheduled
for re-execution.
• Programmes with linked time requirements: SM is also intended to support programmes
with special timing requirements. However, proposers planning such programmes should keep
in mind that at most 60% of both bright and dark time is allocated to SM (on Paranal), and
that observing conditions cannot be predicted when a time-series is started. This means that
timing sequences that are extremely long and/or complex, timing links that are very restrictive,
and time-series for observations requiring excellent observing conditions, are unlikely to be
successfully completed. Therefore, all such proposals are reviewed for technical feasibility and
may be rejected if judged to be too complex. Proposers for programmes requiring timing links
are strongly encouraged to consider how they may simplify their timing sequences as much
as possible, as this will minimize the risk that the observations are deemed unfeasible. They
should also read the Time critical OB execution policy page.
23
If a given OB cannot be executed within its intended observability window, it will be removed from the observing queue and will not be attempted again. If it was part of a timelinked series, then the time-series observation will continue with the next OB if appropriate.
ESO will not restart a sequence of linked observations if the pre-specified timing constraints
cannot be fulfilled. More details on how version 3 of the Phase 2 Proposal Preparation
(P2PP) tool can be used to time-link, group or concatenate various OBs, are described in
http://www.eso.org/sci/observing/phase2/P2PP3.html.
• ToO programme execution Successful proposers of ToO runs will have to prepare OBs for
their observations well ahead of the beginning of an observing period (see Section 5.2). Mostly
ToO OBs will have to be “dummy” OBs with default values for target coordinates, integration
times etc. At the time of occurrence of the predicted event, the PI of the programme (or one
of his/her delegates) must activate it and at the same time provide the missing information
for completion of the OBs. The service observer will update and execute the specified OBs.
Further details are available on the Phase 2 ToO Procedures page.
6
Policy Summary
Several policies regarding all aspects of the use of ESO telescopes have been refined over the years by
the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC), and by the Science and Technology Committee
(STC). Here we summarize those policies relevant for ESO proposers for Period 93. For details on
individual policies we refer to the VLT/VLTI Science Operations Policy document.
6.1
Who may submit, time allocation policies
ESO proposals may be submitted by any group or individual. One single person, the Principal
Investigator or PI, must be assigned to be responsible for the programme. The PI will also act as
the official contact between ESO and the proposers for all later correspondence (Phase 2 information,
data distribution, etc.). By submitting a proposal, the PI takes full responsibility for its contents,
in particular with regard to the names of CoIs and the agreement to follow the ESO policies and
regulations, including the conditions specified in the present Call for Proposals. Following the
introduction of the ESO User Portal, PIs identify themselves uniquely in Phase 1 proposals by their
User Portal username. Note that each individual is allowed to have only one account in the User
Portal database; multiple accounts must not be created. Failure to comply with this restriction may
lead to the rejection by ESO of the corresponding proposals.
All valid proposals received by ESO prior to the submission deadline will be reviewed by the OPC,
who will rank them according to the scientific merit of the proposal and the importance of its
contribution to the advancement of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, proposals should provide
evidence that the proposing individual or team have the expertise and sufficient resources to carry
out the analysis.
Proposals should be self-contained. The evaluation will be based solely on their contents, to the
exclusion of external references.
For non-member state proposals (Section 4.9) the following additional criteria will be taken into
account:
• The required telescope/instrumentation is not available at any other observatory accessible to
the applicants.
• If an ESO member state proposal and a non-member state proposal are rated equally, preference will be given to the ESO member state proposal.
The following policy, extracted from the agreement between ESO and its host state Chile, governs
the allocation of time to Host State Proposals (Section 4.8): “Chilean scientists who present
24
meritorious projects shall have the right to obtain up to 10% of the observing time of ESO telescopes”. For VLT projects at least one half of this 10% shall be dedicated to projects of Chilean
astronomers in cooperation with astronomers of ESO member countries.
Following the recommendations of the OPC and a technical feasibility check, the ESO Director
General grants observing time based on the OPC ranking and the availability of telescope time.
However, in the case of sudden astronomical events a ToO or DDT programme may be activated,
and may lead to an interruption of the currently active run.
6.2
Requesting use of non-standard observing configurations
Proposers should pay particular attention to the fact that, as indicated in the instrument manuals,
use of certain non-standard instrumental modes or configurations requires prior approval by ESO.
This approval must be obtained before submitting the Phase 1 proposal. Corresponding requests,
including a brief justification, must be submitted by email to usd-help@eso.org at least two weeks
before the proposal submission deadline. Failure to follow this rule may lead to the rejection of the
proposal by ESO for technical reasons.
Users who wish to request a new (own) filter to be installed, particularly in the cryogenic instruments
(e.g., HAWK-I, VIRCAM, VISIR) must approach ESO via usd-help@eso.org at least 3 months
before submitting a proposal requesting that filter. Failure to follow these guidelines may lead to
the rejection of the proposal by ESO for technical reasons.
6.3
Policy regarding offered/available observing configurations
Users will be promptly informed if it becomes impossible to support some currently offered instrument mode, and may be asked to switch from Service Mode to Visitor Mode or vice versa. In
general, runs requiring non-standard configurations will only be accepted in Visitor Mode.
6.4
Observing programme execution
Observations in both Visitor and Service Mode must be executed as described in the Phase 1
proposal, including the instrument modes and specified targets. Departures from Phase 1 specifications and targets will not generally be allowed, unless a sound scientific justification exists, and
provided that the change does not involve a significant increase in the pressure factor on oversubscribed regions of the sky. The request for changes of targets and instrument set-up(s), along with
the corresponding scientific justification, must be submitted via the web-based form available at
http://www.eso.org/sci/observing/phase2/ProgChange/.
For any other departure from Phase 1 specifications a justification must be provided in writing to
paranal@eso.org at least one month before the beginning of the observations for runs scheduled
in Visitor Mode. For Service Mode runs, these requests and associated justifications must be submitted to usd-help@eso.org or to p2pp-waiver@eso.org (clear instructions are available at
http://www.eso.org/sci/observing/phase2/SMGuidelines/WaiverChanges.html) at least
one week before the Phase 2 deadline (also see Section 6.5).
ESO reserves the right to reject the changes if they are insufficiently justified, conflicting with any
other approved programmes, or imply significant changes in the overall distribution of scheduled
targets in the sky. Observations of targets for which no authorization has been obtained are not
allowed at the telescope.
6.4.1
Service Mode run execution
The runs to be conducted in Service Mode will be subdivided into the following classes for operational
reasons:
25
• Class A: All possible efforts will be made to execute all OBs corresponding to the runs in the
requested observing period. Approximately the first half (according to the OPC ranking) of
the total amount of Service Mode time scheduled on each telescope falls in this class.
• Class B: These runs will be executed in the requested observing period on a best-effort basis.
Approximately the second half (according to the OPC ranking) of the total amount of Service
Mode time scheduled on each telescope falls in this class.
• Class C: Filler runs. OBs will only be executed if the observing conditions do not permit
observations for runs within classes A and B.
For Class A runs that are not completed by the end of Period 93, ESO will decide whether they
can be declared “substantially complete”, or have to be carried over to the next period provided
that this is technically feasible. In general, a class A run will not be carried over for more than one
additional natural visibility period. Class B and C runs will not be carried over. ToO runs are by
definition Class A regarding priority in execution but they will not be carried over to the following
periods regardless of their completion status.
Proposers are particularly encouraged to consider their observing strategy and how they can simplify
any time constraints are much as possible to increase chances of being scheduled. Guidelines on the
handling of time-critical OBs are available at the Time critical OB execution policy page.
6.5
Phase 2 Service Mode policy: constraints and targets are binding
To optimize the use of ESO telescopes in Service Mode a proper mix of runs requiring various
observing conditions, and with targets spread over the entire range of RAs for a given period, is
necessary. For this reason proposers are requested in their Phase 1 proposal to specify not only the
targets with accurate coordinates, but also the needed observing conditions (lunar phase, seeing,
sky transparency). Due to their essential role in determining the long-term scheduling of
Service Mode time, the constraints specified at Phase 1 are binding. Successful proposers
will not be allowed to change the instrument set-ups, target lists and/or times per target that
were requested at Phase 1 in their Phase 2 submissions, unless explicitly authorized by ESO (see
Section 6.4). The relaxation of observing constraints is allowed at Phase 2 only. See Section 6.4 for
more details on how to request waivers for Service Mode runs.
6.6
Pre-imaging runs
A separate run must be specified for a VLT programme requiring pre-imaging. If this is not specified
in the proposal, the time needed for the execution of the pre-imaging will be deducted from the
total allocation of the project. Pre-imaging runs are always scheduled in priority class A, but must
be specified as pre-imaging runs as this will not occur automatically. Please be sure to indicate
the pre-imaging character of the run by using the corresponding \INSconfig macro in the LATEX
ESOFORM template.
6.7
Data rights, archiving, data distribution
All data obtained with ESO facilities are ESO property. ESO grants a 12-month proprietary period
for science and acquisition data to the PI of the programme as part of which these data were obtained.
This period applies to each data file individually. The proprietary period starts as soon as the data
is made available to the PI or respective delegates via the ESO Science Archive Facility. Should
you wish to specify a shorter period than the nominal 12 months in Period 93, please do so using
the \ProprietaryTime macro in the LATEX ESOFORM template. Raw data of Public Surveys,
calibration and technical data are not subject to a proprietary period and become publicly available
as soon as they are ingested in the ESO Archive.
For Visiting Astronomers, raw data will in general be made available before astronomers leave the
observatory site. For both Visitor Mode and Service Mode observations, raw science data and
26
associated calibration data are distributed to the PIs and their data delegates from their ESO User
Portal accounts.
6.8
Publication of ESO telescope results
Publications based on observations collected at ESO telescopes should state this in a footnote to the
article’s title. The corresponding observing proposal should be clearly identified by its ESO reference
number. For example: “Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile
(ESO Programme 093.C-1234)”.
6.9
Press Releases
Should you consider that your results are worthy of a press release to the general public, please
contact the ESO Outreach Department (information@eso.org) as soon as possible, preferably no
later than when the paper is submitted for publication. ESO reserves the right to use any data
obtained with ESO telescopes as part of programmes allocated ESO time for press releases.
27
Part III
Appendix
A
Acronyms
AMBER
APEX
ARTEMIS
AT
CHAMP+
CoI
CONICA
CRIRES
DDT
EFOSC2
ERIS
ESO
ETC
FLASH
FLAMES
FLASH
FORS2
GTO
HARPS
HAWK-I
IR
ISAAC
KMOS
LABOCA
LGS
LST
MIDI
MOS
MPIfR
MUSE
NACO
NAOS
NGS
OB
OmegaCAM
OPC
OPO
P2PP
PI
PIONIER
PWV
RA
RRM
SABOCA
SHFI
SINFONI
SM
SPHERE
SPIFFI
Astronomical Multi-BEam combineR
Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment
Architectures de bolomètres pour des Télescopes à grand champ
de vue dans le domaine sub-Millimetrique au Sol
Auxiliary Telescope for the VLT Interferometer
Carbon Heterodyne Array of the MPIfR
Co-Investigator
High-Resolution Near Infrared CAmera
Cryogenic high-resolution IR Echelle Spectrometer
Director’s Discretionary Time (proposal)
ESO Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera 2
Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph
European Southern Observatory
Exposure Time Calculator
First-Light Apex Sub-millimeter Heterodyne
Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph
First-Light Apex Sub-millimeter Heterodyne
Focal Reducer/low dispersion Spectrograph 2
Guaranteed Time Observations
High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher
High Acuity Wide field K-band Imager
InfraRed
Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera
K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph
LArge BOlometer CAmera
Laser Guide Star
Local Sidereal Time
MID-infrared Interferometric instrument
Multi-Object Spectroscopy
Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie
Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer
NAOS-CONICA
Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System
Natural Guide Star
Observation Block
Wide Field Imager for the VST at Paranal
Observing Programmes Committee
Observing Programmes Office
Phase 2 Proposal Preparation (software tool)
Principal Investigator
Precision Integrated-Optics Near-infrared Imaging ExpeRiment
Precipitable Water Vapour
Right Ascension
Rapid Response Mode
Submillimetre APEX BOlometer CAmera
Swedish Heterodyne Facility Instrument
Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared
Service Mode (programme)
Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch
SPectrometer for Infrared Faint Field Imaging
28
ToO
USD
UT1
UT2
UT3
UT4
UV
UVES
VIMOS
VIRCAM
VISIR
VISTA
VLT
VLTI
VM
VST
XSHOOTER
ZEUS-2
Z-Spec
Target of Opportunity
User Support Department
Unit Telescope 1 (Antu)
Unit Telescope 2 (Kueyen)
Unit Telescope 3 (Melipal)
Unit Telescope 4 (Yepun)
Ultra Violet
UV–Visual Echelle Spectrograph
VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph
VISTA InfraRed CAMera
VLT Imager and Spectrometer for mid Infra Red
Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy
Very Large Telescope
Very Large Telescope Interferometer
Visitor Mode (programme)
VLT Survey Telescope
UV-Visual-NIR medium resolution echelle spectrograph
Redshift (z) and Early Universe Spectrometer
Broadband millimeter-wave Spectrometer
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