ISaGRAF C Tools User Manual

ISaGRAF C Tools User Manual

ISaGRAF C Tools

User and Reference Manual

CONTROL

MICROSYSTEMS

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ISaGRAF C Tools User and Reference Manual

©2007 Control Microsystems Inc.

All rights reserved.

Printed in Canada.

Trademarks

TelePACE, SCADASense, SCADAServer, SCADALog, RealFLO, TeleSAFE, TeleSAFE

Micro16, SCADAPack, SCADAPack Light, SCADAPack Plus, SCADAPack 32, SCADAPack

32P, SCADAPack 350, SCADAPack LP, SCADAPack 100, SCADASense 4202 DS,

SCADASense 4202 DR, SCADASense 4203 DS, SCADASense 4203 DR, SCADASense

4102, SCADASense 4012, SCADASense 4032 and TeleBUS are registered trademarks of

Control Microsystems.

All other product names are copyright and registered trademarks or trade names of their respective owners.

Material used in the User and Reference manual section titled SCADAServer OLE

Automation Reference is distributed under license from the OPC Foundation.

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Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... 2

ISAGRAF C TOOLS OVERVIEW............................................................................................ 3

GETTING STARTED ............................................................................................................... 6

C PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................................ 10

REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEM...................................................................................... 18

OVERVIEW OF PROGRAMMING FUNCTIONS .................................................................. 32

ISAGRAF C TOOLS FUNCTION SPECIFICATIONS........................................................... 63

ISAGRAF C TOOLS MACRO DEFINITIONS ..................................................................... 391

ISAGRAF C TOOLS STRUCTURES AND TYPES ............................................................ 400

C COMPILER KNOWN PROBLEMS .................................................................................. 426

ISAGRAF C TOOLS WARRANTY AND LICENSE ............................................................ 429

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ISaGRAF C Tools Overview

The ISaGRAF C Tools are ideal for engineers and programmers who require advanced programming tools for SCADA applications and process control. The SCADAPack and

Micro16 families of controllers execute ISaGRAF and C application programs simultaneously, providing you with maximum flexibility in implementing your control strategy.

This manual provides full documentation on the ISaGRAF C program loader and the library of C language process control and SCADA functions. We strongly encourage you to read it, and to notify us if you find any errors or additional items you feel should be included in our documentation.

We sincerely hope that the reliability and flexibility afforded by this fully programmable controller enable you and your company to solve your automation problems in a cost effective and efficient manner.

The ISaGRAF C Tools include an ANSI C cross compiler; a customized library of functions for industrial automation and data acquisition; a real time operating system; and the

ISaGRAF C program loader. The C function library is similar to many other C implementations, but contains additional features for real time control, digital and analog I/O.

An overview of the application development environment and its features follows.

Program Development

C programs are written using any text editor. The MCCM77 compiler is used to compile, assemble and link the programs on a personal computer.

The memory image, which results from this process may then be, loaded either into the

RAM, committed to an EPROM, or both may be used together. Programs may be executed either manually or automatically at power up.

Modularity

Programs written in ISaGRAF C may be split into many separately compiled modules. These modules may be tested individually before being linked together in the final program.

Command files specify how the various files are to be linked.

Assembly Language Code

Assembly language source code may be included directly within C programs. The #asm and

#endasm statements are used to enclose in-line assembly language code, which is then assembled without passing through the compiler.

C programs are converted to assembly language by the MCCM77 compiler, and this code may be viewed and modified. The resulting code may also be combined with programs written directly in assembler.

Program Options

A C application program may reside in RAM or ROM. The normal method of program development has the program in RAM. The program may call library routines in the operating system ROM. The RAM is nonvolatile (battery backed), so the program may remain in RAM once development is completed and the unit is installed.

Application programs may also be committed to EPROM. The RAM is used for data storage in this case.

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Supported Language Features

The ISaGRAF C Tools use the Microtec® MCCM77 C compiler. The compiler is ANSI C compliant, and provides a code optimizer and assembler.

In addition to the standard C operators, data types and library functions, the C tools provide a set of routines specifically designed for control applications. Some applications and the descriptions of these functions may be found on the following pages.

Serial Communication

An extensive serial communication library supports simple ASCII communication, communication protocols and serial port configuration. The default communication mode uses the TeleBUS RTU communication protocol. It supports access to the I/O database, serial port reconfiguration and program loading.

The application program can disable the TeleBUS protocol, and use the serial ports for other purposes.

TeleBUS protocols are compatible with the widely supported, Modbus ASCII and RTU protocols.

Clock/Calendar

The processor's hardware clock calendar is supported by the C Tools. The time, date and day of week can be read and set by the application software.

Timers

The controller provides 32 software timers. They are individually programmable for tick rates from ten per second to once every 25.5 seconds. Timers may be linked to digital outputs to cause external devices to turn on/off after a specified period. All timers operate in the background from a hardware interrupt generated by the main system clock.

Duty Cycle and Pulse Outputs

The digital I/O driver provides duty cycle and pulse train outputs. Duty cycle outputs generate continuous square waves. Pulse train outputs generate finite sequences of pulses.

Outputs are generated independent of the application program.

Watchdog Timer

The controller supports a hardware watchdog timer to detect and respond to hardware or software failures. Watchdog timer trigger pulses may be generated by the user program or by the system clock.

Checksums

To simplify the implementation of self-checking communication algorithms, the C Tools provide four types of checksums: additive, CRC-16, CRC-CCITT, and byte-wise exclusive-

OR. The CRC algorithms are particularly reliable, employing various polynomial methods to detect nearly all communication errors. Additional types of checksums are easily implemented using library functions.

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Standard I/O Functions

The ISaGRAF C Tools are an enhanced version of standard C libraries. Most of the usual C programming techniques apply. However, with respect to I/O, there are some differences.

The C Tools function library supports all the standard I/O functions. There are no disk drives or peripherals associated with the controller. Thus many file handling functions return fixed responses, indicating that the operation could not be performed.

All standard devices are opened automatically by the operating system and cannot be closed. The route function may be used to redirect stdin, stdout and stderr.

The ISaGRAF Workbench

Control Microsystems IEC 1131-3 implementation enables the programming of SCADAPack and Micro16 controllers using the IEC 1131-3 programming languages. The programming environment uses the ISaGRAF Workbench to create, load and debug IEC 1131-3 application programs.

The ISaGRAF Workbench is a powerful programming environment providing, among several other features, a C Program Loader. On-line help provides a full reference to all the features of the ISaGRAF Workbench. ISaGRAF runs on the Microsoft Windows operating system.

This manual references only those features of the ISaGRAF Workbench pertaining to the C

Program Loader dialog. Please refer to the chapter Controller Commands and Options of the

IEC1131 Reference and User Manual for a complete description of the following ISaGRAF

Workbench menus, which will be useful during C Program development.

Additional Documentation

Additional documentation on ISaGRAF IEC 61131-3 and the TeleSAFE Micro16 and

SCADAPack controllers is found in the following documents.

The on-line help for the ISaGRAF C program loader contains a complete reference to the operation of the loader. To display on-line help, select Contents from the Help menu.

The SCADAPack & Micro16 System Manual is a complete reference to controller and I/O modules used with SCADAPack and Micro16 controllers. It contains the SCADAPack

Controller Hardware Manuals, the TeleSAFE Micro16 System Manual and hardware manuals for all 5000 Series I/O modules.

The TeleBUS Protocols User Manual describes communication using Modbus compatible protocols.

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Getting Started

This section of the C Tools User Manual describes the installation of C Tools and includes a

Program Development Tutorial. The Program Development Tutorial leads the user through the steps involved in writing, compiling, linking and loading a C application program.

System Requirements

ISaGRAF C Tools requires the following minimum system configuration.

• Personal computer using 80386 or higher microprocessor.

• Microsoft ™ operating system versions including Windows 2000, NT and XP.

• Minimum 4 MB of memory.

• Mouse or compatible pointing device.

• Hard disk with approximately 2.5 Mbytes of free disk space.

Making Backup Disks

You should make a backup copy of the Microtec C compiler disks before using the software.

A backup copy protects you against damage to the disk. Always work with the backup copy

– if it fails, you can make a new copy from the original disk. Store the original disk in a safe location.

To make a backup off a floppy disk on Microsoft Windows XP

™:

• Start Windows Explorer. (Right click on Windows Start and select Explore).

• Right click on the floppy disk and select Copy Disk.

• Select the source and destination disk drives. Click on the OK button.

Installation of C Compiler

Install the Microtec C compiler as described in the installation manuals supplied with the system. Be sure to add all the required variables to the DOS environment.

Installation of ISaGRAF

Install ISaGRAF as described in the installation section of the ISaGRAF Reference and User

Manual.

Some virus checking software may interfere with Setup. If you experience problems with the

Setup, disable your virus checker and run Setup again.

Program Development Tutorial

Program development consists of three stages: writing and editing; compiling and linking; and loading the program into the controller. Each uses separate tools. To demonstrate these steps a sample program will be prepared.

Refer to the C Program Development section for a full description of the program development process.

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Traditionally, the first program that is run on a new C compiler is the hello, world program. It prints the message “hello, world”.

Writing and Editing

A controller C program is written using any text editor or word processor in text mode. The syntax should correspond to that described in the Microtec MCCM77 Documentation Set, and the C Program Development section of this manual. This chapter describes nonstandard functions, which are unique to the controller. It should be read carefully to make full use of the special purpose routines available.

Using your text editor, open the file hello.c file. It is located in the telepace\ctools\520x

directory. The program looks a little different from the traditional

hello, world program.

/* -----------------------------------------------

hello.c

SCADAPack and TeleSAFE Micro16 Test Program

The infamous hello, world program.

-------------------------------------------- */

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Disable the protocol on serial port 1 */ settings.type = NO_PROTOCOL; settings.station = 1; settings.mode = AM_standard; settings.priority = 3; settings.SFMessaging = FALSE;

/* Print the message */ fprintf(com1, "hello, world\r\n");

/* Wait here forever */

{

NULL;

}

}

The “hello, world” message will be output to the com1 serial port of the controller. A terminal connected to the port will display the message.

The controller normally communicates on all ports using the TeleBUS communication protocol. The first section of the program disables the com1 protocol so the serial port can be used as a normal RS-232 port.

The fprintf function prints the message to the com1 serial port.

When you have completed examining the program, close the hello.c file. It is now ready to be compiled and linked.

Compiling and Linking

Compiling and linking convert the source code into executable code for the controller. The

ISaGRAF C Tools use a C cross compiler and linker from Microtec, a respected supplier of embedded system tools. The compiler produces tight, well-optimized code. The compiler and linker run under the Microsoft MS-DOS operating system.

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The compiler has many command line options. The basic command line and options required to compile code for the controller are: mccm77 -v -nQ -Ml -c filename.c

This should be repeated for each file in the application. Note that the command line options are case sensitive. The character following the M is a lower case l (ell).

Files are linked together using linker command files. To link a program execute the command:

Sample command files for RAM and ROM based applications are located in the telepace\ctools\isagraf directory.

Example

The hello.c program is found in the telepace\ctools\isagraf directory. To compile and link the program:

• switch to the telepace\ctools\isagraf directory;

• enter the commands mccm77 -v -nQ -Ml -c hello.c lnkm77 -c hello.cmd

The file hello.abs contains the executable code in a format ready to load into the controller.

Loading and Executing

The ISaGRAF C Program Loader transfers executable files from a PC to the controller and controls execution of programs in the controller. The loader can also initialize program memory and serial port configuration.

Controller Initialization

The memory of the controller has to be initialized when beginning a new programming project or when it is desired to start from default conditions. It is not necessary to initialize the controller before every program load.

To initialize the controller, first perform a SERVICE boot. A SERVICE boot preserves programs and data in nonvolatile RAM, but does not start the programs running. Default communication parameters are used.

To perform a service boot:

• Remove power from the controller.

• Press and hold the LED POWER switch.

• Apply power to the controller.

• Wait until the STAT LED on the top of the board turns on.

• Release the LED POWER switch.

Second, initialize the program and data memory in the controller. A new controller will require all initializations to be performed. Selected initializations can be performed on a controller that is in use.

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• Run the ISaGRAF program under Microsoft Windows.

• Connect the PC to the controller with the appropriate serial cable. The hello, world program will print data on the com1 serial port. Therefore connect to the com2 serial port on the controller. (All communication ports work the same. We use com2 here because the sample program is using com1.)

• Select all options: Erase IEC 1131 Application, Erase C Program, and Initialize

Controller.

• Click on the OK button.

The controller is now ready for a program.

Loading the Program

To load the hello, world program into the controller:

To load the hello, world program into the controller:

• Run the ISaGRAF program. command.

• Click on the Write button. The file will be downloaded.

Executing the Program

• Connect a terminal to com1 on the controller. It will display the output of the program. Set the communication parameters to 9600 baud, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity.

The “hello, world” message will be displayed on the terminal.

Serial Communication Parameters

When the controller is powered up in the SERVICE mode the serial ports are configured as:

• 8 data bits

• 1 stop bit

• Modbus RTU protocol emulation

• station address = 1

A program may change these settings with the set_port function. When the controller is powered up in RUN position, the custom parameters, as stored by the most recent save function, are used.

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C Program Development

Program Architecture

A C application program may be contained in a single file or in a number of separate files, called modules. A single file is simple to compile and link. It can become cumbersome to edit and time-consuming to compile as the file grows in size.

An application stored in separate modules by function is easier to edit, promotes function reuse, and is quicker to compile when only a few modules are changed. Compiled modules can be combined into object libraries and shared among users.

The ISaGRAF C Tools support both single file and multiple module programs. A C application program consists of support functions provided by the C Tools and the main() and other functions written by the user.

Main Function Structure

The program sample below shows a typical structure for the main() function. void main(void)

{

/* Perform initialization actions */

/* Start support tasks */

/* Main Loop*/

{

/* Perform application functions */

}

}

Initialization actions typically consist of variable declarations, variable initialization and onetime actions that must be performed when the program starts running.

Supporting tasks (see Real Time Operating System section) are typically created before the main loop of the program. Tasks can be created and ended dynamically during the execution of a program as well.

The main loop of a program is always an infinite loop that continually performs the actions required by the program. The main() function normally never returns.

Example

The following is an example of a three-module program. Each function is stored in a separate file. This program will be used in subsequent examples.

File: func1.c

#include <ctools.h> void func1(void)

{

fputs(

"This is function 1\r\n", com1);

}

File: func2.c

#include <ctools.h>

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void func2(void)

{

fputs(

"This is function 2\r\n ", com1);

}

File: main.c

#include <ctools.h> extern void func1(void); extern void func2(void); void main(void)

{

func1();

{

func2();

}

}

Start-Up Function Structure

The user’s main() function is called from the appstart function of the C Tools. It is not necessary to understand the appstart function to write programs. However it performs a number of useful functions that can be modified by the user.

The start-up code has five major functions:

• create and initialize the application program heap (for dynamic memory allocation);

• specify the number of stack blocks allocated to the main task;

• initialize application program variables;

• control execution of the protocol, ladder logic and background I/O tasks; the function.

Source code for the function is supplied with the C Tools. The following discussion refers to statements found in the file appstart.c.

The heap is a section of memory used by dynamic memory allocation functions such as malloc

. The heap starts at the end of RAM used by the program and continues to the end of physical RAM. The limit is set by the statement: end_of_heap .EQU 41ffffh

The limit is set by default to the smallest memory option available for the controller. If your controller has more memory, change the value of the constant according to the following table.

RAM Installed C Application Program RAM

Addresses

128 Kbytes none (ladder logic only)

256 Kbytes

640 Kbytes

400000h – 41FFFFh

400000h – 47FFFFh

1024 Kbytes 388000h – 3E7FFFh

400000h – 47FFFFh

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The application program signature section of the file contains a constant that determines the size of the stack allocated to the main task. The stack size is sufficient for most applications.

It can be changed by modifying the statement:

.WORD 4 ;stack size in blocks

Refer to the Real Time Operating System section for more information on the stack required by tasks.

The appstart function begins by initializing the heap pointers, setting all non-initialized variables to zero, and initializing system variables.

It then starts the communication protocols for each serial port, according to the stored values in the EEPROM (or the standard values on a SERVICE boot). If your application program never uses the communication protocols, some or all of the following commands

1

can be removed, to free the stack space used by the protocol tasks.

start_protocol(com1);

start_protocol(com2);

2

start_protocol(com3);

start_protocol(com4);

3

The background I/O task is required for the timer functions, dial-up modem communications, and PID controller functions to operate. If you do not intend to use these functions, you can reduce the CPU load by changing TRUE to FALSE in the following statement:

runBackgroundIO(TRUE);

The ladder logic interpreter is required for ladder logic programs. If you do not intend to use ladder logic, you can reduce the CPU load by changing TRUE to FALSE in the following statement:

RunTarget(TRUE);

The final operation is execution of the main function. The _initcopy function copies the initial values for initialized variables from the __INITDATA section in the program to the variables. If there are no errors in the data then the user’s application program runs. (An error is likely only if the program in RAM has been damaged or improperly linked.) if (_initcopy() == 0)

{ main();

}

If the main function returns, the task is ended. First, any modem control sessions started by the application are terminated.

abortAllDialupApps();

Then the task is ended. This will cause all other APPLICATION tasks created by main to be stopped as well. taskStatus = getTaskInfo(0);

end_task(taskStatus.taskID);

1

Stack space is required to create additional tasks. Refer to the create_task function for more

3 information.

2

com3 is used only in the SCADAPack and SCADAPack PLUS controllers.

com4 is used only in the SCADAPack LIGHT and SCADAPack PLUS controllers.

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Data Storage

All non-initialized variables (local and global) are initialized to zero on program startup by the

Microtec C Compiler. The I/O database is the only section of memory that is not initialized to zero on startup. Data stored in the I/O database is maintained when power to the controller is lost, and remains until the controller is initialized from the ISaGRAF program.

In most cases the I/O database provides adequate space for data storage. However, if additional non-initialized memory is required, for example for an array of custom data structures, an non-initialized section of memory can be created as shown in the example below.

/* ---------------------------------------------------------------- datalog.c

This file contains the global variable definitions for a datalogger database.

These global variables are placed in a non-initialized section called "savedata". All data in these variables will be maintained over powerup.

------------------------------------------------------------------ */

#include <datalog.h>

/* define a non-initialized section called savedata */

#pragma option -NZsavedata

#pragma option -Xp

/* Global variable definitions */

/* log index */ unsigned logIndex;

/* log database */ struct dataLog logData[DATA_LOG_SIZE];

Any variable defined in this file datalog.c will be placed in the non-initialized section arbitrarily named savedata. Code operating on these variables should be placed in a separate file, which references these global variables through external definitions placed in a header file (e.g. datalog.h).

The #pragma option directive is documented in the Microtec MCCM77 Documentation

Set.

Compiling Source Code

The C Compiler converts source code into object files. The basic command line and options required to compile code for the controller are: mccm77 -v -nQ -Ml -c filename.c

A complete description of the command line options is given in the Microtec MCCM77 User’s

Guide. The options used here are:

Option Description

-v

Issue warnings for features in source file. This option allows you to detect potential errors in your source code before running the program.

-nQ

Do not suppress diagnostic messages. This option provides additional warnings that allow you to detect potential errors in your source code before running the program.

-Ml

Compile for large memory model (note that the character following the

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-c

M is a lower case ell).

Compiler output is an object file.

The following options may be useful.

Option Description

-Jdir

Specify the directory containing the standard include files. Adding -

Jc:\telepace\ctools\520x

to the command line allows you to locate your application program files in a different directory. This helps in organizing your files if you have more than one application program.

-O

Enable standard optimizations. This produces smaller and faster executable code.

-Ot

Optimize in favor of execution time rather than code size where a choice can be made.

-nOc Pop the stack after each function call. This increases code size and execution time. This option should only be used if there is a large number of consecutive function calls in your program.

A large number of consecutive calls requires a large stack allocation for a task. Since the number of stack blocks is limited, using this option can reduce the stack requirements for a task. See the description for the create_task function for more information.

Each module in an application should be compiled to produce an object file. The object files are then linked together to form an executable program.

Example

The following commands are required to compile the program described in the previous sections. mccm77 -v -nQ -Ml -c main.c mccm77 -v -nQ -Ml -c func1.c mccm77 -v -nQ -Ml -c func2.c

This produces three output files: main.obj; func1.obj and func2.obj. In the next section these object files will be combined into an executable program.

Linking Object Files

The linker converts object files and object file libraries into an executable program. The basic command line and options to link a program are: lnkm77 -c filename.cmd

Controller programs can execute from RAM, Flash or ROM. The linker command file determines the location of the program.

RAM Based Applications

A sample linker command file for a RAM based program is appram.cmd located in the telepace\ctools\520x directory.

The file begins by specifying the location and order of memory sections. The far_appcode section is the first section in all controller C programs. It contains the start-up code that calls the main() function. In a RAM based program, the start-up code is located at the start of C application program RAM. This address is fixed at 00400000h.

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The order commands specify the order of the sections. The sections are grouped so all the code and static data sections are first. The variable data sections follow. The heap is the last section. It is allowed to grow from the end of the program data to the end of memory (see

Start Up Function Structure section for more information).

The sections may be rearranged, and new sections added, according to the following rules:

• The section must be first in the order listing.

• All code sections must follow the far_appcode section.

• The

section must be the last code section.

• All data sections must follow the code sections.

• The

section must be last in the order listing.

; ----------------------------------------------

; Specify location and order of memory sections

; ---------------------------------------------- sect far_appcode = 00400000h order far_appcode, far_code, (CODE), const order strings, literals, __INITDATA, far_endcode order far_zerovars, far_initvars, (DATA), heap

The next section of the command file creates initialized data sections. All variables in the specified section are initialized at start-up of the program. The linker creates a copy of the data in these sections and stores it in the __INITDATA section.

; ----------------------------------------------

; Create initialized variables section

; ---------------------------------------------- initdata far_initvars

The next section of the command file lists the application program object modules (files) to be included in the program. You may also include libraries of functions you create here. The sample command file includes one object module: app.obj.

; ----------------------------------------------

; Load application program object modules

; ---------------------------------------------- load app

The next section of the command file lists the start-up routines and standard libraries to be included. There are three object modules and two libraries:

Module Description

Appstart.obj

This file contains the application program start up routine

(see Program Architecture section above). If you modify the start-up routine for a particular application, be sure to specify the path to the modified routine.

Romfunc.obj This file contains addresses of the jump table for calling

Ctools.lib functions in the operating system ROM. Only the symbols are loaded as only the addresses are needed.

This is the C Tools library, which contains C Tools functions not found in the operating system ROM. cm77islf.lib

This is the standard Microtec floating point library. cm77islc.lib This is the standard Microtec function library.

; ----------------------------------------------

; Load start up and library routines

; ---------------------------------------------- load c:\telepace\ctools\520x\appstart

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load_symbols c:\telepace\ctools\520x\romfunc load c:\telepace\ctools\520x\ctools.lib load c:\mccm77\cm77islf.lib load c:\mccm77\cm77islc.lib

The final section of the command file specifies the output file format. The listmap command specifies what information is to be included in the map file. Refer to the Microtec manuals for more information on map files.

The format command specifies the executable output will be in Motorola S2 record format.

The ISaGRAF C Program Loader requires this format.

; ----------------------------------------------

; Specify output file formats and options

; ---------------------------------------------- listmap nopublics, nointernals, nocrossref format S2

Example

The standard command file must be modified to link the application described in the previous example. Copy the appram.cmd file to myapp.cmd. Modify the application object modules section to read:

; ----------------------------------------------

; Load application program object modules

; ---------------------------------------------- load main load func1 load func2

Link the file with the command lnkm77 -c myapp.cmd

This will produce one output file: myapp.abs. The next step is to load it into the controller using the ISaGRAF C Program Loader.

Controller Initialization

You should initialize the memory of the controller when beginning a new programming project or when you wish to start from default conditions. It is not necessary to initialize the controller before every program load.

To initialize the controller, first perform a SERVICE boot. A SERVICE boot preserves programs and data in nonvolatile RAM, but does not start the programs running. Default communication parameters are used.

To perform a service boot:

• Remove power from the controller.

• Press and hold the LED POWER switch.

• Apply power to the controller.

• Wait until the STAT LED on the top of the board turns on.

• Release the LED POWER switch.

Second, initialize the program and data memory in the controller. A new controller will require all initializations be performed. Selected initializations can be performed on a controller that is in use.

• Run the ISaGRAF program under Microsoft Windows.

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• Connect the PC to the controller with the appropriate serial cable (null modem).

• Select all options: Erase IEC 1131 Application, Erase C Program, Initialize Controller.

• Click on the OK button.

Loading Programs into RAM

The C Program Loader dialog transfers executable files from a PC to the controller.

To load a program into RAM:

• Initialize the controller (see Controller Initialization section above).

• Load the program into the controller:

• Run the ISaGRAF program.

• Enter the executable (.abs) file in the edit box for the C Program file name.

• Click on the Write button. The file will be downloaded.

A checksum is calculated for the complete C program. The checksum is verified each time the program is run. This prevents a damaged program from running.

Executing Programs

C application programs are executed when a run program command is received from the

ISaGRAF C Program Loader; or power is applied to the controller (except when a SERVICE boot is performed).

To start a program from the program loader:

• Run the ISaGRAF program.

The controller will execute either the program in RAM or the program in ROM. It chooses the program to execute in the following order:

• C application program in RAM;

• C application program in ROM;

• no C application (standard start-up sequence for other components).

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Real Time Operating System

The real time operating system (RTOS) provides the programmer with tools for building sophisticated applications. The RTOS allows pre-emptive scheduling of event driven tasks to provide quick response to real-world events. Tasks multi-task cooperatively. Inter-task communication and event notification functions pass information between tasks. Resource functions facilitate management of non-sharable resources.

Task Management

The task management functions provide for the creation and termination of tasks. Tasks are independently executing routines. The RTOS uses a cooperative multi-tasking scheme, with pre-emptive scheduling of event driven tasks.

The initial task (the main function) may create additional tasks. The RTOS supports up to 16 tasks. There are 5 task priority levels to aid in scheduling of task execution.

Task Execution

SCADAPack controllers can execute one task at a time. The RTOS switches between the tasks to provide parallel execution of multiple tasks. The application program can be event driven, or tasks can execute round-robin (one after another).

Task execution is based upon the priority of tasks. There are 5 priority levels. Level 0 is reserved for the null task. This task runs when there are no other tasks available for execution. Application programs can use levels 1 to 4. The main task is created at priority level 1.

Tasks that are not running are held in queues. The Ready Queue holds all tasks that are ready to run. Event queues hold tasks that are waiting for events. Message queues hold tasks waiting for messages. Resource queues hold tasks that are waiting for resources. The envelope queue holds tasks that are waiting for envelopes.

Priority Inversion Prevention

When a higher priority task, Task H, requests a resource, which is already obtained by a lower priority task, Task L, the higher priority task, is blocked until Task L releases the resource. If Task L is unable to execute to the point where its releases the resource, Task H will remain blocked. This is called a Priority Inversion.

To prevent this from occurring, the prevention method known as Priority Inheritance has been implemented. In the example already described, the lower priority task, Task L, is promoted to the priority of Task H until it releases the needed resource. At this point Task L is returned to its original priority. Task H will obtain the resource now that it is available.

Note that this does not prevent deadlocks that occur when each task requests a resource that the other has already obtained. This “deadly embrace” is a design error in the application program.

Task Management Functions

There are five RTOS functions for task management. Refer to the Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

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create_task

end_task

Create a task and make it ready to execute.

Terminate a task and free the resources and envelopes allocated to it.

end_application Terminate all application program type tasks. This function is used by communication protocols to stop the application program prior to loading new code.

installExitHandler Specify a function that is called when a task is ended with the end_task or end_application functions.

getTaskInfo Return information about a task.

Task Management Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros used for task management. Refer to the C

Tools Macros section for details on each macro listed.

RTOS_PRIORITIES

Number of RTOS task priorities.

RTOS_TASKS

STACK_SIZE

TS_EXECUTING

TS_READY

TS_WAIT_RESOURCE

TS_WAIT_ENVELOPE

TS_WAIT_EVENT

TS_WAIT_MESSAGE

Number of RTOS tasks.

Size of the machine stack.

Task status indicating task is executing

Task status indicating task is ready to execute

Task status indicating task is blocked waiting for a resource

Task status indicating task is blocked waiting for an envelope

Task status indicating task is blocked waiting for an event

Task status indicating task is blocked waiting for a message

Task Management Structures

The ctools.h file defines the structure Task Information Structure for task management information. Refer to the C Tools Structures and Types section for complete information on structures and enumeration types.

Resource Management

The resource management functions arbitrate access to non-sharable resources. These resources include physical devices such as serial ports, and software that is not re-entrant.

The RTOS defines nine system resources, which are used by components of the I/O drivers, memory allocation functions and communication protocols.

An application program may define other resources as required. Care must be taken not to duplicate any of the resource numbers declared in ctools.h as system resources.

Resource Management Functions

There are three RTOS functions for resource management. Refer to the Function

Specification section for details on each function listed.

request_resource

Request access to a resource and wait if the resource is not available.

poll_resource Request access to a resource. Continue execution if the resource is not available

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release_resource Free a resource for use by other tasks.

IO_SYSTEM Resource

The IO_SYSTEM resource regulates access to all functions using the I/O system. C application programs, ladder logic programs, communication protocols and background I/O operations share the I/O system. It is imperative the resource is obtained to prevent a conflict, as protocols and background operations are interrupt driven. Do not retain control of the resource for more that 0.1 seconds, or background operations will not execute properly.

DYNAMIC_MEMORY Resource

The DYNAMIC_MEMORY resource regulates access to all memory allocation functions.

These functions allocate memory from the system heap. The heap is shared amongst all tasks. The allocation functions are non-reentrant.

The DYNAMIC_MEMORY resource must be obtained before using any of the following functions.

calloc allocates data space dynamically

free

malloc

realloc frees dynamically allocated memory allocates data space dynamically changes the size of dynamically allocated space

AB_PARSER Resource

This resource is used by the DF1 communication protocol tasks to allocate access to the common message parser for each serial port. This resource is of no interest to an application program. However, an application program may not use the resource number assigned to it.

MODBUS_PARSER Resource

This resource is used by Modbus communication protocol drivers to allocate access to the common message parser by tasks for each serial port. This resource is of no interest to an application program.

Resource Management Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros used for resource management. Refer to the

C Tools Macros section for details on each macro listed.

AB_PARSER

DF1 protocol message parser.

COM1_DIALUP

Resource for dialing functions on com1.

COM2_DIALUP

Resource for dialing functions on com2.

COM3_DIALUP

Resource for dialing functions on com3.

COM4_DIALUP

Resource for dialing functions on com4.

DYNAMIC_MEMORY M emory allocation functions.

HART

IO_SYSTEM

HART modem resource.

I/O system hardware functions.

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MODBUS_PARSER

Modbus protocol message parser.

RTOS_RESOURCES

Number of RTOS resource flags.

Inter-task Communication

The inter-task communication functions pass information between tasks. These functions can be used for data exchange and task synchronization. Messages are queued by the

RTOS until the receiving task is ready to process the data.

Inter-task Communication Functions

There are five RTOS functions for inter-task communication. Refer to the Function

Specification section for details on each function listed.

send_message Send a message envelope to another task.

receive_message Read a received message from the task's message queue or wait if the queue is empty.

poll_message Read a received message from the task's message queue. Continue execution of the task if the queue is empty.

allocate_envelope Obtain a message envelope from free pool maintained by the RTOS, or wait if none is available.

deallocate_envelope Return a message envelope to the free pool maintained by the

RTOS.

Inter-task Communication Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros used for inter-task communication. Refer to the C Tools Macros section for details on each macro listed.

MSG_DATA

Specifies the data field in an envelope contains a data value.

MSG_POINTER

RTOS_ENVELOPES

Specifies the data field in an envelope contains a pointer.

Number of RTOS envelopes.

Inter-task Communication Structures

The ctools.h file defines the structure Message Envelope Structure for inter-task communication information. Refer to the C Tools Structures and Types section for complete information on structures and enumeration types.

Event Notification

The event notification functions provide a mechanism for communicating the occurrence events without specifying the task that will act upon the event. This is different from intertask communication, which communicates to a specific task.

Multiple occurrences of a single type of event are queued by the RTOS until a task waits for or polls the event.

Event Notification Functions

There are four RTOS functions for event notification. Refer to the Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

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wait_event

poll_event

Wait for an event to occur.

Check if an event has occurred. Continue execution if one has not occurred.

Signal that an event has occurred. signal_event

interrupt_signal_event Signal that an event has occurred from an interrupt handler. This function must only be called from within an interrupt handler.

There are two support functions, which are not part of the RTOS that may be used with events.

startTimedEvent Enables signaling of an event at regular intervals.

endTimedEvent Terminates signaling of a regular event.

Event Notification Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macro used for event notification. Refer to the C

Tools Macros section for details.

RTOS_EVENTS

Defines the number of available RTOS events.

System Events

The RTOS defines events for communication port management and background I/O operations. An application program may define other events as required. Care must be taken not to duplicate any of the event numbers declared in ctools.h as system events.

BACKGROUND

This event triggers execution of the background I/O routines. An application program cannot use it.

COM1_FREE

This event is used by the serial timeout routine for the com1 port. An application program cannot use it.

COM1_RCVR

This event is used by communication protocols to signal a character or message received on com1. It can be used in a custom character handler

(see install_handler).

COM2_FREE

This event is used by the serial timeout routine for the com2 port. An application program cannot use it.

COM2_RCVR

This event is used by communication protocols to signal a character or message received on com2. It can be used in a custom character handler

(see install_handler).

COM3_RCVR

This event is used by communication protocols to signal a character or message received on com3. It can be used in a custom character handler

(see install_handler).

COM4_RCVR

This event is used by communication protocols to signal a character or message received on com4. It can be used in a custom character handler

(see install_handler).

NEVER

This event is guaranteed never to occur. It can be used to disable a task by waiting for it to occur. However, to end a task it is better to use end_task.

This frees all resources and stack space allocated to the task.

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Error Reporting

Sharable I/O drivers to return error information to the calling task use the error reporting functions. These functions ensure that an error code generated by one task is not reported in another task. The errno global variable used by some functions may be modified by another task, before the current task can read it.

Error Reporting Functions

There are two RTOS functions for error reporting. Refer to the Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

check_error Check the error code for the current task.

report_error Set the error code for the current task.

Error Reporting Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macro used for error reporting. Refer to the C Tools

Macros section for details.

NO_ERROR

Error code indicating no error has occurred.

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SCADAPack Task Architecture

The diagram shows the tasks present in the SCADAPack controller.

Background I/O Task

Executes every 0.1 s

Processes:

• software timers

• dialup modem

• PID controllers

Priority = 4

Timer Interrupt

240 Hz Interrupt

Processes:

• Ladde timers

• jiffy timer

• watchdog timer

• timed events

Priority = h/w interrupt

Optional User Tasks

Created by user from the Main Task.

Priority = 1 to 4

Com1 Protocol Task

Executes w hen message event occurs

Processes :

• messag e

Priority = 3

Executes when message event occurs

Processes:

• message

Priority = 3

Com3 Protoc ol Ta sk

Executes when message event occurs

Processes:

• message

Priority = 3

Com4 Protocol Task

Executes when message event occurs

Processes:

message

Priority = 3

Ladders & I/O Scan Task

Task loop runs continuously:

{ while (TRU E)

request _resource(IO_SYSTEM);

read da ta from input modules to I/O database

(Registe r Assignment)

if progr am is in RUN mode execute ladder logic program

write da ta from I/O database to output modules

(Registe r Assignment)

}

release _res ource(IO_S YSTEM);

release _pr oc essor( );

Main Task (typical)

Task loop runs continuously:

{ while (TRUE)

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

functions requiring IO_SYSTEM resource

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

functions not requiring IO_SYSTEM resource

}

release_processor();

Priority = 1 Priority = 1

The hig he st prio rity routines that execute are hardware interrupt handlers. Most hardware interrupt handlers perform their functions tr ansparently. The Timer Interrupt handler is important to application programs, because it updates several timers that can be used in applicat ion programs. It also triggers the background I/O task.

The background I/O task is the highest priority task in the system. It processes software timers, PID controllers and dialup modem control routines.

There is one protocol task for each serial port where a protocol is enabled. The pro tocol tasks w ait for an event signaled by an interrupt handler. This event is signaled when a complet e message is received. The protocol tasks process the received message and transmit a response when needed. Protocol tasks may be disabled and replaced with protoco l t as ks fr om the application program.

The Ladder Logic and I/O Scan task executes the Ladder Logic program and performs an

I/O scan based on the register assignment. This task is the same priority as the main user applicat ion task .

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The main task is the central task of the user application. It performs the functions required by the use r. T ypica lly, it executes at the same priority as t he Ladd er Logic and I/O Scan task. It user tasks if needed.

RTOS Example Application Program

The foll ow ing pr ogram is used in the explanation of th e RTOS functions. It creates several simple t as ks tha t demonstrate how tasks execute . A task is a C language function that has as its body an infinite loop so it continues to execute forever.

The mai n

task creates two tasks. The echoData task is higher prio rity than main. The auxili ary

task is the s ame priority as main

. The main

task then executes round robin with oth er tasks of the same priority.

The aux iliary

task is a simple task that executes round robin wi th th e other tasks of its priority.

Only the code necessary for task switching is shown to sim plify the example.

The ech oData

task waits for a character to be received on a serial port, then echoes it back out the port. It waits for the event of the character being re ceived to allow lower priority tasks to execu te. It installs a character h andler function – signalCharacter – that signals an event each time a character is received. This function is hooked into the receiver interrupt handler for the serial port.

The execution of this program is explained in the Explanation of Task Execution section.

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------

SCADAPack Real Time Operating System Sample

Copyright (c) 1998, Control Microsystems Inc.

Version History version 1.00 Wayne Johnston November 10, 1998

------------------------------------------------------------------- */

/ * ---- ersion 1.00 -------------------------------------------------

This rogram creates several simple tasks for demonstration o f the

functionality of the real time operation system.

------------------------------------------------------------------ */

# in clude <mriext.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include "ctools,h"

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------

Constants

-------------------------------------------------------------------- */

#define CHARACTER _RECEIVED 10

/ * ------------------------------------------------------------------

signalCharacter

The s ignalCharacter function signals an event when a cha racter is

rece ived. This function must be called from an i nterrupt handler.

------------------------------------------------------------------ */ void signalCharacter(uns igne d character, unsigned error)

{

/* If t here was no error, signal that a character was rec eived */ if (error == 0)

{

interrupt _signal_event(CHARA CTER_RECEIVED);

}

/* Prevent compiler unused variables warning (generates no code) */

character;

}

/* --------------------------------------------------------------------

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echoData

The echoData function is a task that waits for a character

to be received on com6 and echoes the character back. It installs

a character handler for com6 to generate events on the reception

of characters.

-------------------------------------------------------------------- */ void echoData(void)

{ struct prot_settings protocolSettings; struct pconfig portSettings;

3

/* Disable communication protocol */ protocolSettings.type = NO_PROTOCOL;

/* Set serial communication parameters */ portSettings.baud = BAUD9600; portSettings.duplex = FULL; portSettings.parity = NONE; portSettings.data_bits = DATA8; portSettings.stop_bits = STOP1; portSettings.flow_rx = DI SABLE; portSettings.flow_tx = DISABLE; portSet tings.type = RS232; portSet tings.timeout = 600;

/* Install handler for received character */

{

/* Wait for a character to be received */

wait_event(CHARACTER_RECEIVED);

/* Echo the character back */

4 9

8

}

}

/* --------------------------------------------------------------------

auxiliary

The auxiliary function is a task that performs some action

required by the program. It does not have specific function so

that the rea l time operating system features are clearer.

------------------------------------------------------------------- */ void auxiliary(void)

{

7

{

/* ... add application specific code here ... */

/* Allow other tasks of this p riority to run */

release_processor();

}

}

/* --------------------------------------------------------------------

main

This function creates two tasks: one at priority three and one at

priority 1 to demonstrate the functions of the RTOS.

-------------------------------------------------------------------- */ void main(void)

{

/* Create serial communication task */

1

2

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create_task(echoData, 3, APPLICATION, 3);

/* Create a task - same priority as main() task */ create_task(auxiliary, 1, APPLICATION, 2);

{

/* ... add application specific code here ... */

/* Allow other tasks of this priority to execute */

release_processor();

}

}

5

6

Explanation of Task Execution

SCADAPack controllers can execute one task at a time. The Real Time Operating System

(RTOS) switches between the tasks to provide parallel execution of m ultiple tasks. The application program can be event driven, or tasks can execute round-robin (one after another). This program illustrates both types of execution.

Task execution is based upon the priority of tasks. There are 5 priority levels. Level 0 is reserved for the null task. This task runs when there are no other tasks available for execution. Application progr ams can use levels 1 to 4. The main task is created at priority level 1.

Tasks that are not running are held in queues. The Ready Queue holds all tasks that are ready to run. Event queues hold tasks that are waiting for events. Message queues hold tasks waiting for messages. Resource queues hold tasks that are waiting for resources. The envelop e queue holds tasks that are waiting for envelopes.

The execution of the tasks is illustrated by examining the state of the queues at various points in the program. T hese points are indicated on the program listing above. The examples show only the Ready queue, the Event 10 queue and the executing task. These are the only queues relevant to the example.

Execution Point 1

T his point occurs just before the main task begins. The main task has not been created by the RTOS. The null task has been created, but is not running. No task is executing.

Ready Queue

4

1

0

3

2 null()

Event 10 Queue

4

1

0

3

2

Running Task

none

Figure 1: Queu e Status before Execution of main Task

Execution Point 2

This point occurs just after the creation of the main task. It is the running task. On the next instruction it will create the echoData task.

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Ready Queue

4

1

0

3

2 null()

2

1

0

Event 10 Queue

4

3

Figure 2: Queue Status at Start of main Task

Running Task main()

Execution Point 3

This point occurs just after the echoData task is created. The echoData task is higher priority than the main task so it is made the running task. The main task is placed into the ready queue. It will execute when it becomes the highest priority task.

The ech oData

task initializes the serial port and installs the ser ial port handler function signalCharacter

. It will then wait for an event. This will suspe nd the task until the event occurs.

The signalCharacter function will generate an event each time a character is received without an error.

Running Task echoData()

Ready Queue

4

3

2

1 main()

0 null()

Event 10 Queue

4

3

2

1

0

Figure 3: Queue Status after Creation of echoData Task

Execution Point 4

This point occurs just after the echoData task waits for event 10. It has been placed on the event queue for event 10.

The highest priority task on the ready queue was the main task. It is now running. On the next instruction it will create another task at the same priority as main.

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1

0

3

2

Ready Queue

4 null()

1

0

3

2

Event 10 Queue

4 echoData()

Figure 4: Queue Status After echoData Task Waits for Event

Running Task main()

Execution Point 5

This point occurs just after the creation of the auxiliary task. This task is the same priority as the main task. Therefore the main task remains the running task. The auxiliary task is ready to run and it is placed on the Ready queue.

Running Task main()

1

0

3

2

Ready Queue

4 auxiliary() null()

1

0

3

2

Event 10 Queue

4 echoData()

Figure 5 Queue Status after Creation of auxiliary Task

Execution Point 6

This point occurs just after the main task releases the processor, but before the next task is selected to run. The main task is added to the end of the priority 1 list in the Ready queue.

On the next instruction the RTOS will select the highest priority task in the Ready queue.

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Ready Queue

4

1

0

3

2 auxiliary() null() main()

2

1

0

Event 10 Queue

4

3 echoData()

Figure 6: Queue Status After main Task Releases Processor

Running Task

none

Execution Point 7

This point is just after the auxiliary task has started to run. The main and auxiliary tasks will continue to alternate execution, as each task releases the processor to the o ther.

Ready Queue

4

3

2

1 main()

0 nullTask()

2

1

Event 10 Queue

4

3 echoData()

0

Figure 7: Que

ue Status at Start of auxiliary Task

Running Task auxiliary()

Execution Point 8

This point occurs just after a character has been received. The signalCharacter function executes and signals an event. The RTOS checks the eve nt queue for the event, and makes the highest priority task ready to execute. In this case the echoData task is made ready.

The RTOS then determines if the new task is higher priority than the executing task. Since the echoData task is higher priority than the auxiliary task, a task switch occurs. The auxiliary

task is placed on the Ready queue. The echoData task executes.

Note the position of auxiliary in the Ready queu e. The main task will execute before it at the next task switch.

Running Task echoData()

2

1

0

Ready Queue

4

3

ma in() null() auxiliary()

2

1

0

Event 10 Queue

4

3

Figure 8: Queue Status after Character Received

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Execution Point 9

This point occurs just after the echoData task waits for the character-received event. It is placed on the event 10 queue. The highest priority task on the ready queue – main – is given the processor and executes.

Running Task main()

Ready Queue

4

1

0

3

2 null()

1

0

3

2

Event 10 Queue

4 echoData()

Figure 9: Queue Status after echoData Waits for Event

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Ov erview of Programming

Fun ctions

This section of the User Manual provides and overview of the Functions, Macros, Structure and Types available to the user. The Functions, Macros, Structure and Types overview i s separated into sections of related functions. Refer to the Function Specification, C Tools

Macros and C Tools Structures and Types section of this manual for detailed explanations of the Functions, Macros, Structure and Types described here.

Controller Operation

This section of the manual provides an overview of the I SaGRAF functions relating to controller operation. These functions are provided in addition to the run-time library supplied with the Microtec C compiler.

Start Up Functions

There are two library functions related to the system or app lication start up task. Refer to the

Function Specification sec tion for details on each function listed.

startup_task

Returns the address of the system start up ro utine.

system_start

The defa ult sta rt up routine.

Start Up Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros for use with the start up task. Refer to the C

STARTUP_APPLICATION

Specif ies the application start up task.

STARTUP_SYSTEM

Specifies the system start up task.

Start Up Task Info Structure

The ctools.h file defines the structure Start Up Information Structure for use with the startup_task function. Refer to the C Tools Structures and Types section for complete information on structures and enumeration type s.

Program Status Information Functions

There are five library functions related to controller program sta tus information. Refer to the

Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

applicationChecksum

Returns the application program checksum.

getBootType

Returns the controller boot up status.

getProgramStatus

Returns the application program execution status.

setBootType

Sets the controller boot up status.

setProgramStatus

Sets the application pr ogram execution status.

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Program Status Information Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros for use with controller program information.

Refer to the C T ools Macros section for details on each macro listed.

NEW_PROGRAM

PROGRAM_EXECUTED

Application program is newly loaded.

Application program has been executed.

COLD_BOOT

RUN

SERVICE

REENTRY_BOOT

Co ntroll er started in COLD BOOT mod e.

Co ntroll er started in RUN mode .

Controller sta rted in SERVICE mode.

Controller Information Functions

There is one library function related to controller information. Refer to the Fu

nction

Specification

section for details on the function listed.

getControllerID

Returns the controller ID string.

Controller Information Macros

nformation. Refer to

AB_PROTOCOL DF1

pr oto col firmware option

BASE_TYPE_MASK

Contro lle r type bit mask

FT_NONE

FT_TELEPACE

Unknown firmware type

TelePACE firmware type

FT_ISAGRAF

GASFLOW

RUNS_2

ISaGRAF firmware type

Gas Flow calculation firmware option

Set if Gas Flow supports two meter runs

SCADAPACK

SCADAPACK_LIGHT

SCADAPack controller

SCADAPack LIGHT controller

SCADAPACK_PLUS

SCADAPack PLUS controller

UNKNOWN_CONTOLLER

Unknown con troller type

Firmware Version Information Functions

There is one function related to the controller firmware version. Refer to the

Function

Specification section for details.

getVersion

Returns contro ller firmware version information.

Firmware Version Information Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros for use with the firmware version function .

Refer to the C Tools Macros section for details on each macro liste d.

VI_DATE_SIZE

Number of characters in the version information date field .

VI_STRING_SIZE

Number of characters in the version information copyright field.

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Firmware Version Information Structure

The ctools.h file defines the structure Version Information Structure for controller firmware version information. Refer to the C Tools Structures and Typ es section for complete information on structures and enumeration types.

Sleep Mode Functions

SCADAPack controllers are capable of extremely low power operation when in sleep mode.

SCADAPack controllers enter the sleep mode under control of the application program.

Refer to the SCADAPack System Hardware Manua l for further information on controller sleep mode.

There are three library functions related to sleep mode. Refer to the Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

getWakeSource

Gets wake up sources

setWakeSource sleep

Sets wake up sources

Put controller into sleep mode

Sleep Mode Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros for use in sleep mode functions. Refer to the

C Tools Macros

section for details on each macro listed.

SLEEP_MODE_SUPPORTED

WS_ALL

WS_COUNTER_0_OVERFLOW

WS_COUNTER_1_OVERFLOW

WS_COUNTER_2_OVERFLOW

WS_INTERRUPT_INPUT

WS_LED_POWER_SWITCH

WS_NONE

WS_REAL_TIME_CLOCK

WS_UNDEFINED

Defined if sleep function is supported

All wake up sources enabled

Bit mask to enable counter 0 overflow as wake up source

Bit mask t o enable counter 1 overflow as wake up source

Bit mask to enable counter 2 overflow as wake up source

Bit mask to enable interrupt input as wake up source

Bit mask to enable LED power switch as wake up source

No wake up source enabled

Bit mask to enable real time clock as wake up source

Undefin ed wake up source

Power Management Functions

Under normal operation, the SCADAPack 350 operates on a CPU clock frequency of 32

MHz. However, the SCADAP ack 350 controller is capable of operating on a reduced CPU clock frequency of 8 MHz, kn own as Reduced Power Mode.

Further power savings can be realized on the SCADAPack 350 controller by disabling the

LAN or USB peripheral and host ports. Activation of Reduced Power mode as well as the deactivation of the communication ports can b e performed by the application program.

The library functions associated with the aforementioned power management al lows for the following:

• The CPU speed can be changed from ful l speed (32 MHz) to reduced speed (8 MHz).

• The LAN port can be enabled or disabled

• The USB peripheral port can be enabled or disabled

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• The USB host port can be enabled or disabled.

The Power Mode LED blinks once a second when the controller is operating in Reduced

Power Mode.

The library functions associated with the power management features are listed below.

Refer to the Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

getPowerMode

Gets the current po wer mode

setPowerMode

Sets the power mode

Power Management Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros for use in the power management functions .

Refer to the C Tools Macros sectio n for details on each macro listed.

PM_CPU_REDUCED

The CPU is set to run at a reduced speed

PM_LAN_DISABLED

PM_UNAVAILABLE

PM_USB_HOST_DISABLED

The LAN is disabled

PM_USB_PERIP HERAL_EN ABLED

PM_USB_PERIP HERAL_DIS ABLED

PM_USB_HOST_ENABLED

The USB peripheral port is enab led

The USB peripheral port is disab led

The USB host port is enabled

The USB host port is disabled

The status of the device could not be read

Configuration Data EEPROM Functions

The EEPROM is nonvolatile memory used to store configuration parameters. The application program cannot store application data into this memory. It can cause the system configuration parameters to be written, using the save function.

The contents of the EEPROM are copied to RAM under two conditions: during a RU N boot of the controller; and when the application program executes the load function.

The following data is loaded on a RUN boot; otherwise default information is used:

• serial port configuration tables

• protocol configuration tables

• enable store and forward settings

• LED power settings

• mask for wake-up sources

• execution period on power-up for each PID

There are two library functions related to the configuration data EE PROM. Refer to the

Function Specification section for details on each function l isted.

Save

EEPROM

load

Reads configuration data from EEPROM into RAM

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Configuration Data EEPROM Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros for use with the configuration data EEPROM.

Refer to the C Tools Macros section for details on each macro listed.

EEPROM_EVERY

EEPROM_RUN

EEPROM section loaded to RAM on every CPU reboot.

EEPROM section loaded to RAM on RUN type boots only.

EEPROM_SUPPORTED

If defined, indicates that there is an EEPR OM in the controller.

I/O Bus Communication Functions

The ctools.h file defines the following functions that access the I/O bus. The I/O bus is I

2

C compatible. Refer to the

Function Specificati

on section for details on each function listed.

ioBusReadByte

Reads one byte from an I

2

C slave device

ioBusReadLastByte

Reads one byte from an I

2

C slave device and terminates read

ioBusReadMessage

Reads a message from an I

2

C slave device

ioBusSelectForRea d

Selects an I

2

C slave device for reading

ioBusSelectForWrite

Selects an I

2

C slave device for writing

ioBusStart

Issue s an I

2

C bus START condition

ioBusStop

Issues an I

2

C bus STOP condition

ioBusWriteByte

Writes one byte to an I

2

C slave device

ioBusWriteMessage

Writes a me ssage to an I

2

C slave device

I/O Bus Communication Macros

The ctools.h file defines th e following macros for use with I/O Bus Communication. Refer to the C Tools Macros section for details on each macro listed.

The ctools.h file defines the following macros.

READSTATUS

WRITESTATUS enumeration type ReadStatus enumeration type WriteStatus

I/O Bus Communication Types

The ctools.h file defines the enumeration types ReadStatus an d WriteStatus. Refer to the

C Tools Structures and Types section for complete information on structures and enumeration types.

System Functions

The ctools.h file defines the following functions for system initialization and for retriev ing system information. Some of these functions are primarily used in the appstart.c rou tine, having limited use in an application program.

Refer to the Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

applicationChecksum

Returns the application program checksum.

ioClear

Clears all I/O points

ioDatabaseReset

Resets the controller to default settings.

ioRefresh

Refresh outputs with internal data

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ioReset

Reset all I/O modules

Cont roller I/O Hardware

This section of the manual provides an overview of the ISaGRAF C Tools functions relating to controller signal input and output (I/O). These functions are provided in addit ion to the runtime library supplied with the Microtec C compiler.

Analog Input Functions

The controller sup port s internal analog inputs and external analog input modules. Refer to the SCADAPack

Syst em Hardware Ma nual

for further information on controller analog inputs and analog input modules.

There are several library functions related to internal analog inputs and analog input modules. Refer to the Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

readBattery

readThermistor

readInternalAD ioRead4Ain

Read the controller RAM battery voltage.

Read the controller ambient temperature sensor.

Read the controller internal AD converter. read 4 analog inputs into I/O database. read 8 analog inputs into I/O database.

ioRead8Ain

IsaRead4202Inputs

Read the digital and analog inputs from a SCADASense DR Series. d the digital and analog inputs from a SCADASense DS Series.

isaRead5505Inputs Read the digital and analog inputs from a 5505 I/O Module.

isaRead5506Inputs Rea d the digital and analog inputs from a 5506 I/O Module.

isaRead5601Inputs Read the digital and analog inputs from a 5601 I/O Module.

isaRead5602Inputs Read the digit al and analog inputs from a 5602 I/O Module.

isaRead5604Inputs Read the digital and analog inputs from 5604 I/O module.

isaRead5606Inputs Read the digital and analog inputs from 5606 I/O module.

isaReadLPInputs Read the digital and analog inputs from SCADAPack LP I/O.

isaReadSP100Inputs Read the digital and analog inputs from SCADAPack 100 I/O.

Analog Input Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros for use with controller analog inputs. Refer to the C Tools Macros section for details on each macro listed.

AD_BATTERY

AD_THERMISTOR

T_CELSIUS

Internal AD channel connected to lithium battery.

I nter nal AD channel connected to thermistor.

Specifies temperatures in degrees Celsius.

T_FAHRENHEIT

T_KELVIN

T_RANKINE

Specifies te mperatures in degrees Fahrenheit.

Specifies temperatures in degrees Kelvin.

Specifies temperatures in degrees Rankine.

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Analog Output Functions

The controller supports external analog output modules. Refer to the SCADAPack Sy

stem

Hardware Manual for further information on these modules.

There are three library functions relat ed to analog output modules. Refer to the Function

Specification section for details on each function listed.

isaWriteAout Writes data to an analog output module.

isaWrite2Aout

Write data to any 2 point analog output module.

isaWrite4Aout

Write data to any 4 point analog output module.

IsaWrite4202Outputs

Write data to the digital and analog outputs of the SCADASense

Series of controllers.

isaWrite5505Outputs Write configuration data to the 5505 module.

isaWrite5506Outputs Write configuration data to the 5506 module.

isaWrite5606Ou tputs

Write data to the digital and analog outputs of the 5606 module.

isaWrite5303Aout

Write data to the two points of the 5303 module.

isaWriteLPOutputs

Write data to the digital and analog outputs of the SCADAPack LP

I/O.

isaWriteSP100Outputs Write data to the digital and analog outputs of the SCA DAPack 100

I/O.

Digital Input Functions

The controller supports internal digital inputs and external digital input modules. Refer to th e

SCADAPack System Hardware Manual for further information on controller digital inputs and digital input modules.

There are several library functions related to digital inputs and external digital input module s.

Refer to the Function Specification section for det ails on each function listed.

interruptInput Read the controller interrupt input.

readCounterInput

Read the status of the counter i nput points on the controller board.

isaRead16Din

Read any 16 point Digital input module.

isaRead32Din Read any 32 point Digital Input Module.

IsaRead4202Inputs

Read the digital and analog inputs from a SCADASense 4202 DR

IsaRead4202DSInputs Read the digital and analog inputs from a SCADASense 4202 DS

isaRead5505Inputs Read the digital and analog inputs from a 5505 I/O Module.

isaRead5506Inputs Read the digital and analog inputs from a 5506 I/O Module.

isaRead5601Inputs Read the digita l and analog inputs from a 5601 I/O Module.

isaRead5602Inputs Read the digital and analog inputs fr om a 5602 I/O Module.

isaRead5604Inputs Read the digital and analog inputs from 5604 I/O Module.

isaRead5606Inputs Read the digital and an alog inputs from a 5606 I/O Module.

isaRead8Din Read any 8 point analog input module.

isaReadLPInp uts

Read the digital and analog inputs from SCADAPack LP I/O.

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isaReadSP100Inputs Read the digital and analog inputs from SCADAPack 100 I/O.

Digital Output Functions

The controller supports external di gital output modules. Refer to the

SCADAPack System

Hardwar

e Manual for further information on controller digital output modules.

There are several library functions related to digital output modules. Refer to the Function

Specificat

ion section for details on each function listed.

isaWrite16Dout Write data to any 16 point Digital output module.

isaWrite32Dout Writes data to any 32-point Digital Output Module at the specified moduleAddress.

IsaWrite4202OutputsEx Write the digital output of a SCADASense 4203 DR or 4202 DR with a digital output (Extended I/O ).

IsaWrite4202DSOutputs Write the digital outputs of a SC ADASense 4202 or 4203 DS.

isaWrite5601Outputs Write data to the digital outputs of a 5601 I/O Module.

isaWrite5602Outputs Write data to the digital outputs of a 5601 I/O Module.

isaWrite5604Outputs Writes data to the digital and analog outputs of the 5604 I/O module.

isaWrite5606Outputs Writes data to the digital and analog outputs of the 5606 I/O modul e.

isaWrite8Dout

Write data to any 8 point Digital output module.

isaWriteLPOutputs Write data to the digital and analog outputs of the SCADAPac k LP

I/O.

isaWriteSP100 Output

s Write data to the digital and analog outputs of the SCADAPack 100

I/O.

Counter Input Functions

The controller supports internal counters and external counter modules. The counter registers are 32 bits, for a maximum count of 4,294,967,295. They roll over to 0 on the next count. The counter inputs measure the number of rising inputs. Refer to the SCADAPack

System Hardware Manual for further information on con troller counter inputs and counter input modules.

There are three library functions re lated to counters. Refer to the Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

readCounter Read a control ler counter with or without automatic clearing of the counter register.

interruptCounter Read the controller interrupt input as a counter with or without automatic clearing of the counter value.

ioRead4Counter Read any 4 point Counter input module.

Counter Input Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macro for use with counter inputs. Refer to the

C

Tools Macros section for details.

LOCAL_COUNTERS

Number of controller counter inputs.

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ns

The status LED and output indicate alarm conditions. The STAT LED blinks and the

STATUS output opens when an alarm occurs. The STAT LED turns off and the STA TUS output closes when all alarm s clear.

The STAT LED blinks a binary sequence indicating alarm codes. The sequences consi st of long and short flashes, followed by an off delay of 1 second. The sequence then repeats.

The sequence may be read as the Controller Status Code.

Refer to t he SCADAPa ck System Hardware Manual for further in formation on the status

LED and digital output.

There are two library functions related to the status LED and digital output. Refer to the

Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

clearStatusBit

Clears bits in controller status code.

clearStatusBit

Clears b its in controller status code.

Status LED and Output Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros for use with the status LED and digital output.

Refer to t he C Tools M acros section for details on each ma cro listed.

S_MODULE_F

AILURE

S_NORMAL

Status LED code for I/O module com munication failure

Status LED code for normal status

Options Switches Functions

The controller has three option switches located under the c over of the controller module.

These switches are labeled OPTION 1,2 and 3. The option switches are user defined except when a SCADAPack I/O module or S CADAPack AOUT module used. In this case option switches 1 and 2 select the analog ranges. Refer to the SCADAPack System Hardware

Manual for further information on option switches.

There is one library function related to the controller option switches. Refer to the

Function

Specification section for details.

optionSwitch

Read option switch states.

Option Switches M acros

The cto ols.h file defines the following macros for use with option switche s. Refer to the C

Tools M

acros section for details on each macro listed.

CLOSED

OPEN

Specifies switch is in closed position

Specifies switch is in open position

LED I ndicators Functions

An application program can control three LED indicators.

The RU N LED (green) indicates the execution status of the prog ram. The LED can be on or off. It remains in the last state until changed.

The STAT LED indicates error conditions. It outputs an error code as a binary sequen ce.

The sequence repeats until a new error code is o utput. If the error code is zero, the status

LED turns off.

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The FORCE LED indicates locked I/O variables. Us e this function with caution in application program s.

There a th ree library functions related to the LED indicators. Refer to the Function

Specifi

cation sec tion for details on each function listed.

runLed

Controls the RUN LED status.

setStat us forceLe d

Sets controller status c ode.

Sets state of the force LED.

LED In dicators Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros for use with LED power control. Refer to the C

Tools Macros section for details on each macro listed.

LED_OFF

LED_ON

Specifies LED is to be turned off.

Specifies LED is to be turned on.

LED P ower Control Functions

The con troller board can disable the LEDs on the controller board , the upper and lower I/O module s an d the 5000 Series I/O modules to conserve power. Th is is particularly useful in solar po w ed or unattended installations. Refer to the SCADAPack System Hardware

Manual

for further information on LED power contro l.

There a re four library functions related to LED pow er control. Refer to the Function

Specification section for details on each function listed.

ledGetD efault

Get default LED power state

ledPow er ledPow S ledSetD efault

Set LED power state

Read LED power sw itch

Set default LED power state

LED Power Control Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros for use with LED power control. Refer to the C

Tools Macros section for details on each macro listed.

LED_OFF

LED_ON

Specifies LED is to be turned off.

Specifies LED is to be turned on.

LED Power Control Structure

The ctools.h file defines the structure LED Power Control Structure for LED power cont rol information. Refer to the C Tools Structures and Types s ection for complete information on structures and enumeration types.

Software Timer Functions

The controller provides 32 powerful software time rs, which greatly simplify the task of programming time-related functions. Uses include:

• generation of time delays

• timing of process events such as tank fill times

• generation of time-based interrupts to sche dule regular activities

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• control of digital outputs by time periods

The 32 timers are individually pro grammable for tick rates from ten per second to once every

25.5 seconds. Time periods from 0.1 second to greater than nineteen days can be measured and controlled.

All timers operate in the background from a hardware int errupt generated by the main system clock. Once loaded, they count without intervention from the main program.

There are four library functions related to timers. Refer to the Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

interval Set timer tick interval in tenths of seconds.

settimer

timer

read_timer_info

Set a timer. Timers count down from the set value to zero.

Read the time period remaining in a timer.

Read information about a software timer.

Software Timer Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following mac ros for use with timers. Refer to the C Tools

Macros

s ection for details on eac h macro listed.

NORMAL

Spec ifies normal count down timer.

TIMED_OUT

TIMER_B A D IN

TERVAL

TIMER_B A D T

IMER

TIMER_B V

TIMER_M AX

Specifies tim er is has reached zero.

Error code indicating invalid timer interva l.

Error code indicating invalid timer.

Error code ind icating invalid time value.

Number of last va lid software timer.

Timer Information Structure

The cto ols.h file defines the structure Timer Inform ation for timer information. Refer to the

C Tools

Structures and Types se ction for comple te information on structures and enumeration types.

Timer Example Programs

Example 1: Turn on a digital output assigned to coil register 1 and wait 5 seconds before turning it off.

int erval(0,10); /* timer 0 tick rate = 1 second */ request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); setdbase(MODBUS, 1, 1); /* tu rn on output */ release_resource(IO_SYSTEM); settimer(0,5); /* load timer 0 with 5 seconds */ while(timer(0)) /* wait until time expires */

{

/* Allow other tasks to execute */

release_processor();

} request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); setdbase(M release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

Example 2: Time the duration a contact is on but wait in loop to measure time.

Contact is assigned to status register 10001.

interval(0,1); /* tick rate = 0.1 second */

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request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); if (dbase(MODBUS, 10001)) /* test if contact is on */

{ settimer(0,63000); /* start timer */ while(dbase(MODBUS, 10001)) /* wait for turn off */

{

/* Allow other tasks to execute */

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_processor();

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

} printf("time period = %u\r\n",63000-timer(0));

} release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

Example 3: Open valve to fill tank and print alarm message if not full in 1 minute.

Contact is assigned to status r egister 10001. Valve is controlled by coil register 1.

interval(0,10); /* timer 0 tick rate = 1 second */ request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); setdbase(MODB US, 1, 1); /* open valve */ settimer(0,60); /* set timer for 1 minute */

/* tank not full if contact is off */ while((dbase(MODBUS, 10001)== 0) && timer(0))

{

/* Allow other tasks to execute */

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_processor();

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

} if (dbase(MODBUS, 10001)== 0) puts("tank is not filling!!\r\n"); els e puts("tank full\r\n"); setdbase(MODBUS, 1, 0); /* close valve */ release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

Real Time Clock Functions

The controller is provided with a hardware based real time clock that independently maintains the time and date for the operating system. The time and date remain accurate during p ower-off. This allows the controller to be synchronized to time of day for such function s as sh ift production reports, automatic instrument calibration, energy logging, etc.

The calendar can be used to automatically take the controller off-line during weekends and holidays h matic ally handles leap years.

There are eight library functions, which access the real-time clock. Refer to the Function

Specifi

cation section for details on each function listed.

alarmIn

Returns absolute time of alarm given elapsed time

getclock getCloc kAlarm

Read the real time clock.

Read s the real time clock alarm settings.

getClockTime

Read the real time clock.

installClockHandler

Installs a h andler for real time clock alarms.

resetClockAlarm

Resets the real time clock alarm so it will recur at the same time nex t day.

setclock

Set the real time clock.

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setClockAlarm

Sets real time clock alarm.

Real Time Clock Macros

The ctools.h file defines the following macros for real time clock alarms. Refer to the C

Tools Macro

s section for details on each macro listed.

AT_ABSOLUTE

AT_NONE

Specifies a fi xed time of day alarm.

Disables alarms

Real Time Clock Structures

The ctools.h file defines the structures Real Time Clock Structure and Alarm Settings

Structure for real time clock information. Refer to the C Tools Structures and Types section for complete information on structures and enumeration types.

Real Time Clock Program Example

The following program illustrates how the date and time ca n be set and displayed. All fields of the clock structure must be set with valid values for the clock to operate properly.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ struct clock now;

/* Set to 12:01:00 on January 1, 1994 */ now.hour = 12; /* set the time */ now.minute = 1; now.second = 0; now.day = 1; /* set the date */ now.month = 1; now.year = 94; now.dayofweek = 6; /* day is Sat. * /

request_resource(IO_SYS TEM);

setclock(&now); now = getclock();

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Display current hour, minute and second */ pr intf ("%2d: %2d:%2d ", now .hour, now.min

ute, now.s

econd);

}

Stopwatch Timer Functions

The stopwatch is a counter that increments every 10 ms. The stopwatch is useful for m easuring executio h b . The s topwatch time rolls ov er to 0 when it reaches the maximum value for an unsigned long integer: 4,294,967,295 ms (or about 497 days).

T ry section for details. ction to acce ss t he stopwatc h tim e. Refer to

the re

adStopwatch

readStopwatch reads the stopwatch timer.

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Watchdog Timer Functions

A watchdog timer is a hardware device, which enables rapid detection of computer hardware or software problems. In the event of a major problem, the CPU resets and the application program restarts.

The controller provides an integral watchdog timer to ensure reliable operation. The watchdog timer resets the CPU if it detects a problem in either the hardware or system firmware. A user program can take control of the watchdog timer, so it will detect ab normal execution of the program.

A watchdog timer is a retriggerable, time delay timer . It begins a timing sequence every time it receives a reset pulse. The time delay is adjusted so that regular reset pulses prevent th e timer from expiring. If the reset pulses cease, the watchdog timer expires and turns on its output, signifying a malfunction. The timer output in the controller resets the CPU and turns off all outputs at the I/O system.

The watchdog timer is normally reset by the operating system. This is transparent to the application program. Operating in such a fashion, the watchdog timer detects any hardwar e

The watchdog timer can detect failure of an application program. The program takes control of the timer, and resets it regularly. If unexpected operation of the program occurs, the reset pulses cease, and the watchdog timer resets the CPU. The program restarts from the beginning.

There are three library functions related to the watchdog timer. Refer to the Function

Specification section for details on each function listed.

wd_auto Gives control of the watchdog timer to the operating system ( default).

wd_manual Gives control of the watchdog timer to an application program.

wd_pulse Generates a watchdog reset pulse.

A watchdog reset pulse must be generated at least every 500 ms. The CPU resets, and program execution starts from the beginning of the program, if the watchdog timer is not reset.

Watchdog Timer Program Example

The following program segment shows how the wa tchdog timer could be used to detect the failure of a section of a program. wd_manual(); /* take control of watchdog timer */ do {

/* program code */ wd_pulse(); /* reset the watchdog timer */

} while (condition) wd_auto(); /* return control to OS */

Note: Always pass control of the watchdog timer back to the operating system before stopping a program, or switching to another task that expects the op erating system to reset the timer.

To simplify the implementation of self-checking communication algorithms, the C Tools provide four types of checksums: additive, CRC-16, CRC-CCITT, and b yte-wise exclusive-

OR. The CRC algorithms are particularly reliable, employing various polynomial methods to

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detect nearly all communication errors. Additional types of checksums are easily implemented using library functions.

There are two library functions related to checksums. Refer to the Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

checksum Calculates additiv checksums e, CRC-16, CRC-CCITT and exclusive-OR type

crc_reverse Calculates custom CRC type checksum using reverse CRC algorithm.

Checksum Macros

The ctools.h file defines macros for specifying checksum types. R efer to the C Tools

Macros section for details on each macro listed.

ADDITIVE

checksum

BYTE_EOR

CRC_16

CRC_CCITT

Byte-wise exclusive OR checksum

CRC-16 type CRC checksum (reverse algo rithm)

CCITT type CRC checksum (reverse algorit hm)

Serial Communication

The SCADAPack family of controllers offers three or four RS-232 serial ports. The

TeleSAFE Micro16 has two RS-232 serial communication ports. (co m1 on all controllers is also available as an RS-485 port.) The ports are configurable for ba ud rate, data bits, stop bits, parity and communication protocol.

To optimize performance, minimize the lengt h of messages on com3 and com4. Examples of recommended uses for com3 and com4 are for local operator display term inals, and for programming and diagnostics using the ISaGRAF program.

Default Serial Parameters

All ports are configured at reset with default parameters when the controller is powered up in

SERVICE mode. The ports use stored parameters when the c ontroller is reset in the RUN mode. The default parameters are listed below.

Parameter Com4

Parity none none None None

Protocol Modbus RTU Modbus RTU Modbus RTU Modbus RTU

Rx flow control off

Tx flow control off off off

Rx disable

Off

Rx disable

Off

Serial time out 60 s 60 s 60 s 60 s

Type RS-232 RS-232 RS-232 RS-232

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Serial Communication Time Out

When the controller is transmitting data on the communication ports, the transmit buffer may become full due to receipt of an XOFF character, a slow baud rate, or improper hard ware handshaking.

If the transmit buffers become full, the task transmitting data is blocked until sp ace is available or the serial time out period expires. If no space is available at the conclusion of this time period, the transmit buf fer is emptie d. The task then continues execution.

Debugging Serial Communication

Serial communication can be difficult to debug. This section describes t he most common causes of communication failures.

• To communicate, the controller and an external device must use the same communication parameters. Check the parameters in both uni ts.

• If some but not all characters transmit properly, you probab ly have a parity or stop bit mismatch between the devices.

The connection between two RS-232 Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) devi ces is made with a null-modem cable. This cable connects the transmit data output of one device to the receive data input of the other device – and vice versa . The controller is a DTE device. This cable is described in the System Hardware Manual fo r your controller.

The connection between a DTE device and a Data Communication Equipment (DCE) device is made with a straight cable. The transmit d ata output of the DTE device is connected to the transmit data input of the DCE device. The receive data input of the DTE device is connected to the receive data output of the DCE device. Modems are usually DCE devic es.

This cable is described in the System Hardware Manual for your controller.

Many RS-232 device s require specific signal levels on certain pins. Communication is not possible unless the required signals are present. In the controller the CTS line must be at the proper level. The controller will not transm it if CTS is OFF. If the CTS line is not connected, the controller will force it to the pr oper value. If an external device controls this line, it must turn it ON for the controller to transmit.

Serial Communication Functions

The ct ools.h file defines the following serial communication related functions. Refer to the

Function Specification section for details on ea ch function listed. Additional serial communication functions are included in the Microtec run-time library.

clear_errors clear_tx get_port getPortCharacteristics get_status install_handler portConfiguration portIndex portStream queue_mode

Clear serial port error counters.

Clear serial port transmit buffer.

Read serial port communication parameters.

Read information about features supported by a serial port.

Read serial port status and error counters.

Install serial port character received handler.

Get pointer to port configuration table

Get array index for serial port

Get serial port corresponding to index

Set serial port transmitter mode.

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route setDTR set_port

Redirect standard I/O streams.

Control RS232 p ort DTR signal.

Set serial port communication parameters.

Serial Communication Macros

The ctools.h file defines macros for specifying serial communication parameters. Refer to the C Tools Macros section for details on each macro listed.

BAUD75

BAUD110

Specifies 75-baud port speed.

Specifies 110-baud port speed.

BAUD150

BAUD300

BAUD600

BAUD1200

BAUD2400

BAUD4800

BAUD9600

BAUD19200

BAUD38400

BAUD57600

BAUD115200

com1

com2

com3

com4

DATA7

DATA8

DISABLE

ENABLE

EVEN

FULL

FOPEN_MAX

HALF

NONE

NOTYPE

ODD

PC_FLOW_RX_RECEIVE_STOP

PC_FLOW_RX_XO

N_XOFF

PC_FLOW

_TX_IGNORE_CTS

Specifies 150-baud port speed.

Specifies 300-baud port speed.

Specifies 600-baud port speed.

Specifies 1200-baud port speed.

Specifies 2400-baud port speed.

Specifies 4800-baud port speed.

Specifies 9600-baud port speed.

Specifies 19200-baud port speed.

Specifies 38400-baud port speed.

Specifies 57600-baud port speed.

Specifies 115200-baud port speed.

Points to a file object for com1 serial port.

Points to a file object for com2 serial port.

Points to a file object for com3 serial port.

Points to a file object for com4 serial port.

Specifies 7 bit world length.

Specifies 8 bit word length.

Specifies flow control is disabled.

Specifies flow control is enabled.

Specifies even parity.

Sp ecifies full duplex.

Redefinition of macro from stdio.h

Specifies half duplex.

Specifies no parity.

Specifies ser ial port type is not known.

Specifies odd parity.

Receiver disabled after receipt of a message.

Receiver Xon/Xoff flow control.

Transmitter flow control ignores CTS.

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PC_FLOW

_TX_XON_XOFF

RS232

RS232_M

ODEM

RS485_4

WIRE

RS232_C OLLISION_AVOIDANCE

SERIAL_

PORTS

SIGNAL_

CTS

SIGNAL_

DCD

SIGNAL_

OFF

SIGNAL_

OH

SIGNAL_

ON

SIGNAL_

RING

SIGNAL_ VO

ICE

STOP1

STOP2

Transmitter Xon/Xoff flow control.

Specifies serial port is an RS-232 port.

S pecifies serial port is an RS-232 dial-up modem.

Specifie s serial port is a 4 wire RS-485 port.

Specifies seria l port is RS232 and uses CD for collision avoidance

Number of serial ports.

I/O line bit ma sk: clear to send signal

I/O line bit mask: carrier detect signal

Specifies a signal is de-asserted

I/O line bit m ask: off hook signal

Specifies a signal is asserted

I/O line bit mask: ring signal

I/O line bit mask: voice/data switc h signal

Specifies 1 stop bit.

Specifies 2 stop bits.

Serial o m

The cto

o ls.h

file defines the structures Seria l Port Configuration, Serial Port Status and

Serial P ort Cha

racteristics for serial port co nfiguration and information. Refer to the C

Tools S uc

tures and Types section for complete in formation on structures and enumer atio n types.

fgetc

fgets

fputc

fputs

fread

fwrite

getc

getchar

gets

initport

printf

putc

putchar

Microtec Serial I/O Functions

These library functions are related to serial communication. They are documented in th e

Microtec MCCM77 Documentation Set. reads a ch aracter from a stream reads a strin g from a stream writes a character to a stream writes a string to a stream reads from a stream writes to a stream reads a character from a stream reads a character from sta ndard input device reads a string fr om a stream re-initializes serial port formatted output to a stream writes a character to a stream reads a character to stan dard output device

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puts

scanf writes a string to a stream formatted input from a stream

Dial-U p Modem Functions

These library functions provide control of dial-up modems. They are used with external modem s connected to a serial port. An extern al modem normally connects to the RS-232 port with a DTE to DCE cable. Consult the Sy stem Hardware Manual for your controller for details. Refer to the Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

modem

Init

modem

InitStatus

modem

InitEnd send initialization string to dial-up modem. read status of modem initialization operation. terminate modem initializatio n operation.

modem modem modem modem modem

Dial

DialStatus

DialEnd

Abort

AbortAll connect with an external device using a dial-up modem. read status of connection with external de vice using a dial-up modem. terminate connection with external device using a dial-up modem. unconditionally terminate conn ection with external device or modem initialization (used in task exit handler) . unconditionally terminate connections with e xternal device or modem initialization s (used in task exit handler).

modem N oti

fication notify the dial-up modem handler that an interesting event has occurred. This fun ction is usually called whenever a message is received by a protocol.

The cto

s .

est to a C application program. Refer to the C Tools Macros section for details on each macro listed.

MODEM_CMD_MAX_LEN

PHONE_NUM_MAX_LEN

Maximum length of the modem initialization command string

Maximum length of the phone number string

Dial-Up Modem Enumeration T ypes

The ctools.h file defines the enumera ted types

DialError

and

DialState

. Refer to the

C Tools Structures and Types section for complete information on structures and enumeration types.

Dial-up Modem Structures

The ctools.h file defines the structures ModemInit and ModemSetup. Refer to the C

Tools Structures and Types section for complete information on structures and enumeration types.

Modem Initialization Example

The following code shows how to initialize a modem. Typically, the modem initialization is used to prepare a modem to answer calls. The example sets up a Hayes modem to answer incoming call s.

#include <ctools.h>

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void main(void)

{ struct ModemInit initSettings; reserve_id portID; enum DialError status; enum DialState state; struct pconfig portSettings;

/* Configure serial port 1 */ portSettings.baud = BAUD1200; portSetting s.duplex = FULL; portSetting s.parity = NONE; portSettings.data_bits = DATA8; portSettings.s

top_bits = STOP1; portSettings.f

low_rx = DISABLE; portSettings.flow_tx = DISABLE; portSettings.type = RS232_MODEM; portSettings.timeout = 600; request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); set_port(com1, &portSettings); release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Initialize Ha yes modem to answer incoming calls */ initSettings.por

t = com1; strcpy(initSettings.modemCommand, "

F1Q0V1X1 S0=1

"); if (modemInit(&initSettings, &portID) == DE_NoError)

{

do

{

/* Allow other tasks to execute */

release_processor();

/* Wait for the initialization to complete */ modemInitStatus(com1, portID, &status, &state);

} while (state == DS_Calling);

/* Terminate the initialization */ modemInitEnd(com1, portID, &status);

}

}

Connecting with a Remote Con troller Example

The following code shows how to connect to a remote controller using a modem. The example uses a US Robotics modem. It also demonstrates the use of the modemAbort function in an exit handler.

#include <ctools.h>

/* --------------------------------------------

The shutdown function aborts any active

modem connections when the task is ended.

------------------------------------------- */ void shutdown(void)

{

modemAbort(com1);

} void main(void)

{ struct ModemSetup dialSettings; reserve_id portID; enum DialError status; enum DialState state; struct pconfig portSettings;

TASKINFO taskStatus;

/* Configure s erial por t 1 */ portSettings.baud = BAUD19200; portSettings.duplex = FULL; portSettings.parity = NONE; portSettings.data_bits = DATA8;

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portSettings.stop_bits = STOP1; portSettings.

flow_rx = DISABLE; portSettings.flow_tx = DISABLE; portSettings.type = RS232_MODEM; portSettings.timeout = 600; request_resource(IO_SY STEM); set_port(com1, &portSettings); release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Configure US Robotics modem */ dialSettings.port = com1; dialSettings.dialAttem

pts = 3; dialSettings.detectTime = 60; dialSettings.pauseTime = 30; dialSettings.dialmethod = 0; strcpy(dialSettings.modemCommand, "&F1 &A0 &K0 &M0 &B1"); strcpy(dialSettings.phoneNumber, "555-1212");

/* set up exit handler for this task */ taskStatus = getTaskInfo(0); installExitHandler(taskStatus.taskID, shutdown);

/* Connect to the remote controller */ if (modemDial(&dialSettings, &portID) == DE_NoError)

{

do

{

/* Allow other tasks to execute */

release_processor();

/* Wait for initialization to complete */ modemDialStatus(com1, portID, &status, &state);

} while (state == DS_Calling);

/* If the remote controller connected */ if (state == DS_Con nected)

{

/* Talk to remote controller here */

}

/* Terminate the connection */ modemDialEnd(com1, portID, &status);

}

}

Note that a pause of a few seconds is required between terminating a connectio n and initiating a new call. This pause allows the external modem time to hang up.

Com munication Protocols

The TeleBUS protocols are compatible with the widely used M odbus RTU and ASCII protocols. The TeleBUS communication pr otocols provide a standard communication interface to SCADAPack controllers. Additional TeleBUS commands provide remote programming and diagnostics capabilit y.

The TeleBUS protocols provide full access to the I/O database in the controller. The I/O database contains user-assigned regis ters and general purpose register s. Assigned registers map directly to the I/O hardware or system parameter in the controller. General purpose registers can be used by ladd er logic and C application program s to store processed information, and to receive information from a remote device.

The TeleBUS protocols operate on a w ide variety of serial data links. The se include RS-232 serial ports, RS-485 serial ports, radios, leased line modems, and dial up modems. The protocols are generally independent of the communication para meters of the link, with a few exceptions.

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Application programs can initiate communication with remote devices. A multiple port controller can be a data concentrator fo r remote devices, by polling remote devices on one port(s) and responding as a slave on another port(s).

The protocol type, communication parameters and station address are configured sep arately for each serial port on a controller. One controller can appear as different stations on different commu nication networks. The port configuration can be set from an application program, from the ISaGRAF programming software, or from another Modbus or DF1 compatible device .

Protocol Type

The protocol type may be set to emulate the Modbus ASCII and Modbus RTU protocols, or it may be disabled. When the protocol is disabled, the port functions as a normal serial por t.

The DF1 option enables the emulation of the DF1 protocols.

Statio n Number

The TeleBUS protocol allows up to 254 devices on a ne twork using standard addressing and up to 65534 devices using extended addressing. Station numbers identify each device.

A device responds to commands addre ssed to it, or to comma nds broadcast to all stations.

The station number is in the range 1 to 254 for standard addressing and 1 to 65534 for extended addressing. Address 0 indica tes a command broadcast to all stations, and cannot be used as a station number. Each serial port may have a unique station number.

The TeleBUS DF1 protocols allow up to 255 devices on a network. Station numbers identi fy each device. A device responds to com mands addressed t o it, or to commands broadcast to all stations. The station number is in the range 0 to 254. Address 255 indicates a command broadcast to all stations, and cannot be used as a station number. Each serial port may have a unique station number.

Store and Forward Messa ging

Store and forward messaging re-transmits messages received by a controller. Messages may be re-transmitted on any serial po rt, with or withou t station address translation. A userdefined translation table determines actions performed for each message. Store and forward messaging may be enabled or disabled on each po rt. It is disabled by default.

Store and forwa rd messaging is not su pported by TeleBUS DF1 protocol.

Communication Protocols Functions

There are several library functions related to TeleBUS commun ication protocol. Refer to the

Function Specification s ection for de tails on each function lis ted.

checkSFTranslationT able clear_protocol_stat us clearSFTranslatio nTable

Check translation table for invalid entries.

Clears protocol message and error counters.

Clear all store and forward translation table entries.

enronInstallComman

dHandler Instal ls handler for Enron Modbus commands.

getABConfiguration Reads DF1 protocol configuration parameters.

get_protocol

Reads protocol parameters.

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getProtocolSettings getProtocolSettingsEx get_proto col_status getSFMapping getSFTranslation installM odbusHandler master_message modbusExceptionStatus modbusSlaveID

pollABSlave

resetAllABSlaves

setABConfiguration

set_protocol setProtocolSettings s etProtocolSettin gsE x s etSFMapping setSFTranslation s tart_protocol

Reads extended addressing protocol parameters for a serial port.

Reads extended addressing and Enron Modbus protocol param eters for a serial port.

Reads protocol message and error counters.

This function is a stub and n o longer performs a necessary operation.

Read store and forward translation table entry.

This function allows user-defined extensions to standard

Modbus protocol .

Sends a protocol message to another device.

Sets response for the read exception status function.

Sets response for the read slave ID function.

Requests a response from a slave controller using the halfduplex version of the protocol.

Clears responses from the response buffers of half-duplex slave controllers.

Defines DF1 protocol configuration parameters.

Sets protocol parameters and starts protoc ol.

Se ts extended addressing proto col parameters for a seria l port.

Sets extended addressing an d E nron Mod bus protocol parameters for a serial port

This function is a stub and no longer performs a necessary operation.

Write store and forward translation table entry.

Starts protocol execution based on stored parameters.

Communication Protocols Macros

The ctools.h file defines macros for specifying comm unication protocol parameters. Refer to the C Tools Macros section for details on ea ch macro listed.

AB_FULL_BCC

Specifies the DF1 Full Duplex protocol emulation for the serial port. (BCC checksum)

AB_FULL

_CRC

AB_HALF_BCC

AB_HALF_CRC

FORCE_MUL

TIPLE_COILS

FORCE_SINGLE_COIL

LOAD_MULTIPLE_REGISTERS

Specifies the DF1 Full D uplex protocol emulation for the serial port. (CRC checksum)

Specifies the DF1 Half Duplex protocol emulation f or the serial port. (BCC checksum)

Specifies the DF1 Half Duplex protocol emulation for the serial port. (CRC checksum )

Modbus function code

Modbus function code

Modbus function code

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LOAD_SINGLE_REGISTER

MM_BAD_ADDRESS

MM_BAD_FUNCTION

MM_BA

D_LENGTH

MM_BAD_SLA

VE

MM_NO_MESSA

GE

MM_PROTOCOL_NOT_S UPPO

RTED

MM_RECE

IVED

MM_REC EIVED_BAD_LENGT H

MM_SENT

MM_EOT

MM_WRONG_RSP

MM_CMD_A CKED

MM_EXCEPTIO N_FUNCTION

MM_EXCEPTION_A DDRESS

MM_EXCEPTION_VA LUE

MODBUS_ASCII

MODBUS_RTU

N O

READ_COIL_STATUS

R EAD _EXCEP TION_STATU

S

READ_HOLDING_REGISTER

READ_INPUT_REGISTER

R EAD _INPUT_

STATUS

REPORT_SLA

VE_ID

SF_ALREADY

_DEFINED

SF_INDEX_OU

T_OF_RANGE

SF_NO_TRAN

SLATION

Modbus function code

Master message status: invalid database address

M aster message status: invalid function code

Master message status: invalid m essage length

Master message status: invalid slave station address

Master message status: no message wa s sent.

Master message status: selected protocol is not supported.

Master message status: resp onse was received.

Master message status: response rece ived with incorrect amount of data.

Master message status: message was sent.

Maste r message status: AB slave response was an

EOT message

Master message status: AB slave response did not match command sent

Master message status: AB half duplex comm and has been acknowledged by slave – Master ma y now send poll command

Master message status: Modbus slave returned a function exception

Master message status: Modbus slave returned an address exception

Master message status: Modbus slave retur ned a value exception

Specifies the Modbus ASCII protocol emulation for the serial port.

Specifies the Modbus RTU protocol emulation for the serial port.

Specifies no communication protocol for the serial po rt.

Mo dbus function code

Modbus f u nction code

Modbus f unction code

Modbus f u nction code

Result co d e: translation is already defined in the table

Result code: entry does not define a translation

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SF_PORT_OUT_OF_RANGE

SF_STATION_OUT_OF_RANGE

SF_TABLE_SIZE

SF_VALID

Result cod e: serial port is not valid

Result code: station number is not valid

Number of entries in the store and forward table

Result code: translation is valid

Communication Protocols Enumeration Types

The ctools.h file defines the enumeration type ADDRESS_MODE. Refer to the C Tools

Structures and Types section for complete information on structures and enumeration types.

Communication Protocols Structures

The ctools.h file defines the structures Protocol Status Information , Protocol Settings,

Extended Protocol Settings, Store and Forw ard Message and Store and Forward

Status. Refer to the C Tools Structures and T ypes section for complete information on structures and enumeration types.

Mod bus Database

The Modbus database is a user-defined database that allows data to be shared between

ISaGRAF C programs, ISaGRAF programs and communication protocols.

Two modes of addressing are supported for the database, Modbus and Linear. The following table shows the addresses available for each type of addressing.

Linear Word Address

0 to 624

Modbus Address Data Type

00001 to 09999

10001 to 19999 boolean

1 returned if any variable is non-zero;

0 returned if v ariable is 0 boolean

1 returned if any variable is non-zero;

0 returned if variable is 0

30001 to 39999 word (16 bits)

40001 to 49999 word (16 bits)

625 to 1249

1250 to 11248

11249 to 21247

Modbus Database Functions

There are several library functions related to the Modbus database. Refer to the ISaGRAF C

Tools Function Specifications section for details on each function listed.

dbase

Reads a value from the database.

installDbaseHandler

Allows an extension to be defined for the dbase function.

installSetdbaseHandler Allows an extension to be defined for the setdbase function .

Dbase Handler Function User-defined function that h andles reading of Modbus addresses not assigned in the ISaGRAF Dictionary.

setdbase

Writes a value to the database.

Setdbase Handler Function

User-defined function that handles writing to Modbus addresses not assigned in the ISaGRAF Dict ionary.

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Database Macros

T he ctools.h file defines libra ry functions for th e I/O database. Refer to the C Tools Macros section for details on each macro listed.

AB

DB_BADSIZE

DB_BADTYPE

DB_OK

LINEAR

MODBUS

Specifies Allan-Bradley database addressing.

Error code: out of range address specified

Error code: bad database addressing type specified

Error code: no error occurred

Specifies linear database addressing.

Specifies Modbus database addressing.

Number of registers in the Allan-Bradley database.

NUMAB

NUMCOIL

NUMCOIL_PERMANENT

Number of registers in the Modbus coil section.

Number of coil registers in the Permanent Non-Volatile Modbu s

Registers section.

NUMHOLDING

NUMINPUT

Number of registers in the Modbus holding register section.

NUMHOLDING_PERMANENT

Number of holding registers in the Permanent Non-Volatile

Modbus Registers section

Number of registers in the Modbus input registers section.

NUMLINEAR

NUMSTATUS

Number of registers in the linear database.

Number of registers in the Modbus status s ection.

Start of the coil section in the linear database.

Start of the holding registers se ction in the linear database.

Start of the input register se ction in the linear database.

S tart of the status section in the linear database.

Modbus Addressing

When a Modbus protocol accesses a Modbus register in the controller, the register addres s is searched for under three categories, in the order listed below, until the address is found.

Search

Order

Category Address

Range

Available

1 ISaGRAF 00001 to 09999

Dictionary 10001 to 19999

Variables 30001 to 39999

40001 to 49999

Search Algorithm

If the address is not assigned to a variable in the ISaGRAF Dictionary, then search ne xt category.

2 C/C++

Application

Database

Handler

00001 to 09999

10001 to 19999

30001 to 39999

40001 to 49999

If the address is not assigned to a register in a datab ase handler (by a

C/C++ application, e.g. Flow

Computer), then search next category.

Non-Volatile

Modbus

Registers

40001 to 40200

If the address is not in the range of

Permanent Non-volatile Modbus

Registers, then a Modbus Exception response may be returned .

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The setResp function is used to control the exception response .

If the address is not found in the ISaGRAF dictionary or the C/C++ Application Databa se

Handler, a Modbus Exception response may be returned. An address is not found whe n it has not been defined with one of the above listed categories. If the address is define d in more than one category, the first occurrence of the address in the order listed is used . The user can configure the setR

esp

function to do one of the following.

• An exception is sent when an unavailable register is read or written.

• A zero is returne d when an unavailable register is read and writing an unavailable register has no effe ct

Each category is described in the following sections.

ISaGRAF Dictionary Variables

When an ISaGRAF application is being downloaded or re-started, the Dictionary varia bles are temporarily undefined. If a protocol accesses the controller while the Dictionary is undefined, the protocol will return a Modbus Exception. Most polling masters will simply log this as a command error and retry the protocol command until the Dictionary is no longer undefined.

When an address fro m the range of Permanent Non-Volatile Registers is used as the

Network Address for a variable in the ISaGRAF Dictionary, Modbus protocols will access this address from the Dictionary instead of from the Permanent Registers. However, when the ISaGRAF application is being downloaded or re-started, the Dictionary will be temporarily undefined. If a protocol accesses the controller while the Dictionary is undef ined, the protocol will search and find a different value for the register under the Permanent Non-

Volatile Registers. If this s cenari o is expected, assign Dictionary network addresses outside the range of Permanent Registers.

C/C++ Application Database Handler

A C/C++ application may install a Database Handler to define Modbus registers. This creates registers without having to create an ISaGRAF Dictionary of variables.

When a C/C++ application is being downloaded or is stopped, the database handler is temporarily uninstalled. If a protocol accesses the controller while the handler is uninstalled, the protocol will return a Modbus Exception. Most polling masters will simply log this as a command error and retry the pro tocol comman d until the database handler is installed.

When an address from the range of Permanent Non-Volatile Registers is also defined in a database handler in a C/C++ application, Modbus protocols will access this address from the database handler instead of from the Permanent Registers. However, when the C/C++ application is being downloaded or is stopped, the database handler will be temporarily uninstalled. If a protocol accesses the controller while the handler is uninstalled, the protoco l will search and find a different value for the register under the Permanent Non-Volatile

Registers. If this scen ario is exp ected, only define registers in a database handler for addresses outside the range of Permanent Registers.

Permanent Non-Volatile Modbus Registers

By default, the controller has a selection of Modbus registers already defined. These are the

Permanent Non-volatile Modbus Registers and consist of the following:

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Register Type

Coil Registers

Holding Registers

Address Range

00001 to 10128

These registers reside in non-volatile memory so they retain their values when the controller is reset or while an ISaGRAF application or C/C++ application is being downloaded. These registers may be used to store data during application downloads.

To initialize all Permanent Registers to zero, select Initialize Controller from the Initialize

Controller dialog. This dialog is s elected using the Controller | In itialize command from the

Tools menu on the Programs window. The Permanent Registers are also set to zero on a

Cold Boot.

DNP Communication Protocol

DNP, the Distributed Network Protocol, is a standards-based communications protocol developed to achieve interoperability among systems in the electric utility, oil & gas, water/waste water and security industries. This robust, fl exible non-proprietary protocol is based on existing open standards to work within a variety of networks. The IEEE has recommended DNP for remote terminal unit to intelligent electronic device messaging. DNP can also be implemented in any SCADA system for efficient and reliable communications between substation computers, RTUs, IEDs and master sta tions; over serial or LAN-based systems.

DNP offers flexibility and functionality that go far beyond conventional communicat ions protocols. Among its robust and flexible features DNP 3.0 includes:

• Output options

• Addressing for over 65,000 devices on a single link

• Time synchronization and time-stamped events

• Broadcast messages

• Data link and application layer confirmation

DNP 3.0 was originally designed based on three layers of the OSI seven-layer model: application layer, data link layer and physical layer. The applicatio n layer is object-based with objects provided for most generic data formats. The data link layer provides for several methods of retrieving data such as polling for classes and object variations. The physical layer defines most commonly a simple RS-232 or RS-485 interface.

Refer to the DNP User Manual fo r complete information on DNP protocol, including the

Device Profile Document.

DNP Communication Protocols Functions

There are several library functions related to DNP communication protocol. Refer to the

Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

dnpInstallConnectionHandler Configures the connection handler for DNP.

dnpClearEventLog

Deletes al buffers. l change events from the DNP change event

dnpConnectionEvent dnpCreateRoutingTable

Report a DNP connection event

Allocates memory for a new routing table.

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dnpGen erateEventLog

dnpGetConfiguration

dnpGetConfigu dnpGetBICo rationEx dnpSaveConfiguration dnpSaveConfigurationEx

dnpGetBIConfig

dnpSaveBIConfig dnpSaveBIConfig

dnpGetBOConfig

Ex

nfigEx

Generates a change event for the DNP point.

Reads the DNP protocol configuration.

Reads the extended DNP configuration parameters.

Writ es the DNP protocol configuration parameters.

Writes the extended DNP configuration param eters

Reads the confi guration of a DNP binary input point.

Writes the configuration of a DNP binary inp ut point.

Writes the configuration of an extended DNP B inary Input point

Reads the configuration of a D NP binary output point.

Reads the configuration of an extend ed DNP Binary Input point.

Sets the configuration of a DNP binary output point. dnpSaveBOConfig

dnpGetAI16Config

dnpSaveAI16Co

nfig

dnpGetAI32Config

dnpSaveAISFConfig dnpGetAISFConfig

Reads the configuratio n of a DNP 16-bit analog input point.

Sets the configuration of a DNP 16-bit analog input point.

Reads the configuration of a DN P 32-bit analog input point.

Sets the configuration of a DNP 32-bit short floating analog input point

Reads th e configuration of a DNP 32-bit short floating analog input point.

Sets the configuration of a DNP 32-bit analog input point. dnpSaveAI32Config

dnpGetAO16Config

dnpSaveAO16Config

dnpGetAO32Config

Reads the config uration of a DNP 16-bit analog output point.

Sets the configuration of a DNP 32-bit analog output point.

Reads the configuration of a DNP 32-bit analog output point .

dnpSaveAO32Config

dnpSaveAOSFConfig dnpGetAOSFConfig

Sets the configuration of a DNP 32-bit analog output p oint.

Sets the configuration of a DNP 32-bit short floating analog output point.

Sets the configuration of a DNP 32-bit short floating analog output point.

Reads the configuration of a DNP 16-bit counter input point.

dnpGetC

I16Config

dnpSaveCI16Config

dnpGetCI32Config

dnpSaveCI32Config dnpGetRuntimeStatus

Sets the configuration of a DNP 16-bit counter input poin t.

Reads the configuration of a DNP 32-bit counter input point.

Sets the configuration of a DNP 32-bit counter input point.

Reads the current status of all DNP change event buffers.

dnpSendUnsolicited

Sends an ‘Unsolicited Response’ message in DNP protocol.

dnpSendUnsolicitedResponse Sends an Unsolicited Response message in DNP, with data from the specified classes.

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dnpWriteRoutingTableEntry Wwrites an entry in the DNP routing table.

dnpReadRoutingTableEntry Reads an entry from the routing tabl e.

dnpReadRoutingTableSize

R eads the total number of entries in the routing table.

dnpSearchRoutingTable

S earches the routing table for a specific DNP address.

dnpWriteRoutingTableDialStrings Writes a primary and secondary dial string into an entry in the DNP routing table.

dnpRea

dRoutingTableDialStrings Reads a primary and secondary dial string from an entry in the DNP routing table.

D NP C ommunication Protocol Structures and Types

The ctools.h file defines the structures DNP Configuration, Binary Input Point, Binary Output

Point, Analog Input Point, Analog Output Point and Counter Input Point. Refer to th e C Tools

Structur

es and Types section for complete information on structures and enumeration types .

ISaGR AF Variable Access Fun ctions

Variables declared in an ISaGRAF application are accessed from a C application using the

ISaGRAF variable access functions listed below. Refer to the ISaGRAF C Tools Function

Specifications section for details on each function listed.

readBoolVariable

Returns the current value of the specified boolean variable.

readIntVariable

Returns the current value of the specified integer variable.

readRealVariable

Returns the current value of the specified real variable.

readMsgVariable

Returns the current value of the specified message variable.

readTimerVariable

Returns the current value of the specified timer variable.

writeBoolVariable

Writes to the specified boolean variable.

writeIntVariable

Writes to the specified integer variable.

writeRealVariable

Writes to the specified real variable.

writeMsgVariable

Writes to the specified message variable.

writeTimerVariable Writes to the specified timer variable.

HART Communication

The HART ® protocol is a field bus protocol for communication with smart transmitters.

The HART protocol driver provides communication between TeleSAFE Micro16 and

SCADAPack controllers and HART devices. The protocol driver uses the model 5904 HART modem for communication. Four HART modem modules are supported per controller.

The driver allows HART transmitters to be used with C application programs and with

RealFLO. The driver can read data from HART devices.

HART Command Functions

The ctools.h file defines the following HART command related functions. Refer to the

Function Specification section for details on each function listed.

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hartIO

hartCommand

Reads data from the 5904 interface module, processes HART responses, processes HART commands, and writes commands and configuration data to the 5904 interface module. send a HART comma nd string and specify a function to handle the response

hartComm

and0

hartCommand1 read unique identifier using short-address algorithm read primary variable read primary variable current and percent of span

hartCommand2

hartCommand3

hartCommand11

hartCommand33

hartStatus read primary variable current and dynamic variables read unique identifier associated w ith tag read specified transmitter variables return status of last HART command sent

hartGetConfiguration read HART module se ttings

hartSetConfiguration write HART module settings

hartPack

String convert string to HART packed string

hartUnpackString convert HART packed string to string

HART Command Macros

The c tools.h file defines the following macro of interest to a C application program. Refer to the C Tools Macros section for details.

DATA_SIZE

Maximum length of the HART command or response field.

HART Command Enumerati on Types

The ctools.h file defines one enumeration type. The HART_RESULT enumeration type defines a list of results of sending a command. Refer to the C Tools Structures and Types section for co mplete information on structures and enumeration types.

HART Command Structures

The ctools.h file defin es five structures. Refer to the C Tools Structures and Types section for complete information on structures and enumeration types.

The HART_DEVICE type is a structure containing information about the HART device.

The HART_VARIABLE type is a structure containing a variable read from a HART device.

The HART_SETTINGS type is a structure containing the configuration for the HART modem module.

Th e HAR T_COMMAND type is a structu re containing a command to be sent to a HART slave device.

The HART_RESPONSE type is a structu re containing a response from a HART slave de vice.

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ISaGRAF C Tools Function

Specifications

The con troller C function specifications are formatted as follows. The functi ons are listed alphabe tically.

Name

Syntax

Each specification begins with the name of the function and a brief description.

The syntax shows a prototype for the function, indicating the ret urn type and the types of its arguments. Any necessary header files are listed .

Description This defines the calling parameters for the function and its return values.

Notes

See Als

Examp

o

le

This section contains additional informat ion on the function, and considerations for its use.

This section lists related functions.

The example gives a brief sample of the use of the function.

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alarmIn

Determine Alarm Time from Elapsed Time

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

ALARM_SETTING alarmIn(un signed hours, unsigned minutes, unsigned seconds);

Description

The alarmIn function calculates the alarm settings to configure a real time clock alarm to occur in hours, minutes and seconds from the current time.

The fu nction returns an ALARM_SETTING structure suitable for passing to the

setClockAlarm function. The structure specifies an absolute time alarm at the time offset specified by the call to alarmIn. Refer to the Structures and Types section for a description of the fields in the ALARM_SETTING structure.

Notes

If second is g reater than 60 seconds, the additional time is rolled into the minutes. If minute is greater than 60 minutes, the additional time is rolled into the hours.

If the offset time is greater that one day, then the alarm time will roll over within the current d ay.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

getClockAlarm, setClockAlarm,

Example

#include <ctools.h>

/* --------------------------------------------

conservePower

The conservePower function places the

controller into sleep mode for 10 minutes.

-------------------------------------------- */ void conservePower(void)

{

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Alarm in 10 minutes */ alarm = alarmIn(0, 10, 0);

setClockAlarm(alarm)

/* Put controller in low power mode */

sleep();

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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allocate_envelope

Obtain an Envelope from the RTOS

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>envelope *allocate_envelope(void);

De scription

The allocate_en velope function obtains an envelope from the operating system. If no envelope is available, the task is blocked until one becomes available.

The allocate_envelope function returns a pointer to the envelope.

Notes

Envelopes are used to send messages between tas ks. The RTOS allocates envelopes from a pool of free en velopes. It returns envelopes to the pool when they are de-allocated.

An application program must ensure that unneeded e nvelopes are de-allocated. Envelopes may be reused.

See Also

deallocate_envelope

Example

#include <ctools.h> ex tern unsigned other _task_id; vo id task1(void)

{

/* send a message to another task */

/* assume it will deallocate the envelope */ letter = allocate_envelope(); letter->destination = other_tas letter->type = MSG_DATA; letter->data = 5; k_id; send_message(letter);

/* receive a message from any other task */ letter = receive_message();

/* ... process the data here */

deallocate_envelope(letter);

}

/* ... the rest of the task */

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check_error

Get Error Code for Current Task

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> int check_error(void);

Description

The check_error function returns the error code for the current task. The error code is set by various I/O routines, when errors occur. A separate error code is maintained for each task.

Notes

Some routines in the standard C library, re turn errors in the global variable errno. This variable is not unique to a task, and may be modified by another task, before it can be read.

See Also

r eport_error

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checksum

Calculate a Checksum

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned checksum(unsigned char *start , unsigned char *end, unsigned

algorithm);

Description

The checksum function calculates a checksum on memory. The memory starts at the byte pointed to by start, and ends with the byte pointed to by end. The algorithm may be one of:

ADDITIVE

CRC_16

16 bit byte-wise sum

CRC-16 polynomial checksum

CRC_CCITT

CRC-CCITT polynomial checksum

BYTE_EOR 8 bit byte-wise exclusive OR

T he CRC checksums use the crc_reverse function.

See Also

crc_reverse

}

Example

This function displays two types of checksums.

#include <ctools.h> void checksumExample(void)

{ char str[] = "This is a test";

/* Display additive checksum */ sum = checksum(str, str+strlen(str), ADDITIVE); printf("Additive checksum: %u\r\n", sum);

/* Display CRC-16 checksum */ sum = checksum(str, str+strlen(str), CRC_16); printf("CRC-16 checksum: %u\r\n", sum);

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checkSFTranslationTable

Test for Store and Forwar d Configuration Errors

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> struct SFTranslationStatus checkSFTranslati onTable(void);

Description

The checkSFTranslationTable function checks all entries in the address translation table for validity. It detects the following errors:

The fun ction returns a SFTranslationStatus structure. Refer to the Structures and Types section for a description of the fields in the SFTranslationStatus structure. T he code field of the structure is set to one of the following. If there is an error, the index field is set to the location of th e translation that is not valid.

Result code

SF_VALID

SF_NO_TRANSLATION

SF_PORT_OUT_OF_RANGE

SF_STATION_OUT_OF_RANG

E

Meaning

All translations are valid

The entry defines re-transmission of the same message on the same port

One or both of the serial port indexes is not valid

One or both of the stations is not valid

Notes

The TeleBUS Protocols User Manual describes store and forward messaging mode.

See Also

getSFTranslation, checkSFTranslationTable

Example

See the example for the setSFTranslation function.

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clear_errors

Clear Serial Port Error Counters

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void clear_errors(FILE *stream);

Description

The clear_errors function clears the serial port error counters for the serial port specified by

stream. If stream does not point to a valid serial port the function has no effect.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

get_status

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clear_protocol_status

Clear Protocol Counters

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void clear_protocol_status(FILE *stream);

Description

The clear_protocol_status function clears the error and message counters for the seria l port specified by stream. If stream does not point to a valid serial port the function h as no effect.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Als o

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clearSFTranslationTable

Clear Store and Forward Translati on Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void clearSFTranslationTable(v oid);

Description

The clearSFTranslationTable function clears all entries in the store and forward translat ion table.

Notes

The TeleBU S Protocols User Manual describes store and forward messaging mode.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

getSFTranslation, checkSFTranslationTable

Example

See the example for the setSFTranslation function.

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clearStatusBit

Clear Bits in Controller Statu s Code

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned clearStatusBit(unsigned bitMask);

Description

The clearStatus Bit function clears the bits indicated by bitMask in the controller status code. When the status code is non-zero, the STAT LED blinks a binary sequence corresponding to the code. If code is zero, the STAT LED turns off.

The function returns the value of the status register.

Notes

The statu s output opens if code is non-zero. Refer to the System Hardware Manual for more information.

The binary sequence consists of short and long flashes of the error LED. A short flash of

1/10th of a second indicates a binary zero. A longer flash of a pproximately 1/2 of a second indicates a binary one. The least significant digit is output first. As few bits as possible are displayed – a ll leading zeros are ignored. There is a two-second delay between repetitions.

The STAT L ED is the LED located on the top left hand corner of the 5203 or 5204 controller board.

The Register Assignment uses bi ts 0 and 1 of the status code.

See Also

setStatusBit, setStatus, getStatusBit

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clear_tx

Clear Serial Port Transmit Buffer

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void clear_tx(FILE *stream );

Description

The clear_tx fun ction clears the transmit buffer for the serial port specified by stream. If

stream does not point to a valid serial port the function has no effect.

See Also

get_stat us

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crc_reverse

Calculate a CRC Ch ecksum

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned crc_reverse(unsigned char *start, unsigned char *end, unsigned

poly, unsigned initial );

Description

The crc_reverse function calculates a CRC type checksum on memory using the reverse algorithm. The memory starts at the byte pointed to by start, and ends with the byte poi nted to by end. The generator polynomial is specified by poly. poly ma y be any value, but must be carefully chosen to ensure good error detection. The checksum accumulator is set to ini tial before the calculation is started.

Notes

The reverse algorithm is named for the direction bits are shifted. In the re verse algorithm, bits are shifted towards the least significant bit. This produces different c hecksums than the classical, or forward algorithm, using the same polynomials.

See Also

checksum

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createRoutingTable

Create Routing Table

S ynta x

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN createRoutingTable (UINT16 size);

Description

Th is fun io ing table, and allocates memory for a new routing table according to the ‘size’ parameter.

N otes

DNP must be enabled before calling this func tion in order to create the DNP configuration.

The function retur ns TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise.

Example

See the example i

n the dnpSendUnsolicited section.

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crea te_task

Create a New Task

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> int create_task(void *function, unsigned priority, unsigned type, unsigned

stack);

Description

The create_task function allocates stack space for a task and places the task on the ready queue. function specifies the start address of the routine to be executed. The task will execute immediately if its priority is higher than the current task.

priority is an execution priority between 1 and 4 for the created task. The 4 task priority levels aid in scheduling task execution.

type specifies if the task is ended when an application program is stopped. Valid values for

type are:

SYSTEM system tasks do not terminate when the program stops

APPLICATION application tasks terminate when the program stops

It is recommended that only APPLICATION type tasks be created.

The stack parameter specifies how many stack blocks are allocated for the task. Each stack block is 256 bytes.

The create_task function returns the task ID (TID) of the task created. If an error occurs, -1 is returned.

Notes

Refer to the Real Time Operating System section for more information on tasks.

Note that the main task and the Ladder Logic and I/O scanning task have a priority of 1. If the created task is continuously running processing code, create the task with a priority of 1 and call release_processor periodically; otherwise the remaining priority 1 tasks will be blocked from executing.

For tasks such as a protocol handler, that wait for an event using the wait_event or

receive_message function, a priority greater than 1 may be selected without blocking other lower priority tasks.

The number of stack blocks required depends on the functions called within the task, and the size of local variables created. Most tasks require 2 stack blocks. If any of the printf functions are used, then at least 4 stack blocks are required. Add local variable usage to these limits, if large local arrays or structures are created. Large structures and arrays are usually best handled as static global variables within the task source file. (The variables are global to all functions in the task, but cannot be seen by functions in other files.)

Additional stack space may be made available by disabling unused protocol tasks. See the section Program Development or the set_protocol() function for more information.

See Also

end_task

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Example

#include <ctools.h> void task 1(void)

{ int a, b;

{

/* b ody of task 1 loop - processing I/O */ request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); a = dbase(MODBUS, 30001); b = dbase(MODBUS, 30002); setdbase(MODBUS, 40020, a * b); release_resource( IO_SYSTEM);

/* Allow other tasks to execute */ release_processor();

}

} v v

{

while( TRUE)

{

/* body of task 2 loop - event handler */ wait_event(TIME_TO_PRINT); printf("It’s time for a coffee break\r\n");

}

}

/* --------------------------------------------

The shutdown function stops the signalling

of TIME_TO_PRINT events when application is

stopped.

-------------------------------------------- */ void shutdown(void)

{ endTimedEvent(TIME_TO_PRINT);

} void main(void)

{

/* continuos processing task at priority 1 * create_task(task1, 1, APPLICATION, 2);

/

/* event handler needs larger stack for printf function */ create_task(task2, 3, APPLICATION, 4);

/* set up task exit handler to stop

signalling of events when this task ends */ taskStatus = getTaskInfo(0);

/* s

star tart timed event to occur every 10 sec */

while(TRUE)

{

/* body of main task loop */

/* oth er pr ocessing code */

/* Allo w other tasks to execute */

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release_processor();

}

}

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databaseRead

Read Value from I/O Database

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN databaseRead(UINT16 type, UINT16 address, INT16* value)

Description

The databaseRead function reads a value from the database. type specifies the method of addressing the database. address specifies the location in the database. If the specified address is valid then TRUE is returned and the value is copied to the variable pointed to by

value.

If the specified address is not valid then FA

LSE

is returned and the variable pointed to by value is left unchanged.

T he tabl e belo w shows the valid ad dress types and ra nges.

Type

MODBUS

LINEAR

Address Ranges

00001 to NUMCOIL

10001 to 10000 + NUMSTATUS

30001 to 30000 + NUMINPUT

40001 to 40000 + NU MHOLDING

0 to NUMLINEAR-1

Register

Size

1 bit

1 bit

16 bit

16 bit

16 bit

If the specified address is in the valid range but it has not been defined by an application, then the address is also invalid. An address is defined if any of the following is true:

1. The addre ss has been assigned as the Network Address for an ISaGRAF Dictionary variable.

2. The address is defined in a database handler installed by a C or C++ application .

3. The address is within the default range of the Permanent Non-volatile Modb us

Registers: 40001 to 40000 + NUMHOLDING_PERMANENT, and 00001 to

NUMCOIL_PERMANENT.

When this function is called, the specified address is searched for under these three categories in the order listed above until the address is found. If the address is not found,

FALSE is returned. If the address is defined in more than one of these categories, the first occurrence of the address in the order listed is always used.

Notes

Refer to the section Permanent Non-Volatile Modbu s Registers for details on potential addressing conflicts during application downloading.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

databaseWrite, setdbase

Example

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

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{

BOOLEAN ; request_re source(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Read Modbus status input point * status = databaseRead(MODBUS, 10001

/* Read 16 bit register */ status = databaseRead(LINEAR, 3020

/

, &value);

, &value);

/* Read 16 bit register beginning at first status register */ status = databaseRead(LINEAR, START_STATUS, &value);

/* Read 6th input register */ status = databaseRead(LINEAR, START_INPUT+5, &value);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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databaseWrite

Write Value to I/O Database

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN databaseWrite(UINT16 type, UINT16 address, INT16 value)

Description

The databa seWrite function writes value to the I/O database. type specifies the method of addressing the d atabase. address specifies the location in the database. If the specified address is valid then TRUE is returned and the value is written. If the specified address is not valid then FALSE is returned and nothing is done.

The table below shows the valid address types and ranges.

Type Address Ranges

MODBUS 00001 to NUMCOIL

10001 to 10000 + NUMSTATUS

30001 to 30000 + NUMINPUT

LINEAR

40001 to 40000 + NUMHOLDING

0 to NUMLINEAR-1

Register

Size

1 bit

1 bit

16 bit

16 bit

16 bit

If the specified address is in the valid range but it has not been defined by an application, then the address is also invalid. An address is defined if any of the following is true:

1. The address has been assigned as the Network Address for an ISaGRA F Dictionary variable.

2. The address is defined in a database handler installed by a C or C++ app lication.

3. The address is within the default range of the Permanent Non-volati le Modbus

Registers: 40001 to 40000 + NUMHOLDING_PERMANENT, and 00001 to

NUMCOIL_PER MANENT.

When this function is called, the specified address is searched for under these three categories in the order listed above until the address is found. If the address is not found,

FALSE is returned. If the address is defined in more than one of these categories, the first occurrence of the address in the order listed is always used.

Notes

Refer to the section Permanent Non-Volatile Modbus Re gisters f or details on potential addressing conflicts during application downloading.

When writing to LINEAR digital addresses, value is a bit mask which w rites data to 16 1-bit registers at once. If any of these 1-bit registers is invalid, only the valid registers are written and FALSE is returned.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested be fore calling this function.

See Also

databaseRead, setdbase

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Example

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); status = databaseWrite(MODBUS, 400 01, 102);

/* Turn ON the first 16 coils */ status = databaseWri te(LINEAR, STA

/* Write to a 16 bi t register */ status = databaseWrite

RT_COIL, 255);

(LINEAR, 3020, 240); status = databaseWr ite (LINE AR , START_HOLDING+11, 330);

release_reso urce(IO_SYSTEM);

}

/* Write to the 12th h oldin g register */

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datalogCreate

Create Data Log Function

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

DATALOG_STATUS datalogCreate(

UINT16 logID,

DATALOG_C ONFIGURATION * pLogConfiguration

);

Description

This function creates a data log with the specified configuration. The data log is created in the data log memory space.

The function has two parameters. logID specifies the data log to be created. The valid range is 0 to 15. pLogConfiguration points to a structure with the configuration for the data log.

The function returns the status of the operation.

Notes

The configuration of an existing data log cannot be changed. The log must be deleted and recreated to change the configuration.

All data logs are stored in memory from a pool for all data logs . If there is insufficient memory the creation operation fails. The function returns DLS_N

OMEMORY

.

If the data log already exists the creation operation fails. The function returns DLS_EXISTS.

If the log ID is not valid the creation operation fails. The function return s DLS_BADID.

If the configuration is not va lid the creation operation fails. The function returns

DLS_BADCONFI G

.

See Also

datalogDelete, datalogSettings

Example

/*---------------------------------------------

The following code shows how to create a

data log and how to write one record into it.

--------------------------------------------*/

#include "ctools.h"

/*--------------------------------

Stru cture used only to copy on e

record into data log

------------------------------*/ struct dataRecord

{

UINT16 value1;

double value3;

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}; int logID ;

/*---------------------------------

Declare a structure for the log

---------------------------------* /

DATALOG_ I I

/*----------------------------

Dec lare a struture to hold the

data that will be copied in log

--------------------------------*/ struct dataRecord data;

/* ---------------------

Function declaration

----------------------*/ void ConfigureLog(void); void InitRecord(void); void main(void)

{

ConfigureLog();

InitRecord();

/* function call to cofigure log */ if(datalogCreate(logID, &dLogConfig) == DLS_CREATED)

{

/* Start writing records in log */ if( datalogWrite(logID, (UINT16 *)&data) )

{

}

}

{

/* one record was written in data log */

}

/* Log configuration */ void ConfigureLog(void)

/* Assign a number to the data log */ logID = 10;

/* Fill in the log configuration structure */ dLogConfig.records = 200; dLogConfig.fields = 5; dLogConfig.typesOfFields[0] = DLV_UINT16; dLogConfig.typesOfFields[1] = DLV_INT32; dLogConfig.typesOfFields[2] = DLV_DOUBLE; dLogConfig.typesOfFields[3] = DLV_FLOAT;

}

} dLogConfig.typesOfFields[4] = DLV_FLOAT;

/* One record initialization */ void InitRecord(void)

{

/* Assign some data for the log */ data.value1 = 100; data.value2 = 200; data.value3 = 30000; data.value4 = 40.3; data.value5 = 50.75;

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datalogDelete

Delete Data Log Function

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN datalogDelete(

);

Description

This function de stroys the specified data log. The memory used by the data log is returned to the freed.

The function has one parameter. logID specifies the data log to be deleted. The valid range is 0 to 15.

The function returns TRUE if the data log was deleted. The function returns FALSE if the log

ID is not valid or if the log had not been created.

See Also

datalogCreate

Example

/* The following code shows the only way to

chan ge the configuration of an existing log

is to delete the log and recreate the data

log */

#include <ctools.h> int logID;

/* Declare a structure for the log */

DATALOG_CONFIGURATION dLogConfig;

/* Select logID #10 */ logID = 10 ;

/* Read the configura tion of logID #10 */ i f( datalogSettings( logID, &dLogConfig ) )

{

if(dLogConfig.typesOfField

s[0] == DLV_INT16)

{

/* Wrong type. Delete whole log and start from scratch */

if(datalogDelete (logID) )

{

/* Reenter the log config uration */ dLogCon fig.records = 200; dLogConfig.fields = 5; dLogConfig.t

ypesOfFields[0] = DLV_UINT16; dLogConfig.ty

pesOfFields[1] = DLV_INT32; dLogConfig.typesOfFields[2] = DLV_DOUBLE; dLogConfig.types

OfFields[3] = DLV_FLOAT;

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dLogConfig.typesOfFields[4] = DLV_FLOAT;

datalogCreate(logID, &dLogConfig);

}

else

{

/* could not delete log */

}

}

} el se

{

/* Could not read settings */

}

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datalogPurge

Purge Data Log Function

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN datalogPurge( logID,

);

Description

This functio n removes records from a data log. The function can remove all the records, or a group of records starting with the oldest in the log.

The function has three parameters. logID

specifies the data log. The valid range is 0 to 15.

If purgeAll is TRUE, all records are removed, otherwise the oldest records are removed. sequenceNumber

specifies the sequence number of the most recent record to remove. All records up to and including this record are removed. This parameter is ignor ed if purgeAll is TRUE.

The function returns TRUE if the operation succeeds. The function returns FALSE if the log

ID is invalid, if the log has not been created, or if the sequence number cannot be found in the log.

Notes

Purging the oldest records in the log is usually done after reading the log. The sequence number used is that of the last record read from the log. This removes the records that have been read and leaves any records added since the records were read.

If the seq uence number specifies a record that is not in the log, no records are removed.

See Also

datalogReadStart, datalogReadNext, datalogWrite

Exam ple

#include <ctools.h> int logID, sequenceNumber;

/* Declare flag to purge entire of data log or part of it */

BOOLEAN purgeAll;

/* Which data log to purge? */ logID = 10;

/* Set fla g to purge only part of data log */ purgeAll = FALSE;

/* How many of the oldest records to purge */ sequenceNumber = 150;

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if( datalogPurge(logID, purgeAll, sequenceNumber) )

{

/* Successful at purging the first 150 records of log */

/* Start writing records again */

}

/* To purge the entire data

log, simply set flag to TRUE */

purgeAll = TRUE;

/* Call

up function with s ame parameters */

if( datal

ogPurge(logID, purgeAll, sequenceNumber) )

{

}

/* Suc

cessful at purging the entire data log */

/* Start writing records again */

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data logReadNext

Read Da ta L og Next Function

Th is fun ction r eturns the next record in the data log.

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN datalogReadNext( logID,

U nceNumber,

UINT32 * pSequenceNumber,

UINT32 * pNextSequenceNumber,

UINT16 * pData

);

Description

number. The function returns the record with t he specified sequence number if it is present in th e log. If the record no longer exists it returns the next record in the log.

The function has five parameters. logID specifies the data log. The valid range is 0 to 15. sequenceNumber

is sequence number of the record to be read. pSequenceNumber is a pointer to a variable to hold the sequence number of the record read. pNextSequenceNumber

is a pointer to a variable to hold the sequence number of the next record in the log. This is normally used for the next call to this function. pData is a pointer to memory to hold the data read from the log.

The function returns TRUE if a record is read from the log. The function returns FALSE if the log ID is not valid, if the log has not been created or if there are no more records in the log.

Notes

Use the datalogReadStart function to obtain the sequence number of the oldest record in the data log.

The pData parameter must point to memory of sufficient size to hold all the data in a record.

It is normally necessary to call this function until it returns FALSE in order to read all the data from the log. This accommodates cases where data is added to the log while it is being read.

If data is read from the log at a slower rate than it is logged, it is possible that the sequence numbers of the records read will not be sequential. This indicates that records were overwritten between calls to read data.

The sequence number rolls over after reaching its maximum value.

See Also

datalogReadStart, datalogPurge, datalogWrite

Example

See the example for datalogReadStart.

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datalogReadStart

Read Data Log Start Function

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN datalogReadStar t( logID,

UINT32 * pSequenceNu

); mber

Description

This function ret urns the sequence number of the record at the start of the data log. This is the oldest record in the log.

The function has two parameters. logID specifies the d ata log. The valid range is 0 to 15. pSequenceNumber

is a pointer to a variable to hold the sequence number.

The function returns TRUE if the operation succeeded. The function returns FAL SE if the log

ID is not valid or if the log has not been created.

Notes

Use the datalogReadNext function to read records from the log.

The function will return a sequence number even if the log is empty. In this case the nex t call to datalogReadNext will return no data.

See Also

datalogReadNext, datalogPurge

, datalogWrite

Example

/************************************************

The following code shows how to read records

from data log.

************************************************/

#include "ctools.h"

#include <stdlib.h>

UINT16 recordSize,

logID,

*pData; /* Pointer to memory to hold data read from log. */

UINT32 sequenceNumber,/* Sequence number of record to be read. */

nextSequenceNumber; /* Sequence number of next record. */ void main(void)

{

/* Select data log #10 */

logID = 10;

/* Find first record in data log #10 and store

its sequence number into sequenceNumber */

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if( datalogRea dStart(logID, &sequenceNumber) )

{

/* Get the size of this record */ if( datalogReco

{ rdSize(logID, &recordSize) )

/* Allocate memory of size recordSize */

pData = (UINT16 *) malloc(recordSize);

/* Read all record s from data log #10. */

while( datalogReadNext(logID, seq uenceNumber,

&sequenc eNumber, &nextSequenceNumber, pData ) )

{

/* Use pData and its contents.

Set next sequence number of record to be read. */

}

}

}

sequenceNumber = nextSequenceNumber;

}

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datalogRecordSize

Data Log Record Size Fun ction

Syntax

#include < ctools.h >

BOOLEAN datalogRecordSi ze(

UINT16 * pRecord

);

Size;

Description

This function returns the size of a record for the specified data log. The log must have been previously created with the datalogCreate function.

The function has two parameters. logID specifies the data log. The valid range is 0 to 15. pRecordSize points to a variable that will hold the size of a record in the log.

The function returns TRUE if the operation succeeded. The function returns FALSE if the log

ID is invalid or if the data log does not exist.

Notes

This func tion is useful in determining how much memory must be allocated for a call to datalogReadNext

or datalogWrite.

See Also

datalogCrea

te, datalogSettings

Example

See the exam

ple for datalogReadStart.

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datalogSettings

Data Log Settings Function

Syntax

#include < ctools.h >

BOOLEAN datalogSettings(

DATALOG_CONF IGURATION * pLogConfiguration

);

Description

This function reads the configuration of the s pecified data log. The log must have been previously created with the datal ogCreate

function.

The function has two parameters. logID specifies the data log. The valid range is 0 to 15. p u

points to a st ructure that will hold the data log configuration.

The function re turns TRUE if the operation suc ce ede d. The f unction returns FALSE if the log

ID is invalid or if the data log does not exist.

Notes

The conf iguration of an existing data log cannot be changed. The log must be deleted and recreated to change the configuration.

See Also

datalogCreate, datalogRecordSize

Ex ample

See example for

datalogDelete

.

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data logWrite

Write D a ta L og Function

S ynta x

#i nclu de <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN datalogWrite(

UI NT16 logID,

UI

) ;

NT16 * pData

D escr iption

Th is function writes a record to the specified data lo g. The log must have been previously cre ated with the datalogCreate function.

The function has two parameters. logID specifies the data log. The valid range is 0 to 15. pData

is a pointer to the data to be written to the log. The amount of data copied using the pointer is determined by the configuration of the data log.

The function returns TRUE if the data is added to the log. The function returns FALSE if the log ID is not valid or if the log does not exist.

Notes

Refer to the datalogCreate function for details on the configuration of the data log.

If the data log is full, then the oldest record in the log is replaced with this record.

See Also

datalogReadStart datalogReadNext datalogPurge

Example

See the example for datalogCreate.

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dbase

Read Value from I/O Database

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> int dbase(unsigned type, unsigned address);

Description

The dbase function reads a value from the database. type specifies the method of addressing the database. address specifies the locat ion in the database. If the specified address is not valid then the variable pointed to by value is left unchanged. The table below shows the va lid address types and ranges.

Type Address Ranges

MODBUS 00001 to NUMCOIL

10001 to 10000 + NUMSTATUS

30001 to 30000 + NUMINPUT

40001 to 40000 + NUMHOLDING

LINEAR 0 to NUMLINEAR-1

Register

Size

1 bit

1 bit

1 6 bit

16 bit

16 bit

Notes

If the specified address is in the valid range but it has not been defined by an application, then the address is also invalid. An address is defined if any of the following is true:

1. The address has been assigned as the Network Address for an ISaGRAF Dictionary variable.

2. The address is defined in a database handler installed by a C or C++ application.

3. The address is within the default range of the Permanent Non-volatile Modbus

Registers: 40001 to 40000 + NUMHOLDING_PERMANENT, and 00001 to

NUMCOIL_PERMANENT.

When this function is called, the specified address is searched for under these three categories in the order listed above until the address is found. If the address is not found, then the variable pointed to by value is left unchanged. If the address is defined in more than one of these categories, the first occurrence of the address in the order listed is always used.

Refer to the section Permanent Non-Volatile Modbus Registers for details on potential addressing conflicts during application downloading.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

setdbase, databaseRead, databaseWrite

Example

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

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request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Read Modbus status input point */ a = dbase(MODBUS, 10001);

/* Read 16 bit register */ a = dbase(LINEAR , 3020);

/* Read 16 bit register beginning at first status register */ a = dbase(LINEAR, START_STATUS);

/* Read 6th input register */ a = dba se(LINEAR, START_INPUT + 5);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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deall ocate_envelope

Return Envelope to the RTOS

Syntax

#include <ct ools.h> void deallocate_envelope(envelope *penv);

Description

The deallocate_envelope function returns the envelope pointed to by penv to the pool of free envelopes maintained by the operating system.

See Also

allocate_envelope

Example

See the example for the allocate_envelope function.

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dnpI nstallConnectionHandler

Config ures the connection handler for DNP.

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void dnpInstallConnectionHandler(void (* function)

(DNP_CONNECTION_EVENT event)) ;

Description

This function installs a handler that will permit user-defined actions to occur when DN P requires a connection, message confirmation is received, or a timeout occurs. function

is a pointer to the handler function. If function is NULL the handler is disabled.

The function has no return value.

N otes

The handler function must pro cess the event and return immediately. If the required action involves waiting this must be done outside of the handle r function. See the example below for one possible impleme ntation.

The application must disable the handler when the application ends. This preven ts the protocol driver from calling the handler while the ap plication is stopped. Call the dnpInstallConnectionHandler

with a NULL pointer. The usual me thod is to create a task exit handler function to do this. See the example below for details.

The handler function has one parameter.

• event

P t t s occurred. It may be one of

DNP_MESSAGE_COMPLETE

, or DNP_M

ESSAGE_TIMEOUT

. See the structur e definition for

o e e vents .

DNP_CONNECTIO N_REQUIRED

,

The handler function has no return va lue.

By default no connection handler is installed and no special steps are taken when DNP requires a connection, receives a message confirmation, or a timeout occurs.

Example

This example shows how a C application can handle the events and inform a log ic application of the events. The logic application is res ponsible for making and ending the dialup connection.

The program uses the follo wing registers.

• 10001 turns on when a connection is requested by DNP for unsolicit ed reporting.

• 10002 turns on when the unsolicited repor t is complete.

10003 turns on when the unsolicited report is fails.

• The ladder logic program turns on register 1 when the connection is complete and turns off the register when the connection is broken.

/* -----------------------------------------------------------------------

dnp.c

Demonstration program for using the DNP connection handler.

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Copyright 2001, Contr ol Microsystems Inc.

---------------------------------------------------------------------- */

/* ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Include Files

----------------------------------------------------------------------- */

#include <c tools.h>

/* -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Cons tants

----------------------------------------------------------------------- */

#define CONNECTION_REQUIRED 10001 /* register for signaling connection required */

#define MESSAGE_ COMPLETE 10002 /* register for signaling unsolicited message is complete */

#define MESSAGE_FAILED 10003 /* register for signaling unsolicited message

#define CONNECTION_STATUS 1 failed */

/* connection status register */

/* -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Private Fu nctions

---------------------------------------------------------------------- */

/* ----------------------------------------------------------------------

sampleDNPHandler

This function is the user defined DNP connection handler. It will be

called by internal DNP routines when a connection is required, when

confirmation of a message is received, and when a communication timeout

occurs.

The function takes a variable of type DNP_CONNECTION_EVENT as an input.

This input instructs the handler as to what functionality is required.

The valid choices are connection required (DNP_CONNECTION_REQUIRED),

message confirmation received (DNP_MESSAGE_COMPLETE), and timeout occurred

(DNP_MESSAGE_TIMEOUT).

The function does not return any values.

----------------------------------------------------------------------- */ static void sampleDNPHandler(DNP_CONNECTION_EVENT event)

{

/* Determine what connection event is required or just occurred */

switch(event)

{

/* indicate connection is needed and clear other bits */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

break;

/* indicate message sent and clear other bits */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

break;

/* indicate message failed and clear other bits */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

break;

default:

/* ignore invalid requests */

break;

}

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}

/* ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Public Functions

---------------------------------------------------------------------- */

/* -----------------------------------------------------------------------

main

This function is the ma in task of a user application. It monitors a

register from the ladder logic application. When the register va lue

changes, the function signals DNP events.

The function has no parameters.

The function does not return.

----------------------------------------------------------------------- */ void main(void)

{ int lastConnectionState; /* last state of connection registe r */ int currentConnectionState; /* current state of connection reg ister */

/* install DNP connection handler */

dnpInstallConnectionHandler(sampleDNPHandler);

/* get the current conn lastConnectionState = d ection state */ base(MODBUS, CONNECTION_STATUS);

/* loop forever */

whil

{

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* get the current connection state */ currentConnectionState = dbase(MODBUS, CONNECTION_STATUS);

/* if the state has changed */ if (currentConnectionState != lastConnectionState)

{

/* if the connection is active */

{

/* Inform DNP that a connection exists */

dnpConnectionEvent(DNP_CONNECTED);

/* clear the request flag */

}

else

{

/* Inform DNP that the connection is closed */

dnpConnectionEvent(DNP_DISCONNECTED);

/* clear the message flags */

}

/* save the new state */

}

/* release the processor so other tasks can run */

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_processor();

}

}

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dnpClearEventLog

Clear DNP Event Log

Syntax:

#i nclude <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpClea rEventLog(void);

Description:

The dnpClearEv entLogs function deletes all change events from the DNP change event buffers, for all point types.

Example:

See the e

xample in the dnpSendUnsolicited section.

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dnpConnectionEvent

Report a DNP connection event

Syntax

#inclu de <ctools.h> void dnpConnectionEvent(DNP_CONNECTION_EVENT event);

Descr iption

dnpConnectionEvent

is used to report a change in connection status to DNP. This function is only u sed if a custom DNP connection handler has been installed. event is current connection status. The valid connection status settings are

DNP_CONNECTED

, and DNP_DISCONNECTED.

See Also

dnpInstallConnectionHandler

Example

See the dnpInstallConnectionHandler example

.

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dnpCreateRoutingTable

Create Routing Table

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BO OLEA N createRoutingTable (UINT16 si ze);

Description

This function de stroys any existing DNP routing table, and allocates memory for a new routing table according to the ‘size’ parameter.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configurat ion.

The function returns TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise.

Examp le

See the example in the section Error! Reference source not found..

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dnpGenerateEventLog

Generate DNP Event Log

Syntax

#include <ctool s.h>

BOOLEAN dnpGenerateEv ent Lo g(

UINT16 pointType,

UINT16 pointAddress

);

Description

The dnpGenerateEventLog function generates a change event for the DNP point specified by pointType and pointAddress. pointType

specifies th e type of DNP point. Allowed values are:

BI_POINT binary

AI16_POINT

AI32_PO INT

16 bit analog input

32 bit analog input

AISF_POINT short float analog input

CI16_POINT

CI32_POINT

16 bit counter output

32 bit counter output pointAddress

specif ies the DNP address of the point.

A change event is generated for the specified point (with the current time and current value), and stored in the DNP event buffer.

The format of the event will depend on the Event Reporting M ethod and Class of Event

Object that have been configured for the point.

The function returns TRUE if the event was generated. It returns FALSE if the DNP point is invalid, or if the DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

Example

See the example in the dnpSendUnsolicited section.

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dnpGetAI16Config

Get DNP 16-bit Analog Input Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpGetAI16Config(

UINT16 point, dnpAnalogInput * pAnalogInput

);

Description

This function reads the configuration of a DNP 16-bit analog input point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to an analog input point configuratio n structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was read. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the pointer is NULL, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP mus t be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

See Also

dnpGetAI32Config

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function section.

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dnpGetAI32Config

Get DNP 32-bit Analog Input Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpGetAI32Config(

UINT32 point, dnpAnalogInput * pAnalogInput

);

Description

This function reads the configuration of a DNP 32-bit analog input point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to an analog input point configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was read. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the pointer is NULL, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

See Also

dnpSaveAI32Config

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function section.

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dnpGetAISFConfig

Get Short Floating Point Analog Input Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpGetAISFConfig (

);

Description

This function reads the configuration of a DNP short floating point analog in put point.

The function has two parameters: the point number, and a pointer to a configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was successfully read, or FALSE otherw ise (if the point number is not valid, or pointer is NULL, or if the DNP configuration has not been created).

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

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dnpGetAO16Config

Get DNP 16-bit Analog Output Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpGetAO16Config(

UINT16 point, dnpAnalogOutput * pAnalogOutput

);

Description

This function reads the configuration of a DNP 16-bit analog output point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to an analog outpu t point configuratio n structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was read. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the pointer is NULL, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP mus t be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

S ee Also

dnpSaveAO16Config

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function section.

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dnpGetAO32Config

Get DNP 32-bit Analog Output Config uration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpGetAO32Config(

UINT32 point, dnpAnalogOutput * pAnalogOutput

);

Description

This function reads the configuration of a DNP 32-bit analog outpu t point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to an analog output poi nt configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was read. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the pointer is NULL, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

See Also

dnpSaveAO32Conf ig

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function section.

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dnpGetAOSFConfig

Get Short Floating Point Analog Output Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BO OLEA N dnpGetAOSFConf ig (

);

Description

This function reads the configuration of a DNP short floating point analog outp ut point.

The function has two parameters: the point number, and a pointer to a configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was successfully read, or FALSE otherwise (if the point number is not valid, or pointer is NULL, or if the DNP configuration has not been created).

N otes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

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dnpGetBIConfig

Get DNP Binary Input Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpGetBIConfig(

UINT16 point, dnpBinaryInput * pBinaryInput

);

Description

This function reads the configuration of a DNP binary input point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to a binary input point configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was read. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the pointer is NULL, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

See Also

dnpSaveBIConfig

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function section.

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dnpGetBIConfigEx

Read DNP Binary Input Extended Point

Syntax

BOOLEAN dnpGetBIConfi gEx(

UINT16 point,

);

Description

This function reads the configuration of an extended DNP Binary Input po int.

The function has two parameters: the point number, and a pointer to an extended binary input point configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was successfully read. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the configuration is not valid, or if the DNP configuration has n ot been created.

This func tion supersedes dnpSaveBIConfig.

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dnpGetBOConfig

Get DNP Binary Output Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpGetBOConfig(

UINT16 point, dnpBinaryOutput * pBinaryOutput

);

Description

This function reads the configuration of a DNP binary output point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to a binary output point configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was read. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the pointer is NULL, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

See Also

dnpSaveBOConfig

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function section.

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dnpGetCI16Config

Get DNP 16-bit Counter Input Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpGetCI16Config(

UINT16 point, dnpCounte rInput * pCounterInput

);

Description

This function reads the configuration of a DNP 16-bit counter input point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to a counter input point configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configurat ion was read. It returns FALSE if the point number is no t valid, if the pointer is NULL, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

See Also

dnpSaveCI16Con fig

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfigurat on

funct ion section.

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dnpG tCI 32Config

Get DN 32bit Counter Input Configuration

S ynta x

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpGetCI32Config(

UINT32 point, dnpCounterInput * pCounterInput

);

Description

This function reads the configuration of a DNP 3 2-bit counter input point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to a counter in put point configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration w as read. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the pointer is NULL, or if DN P configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to cr eate the DNP configuration.

See Also

dn pSav eCI32Config

E l

S m

the dnpGetConfiguration function se

ction.

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dnpGetConfiguration

Get DN P Configuration

S ynta x

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpGetConfiguration( dn pCon figuration * pConfiguratio

); n

Description

This function reads the DNP configuration.

The function has one parameter: a pointer to a DNP configuration str ucture.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was read a nd FALSE if an error occurred.

See Also

dn pSav eConfiguration

Example

The following program demonstrates how to configure DNP for operation on c om2. To illustrate creation of points it uses a sequential mapping of Modbus registe rs to points. This is not required. Any mapping may be used. void main(void)

{

UINT16 struct prot_settings settings; dnpConfiguration configuration; dnpBinaryInput binaryInput; dnpBinaryOutput binaryOutput; dnpAnalogInput analogInput; dnpAnalogOutput analogOutput; dnpCounterInput counterInput;

/* protocol settings */

/* configuration settings */

/* binary input settings */

/* binary output settings */

/* analog input settings */

/* analog output settings */

/* counter input settings */

/* Stop any protocol currently active on com port 2 */

get_protocol(com2,&settings); settings.type = NO_PROTOCOL;

set_protocol(com2,&settings);

/* Load the Configuration Parameters */ configuration.masterAddress = DEFAULT_DNP_MASTER; configuration.rtuAddress = DEFAULT_DNP_RTU; configuration.datalinkConfirm = TRUE; configuration.datalinkRetries = DEFAULT_DLINK_RETRIES; configuration.datalinkTimeout = DEFAULT_DLINK_TIMEOUT; configuration.operateTimeout = DEFAULT_OPERATE_TIMEOUT; configuration.applicationConfirm = TRUE; configuration.maximumResponse = DEFAULT_MAX_RESP_LENGTH; configuration.applicationRetries = DEFAULT_APPL_RETRIES; configuration.applicationTimeout = DEFAULT_APPL_TIMEOUT; configuration.timeSynchronization = TIME_SYNC; configuration.BI_number = 8; configuration.BI_cosBufferSize = DEFAULT_COS_BUFF; configuration.BI_soeBufferSize = DEFAULT_SOE_BUFF; configuration.BO_number = 8; configuration.CI16_number = 24; configuration.CI16_bufferSize = 48; configuration.CI32_number = 12;

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configuration.CI32_bufferSize = 24; configuration.AI16_numbe

configuration.AI16_repor

r = 24; tingMethod = CURRENT_VALUE; configuration.AI16_bufferSi

ze = 24; configuration.AI32_number configuration.AI32_reporting

= 12;

Method = CURRENT_VALUE; configuration.AI32_bufferSize = 12; co nfiguration.AO16_number = 8; co nfiguration.AO32_number = 8; configuration.unsolicited = TRUE; configuration.holdTime = DEFAULT_HOLD_TIME; configuration.holdCount = DEFAULT_HOLD_COUNT;

dnpSaveConfiguration(&configuration);

/* Start DNP protocol on com port 2 */

get_protocol(com2,&settings); settings.type = DNP;

set_protocol(com2,&settings);

/* Save port settings so DNP protocol will automatically start */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

save(EEPROM_RUN);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Configure Binary Output Points */ for (index = 0; index < configuration.BO_number; index++)

{ binaryOutput.modbusAddress1 = 1 + index; binaryOutput.modbusAddress2 = 1 + index; binaryOutput.controlType = NOT_PAIRED;

}

/* Configure Binary Input Points */ for (index = 0;index < configuration.BI_number; index++)

{ binaryInput.modbusAddress = 10001 + index; binaryInput.class = CLASS_1; binaryInput.eventType = COS;

}

/* Configure 16 Bit Analog Input Points */ for (index = 0; index < configuration.AI16_number; index++)

{ analogInput.modbusAddress = 30001 + index; analogInput.class = CLASS_2; analogInput.deadband = 1;

}

/* Configure32 Bit Analog Input Points */ for (index = 0; index < configuration.AI32_number; index++)

{ analogInput.modbusAddress = 30001 + index * 2; analogInput.class = CLASS_2; analogInput.deadband = 1;

dnpSaveAI32Config(index,&analogInput);

}

/* Configure 16 Bit Analog Output Points */ for (index = 0;index < configuration.AO16_number; index++)

{ analogOutput.modbusAddress = 40001 + index;

}

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/* Configure 32 Bit Analog Output Points */ for (index = 0; index < configuration.AO32_number; index++)

{ analogOutput.m

odbusAddress = 40101 + index * 2;

dnpSaveA

}

/* Configure 16 Bit Counter Input Points */ for (index = 0; index < co nfiguration.CI16_number; index++)

{ counterInput.modbusAddress = 3000 1 + index; counterInput.class = CLAS S_3; counterInput.threshold = 1;

}

/* Configure 32 bit Counter Input Points */ for (index = 0; index < configuration.CI32_number; index++)

{ counterInput.modbusAddress = 30001 + index * 2; counterInput.class = CLASS_3; counterInput.threshold = 1;

}

/* add additional initialization code for your application here ... */

/* loop forever */

{

/* add additional code for your application here ... */

/* allow other tasks of this priority to execute */

release_processor();

}

return;

}

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dnpGetConfigurationEx

Read DNP Extended Configuration

Syntax

BOOLEAN dnpGetConfigurationEx (

);

Des cription

This function reads the extended DNP configuration parameters.

The function has one parameter: a pointer to the DNP extended configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was successfully read, or FALSE otherwise (if the poi nter is NULL, or if the DNP configuration has not been created).

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

This function supersedes the dnpGetConfiguration

function.

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dnpGetRuntimeStatus

Get DNP Runtime Status

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpGetRuntimeStatus(

DNP_RUNTIME_STATUS *status

);

Description

The dnpGetRun timeStatus function reads the current status of all DNP change event buffers, and returns information in the status structu re.

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to crea te the DNP configuration.

Example

See the e

xample in the dnpSendUnsolicited section.

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dnpReadRoutingTableDialStrings

Read DNP Routing Table Entry Dial Strings

Syntax

BOOLEAN dnpReadRoutin gTableDialStrings(

UINT16 index,

UINT16 maxPrimaryDialStringLength,

* primaryDialString,

UINT16 maxSecondaryDialStringLength,

);

Description

This function reads a primary and secondary dial string from an entry in the DNP routing table. i ndex

specifies the index of an entry in the DNP routing table. m axPrimaryDialStringLength

specifies the maximum length of primaryDialString excluding the null-terminator character. The function uses this to limit the size of the returned string to prevent overflowing the storage passed to the function. primaryDialString

returns the primary dial string of the target station. It must point to an array of size maxPrimaryDialStringLength. maxSecondaryDialStringLength

specifies the maximum length of secondaryDialString

excluding the null-terminator character. The function uses this to limit the size of the returned string to prevent overflowing the storage passed to the function. secondaryDialString

returns the secondary dial string of the target station. It must point to an array of size maxSecondaryDialStringLength.

Notes

This function must be used in conjunction with the dnpReadRoutingTableEntry function to read a complete entry in the DNP routing table.

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dnpReadRoutingTableEntry

Read Routing Table entry

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpReadRoutingTableE ntry (

); routingTable *pRoute

Description

This function reads an entry from the routing table.

pRoute is a pointer to a table entry; it is written by this function.

The return value is TRUE if pRoute was successfully written or FALSE otherwise.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

The func tion returns the total number of entries in the DNP routing table.

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dnpReadRoutingTableSize

Read Routing Table size

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

UINT16 dnpReadRoutingTableSi ze (void);

Description

This function reads the total number of entries in the routing table.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

The function returns the total number of entries in the routing table.

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dnpSaveAI16Config

Save DNP 16-Bit Analog Input Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpSaveAI16Config(

UINT16 point, dnpAnalogInput * pAnalogInput

);

Description

This function sets the configuration of a DNP 16-bit analog input point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to an analog input point configuratio n structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was written. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the configuration is not valid, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

See Also

dnpGetAI16Config

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function section.

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dnpSaveAI32Config

Save DNP 32-Bit Analog Input Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpSaveAI32Config(

UINT32 point, dnpAnalogInput * pAnalogInput

);

Description

This function sets the configuration of a DNP 32-bit analog input point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to an analog input point configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was written. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the configuration is not valid, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

See Also

dnpGetAI32Config

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function section.

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dnpSaveAISFConfig

Save Short Floating Point Analog Input Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpSaveAISFConfig (

);

Description

This function sets the configuration of a DNP short floating point analog in put point.

The function has two parameters: the point number, and a pointer to a configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was successfully written, or FALSE otherw ise

(if the point number is not valid, or the configuration is not valid, or if the DNP configuratio n has not b een created).

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

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dnpSaveAO16Config

Save DNP 16-Bit Analog Output Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpSaveAO16Config(

UINT16 point, dnpAnalogOutput * pAnalogOutput

);

Description

This function sets the configuration of a DNP 16-bit analog output point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to an analog outpu t point configuratio n structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was written. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the configuration is not valid, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP c onfiguration.

See Also

dnpGetAO16Config

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function section.

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dnpSaveAO32Config

Save DNP 32-Bit Analog Output Config uration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpSaveAO32Config(

UINT32 point, dnpAnalogOutput * pAnalogOutput

);

Description

This function sets the configuration of a DNP 32-bit analog outpu t point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to an analog output poi nt configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was written. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the configuration is not valid, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

See Also

dnpGetAO32Conf ig

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function section.

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dnpSaveAOSFConfig

Save Short Floating Point Analog Outpu t Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BO OLEA N dnpSaveAOSFCon fig (

);

Description

This function sets the configuration of a DNP short floating point analog output point.

The function has two parameters: th e point number, and a pointer to a configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was successfully written, or FALSE otherwise

(if the point numbe r is not valid, or the configuration is not valid, or if the DNP configuration has not been created).

N otes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP

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dnpSaveBIConfig

Save DNP Binary Input Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpSaveBIConfig(

UINT16 point, dnpBinaryInput * pBinaryInput

);

Description

This function sets the configuration of a DNP binary input point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to a binary input point configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was written. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the configuration is not valid, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

See Also

dnpGetBIConfig

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function section.

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dnpSaveBIConfigEx

Write DNP Binary Input Extended Point

Syntax

BOOLEAN dnpSaveBIConfigEx(

UINT16 point,

);

Description

This function wri tes the configuration of an extended DNP Binary Input point.

The function has two parameters: the point number, and a pointer to an e xtended binary input point configuration structure.

The function returns TRU E if the configuration was successfully written. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the configuration is not valid, or if the DNP configuration h as not been created.

This func tion supersedes dnpSaveBIConfig.

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dnpSaveBOConfig

Save DNP Binary Output Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpSaveBOConfig(

UINT16 point, dnpBinaryOutput * pBinaryOutput

);

Description

This function sets the configuration of a DNP binary output point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to a binary output point configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was written. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the configuration is not valid, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

See Also

dnpGetBOConfig

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function section.

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dnpSaveCI16Config

Save DNP 16-Bit Counter Input Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpSaveCI16Config(

UINT16 point, dnpCounte rInput * pCounterInput

);

Description

This function sets the configuration of a DNP 16-bit counter input point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to a counter input point configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was written. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the configuration is not valid, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration .

See Also

dnpGetCI16Config

Example

See example in the dnpGe tConfiguration function section.

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Configuration

Syntax

ls.h>

BOOLEAN dnpSaveCI32Config(

UINT 32 point, dnpCounterIn put * pCounterInput

);

Descriptio n

This function sets the configuration of a DNP 32-bit counter in put point.

The function has two parameters: the point number; and a pointer to a counter input point configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was written. It returns FALSE if the point number is not valid, if the configuration is not valid, or if DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

See Also

dnpGetCI32Config

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function section.

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dnpSaveConfiguration

Save DNP Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpSaveConfiguration( dnpConfiguration * pConfiguration

);

Description

This function sets the DNP configuration.

The function has one parameter: a pointer to a DNP configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was updated and FALSE if an error occurred.

No changes are made to any parameters if an error occurs.

Notes

This function must be called before enabling DNP.

The following parameters cannot be changed if DNP is enabled. Th e function will not make a ny changes and will return F ALSE if this is attempted. The protocol must be disabled in o rder to make a change involving these parameters.

• BI_number

• BI_cosBufferSize

• BI_soeBufferSize

• BO_number

• CI16_number

• CI16_bufferSize

• CI32_number

• CI32_bufferSize

• AI16_number

• AI16_reportingMethod

• AI16_bufferSize

• AI32_number

• AI32_reportingMethod

• AI32_bufferSize

• AO16_number

• AO32_number

The following parameters can be changed when DNP is enabled.

• masterAddress;

• rtuAddress;

• datalinkConfirm;

• datalinkRetries;

• datalinkTimeout;

• operateTimeout

• applicationConfirm

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• maximumResponse

• applicationRetries

• applicationTimeout

• timeSynchronization

• unsolicited

• holdT ime

• hol dCount

See A lso

dnpGetConfiguration

Example

See example in the dnpGetConfiguration function se

ction.

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dnpSaveConfigurationEx

Write DNP Extended Configuration

Synta x

BOOLEA x

*pDn Conf igurationEx

);

Descr iption

This fun ction writes the extended DNP configura tion parameters.

The fun ction has one parameter: a pointer to the DNP extended configuration structure.

The function returns TRUE if the configuration was successfully written, or FALSE otherwise

(if the p ointer is NULL, or if the DNP configuration has not been created).

Notes

DNP mu st be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

This function supersedes the dnpSaveConfiguration

function.

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Send DNP U o

Synta x

#include <ctools.h>

UINT16 dnpSendUnsolicitedResponse(

); ponse’ message in

DNP pr c

clas sp ecifies the class(es) of event data to include in the me ssage.

• Allo d

#define CLASS0_FLAG 0x01 /* flag for enabling Class 0 Unso licited Responses

*/

#define CLASS1_FLAG 0x02 /* flag for enabling Class 1 Unsolicited Responses

*/

#define CLASS2_FLAG 0x04 /* flag for enabling Class 2 Unsolicited Responses

*/

#define CLASS3_FLAG 0x08 /* flag for enabling Class 3 Unsolicited Responses

*/

DNP mu st be enabled before calling this function in order to cr eate the DNP configuration.

Examp le

/* ----------------------------------------------------------------

SCADAPack 32 C++ Application Main Program

Copyright 2001 - 2002, Control Microsystems Inc.

Test application for new DNP API Functions.

writt en by James Wiles May 2003

Th is app was written for a ScadaPack 32P, runni ng DNP on comm port

4.

------------------------------------------------------------- */

#i nclude <ctools.h>

#include <string.h>

/ * - --------------------------------------------------------------

Constants

----------------------------------------------------------- */

/*

* Event Trigger s :

* This application detects when these registers have been set,

* then p erforms the specified action and clears the register.

*/

00 r all DNP Event Log Buffers */

#define GENERATE_BI_EVENT 10 channel 0 */

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#define GENERATE_AI16_EVENT 102 bit AI channel 0 */

#define CLASS0_REPORT 103

0 data */

/*

* Status Flags

*/

#define EVENTS_CL ASS1 110 e ASS2 111

#define EVENTS_CLAS S3 112

/*

* Status Registers

*/

#d ef ne EVENT_COUNT_AI16 40102

#define EVENT_COUNT_BI 40104

#define EVENT_COUNT_CLASS1 40106

#define EVENT_COUNT_CLASS2 40108

#define EVENT_COUNT_CLASS3 40110

/* ------------------------------------------------------------------

main

This routine is the main application loop.

-------------------------------------------------------------- */ void main(void)

{ struct prot_settings protocolSettings; /* protocol settings */

i class0_report_flag;

/* Set DNP Configuration */ configuration.masterAddress = 100; configuration.rtuAddress = 1; configur ation.datalinkConfirm = FALSE; configuration.datalinkRetries = DEFAULT_DLINK_RETRIES; configuration.datalinkTimeout = DEFAUL T_DLINK_TIMEOUT; configuration.operateTimeout = DEFAULT_OPER ATE_TIMEOUT; configuration.applicationConfirm = FALSE; configur ation.maximumResponse = DEFAULT_MAX_RESP_LENGTH; configuration.applicationRetries = DEFAULT_APPL_RETRIES; configuration.applicationTimeout = DEFAULT_A PPL_TIMEOUT; configuration.timeSynchronization = NO_TIME_SYNC; configuration.BI_number = 2; configur ation.BI_startAddress = 0; configuration.BI_reportingMethod = REPORT_ALL_EVENTS; configuration.BI_soeBufferSize = 10 00; configuration.BO_number = 0; configuration.BO_startAddress = 0; configuration.CI16_number = 0; configur ation.CI16_startAddress = 0; configuration.CI16_reportingMethod = REPORT_ALL_EVENTS; co figuration.CI16_bufferSize = 0; configuration.CI32_number = 0; configuration.CI32_startAddress = 100;

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configuration.CI32_reportingMethod = REPORT_ALL_EVENTS; configuration.CI32_bufferSize = 0; configuration.CI32_wordOrder = MSW_FIRST; configuration.AI16_number = 2; configuration.AI16_startAddress

= 0; configur ation.AI16_reportingMe

thod = REPORT_ALL_EVENTS; configuration.AI16_bufferSize = 1000; configuration.AI32_number = 0; configuration.AI32_startA

ddress = 100; configuration.AI32_reportingMethod = REPOR T_ALL_EVENTS; configuration.AI32_bufferSize = 0; configur ation.AI32_wordOrder = MSW_F IRST; configuration.AISF_number = 0; configuration.AISF_startAddress = 200; configurat ion.AISF_reportin

gMethod = REPORT_CHANGE_EVENTS; configuration.AISF_bufferSi

ze = 0; configuration.AISF_wordOrder = MSW_FIR ST; configuration.AO16_number = 0; configur ation.AO16_startAddress = 0; configuration.AO32_number = 0; configuration.AO32_startAddress = 100; configuration.AO32_wordOrder = MSW_FIRST; configuration.AOSF_number = 0; configuration.AOSF_startAddress = 200; configur ation.AOSF_wordOrder = MSW_FIRST; co figuration.autoUnsolicitedClass1 = TRUE; configuration.holdTimeClass

1 = 10; confi guration.holdCountClas

s1 = 3; configuration.autoUnsolicitedClass2 = TRUE; configuration.holdTimeClass2 = 10; configuration.holdCountClass2 = 3; configuration.autoUnsolicitedClass3 = TRUE; configuration.holdTimeClass3 = 10; configuration.holdCountClass3 = 3;

dnpSaveConfiguration(&configuration);

/* Start DNP protocol on com port 4 */ protocolSettings.type = DNP;

/* Configure Binary Input Points */ for (index = 0;index < configuration.BI_number; index++)

{ binaryInput.modbusAddress = 10001 + index; binaryInput.eventClass = CLASS_1;

dnpSaveBIConfig(configuration.BI_startAddress index,

&binaryInput);

}

/* Configure 16 Bit Analog Input Points */ for (index = 0; index < configuration.AI16_number; index++)

{ analogInput.modbusAddress = 40002 + index * 2; analogInput.eventClass = CLASS_2; analogInput.deadband = 1;

dnpSaveAI16Config(configuration.AI16_startAddress index,

&analogInput);

}

/*

* Configure DNP Routing Table :

* station 100 via com4

* station 101 via com4

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*/

dnpCreateRoutingTable(2); dnpWriteRoutingTableEntry(0, 100, CIF_Com4, DEFAULT_DLINK_RETRIES,

DEFAULT_DLINK_TIMEOUT); dnpWriteRoutingTabl eEntry(1, 101, CIF_Com4, DEFAULT_DLINK_RETRIES,

DEFAULT_DLINK_TIMEOUT);

/*

* main loop

*/

{

/* request IO resource */ request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* read DNP status */

dnpGetRuntimeStatus(&dnpS tatus); setdbase(MODBUS, EVENTS_CLASS1, dnpStatus.eventCountClass1 ? 1

: 0); setdbase(MODBUS, EVENTS_CLASS2, dnpStatus.eventCountClass2 ? 1

: 0); s etdbas e(MODBUS, EVENTS_CLASS3, dnpStatus .eventCountClass3 ? 1

: 0);

EVENT_COUNT_AI16, tus.eventCountAI16);

EVENT_COUNT_BI, s.eventCountBI); dnpStatus.eventCountClass1); dnpStatus.eventCountClass2); dnpStatus.eventCountClass3);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

clear_events_flag FALSE;

bi_event_flag

ai16_event_flag

class0_report_flag FALSE;

/* Read Event Triggers */

{

clear_events_flag TRUE;

}

{

bi_event_flag FALSE;

}

{

ai16_event_flag FALSE;

}

{

class0_report_flag FALSE;

}

/* release IO resource */

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

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/* Clear DNP Event Lo g buffer if requested */

if )

{

dnpCl earEventLogs();

}

/* Generate a DNP Change Event for BI Point 0 if requested */

if nt_flag)

{

dnpGenerateEventLog(BI_P

}

/* Generate a DNP Cha nge Event for 16-bit AI Point 0 if requested */

{

}

/* Send DNP Class 0 Unsolicited Report if requested */

{

dnpSendUnsolicitedResponse(CLASS0_FLAG);

}

/* release processor to other tasks */

release_processor();

}

}

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dnpSendUnsolicitedResponse

Send DNP Unsolicited Response

Syntax

BOOLEAN dnpSendUnsolicitedResponse(

);

Description

The dnpSendUnsolicitedResponse

function se nds an Unsolicited Response message in DN P, with data from the specified classes. class

specifies the class or classes of event data to include in the message. It can contain any combination of the following values; if multiple values are used they should be ORed together:

CLASS 0_FLAG

CLASS1_FLAG enables Class 0 Unsolicited Responses enables Class 1 Unsolicited Responses

CLASS2_FLAG

CLASS3_FLAG enables Class 2 Unsolicited Responses enables Class 3 Unsolicited Responses

The function returns TRUE if the D NP unsolicited response message was successfully triggered. It returns FALSE if an unsolicited message of the same class is already pending, or if the DNP configuration has not been created.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

If no eve nts are pending an empty unsolicited message will be sent.

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dnpWriteRoutingTableEntry

Write Routing Table Entry

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dnpWriteRoutingTab leEntry (

UINT16 dnpAddress,

);

Description

This function writes an entry in the DNP routing table.

Notes

DNP must be enabled be fore calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

T he function returns TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise.

E xample

See the example in the section

Error! Reference source not found..

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dnpWriteRoutingTableDialStrings

Write DNP Routing Table Entry Dial Strings

Syntax

BOOLEAN dnpWriteRoutingTableDi alStrings(

UINT16 index,

UINT16 primaryDialStringLength,

* primaryDialString,

UINT16 secondaryDialStringLength,

);

Descriptio n

This function writes a prima ry and secondary dial string into an entry in the DNP routing table. index

specifies the index of an entry in the DNP routing table. primaryDialStringLength specifies the length of primaryDialString excluding the null-terminator character. primaryDialString

specifies the dial string used when dialing the target station. This string is used on the first attempt. secondaryDialStringLength

specifies the length of secondaryDialString excluding the null-terminator character. secondaryDialString

specifies the dial string to be used when dialing the target station.

It is used for the next attempt if the first attempt fails.

Notes

This function must be used in conjunction with the dnpWriteRoutingTableEntry function to write a complete entry in the DNP routing table.

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end_application

Terminates all Application Tasks

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void end_application(void);

Description

The end_application function terminates all APPLICATION type tasks created with the

create_task function. Stac k space and resources used by the tasks are freed.

Notes

This function is used normally by communication protocols to stop an executing applicatio n program , prior to loading a new program into memory.

See Als o

create_task, end_task

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end_task

Terminate a Task

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void end_task(unsigned task_ID);

D ip

Th e end_task function terminates the task specified by task_ID. Stack space and resources used by the task are freed. The end_task function terminat es both APPLICATION and

SYSTEM t ype ta sks.

See Also

create_task, ge tTaskInfo

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endTimedEvent

Termin la

Syntax

# include <ctools.h> u nsigned endTimedEvent( unsi gned event);

Description

This endTimedEvent function cancels signaling of a timed event, initialized by the startTimedEvent function.

The function returns TRUE if the event signaling was canceled.

The functio n returns FALSE if the event number is not valid, or if the event was not previously initiated with the startTimedEvent function. The function has no effect in these cases.

Notes

Va lid events are numbered 0 to RTOS_EVENTS - 1. Any events defined in ctools.h are not valid events for use in an application program.

Example

See the examples for startTimedE vent.

See Also

startTimedEvent

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enronInstallCommandHandler

Install s le E nron M odb us commands.

Syntax

# include <ctools.h> void enronInstallCommandHandler(

UINT16 (* fu nction)(

UINT16 length ,

UCHAR * pCommand,

UINT16 responseSize,

U CHAR *

)

);

pResponse

Description

This function installs a handler funct ion for Enron Modbus commands. The protocol driver cal ls this handler function each time a command is received for the Enron Modbus station. function

is a pointer to the handler function. If function is NULL the handler is disabled.

The function has no return value.

Notes

The app lication must disable the handler when the application ends. This prevents the protocol driver from calling the handler while the application is stopped. Call the en ronInstallCommmandHandler

with a NULL pointer. The usual method is to create a ta sk exit handler function to do this. See the example below for details.

The handler function h as five parameters.

• length is the number of characters i n the command message.

• pCo mmand

is a pointer to the command message. The first byte in the messa func tion code, followed by the Enron Mod bus message. See the Enron Modb us protocol specification for details on the message formats. ge is the

• res ponseSize

is the size of the response buffer in chara cters.

• pResponseLength is a pointer to a variable that will hold the number o f characters in the response. If the handler returns TRUE, it must set this variable.

• pResponse is a pointer to a buffer that will hold t he response message. The buffer size is re ponse

Size

characters. The handler must not write beyond the end of the buffer.

If th e h andle r returns TRUE, it must set this variable. The data must start with the function code and end with the last data byte. The protocol driver will add the station address, checksum, and message framing to the response.

The handler function returns the following values.

Value

NORMAL

ILLEGAL_FUNCTION

Description

Indicates protocol handler should send a normal response message. Data are returned using pResponse

and pResponseLength.

Indicates protocol handler should send an Illegal

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Function exception response message. This response should be used when the function code in the command is not recognized.

ILLEGAL_DATA_ADDRESS Indicates protocol handler should send an Illegal

Data Address exception response message. This response should be used when the data address in the command is not recognized.

ILLEGAL_DATA_VALUE

Indicates protocol handler should send an Illegal

Data Value exception response message. This response should be used when invalid data is found in the command.

If the function returns NORMAL then the protocol driver sends the response message in the buffer pointe d to by pResponse. If the function returns an exception response protocol driver returns the exception response to the caller. The buffer pointed to by pResponse is not used .

Example

This program installs a simple handler function.

#include < ctools.h>

/ * -----------------------------------------------------

This function processes Enron Modbus commands.

----------------------------------------------------- */

UINT16 commandHandler(

UINT16 length,

UCHAR * pCommand,

UINT16 responseSize,

UINT16 * pResponseLength,

UCHAR * pResponse

)

{

/* if a command byte was received */ if (length >= 1)

{

/* get the command byte */

{

/* read unit status command */

/* if the response buffer is large enough */

{

/* build the response header */

/* set the unit status */

/* indicate the command worked */

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}

els e

{

/ * buffer is to small to respond */

}

b reak;

/* add cases for other commands here */ default:

/* command is invalid */

}

}

else

{

/* command is too short so return error */

}

retu

}

/* -----------------------------------------------------

This fu nction unhooks the protocol handler when the

main task ends.

---------------------------------------------------- */ void mainExitHandler(void)

{

/* unhook the handler function */

enronInstallCommandHandler(NULL);

} void m ain(void)

{ thisTask;

/* install handler to execute when this tas k ends */ thi sTask = getTaskInfo(0);

/* install handler for Enron Modbus */

enronInstallCommandHandler(commandHandler);

/* infinite loop of main task */

{

/* add application code here */

}

}

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forceLed

Set State of Force LED

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void forceLed(unsigned state);

Description

The forceLed function sets the state of the FORCE LED. state may be either LED_ON or

LED_OFF.

The FORCE LED is used to indicate forced I/O. Use this function with caution in application programs.

See Also

set Statu s

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getABConfiguration

Get DF1 Protocol Configur ation

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> struct ABConfiguration *getABC onfiguration(FILE *stream, struct

ABConfiguration *ABConfig);

Description

The getABConfiguration function gets the DF1 protocol configuration parameters for the

stream. If stream does not point to a valid serial port the function has no effect. ABConfig must point to an AB protocol configuration structure.

The getA BConfiguration function copies the AB configuration parameters into the

ABConfig structure and returns a pointer to it.

See Also

setABConfiguration

Example

This program displays the DF1 configuration parameters for com1.

#inc lude <ctools.h> void main(void )

{ st ruct ABConfiguration ABConfig;

getABConfigurat printf("Min protected address: %u\r\n",

ABConfig.min_protected_address); printf("Max protected address: %u\r\n",

ABConfig.max_protected_add

res s);

}

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getBootType

Get Controller Boot Up State

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned getBootType(void);

Description

The getBootType function returns the boot up state of the controller. The possible return values are:

SERVICE

RUN controller started in SERVICE mode controller started in RUN mode

Example

#include <c tools.h> void main(void)

{ struct prot_settings settings;

/* Disable the protocol on serial port 1 */ settings.type = NO_PROTOCOL; settings.station = 1; settings.priority = 3; settings.SFMessaging = FALSE;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

/* Display the boot status information */ printf("Boot type: %d\r\n", getBootType());

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getclock

Read the Real Time Clock

Syntax

#include <rtc.h> struct clock getclock(void);

Description

The getclock function reads the time and date from the real time clock hardware.

The getclock function returns a struct clock containing the time and date information.

Notes

The time format returned by the ge tclock function is not compatible with the standard UNIX style functions supplied by Microte c.

The IO_S YSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

setclock, ge tClockTime

Example

This program displays the current date and time.

#include <ctools.h> main(void)

{ struct clock now;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); now = getclock(); /* read the clock */

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM); printf("%2d/%2d/%2d", now.day,

} printf("%2d:%2d\r\n",now.hour, now.minute);

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getClockAlarm

Read the Real Time Clock Alarm Settings

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

ALARM_SETTING getClockAlarm(void);

Description

The getClockAlarm function returns the alarm setting in the real time clock. The alarm is used to wake the controller from sleep mode.

Notes

The IO_SYS TEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See A lso

alarmIn

, setClockAlarm

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getClockTime

Read the Real Time Clock

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void getClockTime(long * pDays, long * pHundredths);

Description

The getClockTime function reads the read time clock and returns the value as the numb er of whole days since 01/01/97 and the number of hundredths of a second since the start of the current day. The function works for 100 years from 01/01/97 to 12/31/96 then ro lls over.

The function has two parameters: a po inter to the variable to hold the days; and a pointer to a variable to hold the hundredths of a second.

The func tion has no return value.

Notes

The IO_SYS TEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

s

etclock, getclock

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getControllerID

Get Controller ID

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void getControllerID(char * pID)

Description

This function writes the Controller ID to the string pointed to by pID. The Controller ID is a unique ID for the controller set at the factory. The pointer pID must point to a character s tring of length CONTROLLER_ID_LEN.

Example

This program displays the Controller ID.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ char ctlrID[CONTROLLER_ID_LEN];

getControllerID(ctlrID); fprintf(com1, "\r\nController ID : "); for (index=0; index<CONTROLLER_ID_LEN; index++)

{

}

}

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getIOErrorIndication

Get I/O Module Error Indic ation

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned getIOErrorIndication(void);

Description

The getIOErrorIndication function returns the state of the I/O module error indication.

TRUE is returned if the I/O module communication status is currently reported in the controller status register and Status LED. FALSE is returned if the I/O module communication status is no t reported.

N otes

R efer to the 5203/4 System Manual or the SCADAPack System Manual for fur ther in formation on th e Status LED and S tatus Output.

S ee Also

s etIOErrorIndication

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getPortCharacteristics

Get Serial Port Characteristics

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned getPortCharacteristics(FILE *stream, PORT_CHARACTERISTICS

*pCharacteristics);

Description

The getPortCharacteristics function gets informatio n about features supported by the serial port pointed to by stream. If stream does not point to a valid serial port the function has no effect and FALSE is returned; otherwise TRUE is returned.

The getPortCharacteristics function copies the serial port characteristics into the structure pointed to by pCharacteristics.

Notes

Refer to the Overview of Functions section for detailed information on serial ports.

Refer to the Structures and Types section for a description of the fields in the

PORT_CHARACTERISTICS structure.

See Also

get_port

Example

#include <ctools.

h> void main(void)

{ options.dataflow); fprintf(com1, "Protocol options: %d\r\n", options.protocol);

} fprintf(com1, "Dataflow options: %d\r\n",

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getPowerMode

Get Current Power Mode

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN getPowerMode(UCHAR* cpuPower , UCHAR* lan, UCHAR* usbPeripheral,

UCHAR* usbHost);

Description

The getPowerMode function places the current state of the CPU, LAN, USB peripheral po rt, and USB host port in the p assed parameters. The following table lists the possible return values and their meaning.

Macro Meaning

PM_CPU_FULL

The CPU is set to run at full speed

PM_CPU_REDUCED The CPU is set to run at a reduced speed

PM_CPU_SLEEP

PM_LAN_ENABLED

The CPU is set to sleep mode

The LAN is enabled

PM_LAN_DISABLED

PM_USB_PERIPHERAL_ENABLED

The LAN is disabled

The USB peripheral port is enabled

PM_USB_PERIPHERAL_DISABLED

PM_USB_HOST_ENABLED

The USB peripheral port is disabled

The USB host port is enabled

PM_USB_HOST_DISABLED

PM_UNAVAILABLE

The USB host port is disabled

The status of the device could not be read.

TRUE is returned if the va es plac ed in the passed parameters are valid, otherwise FALSE is returned.

The application program may set th e current power mode with the setPowerMode function.

See Also

setPowerMode, setWakeSource, getWakeSource

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get_port

Get Serial Port Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> struct pconfig *get_port(FILE *stream, struct pconfig *settings);

Description

The get_port fu nction gets the serial port configuration for the stream. If stream does not point to a valid serial port the function has no effect.

The get_port function copies the serial port settings into the structure pointed to by settings and returns a pointer to the structure.

Notes

Refer to the

Overview of Functions

section for detailed information on serial ports.

Refer to the Structure and Types section for a description of the fields in the pconfig structure.

See Also

set_port

Example

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ struct pconfig settings;

} printf("Baud rate: %d\r\n", settings.baud); printf("Duplex: %d\r\n", settings.duplex);

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getProgramStatus

Get Program Status Flag

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned getProgramStatus( void );

Descr iption

The getProgramStatus function returns the application program status flag. The status flag is set to NEW_P ROGRAM when the C program is erased or downloaded to the controller from the program loader.

The application program may modify the status flag with the setProgramStatus functi on.

See Also

setProgramStatus

Example

This program stores a default alarm limit into the I/O database the first time it is run. On subseque nt executions, it uses the limit in the database. The limit in the database can be modified by a communication protocol during execution.

#include <ctools.h>

#define HI_ALARM 41000

#define ALARM_OUTPUT 1026 void main( void )

{ if (getProgramStatus() == NEW_PROGRAM)

{

/* Set default alarm limit */ request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); setdbase(MODBUS, HI_ALARM, 4000); release_res ource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Us e values in database from now on */ setPr ogramStatus(PROGRAM_EXECUTED);

} while

{ request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Test input against alarm limits */ if (ain(INPUT) > dbase(MODBUS, HI_ALARM)) else

setd release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Allow other tasks to execute */ release_processor();

}

}

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get_protocol

Get Protocol Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> struct prot_settings *get_protocol( FILE *stream, struct prot_settings

*set tings);

Description

The get_protoc ol function gets the communication protocol configuration for the stream. If

stream does not point to a valid serial port the function has no effect. settings must point to a protocol configuration structure, prot_settings.

The get_protocol function copies the protocol settings into the structure pointed to by

settings and returns a pointer to tha t structure.

Refer to the ctools.h file for a description of the fields in the prot_settings struc ture.

Refer to the Overview of Functions section for detailed information on communica tion

See A lso

set_protocol

Example

This program displays the protocol configuration for com1.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ struct prot_settings settings;

get_ printf("Type: %d\r\n", settings.type); printf("Station: %d\r\n", settings.statio

n); printf("Priority : %d\r\n", settings.priority);

}

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getProtocolSettings

Get Protocol Extended Addressing Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN getProtocolSettings(

FILE * stream,

PROTOCOL_SETTINGS * settings

);

Description

The getProtocolSettings function reads the protocol parameters for a serial port. This function supports extended addressing.

The function has two parameters: stream is one of com1, com2, com3 or com4; and

settings, a pointer to a PROTOCOL_SETTINGS structure. Refer to the description of the structure for an explanation of the parameters.

The function returns TRUE if the structure was changed. It returns FALSE if the stream is not valid.

Notes

Extended addressing is available on the Modbus RTU and Modbus ASCII protocols only.

See the TeleBUS Protocols User Manual for details.

Refer to the TeleBUS Protocols User Manual section for detailed information on communication protocols.

See Also

setProtocolSettings, get_protocol

Example

This program displays the protocol configuration for com1.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ if (getProtocolSettings(com1, &settings)

{ printf("Type: %d\r\n", settings.type); printf("Station: %d\r\n", settings.station); printf("Address Mode: %d\r\n", settings.mode); printf("SF Messaging: %d\r\n", settings.SFMessaging); printf("Priority: %d\r\n", settings.priority);

}

else

{ printf(“Serial port is not valid\r\n”);

}

}

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getProtocolSettingsEx

Reads extended protocol settings for a serial port.

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN getProtocolSettingsEx(

FILE * stream,

PROTOC OL_SETTINGS_EX * pSettings

);

Description

The setProtocolSettingsEx function sets protocol parameters for a serial port. This function su pports extended addressing and Enron Modbus parameters.

The function has two arguments:

• stream specifies the

serial port. It is one of com1, com2, com3 or com4.

• pSettings is a pointer to a PROTOCOL_SETTINGS_EX structure. Refer to the descripti on of the structure for an explanation of the parameters.

The function returns TRUE if the settings were retrieved. It retu rns FALSE if the stream is not valid.

No tes

E x tende d addressing and the Enron Modb us station are available on the Modbus RTU and

M odbus ASCII protocols only. See the TeleBUS Protocols User Manual for details.

Se e Also

setProtocolSettingsEx

Example

This program displays the protocol configuration for com1.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ if (getProtocolSettingsEx(com1, &settings)

{ printf("Address Mode: %d\r\n", settings.mode);

settings.enronStation);

}

else

{ printf(“Serial port is not valid\r\n”);

}

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}

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get_protocol_status

Get Protocol Informatio n

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> struct prot_status get_protocol_status(FILE *stream);

Description

The get_protocol_status function returns the protocol error and message counters for

stream. If stream does not point to a valid serial port the function has no effect.

Refer to the Overview of Functions section for detailed information on co mmunication protocols.

See Also

clear_protocol_status

Example

This program displays the checksum error counter for com2.

#include <c tools.h> void main(void)

{ struct prot_status status; status = get_protocol_status(com2);

printf("Checksum: ", status.checksum_errors);

}

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getSFTranslation

Read Store and Forward Translation

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> struct SFTranslation getSFTranslation(unsi gned index);

Description

The getSFTranslation function returns the entry at index in the store and forward address translation tab le. If index is invalid, a disabled table entry is returned.

The function returns a SFTranslation structure. It is described in the Structures and Types section.

Notes

The TeleBUS Protocols User Manual describes store and forward messaging mode.

See Also

clearSFTranslationTable, checkSFTranslationTable

Example

See the example for the setSFTranslation function.

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get_status

Get Serial Port Status

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> struct pstatus *get_status(FILE *stream, struct pstatus *status);

Description

The get_status function returns serial port error counters, I/O lines status and I/O driver buffer information for stream. If stream does not point to a valid serial port the function has no effect. status must point to a valid serial port status structure, pstatus.

The get_ status function copies the serial port status into the structure pointed to by status and returns a pointer to that structure settings.

Refer to the Overview of Functions section for detailed information on serial ports.

See Also

clear_erro rs

Example

This program displays the framing and parity errors for com1.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ struct pstatus status;

get_status(com1, s); printf("Framing: %d\r\ n ", status.framing);

} printf( "Parity: %d\r\n ", status.parity);

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getStatusBit

Read in

S yn ta x

#include <ctools.h> unsi gne d getStatus Bit(unsigned bitMask);

Description

T he getStatusBit function returns the values of the bits indicated by bitMask in the controller status code.

See Also

set

StatusBit, set

Status, clearStatusBit

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getTaskInfo

Get Information on a Task

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

TASKINFO getTaskInfo(unsign ed taskID);

Description

The getTaskInfo function returns information about the task specified by taskID. If tas kID is

0 the function returns information about the current task.

Notes

If the spe cified task ID does not identify a valid task, all fields in the return data are set to zero. The calling function should check the taskID field in the TASKINFO structure: if it is zero the remaining information is not valid.

Refer to the Structure s and Types section for a description of the fields in the TASKINFO structure.

Example

The following program di splays information about all valid tasks.

#include <string.h>

#include <ctools.h> vo id main(void)

{ struct prot_settings settings;

/* Set up state strings */ strcpy(state[TS_EXECUTING], ; strcpy(state[TS_WAIT_ENVELOPE], "Waiting for Envel ope"); strcpy(state[TS_WAIT_EVENT], "Wa iting for Event"); strcpy(state[TS_WAIT_MESSAGE], "Waiting for Message"); strcpy(state[TS_WAIT_RESOURCE], "Waiting for Resource"

/* Set up type strings */

strcpy(type[APPLICATION], );

);

/* Disable the protocol on serial port 1 */ settings.type = NO_PROTOCOL; settings.station = 1; settings.priority = 3; settings.SFMessaging = FALSE; request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* display information about all tasks */ for (task = 0; task <= RTOS_TASKS; task++)

{ taskStatus = getTaskInfo(task); if (taskStatus.taskID != 0)

{

/* show information for valid task */

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fprintf(com1, "\r\n\r\nInformation about task %d:\r\n", task); fpri ntf(com1, " Task ID: %d\r\n", taskStatus.taskID); fpri ntf(com1, " Priority: %d\r\n", taskStatus.priority); fprintf(com1, " Status: %s\ r\n", state[taskStatus.status]); if (taskStatus.status == TS_WAIT_ EVENT)

{ fprintf(com1, " Event: %d\r\n", taskStatus.requirement);

} if (taskStatus.status == TS_WAIT_RESOURCE)

{

} fprintf(com1, " Resource: %d\r\n", taskStatus.requirement);

}

} fprintf(com1, " Error: %d\r\n", taskStatus.error); fprintf(com1, " Type: %s\r\n", type[taskStatus.type]);

{

/* Allow other tasks t o execute */ release_processor();

}

}

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getVersion

Get Firmware Version Information

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

VERSION getVersion(void);

Description

The getVersion function obtains firmware version information. It returns a VERSION structure. Refer to the Structures and Types section for a description of the fields in the

VERSION structure.

Notes

The version information can be used to adapt a program to a specific type of controller or version of firmware. For example, a bug work-around could be executed only if older firmware is detected.

Examp le

This program displays the version information.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ stru ct prot_settings settings;

/* Disable the protocol on serial port 1 */ settings.type = NO_PROTOCOL; settings.station = 1; settings.priority = 3; settings.SFMessaging = FALSE;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Display the ROM version information */ versionInfo = getVersion(); fprintf(com1, "\r\nFirmware Information\r\n"); fprintf(com1, " Controller type: %d\r\n", versionInfo.controller); fprintf(com1, " Firmware version: %d\r\n", versionInfo.version); fprintf(com1, " Creation date: %s\r\n", versionInfo.date); fprintf(com1, " Copyright: %s\r\n", versionInfo.copyright);

}

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getWakeSource

Gets C onditions for Waking from Sleep Mode

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned getWakeSource(vo id);

Description

Th e getWakeSource function returns a bit mask of t he active wake up sources. Valid wake up sources are liste d below.

• WS_REAL_TIME_CLOCK

• WS_INTERRUPT_INPUT

• WS_LED_POWER_SWITCH

• WS

_COUNTER_0_OVERFLOW

• WS_COUNTER_1_OVERFLOW

• WS_COUNTER_2_OVERFLOW

See Also

setWakeSource, sleep

Example

urces. unsigned enabled; enabled = getWakeSource(); fputs("Enabled wake up sources:\r\n", com1); if (enabled & WS_REAL_TIME_CLOCK) fputs(" Real Time Clock\r\n", com1); if (enabled & WS_INTERRUPT_INPUT) fputs(" Interrupt Input\r\n", com1); if (enabled & WS_LED_POWER_SWITCH) fputs(" LED Power Switch\r\n", com1); if (enabled & WS_COUNTER_0_OVERFLOW) fpu ts(" Counter 0 Overflow\r\n", com1); if (enabled & WS_COUNTER_1_OVERFLOW) fputs(" Counter 1 Overflow\r\n", com1); if (enabled & WS_COUNTER_2_ OVERFLOW) fputs(" Counter 2 Overflow\r\n", com1);

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hartIO

Read and Write 5904 HART Interface Module

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN hartIO(unsigned module);

Description

This function rea ds the specified 5904 HART Interface module. It checks if a response has been received and if a corresponding command has been sent. If so, the response to the command is processed.

This function writes the specified 5904 HART Interface module. It checks if there is a new command to send. If so, this command is written to the 5904 interface.

The function has one parameter: the module number of the 5904 HART Interface (0 to 3).

The function returns TRUE if the 5904 HART Interface responded and FALSE if it did not or if the module number is not valid.

Notes

This function is called automatically if the 5904 module is in the register assignment. Use this function to implement communication with the 5904 if register assignment is not used.

See Also

hartSetConfiguration, hartGetC

onfiguration, hartCommand

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hartCommand

Send Command using HART Interface Module

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN hartCommand( unsigned module,

HART_DEVICE * const device,

HART_CO MMAND * const command, void (* processResponse)( unsigned,

HART_RESPONSE)

);

Description

This function sends a command to a HART slave device using a HART interface module .

This func tion can be used to implement HART commands not provided by the Network

Layer API.

The function has four parameters. The first is the module number of the 5904 HART interface (0 to 3). The second is the device to which the command is to be sent.

The third parameter is a structure describing the command to send. This contains the command number, and the data field of the HART message. See the HART protocol documentation for your dev ice for details.

The fourt h parameter is a pointer to a function that will process the response. This function is called when a response to the command is received by the HART interface. The function is defined as follows:

function_name(HART_RESPONSE response)

The single p arameter is a structure containing the response code and the data field from the message.

The function returns TRUE if the 5904 HART Interface responded and FALSE if it did not or if the module number is not valid or there is an error in the command.

Notes

The function returns immediately after the command is sent. The calling program must wait for the response to be received. Use the hartStatus command to read the status of the command.

T he number of attempts and the number of preambles sent are set with the hartSetConfiguration command.

A program must initialize the link before executing any other commands.

The function determines if long or short addressing is to be used by the command number.

Long addressing is used for all commands except commands 0 and 11.

The functions hartCommand0, hartCommand1, etc. are used to send commands provided by the Network Layer.

See Also

hartStatus, hartSetConfiguration, hartCommand0, hartCommand1

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hartCommand0

Read Unique Identifier

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN hartCommand0(unsigned module, unsigned address, HART_DEVICE * const device);

Description

This function reads the unique identifier of a HART device using command 0 with a shortform address. This is a link initialization function.

The function has three parameters: the module-number of the 5904 module (0 to 3); the short-form address of the HART device (0 to 15); and a pointer to a HART_DEVICE structure. The information read by command 0 is written into the HART_DEVICE structure when the response is received by the 5904 HART interface module.

The function returns TRUE if the command was sent. The function returns FALSE if th e module number is invalid, or if the device address is invalid.

Notes

The function returns immediately after the command is sent. The calling program must w ait for the response to be rece ived. Use the hartStatus command to read the status of the command.

The num ber of attempts and the number of preambles sent are set with the hartSetConfiguration command.

A program must initialize the link before executing any other commands.

See Also

hartCommand11, hartStatus, hartSetConfiguration

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hartCommand1

Read Primary Variable

Syntax

#includ e <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN hartCommand1(unsigned module, HART_DEVICE * const device,

HART_VA RIABLE * primaryVariable);

Description

This function reads the primary variable of a HART device using command 1.

The function has thr ee parameters: the module-number of the 5904 module (0 to 3); the device to be read; and a pointer to the primary variable. The variable pointed to by primaryVariable is updated when the response is received by the 5904 HART inter face module.

The primaryVariable must be a static modular or global variable. A primaryVariable shou ld be declared for each HART I/O module in use. A local variable or dynamically allocated variable may not be used because a late command response received after the variable is freed will write data over the freed variable space.

The func tion returns TRUE if the command was sent. The function returns FALSE if the module number is invalid.

N otes

The HART_DEVICE structure must be initialized using hartCommand0 or hartCommand11.

The function returns immediately after the command is sent. The calling program must wait for the response to be received. Use the hartStatus command to read the status of the command.

The number of attempts an d the number of preambles sent are set with the hartSetConfiguration command.

The code field of the HART_VARIABLE structure not changed. Command 1 does not return a variable code.

See Also

hartComma

nd2, hartStatus, hartSetConfiguration

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hartCommand2

Read Primary Variable Current and Percent of Range

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN hartCommand2(unsigned module, HART_DEVICE * const device,

HART_VARIABLE * pvCurrent, HART_VARIABLE * pvPercent);

Description

This function reads the primary variable (PV), as current and percent of range, of a HART device using comman d 2.

The function has four parameters: the module-number of the 5904 module (0 to 3); the device to be read; a pointer to the PV current variable; and a pointer to the PV percent variable. The pvCurrent and pvPercent variables are updated when the response is received by the 5904 HART interface.

The pvCurrent and pvPercent variables must be static modular or global variables. A pvCurrent and pvPercent v ariable should be declared for each HART I/O module in use. A local variable or dynamically allocated variable may not be used because a late command response received after the variable is freed will write data over the freed variable space

The function returns TRUE if the command was sent. The function returns FALSE if the module number is invalid.

Notes

The HART_DEVICE structure mu st be initialized using hartCommand0 or hartCommand11.

The function returns immediately after the command is sent. The calling pr ogram must wait for the response to be received. Use the hartStatus command to read the status of the command.

The number of attempts and the number of preambles sent are set with the hartSetConfiguration command.

T he code field of both HART_VARIABLE structures is not changed. The response from the

HART device to command 2 does not include variable codes.

The units field of the pvCurrent variable is set to 39 (units = mA). The units field of the pvPercent variable is set to 57 (units = percent). The response from the HART device to command 2 does not include units.

See Also

hartCommand1, hartStatus, hartSetConfiguration

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hartCommand3

Read Primary Variable Current and Dynamic Variables

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN hartCommand3(unsigned module, HART_DEVICE * const device,

HART_VARIABLE * variables);

Description

This function reads dynamic variables and primary variable current from a HART device using command 3.

The function has three parameters: the module number of the 5904 module (0 to 3); the device to be read; and a pointer to an array of five HART_VARIABLE structures.

The variables array must be static modular or global variables. An array of variables should be declared for each HART I/O module in use. A local variable or dynamically allocated variable may not be used because a late command response received after the variable is freed will write data over the freed variable space.

The variables array is updated when the response is received by the 5904 interface as follows.

Variable Contains

variables[0] primary variable current variables[1] primary iable

T m odule number is invalid.

Notes

The HAR T_DEVICE structure must be initialized using hartCommand0 or hartCommand11.

The function returns immediately after the command is sent. The calling program must wait for the response to be received. Use the hartStatus command to read the status of the command.

The number of attempts and the number of preambles sent are set with the hartSetConfiguration command.

Not all devic es return primary, secondary, tertiary and fourth variables. If the device does not support a variable, zero is written into the value and units code for that variab le.

The code field of both HART_VAR IABLE structures is not changed. The response from the

HART device to command 3 does not include variable codes.

The units field of variable[0] is set to 39 (units = mA). The response from the HART device to command 3 d oes not include units.

S ee Also

hartCommand33, hartStatus, hartSetConfiguration

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hartCommand11

Read Unique Identifier Associated with Tag

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN hartCommand11(unsigned module, char * deviceTag, HART_DEVICE * device);

Description

This function reads the unique identifier of a HART device using command 11. This i s a link initialization function.

The function has three parameters: the module number of the 5904 module (0 to 3); a pointer to a null terminated string containing the tag o f the HART device; and a pointer to a

HART_DEVICE structure. The information read by command 11 is written into the

HART_DEVICE structure when the response is received by the 5904 interface.

T he function returns TRUE if the command was sent. The f un ction retu rns FALSE if the m odule number is invalid.

N otes

The function returns immediately after the co mmand is sent. The calling program must wait fo r the response to be receive d. Use the hartStatus comman d to read the status of the c ommand.

The number of attempts and the number of preambles sent a re set with the hartSetConfiguration command.

A program must initialize the link before executing a ny other commands .

See Also

hartCommand0, h artStatus, hartSetConfiguration

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hartCo mmand33

Read Transmitter Variables

Syntax

# incl ude <ct ools.h>

BOOLEAN hartCommand33(unsigned module, HART_DEVICE * const device, unsigned variableCode[4], HART_VARIABLE * variables);

De scription

This function reads selected variables from a HART device usin g command 33.

The function has four parameters: the module number of the 5904 module (0 to 3); the device to be read; an array of codes; and a pointer to an array of four HART_VARIABLE st ruc tures.

The variables array must be static modular or global variables. An array of variables should b e d eclared fo r each HART I/O module in use. A local varia ble or dynamically allocated variable may not be used because a late command response received after the variable is fr eed will write data over the freed variable space.

T he variableC ode array specifies which variables are to be read from the transmitter.

Consult the documentation for the transmitter for valid values.

The variables array is updated when the response is received by the 5904 interface as follows.

Variable Contains

variables[0] transmitter variable, code and units specified by variableCode[0] variables[1] transmitter variable, code and units specified by variableCode[1] variables[2] transmitter variable, code and units specified by variableCode[2] variables[3] transmitter variable, code and units specified by variableCode[3]

The function returns TRUE if the command was sent. The function returns FALSE if the module number is invalid.

Notes

The HART_DEVICE structure must be initialized using hartCommand0 or hartCommand11.

The pointer variables must point to an array with at least four elements.

The function returns immediately after the command is sent. The calling program must wait for the response to be received. Use the hartStatus command to read the status of the command.

The number of attempts and the number of preambles sent are set with the hartSetConfiguration command.

The function always requests four variables and expects four variables in the response.

See Also

hartCommand3, hartStatus, hartSetConfiguration

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hartStatus

Return Status of Last HART Command Sent

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN hartStatus(unsigned module, HART_RESULT * status, unsigned * code) ;

Description

This function returns the status of the last HART command sent by a 5904 module (0 to 3).

Use this function to determine if a response has been received to a command sent.

The function has three paramete rs: the module number of the 5904 module; a pointer to the status variable; and a pointer to the additional status code variable. The status and code variables are updated with the following information.

Result Status

HART inter face module is not commu nicating

Command ready to be sent HR_CommandPending

Command sent to device HR_CommandSent

Response received HR_Response

No valid response received after all attempts made

HR_NoResponse

code

not used current attempt number response code from HART device (see Notes)

0=no response from HART device.

Other = error response code from HART device (see

Notes)

HART interface module is not ready to transmit

The function returns TRUE if the status was read. The function returns FALSE if the module number is invalid.

Notes

The response code from the HART device contains communication error and status information. The information varies by device, but there are some common values.

• If bit 7 of the high byte is set, the high byte contains a communication error summary.

This field is bit-mapped. The table shows the meaning of each bit as defined by the

HART protocol specifications. Consult the documentation for the HART device for more information.

Bit

6

Description

vertical parity error

3

2 longitudinal parity error reserved – always 0

0 Undefined

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• If bit 7 of the high byte is cleared, the high byte contains a command response summary. The table show s common values. Other values may be defined for specific commands. Consult the d ocumentation for the HART device.

Code

32

64

Description

Busy – the device is performing a function that cannot be interrupted by this command

Command not Implemented – the command is not defined for this device.

• The low byte

contains the field device status. This field is bit-mapped. The table shows the meaning of each bit as defined by the HART protocol specifications. Consult the documentation for the HART device for more information.

Bit

7

Description

field device malfunction

4

3

2

1

0 more status available (use command 48 to read) primary variable analog output fixed primary variable analog output saturated non-primary variable out of limits primary variable out of limits

See Also

hartSetConfiguration

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hartGetConfiguration

Read HART Module Settings

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN hartGetConfiguration(unsigned module, HART_SETTINGS * settings);

Description

This function ret urns the configuration settings of a 5904 module.

The function has two parameters: the module number of the 5904 module (0 to 3); and a pointer to the settings structure.

The function returns TRUE if the settings were read. The function returns FALSE if the module number is invalid.

See Also

hartSetConf iguration

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hartSetConfiguration

Write HART Module Settings

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN hartSetConfiguration(unsigned module, HART_SETTINGS settings);

Description

This function wri tes configuration settings to a 5904 module.

The function has two parameters: the module number of the 5904 module (0 to 3); and a settings structure.

The function returns TRUE if the settings were written. The function returns FALSE if the module number or the settings are invalid.

Notes

The configur ation settings are stored in the EEPROM_RUN section of the EEPROM. The user-defined setti ngs are used when the controller is reset in the RUN mode. Default s ettings are used when the controller is reset in the SERVICE or COLD BOOT modes.

If a CNFG 5904 HART Interface module is in the register assignment, forced registers from it take precedence over the settings supplied here.

See Also

hartGetConfiguration

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hartPackString

Convert String to HART Packed String

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void hartPackString(char * pPackedString, const char * pString, unsigned sizePackedString);

Description

This function stores an ASCII string into a HART packed ASCII string.

The function has three parameters: a pointer to a packed array; a pointer to an unpacked array; and the size of the packed array. The packed array must be a multiple of three in size.

The unpacked array must be a multiple of four in size. It should be padded with spaces at the end if the string is not long enough.

The function ha s no return value.

See Als o

hartUnpackString

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hartU npackString

Convert HART Packed String to String

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> v oid ha rtUnpackString(char * pString, const char * p PackedString, unsigned sizePackedString);

Description

T his fun ction unpacks a HART packed ASCII s tring into a normal ASCII string.

The function has three parameters: a pointer to an un packed array; a pointer to a packed array; and the size of the packed array. The packed array must be a multiple of three in size.

The unpacked array must be a multiple of four in size.

The function has no return value.

See Also

hartPackString

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install_handler

Install Serial Port Handler

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void install_handler(FILE *stream, void *function(unsigned, unsigned));

Description

The install_handler function installs a serial port character handler function. The serial port driver calls this function each time it receives a character. If stream does not point to a valid serial port the function has no effect.

function specifies the handler function, which takes two arguments. The first argument is the received character. The second argument is an error flag. A non-zero value indicates an error. If fu nction is NULL, the default handler for the port is installed. The default handler does nothing.

Notes

The install_h andler function can be used to write custom communication protocols.

The handler is ca lled at the completion of the receiver interrupt handler. RTOS calls (see functions listed in the section Real Time Operating System Functions at the start of this chapter) may not be made within the interrupt handler, with one exception. The

interrupt_si

gnal_event RTOS call can be used to signal events.

To optimize performance, minimize the length of messages on com3 and com4. Examples of recommended uses for com3 and com4 are for loca l operator display terminals, and for programming and diagnostics using the ISaGRAF program.

Example

#include <ctools.h>

#define CHAR_RECEIVED 11

/* -------------------------------------------

signal

This routine signals an event when a charact er is received on com1. If there is an error, the

character is ignored.

------------------------------------------- * / void signal(unsigned character, unsigned error)

{ if (error == 0) interrupt_signa l_event( CHAR_RECEIVED );

character;

}

/* -------------------------------------------

main

This progra m displays all characters recei ved

on com1 usi ng an installed handler to signal

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the reception of a character.

------------------------------------------- */ void main(void)

{ struct prot_settings protocolSettings;

/* Disable protocol */ protocolSettings.type = NO_PRO TOCOL;

request_resource(IO_SYS TEM);

set_protocol(com1, ttings);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Enable character handler */

/* Print each character as it is recevied */

{ wait_event(CHAR_RECEIVED); character = fgetc(com1); fputs("character: ", com1);

}

}

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installClockHandler

Install Handler for Real Time Clock

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void installClockHandler(void (*function)(void));

The installClockHand ler func tion installs a real time clock alarm handler function. The real tim clock alarm functi on calls this function each time a real time clock alarm occurs.

function s pecifies the handler function. If function is NULL, the handler is disabled.

Notes

RTOS cal ls (see functions listed in the section Real Time Operating System Functions at the start of this chapter) may not be made within the interrupt handler, with one exception. The

interrupt_signal_event RTOS call can be used to signal events.

See Also

setClockAlarm

Example

/* --------------------------------------------

This program demonstrates how to call a

function at a specific time of day.

-------------------------------------------- */

#include <ctools.h>

#define ALARM_EVENT 20

/* --------------------------------------------

This function signals an event when the alarm

o ccurs.

-------------------------------------------- */ void alarmHandler(void)

{ interrupt_signal_event ( ALARM_EVENT );

}

/* --------------------------------------------

This task processes alarms signaled by the

-------------------------------------------- */ void processAlarms(void)

{

while(TRUE)

{ wait_event(ALARM_EVENT);

/* Reset the alarm for the next day */ request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); resetClockAlarm(); release_resource(IO_SYSTEM) ;

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fprintf(com1, "It’s quitting time!\r\n");

}

} void main(void)

{ struct prot_settings settings;

AL

/* Disable the protoco l on serial port 1 */ s ettings.type = NO_PRO TOCOL; settings.station se ttings.priority

= 1;

= 3; settings.SFMessagi

ng = FALSE;

request_res ource(I O_SYSTEM);

se t_protoco

r e lease_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Install clock handler function */

install ClockHandler(alarmHandler);

/* Create task for processing alarm events */ cr eate_task(processAlarms, 3, APPLICATION, 4);

/* Set real time clock alarm */ alarm.ty

pe = AT_ABSOLUTE; alarm.hour = 16; alarm.minute = 0; alarm.second = 0;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

setClockAlarm(alarm);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

while(TRUE)

{

/* body of main task loop */

/* other processing code */

/* Allow other tasks to execute */ release_processor();

}

}

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insta llDbaseHandler

Install User Defined Dbase Handler

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void installDbaseHandler

(

BOOLEAN (* handler)

(

unsigned address,

int *value

)

)

Description

The installDbaseHandler function allows an extension to be defined for the dbase() function.

If a handler is installed, it is called by the dbase function when one of the following conditions apply:

• There is no ISaGRAF application downloaded, or

• There is no ISaGRAF variable assigned to the specified Modbus address.

The function installDbaseHandler has one parameter: a pointer to a function to handle the dbase extensions. See the section Dbase Handler Function for a full description of the handler function and it’s parameters. If the pointer is NULL, no handler is installed.

The installed handler is always called with a Modbus address. Linear addresses are converted to Modbus addresses before calling the handler. Use the

installSetdbaseHandler function to install a write access handler for the same addresses handled by the dbase handler.

Note that the C Tools functions dbase and setdbase are used by all protocols to access

Modbus or Linear registers.

Notes

Call this function with the NULL pointer to remove the dbase handler. This must be done when the application program is ended with an exit handler. Use the installExitHandler function to install the exit handler.

If the Dbase handler is not removed within an exit handler, it will remain installed and continue to operate until the controller power is cycled. Erasing the C Program from the

Initialize dialog will not remove the Dbase handler. If the handler is located in a RAM-based application and left installed while a different C application is downloaded, the original handler will be corrupted and the system will likely crash.

See Also

setdbase

Example

See example for Dbase Handler Function.

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installSetdbaseHandler

Install User Defined Setdbase Handler

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void installSetdbaseHandler

(

BOOLE AN (* handler)

(

unsigned address ,

int value

)

)

Description

The installSetdbaseHandler function allows an extension to be defined for the setdbase () function.

If a handler is installed, it is called by the setdbase function when one of the following conditions apply:

• There is no ISaGRAF applicatio n downloaded, or

• There is no ISaGRAF variable assigned to the specified Mo dbus address.

The function installSetdbaseHandler has one parameter: a pointer to a function to handle the setdbase extensions. See the section Setdbase Handler Function for a full description of the handler function and it’s parameters. If the pointer is NULL, no handler is installed.

The installed handler is always called with a Modbus address. Linear addresses are converted to Modbus addresses before calling the handler. Use the installDbaseHandler function to install a read access ha ndler for the same addresses handled by the setdbase handler.

Note that the C Tools functions dbase and setdbase are used by all protocols to access

Modbus or Linear registers.

Notes

Call this function with the NULL pointer to remove the setdbase handler. This must be don e when the application program is ended with an exit handler. Use the installExitHandle r function to install the exit handler.

If the Setdba se handler is not removed within an exit handler, it will remain installed and continue to operate unt il the controller power is cycled. Erasing the C Program from the

Initialize dialog will not remove the Setdbase handler. If the handler is located in a RAMbased applic ation and left installed while a different C application is downloaded, the original handler will b e corrupted and the system will likely crash.

See Also

setdbas

e, installDbaseHandler

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Examp le

See example for

Setdbase Handler Function

.

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Dbase Handler Function

User Defined Dbase Handler Function

The dbase handler function is a user-defined function that handles reading of Modbus addresses not assigned in the ISaGRAF Dictionary. The function can have any name;

dbaseHandler is used in the description below.

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN dbaseHandler(

int value

)

Description

This function is called by the dbase function when one of the following conditions apply:

• There is no ISaGRAF application downloaded, or

• There is no ISaGRAF variable assigned to the specified Modbus address.

The function has two parameters:

If the address is to be handled, the handler function must return TRUE and the value pointed to by value must be set to the current value for the specified Modbus address.

If the address is not to be handled, the function must return FALSE and the value pointed to by value must be left unchanged.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling dbase, which calls this handler.

Requesting the IO_SYSTEM resource ensures that only one task may call the handler at a time. Therefore, the function does not have to be re-entrant.

An array may be defined to store the current values for all Modbus addresses handled by this function. See the section Data Storage if a non-initialized data array is required.

See Also

installDbaseHandler

Example

/* ---------------------------------------------

dbaseHandler.c

This is a sample program for the installDbaseHandler and installSetdbaseHandler functions. This sample program demonstrates database handlers for the Modbus registers 1001 to 1100 and 31001 to

31100.

When the handlers are installed, calls to the functions dbase() or setdbase() for these Modbus registers will call these handlers. This

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is true as long as the register is not already assigned to an ISaGRAF variable.

Note that the dbase() and setdbase() functions are used by C applications and by all protocols.

----------------------------------------------- */

#include "ctools.h"

/* See section on Data Storage in this manual if coilDbase and inputDbase need to be saved when controller is off */ static unsigned char coilDbase[100]; static unsigned inputDbase[100]; static BOOLEAN dbaseHandler( unsigned address, /* Modbus register address */

)

{ if ((address > 1000) && (address <= 1100))

{

*value = coilDbase[address - 1001];

} else if ((address > 31000)&&(address <= 31100))

{

*value = inputDbase[address - 31001];

}

else

{

/* all other addresses are not handled */

}

} static BOOLEAN setdbaseHandler( unsigned address,/* Modbus register address */

int /* value to write at address */

)

{ if ((address > 1000) && (address <= 1100))

{ if (value == 0)

{ coilDbase[address - 1001] = FALSE;

}

else

{ coilDbase[address - 1001] = TRUE;

}

} else if ((address > 31000)&&(address <= 31100))

{ inputDbase[address - 31001] = value;

}

else

{

/* all other addresses are not handled */

}

} static void shutdown(void)

{

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/* remove database handlers */

installDbaseHandler(NULL);

installSetdbaseHandler(NULL);

}

/* -----------------------------------------------

main

This routine is the main program.

The exit handler is installed.

The database handlers are installed.

The database is then updated continuously with

I/O data in the main loop.

----------------------------------------------- */ void main(void)

{ unsigned index; taskStatus = getTaskInfo(0);

installDbaseHandler(dbaseHandler);

installSetdbaseHandler(setdbaseHandler);

{

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); for (index=0; index<8; index++)

{

/* copy Ain data to the database */ setdbase(MODBUS, 31001 + index, ainData[index]);

/* get Dout data from the database */ doutData |= dbase(MODBUS, 1008 - index);

}

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_processor();

}

}

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Setdbase Handler Function

User Defined Setdbase Handler Function

The setdbase handler function is a user-defined function that handles writing to Modbus addresses not assigned in the ISaGRAF Dictionary. The function can have any name;

setdbaseHandler is used in the description below.

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN setdbaseHandler(

)

Description

This function is called by the setdbase function when one of the following conditions apply:

• There is no ISaGRAF application downloaded, or

• There is no ISaGRAF variable assigned to the specified Modbus address.

The function has two parameters:

If the address is to be handled, the handler function must return TRUE and write value to the current value at the Modbus address.

If the address is not to be handled, the function must return FALSE and do nothing.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling setdbase, which calls this handler. Requesting the IO_SYSTEM resource ensures that only one task may call the handler at a time. Therefore, the function does not have to be re-entrant.

An array may be defined to store the current values for all Modbus addresses handled by this function. See the section Data Storage if a non-initialized data array is required.

See Also

installSetdbaseHandler

Example

See example for Dbase Handler Function.

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installExitHandler

Install Handler Called when Task Ends

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned installExitHandler(unsigned taskID, void (*function)(void));

Description

The installExitHandler function defines a function that is called when the task, specified by

taskID, is ended. function specifies the handler function. If function is NULL, the handler is disabled.

Notes

The exit handler function will be called when:

• the task is ended by the end_task function

• the end_application function is executed and the function is an APPLICATION type function

• the program is stopped from the ISaGRAF program and the task is an APPLICATION type function

• the C program is erased by the ISaGRAF program.

The exit handler function is not called if power to the controller is removed. In this case all execution stops when power fails. The application program starts from the beginning when power is reapplied.

Do not call any RTOS functions from the exit handler.

Example

See the example for startTimedEvent.

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installModbusHandler

Install User Defined Modbus Handler

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void installModbusHandler( unsigned (* handler)(unsigned char *, unsigned,

unsigned char *, unsigned *)

);

Description

The installModbusHandler function allows user-defined extensions to standard Modbus protocol. This function specifies a function to be called when a Modbus message is received for the station, but is not understood by the standard Modbus protocol. The installed handler function is called only if the message is addressed to the station, and the message checksum is correct.

The function has one parameter: a pointer to a function to handle the messages. See the section Handler Function for a full description of the function and it’s parameters. If the pointer is NULL, no function is called for non-standard messages.

The function has no return value.

Notes

This function is used to create a user-defined extension to the standard Modbus protocol.

Call this function with the NULL pointer to disable processing of non-standard Modbus messages. This must be done when the application program is ended with an exit handler.

Use the installExitHandler function to install the exit handler.

If the Modbus handler is not disabled within an exit handler, it will remain installed and continue to operate until the controller power is cycled. Changing the protocol type or

Erasing the C Program from ISaGRAF Initialize dialog will not remove the Modbus handler.

If the handler is located in a RAM-based application and left enabled while a different C application is downloaded, the original handler will be corrupted and the system will likely crash.

See Also

Handler Function

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Handler Function

User Specified Handler Function

The handler function is a user-specified function that handles processing of Modbus messages not recognized by the protocol. The function can have any name; handler is used in the description below.

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned handler( unsigned char * message, unsigned messageLength, unsigned char * response, unsigned * responseLength

);

Description

This function handler is a user-defined handler for processing Modbus messages. The function is called for each Modbus message with a function code that is not recognized by the standard Modbus protocol.

The handler function should process the message string and create a response string. IF the message is not understood, one of the error codes should be returned.

The function has four parameters. first character of the message is the function code. The format of the data after the function code is defined by the function code. response. The function should write the response into this buffer. The buffer is 253 characters long. The first character of the buffer is the function code of the message.

The format of the data after the function code is defined by the function code. should set the length of the response using this pointer. The length is the number of characters placed into the response buffer.

The function must return one of four values. The first causes a normal response to be sent.

The others cause an exception response to be sent.

• NORMAL indicates the response and responseLength have been set to valid values.

The Modbus protocol will add the station address and checksum to this string and transmit the reply to the master station.

• ILLEGAL_FUNCTION indicates the function code in the message was not understood.

The handler function must return this value for all function codes it does not process.

The Modbus protocol will return an Illegal Function exception response.

• ILLEGAL_DATA_ADDRESS indicates the function code in the message was understood, but that the command referenced an address that is not valid. The Modbus protocol will return an Illegal Data Address exception response.

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• ILLEGAL_DATA_VALUE indicates the function code in the message was understood, but that the command included data that is not valid. The Modbus protocol will return an

Illegal Data Address exception response.

Function Codes Used

The following function codes are currently used by the TeleBUS Modbus-compatible protocol. All other function codes are available for use. For maximum compatibility with other

Modbus and Modbus-compatible devices it is recommended that codes in the user-defined function code range be used first.

7

15

16

17

65

66

67

68

69

70

3

4

5

6

Code Type

1

2

Modbus standard

Modbus standard

Description

Read coil registers from I/O database

Read status registers from I/O database

Modbus standard

Modbus standard

Modbus standard

Modbus standard

Read holding registers from I/O database

Read input registers from I/O database

Write a single coil register

Write a single holding register

Modbus standard

Modbus standard

Read exception status

Write multiple coil registers

Modbus standard Write multiple holding registers

Modbus standard Report slave identification string

TeleBUS extension Used by TelePACE

TeleBUS extension Used by TelePACE

TeleBUS extension Used by TelePACE

TeleBUS extension Used by TelePACE

TeleBUS extension Used by TelePACE

TeleBUS extension Used by TelePACE

Notes

One handler function is used for all serial ports. Only one port will be active at any time.

Therefore, the function does not have to be re-entrant.

The handler function is called from the Modbus protocol task. This task may pre-empt the execution of another task. If there are shared resources, the handler function must request and release the appropriate resources to ensure proper operation.

The station address is not included in the message or response string. It will be added to the response string before sending the reply.

The checksum is not included in the message or the response string. It will be added to the response string before sending the reply.

The maximum size of the response string is 253 bytes. If a longer response length is returned, the Modbus protocol will report an ILLEGAL_DATA_VALUE exception. The response will not be returned.

See Also

installModbusHandler

Example

/* -----------------------------------------------

handler.c

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This is a sample program for the InstallModbusHandler function. This sample program uses function code 71 to simple method for using the installModbusHandler function.

When the handler is installed Modbus ASCII messages using function code

71 that are received on com2 of the controller will

be processed as shown in the program text.

To turn on digital output 00001:

From a terminal send the ASCII command :014701B7

Where;

01 is the station address

47 is the function code in hex

01 is the command for the function code

B7 is the message checksum

To turn off digital output 00001:

From a terminal send the ASCII command :014700B8

Where;

01 is the station address

47 is the function code in hex

00 is the command for the function code

B8 is the message checksum

-------------------------------------------- */

#include <ctools.h> static unsigned myModbusHandler( unsigned char * message, unsigned messageLength, unsigned char * response, unsigned * responseLength

)

{ unsigned char * pMessage; unsigned char * pResponse; pMessage = message; if (*pMessage == 71)

{

/* Action for command data */ pMessage++;

if (*pMessage == 0)

{

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

pResponse response;

*pResponse

pResponse++;

71;

*pResponse 'O';

pResponse++;

*pResponse 'F';

pResponse++;

*pResponse

pResponse++;

'F';

*responseLength

} if (*pMessage == 1)

{

4;

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request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

pResponse response;

*pResponse

pResponse++;

*pResponse

71;

'O';

pResponse++;

*pResponse = 'N';

pResponse++;

*responseLength 3;

}

}

} static void shutdown(void)

{

installModbusHandler(NULL);

}

/* -----------------------------------------------

main

This routine is the modbus slave application.

Serial port com2 is configured for Modbus ASCII protocol.

Register Assignment is configured.

The modbus handler is installed.

The exit handler is installed.

-------------------------------------------- */ void main(void)

{

TASKINFO taskStatus; struct pconfig portSettings; struct prot_settings protSettings;

portSettings.baud BAUD9600; portSettings.duplex portSettings.parity

= FULL;

= NONE;

portSettings.type RS232; protSettings.station = 1; protSettings.type = MODBUS_ASCII; set_protocol(com2, &protSettings);

/* Configure Register Assignment */

clearRegAssignment(); addRegAssignment(DIN_generic8, 0, 10017, 0, 0, 0); addRegAssignment(SCADAPack_lowerIO,0, 1, 10001, 30001, 0); addRegAssignment(DIAG_protocolStatus,1,31000, 0, 0, 0);

/* Install Modbus Handler */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

installModbusHandler(myModbusHandler);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

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/* Install Exit Handler */ taskStatus = getTaskInfo(0);

while(TRUE)

{ release_processor();

}

}

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installRTCHandler

Install User Defined Real-Time-Clock Handler

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void installRTCHandler( void (* rtchandler)(TIME *now,

TIME *new)

);

Description

The installRTCHandler function allows an application program to override Modbus protocol and DNP protocol commands to set the real time clock. This function specifies a function to be called when a Modbus or DNP message is received for the station. The installed handler function is called only if the message is intended to set the real time clock.

The function has one parameter: a pointer to a function to handle the messages. See the section RTCHandler Function for a full description of the function and its parameters. If the pointer is NULL, no function is called for set the real time clock commands, and the default method is used set the real time clock.

The function has no return value.

Notes

Call this function with the NULL pointer to disable processing of Set Real Time Clock messages. This must be done when the application program is ended with an exit handler.

Use the installExitHandler function to install the exit handler.

If the RTC handler is not disabled within an exit handler, it will remain installed and continue to operate until the controller power is cycled. Changing the protocol type or Erasing the C

Program from the TelePACE Initialize dialog will not remove the handler. If the handler is located in a RAM-based application and left enabled while a different C application is downloaded, the original handler will be corrupted and the system will likely crash.

See Also

RTCHandler Function, installExitHandler

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RTCHandler Function

User Specified Real Time Clock Handler Function

The handler function is a user-specified function that handles processing of Modbus messages or DNP messages for setting the real time clock. The function can have any name; rtchandler is used in the description below.

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void rtchandler(

TIME *now,

);

Description

This function rtchandler is a user-defined handler for processing Modbus messages or DNP messages. The function is called only for messages that set the real time clock.

The rtchandler function should set the real time clock to the requested time. If there is a delay before this can be done, the time when the message was received is provided so that a correction to the requested time can be made.

The function has two parameters. was received.

The function does not return a value.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource has already been requested before calling this function. If this function calls other functions that require the IO_SYSTEM resource (e.g. setclock), there is no need to request or release the resource.

This function must not request or release the IO_SYSTEM resource.

See Also

installRTCHandler

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interruptCounter

Read Interrupt Input Counter

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned long interruptCounter(unsigned clear);

Description

The interruptCounter routine reads the interrupt input as a counter. If clear is TRUE the counter is cleared after reading; otherwise if it is FALSE the counter continues to accumulate.

Notes

The interrupt input is located on the 5203 or 5204 controller board. Refer to the System

Hardware Manual for more information on the hardware.

The counter increments on the rising edge of the input signal.

The maximum input frequency that can be counted by the interrupt input is 200 Hz.

See Also

interruptInput, readBoolVariable

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interruptInput

Read State of Interrupt Digital Input

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned interruptInput(void);

Description

The interruptInput function reads the status of the interrupt input point on the controller. It returns TRUE if the input is energized and FALSE if it is not.

Notes

The interrupt input can be used as wake up source for the controller or as an additional a digital input. Refer to the System Hardware Manual for wiring details.

See Also

installRTCHandler

Install User Defined Real-Time-Clock Handler

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void installRTCHandler( void (* rtchandler)(TIME *now,

TIME *new)

);

Description

The installRTCHandler function allows an application program to override Modbus protocol and DNP protocol commands to set the real time clock. This function specifies a function to be called when a Modbus or DNP message is received for the station. The installed handler function is called only if the message is intended to set the real time clock.

The function has one parameter: a pointer to a function to handle the messages. See the section RTCHandler Function for a full description of the function and its parameters. If the pointer is NULL, no function is called for set the real time clock commands, and the default method is used set the real time clock.

The function has no return value.

Notes

Call this function with the NULL pointer to disable processing of Set Real Time Clock messages. This must be done when the application program is ended with an exit handler.

Use the installExitHandler function to install the exit handler.

If the RTC handler is not disabled within an exit handler, it will remain installed and continue to operate until the controller power is cycled. Changing the protocol type or Erasing the C

Program from the TelePACE Initialize dialog will not remove the handler. If the handler is located in a RAM-based application and left enabled while a different C application is downloaded, the original handler will be corrupted and the system will likely crash.

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See Also

RTCHandler Function, installExitHandler

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RTCHandler Function

User Specified Real Time Clock Handler Function

The handler function is a user-specified function that handles processing of Modbus messages or DNP messages for setting the real time clock. The function can have any name; rtchandler is used in the description below.

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void rtchandler(

TIME *now,

);

Description

This function rtchandler is a user-defined handler for processing Modbus messages or DNP messages. The function is called only for messages that set the real time clock.

The rtchandler function should set the real time clock to the requested time. If there is a delay before this can be done, the time when the message was received is provided so that a correction to the requested time can be made.

The function has two parameters. was received.

The function does not return a value.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource has already been requested before calling this function. If this function calls other functions that require the IO_SYSTEM resource (e.g. setclock), there is no need to request or release the resource.

This function must not request or release the IO_SYSTEM resource.

See Also installRTCHandler

interruptCounter

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interrupt_signal_event

Signal Event in Interrupt Handler

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void interrupt_signal_event(unsigned event_number);

Description

The interrupt_signal_event function is used in an interrupt handler to signal events. The function signals that the event_number event has occurred.

If there are tasks waiting for the event, the highest priority task is made ready to execute.

Otherwise the event flag is incremented. Up to 255 occurrences of an event will be recorded. The current task is blocked of there is a higher priority task waiting for the event.

Notes

Refer to the Real Time Operating System section for more information on events.

This function must only be used within an interrupt handler.

Valid events are numbered 0 to RTOS_EVENTS - 1. Any events defined in ctools.h. are not valid events for use in an application program.

See Also

signal_event, startTimedEvent, installClockHandler

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interval

Set Timer Tick Interval

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void interval(unsigned timer, unsigned value);

Description

The interval function sets the tick interval for timer to value. Tick intervals are measured in multiples of 0.1 second.

If the timer number is invalid, the task's error code is set to TIMER_BADTIMER.

Notes

The default timer tick interval is 1/10 second.

See Also

settimer,

Example

Set timer 5 to count 12 seconds using 1.0 s ticks. interval(5, 10); /* 1.0 s ticks */ settimer(5, 12); /* time = 12 seconds */

Set timer 5 to count 12 seconds using 0.1 s ticks. interval(5, 1); /* 0.1 s ticks */ settimer(5, 120); /* time = 12 seconds */

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ioBusReadByte

Read One Byte from I

2

C Slave Device

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned char ioBusReadByte(void);

Description

The ioBusReadByte function returns one byte read from an I

2

C slave device. The byte is acknowledged by the master receiver. This function can be used multiple times in sequence to read data from a slave device. The last byte read from the slave must be read with the

ioBusReadLastByte function.

If only one byte is to be read from a device, the ioBusReadLastByte function must be used instead of this function.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

ioBusStart, ioBusStop, ioBusReadLastByte, ioBusReadMessage, ioBusSelectForRead

ioBusSelectForWrite, ioBusWriteByte, ioBusWriteMessage

Example

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ unsigned char data[3]; unsigned char ioBusAddress = 114;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

ioBusStart();

{ data[0] = ioBusReadByte(); data[1] = ioBusReadByte();

/* reading the last byte terminates read */ data[2] = ioBusReadLastByte();

}

ioBusStop();

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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ioBusReadLastByte

Read Last Byte from I

2

C Slave Device

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned char ioBusReadLastByte(void);

Description

The ioBusReadLastByte function returns one byte read from an I

2

C slave device and terminates reading from the slave. The byte is not acknowledged by the master receiver.

This signals to the slave device that the read is complete. This function must be used once at the end of a read.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

ioBusStart, ioBusStop, ioBusReadByte, ioBusReadMessage, ioBusSelectForRead

ioBusSelectForWrite, ioBusWriteByte, ioBusWriteMessage

Example

See example for ioBusReadByte.

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ioBusReadMessage

Read Message from I

2

C Slave Device

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

READSTATUS ioBusReadMessage(unsigned address, unsigned numberBytes, unsigned char *message);

Description

The ioBusReadMessage function reads a specified number of bytes from an I

2

C slave device.

The function issues a START condition, selects the device for reading, reads the specified number of bytes, and issues a STOP condition. It detects if the device cannot be selected and, if so, aborts the read.

The function has three parameters: the address of the device; the number of bytes to read,

numberBytes; and a pointer to a buffer, message, capable of holding the data read.

The function returns the status of the read:

Value

RS_success

RS_selectFailed

Description

read was successful slave device could not be selected

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

ioBusWriteMessage, ioBusStart, ioBusStop, ioBusReadByte ioBusReadLastByte,

ioBusSelectForRead ioBusSelectForWrite, ioBusWriteByte, ioBusWriteMessage

Example

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Read a 10 byte message from I2C device */ status = ioBusReadMessage(ioBusAddress, 10, message);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM); if (status != RS_success)

{ fprintf(com1, "I/O error = %d\n\r", status);

}

}

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ioBusSelectForRead

Select I

2

C Slave Device for Reading

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned ioBusSelectForRead(unsigned char address);

Description

The ioBusSelectForRead function selects an I

2

C slave device for reading. It writes the slave device address with the read/write bit set to the read state. The function handles the formatting of the address byte.

The function has one parameter, the address of the device. It returns TRUE if the write succeeded, that is the byte was acknowledged by the slave. It returns FALSE if the write failed, that is the byte was not acknowledged by the slave.

Notes

This function can only be used immediately after a START condition, e.g. ioBusStart.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

ioBusStart, ioBusStop, ioBusReadByte, ioBusReadLastByte, ioBusReadMessage,

ioBusSelectForWrite, ioBusWriteByte, ioBusWriteMessage

Example

See example for ioBusReadByte.

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ioBusSelectForWrite

Select I

2

C Slave Device for Writing

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned ioBusSelectForWrite(unsigned char address);

Description

The ioBusSelectForWrite function selects an I

2

C slave device for writing. It writes the slave device address with the read/write bit set to the write state. The function handles the formatting of the address byte.

The function has one parameter, the address of the device. It returns TRUE if the write succeeded, that is the byte was acknowledged by the slave. It returns FALSE if the write failed, that is the byte was not acknowledged by the slave.

Notes

This function can only be used immediately after a START condition, e.g. ioBusStart.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

ioBusStart, ioBusStop, ioBusReadByte, ioBusReadLastByte, ioBusReadMessage,

ioBusSelectForRead, ioBusWriteByte, ioBusWriteMessage

Example

See example for ioBusWriteByte.

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ioBusStart

Issue an I

2

C Bus START Condition

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void ioBusStart(void);

Description

The ioBusStart function issues an I

2

C bus START condition.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

ioBusStop, ioBusReadByte, ioBusReadLastByte, ioBusReadMessage,

ioBusSelectForRead ioBusSelectForWrite, ioBusWriteByte, ioBusWriteMessage

Example

See example for ioBusReadByte.

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ioBusStop

Issue an I

2

C Bus STOP Condition

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void ioBusStop(void);

Description

The ioBusStop function issues an I

2

C bus STOP condition.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

ioBusStart, ioBusReadByte, ioBusReadLastByte, ioBusReadMessage,

ioBusSelectForRead ioBusSelectForWrite, ioBusWriteByte, ioBusWriteMessage

Example

See example for ioBusReadByte.

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ioBusWriteByte

Write One Byte to I

2

C Slave Device

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned ioBusWriteByte(unsigned char byte);

Description

The ioBusWriteByte function writes one byte to an I

2

C slave device and returns the acknowledge signal from the slave. It returns TRUE if the write succeeded, that is the byte was acknowledged by the slave. It returns FALSE if the write failed, that is the byte was not acknowledged by the slave.

This function can be used multiple times in sequence to write data to a device.

Notes

ioBusWriteByte can be used to write the address selection byte at the start of an I

2

C message; however, the ioBusSelectForRead and ioBusSelectForWrite functions provide a more convenient interface for doing this.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

ioBusStart, ioBusStop, ioBusReadByte, ioBusReadLastByte, ioBusReadMessage,

ioBusSelectForRead ioBusSelectForWrite, ioBusWriteMessage

Example

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ unsigned char data[2]; unsigned char ioBusAddress = 114;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

ioBusStart();

{ ioBusWriteByte(data[0]); ioBusWriteByte(data[1]);

}

ioBusStop();

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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ioBusWriteMessage

Write Message to I

2

C Slave Device

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

WRITESTATUS ioBusWriteMessage(unsigned address, unsigned numberBytes, unsigned char *message);

Description

The ioBusWriteMessage function writes a specified number of bytes to an I

2

C slave device.

The function issues the START condition, selects the device for writing, writes the specified number of bytes, and issues a STOP condition. If the slave fails to acknowledge the selection or any data written to it, the write is aborted immediately.

The function has three parameters: the address of the device; the number of bytes to write,

numberBytes; and a pointer to the buffer, message, containing the data.

The function returns the status of the write:

Value

WS_success

WS_selectFailed

WS_noAcknowledge

Description

write was successful slave could not be selected slave failed to acknowledge data

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

ioBusStart, ioBusStop, ioBusReadByte, ioBusReadLastByte, ioBusReadMessage,

ioBusSelectForRead ioBusSelectForWrite, ioBusWriteByte

Example

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

unsigned ioBusAddress = 114;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Write a 10 byte message to I2C device */ status = ioBusWriteMessage(ioBusAddress, 10, message);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM); if (status != WS_success)

{ fprintf(com1, "I/O error = %d\n\r", status);

}

}

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ioClear

Turn Off all Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void io_clear(void)

Description

The ioClear function turns off all outputs as follows.

• analog outputs are set to 0;

• digital outputs are turned set to 0 (turned off).

Also, all delayed digital I/O actions started by the pulse, pulse_train and timeout functions are always canceled.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

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ioDatabaseReset

Initialize I/O Database with Default Values

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void ioDatabaseReset(void);

Description

The ioDatabaseReset function resets the target controller to default settings.

• Configuration parameters are reset to default values.

• All other registers are set to zero.

• All forcing is removed.

• Locked variables are unlocked.

• Set all database locations to zero

• Clear real time clock alarm settings

• Clear serial port event counters

• Clear store and forward configuration

• Enable LED power by default and return to default state after 5 minutes

• Set Outputs on Stop settings to Hold

• Set 5904 HART modem configuration for all modems

• Set Modbus/TCP default configuration

• Write new default data to Flash

Notes

This function can be used to restore the controller to its default state. ioDatabaseReset has the same effect as selecting the Initialize Controller option from the Initialize command in the ISaGRAF program.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

Example

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Power Up Initialization */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

ioDatabaseReset();

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

/* ... the rest of the program */

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ioRefresh

Update Outputs with Internal Data

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void ioRefresh(void);

Description

The ioRefresh function resets devices on the 5000 series I/O bus. Input channels are scanned to update their values from the I/O hardware. Output channels are scanned to write their values from output tables in memory.

Notes

This function is normally only used by the sleep function to restore output states when the controller wakes.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

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ioReset

Reset 5000 Series I/O Modules

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void ioReset(unsigned state)

Description

The ioReset function sets the state of the 5000 Series I/O bus reset signal. state may be

TRUE or FALSE.

The reset signal restarts all devices on the 5000 Series I/O bus. Output modules clear all their output points. Input modules restart their input scanning. All modules remain in the reset state until the reset signal is set to FALSE.

Notes

Do not leave the reset signal in the TRUE state. This will disable I/O.

The ioClear function provides a more effective method of resetting the I/O system.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

ioRefresh, ioClear

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isaRead16Din

Read 16 Digital Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead16Din(unsigned moduleAddress, unsigned *data)

Description

The isaRead16Din function reads any 16-point Digital Input Module at the specified

moduleAddress. Data is read from all 16 digital inputs and copied to the 16-bit value pointed to by data.

The function returns FALSE if the moduleAddress is invalid or if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned. The valid range for moduleAddress is 0 to 15.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaRead8Din

Example

This program displays the values of the 16 digital inputs read from a 16 point Digital Input

Module at module address 0.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Read data from digital input module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print module data */ for (point = 0; point < 16; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "\n\r%d ", point); putchar( dinData & 0x0001 ? '1' :'0'); dinData >>= 1;

}

}

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isaRead32Din

Read 32 Digital Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead32Din(

Description

The isaRead32Din function reads any 32 point Digital Input Module at the specified moduleAddress

. Data is read from all 32 digital inputs and copied to the 32-bit value pointed to by data.

The function returns FALSE if the moduleAddress is invalid or if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned. The valid range for moduleAddress is 0 to 15.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaRead8Din, isaRead16Din

Example

This program displays the values of the 32 digital inputs read from a 32 point Digital Input

Module at module address 0.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Read data from digital input module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print module data */ for (point = 0; point < 32; point++)

{

"\n\r%d point); putchar( dinData & 0x0001 ? '1' :'0');

}

}

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isaRead4Ain

Read 4 Analog Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead4Ain(unsigned moduleAddress, int *dataArray)

Description

The isaRead4Ain function reads any 4 point Analog Input Module at the specified

moduleAddress. Data is read from all 4 analog inputs and copied to the array pointed to by

dataArray. dataArray must point to an array of four 16-bit integers.

The function returns FALSE if the moduleAddress is invalid or if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned. The valid range for moduleAddress is 0 to 15.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaRead8Ain

Example

This program displays the values of the 4 analog inputs read from a 4 point Analog Input

Module at module address 0.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Read data from analog input module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print module data */ for (point = 0; point < 4; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", point, dataArray[point]);

}

}

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isaRead4Counter

Read 4 Counter Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead4Counter(unsigned moduleAddress, unsigned long *dataArray)

Description

The isaRead4Counter function reads any 4 point Counter Input Module at the specified

moduleAddress. Data is read from all 4 counter inputs and copied to the array pointed to by

dataArray. dataArray must point to an array of four 32-bit integers.

The maximum count is 4,294,967,295. Counters roll back to 0 when the maximum count is exceeded.

The function returns FALSE if the moduleAddress is invalid or if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned. The valid range for moduleAddress is 0 to 15.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

Example

This program displays the values of the 4 counter inputs read from a 4 point Counter Input

Module at module address 0.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Read data from counter input module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print counter data */ for (point = 0; point < 4; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "%d %lu\n\r", point,

dataArray[point]);

}

}

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isaRead4202Inputs

Read SCADASense 4202 DR Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead4202Inputs( unsigned * dinData, int * ainData, unsigned long * counterDataArray

)

Description

The isaRead4202Inputs function reads the digital, counter, and analog inputs from the

SCADASense 4202 DR I/O. Data is read from the digital input and copied to the 16-bit value pointed to by dinData. Data is read from the analog input and copied to the value pointed to by ainData. Data is read from 2 counter inputs and copied to the array pointed to by counterDataArray

. dinData

must point to a 16-bit unsigned integer. ainData

must point to a 16-bit integer. couterDataArray

must point to an array of two 32-bit unsigned integers.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

When this function reads data from the transmitter, it also processes the receiver buffer for the com3 serial port. The com3 serial port is also continuously processed automatically. The additional service to the com3 receiver caused by this function does not affect the normal automatic operation of com3.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite4202Outputs

Example

This program displays the values of the 1 digital input, 2 counter inputs and 1 analog input read from SCADASense 4202 DR I/O.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ unsigned long counterData[2];

/* Read input data from 4202 DR I/O */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); isaRead4202Inputs (&dinData, &ainData, counterData);

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release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print digital input data */ fprintf(com1, "Din Point Value\n\r"); fprintf(com1, "\n\r%d ", 0); putchar( dinData & 0x0001 ? '1' :'0');

}

/* Print analog input data */ fprintf(com1, "\r\nAin Point Value\n\r"); fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", 0, ainData);

/* Print counter input data */ fprintf(com1, "\r\nAin Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 2; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", point,

counterData[point]);

}

}

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isaRead4202DSInputs

Read SCADASense 4202 DS Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead4202DSInputs( unsigned * dinData, int * ainData, unsigned long * counterDataArray

)

Description

The isaRead4202DSInputs function reads the digital, counter, and analog inputs from the

SCADASense 4202 DS I/O. Data is read from the digital input and copied to the 16-bit value pointed to by dinData. Data is read from 3 analog inputs and copied to the value pointed to by ainData. Data is read from 2 counter inputs and copied to the array pointed to by counterDataArray

. dinData

must point to a 16-bit unsigned integer. ainData

must point to an array of three 16-bit integers. couterDataArray

must point to an array of two 32-bit unsigned integers.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

When this function reads data from the SCADASense 4202 DS I/O it also processes the receiver buffer for the com3 serial port. The com3 serial port is also continuously processed automatically. The additional service to the com3 receiver caused by this function does not affect the normal automatic operation of com3.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite4202DSOutputs

Example

This program displays the values of the digital input, 2 counter inputs and 3 analog input read from the SCADASense 4202 DS I/O.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ unsigned long counterData[2];

/* Read input data from 4202 DS I/O */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); isaRead4202DSInputs (&dinData, &ainData, counterData);

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release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print digital input data */ fprintf(com1, "Din Point Value\n\r"); fprintf(com1, "\n\r%d ", 0); putchar( dinData & 0x0001 ? '1' :'0');

}

/* Print analog input data */ fprintf(com1, "\r\nAin Point Value\n\r"); fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", 0, ainData[0]); fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", 1, ainData[1]); fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", 2, ainData[2]);

/* Print counter input data */ fprintf(com1, "\r\nAin Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 2; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", point,

counterData[point]);

}

}

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isaRead5505Inputs

Read 5505 Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead5505Inputs(

UINT16 *dinData, float *ainDataArray,

)

Description

The isaRead5505Inputs function reads the digital and analog inputs from the specified

5505 I/O module. Data is read from all 16 digital inputs and copied to the variable pointed to by dinData. Data is read from all 4 analog inputs and copied to the array pointed to by ainDataArray

. moduleAddress

is the address of the 5505 module. Valid values are 0 to 15. dinData

must point to a 16-bit unsigned integer. Each of the 16 bits in the integer represents one input point.

There are 16 digital input points on the module. The function of these inputs is described in the table below.

Point

Offset

0

Function

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

OFF = channel 0 RTD is good

ON = channel 0 RTD is open or PWR input is off

OFF = channel 0 data in range

ON = channel 0 data is out of range

OFF = channel 0 RTD is using 3-wire measurement

ON = channel 0 RTD is using 4-wire measurement reserved for future use

OFF = channel 1 RTD is good

ON = channel 1 RTD is open or PWR input is off

OFF = channel 1 data in range

ON = channel 1 data is out of range

OFF = channel 1 RTD is using 3-wire measurement

ON = channel 1 RTD is using 4-wire measurement reserved for future use

OFF = channel 2 RTD is good

ON = channel 2 RTD is open or PWR input is off

OFF = channel 2 data in range

ON = channel 2 data is out of range

OFF = channel 2 RTD is using 3-wire measurement

ON = channel 2 RTD is using 4-wire measurement reserved for future use

OFF = channel 3 RTD is good

ON = channel 3 RTD is open or PWR input is off

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13

14

15

OFF = channel 3 data in range

ON = channel 3 data is out of range

OFF = channel 3 RTD is using 3-wire measurement

ON = channel 3 RTD is using 4-wire measurement reserved for future use ainDataArray

must point to an array of four floating point values.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise, TRUE is returned.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite5505Outputs

Example

This program displays the values of the 16 digital inputs and 4 analog inputs read from 5505

I/O module 3.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ float ainDataArray[4];

/* Read input data from 5505 I/O module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); isaRead5505Inputs(3, dinData, ainDataArray);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print digital input data */ fprintf(com1, "Din Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 15; point++)

{

"\n\r%d point);

/* if the point is on */ if ((dinData & (1 << point)) != 0)

{

putchar('1');

}

else

{

putchar('0');

}

}

/* Print analog input data */ fprintf(com1, "\r\nAin Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 4; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "%d %f\n\r", point,

ainDataArray[point]);

}

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}

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isaRead5506Inputs

Read 5506 Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead5506Inputs(

UCHAR *dinData,

INT16 *ainDataArray,

)

Description

The isaRead5506Inputs function reads the digital and analog inputs from the specified

5506 I/O module. Data is read from all 8 digital inputs and copied to the variable pointed to by dinData. Data is read from all 8 analog inputs and copied to the array pointed to by ainDataArray

. moduleAddress

is the address of the 5506 module. Valid values are 0 to 15. dinData

must point to an 8-bit unsigned character. Each of the 8 bits in the character represents one input point. ainDataArray

must point to an array of eight 16-bit integers.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise, TRUE is returned.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite5506Outputs

Example

This program displays the values of the 8 digital inputs and 8 analog inputs read from 5506

I/O module 3.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Read input data from 5506 I/O module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); isaRead5506Inputs(3, dinData, ainDataArray);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print digital input data */ fprintf(com1, "Din Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 7; point++)

{

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"\n\r%d point);

/* if the point is on */ if ((dinData & (1 << point)) != 0)

{

putchar('1');

}

else

{

putchar('0');

}

}

/* Print analog input data */ fprintf(com1, "\r\nAin Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 8; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", point,

ainDataArray[point]);

}

}

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isaRead5601Inputs

Read SCADAPack Lower I/O Module Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead5601Inputs(unsigned *dinData, int *ainDataArray)

Description

The isaRead5601Inputs function reads the digital and analog inputs from a 5601 I/O

Module (SCADAPack lower I/O module). Data is read from all 16 digital inputs and copied to the 16-bit value pointed to by dinData. Data is read from all 8 analog inputs and copied to the array pointed to by ainDataArray.

dinData must point to a 16-bit integer. ainDataArray must point to an array of eight 16-bit integers.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

Note that when this function reads data from the 5601 it also processes the receiver buffer for the com3 serial port. If the controller type is a SCADAPack or SCADAPack PLUS, the com3 serial port is also continuously processed automatically.

The additional service to the com3 receiver caused by this function does not affect the normal automatic operation of com3.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite5601Outputs

Example

This program displays the values of the 16 digital inputs and 8 analog inputs read from a

5601 I/O Module.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Read input data from 5601 module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print digital input data */ fprintf(com1, "Din Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 16; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "\n\r%d ", point); putchar( dinData & 0x0001 ? '1' :'0'); dinData >>= 1;

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}

/* Print analog input data */ fprintf(com1, "\r\nAin Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 8; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", point, ainDataArray[point]);

}

}

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isaRead5602Inputs

Read SCADAPack Upper I/O Module Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead5602Inputs(unsigned char *dinData, int *ainDataArray)

Description

The isaRead5602Inputs function reads the inputs from a 5602 I/O Module (SCADAPack

Upper I/O module) as digital or analog inputs. Data is read from all 5 analog inputs and copied to the array pointed to by ainDataArray. The same 5 analog inputs are also read as 5 digital inputs and copied to the 8-bit value pointed to by dinData.

A digital input is ON if the corresponding filtered analog input value is greater than or equal to 20% of its full-scale value, otherwise it is OFF. Analog inputs 0 to 4 correspond to digital inputs 0 to 4.

dinData must point to an 8-bit value. ainDataArray must point to an array of five 16-bit integers.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

Note that when this function reads data from the 5602 it also processes the receiver buffer for the com4 serial port. If the controller type is a SCADAPack LIGHT or SCADAPack PLUS, the com4 serial port is also continuously processed automatically.

The additional service to the com4 receiver caused by this function does not affect the normal automatic operation of com4.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite5602Outputs

Example

This program displays the values of the 5 inputs read from a 5602 I/O Module as both digital and analog inputs.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ unsigned char dinData;

/* Read input data from 5601 module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print digital input data */ fprintf(com1, "Din Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 5; point++)

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{ fprintf(com1, "\n\r%d ", point); putchar( dinData & 0x01 ? '1' :'0'); dinData >>= 1;

}

/* Print analog input data */ fprintf(com1, "\r\nAin Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 5; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", point, ainDataArray[point]);

}

}

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isaRead5604Inputs

Read 5604 Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead5604Inputs(

UCHAR *dinData,

INT16 *ainDataArray)

Description

The isaRead5604Inputs function reads the digital and analog inputs from 5604 I/O module. Data is read from all 35 digital inputs and copied to the array pointed to by dinData

. Data is read from all 10 analog inputs and copied to the array pointed to by ainDataArray

. dinData

must point to an array of five 8-bit unsigned characters. Each bit in the array represents one input point. ainDataArray

must point to an array of ten 16-bit integers.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise, TRUE is returned.

Notes

When this function reads data from the 5604 I/O module it also processes the receiver buffer for the com3 serial port. The com3 serial port is also continuously processed automatically.

The additional service to the com3 receiver caused by this function does not affect the normal automatic operation of com3.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite5604Outputs

Example

This program displays the values of the 35 digital inputs and 10 analog inputs read from the

5604 I/O.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Read input data from 5604 I/O */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print digital input data */ fprintf(com1, "Din Point Value\n\r");

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for (point = 0; point < 35; point++)

{

"\n\r%d point);

/* if the point is on */ if (dinData[point/8] & (1 << (point % 8)) != 0)

{

putchar('1');

}

else

{

putchar('0');

}

}

/* Print analog input data */ fprintf(com1, "\r\nAin Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 10; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", point,

ainDataArray[point]);

}

}

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isaRead5606Inputs

Read 5606 Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead5606Inputs(

UCHAR *dinDataArray,

INT16 *ainDataArray,

)

Description

The isaRead5606Inputs function reads the digital and analog inputs from the specified

5606 I/O module. Data is read from all 40 digital inputs and copied to the array pointed to by dinDataArray

. Data is read from all 8 analog inputs and copied to the array pointed to by ainDataArray

. moduleAddress

is the address of the 5606 module. Valid values are 0 to 7. dinDataArray

must point to an array of five 8-bit unsigned characters. Each bit in the array represents one input point. ainDataArray

must point to an array of eight 16-bit integers.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise, TRUE is returned.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite5606Outputs

Example

This program displays the values of the 40 digital inputs and 8 analog inputs read from 5606

I/O module 3.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Read input data from 5606 I/O module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); isaRead5606Inputs(3, dinData, ainDataArray);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print digital input data */ fprintf(com1, "Din Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 40; point++)

{

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"\n\r%d point);

/* if the point is on */ if ((dinData[point/8] & (1 << (point % 8))) != 0)

{

putchar('1');

}

else

{

putchar('0');

}

}

/* Print analog input data */ fprintf(com1, "\r\nAin Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 8; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", point,

ainDataArray[point]);

}

}

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isaRead8Ain

Read 8 Analog Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead8Ain(unsigned moduleAddress, int *dataArray)

Description

The isaRead8Ain function reads any 8 point Analog Input Module at the specified

moduleAddress. Data is read from all 8 analog inputs and copied to the array pointed to by

dataArray. dataArray must point to an array of eight 16-bit integers.

The function returns FALSE if the moduleAddress is invalid or if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned. The valid range for moduleAddress is 0 to 15.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaRead4Ain

Example

This program displays the values of the 8 analog inputs read from an 8 point Analog Input

Module at module address 0.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Read data from analog input module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print module data */ for (point = 0; point < 8; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", point, dataArray[point]);

}

}

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isaRead8Din

Read 8 Digital Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaRead8Din(unsigned moduleAddress, unsigned char *data)

Description

The isaRead8Din function reads any 8 point Digital Input Module at the specified

moduleAddress. Data is read from all 8 digital inputs and copied to the 8-bit value pointed to by data.

The function returns FALSE if the moduleAddress is invalid or if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned. The valid range for moduleAddress is 0 to 15.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaRead16Din

Example

This program displays the values of the 8 digital inputs read from an 8 point Digital Input

Module at module address 0.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ unsigned char dinData;

/* Read data from digital input module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print module data */ for (point = 0; point < 8; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "\n\r%d ", point); putchar( dinData & 0x01 ? '1' :'0'); dinData >>= 1;

}

}

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isaReadLPInputs

Read SCADAPack LP Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaReadLPInputs(unsigned *dinData, int *ainDataArray)

Description

The isaReadLPInputs function reads the digital and analog inputs from SCADAPack LP

I/O. Data is read from all 16 digital inputs and copied to the 16-bit value pointed to by dinData

. Data is read from all 8 analog inputs and copied to the array pointed to by ainDataArray

. dinData

must point to a 16-bit integer. ainDataArray must point to an array of eight 16bit integers.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

When this function reads data from the SCADAPack LP I/O it also processes the receiver buffer for the com3 serial port. The com3 serial port is also continuously processed automatically. The additional service to the com3 receiver caused by this function does not affect the normal automatic operation of com3.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWriteLPOutputs

Example

This program displays the values of the 16 digital inputs and 8 analog inputs read from the

SCADAPack LP I/O.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Read input data from SCADAPack LP I/O */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); isaReadLPInputs (&dinData, ainDataArray);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Print digital input data */ fprintf(com1, "Din Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 16; point++)

{

"\n\r%d point); putchar( dinData & 0x0001 ? '1' :'0');

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}

/* Print analog input data */ fprintf(com1, "\r\nAin Point Value\n\r"); for (point = 0; point < 8; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "%d %d\n\r", point,

ainDataArray[point]);

}

}

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isaReadSP100Inputs

Read SCADAPack 100 Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaReadSP100Inputs( unsigned long *cinDataArray

)

Description

The isaReadSP100Inputs function reads the digital, analog, and counter inputs from

SCADAPack 100 I/O. Data is read from all 6 digital inputs and copied to the 16-bit value pointed to by dinData. Data is read from all 6 analog inputs and copied to the array pointed to by ainDataArray. Data is read from the counter input and copied to the array pointed to by cinDataArray. dinData

must point to a 16-bit integer. ainDataArray must point to an array of six 16-bit integers. cinDataArray must point to an array of one 32-bit integer.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

The first four analog inputs are read from the external analog inputs.

The fifth and sixth analog inputs are read from the temperature sensor and the battery voltage sensor respectively.

See Also

isaWriteSP100Outputs

Example

This program displays the values of the 6 digital inputs, 6 analog inputs, and one counter input read from the SCADAPack 100 I/O.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ unsigned long cinData;

/* Read input data from SCADAPack 100 I/O */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); isaReadSP100Inputs (&dinData, ainDataArray, &cinData);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

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/* Print digital input data */ for (point = 0; point < 6; point++)

{ if (dinData & 0x0001)

{ fprintf(com1, "DIN %d = 1\r\n", point);

}

else

{

} fprintf(com1, "DIN %d = 0\r\n", point);

}

}

/* Print analog input data */ for (point = 0; point < 6; point++)

{ fprintf(com1, "AIN %d = %d\n\r", point,

ainDataArray[point]);

}

/* Print counter input data */ fprintf(com1, "\r\nCounter = %ul\n\r", cinData);

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isaWrite16Dout

Write to 16 Digital Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite16Dout(unsigned moduleAddress, unsigned data)

Description

The isaWrite16Dout function writes data to any 16-point Digital Output Module at the specified moduleAddress. Data from the specified 16-bit value is written to the 16 digital outputs.

The function returns FALSE if the moduleAddress is invalid or if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned. The valid range for moduleAddress is 0 to 15.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite8Dout

Example

This program turns ON all 16 digital outputs of a 16-point Digital Output Module at module address 0.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Write data to digital output module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite2Aout

Write to 2 Analog Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite2Aout(unsigned moduleAddress, int *dataArray)

Description

The isaWrite2Aout function writes data to any 2 point Analog Output Module at the specified moduleAddress. Data is read from the array pointed to by dataArray and written to the 2 analog outputs. dataArray must point to an array of two 16-bit integers.

The function returns FALSE if the moduleAddress is invalid or if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned. The valid range for moduleAddress is 0 to 15.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite4Aout, isaWrite5303Aout

Example

This program sets both analog outputs to half scale on a 2-point Analog Output Module at module address 0.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ dataArray[0] = 16384; dataArray[1] = 16384;

/* Write data to analog output module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite32Dout

Write to 32 Digital Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite32Dout(

Description

The isaWrite32Dout function writes data to any 32-point Digital Output Module at the specified moduleAddress. Data from the specified 32-bit value is written to the 32 digital outputs.

The function returns FALSE if the moduleAddress is invalid or if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned. The valid range for moduleAddress is 0 to 15.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite8Dout, isaWrite16Dout

Example

This program turns ON all 32 digital outputs of a 32-point Digital Output Module at module address 0.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Write data to digital output module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite4Aout

Write to 4 Analog Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite4Aout(unsigned moduleAddress, int *dataArray)

Description

The isaWrite4Aout function writes data to any 4 point Analog Output Module at the specified moduleAddress. Data is read from the array pointed to by dataArray and written to the 4 analog outputs. dataArray must point to an array of four 16-bit integers.

The function returns FALSE if the moduleAddress is invalid or if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned. The valid range for moduleAddress is 0 to 15.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite2Aout, isaWrite5303Aout

Example

This program sets all 4 analog outputs to half scale on a 4 point Analog Output Module at module address 0.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ dataArray[0] = 16384; dataArray[1] = 16384; dataArray[2] = 16384; dataArray[3] = 16384;

/* Write data to analog output module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite4AoutChecksum

Write to 4 Point Analog Output Module with Checksum

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

UINT16 isaWrite4AoutChecksum(

UINT16 moduleAddress,

)

Description

The isaWrite4AoutChecksum function writes data to a 4-point analog output module with checksum support. The function can be used with 5304 analog output modules. Use the isaWrite4Aout function for all other analog output modules.

The function has two parameters.

• moduleAddress is the address of the module. The valid range is 0 to 15.

• dataArray must point to an array of four INT16 variables.

The function returns FALSE if the moduleAddress is invalid or if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite2Aout, isaWrite4Aout, isaWrite5303Aout

Example

This program sets all 4 analog outputs to half scale on a 5304 Analog Output Module at module at address 0.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* set all output values to one-half scale */ dataArray[0] = 16384; dataArray[1] = 16384; dataArray[2] = 16384; dataArray[3] = 16384;

/* Write data to 5304 analog output module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite4202Outputs

Write to SCADASense 4202 DR Analog Output

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite4202Outputs(

)

Description

The isaWrite4202Outputs function writes data to the analog output of the SCADASense

4202 DR I/O. aoutData

is the analog output value.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

When this function writes data to the SCADASense 4202 DS I/O it also processes the transmit buffer for the com3 serial port. The com3 serial port is also continuously processed automatically. The additional service to the com3 receiver caused by this function does not affect the normal automatic operation of com3.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaRead4202Inputs, isaWrite4202OutputsEx

Example

This program sets the analog output to full scale.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* set analog output to full scale */ analogData = 32767;

/* Write output data to 4202 DR output */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

isaWrite4202Outputs(analogData);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite4202OutputsEx

Write to SCADASense 4202 DR with Extended Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite4202OutputsEx(

)

Description

The isaWrite4202OutputsEx function writes data to the outputs of a SCADASense 4202

DR equipped with a digital output (Extended I/O). doutData

is the digital output value. Bit 0 of the value controls the digital output. If this bit is

1, the digital output is turned on. aoutData

is the analog output value.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

When this function writes data to the SCADASense 4202 DR I/O, it also processes the transmit buffer for the com3 serial port. The com3 serial port is also continuously processed automatically. The additional service to the com3 receiver caused by this function does not affect the normal automatic operation of com3.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaRead4202Inputs

Example

This program sets the analog output to full scale and turns on the digital output.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* turn on digital output */ digitalData = 0x01;

/* set analog output to full scale */ analogData = 32767;

/* Write output data to 4202 DR outputs */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite4202DSOutputs

Write to SCADASense 4202 DS Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite4202DSoutputs(

)

Description

The isaWrite4202DSOutputs function writes data to the outputs of the SCADASense

4202 DS I/O. doutData

is the digital output value. Bits 0 and 1 of the value control the digital outputs. If a bit is 1, the corresponding digital output is turned on.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

When this function writes data to the SCADASense 4202 DS I/O it also processes the transmit buffer for the com3 serial port. The com3 serial port is also continuously processed automatically. The additional service to the com3 receiver caused by this function does not affect the normal automatic operation of com3.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaRead4202DSInputs

Example

This program turns on the digital outputs.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* turn on digital outputs */ digitalData = 0x02;

/* Write output data to 4202 DS outputs */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

isaWrite4202DSOutputs(digitalData);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite5303Aout

Write to 5303 Analog Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite5303Aout(int *dataArray)

Description

The isaWrite5303Aout function writes data to the 2 points on a 5303 SCADAPack Analog

Output Module. Data is read from the array pointed to by dataArray and written to the 2 analog outputs. dataArray must point to an array of two 16-bit integers.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite2Aout, isaWrite2Aout

Example

This program sets both analog outputs to half scale on a 5303 Analog Output Module.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ dataArray[0] = 16384; dataArray[1] = 16384;

/* Write data to analog output module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

isaWrite5303Aout(dataArray);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite5505Outputs

Write 5505 Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite5505Outputs(

)

Description

The isaWrite5505Outputs function writes configuration data to the 5505 I/O module. moduleAddress

is the address of the 5505 module. Valid values are 0 to 15. inputType

must point to an array of 4 unsigned integers that select the type of analog inputs on the module. Valid values for each integer are

• 0 = RTD in deg Celsius

• 1 = RTD in deg Fahrenheit

• 2 = RTD in deg Kelvin

• 3 = resistance measurement in ohms. inputFilter

selects the analog input filter. This is used for all inputs. Valid values are

• 0 = 0.5 s

• 1 = 1 s

• 2 = 2 s

• 3 = 4 s

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise, TRUE is returned.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaRead5505Inputs

Example

This program writes the configuration data to a 5505 I/O module at address 1.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* set analog input types to RTD deg F */ inputType[0] = 1; inputType[1] = 1; inputType[2] = 1;

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inputType[3] = 1;

/* set filter */ inputFilter = 0; // mimimum filter

/* Write configuration data to 5505 I/O module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); isaWrite5505Outputs(1, inputType, inputFilter);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite5506Outputs

Write to 5506 Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite5506Outputs(

)

Description

The isaWrite5506Outputs function writes configuration data to the 5506 I/O module. moduleAddress

is the address of the 5506 module. Valid values are 0 to 15. inputType

must point to an array of 8 unsigned integers that select the type of analog inputs on the module. Valid values for each integer are

• 0 = 0 to 5V

• 1 = 1 to 5 V

• 2 = 0 to 20 mA

• 3 = 4 to 20 mA. inputFilter

selects the analog input filter. This is used for all inputs. Valid values are

• 0 = 3 Hz

• 1 = 6 Hz

• 2 = 11 Hz

• 3 = 30 Hz scanFrequency is the scan frequency setting. Valid values are

• 0 = 60 Hz

• 1 = 50 Hz

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise, TRUE is returned.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaRead5506Inputs

Example

This program writes the configuration data to a 5506 I/O module.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

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{

/* set analog input types to 4-20 mA */ inputType[0] = 3; inputType[1] = 3; inputType[2] = 3; inputType[3] = 3; inputType[4] = 3; inputType[5] = 3; inputType[6] = 3; inputType[7] = 3;

/* set filter and frequency */ inputFilter = 0; scanFrequency = 0;

// maximum filter

// 60 Hz

/* Write configuration data to 5506 I/O module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); isaWrite5506Outputs(1, inputType, inputFilter, scanFrequency);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite5601Outputs

Write to SCADAPack Lower I/O Module Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite5601Outputs(unsigned data)

Description

The isaWrite5601Outputs function writes data to the digital outputs of a 5601 I/O Module

(SCADAPack lower I/O module). The first 12 bits of the specified 16-bit data value are written to the 12 digital outputs.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

Note that when this function writes data to the 5601 it also services the transmit buffer of the com3 serial port. If the controller type is a SCADAPack or SCADAPack PLUS, the com3 serial port is also continuously processed automatically.

The additional service to the com3 transmitter caused by this function does not affect the normal automatic operation of com3.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaRead5601Inputs

Example

This program turns ON all 12 digital outputs of a 5601 I/O Module.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Write output data to 5601 I/O module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

isaWrite5601Outputs(0x0FFF);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite5602Outputs

Write to SCADAPack Upper I/O Module Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite5602Outputs(unsigned char data)

Description

The isaWrite5602Outputs function writes data to the digital outputs of a 5602 I/O Module

(SCADAPack upper I/O module). The first 2 bits of the specified 8-bit data value are written to the 2 digital outputs.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

Note that when this function writes data to the 5602 it also services the transmit buffer of the com4 serial port. If the controller type is a SCADAPack LIGHT or SCADAPack PLUS, the com4 serial port is also continuously processed automatically.

The additional service to the com4 transmitter caused by this function does not affect the normal automatic operation of com4.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaRead5602Inputs

Example

This program turns ON both digital outputs of a 5602 I/O Module.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Write output data to 5602 I/O module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

isaWrite5602Outputs(0x03);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite5604Outputs

Write to 5604 Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite5604Outputs(

INT16 *aoutData)

Description

The isaWrite5604Outputs function writes data to the digital and analog outputs of the

5604 I/O module. doutData

must point to an array of five 8-bit unsigned characters. Each bit in the array represents one output point. The first 36 bits of the array are written to the 36 digital outputs. aoutData

must point to an array of two 16-bit integers. Analog data from this array are written to the two analog outputs.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise, TRUE is returned.

Notes

When this function writes data to the 5604 I/O it also processes the transmit buffer for the com3 serial port. The com3 serial port is also continuously processed automatically. The additional service to the com3 transmitter caused by this function does not affect the normal automatic operation of com3.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaRead5604Inputs

Example

This program turns on all 32 digital outputs and sets the analog outputs to full scale. The internal digital outputs are turned off.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* turn on all external digital outputs */ digitalData[0] = 0xFF; digitalData[1] = 0xFF; digitalData[2] = 0xFF; digitalData[3] = 0xFF;

/* turn off all internal digital outputs */ digitalData[4] = 0x00;

/* set analog outputs to full scale */

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analogData[0] = 32767; analogData[1] = 32767;

/* Write output data to 5604 I/O */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite5606Outputs

Write to 5606 Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite5606Outputs(

UCHAR *doutData,

)

Description

The isaWrite5606Outputs function writes data to the digital and analog outputs of the

5606 I/O module, and configures the module. moduleAddress

is the address of the 5606 module. Valid values are 0 to 7. doutData

must point to an array of two 8-bit unsigned characters. Each bit in the array represents one output point. The 16 bits of the array are written to the 16 digital outputs. aoutData

must point to an array of two 16-bit integers. Analog data from this array are written to the two analog outputs. inputType

must point to an array of 8 unsigned integers that select the type of analog inputs on the module. Valid values for each integer are

• 0 = 0 to 5V

• 1 = 0 to 10 V

• 2 = 0 to 20 mA

• 3 = 4 to 20 mA. inputFilter

selects the analog input filter. This is used for all inputs. Valid values are

• 0 = 3 Hz

• 1 = 6 Hz

• 2 = 11 Hz

• 3 = 30 Hz scanFrequency is the scan frequency setting. Valid values are

• 0 = 60 Hz

• 1 = 50 Hz outputType

selects the type of analog outputs on the module. Valid values are

• 0 = 0 to 20 mA

• 1 = 4 to 20 mA.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise, TRUE is returned.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

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See Also

isaRead5606Inputs

Example

This program turns on all 16 digital outputs and sets the analog outputs to full scale.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* turn on all external digital outputs */ digitalData[0] = 0xFF; digitalData[1] = 0xFF;

/* set analog outputs to full scale */ analogData[0] = 32767; analogData[1] = 32767;

/* set analog input types to 4-20 mA */ inputType[0] = 3; inputType[1] = 3; inputType[2] = 3; inputType[3] = 3; inputType[4] = 3; inputType[5] = 3; inputType[6] = 3; inputType[7] = 3;

/* set filter and frequency */ inputFilter = 0; // maximum filter scanFrequency = 0; // 60 Hz

/* set analog output type to 4-20 mA */ outputType = 1;

/* Write output data to 5606 I/O module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); isaWrite5606Outputs(1, digitalData, analogData, inputType, inputFilter, scanFrequency, outputType);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWrite8Dout

Write to 8 Digital Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWrite8Dout(unsigned moduleAddress, unsigned char data)

Description

The isaWrite8Dout function writes data to any 8 point Digital Output Module at the specified

moduleAddress. Data from the specified 8-bit value is written to the 8 digital outputs.

The function returns FALSE if the moduleAddress is invalid or if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned. The valid range for moduleAddress is 0 to 15.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite16Dout

Example

This program turns ON all 8 digital outputs of an 8 point Digital Output Module at module address 0.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* Write data to digital output module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

isaWriteAout

Write to Analog Output Module

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWriteAout(

UINT16 moduleAddress, enum ioModuleType moduleType,

INT16 * pData)

Description

The isaWriteAout function writes data to an analog output module. The function has three parameters. moduleAddress

is the address of the module. The valid range is 0 to 15.

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moduleType

is the type of the module. It must be one of io5301, io5302, io5303

(SCADAPack Analog Output), or io5304. pData

is a pointer to an array of INT16 variables. The size of the array depends on the module type.

• If

is io5301 or io5303, pData must point to an array of two INT16 variables.

• If

is io5302 or io5304, pData must point to an array of four INT16 variables.

The function returns FALSE if the moduleAddress is invalid or if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaWrite2Aout, isaWrite4Aout, isaWrite5303Aout

Example

This program sets all 4 analog outputs to half scale on a 5304 Analog Output Module at module at address 0.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* set all output values to one-half scale */ dataArray[0] = 16384; dataArray[1] = 16384; dataArray[2] = 16384; dataArray[3] = 16384;

/* Write data to 5304 analog output module */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); isaWriteAout(0, io5304, dataArray);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWriteLPOutputs

Write to SCADAPack LP Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWriteLPOutputs(unsigned doutData, int aoutData[2])

Description

The isaWriteLPOutputs function writes data to the digital and analog outputs of the

SCADAPack LP I/O. doutData

is the digital output data. The first 12 bits of the specified 16-bit data value are written to the 12 digital outputs. aoutData

is an array of two analog output values.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

When this function writes data to the SCADAPack LP I/O it also processes the transmit buffer for the com3 serial port. The com3 serial port is also continuously processed automatically. The additional service to the com3 receiver caused by this function does not affect the normal automatic operation of com3.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaReadLPInputs

Example

This program turns on all 12 digital outputs and sets the analog outputs to full scale.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* turn on all digital outputs */ digitalData = 0x0FFF;

/* set analog outputs to full scale */ analogData[0] = 32767; analogData[1] = 32767;

/* Write output data to SCADAPack LP I/O */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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isaWriteSP100Outputs

Write to SCADAPack 100 Outputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned isaWriteSP100Outputs(unsigned doutData)

Description

The isaWriteSP100Outputs function writes data to the digital outputs of the SCADAPack

100 I/O. doutData

is the digital output data. The first 6 bits of the specified 16-bit data value are written to the 6 digital outputs.

The function returns FALSE if an I/O error occurs; otherwise TRUE is returned.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

isaReadSP100Inputs

Example

This program turns on all 6 digital outputs.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

/* turn on all digital outputs */ digitalData = 0x0FFF;

/* Write output data to SCADAPack 100 I/O */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

isaWriteSP100Outputs(digitalData);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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ledGetDefault

Read LED Power Control Parameters

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> struct ledControl_tag ledGetDefault(void);

Description

The ledGetDefault routine returns the default LED power control parameters. The controller controls LED power to 5000 series I/O modules. To conserve power, the LEDs can be disabled.

The user can change the LED power setting with the LED POWER switch on the controller.

The LED power returns to its default state after a user specified time period.

Example

See the example for the ledSetDefault function.

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ledPower

Set LED Power State

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned ledPower(unsigned state);

Description

The ledPower function sets the LED power state. The LED power will remain in the state until the default time-out period expires. state must be LED_ON or LED_OFF.

The function returns TRUE if state is valid and FALSE if it is not.

Notes

The LED POWER switch also controls the LED power. A user may override the setting made by this function.

The ledSetDefault function sets the default state of the LED power. This state overrides the value set by this function.

See Also

ledPowerSwitch, ledSetDefault

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ledPowerSwitch

Read State of the LED Power Switch

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned ledPowerSwitch(void);

Description

The ledPowerSwitch function returns the status of the led power switch. The function returns

FALSE if the switch is released and TRUE if the switch is pressed.

Notes

The program for user input may use this switch. However, pressing the switch will have the side effect of changing the LED power state.

See Also

ledPower, ledSetDefault

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ledSetDefault

Set Default Parameters for LED Power Control

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned ledSetDefault(struct ledControl_tag ledControl);

Description

The ledSetDefault routine sets default parameters for LED power control. The controller controls LED power to 5000 series I/O modules. To conserve power, the LEDs can be disabled.

The LED power setting can be changed by the user with the LED POWER switch on the controller. The LED power returns to its default state after a user specified time period.

The ledControl structure contains the default values. Refer to the Structures and Types section for a description of the fields in the ledControl_tag structure. Valid values for the

state field are LED_ON and LED_OFF. Valid values for the time field are 1 to 65535 minutes.

The function returns TRUE if the parameters are valid and false if they are not. If either parameter is not valid, the default values are not changed.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

Example

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ struct ledControl_tag ledControl;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Turn LEDS off after 20 minutes */ ledControl.time = 20; ledControl.state = LED_OFF;

ledSetDefault(ledControl);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* ... the reset of the program */

}

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load

Read Parameters from EEPROM

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void load(unsigned section);

Description

The load function reads data from the specified section of the EEPROM into RAM.. Valid values for section are EEPROM_EVERY and EEPROM_RUN.

The save function writes data to the EEPROM.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

The EEPROM_EVERY section is not used.

The EEPROM_RUN section is loaded from EEPROM to RAM when the controller is reset and the Run/Service switch is in the RUN position. Otherwise default information is used for this section. This section contains:

• serial port configuration tables

• protocol configuration tables

See Also

save

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master_message

Send Protocol Command

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> extern unsigned master_message(FILE *stream, unsigned

function, unsigned slave_station, unsigned slave_address, unsigned master_address, unsigned length);

Description

The master_message function sends a command using a communication protocol. The communication protocol task waits for the response from the slave station. The current task continues execution.

stream specifies the serial port.

function specifies the protocol function code. Refer to the communication protocol manual for supported function codes.

slave specifies the network address of the slave station. This is also known as the slave station number.

address specifies the location of data in the slave station. Depending on the protocol function code, data may be read or written at this location.

master_address specifies the location of data in the master (this controller). Depending on the protocol function code, data may be read or written at this location.

length specifies the number or registers.

Th e ma ster_message function returns th e command status from the protocol driver.

Value

MM_SENT

MM_BAD_FUNCTION

MM_BAD_SLAVE

MM_BAD_ADDRESS

MM_BAD_LENGTH

MM_EOT

MM_WRONG_RSP

Description

message transmitted to slave function is not recognized slave station number is not valid slave or master database address not valid too many or too few registers specified

Master message status: AB slave response was an EOT message

Master message status: AB slave response did not match command sent.

MM_CMD_ACKED

MM_EXCEPTION_FUNCTION

Master message status: AB half duplex command has been acknowledged by slave

– Master may now send poll command.

Master message status: Modbus slave returned a function exception.

MM_EXCEPTION_ADDRESS

MM_EXCEPTION_VALUE

Master message status: Modbus slave returned an address exception.

Master message status: Modbus slave returned a value exception.

Master message status: response received.

MM_RECEIVED

MM_RECEIVED_BAD_LENGTH

Master message status: response received with incorrect amount of data.

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The calling task monitors the status of the command sent using the get_protocol_status function. The command field of the prot_status structure is set to MM_SENT if a master message is sent. It will be set to MM_RECEIVED when the response to the message is received with the proper length. It will be set to MM_RECEIVED_BAD_LENGTH when a response to the message is received with the improper length.

Notes

Refer to the communication protocol manual for more information.

Users of TeleSAFE BASIC and the TeleSAFE 6000 C compiler should note that the address parameter now specifies the actual database address, when used with the Modbus protocol.

This parameter specified the address offset on these older TeleSAFE products.

To optimize performance, minimize the length of messages on com3 and com4. Examples of recommended uses for com3 and com4 are for local operator display terminals, and for programming and diagnostics using the ISaGRAF program.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

clear_protocol_status

Example Using Modbus Protocol

This program sends a master message, on com2, using the Modbus protocol, then waits for a response from the slave. The number of good and failed messages is printed to com1.

/* --------------------------------------------

poll.c

Polling program for Modbus slave.

-------------------------------------------- */

#include <ctools.h>

/* --------------------------------------------

wait_for_response

The wait_for_response function waits for a

response to be received to a master_message on

the serial port specified by stream. It returns

when a response is received, or when the period

specified by time (in tenths of a second)

expires.

-------------------------------------------- */ void wait_for_response(FILE *stream, unsigned time)

{ struct prot_status status; static unsigned long good, bad; interval(0, 1);

/* Allow other tasks to execute */ release_processor(); status = get_protocol_status(stream);

} while (timer(0) && status.command == MM_SENT);

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if (status.command == MM_RECEIVED) good++;

else bad++; fprintf(com1, "Good: %8lu Bad: %8lu\r", good,

bad);

}

/* --------------------------------------------

main

The main function sets up serial ports then

sends commands to a Modbus slave.

-------------------------------------------- */ void main(void)

{ struct prot_settings settings; struct pconfig portset;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* disable protocol on serial port 1 */ settings.type = NO_PROTOCOL; settings.station = 1; settings.priority = 3; settings.SFMessaging = FALSE;

/* Set communication parameters for port 1 */ portset.baud = BAUD9600; portset.duplex = FULL; portset.parity = NONE; portset.data_bits = DATA8; portset.stop_bits = STOP1; portset.flow_rx = DISABLE; portset.flow_tx = DISABLE; portset.type = RS232; portset.timeout = 600;

/* enable Modbus protocol on serial port 2 */ settings.type = MODBUS_ASCII; settings.station = 2; settings.priority = 3; settings.SFMessaging = FALSE;

/* Set communication parameters for port 2 */ portset.baud = BAUD9600; portset.duplex = HALF; portset.parity = NONE; portset.data_bits = DATA8; portset.stop_bits = STOP1; portset.flow_rx = DISABLE; portset.flow_tx = DISABLE; portset.type = RS485_2WIRE; portset.timeout = 600;

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

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/* Main communication loop */

{

/* Transfer slave inputs to outputs */ request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); master_message(com2, 2, 1, 10001, 17, 8); release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Transfer inputs to slave outputs */ request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); master_message(com2, 15, 1, 1, 10009, 8); release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Allow other tasks to execute */ release_processor();

}

}

Examples using DF1 Protocol

Full Duplex

Using the same example program above, apply the following calling format for the master_message function.

This code fragment uses the protected write command (function=0) to transmit 13

(length=13) 16-bit registers to slave station 10 (slave=10). The data will be read from registers 127 to 139 (master_address=127), and stored into registers 180 to 192

(address=180) in the slave station. The command will be transmitted on com2

(stream=com2). master_message(com2, 0, 10, 180, 127, 13);

This code fragment uses the unprotected read command (function=1) to read 74 (length=74)

16-bit registers from slave station 37 (slave=37). The data will be read from registers 300 to

373 in the slave (address=300), and stored in registers 400 to 473 in the master

(master_address=400). The command will be transmitted on com2 (stream=com2). master_message(com2, 1, 37, 300, 400, 74);

This code fragment will send specific bits from a single 16-bit register in the master to slave station 33. The unprotected bit write command (function=5) will be used. Bits 0,1,7,12 and

15 of register 100 (master_address=100) will be sent to register 1432 (address=1432) in the slave. The length parameter is used as a bit mask and is evaluated as follows: bit mask = 1001 0000 1000 0011 in binary

= decimal

Therefore the command, sent on com2, is: master_message(com2, 5, 33, 1432, 100, 36995);

Half Duplex

The example program is the same as for Full Duplex except that instead of waiting for a response after calling master_message, the slave must be polled for a response. Add the following function poll_for_response to the example program above and call it instead of

wait_for_response:

/* --------------------------------------------

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poll_for_response

The poll_for_response function polls the

specified slave for a response to a master

message sent on the serial port specified by

stream. It returns when the correct response

is received, or when the period specified by

time (in tenths of a second) expires.

-------------------------------------------- */ unsigned poll_for_response(FILE *stream, unsigned slave, unsigned time)

{ struct prot_status status; static unsigned long good, bad;

/* set timeout timer */ interval( 0, 10 ); settimer( 0, time );

do

{

/* wait until command status changes or

do

{ status = get_protocol_status( stream );

release_processor();

}

/* command has been ACKed, send poll */ if (status.command == MM_CMD_ACKED)

{

done FALSE;

}

/* response/command mismatch, poll again */ else if (status.command == MM_WRONG_RSP)

{

done FALSE;

}

/* correct response was received */ else if (status.command == MM_RECEIVED)

{

good++;

done TRUE;

}

/* timer has expired or status is MM_EOT */

else

{

bad++;

done TRUE;

}

} while (!done); fprintf(com1, "Good: %8lu Bad: %8lu\r", good,

bad);

}

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modbusExceptionStatus

Set Response to Protocol Command

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void modbusExceptionStatus(unsigned char status);

Description

The modbusExceptionStatus function is used in conjunction with the Modbus compatible communication protocol. It sets the result returned in response to the Read Exception Status command. This command is provided for compatibility with some Modbus protocol drivers for host computers.

The value of status is determined by the requirements of the host computer.

Notes

The specified result will be sent each time that the protocol command is received, until a new result is specified.

The result is cleared when the controller is reset. The application program must initialize the status each time it is run.

See Also

modbusSlaveID

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modbusSlaveID

Set Response to Protocol Command

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void modbusSlaveID(unsigned char *string, unsigned length);

Description

The modbusSlaveID function is used in conjunction with the Modbus compatible communication protocol. It sets the result returned in response to the Report Slave ID command. This command is provided for compatibility with some Modbus protocol drivers for host computers.

string points to a string of at least length characters. The contents of the string is determined by the requirements of the host computer. The string is not NULL terminated and may contain multiple NULL characters.

The length specifies how many characters are returned by the protocol command. length must be in the range 1 to REPORT_SLAVE_ID_SIZE. If length is too large only the first

REPORT_SLAVE_ID_SIZE characters of the string will be sent in response to the command.

Notes

The specified result will be sent each time that the protocol command is received, until a new result is specified.

The function copies the data pointed to by string. string may be modified after the function is called.

The result is cleared when the controller is reset. The application program must initialize the salve ID string each time it is run.

See Also

modbusExceptionStatus

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modbusProcessCommand Function

Process a Modbus command and return the response.

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN processModbusCommand(

FILE * stream,

UCHAR * pCommand,

UCHAR * pResponse,

UINT16 * pResponseLength

)

Description

The processModbusCommand function processes a Modbus protocol command and returns the response. The function can be used by an application to encapsulate Modbus

RTU commands in another protocol. stream

is a FILE pointer that identifies the serial port where the command was received.

This is used for to accumulate statistics for the serial port. pCommand

is a pointer to a buffer containing the Modbus command. The contents of the buffer must be a standard Modbus RTU message. The Modbus RTU checksum is not required. commandLength

is the number of bytes in the Modbus command. The length must include all the address and data bytes. It must not include the checksum bytes, if any, in the command buffer. responseSize

is the size of the response buffer in bytes. A 300-byte buffer is recommended. If this is not practical in the application, a smaller buffer may be supplied.

Some responses may be truncated if a smaller buffer is used. pResponse

is a pointer to a buffer to contain the Modbus response. The function will store the response in this buffer in standard Modbus RTU format including two checksum bytes at the end of the response. pResponseLength

is a pointer to a variable to hold response length. The function will store the number of bytes in the response in this variable. The length will include two checksum bytes.

The function returns TRUE if the response is valid and can be used. It returns FALSE if the response is too long to fit into the supplied response buffer.

Notes

To use the function on a serial port, a protocol handler must be created for the encapsulating protocol. Set the protocol type for the port to NO_PROTOCOL to allow the custom handler to be used.

The function supports standard and extended addressing. Configure the protocol settings for the serial port for the appropriate protocol.

The Modbus RTU checksum is not required in the command so the encapsulating protocol may omit them if they are not needed. This may be useful in host devices that don't create a

Modbus RTU message with checksum prior to encapsulation.

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The Modbus RTU checksum is included in the response to support encapsulating a complete Modbus RTU format message. If the checksum is not needed by the encapsulating protocol the checksum bytes may be ignored.

See Also

set_protocol

Example

This example is taken from a protocol driver than encapsulates Modbus RTU messages in another protocol. It shows how to pass the Modbus RTU command to the Modbus driver, and obtain the response.

The example assumes the Modbus RTU messages are transmitted with the checksum. The length of the checksum is subtracted when calling the processModbusCommand function.

The checksum is included when responding.

/* receive the packet in the encapsulating protocol */

/* verify the packet is valid */

/* locate the Modbus RTU command in the command buffer */ pCommandData = commandBuffer + PROTOCOL_HEADER_SIZE;

/* get length of Modbus RTU command from the packet header */ commandLength = commandBuffer[DATA_SIZE] - 2;

/* locate the Modbus RTU response in the response buffer leaving room for the packet header */ pResponseData = responseBuffer + PROTOCOL_HEADER_SIZE;

/* process the Modbus message */ if (processModbusCommand(

stream,

pCommandData,

{

commandLength,

MODBUS_BUFFER_SIZE,

pResponseData,

&responseLength))

/* put the response length in the header */ responseBuffer[DATA_SIZE] = responseLength;

/* fill in rest of packet header */

}

/* transmit the encapsulated response */

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modemAbort

Unconditionally Terminate Dial-up Connection

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void modemAbort(FILE *port);

Description

The modemAbort function unconditionally terminates a dial-up connection, connection in progress or modem initialization started by the C application. port specifies the serial port the where the modem is installed.

The connection or initialization is terminated only if it was started from a C application.

Connections made from a Ladder Logic application and answered calls are not terminated.

This function can be used in a task exit handler.

Notes

The serial port type must be set to RS232_MODEM.

Note that a pause of a few seconds is required between terminating a connection and initiating a new call. This pause allows the external modem time to hang up.

Use this function in a task exit handler to clean-up any open dial-up connections or modem initializations. If a task is ended by executing end_task from another task, modem connections or initializations must be aborted in the exit handler. Otherwise, the reservation

ID for the port remains valid. No other task or Ladder Logic program may use modem functions on the port. Failing to call modemAbort or modemAbortAll in the task exit handler may result in the port being unavailable to any programs until the controller is reset.

The modem connection or initialization is automatically terminated when ISaGRAF stops the

C application and when the controller is rebooted.

All reservation IDs returned by the modemDial and modemInit functions on this port are invalid after calling modemAbort.

See Also

modemAbortAll, modemDial, modemDialEnd, modemDialStatus, modemInit,

modemInitEnd, modemInitStatus, modemNotification

Example

Refer to the examples in the Functions Overview section.

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modemAbortAll

Unconditionally Terminate All Dial-up Connections

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void modemAbort(void);

Description

The modemAbortAll function unconditionally terminates all dial-up connections, connections in progress or modem initializations started by the C application.

The connections or initializations are terminated only if they were started from a C application. Connections made from a Ladder Logic application and answered calls are not terminated.

This function can be used in a task exit handler.

Notes

Note that a pause of a few seconds is required between terminating a connection and initiating a new call. This pause allows the external modem time to hang up.

Use this function in a task exit handler to clean-up any open dial-up connections or modem initializations. If executing end_task from another task ends a task, modem connections or initializations must be aborted in the exit handler. Otherwise, the reservation ID for the port remains valid. No other task or Ladder Logic program may use modem functions on the port.

Failing to call modemAbort or modemAbortAll in the task exit handler may result in the port being unavailable to any programs until the controller is reset.

The modem connection or initialization is automatically terminated when ISaGRAF stops the

C application and when the controller is rebooted.

This function will terminate all open dial-up connections or modem initializations started by the C application - even those started by other tasks. The exit handler can safely call this function instead of multiple calls to modemAbort if all the connections or initializations were started from the same task.

All reservation IDs returned by the modemDial and modemInit functions are invalid after calling modemAbort.

See Also

modemAbort, modemDial, modemDialEnd, modemDialStatus, modemInit,

modemInitEnd, modemInitStatus, modemNotification

Example

This program installs an exit handler for the main task that terminates any dial-up connections made by the task. This handler is not strictly necessary if ISaGRAF ends the main task. However, it demonstrates how to use the modemAbortAll function and an exit handler for another task in a more complex program.

#include <ctools.h>

/* --------------------------------------------

The shutdown function aborts any active

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modem connections when the task is ended.

-------------------------------------------- */ void shutdown(void)

{

modemAbortAll();

} void main(void)

{

/* set up exit handler for this task */ taskStatus = getTaskInfo(0);

while(TRUE)

{

/* rest of main task here */

/* Allow other tasks to execute */ release_processor();

}

}

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modemDial

Connect to a Remote Dial-up Controller

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> enum DialError modemDial(struct ModemSetup *configuration, reserve_id *id);

Description

The modemDial function connects a controller to a remote controller using an external dialup modem. One modemDial function may be active on each serial port. The modemDial function handles all port sharing and multiple dialing attempts.

The ModemSetup structure specified by configuration defines the serial port, dialing parameters, modem initialization string and the phone number to dial. Refer to the

Structures and Types section for a description of the fields in the ModemSetup structure.

id points to a reservation identifier for the serial port. The identifier ensures that no other modem control function can access the serial port. This parameter must be supplied to the

modemDialEnd and modemDialStatus functions.

The function returns an error code. DE_NoError indicates that the connect operation has begun. Any other code indicates an error. Refer to the description in the Structures and

Types section for a complete description of error codes.

Notes

The serial port type must be set to RS232_MODEM.

Note: The SCADAPack 100 does not support dial up connections on com port 1.

The SCADASense family of controllers also do not support dial up connections.

The modemDialStatus function returns the status of the connection attempt initiated by modemDial.

The modemDialEnd function terminates the connection to the remote controller. Note that a pause of a few seconds is required between terminating a connection and initiating a new call. This pause allows the external modem time to hang up.

If a communication protocol is active on the serial port when a connection is initiated, the protocol will be disabled until the connection is made, then re-enabled. This allows the controller to communicate with the external modem on the port. The protocol settings will also be restored when a connection is terminated with the modemDialEnd function.

If a modemInit function or an incoming call is active on the port, the modemDial function cannot access the port and will return an error code of DE_NotInControl. If communication stops for more than five minutes, then outgoing call requests are allowed to end the incoming call. This prevents problems with the modem or the calling application from permanently disabling outgoing calls.

The reservation identifier is valid until the call is terminated and another modem function or an incoming call takes control of the port.

To optimize performance, minimize the length of messages on com3 and com4. Examples of recommended uses for com3 and com4 are for local operator display terminals, and for programming and diagnostics using the ISaGRAF program.

Do not call this function in a task exit handler.

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See Also

modemAbort, modemAbortAll, modemDialEnd, modemDialStatus, modemInit,

modemInitEnd, modemInitStatus, modemNotification

Example

Refer to the examples in the Functions Overview section.

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modemDialEnd

Terminate Dial-up Connection

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void modemDialEnd(FILE *port, reserve_id id, enum DialError *error);

Description

The modemDialEnd function terminates a dial-up connection or connection in progress.

port specifies the serial port the where the modem is installed. id is the port reservation identifier returned by the modemDial function.

The function sets the variable pointed to by error. If no error occurred DE_NoError is returned. Any other value indicates an error. Refer to the Structures and Types section for a complete description of error codes.

Notes

The serial port type must be set to RS232_MODEM.

A connection can be terminated by any of the following events. Once terminated another modem function or incoming call can take control of the serial port.

• Execution of the modemDialEnd function.

• Execution of the modemAbort or modemAbortAll functions.

• The remote device hangs up the phone line.

• An accidental loss of carrier occurs due to phone line problems.

Note that a pause of a few seconds is required between terminating a connection and initiating a new call. This pause allows the external modem time to hang up.

The reservation identifier is valid until the call is terminated and another modem function or an incoming call takes control of the port. The modemDialEnd function returns a

DE_NotInControl error code, if another modem function or incoming call is in control of the port.

Do not call this function in a task exit handler. Use modemAbort instead.

See Also

modemAbort, modemAbortAll, modemDial, modemDialStatus, modemInit,

modemInitEnd, modemInitStatus, modemNotification

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modemDialStatus

Return Status of Dial-up Connection

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void modemDialStatus(FILE *port, reserve_id id, enum DialError * error, enum

DialState *state);

Description

The modemDialStatus function returns the status of a remote connection initiated by the

modemDial function. port specifies the serial port where the modem is installed. id is the port reservation identifier returned by the modemDial function.

The function sets the variable pointed to by error. If no error occurred DE_NoError is returned. Any other value indicates an error. Refer to the Structures and Types section for a complete description of error codes.

The function sets the variable pointed to by state to the current execution state of dialing operation. The state value is not valid if the error code is DE_NotInControl. Refer to the

dialup.h section for a complete description of state codes.

Notes

The serial port type must be set to RS232_MODEM.

The reservation identifier is valid until the call is terminated and another modem function or an incoming call takes control of the port. The modemDialStatus function will return a

DE_NotInControl error code, if another dial function or incoming call is now in control of the port.

Do not call this function in a task exit handler.

See Also

modemAbort, modemAbortAll, modemDial, modemDialEnd, modemInit,

modemInitEnd, modemInitStatus, modemNotification

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modemInit

Initialize Dial-up Modem

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> enum DialError modemInit(struct ModemInit *configuration, reserve_id *id);

Description

The modemInit function sends an initialization string to an external dial-up modem. It is typically used to set up a modem to answer incoming calls. One modemInit function may be active on each serial port. The modemInit function handles all port sharing and multiple dialing attempts.

The ModemInit structure pointed to by configuration defines the serial port and modem initialization string. Refer to the Structures and Types section for a description of the fields in the ModemInit structure.

The id variable is set to a reservation identifier for the serial port. The identifier ensures that no other modem control function can access the serial port. This parameter must be supplied to the modemInitEnd and modemInitStatus functions.

The function returns an error code. DE_NoError indicates that the initialize operation has begun. Any other code indicates an error. Refer to the Structures and Types section for a complete description of error codes.

Notes

The serial port type must be set to RS232_MODEM.

The modemInitStatus function returns the status of the connection attempt initiated by modemInit.

The modemInitEnd function terminates initialization of the modem.

If a communication protocol is active on the serial port, the protocol will be disabled until the initialization is complete then re-enabled. This allows the controller to communicate with the external modem on the port. The protocol settings will also be restored when initialization is terminated with the modemInitEnd function.

If a modemDial function or an incoming call is active on the port, the modemInit function cannot access the port and will return an error code of DE_NotInControl.

The reservation identifier is valid until the call is terminated and another modem function or an incoming call takes control of the port.

To optimize performance, minimize the length of messages on com3 and com4. Examples of recommended uses for com3 and com4 are for local operator display terminals, and for programming and diagnostics using the ISaGRAF program.

Do not call this function in a task exit handler.

See Also

modemAbort, modemAbortAll, modemDial, modemDialEnd, modemDialStatus,

modemInitEnd, modemInitStatus, modemNotification

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Example

Refer to the example in the Functions Overview section.

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modemInitEnd

Abort Initialization of Dial-up Modem

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void modemInitEnd(FILE *port, reserve_id id, enum DialError *error);

Description

The modemInitEnd function terminates a modem initialization in progress. port specifies the serial port where the modem is installed. id is the port reservation identifier returned by the

modemInit function.

The function sets the variable pointed to by error. If no error occurred DE_NoError is returned. Any other value indicates an error. Refer to the Structures and Types section for a complete description of error codes.

Notes

The serial port type must be set to RS232_MODEM.

Normally this function should be called once the modemInitStatus function indicates the initialization is complete.

The reservation identifier is valid until the initialization is complete or terminated, and another modem function or an incoming call takes control of the port. The modemInitEnd function returns a DE_NotInControl error code, if another modem function or incoming call is in control of the port.

Do not call this function in a task exit handler. Use modemAbort instead.

See Also

modemAbort, modemAbortAll, modemDial, modemDialEnd, modemDialStatus,

modemInit, modemInitStatus, modemNotification

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modemInitStatus

Return Status of Dial-up Modem Initialization

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void modemInitStatus(FILE *port, reserve_id id, enum DialError *error, enum

DialState *state);

Description

The modemInitStatus function returns the status a modem initialization started by the

modemInit function. port specifies the serial port where the modem is installed. id is the port reservation identifier returned by the modemInit function.

The function sets the variable pointed to by error. If no error occurred DE_NoError is returned. Any other value indicates an error. Refer to the Structures and Types section for a complete description of error codes.

The function sets the variable pointed to by state to the current execution state of dialing operation. The state value is not valid if the error code is DE_NotInControl. Refer to the

dialup.h section for a complete description of state codes.

Notes

The serial port type must be set to RS232_MODEM.

The port will remain in the DS_Calling state until modem initialization is complete or fails.

The application should wait until the state is not DS_Calling before calling the

modemInitEnd function.

The reservation identifier is valid until the initialization is complete or terminated, and another modem function or an incoming call takes control of the port.

Do not call this function in a task exit handler.

See Also

modemAbort, modemAbortAll, modemDial, modemDialEnd, modemDialStatus,

modemInit, modemInitEnd, modemNotification

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modemNotification

Notify the modem handler of an important event

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void modemNotification(UINT16 port_index);

Description

The modemNotification function notifies the dial-up modem handler that an interesting event has occurred. This informs the modem handler not to disconnect an incoming call when an outgoing call is requested with modemDial.

This function is used with custom communication protocols. The function is usually called when a message is received by the protocol, although it can be called for other reasons.

The port_index indicates the serial port that received the message.

Notes

The serial port type must be set to RS232_MODEM.

Use the portIndex function to obtain the index of the serial port.

The dial-up connection handler prevents outgoing calls from using the serial port when an incoming call is in progress and communication is active. If communication stops for more than five minutes, then outgoing call requests are allowed to end the incoming call. This prevents problems with the modem or the calling application from permanently disabling outgoing calls.

The function is used with programs that dial out through an external modem using the modemDial

function. It is not required where the modem is used for dialing into the controller only.

See Also

modemAbort, modemAbortAll, modemDial, modemDialEnd, modemDialStatus,

modemInit, modemInitEnd, modemInitStatus

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optionSwitch

Read State of Controller Option Switches

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned optionSwitch(unsigned option);

Description

The optionSwitch function returns the state of the controller option switch specified by

option. option may be 1, 2 or 3.

The function returns OPEN if the switch is in the open position. It returns CLOSED if the switch is in the closed position.

Notes

The option switches are located under the cover of the controller module.

The SCADAPack LP, SCADAPack 100 and SCADASense series of controllers do not have option switches.

All options are user defined.

However, when a SCADAPack I/O module is placed in the Register Assignment, option switch 1 selects the input range for analog inputs on this module. When the SCADAPack

AOUT module is placed in the Register Assignment, option switch 2 selects the output range for analog outputs on this module. Refer to the SCADAPack System Hardware Manual for further information on option switches.

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pollABSlave

Poll DF1 Slave for Response

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned pollABSlave(FILE *stream, unsigned slave);

Description

The pollABSlave function is used to send a poll command to the slave station specified by

slave in the DF1 Half Duplex protocol configured for the specified port. stream specifies the serial port.

The function returns FALSE if the slave number is invalid, or if the protocol currently installed on the specified serial port is not an DF1 Half Duplex protocol. Otherwise it returns

TRUE and the protocol command status is set to MM_SENT.

Notes

See the example using the pollABSlave function in the sample polling function

"poll_for_response" shown in the example for the master_message function.

See Also

master_message

Example

This program segment polls slave station 9 for a response communicating on the com2 serial port.

#include <ctools.h> pollABSlave(com2, 9);

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poll_event

Test for Event Occurrence

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> int poll_event(int event);

Description

The poll_event function tests if an event has occurred.

The poll_event function returns TRUE, and the event counter is decrements, if the event has occurred. Otherwise it returns FALSE.

The current task always continues to execute.

Notes

Refer to the Real Time Operating System section for more information on events.

Valid events are numbered 0 to RTOS_EVENTS - 1. Any events defined in primitiv.h are not valid events for use in an application program.

See Also

signal_event, startTimedEvent

Example

This program implements a somewhat inefficient transfer of data between com1 and com2.

(It would be more efficient to test for EOF from getc).

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

while(TRUE)

{ if (poll_event(COM1_RCVR))

(poll_event(COM2_RCVR))

/* Allow other tasks to execute */ release_processor();

}

}

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poll_message

Test for Received Message

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> envelope *poll_message(void);

Description

The poll_message function tests if a message has been received by the current task.

The poll_message function returns a pointer to an envelope if a message has been received. It returns NULL if no message has been received.

The current task always continues to execute.

Notes

Refer to the Real Time Operating System section for more information on messages.

See Also

send_message, receive_message

Example

This task performs a function continuously, and processes received messages (from higher priority tasks) when they are received.

#include <ctools.h> void task(void)

{

while(TRUE)

{ letter=poll_message(); if (letter != NULL)

/* process the message now */

/* more code here */

}

}

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poll_resource

Test Resource Availability

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> int poll_resource(int resource);

Description

The poll_resource function tests if the resource specified by resource is available. If the resource is available it is given to the task.

The poll_resource function returns TRUE if the resource is available. It returns FALSE if it is not available.

The current task always continues to execute.

Notes

Refer to the Real Time Operating System section for more information on resources.

See Also

request_resource, release_resource

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portConfiguration

Get Pointer to Port Configuration Structure

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> struct pconfig *portConfiguration(FILE *stream);

Description

The portConfiguration function returns a pointer to the configuration structure for stream. A

NULL pointer is returned if stream is not valid.

Notes

It is recommended the get_port and set_port functions be used to access the configuration table.

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portIndex

Get Index of Serial Port

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned portIndex(FILE *stream);

Description

The portIndex function returns an array index for the serial port specified by stream. It is guaranteed to return a value suitable for an array index, in increasing order of external serial port numbers, if no error occurs.

If the stream is not recognized, SERIAL_PORTS is returned, to indicate an error.

See Also

portStream

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portStream

Get Serial Port Corresponding to Index

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

FILE *portStream(unsigned index);

Description

The portStream function returns the file pointer corresponding to index. This function is the inverse of the portIndex function. If the index is not valid, the NULL pointer is returned.

See Also

portIndex

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processModbusCommand

Process a Modbus Command and Return the Response

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN processModbusCommand(

FILE * stream,

UCHAR * pCommand,

UCHAR * pResponse,

UINT16 * pResponseLength

)

Description

The processModbusCommand function processes a Modbus protocol command and returns the response. The function can be used by an application to encapsulate Modbus

RTU commands in another protocol. stream

is a FILE pointer that identifies the serial port where the command was received.

This is used for to accumulate statistics for the serial port. pCommand

is a pointer to a buffer containing the Modbus command. The contents of the buffer must be a standard Modbus RTU message. The Modbus RTU checksum is not required. commandLength

is the number of bytes in the Modbus command. The length must include all the address and data bytes. It must not include the checksum bytes, if any, in the command buffer. responseSize

is the size of the response buffer in bytes. A 300-byte buffer is recommended. If this is not practical in the application, a smaller buffer may be supplied.

Some responses may be truncated if a smaller buffer is used. pResponse

is a pointer to a buffer to contain the Modbus response. The function will store the response in this buffer in standard Modbus RTU format including two checksum bytes at the end of the response. pResponseLength

is a pointer to a variable to hold response length. The function will store the number of bytes in the response in this variable. The length will include two checksum bytes.

The function returns TRUE if the response is valid and can be used. It returns FALSE if the response is too long to fit into the supplied response buffer.

Notes

To use the function on a serial port, a protocol handler must be created for the encapsulating protocol. Set the protocol type for the port to NO_PROTOCOL to allow the custom handler to be used.

The function supports standard and extended addressing. Configure the protocol settings for the serial port for the appropriate protocol.

The Modbus RTU checksum is not required in the command so the encapsulating protocol may omit them if they are not needed. This may be useful in host devices that don't create a

Modbus RTU message with checksum prior to encapsulation.

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The Modbus RTU checksum is included in the response to support encapsulating a complete Modbus RTU format message. If the checksum is not needed by the encapsulating protocol the checksum bytes may be ignored.

See Also

setProtocolSettings

Example

This example is taken from a protocol driver than encapsulates Modbus RTU messages in another protocol. It shows how to pass the Modbus RTU command to the Modbus driver, and obtain the response.

The example assumes the Modbus RTU messages are transmitted with the checksum. The length of the checksum is subtracted when calling the processModbusCommand function.

The checksum is included when responding.

Contact Control Microsystems technical support department for a complete program that uses this function.

/* receive the packet in the encapsulating protocol */

/* verify the packet is valid */

/* locate the Modbus RTU command in the command buffer */ pCommandData = commandBuffer + PROTOCOL_HEADER_SIZE;

/* get length of Modbus RTU command from the packet header */ commandLength = commandBuffer[DATA_SIZE] - 2;

/* locate the Modbus RTU response in the response buffer leaving room for the packet header */ pResponseData = responseBuffer + PROTOCOL_HEADER_SIZE;

/* process the Modbus message */ if (processModbusCommand(

stream,

pCommandData,

commandLength,

MODBUS_BUFFER_SIZE,

pResponseData,

&responseLength))

{

/* put the response length in the header */ responseBuffer[DATA_SIZE] = responseLength;

/* fill in rest of packet header */

/* transmit the encapsulated response */

}

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queue_mode

Control Serial Data Transmission

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void queue_mode(FILE *stream, int mode);

Description

The queue_mode function controls transmission of the serial data. Normally data output to a serial port are placed in the transmit buffer and transmitted as soon as the hardware is ready. If queuing is enabled, the characters are held in the transmit buffer until queuing is disabled. If the buffer fills, queuing is disabled automatically.

stream specifies the serial port. If it is not valid the function has no effect.

mode specifies the queuing control. It may be DISABLE or ENABLE.

Notes

Queuing is most often used with communication protocols that use character timing for message framing. Its uses in an application program are limited.

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readBoolVariable

Read ISaGRAF Boolean Variable

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN readBoolVariable(unsigned char * varName, unsigned char * value)

Description

This function returns the current value of the specified boolean variable.

The variable is specified by its name expressed as a character string. The name is case insensitive (The ISaGRAF Dictionary also treats variable names as case insensitive). If the variable is found, TRUE is returned and the variable value is written to the unsigned char value pointed to by value. If the variable is not found or if the ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid, FALSE is returned and the current value is left unchanged. The ISaGRAF Symbols

Status is invalid if the Application TIC code download and Application Symbols download do not share the same symbols CRC checksum.

Notes

This function requires the ISaGRAF Application Symbols to be downloaded to the controller in addition to the Application TIC code. This function provides a convenient method to access ISaGRAF variables by name; however, because the variable name must be looked up in the ISaGRAF variable list each call, the performance of the function may be slow for large numbers of variables. For better performance, use the variable’s network address and the dbase function.

The IO_SYSTEM system resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

writeBoolVariable

Example

This program displays the contents of the boolean variable named “Switch1”.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

BOOLEAN status; unsigned char value;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); status = readBoolVariable("Switch1", &value);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM); printf("status = %u, Switch1 = %d\r\n", status, value);

}

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readCounter

Read Accumulator Input

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned long readCounter(unsigned counter, unsigned clear);

Description

The readCounter routine reads the digital input counter specified by counter. The counter may be 0, 1 or 2. If clear is TRUE the counter is cleared after reading; otherwise if it is

FALSE the counter continues to accumulate.

If counter is not valid, a BAD_COUNTER error is reported for the current task.

Notes

The three DIN/counter inputs are located on the 5203 or 5204 controller board. Refer to the

System Hardware Manual for more information on the hardware.

The counter increments on the rising edge of the input signal.

See Also

readCounterInput, check_error

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readCounterInput

Read Counter Input Status

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned readCounterInput(unsigned input)

Description

The readCounterInput function returns the status of the DIN/counter input point specified by

input. It returns TRUE if the input is ON and FALSE if the input is OFF.

If input is not valid, the function returns FALSE.

Notes

The three DIN/counter inputs are located on the 5203 or 5204 controller board. Refer to the

System Hardware Manual for more information on the hardware.

See Also

readBoolVariable

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readBattery

Read Lithium Battery Voltage

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> int readBattery(void);

Description

The readBattery function returns the RAM backup battery voltage in millivolts. The range is

0 to 5000 mV. A normal reading is about 3600 mV.

Example

#include <ctools.h> if (readBattery() < 2500)

{ fprintf(com1, “Battery Voltage is low\r\n”);

}

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readInternalAD

Read Controller Internal Analog Inputs

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> int readInternalAD(unsigned channel);

Description

The readInternalAD function reads analog inputs connected to the internal AD converter.

channel may be 0 to 7.

The function returns a value in the range 0 to 32767.

Notes

There are only two channels with signals connected to them.

• AD_THERMISTOR reads the thermistor input.

• AD_BATTERY reads the battery input

See Also

readBattery, readIntVariable

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readIntVariable

Read ISaGRAF Integer Variable

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN readIntVariable(unsigned char * varName, signed long * value)

Description

This function returns the current value of the specified integer variable.

The variable is specified by its name expressed as a character string. The name is case insensitive (The ISaGRAF Dictionary also treats variable names as case insensitive). If the variable is found, TRUE is returned and the variable value is written to the signed long value pointed to by value. If the variable is not found or if the ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid,

FALSE is returned and the current value is left unchanged. The ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid if the Application TIC code download and Application Symbols download do not share the same symbols CRC checksum.

Notes

This function requires the ISaGRAF Application Symbols to be downloaded to the controller in addition to the Application TIC code. This function provides a convenient method to access ISaGRAF variables by name; however, because the variable name must be looked up in the ISaGRAF variable list each call, the performance of the function may be slow for large numbers of variables. For better performance, use the variable’s network address and the dbase function.

The IO_SYSTEM system resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

writeIntVariable

Example

This program displays the contents of the integer variable named “Temperature”.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

BOOLEAN status;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); status = readIntVariable("Temperature", &value);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM); printf("status = %u, Temp = %ld\r\n", status, value);

}

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readMsgVariable

Read ISaGRAF Message Variable

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN readMsgVariable(unsigned char * varName, unsigned char * msg)

Description

This function returns the current value of the specified message variable.

The variable is specified by its name expressed as a character string. The name is case insensitive (The ISaGRAF Dictionary also treats variable names as case insensitive). If the variable is found, TRUE is returned and the message is written to the string pointed to by

msg. If the variable is not found or if the ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid, FALSE is returned and the buffer is left unchanged. The ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid if the

Application TIC code download and Application Symbols download do not share the same symbols CRC checksum.

The pointer msg must point to a character string large enough to hold the maximum length declared for the specified message variable plus two length bytes and a null termination byte

(i.e. max declared length + 3). ISaGRAF message variables have the following format:

Byte

Location

Description

0

1

Maximum length as declared in ISaGRAF

Dictionary (1 to 255)

Current Length = number of bytes up to first null byte in message data (0 to maximum length)

2 First message data byte

… max + 1 Last byte in message buffer max + 2 Null termination byte (Terminates a message having the maximum length.)

Notes

This function requires the ISaGRAF Application Symbols to be downloaded to the controller in addition to the Application TIC code. This function provides a convenient method to access ISaGRAF variables by name; however, because the variable name must be looked up in the ISaGRAF variable list each call, the performance of the function may be slow for large numbers of variables. For better performance, use the variable’s network address and the dbase function.

The IO_SYSTEM system resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

writeMsgVariable

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Example

This program displays the contents of the message variable named “msgData” of maximum length 20.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ unsigned char msg[23];

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); status = readMsgVariable("msgData", msg);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM); printf("status = %u, max length = %d, current length = %d, message = %s\r\n", status, msg[0], msg[1], msg + 2);

}

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readRealVariable

Read ISaGRAF Real Variable

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN readRealVariable(unsigned char * varName, float * value)

Description

This function returns the current value of the specified real (i.e. floating point) variable.

The variable is specified by its name expressed as a character string. The name is case insensitive (The ISaGRAF Dictionary also treats variable names as case insensitive). If the variable is found, TRUE is returned and the variable value is written to the floating point value pointed to by value. If the variable is not found or if the ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid, FALSE is returned and the current value is left unchanged. The ISaGRAF Symbols

Status is invalid if the Application TIC code download and Application Symbols download do not share the same symbols CRC checksum.

Notes

This function requires the ISaGRAF Application Symbols to be downloaded to the controller in addition to the Application TIC code. This function provides a convenient method to access ISaGRAF variables by name; however, because the variable name must be looked up in the ISaGRAF variable list each call, the performance of the function may be slow for large numbers of variables. For better performance, use the variable’s network address and the dbase function.

The IO_SYSTEM system resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

writeRealVariable

Example

This program displays the contents of the real variable named “Flow”.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

BOOLEAN status;

float value;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); status = readRealVariable("Flow", &value);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM); printf("status = %u, Flow = %f\r\n", status, value);

}

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readRoutingTableEntry

Read Routing Table entry

Syntax:

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN readRoutingTableEntry (

);

Description:

This function reads an entry from the routing table.

pRoute is a pointer to a table entry; it is written by this function.

The return value is TRUE if pRoute was successfully written or FALSE otherwise.

Notes:

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

The function returns the total number of entries in the DNP routing table.

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readRoutingTableSize

Read Routing Table size

Syntax:

#include <ctools.h>

UINT16 readRoutingTableSize (void);

Description:

This function reads the total number of entries in the routing table.

Notes:

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

The function returns the total number of entries in the routing table.

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readStopwatch

Read Stopwatch Timer

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned long readStopwatch(void)

Description

The readStopwatch function reads the stopwatch timer. The stopwatch time is in ms and has a resolution of 10 ms. The stopwatch time rolls over to 0 when it reaches the maximum value for an unsigned long integer: 4,294,967,295 ms (or about 497 days).

See Also

settimer, timer

Example

This program measures the execution time in ms of an operation.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ unsigned long startTime, endTime; startTime = readStopwatch();

/* operation to be timed */ endTime = readStopwatch(); printf("Execution time = %lu ms\r\n", endTime - startTime);

}

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readThermistor

Read Controller Ambient Temperature

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> int readThermistor(unsigned scale);

Description

The readThermistor function returns the temperature measured at the main board in the specified temperature scale. If the temperature scale is not recognized, the temperature is returned in Celsius. The scale may be T_CELSIUS, T_FAHRENHEIT, T_KELVIN or

T_RANKINE.

The temperature is rounded to the nearest degree.

}

Example

#include <ctools.h> void checkTemperature(void)

{ temperature = readThermistor(T_FAHREHEIT); if (temperature < 0) fprintf(com1, “It’s COLD!!!\r\n”); else if (temperature > 90) fprintf(com1, “It’s HOT!!!\r\n”);

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readTimerVariable

Read ISaGRAF Timer Variable

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN readTimerVariable(unsigned char * varName, unsigned long * value)

Description

This function returns the current value in milliseconds of the specified timer variable. The maximum value returned is 86399999 ms (or 24 hours). The specified timer may be active or stopped.

The variable is specified by its name expressed as a character string. The name is case insensitive (The ISaGRAF Dictionary also treats variable names as case insensitive). If the variable is found, TRUE is returned and the variable value is written to the unsigned long value pointed to by value. If the variable is not found or if the ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid, FALSE is returned and the current value is left unchanged. The ISaGRAF Symbols

Status is invalid if the Application TIC code download and Application Symbols download do not share the same symbols CRC checksum.

Notes

This function requires the ISaGRAF Application Symbols to be downloaded to the controller in addition to the Application TIC code. This function provides a convenient method to access ISaGRAF variables by name; however, because the variable name must be looked up in the ISaGRAF variable list each call, the performance of the function may be slow for large numbers of variables. For better performance, use the variable’s network address and the dbase function.

The IO_SYSTEM system resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

writeTimerVariable

Example

This program displays the contents of the timer variable named “Time1”.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ unsigned long value;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); status = readTimerVariable("Time1", &value);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM); printf("status = %u, Time1 = %lu\r\n", status, value);

}

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read_timer_info

Get Timer Status

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> struct timer_info read_timer_info(unsigned timer);

Description

The read_timer_info function gets status information for the timer specified by timer.

The read_timer_info function returns a timer_info structure with information about the specified timer. Refer to the description of the timer_info structure for information about the fields.

See Also

settimer

Example

This program starts a pulse train and displays timer information.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ struct timer_info tinfo;

/* Start Pulse Train */ interval(10, 1); /* multiplier = 1 */ pulse_train(3, 5, 10, 500);

{

/* Allow other tasks to execute */ release_processor();

}

/* Display Status of Pulse Train */ tinfo = read_timer_info(10); printf("Pulses Remaining: %d\r\n",

tinfo.time/2); printf("Output Channel: %d\r\n",

tinfo.channel); printf("Output Bit: %d\r\n", tinfo.bit);

}

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receive_message

Receive a Message

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> envelope *receive_message(void);

Description

The receive_message function reads the next available envelope from the message queue for the current task. If the queue is empty, the task is blocked until a message is sent to it.

The receive_message function returns a pointer to an envelope structure.

Notes

Refer to the Real Time Operating System section for more information on messages.

See Also

send_message, poll_message

Example

This task waits for messages, then prints their contents. The envelopes received are returned to the operating system.

#include <ctools.h> void show_message(void)

{

{ msg = receive_message(); printf("Message data %ld\r\n", msg->data); deallocate_envelope(msg);

}

}

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release_processor

Release Processor to other Tasks

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void release_processor(void);

Description

The release_processor function releases control of the CPU to other tasks. Other tasks of the same priority will run. Tasks of the same priority run in a round-robin fashion, as each releases the processor to the next.

Notes

The release_processor function must be called in all idle loops of a program to allow other tasks to execute.

Release all resources in use by a task before releasing the processor.

Refer to the Real Time Operating System section for more information on tasks and task scheduling.

See Also

release_resource

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release_resource

Release Control of a Resource

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void release_resource(int resource);

Description

The release_resource function releases control of the resource specified by resource.

If other tasks are waiting for the resource, the highest priority of these tasks, is given the resource and is made ready to execute. If no tasks are waiting the resource is made available, and the current task continues to run.

Notes

Refer to the Real Time Operating System section for more information on resources.

See Also

request_resource, poll_resource

Example

See the example for the request_resource function.

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report_error

Set Task Error Code

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void report_error(int error);

Description

The report_error functions sets the error code for the current task to error. An error code is maintained for each executing task.

Notes

This function is used in sharable I/O routines to return error codes to the task using the routine.

Some functions supplied with the Microtec C compiler report errors using the global variable

errno. The error code in this variable may be written over by another task before it can be used.

See also:

check_error

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request_resource

Obtain Control of a Resource

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void request_resource(int resource);

Description

The request_resource function obtains control of the resource specified by resource. If the resource is in use, the task is blocked until it is available.

Notes

Use the request_resource function to control access to non-sharable resources. Refer to the Real Time Operating System section for more information on resources.

See Also

release_resource, poll_resource

Example

This code fragment obtains the dynamic memory resource, allocates some memory, and releases the resource.

#include <ctools.h> void task(void)

{

/* ... code here */

request_resource(DYNAMIC_MEMORY); ptr = (unsigned *)malloc((size_t)100);

release_resource(DYNAMIC_MEMORY);

}

/* ... more code here */

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resetAllABSlaves

Erase All AB Slave Responses

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned resetAllABSlaves(FILE *stream);

Description

The resetAllABSlaves function is used to send a protocol message to all slaves communicating on the specified port to erase all responses not yet polled. stream specifies the serial port.

This function applies to the DF1 Half Duplex protocols only. The function returns FALSE if the protocol currently installed on the specified serial port is not an DF1 Half Duplex protocol, otherwise it returns TRUE.

Notes

The purpose of this command is to re-synch slaves with the master if the master has lost track of the order of responses to poll. This situation may exist if the master has been power cycled, for example. This function should not normally be needed if polling is done using the sample polling function "poll_for_response" shown in the example for the master_message function.

Example

This program segment will cause all slaves communicating on the com2 serial port to erase all pending responses.

#include <protocol.h> resetAllABSlaves(com2);

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resetClockAlarm

Acknowledge and Reset Real Time Clock Alarm

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void resetClockAlarm(void);

Description

Real time clock alarms occur once after being set. The alarm setting remains in the real time clock. The alarm must be acknowledged before it can occur again.

The resetClockAlarm function acknowledges the last real time clock alarm and re-enables the alarm. Calling the function after waking up from an alarm will reset the alarm for 24 hours after the current alarm.

Notes

This function should be called after a real time clock alarm occurs. This includes after returning from the sleep function with a return code of WS_REAL_TIME_CLOCK.

The alarm time is not changed by this function.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

setClockAlarm, getClockAlarm, alarmIn

Example

See the example for the installClockHandler function.

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route

Redirect Standard I/O Streams

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void route(FILE *logical, FILE *hardware);

Description

The route function redirects the I/O streams associated with stdout, stdin, and stderr.

These streams are routed to the com1 serial port. logical specifies the stream to redirect.

hardware specifies the hardware device which will output the data. It may be one of com1, com2, com3 or com4.

Notes

This function has a global effect, so all tasks must agree on the routing.

Output streams must be redirected to a device that supports output. Input streams must be redirected to a device that supports input.

Example

This program segment will redirect all input, output and errors to the com2 serial port.

#include <ctools.h> route(stderr, com2); /* send errors to com2 */ route(stdout, com2); /* send output to com2 */ route(stdin, com2); /* get input from com2 */

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runLed

Control Run LED State

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void runLed(unsigned state);

Description

The runLed function sets the run light LED to the specified state. state may be one of the following values.

LED_ON

LED_OFF turn on run LED turn off run LED

The run LED remains in the specified state until changed, or until the controller is reset.

Notes

The ladder logic interpreter controls the state of the RUN LED. If ladder logic is installed in the controller, a C program should not use this function.

The SCADASense series of programmable controllers do not have a Run Led.

Example

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ runLed(LED_ON); /* program is running */

/* ... the rest of the code */

}

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save

Write Parameters to EEPROM

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void save(unsigned section);

Description

The save function writes data from RAM to the specified section of the EEPROM. Valid values for section are EEPROM_EVERY and EEPROM_RUN.

Notes

The EEPROM_EVERY section is loaded whenever the controller is reset. It is not used.

The EEPROM_RUN section is loaded from EEPROM to RAM when the controller is reset and the Run/Service switch is in the RUN position. Otherwise default information is used for this section. This section contains:

• serial port configuration tables

• protocol configuration tables

• store and forward enable flags

• LED power settings

• make for wake-up sources

• execution period on power-up for PID controllers

• HART modem settings

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

load

Example

This code fragment saves all parameters. request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); save(EEPROM_RUN); release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

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searchRoutingTable

Search Routing Table

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN searchRoutingTable (

);

Description

This function searches the routing table for a specific DNP address.

pRoute is a pointer to a table entry; it is written by this function.

The return value is TRUE if pRoute was successfully written or FALSE otherwise.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

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send_message

Send a Message to a Task

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void send_message(envelope *penv);

Description

The send_message function sends a message to a task. The envelope specified by penv contains the message destination, type and data.

The envelope is placed in the destination task's message queue. If the destination task is waiting for a message it is made ready to execute.

The current task is not blocked by the send_message function.

Notes

Envelopes are obtained from the operating system with the allocate_envelope function.

See Also

receive_message, poll_message, allocate_envelope

Example

This program creates a task to display a message and sends a message to it.

#include <ctools.h> void showIt(void)

{

{ msg = receive_message(); printf("Message data %ld\r\n", msg->data); deallocate_envelope(msg);

}

} void main(void)

{ envelope *msg; /* message pointer */

unsigned /* task ID */ tid = create_task(showIt, 2, APPLICATION, 1); msg = allocate_envelope(); msg->destination = tid; msg->type = MSG_DATA; msg->data = 1002;

send_message(msg);

/* wait for ever so that main and other

APPLICATION tasks won’t end */

while(TRUE)

{

/* Allow other tasks to execute */

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release_processor();

}

}

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setABConfiguration

Set DF1 Protocol Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> int setABConfiguration(FILE *stream, struct ABConfiguration *ABConfig);

Description

The setABConfiguration function sets DF1 protocol configuration parameters. stream specifies the serial port. ABConfig references an DF1 protocol configuration structure. Refer to the description of the ABConfiguration structure for an explanation of the fields.

The setABConfiguration function returns TRUE if the settings were changed. It returns

FALSE if stream does not point to a valid serial port.

See Also

getABConfiguration

Example

This code fragment changes the maximum protected address to 7000. This is the maximum address accessible by protected DF1 commands received on com2.

#include <ctools.h> struct ABConfiguration ABConfig; getABConfiguration(com2, &ABConfig);

ABConfig.max_protected_address = 7000; setABConfiguration(com2, &ABConfig);

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setBootType

Set Controller Boot Up State

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void setBootType(unsigned type);

Description

The setBootType function defines the controller boot up type code. This function is used by the operating system start up routines. It should not be used in an application program.

Notes

The value set with this function can be read with the getBootType function.

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setclock

Set Real Time Clock

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void setclock(struct clock *now);

Description

The setclock function sets the real time clock. now references a clock structure containing the time and date to be set.

Refer to the Structures and Types section for a description of the fields. All fields of the clock structure must be set with valid values for the clock to operate properly.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

getclock

Example

This function switches the clock to daylight savings time.

#include <ctools.h>

#include <primitiv.h> void daylight(void)

{ struct clock now;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); now = getclock(); now.hour = now.hour + 1 % 24;

setclock(&now);

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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setClockAlarm

Set the Real Time Clock Alarm

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned setClockAlarm(ALARM_SETTING alarm);

Description

The setClockAlarm function configures the real time clock to alarm at the specified alarm setting. The ALARM_SETTING structure alarm specifies the time of the alarm. Refer to the

rtc.h section for a description of the fields in the structure.

The function returns TRUE if the alarm can be configured, and FALSE if there is an error in the alarm setting. No change is made to the alarm settings if there is an error.

Notes

An alarm will occur only once, but remains set until disabled. Use the resetClockAlarm function to acknowledge an alarm that has occurred and re-enable the alarm for the same time.

Set the alarm type to AT_NONE to disable an alarm. It is not necessary to specify the hour, minute and second when disabling the alarm.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

alarmIn, getclock

Example

#include <ctools.h>

/* --------------------------------------------

wakeUpAtEight

The wakeUpAtEight function sets an alarm for 08:00 AM and puts the controller into

-------------------------------------------- */ void wakeUpAtEight(void)

{

/* Set alarm for 08:00 */ alarm.type = AT_ABSOLUTE; alarm.hour = 8; alarm.minute = 0; alarm.second = 0;

/* Set the alarm */

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

setClockAlarm(alarm)

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

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/* Sleep until alarm ignoring other wake ups */

do

{ request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); wakeSource = sleep(); release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

} until (wakeSource == WS_REAL_TIME_CLOCK);

/* Disable the alarm */ alarm.type = AT_NONE;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

setClockAlarm(alarm);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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setdbase

Write Value to I/O Database

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void setdbase(unsigned type, unsigned address, int value);

Description

The setdbase function writes value to the I/O database. type specifies the method of addressing the database. address specifies the location in the database. If the specified address is not valid then nothing is done. The table below shows the valid address types and ranges.

Type Address Ranges

MODBUS 00001 to NUMCOIL

10001 to 10000 + NUMSTATUS

30001 to 30000 + NUMINPUT

LINEAR

40001 to 40000 + NUMHOLDING

0 to NUMLINEAR-1

Register

Size

1 bit

1 bit

16 bit

16 bit

16 bit

Notes

When writing to LINEAR digital addresses, value is a bit mask which writes data to 16 1-bit registers at once. If any of these 1-bit registers is invalid, only the valid registers are written.

Refer to the Functions Overview section for more information.

If the specified address is in the valid range but it has not been defined by an application, then the address also is invalid. An address is defined if any of the following is true:

1. The address has been assigned as the Network Address for an ISaGRAF Dictionary variable.

2. The address is defined in a database handler installed by a C or C++ application.

3. The address is within the default range of the Permanent Non-volatile Modbus

Registers: 40001 to 40000 + NUMHOLDING_PERMANENT, and 00001 to

NUMCOIL_PERMANENT.

When this function is called, the specified address is searched for under these three categories in the order listed above until the address is found. If the address is not found, nothing is done. If the address is defined in more than one of these categories, the first occurrence of the address in the order listed is always used.

Refer to the section Permanent Non-Volatile Modbus Registers for details on potential addressing conflicts during application downloading.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

Example

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

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setdbase(MODBUS, 40001, 102);

/* Turn ON the first 16 coils */ setdbase(LINEAR, START_COIL, 255);

/* Write to a 16 bit register */ setdbase(LINEAR, 3020, 240);

/* Write to the 12th holding register */ setdbase(LINEAR, START_HOLDING, 330);

/* Write to the 12th holding register */ setdbase(LINEAR, START_HOLDING, 330);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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setDTR

Control RS232 Port DTR Signal

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void setDTR(FILE *stream, unsigned state);

Description

The setDTR function sets the status of the DTR signal line for the communication port specified by stream. When state is SIGNAL_ON the DTR line is asserted. When state is

SIGNAL_OFF the DTR line is de-asserted.

Notes

The DTR line follows the normal RS232 voltage levels for asserted and de-asserted states.

This function is only useful on RS232 ports. The function has no effect if the serial port is not an RS232 port.

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setIOErrorIndication

Set I/O Module Error Indication

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void setIOErrorIndication(unsigned state);

Description

The setIOErrorIndication function sets the I/O module error indication to the specified

state. If set to TRUE, the I/O module communication status is reported in the controller status register and Status LED. If set to FALSE, the I/O module communication status is not reported.

Notes

Refer to the 5203/4 System Manual or the SCADAPack System Manual for further information on the Status LED and Status Output.

See Also

getIOErrorIndication

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setPowerMode

Set Current Power Mode

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN setPowerMode(UCHAR cpuPower, UCHAR lan, UCHAR usbPeripheral, UCHAR usbHost);

Description

The setPowerMode function returns TRUE if the new settings were successfully applied.

The setPowerMode function allows for power savings to be realized by controlling the power to the LAN port, changing the clock speed, and individually controlling the host and peripheral USB power. The following table of macros summarizes the choices available.

Macro Meaning

PM_CPU_FULL The CPU is set to run at full speed

PM_CPU_REDUCED

PM_CPU_SLEEP

The CPU is set to run at a reduced speed

The CPU is set to sleep mode

PM_LAN_ENABLED

PM_LAN_DISABLED

PM_USB_PERIPHERAL_ENABLED

The LAN is enabled

The LAN is disabled

The USB peripheral port is enabled

PM_USB_PERIPHERAL_DISABLED

PM_USB_HOST_ENABLED

The USB peripheral port is disabled

The USB host port is enabled

PM_USB_HOST_DISABLED

PM_NO_CHANGE

The USB host port is disabled

The current value will be used

TRUE is returned if the requested change was made, otherwise FALSE is returned.

The application program may view the current power mode with the getPowerMode function.

See Also

getPowerMode, setWakeSource, getWakeSource

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set_port

Set Serial Port Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void set_port(FILE *stream, struct pconfig *settings);

Description

The set_port function sets serial port communication parameters. stream must specify one of com1, com2, com3 or com4. settings references a serial port configuration structure.

Refer to the description of the pconfig structure for an explanation of the fields.

Notes

If the serial port settings are the same as the current settings, this function has no effect.

The serial port is reset when settings are changed. All data in the receive and transmit buffers are discarded.

To optimize performance, minimize the length of messages on com3 and com4. Examples of recommended uses for com3 and com4 are for local operator display terminals, and for programming and diagnostics using the ISaGRAF program.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

get_port

Example

This code fragment changes the baud rate on com2 to 19200 baud.

#include <ctools.h> struct pconfig settings; get_port(com2, &settings); settings.baud = BAUD19200; request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); set_port(com2, &settings); release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

This code fragment sets com2 to the same settings as com1.

#include <serial.h>

#include <primitiv.h> struct pconfig settings; request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); set_port(com2, get_port(com1, &settings)); release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

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setProgramStatus

Get Program Status Flag

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void setProgramStatus( unsigned status );

Description

The setProgramStatus function sets the application program status flag. The status flag is set to NEW_PROGRAM when a cold boot of the controller is performed, or a program is downloaded to the controller from the program loader.

Notes

There are two pre-defined values for the flag. However the application program may make whatever use of the flag it sees fit.

NEW_PROGRAM

PROGRAM_EXECUTED indicates the program is newly loaded. indicates the program has been executed.

See Also

getProgramStatus

Example

See the example for getProgramStatus.

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set_protocol

Set Communication Protocol Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> int set_protocol(FILE *stream, struct prot_settings *settings);

Description

The set_protocol function sets protocol parameters. stream must specify one of com1,

com2, com3 or com4. settings references a protocol configuration structure. Refer to the description of the prot_settings structure for an explanation of the fields.

The set_protocol function returns TRUE if the settings were changed. It returns FALSE if there is an error in the settings or if the protocol fails to start.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

Notes

Setting the protocol type to NO_PROTOCOL ends the protocol task and frees the stack resources allocated to it.

Be sure to add a call to modemNotification when writing a custom protocol.

See Also

get_protocol, start_protocol, modemNotification

Example

This code fragment changes the station number of the com2 protocol to 4.

#include <ctools.h> struct prot_settings settings; get_protocol(com2, &settings); settings.station = 4; request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); set_protocol(com2, &settings); release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

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setProtocolSettings

Set Protocol Extended Addressing Configuration

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN setProtocolSettings(

FILE * stream,

PROTOCOL_SETTINGS * settings

);

Description

The setProtocolSettings function sets protocol parameters for a serial port. This function supports extended addressing.

The function has two arguments: stream is one of com1, com2, com3 or com4; and settings, a pointer to a PROTOCOL_SETTINGS structure. Refer to the description of the structure for an explanation of the parameters.

The function returns TRUE if the settings were changed. It returns FALSE if the stream is not valid, or if the protocol fails to start.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

Notes

Setting the protocol type to NO_PROTOCOL ends the protocol task and frees the stack resources allocated to it.

Be sure to add a call to modemNotification when writing a custom protocol.

Extended addressing is available on the Modbus RTU and Modbus ASCII protocols only.

See the TeleBUS Protocols User Manual for details.

See Also

getProtocolSettings, start_protocol, get_protocol, set_protocol, modemNotification

Example

This code fragment sets protocol parameters for the com2 serial port.

#include <ctools.h>

PROTOCOL_SETTINGS settings; settings.type = MODBUS_RTU; settings.station = 1234; settings.priority = 3; settings.SFMessaging = FALSE; settings.mode = AM_extended; request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); setProtocolSettings(com2, &settings); release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

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setProtocolSettingsEx

Sets extended protocol settings for a serial port.

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN setProtocolSettingsEx(

FILE * stream,

PROTOCOL_SETTINGS_EX * pSettings

);

Description

The setProtocolSettingsEx function sets protocol parameters for a serial port. This function supports extended addressing and Enron Modbus parameters.

The function has two arguments:

• stream specifies the serial port. It is one of com1, com2, com3 or com4.

• pSettings is a pointer to a PROTOCOL_SETTINGS_EX structure. Refer to the description of the structure for an explanation of the parameters.

The function returns TRUE if the settings were changed. It returns FALSE if the stream is not valid, or if the protocol fails to start.

Notes

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

Setting the protocol type to NO_PROTOCOL ends the protocol task and frees the stack resources allocated to it.

Be sure to add a call to modemNotification when writing a custom protocol.

Extended addressing and the Enron Modbus station are available on the Modbus RTU and

Modbus ASCII protocols only. See the TeleBUS Protocols User Manual for details.

See Also

getProtocolSettingsEx

Example

This code fragment sets protocol parameters for the com2 serial port.

#include <ctools.h>

PROTOCOL_SETTINGS_EX settings; settings.type = MODBUS_RTU; settings.station = 1; settings.priority = 3; settings.SFMessaging = FALSE; settings.mode = AM_standard; settings.enronEnabled = TRUE; settings.enronStation = 4; request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

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setProtocolSettingsEx(com2, &settings); release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

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setSFTranslation

Write Store and Forward Translation

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> struct SFTranslationStatus setSFTranslation(unsigned index, struct

SFTranslation translation);

Description

The setSFTranslation function writes translation into the store and forward address translation table at the location specified by index. translation consists of two port and station address pairs. The function checks for invalid translations; if the translation is not valid it is not stored.

The function returns a SFTranslationStatus structure. It is described in the Structures and

Types section. The code field of the structure is set to one of the following. If there is an error, the index field is set to the location of the translation that is not valid.

Result code

SF_VALID

SF_NO_TRANSLATION

SF_PORT_OUT_OF_RANGE

SF_STATION_OUT_OF_RANG

E

SF_ALREADY_DEFINED

SF_INDEX_OUT_OF_RANGE

Meaning

All translations are valid

The entry defines re-transmission of the same message on the same port

One or both of the serial port indexes is not valid

One or both of the stations is not valid

The translation already exists in the table

The entry referenced by index does not exist in the table

Notes

The TeleBUS Protocols User Manual describes store and forward messaging mode.

Writing a translation with both stations set to station 256 can clear a translation in the table.

Station 256 is not a valid station.

The protocol type and communication parameters may differ between serial ports. The store and forward messaging will translate the protocol messages.

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

getSFTranslation, clearSFTranslationTable, checkSFTranslationTable

Example

This program enables store and forward messaging on com1 and com2. Two entries are placed into the store and forward table.

Note that the communication parameters and protocol type on com2 are different from com1.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{ struct prot_settings settings;

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struct pconfig portset; struct SFTranslation translation; struct SFTranslationStatus status;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Set communication parameters for port 1 */ portset.baud = BAUD9600; portset.duplex = FULL; portset.parity = NONE; portset.data_bits = DATA8; portset.stop_bits = STOP1; portset.flow_rx = DISABLE; portset.flow_tx = DISABLE; portset.type = RS232; portset.timeout = 600;

/* Set communication parameters for port 2 */ portset.baud = BAUD1200; portset.duplex = HALF; portset.parity = NONE; portset.data_bits = DATA8; portset.stop_bits = STOP1; portset.flow_rx = DISABLE; portset.flow_tx = DISABLE; portset.type = RS232; portset.timeout = 600;

/* Set up the translation table */

clearSFTranslationTable(); translation.portA = portIndex(com1); translation.stationA = 2; translation.portB = portIndex(com2); translation.stationB = 3; translation.portA = portIndex(com1); translation.stationA = 4; translation.portB = portIndex(com2); translation.stationB = 5;

/* Enable store and forward messaging */ settings.type = MODBUS_RTU; settings.station = 1; settings.priority = 3; settings.SFMessaging = TRUE; settings.type = MODBUS_ASCII; settings.station = 1; settings.priority = 3; settings.SFMessaging = TRUE;

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* Check if everything is correct */ status = checkSFTranslationTable(); if (status.code != SF_VALID)

{

/* Blink the error code on the status LED */ setStatus(status.code);

}

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else

{ setStatus(0);

}

{

/* main loop of application program */

}

}

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setStatus

Set Controller Status Code

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void setStatus(unsigned code);

Description

The setStatus function sets the controller status code. When the status code is non-zero, the STAT LED blinks a binary sequence corresponding to the code. If code is zero, the

STAT LED turns off.

Notes

The status output opens if code is non-zero. Refer to the System Hardware Manual for more information. The SCADASense series of programmable controllers do not have a

Status output.

The binary sequence consists of short and long flashes of the error LED. A short flash of

1/10th of a second indicates a binary zero. A binary one is indicated by a longer flash of approximately 1/2 of a second. The least significant digit is output first. As few bits as possible are displayed – all leading zeros are ignored. There is a two second delay between repetitions.

The Register Assignment uses bits 0 and 1 of the status code. It is recommended that the

setStatusBit function be used instead of setStatus to prevent modification of these bits.

See Also

setStatusBit, clearStatusBit, getStatusBit

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setStatusBit

Set Bits in Controller Status Code

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned setStatusBit(unsigned bitMask);

Description

The setStatusBit function sets the bits indicated by bitMask in the controller status code.

When the status code is non-zero, the STAT LED blinks a binary sequence corresponding to the code. If code is zero, the STAT LED turns off.

The function returns the value of the status register.

Notes

The status output opens if code is non-zero. Refer to the System Hardware Manual for more information. The SCADASense series of programmable controllers do not have a status output.

The binary sequence consists of short and long flashes of the error LED. A short flash of

1/10th of a second indicates a binary zero. A binary one is indicated by a longer flash of approximately 1/2 of a second. The least significant digit is output first. As few bits as possible are displayed – all leading zeros are ignored. There is a two second delay between repetitions.

The Register Assignment uses bits 0 and 1 of the status code.

See Also

clearStatusBit, clearStatusBit, getStatusBit

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settimer

Set a Timer

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void settimer(unsigned timer, unsigned value);

Description

The settimer function loads value into timer specified by timer. The timer counts down at the timer interval frequency.

The settimer function can reset a timer before it has finished counting down.

Notes

The settimer function cancels delayed digital I/O actions started with the timeout, pulse and pulse_train functions..

See Also

interval

Example

This code fragment sets timer 8 for 10 seconds, using an interval of 0.5 seconds. interval(8, 5); /* interval = 1/2 second */ settimer(8, 20); /* 10 second timer */

This code fragment sets timer 9 for 60 seconds using an interval of 1.0 seconds. interval(9, 10); /* interval = 1 second */ settimer(9, 60); /* 60 second timer */

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setWakeSource

Sets Conditions for Waking from Sleep Mode

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void setWakeSource(unsigned enableMask);

Description

The setWakeSource routine enables and disables sources that will wake up the processor. It enables all sources specified by enableMask. All other sources are disabled.

Valid wake up sources are listed below. Multiple sources may be OR’ed together.

• WS_NONE

• WS_ALL

• WS_REAL_TIME_CLOCK

• WS_INTERRUPT_INPUT

• WS_LED_POWER_SWITCH

• WS_COUNTER_0_OVERFLOW

• WS_COUNTER_1_OVERFLOW

• WS_COUNTER_2_OVERFLOW

Notes

Specifying WS_NONE as the wake up source will prevent the controller from waking, except by a power on reset.

See Also

getWakeSource, sleep

Example

The code fragments below show how to enable and disable wake up sources.

/* Wake up on all sources */ setWakeSource(WS_ALL);

/* Enable wake up on real time clock only */ setWakeSource(WS_REAL_TINE_CLOCK);

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signal_event

Signal Occurrence of Event

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void signal_event(int event_number);

Description

The signal_event function signals that the event_number event has occurred.

If there are tasks waiting for the event, the highest priority task is made ready to execute.

Otherwise the event flag is incremented. Up to 255 occurrences of an event will be recorded. The current task is blocked of there is a higher priority task waiting for the event.

Notes

Refer to the Real Time Operating System section for more information on events.

Valid events are numbered 0 to RTOS_EVENTS - 1. Any events defined in ctools.h are not valid events for use in an application program.

See Also

Example

This program creates a task to wait for an event, then signals the event.

#include <ctools.h> void task1(void)

{

while(TRUE)

{ wait_event(20); printf("Event 20 occurred\r\n");

}

} void main(void)

{ create_task(task1, 3, APPLICATION, 4);

while(TRUE)

{

/* body of main task loop */

/* The body of this main task is intended solely for signaling the event waited for by task1. Normally main would be busy with more important things to do otherwise the code in task1 could be executed within main’s wait settimer(0, 10); /* 1 second interval */ while (timer(0)) /* wait for 1 s */

{

/* Allow other tasks to execute */

release_processor();

} signal_event(20);

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}

}

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sleep

Suspend Controller Operation

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned sleep(void);

Description

The sleep function puts the controller into a sleep mode. Sleep mode reduces the power consumption to a minimum by halting the microprocessor clock and shutting down the power supply. All programs halt until the controller resumes execution. All output points turn off while the controller is in sleep mode.

The SCADAPack 100 and SCADASense series of programmable controllers do not support sleep mode.

The controller resumes execution under the conditions shown in the table below. The application program may disable some wake up conditions. If a wake up condition is disabled the controller will not resume execution when the condition occurs. The table below shows the effect of disabling the various wake up conditions. All wake up conditions will be enabled by default. Refer to the description of the setWakeSource function for details.

Condition Wake Up Effects Disable

Allowed

Disable Effect

Hardware

Reset

External

Interrupt

Real Time

Clock Alarm

LED Power

Button

Hardware

Counter

Rollover

Application programs execute from start of program.

Program execution continues from point sleep function was executed.

Program execution continues from point sleep function was executed.

Program execution continues from point sleep function was executed.

Software portion of counter is incremented.

Program execution continues from point sleep function was executed.

Yes

Yes

Yes

Interrupt input ignored

LED power button ignored

Software portion of counter is incremented.

Controller returns to sleep mode.

The sleep function returns a wake up code indicating which condition caused the controller to resume execution.

Return Code

WS_REAL_TIME_CLOCK

WS_INTERRUPT_INPUT

WS_LED_POWER_SWITCH

Condition

real time clock alarm rising edge of interrupt input

LED Power switch pushed

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Return Code

WS_COUNTER_0_OVERFLO

W

WS_COUNTER_1_OVERFLO

W

WS_COUNTER_2_OVERFLO

W

Condition

roll over of low word of counter 0 (every 65536 transitions) roll over of low word of counter 1 (every 65536 transitions) roll over of low word of counter 2 (every 65536 transitions)

The IO_SYSTEM resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

setclock, alarmIn, setWakeSource, getWakeSource

Example

See the examples for the setClockAlarm and alarmIn functions.

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start_protocol

Enable Protocol Task

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> int start_protocol(FILE *stream);

Description

The start_protocol function enables a protocol task on the port specified by stream. The protocol configuration settings stored in memory are used.

The start_protocol function returns TRUE if the protocol started and FALSE if there was an error.

Notes

The start_protocol function is used by the system start up routine. Application programs should use the set_protocol function to control protocol operation.

See Also

get_protocol, set_protocol

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startup_task

Identify Start Up Task

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void *startup_task(void);

Description

The startup_task function returns the address of the system or application start up task.

Notes

This function is used by the reset routine. It is normally not used in an application program.

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startTimedEvent

Enable Signaling of a Regular Event

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned startTimedEvent(unsigned event, unsigned interval);

Description

The startTimedEvent function causes the specified event to be signaled at the specified

interval. interval is measured in multiples of 0.1 seconds. The task that is to receive the events should use the wait_event or poll_event functions to detect the event.

The function returns TRUE if the event can be signaled. If interval is 0 or if the event number is not valid, the function returns FALSE and no change is made to the event signaling (a previously enabled event will not be changed).

Notes

Valid events are numbered 0 to RTOS_EVENTS - 1. Any events defined in ctools.h are not valid events for use in an application program.

The application program should stop the signaling of timed events when the task which waits for the events is ended. If the event signaling is not stopped, events will continue to build up in the queue until a function waits for them. The example below shows a simple method using the installExitHandler function.

See Also

endTimedEvent, signal_event

Example

The program prints the time every 10 seconds.

#include <string.h>

#include <ctools.h>

#define TIME_TO_PRINT 15

/* --------------------------------------------

The shutdown function stops the signalling

of TIME_TO_PRINT events.

-------------------------------------------- */ void shutdown(void)

{

endTimedEvent(TIME_TO_PRINT);

}

/* --------------------------------------------

The main function sets up signalling of

a timed event, then waits for that event.

The time is printed each time the event

occurs.

-------------------------------------------- */ void main(void)

{ struct prot_settings settings; struct clock now;

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/* Disable the protocol on serial port 1 */ settings.type = NO_PROTOCOL; settings.station = 1; settings.priority = 3; settings.SFMessaging = FALSE;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

/* set up task exit handler to stop

signalling of events when this task ends */ taskStatus = getTaskInfo(0);

/* start timed event */

{ wait_event(TIME_TO_PRINT); request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); now = getclock(); release_resource(IO_SYSTEM); fprintf(com1, "Time %02u:%02u:%02u\r\n", now.hour, now.minute, now.second);

}

}

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timer

Read a Timer

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned timer(unsigned timer);

Description

The timer function returns the time remaining in timer. timer must be in the range 0 to 31. A zero value means that the timer has finished counting down.

If the timer number is invalid, the function returns 0 and the task's error code is set to

TIMER_BADTIMER.

Notes

See Also

interval, settimer

Example

This code fragment sets a timer, then displays the time remaining until it reaches 0.

#include <ctools.h> interval(0, 1); settimer(0, 10); while (timer(0)) printf("Time %d\r\n", timer(0));

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timeoutCancel

Cancel Timeout Notification Function

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned timeoutCancel(unsigned timeoutID);

Description

This function cancels a timeout notification that was requested with the timeoutRequest function. No notification will be sent. The envelope provided when the request was made is de-allocated.

The function has one parameter: the ID of the timeout request. This is the value returned by the timeoutRequest function.

The function returns TRUE if the request was cancelled and FALSE if the timeout ID is not currently active.

Notes

The function will return FALSE if the timeout notification has already been made. In this case the envelope will not be de-allocated as it has already been given to the destination task.

That task is responsible for de-allocating the envelope.

This function cannot be called from a task exit handler. See installExitHandler function for details of exit handlers.

See Also

timeoutRequest

Example

See the example for the timeoutRequest function.

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timeoutRequest

Request Timeout Notification Function

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> unsigned timeoutRequest(unsigned delay, envelope * pEnvelope);

Description

This function requests a timeout notification. A message is sent to the task specified in the envelope after the specified delay.

A task receives the message using the receive_message or poll_message function. The envelope received by the receiving task has the following characteristics.

• The source field is set to the task ID of the task that called timeoutRequest.

• The message type field is set to MSG_TIMEOUT.

• The message data is set to the timeout ID.

The function has two parameters: the length of time in tenths of a second before the timeout occurs, and a pointer to an envelope. The resolution of the delay is –0.1/+0 seconds. The notification message is sent delay-1 to delay tenths of a second after the function call.

The function returns the ID of the timeout request. This can be used to identify and cancel the timeout. The timeout ID changes with each call to the function. Although the ID will eventually repeat, it is sufficiently unique to allow the timeout notification to be identified.

This can be useful in identifying notifications received by a task and matching them with requests.

Notes

Do not de-allocate the envelope passed to timeoutRequest in the calling function. After a call to timeoutRequest either use timeoutCancel to free the envelope if the timeout has not occurred yet, or call deallocate_envelope in the destination task after the envelope has been delivered.

The timeout may be cancelled using the timeoutCancel function.

The task that receives the notification message must de-allocate the envelope after receiving it.

No checking is done on the task ID. The caller must ensure it is valid.

If the delay is zero, the message is sent immediately, provided an envelope is available.

This function cannot be called from a task exit handler. See installExitHandler function for details of exit handlers.

See Also

timeoutCancel

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Example

This example shows a task that acts on messages received from other tasks and when a timeout occurs. The task waits for a message for up to 10 seconds. If it does not receive one, it proceeds with other processing anyway.

The task shows how to deal with notifications from older timeout requests. These occur when the notification was send before the timeout was cancelled. The task ignores timeout notifications that don’t match the last timeout request.

#include <mriext.h>

#include <ctools.h> void aTask(void)

{ envelope * pEnvelope;

TASKINFO thisTask; unsigned timeoutID; unsigned done;

/* get the task ID for this task */ thisTask = getTaskInfo(0); while (TRUE)

{

/* allocate an envelope and address it to this task */ pEnvelope = allocate_envelope(); pEnvelope->destination = thisTask.taskID;

/* request a timeout in 10 seconds */ timeoutID = timeoutRequest(100, pEnvelope); done = FALSE;

{

/* wait for a message or a timeout */

/* determine the message type */ if (pEnvelope->type == MSG_TIMEOUT)

{

/* does it match the last request? */

{

}

else

{

}

/* cancel the timeout */

timeoutCancel(timeoutID);

/* return the envelope to the RTOS */

deallocate_envelope(pEnvelope);

}

/* process message from other task here */

}

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/* proceed with rest of task’s actions here */

}

}

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wait_event

Wait for an Event

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void wait_event(int event);

Description

The wait_event function tests if an event has occurred. If the event has occurred, the event counter is decrements and the function returns. If the event has not occurred, the task is blocked until it does occur.

Notes

Refer to the Real Time Operating System section for more information on events.

Valid events are numbered 0 to RTOS_EVENTS - 1. Any events defined in primitiv.h are not valid events for use in an application program.

See Also

signal_event, startTimedEvent

Example

See the example for the signal_event function.

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wd_auto

Automatic Watchdog Timer Mode

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void wd_auto(void);

Description

The wd_auto function gives control of the watchdog timer to the operating system. The timer is automatically updated by the system.

Notes

Refer to the Functions Overview section for more information.

See Also

wd_manual, wd_pulse

Example

See the example for the wd_manual function

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wd_manual

Manual Watchdog Timer Mode

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void wd_manual(void);

Description

The wd_manual function takes control of the watchdog timer.

Notes

The application program must retrigger the watchdog timer at least every 0.5 seconds using the wd_pulse function, to prevent an controller reset.

Refer to the Functions Overview section for more information.

See Also

wd_auto, wd_pulse

Example

This program takes control of the watchdog timer for a critical section of code, then returns it to the control of the operating system.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

wd_manual();

wd_pulse();

/* ... code executing in less than 0.5 s */

wd_pulse();

/* ... code executing in less than 0.5 s */

wd_auto()

}

/* ... as much code as you wish */

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wd_pulse

Retrigger Watchdog Timer

Syntax

#include <ctools.h> void wd_pulse(void);

Description

The wd_pulse function retriggers the watchdog timer.

Notes

The wd_pulse function must execute at least every 0.5 seconds, to prevent an controller reset, if the wd_manual function has been executed.

Refer to the Functions Overview section for more information.

See Also

wd_auto, wd_manual

Example

See the example for the wd_manual function

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writeBoolVariable

Write to ISaGRAF Boolean Variable

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN writeBoolVariable(unsigned char * varName, unsigned char value)

Description

This function writes to the specified boolean variable.

The variable is specified by its name expressed as a character string. The name is case insensitive (The ISaGRAF Dictionary also treats variable names as case insensitive). If the variable is found, TRUE is returned and the specified value is written to the variable. If the variable is not found or if the ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid, nothing is done and

FALSE is returned. The ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid if the Application TIC code download and Application Symbols download do not share the same symbols CRC checksum.

TRUE is written when value is any non-zero value. FALSE is written when value is 0.

Notes

This function requires the ISaGRAF Application Symbols to be downloaded to the controller in addition to the Application TIC code. This function provides a convenient method to access ISaGRAF variables by name; however, because the variable name must be looked up in the ISaGRAF variable list each call, the performance of the function may be slow for large numbers of variables. For better performance, use the variable’s network address and the setdbase function.

The IO_SYSTEM system resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

setdbase, readBoolVariable

Example

This program writes a TRUE state to the boolean variable named “Switch1”.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

BOOLEAN status;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); status = writeBoolVariable("Switch1", TRUE);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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writeIntVariable

Write to ISaGRAF Integer Variable

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN writeIntVariable(unsigned char * varName, signed long value)

Description

This function writes to the specified integer variable.

The variable is specified by its name expressed as a character string. The name is case insensitive (The ISaGRAF Dictionary also treats variable names as case insensitive). If the variable is found, TRUE is returned and the specified signed long value is written to the variable. If the variable is not found or if the ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid, nothing is done and FALSE is returned. The ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid if the Application TIC code download and Application Symbols download do not share the same symbols CRC checksum.

Notes

This function requires the ISaGRAF Application Symbols to be downloaded to the controller in addition to the Application TIC code. This function provides a convenient method to access ISaGRAF variables by name; however, because the variable name must be looked up in the ISaGRAF variable list each call, the performance of the function may be slow for large numbers of variables. For better performance, use the variable’s network address and the setdbase function.

The IO_SYSTEM system resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

setdbase, readIntVariable

Example

This program writes the value 120,000 to the integer variable named “Pressure1”.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

BOOLEAN status;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); status = writeIntVariable("Pressure1", 120000);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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writeRealVariable

Write to ISaGRAF Real Variable

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN writeRealVariable(unsigned char * varName, float value)

Description

This function writes to the specified real (i.e. floating point) variable.

The variable is specified by its name expressed as a character string. The name is case insensitive (The ISaGRAF Dictionary also treats variable names as case insensitive). If the variable is found, TRUE is returned and the specified floating-point value is written to the variable. If the variable is not found or if the ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid, nothing is done and FALSE is returned. The ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid if the Application TIC code download and Application Symbols download do not share the same symbols CRC checksum.

Notes

This function requires the ISaGRAF Application Symbols to be downloaded to the controller in addition to the Application TIC code. This function provides a convenient method to access ISaGRAF variables by name; however, because the variable name must be looked up in the ISaGRAF variable list each call, the performance of the function may be slow for large numbers of variables. For better performance, use the variable’s network address and the setdbase function.

The IO_SYSTEM system resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

setdbase, readRealVariable

Example

This program writes the value 25.607 to the real variable named “Flowrate”.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

BOOLEAN status;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); status = writeRealVariable("Flowrate", 25.607);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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writeMsgVariable

Write to ISaGRAF Message Variable

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN writeMsgVariable(unsigned char * varName, unsigned char * msg)

Description

This function writes to the specified message variable.

The variable is specified by its name expressed as a character string. The name is case insensitive (The ISaGRAF Dictionary also treats variable names as case insensitive). If the variable is found, TRUE is returned and the specified string is written to the message variable. If the variable is not found or if the ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid, nothing is done and FALSE is returned. The ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid if the Application TIC code download and Application Symbols download do not share the same symbols CRC checksum.

The pointer msg must point to a character string large enough to hold the maximum length declared for the specified message variable plus two length bytes and a null termination byte

(i.e. max declared length + 3).

When writing to the message variable, all bytes are copied except the first byte (max length byte) and the last byte (null termination byte). ISaGRAF message variables have the following format:

Byte

Location

0

Description

Maximum length as declared in ISaGRAF Dictionary (1 to 255)

1

2

Current Length = location of first null byte (0 to maximum length)

First message data byte

… max + 1 Last byte in message buffer max + 2 Null termination byte (Terminates a message having the maximum length.)

Notes

This function requires the ISaGRAF Application Symbols to be downloaded to the controller in addition to the Application TIC code. This function provides a convenient method to access ISaGRAF variables by name; however, because the variable name must be looked up in the ISaGRAF variable list each call, the performance of the function may be slow for large numbers of variables. For better performance, use the variable’s network address and the setdbase function.

The IO_SYSTEM system resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

setdbase, readMsgVariable

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Example

This program writes the message “Warning” to the message variable named “TextData”.

TextData has a maximum length of 10 bytes and a current length of 7 bytes.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

BOOLEAN status; unsigned char msg[13]; msg[0] = 10; msg[1] = 7; msg[2] = 'W'; msg[3] = 'a'; msg[4] = 'r'; msg[5] = 'n'; msg[6] = 'i'; msg[7] = 'n'; msg[8] = 'g'; msg[9] = 0; msg[10] = 0; msg[11] = 0; msg[12] = 0;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); status = writeMsgVariable("TextData", msg);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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writeTimerVariable

Write to ISaGRAF Timer Variable

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN writeTimerVariable(unsigned char * varName, unsigned long value)

Description

This function writes a value in milliseconds to the specified timer variable. The maximum value that may be written is 86399999 ms (or 24 hours). If the value is greater than

86399999 ms, the value modulus 86399999 is written to the timer variable. The specified timer may be active or stopped.

The variable is specified by its name expressed as a character string. The name is case insensitive (The ISaGRAF Dictionary also treats variable names as case insensitive). If the variable is found, TRUE is returned and the specified unsigned long value is written to the variable. If the variable is not found or if the ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid, nothing is done and FALSE is returned. The ISaGRAF Symbols Status is invalid if the Application TIC code download and Application Symbols download do not share the same symbols CRC checksum.

Notes

This function requires the ISaGRAF Application Symbols to be downloaded to the controller in addition to the Application TIC code. This function provides a convenient method to access ISaGRAF variables by name; however, because the variable name must be looked up in the ISaGRAF variable list each call, the performance of the function may be slow for large numbers of variables. For better performance, use the variable’s network address and the setdbase function.

The IO_SYSTEM system resource must be requested before calling this function.

See Also

setdbase, readTimerVariable

Example

This program writes the value 10000 ms to the timer variable named “Delay”.

#include <ctools.h> void main(void)

{

BOOLEAN status;

request_resource(IO_SYSTEM); status = writeTimerVariable("Delay", 10000);

release_resource(IO_SYSTEM);

}

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writeRoutingTableEntry

Write Routing Table Entry

Syntax

#include <ctools.h>

BOOLEAN writeRoutingTableEntry (

);

Description

This function writes an entry in the DNP routing table.

Notes

DNP must be enabled before calling this function in order to create the DNP configuration.

The function returns TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise.

Example

See the example in the dnpSendUnsolicited section.

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ISaGRAF C Tools Macro Definitions

A

Macro Definition

AB Specifies Allan-Bradley database addressing.

AB_PARSER

AB_FULL_BCC

AB_FULL_CRC

System resource: DF1 protocol message parser.

Specifies the DF1 Full Duplex protocol emulation for the serial port. (BCC checksum)

Specifies the DF1 Full Duplex protocol emulation for the serial port. (CRC checksum)

AB_HALF_BCC

Specifies the DF1 Half Duplex protocol emulation for the serial port. (BCC checksum)

AB_HALF_CRC

AB_PROTOCOL

Specifies the DF1 Half Duplex protocol emulation for the serial port. (CRC checksum)

DF1 protocol firmware option

AD_BATTERY

AD_THERMISTOR

Internal AD channel connected to lithium battery

Internal AD channel connected to thermistor

ADDITIVE

AIN_END

Additive checksum

Number of last analog input channel.

AIN_START

AIO_BADCHAN

AIO_SUPPORTED

Number of first analog input channel.

Error code: bad analog input channel specified.

If defined indicates analog I/O supported.

AIO_TIMEOUT

AO

Error code: input device did not respond.

Variable name: alarm output address

AOUT_END

AOUT_START

Number of last analog output channel.

Number of first analog output channel.

APPLICATION

AT_ABSOLUTE

Specifies an application type task. All application tasks are terminated by the end_application function.

Specifies a fixed time of day alarm.

AT_NONE

Disables alarms

B

Macro Definition

BACKGROUND

System event: background I/O requested. The background I/O task uses this event. It should not be used in an application program.

BASE_TYPE_MASK

BAUD110

Controller type bit mask

Specifies 110-baud port speed.

BAUD115200

BAUD1200

Specifies 115200-baud port speed.

Specifies 1200-baud port speed.

BAUD150

BAUD19200

Specifies 150-baud port speed.

Specifies 19200-baud port speed.

BAUD2400

BAUD300

Specifies 2400-baud port speed.

Specifies 300-baud port speed.

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Macro Definition

BAUD38400

Specifies 38400-baud port speed.

BAUD4800

BAUD57600

Specifies 4800-baud port speed.

Specifies 57600-baud port speed.

BAUD600 Specifies 600-baud port speed.

BAUD75

BAUD9600

Specifies 75-baud port speed.

Specifies 9600-baud port speed.

BYTE_EOR

Byte-wise exclusive OR checksum

C

Macro Definition

CA

CLASS0_FLAG

Variable name: cascade setpoint source specifies a flag for enabling DNP Class 0 data

CLASS1_FLAG

CLASS2_FLAG

CLASS3_FLAG

CLOSED specifies a flag for enabling DNP Class 1 data specifies a flag for enabling DNP Class 2 data specifies a flag for enabling DNP Class 3 data

Specifies switch is in closed position

COLD_BOOT com1

COM1_FREE

COM1_RCVR com2

COM2_FREE

COM2_RCVR

Cold-boot switch depressed when CPU was reset.

Points to a file object for the com1 serial port.

System event: com1 transmit buffer is no longer full.

This event is used internally by the serial I/O driver.

System event: indicates activity on com1 receiver. The meaning depends on the character handler installed.

Points to a file object for the com2 serial port.

System event: com2 transmit buffer is no longer full.

This event is used internally by the serial I/O driver.

System event: indicates activity on com2 receiver. The meaning depends on the character handler installed. com3

COM3_RCVR com4

COM4_RCVR

COUNTER_CHANNELS

Points to a file object for the com3 serial port.

System event: indicates activity on com3 receiver. The meaning depends on the character handler installed.

Points to a file object for the com4serial port.

System event: indicates activity on com4 receiver. The meaning depends on the character handler installed.

Specifies number of 5000 Series counter input channels

COUNTER_END

COUNTER_START

COUNTER_SUPPORTED

CPU_CLOCK_RATE

Number of last counter input channel

Number of first counter input channel

If defined indicates counter I/O hardware supported.

Frequency of the system clock in cycles per second

CR

CRC_16

CRC_CCITT

Variable name: control register

CRC-16 type CRC checksum (reverse algorithm)

CCITT type CRC checksum (reverse algorithm)

D

Macro Definition

DATA_SIZE

Maximum length of the HART command or response field.

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Macro Definition

DATA7

Specifies 7 bit world length.

DATA8

DB

Specifies 8 bit word length.

Variable name: deadband

DB_BADSIZE Error code: out of range address specified

DB_BADTYPE

DB_OK

Error code: bad database addressing type specified

Error code: no error occurred

DE_BadConfig

DE_BusyLine

The modem configuration structure contains an error

The phone number called was busy

DE_CallAborted

DE_CarrierLost

DE_FailedToConnect

A call in progress was aborted by the user

The connection to the remote site was lost (modem reported NO CARRIER). Carrier is lost for a time exceeding the S10 setting in the modem. Phone lines with call waiting are very susceptible to this condition.

The modem could not connect to the remote site

DE_InitError

Modem initialization failed (the modem may be turned off)

DE_NoDialTone

DE_NoError

Modem did not detect a dial tone or the S6 setting in the modem is too short.

No error has occurred

DE_NoModem

The serial port is not configured as a modem (port type must be RS232_MODEM). Or no modem is connected to the controller serial port.

DE_NotInControl

The serial port is in use by another modem function or has answered an incoming call.

DIN_END

DIN_START

DIO_SUPPORTED

Number of last regular digital input channel.

Number of first regular digital input channel

If defined indicates digital I/O hardware supported.

DISABLE

DNP

Specifies flow control is disabled.

Specifies the DNP protocol for the serial port

DO

DOUT_END

Variable name: decrease output

Number of last regular digital output channel.

DOUT_START

DS_Calling

Number of first regular digital output channel

The controller is making a connection to a remote controller

DS_Connected

DS_Inactive

The controller is connected to a remote controller

The serial port is not in use by a modem

DS_Terminating

The controller is ending a connection to a remote controller.

DUTY_CYCLE

DYNAMIC_MEMORY

Specifies timer is generating square wave output.

System resource: all memory allocation functions such as malloc, alloc, and zalloc.

E

Macro Definition

EEPROM_EVERY

EEPROM section loaded to RAM on every CPU reboot

EEPROM_RUN EEPROM section loaded to RAM on RUN type boots only.

EEPROM_SUPPORTED If defined, indicates that there is an EEPROM in the controller.

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F

Macro Definition

FOPEN_MAX Redefinition of macro from stdio.h

FORCE_MULTIPLE_COILS

FORCE_SINGLE_COIL

Modbus function code

Modbus function code

FULL

Specifies full duplex.

G

Macro Definition

GASFLOW

GFC_4202

GFC_4202DS

Gas Flow calculation firmware option

SCADASense 4202 DR controller

SCADASense 4202 DS controller

H

Macro Definition

ENABLE

Specifies flow control is enabled.

ER

EVEN

Variable name: error

Specifies even parity.

EX Variable name: automatic execution period

EXTENDED_DIN_END

EXTENDED_DIN_START

Number of last extended digital input channel.

Number of first extended digital input channel

EXTENDED_DOUT_END

EXTENDED_DOUT_START

Number of last extended digital output channel.

Number of first extended digital output channel

Macro Definition

HALF Specifies half duplex.

I

Macro Definition

IO_SYSTEM System resource for all I/O hardware functions.

L

Macro Definition

LED_OFF Specifies LED is to be turned off.

LED_ON

LINEAR

Specifies LED is to be turned on.

Specifies linear database addressing.

LOAD_MULTIPLE_REGISTERS Modbus function code

LOAD_SINGLE_REGISTER Modbus function code

LOCAL_COUNTERS

Number of 5203/4 counter inputs

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M

Macro Definition

MAX_PRIORITY

MM_BAD_ADDRESS

The maximum task priority.

Master message status: invalid database address

MM_BAD_FUNCTION

MM_BAD_LENGTH

Master message status: invalid function code

Master message status: invalid message length

MM_BAD_SLAVE

MM_NO_MESSAGE

Master message status: invalid slave station address

Master message status: no message was sent.

MM_PROTOCOL_NOT_SUPPORTED

Master message status: selected protocol is not supported.

MM_RECEIVED

MM_RECEIVED_BAD_LENGTH

Master message status: response received.

Master message status: response received with the incorrect amount of data.

MM_SENT

MODBUS

Master message status: message was sent.

Specifies Modbus database addressing.

MODBUS_ASCII

MM_EOT

MM_WRONG_RSP

Specifies the Modbus ASCII protocol emulation for the serial port.

Master message status: DF1 slave response was an EOT message

Master message status: DF1 slave response did not match command sent.

MM_CMD_ACKED

MM_EXCEPTION_ADDRESS

MM_EXCEPTION_DEVICE_BUSY

Master message status: Modbus slave returned a Device Busy exception.

MM_EXCEPTION_DEVICE_FAILURE Master message status: Modbus slave returned a Device Failure exception.

MM_EXCEPTION_FUNCTION

Master message status: Modbus slave returned a function exception.

MM_EXCEPTION_VALUE

Master message status: Modbus slave returned a value exception.

MODBUS_PARSER

Master message status: Modbus slave returned an address exception.

MODBUS_RTU

MODEM_CMD_MAX_LEN

System resource: Modbus protocol message parser.

Specifies the Modbus RTU protocol emulation for the serial port.

Maximum length of the modem initialization command string

MODEM_MSG

Master message status: DF1 half duplex command has been acknowledged by slave –

Master may now send poll command.

MSG_DATA

System event: new modem message generated.

Specifies the data field in an envelope contains a data value.

MSG_POINTER

Specifies the data field in an envelope contains a pointer.

N

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Macro Definition

NEVER

System event: this event will never occur.

NEW_PROGRAM

NO_ERROR

Application program is newly loaded.

Error code: indicates no error has occurred.

NO_PROTOCOL

NONE

Specifies no communication protocol for the serial port.

Specifies no parity.

NORMAL

NORMAL

Specifies normal count down timer.

Specifies normal count down timer.

NOTYPE

NUMAB

NUMCOIL

Specifies serial port type is not known.

Number of registers in the Allan-Bradley database.

Number of registers in the Modbus coil section.

NUMCOIL_PERMANENT

Number of coil registers in the Permanent Non-Volatile

Modbus Registers section.

NUMHOLDING

NUMHOLDING_PERMANENT

NUMINPUT

Number of registers in the Modbus holding register section.

Number of holding registers in the Permanent Non-

Volatile Modbus Registers section.

Number of registers in the Modbus input register section.

NUMLINEAR

NUMSTATUS

Number of registers in the linear database.

Number of registers in the Modbus status section.

O

Macro Definition

ODD Specifies odd parity.

OPEN

Specifies switch is in open position

P

Macro Definition

PC_FLOW_RX_RECEIVE_STOP Receiver disabled after receipt of a message.

PC_FLOW_RX_XON_XOFF

Receiver Xon/Xoff flow control.

PC_FLOW_TX_IGNORE_CTS Transmitter flow control ignores CTS.

PC_FLOW_TX_XON_XOFF

Transmitter Xon/Xoff flow control.

PC_PROTOCOL_RTU_FRAMING Modbus RTU framing.

PHONE_NUM_MAX_LEN

Maximum length of the phone number string

PM_CPU_FULL_CLOCK

The CPU is set to run at full speed

PM_CPU_REDUCED_CLOCK

PM_CPU_SLEEP

The CPU is set to run at a reduced speed

The CPU is set to sleep mode

PM_LAN_ENABLED The LAN is enabled

PM_LAN_DISABLED

PM_USB_PERIPHERAL_ENABLED

The LAN is disabled

The USB peripheral port is enabled

PM_USB_PERIPHERAL_DISABLED

PM_USB_HOST_ENABLED

The USB peripheral port is disabled

The USB host port is enabled

PM_USB_HOST_DISABLED

PM_UNAVAILABLE

The USB host port is disabled

The status of the device could not be read.

PM_NO_CHANGE

PROGRAM_EXECUTED

The current value will be used

Application program has been executed.

PROGRAM_NOT_LOADED

The requested application program is not loaded.

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R

Macro Definition

READ_COIL_STATUS

READ_INPUT_REGISTER

READ_INPUT_STATUS

Modbus function code

READ_EXCEPTION_STATUS

Modbus function code

READ_HOLDING_REGISTER

Modbus function code

Modbus function code

Modbus function code

READSTATUS enum

ReadStatus

REPORT_SLAVE_ID

RS232

RS232_COLLISION_AVOIDAN

CE

RS232_MODEM

Modbus function code

Specifies serial port is an RS-232 port.

Specifies serial port is RS232 and uses CD for collision avoidance.

Specifies serial port is an RS-232 dial-up modem.

RS485_4WIRE

RTOS_ENVELOPES

RTOS_EVENTS

RTOS_PRIORITIES

Specifies serial port is a 4 wire RS-485 port.

Number of RTOS envelopes.

Number of RTOS events.

Number of RTOS task priorities.

RTOS_RESOURCES

RTOS_TASKS

RUN

Number of RTOS resource flags.

Number of RTOS tasks.

Run/Service switch is in RUN position.

S

Macro Definition

S_MODULE_FAILURE Status LED code for I/O module communication failure

S_NORMAL

SCADAPACK

Status LED code for normal status

SCADAPack controller

SCADAPACK_LIGHT

SCADAPACK_PLUS

SCADAPack LIGHT controller

SCADAPack PLUS controller

SERIAL_PORTS

SERVICE

Number of serial ports.

Run/Service switch is in SERVICE position.

SF_ALREADY_DEFINED

Result code: translation is already defined in the table

SF_INDEX_OUT_OF_RANGE

Result code: invalid translation table index

SF_NO_TRANSLATION

SF_PORT_OUT_OF_RANGE

Result code: entry does not define a translation

Result code: serial port is not valid

SF_STATION_OUT_OF_RANGE Result code: station number is not valid

SF_TABLE_SIZE

Number of entries in the store and forward table

SF_VALID Result code: translation is valid

SIGNAL_CTS

SIGNAL_CTS

I/O line bit mask: clear to send signal

Matches status of CTS input.

SIGNAL_DCD

SIGNAL_DCD

I/O line bit mask: carrier detect signal

Matches status of DCD input.

SIGNAL_OFF

SIGNAL_OH

SIGNAL_OH

Specifies a signal is de-asserted

I/O line bit mask: off hook signal

Not supported – forced low (1).

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Macro Definition

SIGNAL_ON

Specifies a signal is asserted

SIGNAL_RING

SIGNAL_RING

I/O line bit mask: ring signal

Not supported – forced low (0).

SIGNAL_VOICE I/O line bit mask: voice/data switch signal

SIGNAL_VOICE

SLEEP_MODE_SUPPORTED

Not supported – forced low (0).

Defined if sleep function is supported

SMARTWIRE_5201_5202

STACK_SIZE

SmartWIRE 5201 and 5202 controllers

Size of the machine stack.

START_COIL

START_HOLDING

Start of the coils section in the linear database.

Start of the holding register section in the linear database.

START_INPUT

Start of the input register section in the linear database.

START_STATUS

STARTUP_

Start of the status section in the linear database.

Specifies the application start up task.

APPLICATION

STARTUP_SYSTEM

STOP1

STOP2

SYSTEM

Specifies the system start up task.

Specifies 1 stop bit.

Specifies 2 stop bits.

Specifies a system type task. System tasks are not terminated by the end_application function.

T

Macro Definition

T_CELSIUS

Specifies temperatures in degrees Celsius

T_FAHRENHEIT

T_KELVIN

Specifies temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit

Specifies temperatures in degrees Kelvin

T_RANKINE Specifies temperatures in degrees Rankine

TELESAFE_6000_16EX

TELESAFE_MICRO_16

TeleSAFE 6000-16EX controller

TeleSAFE Micro16 controller

TIMED_OUT

TIMEOUT

Specifies timer is has reached zero.

Specifies timer is generating timed output change.

TIMER_BADADDR

TIMER_BADINTERVAL

Error code: invalid digital I/O address

Error code: invalid timer interval

TIMER_BADTIMER

TIMER_BADVALUE

TIMER_MAX

Error code: invalid timer

Error code: invalid time value

Number of last valid software timer.

TS_EXECUTING

TS_READY

Task status indicating task is executing.

Task status indicating task is ready to execute

TS_WAIT_

RESOURCE

Task status indicating task is blocked waiting for a resource

TS_WAIT_ENVELOPE

TS_WAIT_EVENT

TS_WAIT_MESSAGE

Task status indicating task is blocked waiting for an envelope

Task status indicating task is blocked waiting for an event

Task status indicating task is blocked waiting for a message

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V

Macro Definition

VI_DATE_SIZE

Number of characters in version information date field

W

Macro Definition

WRITESTATUS enum

WriteStatus

WS_ALL

All wake up sources enabled

WS_COUNTER_0_OVERFLOW Bit mask to enable counter 0 overflow as wake up source

WS_COUNTER_1_OVERFLOW

Bit mask to enable counter 1 overflow as wake up source

WS_COUNTER_2_OVERFLOW

Bit mask to enable counter 2 overflow as wake up source

WS_INTERRUPT_INPUT

Bit mask to enable interrupt input as wake up source

WS_LED_POWER_SWITCH

Bit mask to enable LED power switch as wake up source

WS_NONE

WS_REAL_TIME_CLOCK

No wake up source enabled

Bit mask to enable real time clock as wake up source

WS_UNDEFINED

Undefined wake up source

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ISaGRAF C Tools Structures and

Types

ABConfiguration

The ABConfiguration structure defines settings for DF1 communication protocol.

/* DF1 Protocol Configuration */ struct ABConfiguration {

};

• min_protected_address is the minimum allowable DF1 physical 16-bit address allowed in all protected commands. The default value is 0.

• max_protected_address is the maximum allowable DF1 physical 16-bit address allowed in all protected commands. The default value is NUMAB.

ADDRESS_MODE

The ADDRESS_MODE enumerated type describes addressing modes for communication protocols. typedef enum addressMode_t

{

AM_standard = 0,

AM_extended

}

ADDRESS_MODE;

• AM_standard returns standard Modbus addressing. Standard addressing allows 255 stations and is compatible with standard Modbus devices

• AM_extended returns extended addressing. Extended addressing allows 65534 stations.

ALARM_SETTING

The ALARM_SETTING structure defines a real time clock alarm setting. typedef struct alarmSetting_tag {

• type specifies the type of alarm. It may be the AT_NONE or AT_ABSOLUTE macro.

• hour specifies the hour at which the alarm will occur.

• minute specifies the minute at which the alarm will occur.

• second specifies the second at which the alarm will occur.

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clock

The clock structure contains time and date for reading or writing the real time clock. struct clock {

UINT16 year;

UINT16 month;

UINT16 day;

UINT16 dayofweek;

UINT16 hour;

UINT16 minute;

UINT16 second;

};

• year is the current year. It is two digits in the range 00 to 99.

• month is the current month. It is in the range 1 to 12.

• day is the current day. It is in the range 1 to 31.

• dayofweek is the current day of the week. It is in the range 1 to 7. 1 = Sunday, 2 =

Monday…7 = Saturday.

• hour is the current hour. It is in the range 00 to 23.

• minute is the current minute. It is in the range 00 to 59.

• second is the current second. It is in the range 00 to 59.

DATALOG_CONFIGURATION

The data log configuration structure holds the configuration of the data log. Each record in a data log may hold up to eight fields. Not all the fields are used if fewer than eight variables are declared.

The amount of memory used for a record depends on the number of fields in the record and the size of each field. Use the datalogRecordSize function to determine the memory needed for each record. typedef struct datalogConfiguration_type {

UINT16 records; /* # of records */

UINT16 fields; /* # of fields per record */

} DATALOG_CONFIGURATION;

DATALOG_STATUS

The data log status enumerated type is used to report status information. typedef enum {

DLS_CREATED, /* data log created */

DLS_BADID, /* invalid log ID */

DLS_EXISTS, /* log already exists */

DLS_NOMEMORY, /* insufficient memory for log */

DLS_BADCONFIG /* invalid configuration */

DLS_BADSEQUENCE /* sequence number not in use */

} DATALOG_STATUS;

DATALOG_VARIABLE

The data log variable enumerated type is specify the type and size of variables to be recorded in the log.

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typedef enum {

DLV_UINT16 = 0, /* 16 bit unsigned integer */

DLV_INT16,

DLV_UINT32,

/* 16 bit signed integer */

/* 32 bit unsigned integer */

DLV_INT32,

DLV_FLOAT,

DLV_CMITIME,

DLV_DOUBLE

} DATALOG_VARIABLE;

/* 32 bit signed integer */

/* 32 bit floating point */

/* 64 bit time */

/* 64 bit floating point */

DialError

The DialError enumerated type defines error responses from the dial-up modem functions and may have one of the following values. enum DialError

{

DE_NoError = 0,

DE_BadConfig,

DE_NoModem,

DE_InitError,

DE_NoDialTone,

DE_BusyLine,

DE_CallAborted,

DE_FailedToConnect,

DE_CarrierLost,

DE_NotInControl

DE_CallCut

};

• DE_NoError returns no error has occurred

• DE_BadConfig returns the modem configuration structure contains an error

• DE_NoModem returns the serial port is not configured as a modem (port type must be

RS232_MODEM). Or no modem is connected to the controller serial port.

• DE_InitError returns modem initialization failed (the modem may be turned off)

• DE_NoDialTone returns modem did not detect a dial tone or the S6 setting in the modem is too short.

• DE_BusyLine returns the phone number called was busy

• DE_CallAborted returns a call in progress was aborted by the user

• DE_FailedToConnect returns the modem could not connect to the remote site

• DE_CarrierLost returns the connection to the remote site was lost (modem reported

NO CARRIER). Carrier is lost for a time exceeding the S10 setting in the modem. Phone lines with call waiting are very susceptible to this condition.

• DE_NotInControl returns the serial port is in use by another modem function or has answered an incoming call.

• DE_CallCut returns an incoming call was disconnected while attempting to dial out.

DialState

The DialState enumerated type defines the state of the modemDial operation and may have one of the following values. enum DialState

{

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DS_Inactive,

DS_Calling,

DS_Connected,

DS_Terminating

};

• DS_Inactive returns the serial port is not in use by a modem

• DS_Calling returns the controller is making a connection to a remote controller

• DS_Connected returns the controller is connected to a remote controller

• DS_Terminating returns the controller is ending a connection to a remote controller.

dnpAnalogInput

The dnpAnalogInput type describes a DNP analog input point. This type is used for both

16-bit and 32-bit points. typedef struct dnpAnalogInput_type

{

UINT16 modbusAddress;

UCHAR class;

UINT32 deadband;

} dnpAnalogInput;

• modbusAddress is the address of the Modbus register number associated with the point.

• class is the reporting class for the object. It may be set to CLASS_1, CLASS_2 or

CLASS_3

.

• deadband is the amount by which the analog input value must change before an event will be reported for the point.

dnpAnalogOutput

The dnpAnalogOutput type describes a DNP analog output point. This type is used for both 16-bit and 32-bit points. typedef struct dnpAnalogOutput_type

{

} dnpAnalogOutput;

• modbusAddress is the address of the Modbus register associated with the point.

dnpBinaryInput

The dnpBinaryInput type describes a DNP binary input point. typedef struct dnpBinaryInput_type

{

UCHAR class;

} dnpBinaryInput;

• modbusAddress is the address of the Modbus register associated with the point.

• class is the reporting class for the object. It may be set to CLASS_1, CLASS_2 or

CLASS_3

.

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dnpBinaryInputEx_type

The dnpBinaryInputEx type describes an extended DNP Binary Input point. typedef struct dnpBinaryInputEx_type

{

UCHAR eventClass;

UCHAR debounce;

} dnpBinaryInputEx;

• modbusAddress is the address of the Modbus register associated with the point.

• class is the reporting class for the object. It may be set to CLASS_1, CLASS_2 or

CLASS_3

.

• debounceTime is the debounce time for thebinary input.

dnpBinaryOutput

The dnpBinaryOutput type describes a DNP binary output point. typedef struct dnpBinaryOutput_type

{

UINT16 modbusAddress1;

UINT16 modbusAddress2;

UCHAR controlType;

} dnpBinaryOutput;

• modbusAddress1 is the address of the first Modbus register associated with the point.

This field is always used.

• modbusAddress2 is the address of the second Modbus register associated with the point. This field is used only with paired outputs. See the controlType field.

• controlType determines if one or two outputs are associated with this output point. It may be set to PAIRED or NOT_PAIRED.

• A paired output uses two Modbus registers for output. The first output is the Trip output and the second is the Close output. This is used with Control Relay Output

Block objects.

• A non-paired output uses one Modbus register for output. This is used with Binary

Output objects.

DNP_CONNECTION_EVENT Type

This enumerated type lists DNP events. typedef enum dnpConnectionEventType

{

DNP_CONNECTED=0,

DNP_DISCONNECTED,

DNP_CONNECTION_REQUIRED,

DNP_MESSAGE_COMPLETE,

DNP_MESSAGE_TIMEOUT

} DNP_CONNECTION_EVENT;

• The DNP_CONNECTED event indicates that the handler has connected to the master station. The application sends this event to DNP. When DNP receives this event it will send unsolicited messages.

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• The DNP_DISCONNECTED event indicates that the handler has disconnected from the master station. The application sends this event to DNP. When DNP receives this event it will request a new connection before sending unsolicited messages.

• The DNP_CONNECTION_REQUIRED event indicates that DNP wishes to connect to the master station. DNP sends this event to the application. The application should process this event by making a connection.

• The DNP_MESSAGE_COMPLETE event indicates that DNP has received confirmation of unsolicited messages from the master station. DNP sends this event to the application. The application should process this event by disconnecting. In many applications a short delay before disconnecting is useful as it allows the master station to send commands to the slave after the unsolicited reporting is complete.

• The DNP_MESSAGE_TIMEOUT event indicates that DNP has attempted to send an unsolicited message but did not receive confirmation after all attempts. This usually means there is a communication problem. DNP sends this event to the application. The application should process this event by disconnecting.

dnpConfiguration

The dnpConfiguration type describes the DNP parameters. typedef struct dnpConfiguration_type

{

UINT16 masterAddress;

UINT16 rtuAddress;

CHAR datalinkConfirm;

CHAR datalinkRetries;

UINT16 datalinkTimeout;

UINT16 operateTimeout;

UCHAR applicationConfirm;

UINT16 maximumResponse;

UCHAR applicationRetries;

UINT16 applicationTimeout;

INT16 timeSynchronization;

UINT16 BI_number;

UINT16 BI_startAddress;

CHAR BI_reportingMethod;

UINT16 BI_soebufferSize;

UINT16 BO_number;

UINT16 BO_startAddress;

UINT16 CI16_number;

UINT16 CI16_startAddress;

CHAR CI16_reportingMethod;

UINT16 CI16_bufferSize;

UINT16 CI32_number;

UINT16 CI32_startAddress;

CHAR CI32_reportingMethod;

UINT16 CI32_bufferSize;

CHAR CI32_wordOrder;

UINT16 AI16_number;

UINT16 AI16_startAddress;

CHAR AI16_reportingMethod;

UINT16 AI16_bufferSize;

UINT16 AI32_number;

UINT16 AI32_startAddress;

CHAR AI32_reportingMethod;

UINT16 AI32_bufferSize;

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CHAR AI32_wordOrder;

UINT16 AISF_number;

UINT16 AISF_startAddress;

CHAR AISF_reportingMethod;

UINT16 AISF_bufferSize;

CHAR AISF_wordOrder;

UINT16 AO16_number;

UINT16 AO16_startAddress;

UINT16 AO32_number;

UINT16 AO32_startAddress;

CHAR AO32_wordOrder;

UINT16 AOSF_number;

UINT16 AOSF_startAddress;

CHAR AOSF_wordOrder;

UINT16 autoUnsolicitedClass1;

UINT16 holdTimeClass1;

UINT16 holdCountClass1;

UINT16 autoUnsolicitedClass2;

UINT16 holdTimeClass2;

UINT16 holdCountClass2;

UINT16 autoUnsolicitedClass3;

UINT16 holdTimeClass3;

UINT16 holdCountClass3;

} dnpConfiguration;

• masterAddress is the address of the master station. Unsolicited messages are sent to this station. Solicited messages must come from this station. Valid values are 0 to

65534.

• rtuAddress is the address of the RTU. The master station must send messages to this address. Valid values are 0 to 65534.

• datalinkConfirm enables requesting data link layer confirmations. Valid values are

TRUE and FALSE.

• datalinkRetries is the number of times the data link layer will retry a failed message. Valid values are 0 to 255.

• datalinkTimeout is the length of time the data link layer will wait for a response before trying again or aborting the transmission. The value is measured in milliseconds.

Valid values are 100 to 60000 in multiples of 100 milliseconds.

• operateTimeout is the length of time an operate command is valid after receiving a select command. The value is measured in seconds. Valid values are 1 to 6500.

• applicationConfirm enables requesting application layer confirmations. Valid values are TRUE and FALSE.

• maximumResponse is the maximum length of an application layer response. Valid values are 20 to 2048. The recommended value is 2048 unless the master cannot handle responses this large.

• applicationRetries is the number of times the application layer will retry a transmission. Valid values are 0 to 255.

• applicationTimeout is the length of time the application layer will wait for a response before trying again or aborting the transmission. The value is measured in milliseconds. Valid values are 100 to 60000 in multiples of 100 milliseconds. This value must be larger than the data link timeout.

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• timeSynchronization defines how often the RTU will request a time synchronization from the master.

• Set this to NO_TIME_SYNC to disable time synchronization requests.

• Set this to STARTUP_TIME_SYNC to request time synchronization at start up only.

• Set this to 1 to 32767 to set the time synchronization period in seconds.

• BI_number is the number of binary input points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• BI_startAddress is the DNP address of the first Binary Input point.

• BI_reportingMethod determines how binary inputs are reported either Change Of

State or Log All Events.

• BI_bufferSize is the Binary Input Change Event Buffer Size.

• BO_number is the number of binary output points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• BO_startAddress is the DNP address of the first Binary Output point.

• CI16_number is the number of 16-bit counter input points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• CI16_startAddress is the DNP address of the first CI16 point.

• CI16_reportingMethod determines how CI16 inputs are reported either Change Of

State or Log All Events.

• CI16_bufferSize is the number of events in the 16-bit counter change buffer. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• CI32_number is the number of 32-bit counter input points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• CI32_startAddress is the DNP address of the first CI32 point.

• CI32_reportingMethod determines how CI32 inputs are reported either Change Of

State or Log All Events.

• CI32_bufferSize is the number of events in the 32-bit counter change buffer. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• CI32_wordOrder is the Word Order of CI32 points (0=LSW first, 1=MSW first).

• AI16_number is the number of 16-bit analog input points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• AI16_startAddress is the DNP address of the first AI16 point.

• AI16_reportingMethod determines how 16-bit analog changes are reported.

• Set this to FIRST_VALUE to report the value of the first change event measured.

• Set this to CURRENT_VALUE to report the value of the latest change event measured.

• AI16_bufferSize is the number of events in the 16-bit analog input change buffer.

Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• AI32_number is the number of 32-bit analog input points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• AI32_startAddress is the DNP address of the first AI32 point.

• AI32_reportingMethod determines how 32-bit analog changes are reported.

• Set this to FIRST_VALUE to report the value of the first change event measured.

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• Set this to CURRENT_VALUE to report the value of the latest change event measured.

• AI32_bufferSize is the number of events in the 32-bit analog input change buffer.

Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• AI32_wordOrder is the Word Order of AI32 points (0=LSW first, 1=MSW first)

• AO16_number is the number of 16-bit analog output points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• AO16_startAddress is the DNP address of the first AO16 point.

• AO32_number is the number of 32-bit analog output points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• AO32_startAddress is the DNP address of the first AO32 point.

• AO32_wordOrder is the Word Order of AO32 points (0=LSW first, 1=MSW first)

• AOSF_number is the number of short float Analog Outputs.

• AOSF_startAddress is the DNP address of first AOSF point.

• AOSF_wordOrder is the Word Order of AOSF points (0=LSW first, 1=MSW first).

• autoUnsolicitedClass1 enables or disables automatic Unsolicited reporting of

Class 1 events.

• holdTimeClass1 is the maximum period to hold Class 1 events before reporting

• holdCountClass1 is the maximum number of Class 1 events to hold before reporting.

• autoUnsolicitedClass2 enables or disables automatic Unsolicited reporting of

Class 2 events.

• holdTimeClass2 is the maximum period to hold Class 2 events before reporting

• holdCountClass2 is the maximum number of Class 2 events to hold before reporting.

• autoUnsolicitedClass3 enables or disables automatic Unsolicited reporting of

Class 3 events.

• holdTimeClass3 is the maximum period to hold Class 3 events before reporting.

• HoldCountClass3 is the maximum number of Class 3 events to hold before reporting.

dnpConfigurationEx

The dnpConfigurationEx type includes extra parameters in the DNP Configuration. typedef struct dnpConfigurationEx_type

{

UINT16 rtuAddress;

UCHAR datalinkConfirm;

UCHAR datalinkRetries;

UCHAR applicationConfirm;

UCHAR applicationRetries;

INT16 timeSynchronization;

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UCHAR BI_reportingMethod;

UINT16 CI16_number;

UCHAR CI16_reportingMethod;

UCHAR CI32_reportingMethod;

UCHAR CI32_wordOrder;

UINT16 AI16_number;

UCHAR AI16_reportingMethod;

UCHAR AI32_reportingMethod;

UCHAR AI32_wordOrder;

UCHAR AISF_reportingMethod;

UCHAR AISF_wordOrder;

UINT16 AO16_number;

UCHAR AO32_wordOrder;

UCHAR AOSF_wordOrder;

UINT16 masterAddressCount;

UINT16 masterAddress[8];

Char modemInitString[64];

} dnpConfigurationEx;

• rtuAddress is the address of the RTU. The master station must send messages to this address. Valid values are 0 to 65534.

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• datalinkConfirm enables requesting data link layer confirmations. Valid values are

TRUE and FALSE.

• datalinkRetries is the number of times the data link layer will retry a failed message. Valid values are 0 to 255.

• datalinkTimeout is the length of time the data link layer will wait for a response before trying again or aborting the transmission. The value is measured in milliseconds.

Valid values are 100 to 60000 in multiples of 100 milliseconds.

• operateTimeout is the length of time an operate command is valid after receiving a select command. The value is measured in seconds. Valid values are 1 to 6500.

• applicationConfirm enables requesting application layer confirmations. Valid values are TRUE and FALSE.

• maximumResponse is the maximum length of an application layer response. Valid values are 20 to 2048. The recommended value is 2048 unless the master cannot handle responses this large.

• applicationRetries is the number of times the application layer will retry a transmission. Valid values are 0 to 255.

• applicationTimeout is the length of time the application layer will wait for a response before trying again or aborting the transmission. The value is measured in milliseconds. Valid values are 100 to 60000 in multiples of 100 milliseconds. This value must be larger than the data link timeout.

• timeSynchronization defines how often the RTU will request a time synchronization from the master.

• Set this to NO_TIME_SYNC to disable time synchronization requests.

• Set this to STARTUP_TIME_SYNC to request time synchronization at start up only.

• Set this to 1 to 32767 to set the time synchronization period in seconds.

• BI_number is the number of binary input points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• BI_startAddress is the DNP address of the first Binary Input point.

• BI_reportingMethod determines how binary inputs are reported either Change Of

State or Log All Events.

• BI_soebufferSize is the Binary Input Change Event Buffer Size.

• BO_number is the number of binary output points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• BO_startAddress is the DNP address of the first Binary Output point.

• CI16_number is the number of 16-bit counter input points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• CI16_startAddress is the DNP address of the first CI16 point.

• CI16_reportingMethod determines how CI16 inputs are reported either Change Of

State or Log All Events.

• CI16_bufferSize is the number of events in the 16-bit counter change buffer. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• CI32_number is the number of 32-bit counter input points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• CI32_startAddress is the DNP address of the first CI32 point.

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• CI32_reportingMethod determines how CI32 inputs are reported either Change Of

State or Log All Events.

• CI32_bufferSize is the number of events in the 32-bit counter change buffer. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• CI32_wordOrder is the Word Order of CI32 points (0=LSW first, 1=MSW first).

• AI16_number is the number of 16-bit analog input points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• AI16_startAddress is the DNP address of the first AI16 point.

• AI16_reportingMethod determines how 16-bit analog changes are reported.

• Set this to FIRST_VALUE to report the value of the first change event measured.

• Set this to CURRENT_VALUE to report the value of the latest change event measured.

• AI16_bufferSize is the number of events in the 16-bit analog input change buffer.

Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• AI32_number is the number of 32-bit analog input points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• AI32_startAddress is the DNP address of the first AI32 point.

• AI32_reportingMethod determines how 32-bit analog changes are reported.

• Set this to FIRST_VALUE to report the value of the first change event measured.

• Set this to CURRENT_VALUE to report the value of the latest change event measured.

• AI32_bufferSize is the number of events in the 32-bit analog input change buffer.

Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• AI32_wordOrder is the Word Order of AI32 points (0=LSW first, 1=MSW first)

• AISF_number is the number of short float Analog Inputs.

• AISF_startAddress is the DNP address of first AISF point.

• AISF_reportingMethod is the event reporting method, Change Of State or Log All

Events.

• AISF_bufferSize is the short float Analog Input Event Buffer Size.

• AISF_wordOrder is the word order of AISF points (0=LSW first, 1=MSW first) */

• AO16_number is the number of 16-bit analog output points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• AO16_startAddress is the DNP address of the first AO16 point.

• AO32_number is the number of 32-bit analog output points. Valid values are 0 to 9999.

• AO32_startAddress is the DNP address of the first AO32 point.

• AO32_wordOrder is the Word Order of AO32 points (0=LSW first, 1=MSW first)

• AOSF_number is the number of short float Analog Outputs.

• AOSF_startAddress is the DNP address of first AOSF point.

• AOSF_wordOrder is the Word Order of AOSF points (0=LSW first, 1=MSW first).

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• autoUnsolicitedClass1 enables or disables automatic Unsolicited reporting of

Class 1 events.

• holdTimeClass1 is the maximum period to hold Class 1 events before reporting

• holdCountClass1 is the maximum number of Class 1 events to hold before reporting.

• autoUnsolicitedClass2 enables or disables automatic Unsolicited reporting of

Class 2 events.

• holdTimeClass2 is the maximum period to hold Class 2 events before reporting

• holdCountClass2 is the maximum number of Class 2 events to hold before reporting.

• autoUnsolicitedClass3 enables or disables automatic Unsolicited reporting of

Class 3 events.

• holdTimeClass3 is the maximum period to hold Class 3 events before reporting.

• HoldCountClass3 is the maximum number of Class 3 events to hold before reporting.

• EnableUnsolicitedOnStartup enables or disables unsolicited reporting at start-up.

• SendUnsolicitedOnStartup sends an unsolicited report at start-up.

• level2Compliance reports only level 2 compliant data types (excludes floats, AO-32).

• MasterAddressCount is the number of master stations.

• masterAddress[8] is the number of master station addresses.

• MaxEventsInResponse is the maximum number of change events to include in read response.

• PSTNDialAttempts is the maximum number of dial attempts to establish a PSTN connection.

• PSTNDialTimeout is the maximum time after initiating a PSTN dial sequence to wait for a carrier signal.

• PSTNPauseTime is the pause time between dial events.

• PSTNOnlineInactivity is the maximum time after message activity to leave a PSTN connection open before hanging up.

• PSTNDialType is the dial type: tone or pulse dialling.

• modemInitString[64] is the initialization string to send to the modem.

dnpCounterInput

The dnpCounterInput type describes a DNP counter input point. This type is used for both 16-bit and 32-bit points. typedef struct dnpCounterInput_type

{

UCHAR class;

UINT32 threshold;

} dnpCounterInput;

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• modbusAddress is the address of the Modbus register number associated with the point.

• class is the reporting class for the object. It may be set to CLASS_1, CLASS_2 or

CLASS_3

.

• threshold is the amount by which the counter input value must change before an event will be reported for the point.

dnpPointType

The enumerated type DNP_POINT_TYPE includes all allowed DNP data point types. typedef enum dnpPointType

{

BI_POINT=0, /* binary input */

AI16_POINT,

AI32_POINT,

AISF_POINT,

AILF_POINT,

CI16_POINT,

CI32_POINT,

BO_POINT,

AO16_POINT,

AO32_POINT,

AOSF_POINT,

AOLF_POINT

} DNP_POINT_TYPE;

/* 16 bit analog input */

/* 32 bit analog input */

/* short float analog input */

/* long float analog input */

/* 16 bit counter output */

/* 32 bit counter output */

/* binary output */

/* 16 bit analog output */

/* 32 bit analog output */

/* short float analog output */

/* long float analog output */

DNP_RUNTIME_STATUS

The DNP_RUNTIME_STATUS type describes a structure for holding status information about DNP event log buffers.

/* DNP Runtime Status */ typedef struct dnp_runtime_status

{

UINT16 eventCountBI; /* number of binary input events */

UINT16 eventCountCI16; /* number of 16-bit counter events */

UINT16 eventCountCI32; /* number of 32-bit counter events */

UINT16 eventCountAI16; /* number of 16-bit analog input events

*/

UINT16 eventCountAI32; /* number of 32-bit analog input events

*/

UINT16 eventCountAISF; /* number of short floating-point analog input events */

UINT16 eventCountClass1; /* number of class 1 events */

UINT16 eventCountClass2; /* number of class 2 events */

UINT16 eventCountClass3; /* number of class 3 events */

} DNP_RUNTIME_STATUS;

• eventCountBI is number of binary input events.

• eventCountCI16 is number of 16-bit counter events.

• eventCountCI32 is number of 32-bit counter events.

• eventCountAI16 is number of 16-bit analog input events.

• eventCountAI32 is number of 32-bit analog input events.

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• eventCountAISF is number of short floating-point analog input events.

• eventCountClass1 is the class 1 event counter.

• eventCountClass2 is the class 2 event counter.

• eventCountClass3 is the class 3 event counter.

envelope

The envelope type is a structure containing a message envelope. Envelopes are used for inter-task communication. typedef struct env {

struct env *link;

unsigned source;

unsigned destination;

unsigned type;

unsigned long data;

unsigned owner;

}

envelope;

• link is a pointer to the next envelope in a queue. This field is used by the RTOS. It is of no interest to an application program.

• source is the task ID of the task sending the message. This field is specified automatically by the send_message function. The receiving task may read this field to determine the source of the message.

• destination is the task ID of the task to receive the message. It must be specified before calling the send_message function.

• type specifies the type of data in the data field. It may be MSG_DATA,

MSG_POINTER, or any other value defined by the application program. This field is not required.

• data is the message data. The field may contain a datum or pointer. The application program determines the use of this field.

• owner is the task that owns the envelope. This field is set by the RTOS and must not be changed by an application program.

HART_COMMAND

The HART_COMMAND type is a structure containing a command to be sent to a HART slave device. The command field contains the HART command number. The length field contains the length of the data string to be transmitted (the byte count in HART documentation). The data field contains the data to be sent to the slave. typedef struct hartCommand_t

{ char data[DATA_SIZE];

}

HART_COMMAND;

• command is the HART command number.

• length is the number of characters in the data string.

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• data[DATA_SIZE] is the data field for the command.

HART_DEVICE

The HART_DEVICE type is a structure containing information about the HART device. The information is read from the device using command 0 or command 11. The fields are identical to those read by the commands. Refer to the command documentation for more information. typedef struct hartDevice_t

{ unsigned char manufacturerID; unsigned char manufacturerDeviceType; unsigned char preamblesRequested; unsigned char commandRevision; unsigned char transmitterRevision; unsigned char softwareRevision; unsigned char hardwareRevision; unsigned char flags; unsigned long deviceID;

}

HART_DEVICE;

HART_RESPONSE

The HART_RESPONSE type is a structure containing a response from a HART slave device. The command field contains the HART command number. The length field contains the length of the data string to be transmitted (the byte count in HART documentation). The data field contains the data to be sent to the slave. typedef struct hartResponse_t

{ unsigned responseCode, unsigned length, char data[DATA_SIZE];

}

HART_RESPONSE;

• response is the response code from the device.

• length is the length of response data.

• data[DATA_SIZE] is the data field for the response.

HART_RESULT

The HART_RESULT enumeration type defines a list of results of sending a command. typedef enum hartResult_t

{

HR_NoModuleResponse=0,

HR_CommandPending,

HR_CommandSent,

HR_Response,

HR_NoResponse,

HR_WaitTransmit

}

HART_RESULT;

• HR_NoModuleResponse returns no response from HART modem module.

• HR_CommandPending returns command ready to be sent, but not sent.

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• HR_CommandSent returns command sent.

• HR_Response returns response received.

• HR_NoResponse returns no response after all attempts.

• HR_WaitTransmit returns modem is not ready to transmit.

HART_SETTINGS

The HART_SETTINGS type is a structure containing the configuration for the HART modem module. The useAutoPreamble field indicates if the number of preambles is set by the value in the HART_SETTINGS structure (FALSE) or the value in the HART_DEVICE structure (TRUE). The deviceType field determines if the 5904 modem is a HART primary master or secondary master device (primary master is the recommended setting). typedef struct hartSettings_t

{ unsigned preambles;

BOOLEAN useAutoPreamble;

}

HART_SETTINGS;

• attempts is the number of command attempts (1 to 4).

• preambles is the number of preambles to send (2 to 15).

• useAutoPreamble is a flag to use the requested preambles.

• deviceType is the type of HART master (1 = primary; 0 = secondary).

HART_VARIABLE

The HART_VARIABLE type is a structure containing a variable read from a HART device.

The structure contains three fields that are used by various commands. Note that not all fields will be used by all commands. Refer to the command specific documentation. typedef struct hartVariable_t

{ float value;

}

HART_VARIABLE;

• value is the value of the variable.

• units are the units of measurement.

• variableCode is the transmitter specific variable ID.

ledControl_tag

The ledControl_tag structure defines LED power control parameters. struct ledControl_tag {

};

• state is the default LED state. It is either the LED_ON or LED_OFF macro.

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• time is the period, in minutes, after which the LED power returns to its default state.

ModemInit

The ModemInit structure specifies modem initialization parameters for the modemInit function. struct ModemInit

{

}; char modemCommand[MODEM_CMD_MAX_LEN + 2];

• port is the serial port where the modem is connected.

• modemCommand is the initialization string for the modem. The characters AT will be prefixed to the command, and a carriage returned suffixed to the command when it is sent to the modem. Refer to the section Modem Commands for suggested command strings for your modem.

ModemSetup

The ModemSetup structure specifies modem initialization and dialing control parameters for the modemDial function. struct ModemSetup

{

FILE * port;

}; char modemCommand[MODEM_CMD_MAX_LEN + 2]; char phoneNumber[PHONE_NUM_MAX_LEN + 2];

• port is the serial port where the modem is connected.

• dialAttempts is the number of times the controller will attempt to dial the remote controller before giving up and reporting an error.

• detectTime is the length of time in seconds that the controller will wait for carrier to be detected. It is measured from the start of the dialing attempt.

• pauseTime is the length of time in seconds that the controller will wait between dialing attempts.

• dialmethod selects pulse or tone dialing. Set dialmethod to 0 for tone dialing or 1 for pulse dialing.

• modemCommand is the initialization string for the modem. The characters AT will be prepended to the command, and a carriage returned appended to the command when it is sent to the modem. Refer to the section Modem Commands for suggested command strings for your modem.

• phoneNumber is the phone number of the remote controller. The characters ATD and the dialing method will be prepended to the command, and a carriage returned appended to the command when it is sent to the modem.

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PROTOCOL_SETTINGS

The Extended Protocol Settings structure defines settings for a communication protocol.

This structure differs from the standard settings in that it allows additional settings to be specified. typedef struct protocolSettings_t

{ unsigned char type; station; unsigned char priority;

}

PROTOCOL_SETTINGS;

• type is the protocol type. It may be one of NO_PROTOCOL, MODBUS_RTU, or

MODBUS_ASCII macros.

• station is the station address of the controller. Note that each serial port may have a different address. The valid values are determined by the communication protocol. This field is not used if the protocol type is NO_PROTOCOL.

• priority is the task priority of the protocol task. This field is not used if the protocol type is NO_PROTOCOL.

• SFMessaging is the enable Store and Forward messaging control flag.

• ADDRESS_MODE is the addressing mode, standard or extended.

PROTOCOL_SETTINGS_EX Type

This structure contains serial port protocol settings including Enron Modbus support. typedef struct protocolSettingsEx_t

{

}

PROTOCOL_SETTINGS_EX;

• type is the protocol type. It may be one of NO_PROTOCOL, MODBUS_RTU, or

MODBUS_ASCII

.

• station is the station address of the controller. Note that each serial port may have a different address. The valid values are determined by the communication protocol. This field is not used if the protocol type is NO_PROTOCOL.

• priority is the task priority of the protocol task. This field is not used if the protocol type is NO_PROTOCOL.

• SFMessaging is the enable Store and Forward messaging control flag.

• ADDRESS_MODE is the addressing mode, AM_standard or AM_extended.

• enronEnabled determines if the Enron Modbus station is enabled. It may be TRUE or

FALSE

.

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• enronStation is the station address for the Enron Modbus protocol. It is used if enronEnabled

is set to TRUE. Valid values are 1 to 255 for standard addressing, and

1 to 65534 for extended addressing.

prot_settings

The Protocol Settings structure defines settings for a communication protocol. This structure differs from the extended settings in that it allows fewer settings to be specified. struct prot_settings {

unsigned char type;

unsigned char station;

unsigned char priority;

unsigned SFMessaging;

};

• type is the protocol type. It may be one of NO_PROTOCOL, MODBUS_RTU,

MODBUS_ASCII, AB_FULL_BCC, AB_HALF_BCC, AB_FULL_CRC, AB_HALF_CRC or

DNP macros.

• station is the station address of the controller. Note that each serial port may have a different address. The valid values are determined by the communication protocol. This field is not used if the protocol type is NO_PROTOCOL.

• priority is the task priority of the protocol task. This field is not used if the protocol type is NO_PROTOCOL.

• SFMessaging is the enable Store and Forward messaging control flag.

prot_status

The prot_status structure contains protocol status information. struct prot_status {

unsigned command_errors;

unsigned format_errors;

unsigned checksum_errors;

unsigned cmd_received;

unsigned cmd_sent;

unsigned rsp_received;

unsigned rsp_sent;

unsigned command;

int task_id;

unsigned stored_messages;

unsigned forwarded_messages;

};

• command_errors is the number of messages received with invalid command codes.

• format_errors is the number of messages received with bad message data.

• checksum_errors is the number of messages received with bad checksums.

• cmd_received is the number of commands received.

• cmd_sent is the number of commands sent by the master_message function.

• rsp_received is the number of responses received by the master_message function.

• rsp_sent is the number of responses sent.

• command is the status of the last protocol command sent.

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• task_id is the ID of the protocol task. This field is used by the set_protocol function to control protocol execution.

• stored_messages is the number of messages stored for forwarding.

• forwarded_messages is the number of messages forwarded.

pconfig

The pconfig structure contains serial port settings. struct pconfig {

unsigned baud;

unsigned duplex;

unsigned parity;

unsigned data_bits;

unsigned stop_bits;

unsigned flow_rx;

unsigned flow_tx;

unsigned type;

unsigned timeout;

};

• baud is the communication speed. It is one of the BAUD_xxx macros.

• duplex is either the FULL or HALF macro.

• parity is one of NONE, EVEN or ODD macros.

• data_bits is the word length. It is either the DATA7 or DATA8 macro.

• stop_bits in the number of stop bits transmitted. It is either the STOP1 or STOP2 macro.

• flow_rx specifies flow control on the receiver. It is either the DISABLE or ENABLE macro.

• For com1 and com2 setting this parameter selects XON/XOFF flow control. It may be enabled or disabled.

If any protocol, other than Modbus ASCII, is used on the port you must set flow_rx to DISABLE. If Modbus ASCII or no protocol is used, you can set flow_rx to

ENABLE or DISABLE. In most cases DISABLE is recommended.

• For com3 and com4 setting this parameter selects Receiver Disable after message reception. This is used with the Modbus RTU protocol only. If the Modbus RTU protocol is used, set flow_rx to ENABLE. Otherwise set flow_rx to DISABLE.

• flow_tx specifies flow control on the transmitter. It is either the DISABLE or ENABLE macro.

• For com1 and com2 setting this parameter selects XON/XOFF flow control. It may be enabled or disabled.

If any protocol, other than Modbus ASCII, is used on the port you must set flow_tx to DISABLE. If Modbus ASCII or no protocol is used, you can set flow_tx to

ENABLE or DISABLE. In most cases DISABLE is recommended.

• For com3 and com4 setting this parameter indicates if the port should ignore the CTS signal. Setting the parameter to ENABLE causes the port to ignore the CTS signal.

• type specifies the serial port type. It is one of NOTYPE, RS232, RS232_MODEM,

RS485, or RS232_COLLISION_AVOIDANCE macros.

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• timeout specifies the time the driver will wait when the transmit buffer fills, before it clears the buffer.

PORT_CHARACTERISTICS

The PORT_CHARACTERISTICS type is a structure that contains serial port characteristics. typedef struct portCharacteristics_tag { unsigned long options;

• dataflow is a bit mapped field describing the data flow options supported on the serial port. ANDing can isolate the options with the PC_FLOW_RX_RECEIVE_STOP,

PC_FLOW_RX_XON_XOFF, PC_FLOW_TX_IGNORE_CTS or

PC_FLOW_TX_XON_XOFF macros.

• buffering describes the buffering options supported. No buffering options are currently supported.

• protocol describes the protocol options supported. The macro,

PC_PROTOCOL_RTU_FRAMING is the only option supported.

• options describes additional options supported. No additional options are currently supported.

pstatus

The pstatus structure contains serial port status information. struct pstatus {

unsigned framing;

unsigned parity;

unsigned c_overrun;

unsigned b_overrun;

unsigned rx_buffer_size;

unsigned rx_buffer_used;

unsigned tx_buffer_size;

unsigned tx_buffer_used;

unsigned io_lines;

};

• framing is the number of received characters with framing errors.

• parity is the number of received characters with parity errors.

• c_overrun is the number of received character overrun errors.

• b_overrun is the number of receive buffer overrun errors.

• rx_buffer_size is the size of the receive buffer in characters.

• rx_buffer_used is the number of characters in the receive buffer.

• tx_buffer_size is the size of the transmit buffer in characters.

• tx_buffer_used is the number of characters in the transmit buffer.

• io_lines is a bit mapped field indicating the status of the I/O lines on the serial port.

The values for these lines differ between serial ports (see tables below). ANDing can

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isolate the signals with the SIGNAL_CTS, SIGNAL_DCD, SIGNAL_OH, SIGNAL_RING or SIGNAL_VOICE macros.

READSTATUS

The READSTATUS enumerated type indicates the status of an I

2

C bus message read and may have one of the following values. enum ReadStatus {

RS_success,

RS_selectFailed

}; typedef enum ReadStatus READSTATUS;

• RS_success returns read was successful.

• RS_selectFailed returns slave device could not be selected

routingTable

The routingTable type describes an entry in the DNP Routing Table.

Note that the DNP Routing Table is a list of routes, which are maintained in ascending order of DNP addresses.

typedef struct

RoutingTable_type

{

} routingTable;

• address is the DNP address.

• comPort is the serial port interface.

• retries is the number of data link retires for this table entry.

• timeout is the timeout in milliseconds.

SFTranslation

The SFTranslation structure contains Store and Forward Messaging translation information. This is used to define an address and port translation. struct SFTranslation {

};

• portA is the index of the first serial port. The index is obtained with the portIndex function.

• stationA is the station address of the first station.

• portB is the index of the second serial port. The index is obtained with the portIndex function.

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• stationB is the station address of the second station.

SFTranslationStatus

The SFTranslationStatus structure contains information about a Store and Forward

Translation table entry. It is used to report information about specific table entries. struct SFTranslationStatus {

};

• index is the location in the store and forward table to which the status code applies.

• code is the status code. It is one of SF_VALID, SF_INDEX_OUT_OF_RANGE,

SF_NO_TRANSLATION, SF_PORT_OUT_OF_RANGE,

SF_STATION_OUT_OF_RANGE, or SF_ALREADY_DEFINED macros.

TASKINFO

The TASKINFO type is a structure containing information about a task.

/* Task Information Structure */ typedef struct taskInformation_tag {

• taskID is the identifier of the task.

• priority is the execution priority of the task.

• status is the current execution status the task. This may be one of TS_READY,

TS_EXECUTING, TS_WAIT_ENVELOPE, TS_WAIT_EVENT, TS_WAIT_MESSAGE, or

TS_WAIT_RESOURCE macros.

• requirement is used if the task is waiting for an event or resource. If the status field is TS_WAIT_EVENT, then requirement indicates on which event it is waiting. If the status

field is TS_WAIT_RESOURCE then requirement indicates on which resource it is waiting.

• error is the task error code. This is the same value as returned by the check_error function.

• type is the task type. It will be either SYSTEM or APPLICATION.

taskInfo_tag

The taskInfo_tag structure contains start up task information. struct taskInfo_tag {

void *address;

unsigned stack;

unsigned identity;

};

• address is the pointer to the start up routine.

• stack is the required stack size for the routine

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• identity is the type of routine found (STARTUP_APPLICATION or

STARTUP_SYSTEM)

timer_info

The timer_info structure contains information about a timer. struct timer_info {

unsigned time;

unsigned interval;

unsigned interval_remaining;

unsigned flags;

unsigned duty_on;

unsigned duty_period;

unsigned channel;

unsigned bit;

};

• time is the time remaining in the timer in ticks.

• interval is the length of a timer tick in 10ths of a second.

• interval_remaining is the time remaining in the interval count down register in 10ths of a second.

• flags is the timer type and status bits (NORMAL, PULSE TRAIN, DUTY_CYCLE,

TIMEOUT, and TIMED_OUT). More than one condition may be true at any time.

• duty_on is the length of the on high portion of the square wave output. This is used only by the pulse function.

• duty_period is the period of the square wave output This is used only by the pulse function.

• channel and bit specify the digital output point. This is used by pulse, pulse_train and timeout functions.

VERSION

The Firmware Version Information Structure holds information about the firmware. typedef struct versionInfo_tag { char date[VI_DATE_SIZE + 1]; char copyright[VI_STRING_SIZE + 1];

• version is the firmware version number.

• controller is target controller for the firmware.

• date is a string containing the date the firmware was created.

• copyright is a string containing Control Microsystems copyright information.

WRITESTATUS

The WRITESTATUS enumerated type indicates the status of an I

2

C bus message read and may have one of the following values. enum WriteStatus {

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WS_success,

WS_selectFailed,

WS_noAcknowledge

}; typedef enum WriteStatus WRITESTATUS;

• WS_success returns write was successful

• WS_selectFailed returns slave could not be selected

• WS_noAcknowledge returns slave failed to acknowledge data

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C Compiler Known Problems

The C compiler supplied with the ISaGRAF C Tools is a product of Microtec. There is two known problems with the compiler.

Use of Initialized Static Local Variables

The compiler incorrectly allocates storage for initialized static local variables. The storage is allocated incorrectly in memory reserved for constant string data. The storage should be allocated in memory for initialized variables.

Problems Caused

A program loaded in ROM cannot modify a variable declared in this fashion.

A program loaded in RAM can modify the variable. However, the variable is in a section of program memory that the operating system expects to remain constant. Modifying the variable causes the operating system to think the program has been modified. The program continues to run correctly, but will not run again if it is stopped by the C Program Loader or if the controller is reset. The operating system detects that the program memory is corrupt and does not execute the program.

Example

The compiler generates incorrect code for the following example. Storage for the variable a is allocated in the strings section. It should be in the initvars section.

If the program is loaded in ROM, it cannot modify the variable a.

If the program is loaded in RAM, it can be run once after being written to a controller memory. All subsequent attempts to run the program will fail. void main(void)

{ static int a = 1;

a++;

/* other code here */

}

Working Around the Problem

There are two ways to work around the problem.

1. Use global variable instead of a local variable. For example: static int a = 1; void main(void)

{

a++;

/* other code here */

}

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2. If the local variable is to be initialized to zero, then a non-initialized static local variable can be used. For example: void main(void)

{ static int a;

a++;

/* other code here */

}

In this example the declaration: static int a; is the same as the following: static int a = 0;

The operating systems sets non-initialized variables (stored in the zerovars section) to zero before running the program.

Correction to the Problem

This problem exists with the C Compiler supplied by Microtec. It will not be corrected. Users must work around the problem as described above.

Use of pow Function

The compiler sometimes incorrectly evaluates expressions involving the pow function with other arithmetic.

Also, a task calling the pow function requires at least 5 stack blocks. The need for more stack space by the pow function is not a compiler problem, it is simply a requirement of pow.

Problems Caused

Some arithmetic expressions involving the pow function may result in incorrect results.

When testing expressions that call pow, if the result is found to be incorrect, it will be consistently incorrect for all values used by variables in the expression.

The pow function requires at least 5 stack blocks. If 4 or less stack blocks are used by the task calling pow, the controller will overflow its stack space. When the stack space overflows the behavior is unpredictable, and will most likely cause the controller to reset.

}

Example

The compiler generates incorrect code for the following example. The result of this expression is incorrect for all values used for its variables. void main(void)

{ double a, b, c, d, e; a = pow(b, c) * (d + e);

/* other code here */

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Working Around the Problem

There are two ways to work around the problem.

1. To work around the problem compute the pow result on a separate line and use the result in the arithmetic expression afterwards. For example: void main(void)

{ double a, b, c, d, e, result; result = pow(b, c); a = result * (d + e);

/* other code here */

}

Note that when a task calls the pow function it requires at least 5 stack blocks. The default stack space allocated to the main task is only 4 blocks. To modify the number of stack blocks allocated to the main task refer to the section Start-Up Function Structure for details on editing appstart.c. See the function create_task to specify the stack used by other tasks.

2. The powf function may be used instead of pow where double precision is not required.

Correction to the Problem

This problem exists with the C Compiler supplied by Microtec. It will not be corrected. Users must work around the problem as described above.

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ISaGRAF C Tools Warranty and

License

Warranty Disclaimer

Control Microsystems makes no representation or warranty with respect to the ISaGRAF C

Tools. The sole obligation of Control Microsystems shall be to make available all published updates or modifications to the ISaGRAF C Tools at a price which will not exceed the current market price.

Limitation of Liability

The foregoing warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, expressed or implied, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.

The user shall at their own discretion determine the suitability of the ISaGRAF C Tools for their intended use. In no event will Control Microsystems, its agents, distributors, representatives, employees, officers, directors, or contractors be liable for any special, direct, indirect or consequential damages, losses, costs, claims, demands or claim for lost profits, fees or expenses of any nature or kind arising from the use of the ISaGRAF C Tools.

In accepting this product, you agree to these terms.

Modifications

Control Microsystems reserves the right to make modifications to the ISaGRAF C Tools and to change its specifications without notice.

Non-Disclosure

SCADAPack, TeleSAFE and TelePACE are registered trademarks of Control Microsystems.

The ISaGRAF C Tools is a copyrighted product of Control Microsystems. Users are specifically prohibited from copying the ISaGRAF C Tools, in whole or in part, by any means whatsoever, except for purposes of a backup copy, and from disclosing proprietary information belonging to Control Microsystems.

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