who stole my high who stole my high- performance

WHO STOLE MY HIGHHIGHPERFORMANCE
BUILDING?
For
Utah ASHRAE Chapter
p
By
Todd Rindlisbaker, PE, QCxP,
LEED AP, HPBDP, CPD .
SPONSOR
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Todd Rindlisbaker, P.E., LEEDTM AP, HPBDP, QCxP,
QCxP, CPD

18 years in mechanical engineering and
commissioning
i i i
– Large hydronic systems, central plants, campus projects.
– Control Systems and control sequences.
– Energy Analysis reports and modeling






12/13/2010
P.E.-Licensed Professional Mechanical Engineer
LEED™- Accredited Professional
HPBDP-ASHRAE certified High Performance
Building Design Professional
QCxP-Qualified Commissioning Process Provider
National Speakers Association Apprentice
Integrated Project Delivery Process Facilitator
2
ATTACHMENT K
NETWORK
GROW
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Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Objectives
Identify common reasons building
fail to operate properly and efficiently
 Identify “Key”
Key Design items that will;

– Save 20-30% energy (above HE equip).
– Or
O waste
t up to
t 50% if they
th are missed.
i
d

Find control strategies that provide
additional
dditi
l energy savings.
i
12/13/2010
5
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Objectives (continued)
Identify key coordination items that
result in costly change orders.
 Strategies to communicate and
specify tools used to verify
functionality and energy
performance.
 Two
T
Items
It
to
t include
i l d to
t make
k you a
hero with the building operating
staff.
t ff

12/13/2010
6
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
12/13/2010
7
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Envelope Leakage Costs – Case Study
Building Area: 210,000 sq. ft.
 Four Stories
 Originally installed regular dampers in
exhaust and relief openings
 Test 1 Building Leakage – 58,500 CFM
 Envelope Leakage Costs - $3.51/CFM
 Cost of Energy
gy Waste: $
$205,000/Year
,

12/13/2010
8
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Envelope Leakage Costs – Case Study
12/13/2010
9
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Envelope Leakage Costs – Cx Results
12/13/2010
10
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
HVAC System Envelope Leakage

ASHRAE 90
90.1
1
12/13/2010
11
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Summary Envelope Leakage – HVAC






Payback for all Outside Air, Exhaust, and
R li f Air
Relief
Ai Dampers:
D
Motorized,
M t i d LowL
Leakage type.
ROI ≈ 0.1 Years
All dampers > 300 CFM in buildings >2
stories required to be motorized anyway.
Coordinate with electrical & detail
detail.
Discourage return air plenum returns
(increase building leakage, since return air
plenums
l
are always
l
negative,
ti
grow mold
ld in
i
moist areas)
Encourage
g Building
g Envelope
p
Commissioning
12/13/2010
12
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Proper Building Pressurization Measurement
12/13/2010
Recommended method for measuring building
static pressure with BMS from ASTM E779-03
13
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Proper Building Pressurization Measurement
12/13/2010
Recommended method for measuring building
static pressure with BMS from ASTM E779-03
14
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Energy Usage – Understanding
d
di Where
h it
i goes
12/13/2010
Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems
Volume II: Page 5-25
15
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Cooling System Energy Usage
>50%
12/13/2010
Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems
Volume II: Page 5-25
16
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Commercial HVAC Parasitic Energy Use
12/13/2010
Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems
Volume II: Page 1-2
17
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
F E
Fan
Energy: First
Fi S
Step, R
Run only
l as needed
d d
Many
y exhaust fans are constant speed.
Review schedule and required use.
Operate only when needed. Many fans
run unnecessarily.
il
 HVAC Systems: Separate 24/7 and
equipment
i
t loads
l d from
f
comfort
f t cooling
li
loads: Provide standalone units for
areas such as data rooms,
rooms equipment
rooms, etc. Shut air handlers off at
night.

12/13/2010
18
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy Usage
12/13/2010
19
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
F E
Fan
Energy – Fan
F C
Curve
12/13/2010
20
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – System Effects
12/13/2010
21
F E
Fan
Energy – System
S
Eff
Effects
12/13/2010
ASHRAE Fundamentals Chapter 35 – Duct Fitting Coefficients
22
F E
Fan
Energy – System
S t Eff
Effects
t
12/13/2010
ASHRAE Fundamentals Chapter 35 – Duct Fitting Coefficients
23
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – System Effects
12/13/2010
ASHRAE Fundamentals Chapter 35 – Duct Fitting Coefficients
24
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
F E
Fan
Energy – System
S
Eff
Effects E
Example
l


12/13/2010
Results:
∆P – 2.4
in. wg
25
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Air Handler Connections

Entrances & Exits - Specify
r = 0.1 (in)
r 0.1 (in) rr= 0.16 (in)
0.16 (in) rr= 0.2 (in)
0.2 (in)
2
3.2
4
2.5
4
5
3
48
4.8
6
3.5
5.6
7
4
6.4
8
5
8
10
12/13/2010
D (in)
D
(in)
20
25
30
35
40
50
ASHRAE Fundamentals Chapter 35 – Duct Fitting Coefficients
26
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Building Energy Usage – Fan Selection

Air foil fans, slightly oversized offer
up
p to 20% higher
g
efficiencies
(Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial HVAC Systems
Vol. III pgs A-8 to A-11)
12/13/2010
27
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Fan Wheel Selection
12/13/2010
(Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial
HVAC Systems Vol. III pgs A-8 to A-11)
28
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Fan Wheel Selection
12/13/2010
(Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial
HVAC Systems Vol. III pgs A-8 to A-11)
29
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Fan Wheel Selection

Benefits of One to Two Sizes Larger
Fan Wheel:
– Up to 20% more efficient
– Lower Sound Levels
– Longer Bearing Life, Less Maintenance
12/13/2010
30
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Air Handler Sizing

Parameters:
– Optimized for First Costs, 5 Yr & 10Yr ROI
– Operating Hours 3160 and 8760
– Single Zone Constant Volume, 30,000 CFM Drawthrough unit.

Results:
– 5 Yr ROI ≈ 415 FPM AHU, 600 FPM OA Louver
– 10 Yr ROI ≈ 315 FPM AHU, 600 FPM OA Louver

ASHRAE Journal – February 2009
Air Handler Design for Energy Conservation – Arthur B Wheeler
12/13/2010
31
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Air Handler Sizing
314
416
12/13/2010
32
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Air Handler Sizing
Comments regarding slides 30 & 31
31.
This study was for a constant volume
system.
 Study shows that the filters and coil
selections are two of the most critical
components
p
regarding
g
g energy
gy savings.
g
 Variable volume air handlers would benefit
by selecting low pressure drop filters and
coils Suggested ranges are:
coils.

– Filters: 0.3 in.wg (new)
– HW coil < 0.2 in.wg
– CHW coil
il < 0.4
0 4 iin.wg
12/13/2010
33
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Variable Volume Control
12/13/2010
34
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
F E
Fan
Energy – Static
St ti Pressure
P
Set
S t Point
P i t
12/13/2010
35
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Variable Volume Control
12/13/2010
36
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Variable Volume Control
12/13/2010
37
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Variable Volume Control
12/13/2010
38
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Static Pressure Reset

Since ASHRAE 90
90.1-2000
1 2000
12/13/2010
39
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
F E
Fan
Energy – Static
St ti Pressure
P
Reset
R t
ASHRAE 90.1 User’s Manual
12/13/2010
40
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Static Pressure Reset

Rules for
f S
Static Pressure S
Sensor
Locations:
– Static DP Sensor MUST be “Home Run”
to communicate directly to the air
h dl DDC controller.
handler
t ll (Communication
(C
i ti
speed, reliability)
– If located downstream of major duct
branches, each major branch must have
sensor.
12/13/2010
41
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Static Pressure Sensor Location
12/13/2010
42
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Notes for Slide 42

Benefits of Static Pressure sensor at air handler discharge.
g
– More reliable.
– Sensor acts as an operational high static limit. (If a remote sensor cannot
meet static requirements, it increases fan speed without knowing fan
discharge pressure, some systems this is over the duct pressure rating,
p high
g limit).
)
trips
– Less costly to install than remote sensor. Difference in cost can pay for
additional sensors for informational purposes.
Return fan control should be return plenum static pressure (Static
Pressure must be positive on building side of louver to push relief
air
i out).
t)
 Outside air flow station is only reliable method of controlling
outside air quantity.
 Provide system diagram and graphic requirements to contractor
i design
in
d i documents.
d
t Include
I l d operational
ti
l and
d troubleshooting
t
bl h ti
information.
 VAV airflows can be used to indicate supply fan air quantity within
at least 5 – 10% accuracy. (Inexpensive way to provide
information).
information)

12/13/2010
43
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Return/Relief Fan Location
12/13/2010
44
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Notes for Slide 44

Engineer’s
g
building
g pressure
p
relief sequence
q
called for the relief
air dampers to modulate open first and then to start the relief fans
and modulate them up to speed.
– Because the return air plenum is negative, outside air flowed backwards
through the relief air louvers into the return air plenum. The relief air fans
eventually turned on and ramped up to control the building static, but there
were long periods of time that the building static was out of control.

Solution 1:
– Add a static pressure sensor to the plenum between the relief fan and the
outside air louver.
– Change
C
sequence to turn on relieff air ffans maintain a plenum static
pressure set point.
– Modulate the relief air dampers to maintain building static pressure.

Solution 2:
– Change system configuration to have a return/relief fan as shown in slide
#42.
– Benefits are: Smaller supply air fan requirements, more return air draw
from higher return air static pressure, and better building static pressure
control.
12/13/2010
45
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Static Pressure Set Point Reset @ Air Handler
STATIC PRESSURE RESET SCHEDULE
PROGRAMMING RESTRICTIONS
INITIAL START STATIC PRESSURE SET POINT
0.5 in. wg.
MAXIMUM STATIC PRESSURE SET POINT
2.5 in. wg..
MINIMUM STATIC PRESSURE SET POINT
UPPER MAXIMUM SYSTEM VAV DAMPER POSITION SET POINT
UPPER MAX. SYSTEM VAV DAMPER SET POINT TIME DELAY
STATIC PRESSURE STEP UP INCREMENT
STATIC PRESSURE STEP UP INCREMENT
LOWER MAXIMUM SYSTEM VAV DAMPER POSITION SET POINT
LOWER MAX. SYSTEM VAV DAMPER SET POINT TIME DELAY
0.2 ‐ 1.0 in. wg.
AS NOTED OR 0.5 LESS THAN HIGH DUCT STATIC LIMIT
0.2 in. wg.
g 0.1 ‐ 0.5 in. wg.
g
95 %
5 MIN.
98 ‐ 90 %
1 ‐ 10 MIN.
0 1 in. wg.
0.1
in wg 0.02 ‐
0 02 0.2 in. wg.
0 2 in wg
85 %
5 MIN.
80 ‐ 89 %
1 ‐ 10 MIN.
STATIC PRESSURE STEP DOWN INCREMENT 0.05
STATIC PRESSURE STEP DOWN INCREMENT
0 05 in. wg.
in wg 0.02 ‐
0 02 ‐ 0.2 in. wg.
0 2 in wg
CURRENT SYSTEM READINGS
MINIMUM SYSTEM VAV DAMPER POSITION XX.X %
MAXIMUM SYSTEM VAV DAMPER POSITION XX.X %
AVERAGE SYSTEM VAV DAMPER POSITION XX.X %
12/13/2010
ASHRAE Journal June 2007, Steve Taylor – Increasing VAV System Efficiency with
Static Pressure Set Point Reset
46
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Static Pressure Set Point Reset @ End of Run
STATIC PRESSURE RESET SCHEDULE
INITIAL START STATIC PRESSURE SET POINT
PROGRAMMING RESTRICTIONS
0.5 in. wg.
0.2 ‐ 1.0 in. wg.
MAXIMUM STATIC PRESSURE SET POINT
1.2 in. wg.. Balancer may adjust lower.
MINIMUM STATIC PRESSURE SET POINT
0.2 in. wg. 0.1 ‐ 0.5 in. wg.
UPPER MAXIMUM SYSTEM VAV DAMPER POSITION SET POINT
UPPER MAX. SYSTEM VAV DAMPER SET POINT TIME DELAY
STATIC PRESSURE STEP UP INCREMENT
STATIC PRESSURE STEP UP INCREMENT
LOWER MAXIMUM SYSTEM VAV DAMPER POSITION SET POINT
LOWER MAX. SYSTEM VAV DAMPER SET POINT TIME DELAY
95 %
5 MIN.
98 ‐ 90 %
1 ‐ 10 MIN.
0 1 in. wg.
0.1
in wg 0.02 ‐
0 02 ‐ 0.2 in. wg.
0 2 in wg
85 %
5 MIN.
80 ‐ 89 %
1 ‐ 10 MIN.
STATIC PRESSURE STEP DOWN INCREMENT 0.05 in. wg.
STATIC PRESSURE STEP DOWN INCREMENT
in. wg. 0.02 0.02 ‐ 0.2 in. wg.
0.2 in. wg.
CURRENT SYSTEM READINGS
MINIMUM SYSTEM VAV DAMPER POSITION XX.X %
MAXIMUM SYSTEM VAV DAMPER POSITION XX.X %
AVERAGE SYSTEM VAV DAMPER POSITION XX.X %
12/13/2010
ASHRAE Journal June 2007, Steve Taylor – Increasing VAV System Efficiency with
Static Pressure Set Point Reset
47
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
S
Supply
l Speed
S d – Without
With t & With SP Reset
R t
System R
S
Recovery
Fan Speed
12/13/2010
System MidDay Fan Speed
48
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
S
Supply
l Fan
F P
Power – 120 HP (115 BHP
BHP, 90 KW)
Cooling Season
System
Recovery Fan
Energy
Heating Season
System
Recovery Fan
Energy
System Mid
MidDay Fan
Energy
12/13/2010
System Idle Fan Energy
49
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy – Static Pressure Initial St Pt
System
R
Recovery
Period
P i d
6:00 am – 11:00
am. (Mild Day)
System Mid
MidDay Fan
Energy
Does Night SetBack really save
12/13/2010
energy? … No!
50
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy: Duct Leakage

10% Duct leakage
g ≈ 30% increase fan
energy.
– (110% Flow)3 = Power increase
– Conditioned air lost to plenum,
plenum etc.
etc

New ASHRAE 90.1 – 2007 addendum cq
and ASHRAE 90.1 – 2010 6.4.4.2.1
– All ductwork … shall be constructed to
seal Class A.
– Openings with rotating shafts sealed with
bushings.
– All pressure class ratings designated in
d i
design
documents.
d
t
12/13/2010
51
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fan Energy: Duct Leakage – ASHRAE 90.1
12/13/2010
52
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
AIR HANDLING UNIT SYSTEM
DESIGN SUMMARY





Minimize System Effects: Requires Detailing,
Space
Fan Selection: Over minimum size is a +
Constant Volume AHU Sizing: 5 Yr LCC ≈ 425
FPM.
Variable Volume AHU Sizing: Minimize filter &
coil pressure drop
drop.
Static Pressure Set Point:
– Set Point Reset Method – Trim & Respond
– Minimize the Maximum Set
S Point.
– Sensor location at air handler discharge.


Return/Relief Fan Locations & Control
Duct Leakage
12/13/2010
53
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fittings – Air handler, Duct Shaft Connections
12/13/2010
54
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Fittings – Air handler, Duct Shaft
–
12/13/2010
Goal #3
ASHRAE Fundamentals Chapter 35 – Duct Fitting Coefficients
55
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
4- Fittings, Duct Elbows, Flex Elbows, HV

Goal #2
12/13/2010
ASHRAE Fundamentals Chapter 35 – Duct Fitting Coefficients
56
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Spin In Fittings
12/13/2010
ASHRAE Fundamentals Chapter 35 – Duct Fitting Coefficients
57
High Efficiency TakeTake-Offs (HET’s)
12/13/2010
ASHRAE Fundamentals Chapter 35 – Duct Fitting Coefficients
58
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
P
Properly
l Detail
D t il Installation
I t ll ti
12/13/2010
Add system details, not just component details.
59
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
E
Example
l off System
S
Effects
Eff

Partic
12/13/2010
60
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
E
Example
l off System
S
Effects
Eff
12/13/2010
61
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
E
Example
l off System
S t Effects
Eff t
12/13/2010
62
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Duct Fittings…
12/13/2010
63
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Duct Fittings…
Significant pressure losses when air turns directions
12/13/2010
64
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
P
Proper
Fl
Flex D
Duct IInstallation
ll i
12/13/2010
No Flexible duct turns: Much quieter and less pressure drop.
65
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Duct Construction Summary
 Proper
Duct Layout and
Coordination
– Fittings
– Sizing
Si i
– Profile: < 3:1 w:h
– Details: System Layout and Detail
– Flex Duct: No turns,
turns short runs.
runs
12/13/2010
66
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
VAV Box – Selection
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Pressure drop across the box
First costs of VAV box, installation
& controls
VAV box controller ability to
measure and control min
min. & max
max.
Set Points
N i Generation
Noise
G
i
Space Constraints.
12/13/2010
67
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
VAV Box – Life Cycle Costing
12/13/2010
68
VAV B
Box – Life
Lif Cycle
C l Costing
C ti

C l l t the
Calculate
th ∆TP off th
the VAV box
b
12/13/2010
Sizing VAV Boxes – Steve Taylor, Jeff Stein
ASHRAE Journal, March 2004
69
VAV B
Box – Life
Lif Cycle
C l Costing
C ti
12/13/2010
Sizing VAV Boxes – Steve Taylor, Jeff Stein
ASHRAE Journal, March 2004
70
VAV Box
B Controller
C
ll andd Sensor
S
S
Selection
l i
Use Multi-Point
Multi Point Cross Flow
Averaging Sensor – Typical
Magnification = 2.33
 14 Bit Controller will allow
SP readings of 0
0.004
004 in.wg.
in wg
 10 Bit Controller will allow SP
readings
di
off 0
0.01
01 iin. wg.

12/13/2010
Sizing VAV Boxes – Steve Taylor, Jeff Stein
ASHRAE Journal, March 2004
71
VAV Box
B Controller
C
ll andd Sensor
S
S
Selection
l i
14 Bit, 0 – 1” Sensor
12/13/2010
Sizing VAV Boxes – Steve Taylor, Jeff Stein
ASHRAE Journal, March 2004
10 Bit, 0 – 1” Sensor
72
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
VAV Box
B Installation
I
ll i
12/13/2010
Typical VAV box Manufacturer Installation Manual
73
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
VAV Terminal Unit Sizing
LCC Sizing: Select VAV boxes for 0.5
in wg
g TSP (SP
(
+ VP))
 Air Flow Sensors: Cross Flow MP
Avg.
Avg
 Controller Quality: 14 Bit resolution

12/13/2010
74
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
D
Demand
dC
Control
t l Ventilation
V til ti
Observed 20 – 30% heating design
loads used for reheat during midsummer (it was not a dream)
dream).
 Demand Control Ventilation –

– 50% reduction in OA results in 25%
reduction in ventilation
– 31% reduction Heating
– 14% reduction Cooling
(Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial HVAC
Systems Vol. III pgs Pgs A-83 to A-87)
12/13/2010
75
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
D
Demand
dC
Control
t l Ventilation
V til ti

Consider demand control ventilation
in any space with expected
occupancy load at or below 40
ft2/person.
CO2 DEMAND RESET
CO2
900 (PPM)
1100 (PPM)
MIN StPt
132 (CFM)
452 (CFM)
‐ LOW MIN. StPt. = AREA VENTILATION RATE
‐ HIGH MIN. StPt. = AREA + PEOPLE VENTILATION RATE
1100 SQ. FT. Children's Classroom
1100 .
SQ FT Children's Classroom
32 . PEOPLE
10 . CFM / PERSON PEOPLE VENTILATION RATE
320 . PEOPLE VENTILATION RATE
0.12 . CFM / SQ. FT. AREA VENTILATION RATE
132 . AREA VENTILATION RATE
12/13/2010
Consider additional criteria for final Minimum ventilation set point
76
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Occupancy Sensors – VAV Control

Consider occupancy sensors:
– in any space with expected occupancy
load at or below 40 ft2/person.
(Cl
(Classrooms,
conference
f
rooms, etc.)
t )
– In all zones with dedicated units (office)
– Intermittently used spaces


Aux contacts for lighting control
occupancy sensor or dedicated
occ panc sensor
occupancy
sensor.
Set to “Standby” Mode i.e. Min = 0 CFM,
Temperature StPts = Occupied.
12/13/2010
77
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
VAV BOX CONTROL W/ STANDBY MODE
AND MINIMUM SETPOINT AIRFLOW RESETS
12/13/2010
78
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
SECTION 2
HYDRONICS
12/13/2010
79
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
2006 Commercial Building Energy Usage
12/13/2010 Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems
Volume II: Page 5-25
80
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Condensing Boiler Efficiency – SS HX
12/13/2010
81
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Boiler Efficiency:
Function of Firing Rate and Temperature
12/13/2010
82
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Proper Hydronic Design for VS Pumping
12/13/2010
83
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Primary System Volume – Minimize Cycling
BUFFER
TANK
12/13/2010
84
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Primary System Volume – Minimize Cycling
12/13/2010
85
Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Primary System Volume – Minimize Cycling
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Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Primary System Volume – Minimize Cycling
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Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Primary System Volume – Minimize Cycling
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Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Pump Energy Usage
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Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Pump Power Reduction: Minimize Flow
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Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
C il Selection:
Coil
S l i
Key to reducing
d i Pump Flow
l
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Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
C il Selection:
Coil
S l i
Key to reducing
d i Pump Flow
l

High ∆T Selections
– Heating Coils ≈ 30°F
– Coo
Cooling
g Coils
Co s ≈ 14°F - 16°F
6

Consider Slightly over sizing coils
– Heating Coils: EWT 2
2° - 3
3°F
F below HWS
Temp.*
– Cooling Coils: EWT 1° above CHWS
Temp.
* If Boiler Has Proportional Control: 5° 10°F below
b l
lower
l
proportional
ti
l sett point.
i t
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MORE INFORMATION

Reference Documents

Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems Volume II:
Thermal Distribution
Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment,
Equipment and Ventilation

Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems Volume III:
Energy Savings Potential

Advanced VAV System Design Guide – PEIR

HVAC Equations, Data, and Rules of Thumb – 2nd Edition – Bell

ASTM E779
E779-03
03 – Standard Test Method for Determining Air Leakage Rate by Fan
Pressurization

ASHRAE Fundamentals Chapter 35 – Duct Fitting Coefficients

ASHRAE Journal – February 2009 Air Handler Design for Energy Conservation – Arthur B
Wheeler

ASHRAE 90.1 and ASHRAE 90.1 User’s Manual

ASHRAE Journal June 2007,– Increasing VAV System Efficiency with Static Pressure Set
Point Reset - Steve Taylor

ASHRAE Journal, March 2004 - Sizing VAV Boxes – Steve Taylor, Jeff Stein

ASHRAE - Guideline 4-1993 Preparation of Operating and Maintenance Documentation for
Building Systems

ASHRAE - Guideline
G id li 13-2007
13 2007 S
Specifying
if i
Di
Directt Di
Digital
it l Control
C t l Systems
S t

ASHRAE - Guideline 14-2002 Measurement of Energy and Demand Savings

ASHRAE - Standard 55-2004 Thermal Conditions for Human Occupancy

ASHRAE - Standard 90.1-2004 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise
Residential Buildings

NIBS - Guideline 3-2005
3 2005 Exterior Enclosure Technical Requirements for the
Commissioning Process

NIBS – Whole Building Design Guide, Building Commissioning
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Helpful Websites
Total Building Commissioning, Inc. (TBCx) www.tbcxinc.com
Total Building Commissioning Blog www.totalbuildingcommissioning.com
www totalbuildingcommissioning com
The Building Commissioning Association (BCA) www.bcxa.org
National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) www.nibs.org,
www.wbdg.org/project/buildingcomm.php
 American
A
i
S
Society
i t off Heating,
H ti
Refrigeration
R fi
ti and
d Air
Ai Conditioning
C diti i
Engineers
E i
(ASHRAE) www.ashrae.org
 U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) www.usgbc.org
 American Society of Plumbing Engineers (ASPE) www.aspe.org




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image and then insert it again.
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Questions and Answers
?
Todd Rindlisbaker
Total Building Commissioning, Inc. (TBCx)
www tbcxinc com
www.tbcxinc.com
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Who Sabotaged My HighHigh-Performance Building?
Introduction (Continued)
I BELIEVE
BELIEVEFor the most part people want to do a good job and want to take
pride and ownership in their work. They don’t get up in the
morning
i and
d say “I’m
“I’ going
i tto see h
how b
bad
d I can mess thi
things up
today”
What they need –
•Correct information – Direction, Assumptions, Communication
•Proper tools and resources
•Proper training
•Adequate time
•Adequate support
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