Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
Bob Feduik, P.E., LEED BD&C, BEMP
Regional Sales Manager
Software Systems
© 2013 Carrier Corporation
EDUCATION AND CREDENTIAL CREDITS
In order to receive a certificate for this course you must both:
1. Sign the workshop attendance sheet which demonstrates that you have attended the workshop.
This will be passed around the room at the start of each workshop.
Print legibly so that information can be easily verified.
2 C
2.
Complete the in-class Assessment Sheet.
S
Q
Questions are selff graded.
Each workshop requires the completion of an in-class exercise with questions
that will be addressed during the workshop.
As questions are addressed during the presentation, record your answers on the answer sheet.
At the end of the workshop, you must also complete the workshop evaluation.
Turn in both the completed Assessment Sheet and Evaluation to the moderator.
The moderator will verify that you signed in and completed the written activities before issuing your
certificate. Certificates are issued at the end of the workshop.
For participants who wish to claim continuing education credit in Florida, New York or North Carolina you
must also sign the additional attendance sheet and include your PE registration number.
Under the November 2012 rule, This course may qualify for GBCI LEED CMP credit under the
Educational Category
If you would like to have an Adobe PDF copy of any of the presentations, go to www.carrieruniversity.com
and look under Sustainability Symposiums.
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
SESSION OBJECTIVES
After this session you should be able to:
1. Identify the key prerequisites for high quality
energy
gy modeling
g and the risks created by
y failing
g to
meet each prerequisite
2. Explain how the ASHRAE 90.1 Appendix G Performance Rating
Method determines energy cost savings for a building project,
and how the cost savings are used to calculate LEED® Energy
and Atmosphere Credit 1 points
3. State the basic principles used to assemble the Baseline Building
for a given proposed Design in a LEED® Energy and Atmosphere
Credit 1 analysis
4. Describe how to evaluate thermal block modeling issues in a
building to minimize modeling cost and at the same time preserve
accuracy of results
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
3
SURVEY
LEED and Energy Modeling
Does your firm or organization:
1. Participate in LEED® projects?
2. Perform energy modeling?
3. Perform energy modeling for LEED® projects?
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
AGENDA
A. Introduction
1. Brief overview of LEED® rating system
2. Energy modeling and applications
3. Key conditions for high quality energy modeling
B. Energy Modeling for LEED EA Credit 1
1. Overview of Performance Rating Method
2. Alternate approaches to LEED® EA Credit 1 analysis
3. How an efficient approach works, step-by-step.
4. Software productivity features
5
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
LEED® 2009 OVERVIEW
LEED = Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
US Green Building Council
Familyy of Rating
g Systems
y
Focus on “New Construction and Renovation”
Rating System
PLATINUM
GOLD
SILVER
CERTIFIED
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
LEED® 2009 OVERVIEW
LEED® 2009 New Construction and Renovation
Indoor
Environmental
Quality
15 pts
Energy
gy &
Atmosphere
35 pts
5 Base Categories
8 Prerequisites
32 Credits
100 Base Points
Materials &
Resources
14 pts
6 IInnovation
ti Points
P i t
4 Regional Points
110 Total Points
Water Efficiency
10 pts
Sustainable Sites
26 pts
7
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
LEED® 2009 OVERVIEW
EA Credit 6 – Green Power (2 pts)
EA Credit 5 – M+V (3 pts)
EA Credit 1 - Optimize Energy
Performance (1-19 pts)
EA Credit 4 – Enhanced
Refrig. Mgt (2 pts)
EA Credit 3 –
Enhanced
Commissioning
(2 pts)
EA Credit 2 –
On-Site Renewable
Energy (1-7 pts)
Energy and Atmosphere Category
3 Prerequisites
6 Credits
35 Credit Points
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
LEED® 2009 OVERVIEW
EA Credit 1 – Energy Modeling Approach
Earn 1 to 19 pts based on energy cost savings
Different scales for New Construction and Renovation
19
Existing Bldg
Renovation:
18
8% = 1pt
to
44% = 19 pts
15
17
LEED® EA Credit 1 Points
16
14
13
12
11
10
New Construction:
9
8
12% = 1pt
to
48% = 19 pts
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
48
% Energy Cost Savings
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
9
ENERGY MODELING
Alternate Terms
Energy Modeling
E
Energy
Simulation
Si l i
Energy Analysis
Energy Estimating
Opcost Analysis
Definition
Classical Energy Modeling - Creating a computer
model of a building and its systems to predict
annual energy consumption.
10
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
ENERGY MODELING
Original Applications (1960s-Present)
Schematic Design – Screening alternatives
Detailed Design – Selection,
Selection optimization of design
Recent Applications (2000-Present)
LEED® EA Credit 1, Prerequisite 2
ASHRAE 90.1 Energy Cost Budget
EPACT 2005 Energy Efficient Commercial
Building Tax Deduction
Future Applications (Beyond 2010)
ASHRAE Standard 189.1-2009
ASHRAE EQ Building Labeling Program
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
11
ENERGY MODELING
Key Conditions for High Quality Modeling
1. The Energy
gy Modeling
g Tool
Appropriate, robust tool matched to objectives
2. The Energy Modeler
Proficient with:
HVAC engineering fundamentals
Chosen energy modeling software
Procedure required to achieve objective
12
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
QUESTION #1
Select (circle) the 3 items which are key conditions necessary
for high quality energy modeling:
Energy modeling software:
a. Must use an 8760 hour-by-hour analysis.
b. Must be sufficiently detailed and have features capable of supporting your
modeling objectives.
c. Must be capable of modeling at least 10 thermal zones.
Energy modeler:
d. Must be a LEED accredited professional.
e. Must understand the required energy modeling procedure.
f. Must be an accredited Building Energy Modeling Professional (BEMP)
g. Must understand the chosen energy modeling software operation, features,
calculations, reports.
h. Must hold a BS degree or higher in engineering and have at least 5 years
experience in HVAC engineering.
13
PERFORMANCE RATING METHOD
Energy Modeling Procedure for EA Credit 1
Performance Rating Method (PRM)
Rates energy efficiency of buildings
which exceed energy code provisions
ASHRAE 90.1-2007 – Appendix G
Requirements for:
Software Tool Used
Modeling Proposed Building
Modeling Baseline Building
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© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
PERFORMANCE RATING METHOD
PRM – Basic Concepts
Basic Concept
Compare Proposed Design vs. Reference Case to determine energy
cost savings
Savings Calculation
% Savings = 100 x
(Baseline Energy Cost) – (Proposed Energy Cost)
(Baseline Energy Cost)
All end uses for energy included
% Savings translates into LEED® credit points
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
15
PERFORMANCE RATING METHOD
Proposed Building
Key Principles
A version
i off designed
d i
db
building;
ildi
not the
h actuall b
building
ildi
Modifications made to comply with PRM rules
Energy cost not necessarily the actual cost for design
Example Modifications Required
Conditioned spaces must be heated and cooled ԟ
even when actual is heating-only or cooling-only
HVAC fans run continuously for occupied periods
Manually operated shades not modeled
16
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
PERFORMANCE RATING METHOD
Baseline Building - Basics
Key Principles
B
Baseline
li = Mi
Minimum
i
prescriptive
i ti
As if building only designed to meet minimum code requirements
Prescriptive = ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Sections 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, 9.5/9.6.
Key Characteristics
Same size, shape, usage, # floors, site as Proposed
Walls, roofs, floors: prescriptive performance
Fenestration: prescriptive performance
HVAC, SHW: prescriptive requirements and min eqpt efficiency
Lighting: prescriptive lighting power density
17
PERFORMANCE RATING METHOD
Baseline Building - Application
Model Baseline 4 Times:
Actual orientation
Rotated 90° clockwise
Rotated 180° clockwise
Rotated 270° clockwise
Baseline Energy Cost:
Determine each
Baseline energy cost
Compute average of
4 Baseline costs
Use average to determine
% savings
18
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
QUESTION #2
For a new construction project, if the PRM energy cost
savings is 21.2%, how many LEED® EA Credit 1 points
would be earned?
Points Earned = 5 pts
19
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
ANALYSIS APPROACH
Just-Do-It
Plan-Then-Execute
1. Brute force approach
2 Enter data,
2.
data run calculations,
calculations
review results
3. Figure out analysis as you go
Risks:
More Time
More Time
More Time
More Time
More Time
More Time
1. Finesse approach
2 Carefully plan and organize
2.
analysis per PRM rules
3. Enter data, run calculations,
review results
Entering Data
Running
g Calcs
Troubleshooting
Optimizing
Documenting
Review Questions
Time = $$
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
Benefits:
Less Time
Less Time
Less Time
Less Time
Less Time
Less Time
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
PLAN-THEN-EXECUTE APPROACH
Plan-Then-Execute Method
1. Choose software
2. Determine scope for energy modeling
3. Determine space classifications
4. Determine thermal block strategy
5. Finish modeling plan for Proposed Building
6. Create modeling plan for Baseline Building
7. Survey the competition
8. Execute analysis
21
CHOOSE SOFTWARE
Plan-Then-Execute Method
1. Choose software
2. Determine scope for energy modeling
3. Determine space classifications
4. Determine thermal block strategy
5. Finish modeling plan for Proposed Building
6. Create modeling plan for Baseline Building
7. Survey the competition
8. Execute analysis
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© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
SOFTWARE SELECTION
PRM - Minimum Software Requirements
Basic
Computer based program
Approved by rating authority
8,760 hours per year analysis
Model proposed bldg features and/or can use exceptional calculation
Model baseline bldg features
Determine proposed and baseline energy costs, or supply energy use
Thermal Load Modeling
Model hourly variations of internal loads, setpoints, HVAC operation,
all days of week
Model thermal mass effects
Model ten or more thermal zones
23
SOFTWARE SELECTION
PRM - Minimum Software Requirements
Equipment Modeling
Model capacity + efficiency corrections curves for equipment
Model part-load performance curves for equipment
Model air-side economizers with integrated control
System Design
Perform design calculations to size HVAC equipment capacity,
air flow, water flow
Software Testing
Vendor to test per ASHRAE Standard 140 and make results available
24
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
SOFTWARE SELECTION
Beyond Minimum Compliance
Additional Considerations:
1. Technical capabilities
2. LEED®-oriented features for efficiency
3. Ease of use
4. Technical support
pp
5. Training
6. Cost
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
25
DETERMINE SCOPE FOR ENERGY MODELING
Plan-Then-Execute Method
1. Choose software
2. Determine scope for energy modeling
3. Determine space classifications
4. Determine thermal block strategy
5. Finish modeling plan for Proposed Building
6. Create modeling plan for Baseline Building
7. Survey the competition
8. Execute analysis
26
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
SCOPE OF ENERGY MODEL
Basic Principles
Scope = How much of building is modeled
1. New Construction
Model whole building
2. Renovation or Addition to Existing Building
Model whole building
OR
Model only addition or portion being renovated (specific requirements)
27
SCOPE OF ENERGY MODEL
Why Scope Matters
Advantages of Reduced Scope
Faster, cheaper modeling
Can affect LEED® EA Credit 1 points potential
Example:
Office building
30,000 sqft existing
10,000 sqft addition
Modeled Floor Area
Energy Cost Savings
Baseline Energy Cost
% Savings
Points Earned
Model Whole
Building
Model Addition
Only
40,000 sqft
$5,000
$61,000
8.2%
1 pt
10,000 sqft
$5,000
$17,000
29.4%
11 pts
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
SCOPE OF ENERGY MODEL
Conditions for Reduced Scope
(All conditions must be met)
1 Renovation or addition to existing building
1.
2. HVAC systems completely separate in part modeled
and not modeled
3. Little or no heat flow through separating partitions;
similar setpoints and schedules
4. Flat energy prices or separate energy meter for
renovation
29
QUESTION #3
What is the required scope for the example below?
Is it whole building or addition only?
Example:
(1) Existing office building, 4 floors, 64,000 sqft
(2) Addition of 18,000 sqft office space to be constructed
(3) Flat energy prices will be used in model
(4) HVAC for addition is hydronic fan coil units
(5) FCUs to be connected to existing CW and HW plants
Answer: Whole Building
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© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
DETERMINE SPACE CLASSIFICATIONS
Plan-Then-Execute Method
1. Choose software
2. Determine scope for energy modeling
3. Determine space classifications
4. Determine thermal block strategy
5. Finish modeling plan for Proposed Building
6. Create modeling plan for Baseline Building
7. Survey the competition
8. Execute analysis
31
SPACE USE CLASSIFICATION
Importance
Can affect:
Thermal block strategy
Baseline system selection
Lighting power density (Baseline and sometimes Proposed)
Schedules (if actual not known)
Occupant, receptacle, SHW loads (if actual not known)
Classification Rules
Use Building Area method or Space-by-Space method
Consistently apply throughout building
Multi-Use Buildings – Can use different building usage types
Usage Not Known - Choose “Office” type
32
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
DETERMINE THERMAL BLOCK STRATEGY
Plan-Then-Execute Method
1. Choose software
2. Determine scope for energy modeling
3. Determine space classifications
4. Determine thermal block strategy
5. Finish modeling plan for Proposed Building
6. Create modeling plan for Baseline Building
7. Survey the competition
8. Execute analysis
33
THERMAL BLOCKS
Example: Modeling Building As Designed
Conditions
Rectangular office building
4 stories
60,000 sqft
152 zones
Consequences
1 Proposed Bldg
4 Baseline Bldgs
152 zones x 5 buildings
= 760 zones
34
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
THERMAL BLOCKS
Definition and Concepts
ASHRAE 90.1 Definition
Thermal Block – A collection of one or more HVAC zones grouped
together for simulation purposes. Spaces need not be contiguous to
be combined within a single thermal block.
Concepts
Requires engineering judgment
Simplifies model without degrading accuracy
K
Key:
Combine
C bi th
thermally
ll similar
i il zones iinto
t a single
i l bl
block
k
Thermally Similar Means…
Similar load density
Similar time-dependent behavior
35
THERMAL BLOCKS
Basic Principles
Principles for Creating Thermal Blocks
Separate thermal blocks should be created for:
1. Zones with different building use or space use classifications
2. Ground floor, intermediate floors, top floor
3. Perimeter and interior areas
4 Zones with glazed exterior walls with orientation differing by >=
4.
> 45
45°
5. Corner zones
6. Different or different kinds of HVAC systems
36
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
THERMAL BLOCKS
Application of Thermal Blocks
Conditions
Office building example
37
THERMAL BLOCKS
Application of Thermal Blocks
Conditions
Office building example
38
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
THERMAL BLOCKS
Application of Thermal Blocks
Conditions
2
Office building example
6
5
1
9
3
8
Benefits
7
4
27 blocks / bldg
27 blocks x 5 bldgs
= 135 blocks
80% reduction vs. 760 zones
39
THERMAL BLOCKS
Rules for Specific Scenarios
HVAC Zones Designed
1. Blocks are built from designed zones
2. Corners must be separate
HVAC Zones Not Yet Designed
1.
2.
3.
4.
Construct hypothetical blocks
Perimeter and interior separate
Perimeter - 15 ft from exterior wall
Corners can be divided
1. Zones Designed Corner Zones Separate
15 ft
Multi-Family Residential
1. Blocks built from designed units
2. Corners must be separate
2. Zones Not Designed Corner Zones Divided
40
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
QUESTION #4
For the sample building below use thermal block principles to
reduce the number of thermal blocks (zones) modeled.
Minimum Blocks per Floor = ____________
Total Blocks for Building = ______________
4-Story Office
34 designed
zones per floor.
136 zones total
Floor-by-floor
VAV AHUs
41
QUESTION #4 (CONTINUED)
“Good Answer”
12
Minimum Blocks per Floor = ____________
Total Blocks for Building = ______________
3 x 12 = 36
3
2
4
6
5
7
1
8
12
11
9
10
42
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
FINISH MODELING PLAN FOR PROPOSED BUILDING
Plan-Then-Execute Method
1. Choose software
2. Determine scope for energy modeling
3. Determine space classifications
4. Determine thermal block strategy
5. Finish modeling plan for Proposed Building
6. Create modeling plan for Baseline Building
7. Survey the competition
8. Execute analysis
43
PROPOSED BUILDING MODEL
Finishing the Modeling Plan
Proposed Building Model
Startt with
St
ith actual
t l design
d i
Make allowed simplifications
Make required modifications
Approach
Assemble and review modeling checklist for Proposed Building
44
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
PROPOSED BUILDING MODEL
Finishing the Modeling Plan
Sample Checklist
Ill t t checklist
Illustrates
h kli t conceptt and
d application.
li ti
For New Construction scenarios only.
Includes key details; omits others due to space limitations.
Elements
General modeling issues
Schedules
Envelope
Lighting
HVAC Systems
Service Hot Water
Receptacle
Energy Prices
45
PROPOSED BUILDING MODEL
(1) General Modeling Issues

Item

Scope of model

Space use classification

Thermal blocks
Notes
Simplification
Simplification
Consistent with design documents
Include all end uses for energy
(2) Schedules

Item
Notes
Known: Use actual
Not Known: Use typical (90.1 User's Manual App G)
HVAC Fans - Run continuously occupied; cycle unoccupied
Not Actual
Sample checklists apply to New Construction scenario only and include key issues. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
PROPOSED BUILDING MODEL
(3) Envelope

Item
Notes
Model wall, roof, floors, fenestration assemblies as designed
Uninsulated assemblies
Simplification
Simplified model flush with wall, or weighted avg U-value.
Assembly < 5% total area for assembly type.
Simplification
Include in larger assembly type, if thermally similar.
Azimuth or tilt within 45° - model as same orientation
Exterior Roof
Simplification
Not Actual
Reflectivity = 0.45
0 45 if ( > 0.70
0 70 and  > 0.75)
0 75) OR (SRI >= 82)
Reflectivity = 0.30 otherwise
Manually operated fenestration shading - Exclude
Not Actual
Automatically operated fenestration shading - May Include
Permanent shading devices (e.g. fins, overhangs) - May include
Sample checklists apply to New Construction scenario only and include key issues. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
47
PROPOSED BUILDING MODEL
(4) Lighting

Item
Notes
y
Designed
g
- Use designed
g
lighting
g
gp
power (p
(per 9.1.3,, 9.1.4))
System
System Not Designed - Define per Building Area Method
Portable lighting (e.g. task, furniture-mounted) - must include.
Exempt lighting (e.g. theatrical lighting) - must include.
Exterior lighting (e.g. façade, parking) - must include.
Automatic daylighting controls - may include.
via direct modeling or adjusted schedules
Controls exceeding Mandatory provisions - may take credit
via reduced LPD or adjusted schedules
Applies to programmable timing control and/or occ. sensors
Sample checklists apply to New Construction scenario only and include key issues. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
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PROPOSED BUILDING MODEL
(5) HVAC Systems

Item
Notes
System Designed - Model consistent with documents
No Heating System Designed:
Not Actual
Add heating. Use electric heat and baseline system type
No Cooling System Designed:
Not Actual
Add cooling. Use baseline system type
HW and CW Plants - Do not model pipe heat gain or loss
Not Actual
((6)) Service Hot Water

Item
Notes
SHW Designed - Model as designed
SHW Not Designed - Model per baseline rules.
No SHW Loads Exist - Do not model SHW
Sample checklists apply to New Construction scenario only and include key issues. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
49
PROPOSED BUILDING MODEL
(7) Receptacle and Process Loads

Item
Notes
Receptacle and process loads - Must include.
Loads Known - Use actual data.
Loads Not Known - May estimate.
Resource: Table G-B in 90.1 User's Manual.
(8) Energy Prices

Item
Notes
Simple Approach - Use EIA flat prices (by state)
Energy Information Administration: www.eia.doe.gov
Detailed Approach - Use actual utility rate structures
Must use one approach for all energy and fuels
Sample checklists apply to New Construction scenario only and include key issues. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
5/16/2013
CREATE MODELING PLAN FOR BASELINE BUILDING
Plan-Then-Execute Method
1. Choose software
2. Determine scope for energy modeling
3. Determine space classifications
4. Determine thermal block strategy
5. Finish modeling plan for Proposed Building
6. Create modeling plan for Baseline Building
7. Survey the competition
8. Execute analysis
51
BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
Creating the Baseline Modeling Plan
Baseline Building Model
Start with proposed building model
Preserve elements which must be identical
Replace elements which must be prescriptive
Approach
Assemble and review modeling checklist for Baseline Building
Sample Checklist
Illustrates checklist concept and application
For new construction scenarios only
Includes key details; omits others due to space limitations
52
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
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PROPOSED BUILDING MODEL
Baseline Modeling Rules
Overview
Category
General Approach
1. Basic size, shape, usage.
Key aspects of model match Proposed
2. Envelope - Opaque Elements
Prescriptive performance
3. Envelope – Fenestration
Prescriptive performance
4. Lighting
Prescriptive performance
5. Service Hot Water
6. HVAC Systems
Prescriptive minimum efficiencies
Detailed mapping rules, system requirements
Mandatory minimum efficiencies
53
BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
(1) General Modeling Issues

Item
Same as
Prescriptive
Proposed
p
Scope
X
Space use classifications
X
Thermal blocks
X
Number of floors
X
Conditioned floor area
X
Temperature, humidity setpoints
X
Receptacle and process loads
X
Schedules (exceptions for lighting controls and DCV)
X
Simulation program
X
Weather data
X
Energy prices
X
Rule
Sample checklists apply to New Construction scenario only and include key issues. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
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BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
(2) Envelope – Opaque Elements

Same as
Proposed
Item
Prescriptive
Rule
General
Surface dimensions, orientation, tilt
X
Fixed at
=0.30
Roof reflectivity
Self-shading
Do not model
Envelope Assemblies
Above grade exterior walls
X
Roofs
X
Floors
X
Slab on Grade
X
Opaque doors
Steel framed
Insulation
above deck
Steel joist
X
Sample checklists apply to New Construction scenario only and include key issues. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
55
BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
(3) Envelope – Fenestration

Item
Same as
Prescriptive
Proposed
Rule
General
Fenestration dimensions, orientation, tilt
X
Above Grade Walls - Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR)
X
X
Skylight-to-Roof Ratio (SRR)
X
X
U-value and SHGC
Self-shading
Smaller of
Proposed or
40%
Smaller of
Proposed or
5%
X
Do not model
V ti l Fenestration
Vertical
F
t ti
Recesses, reveals
Do not model
Permanent shading projections (e.g., fins, overhangs)
Do not model
Interior shades (blinds, drapes, shades)
Do not model
Sample checklists apply to New Construction scenario only and include key issues. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
(4) Lighting

Same as Prescriptive
Proposed
Item
Space or building use classifications
Rule
X
Lighting power density
X
Schedules
Reflect
mandatory
control
requirements
X
(5) Service Hot Water

Same as Prescriptive
Proposed
Item
Energy source
Rule
X
SHW is designed.
X
SHW not designed but will exist.
X
per 7.4.1,
7.4.2
Electric, per
7.4.2
Sample checklists apply to New Construction scenario only and include key issues. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
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BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
(6) HVAC Systems
Procedure
1 Determine baseline system type based on proposed building type
1.
and size, and heating type (G3.1.1)
2. Apply general system requirements (G3.1.2)
3. Apply system-specific requirements (G3.1.3)
Sample checklists apply to New Construction scenario only and include key issues. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
(6) HVAC Systems – System Determination
Fossil Fuel, Fossil/ Electric
Hybrid, and Purchased Heat
Electric and Other
Residential
System 1 – PTAC
System 2 – PTHP
Non-Residential
1 to 3 floors AND
< 25,000 ft2
System 3 – PSZ-AC
System 4 – PSZ-HP
System 5 – Packaged
VAV w/Reheat
System 6 – Packaged
VAV w/PFPMBX
System 7 – VAV
w/Reheat
System 8 – VAV
w/PFPMBX
Non-Residential
[4 or 5 floors and
< 25,000 ft2 ] OR
[1 to 5 floors &
25,000 ft2 to
150,000 ft2 ]
Non-Residential
>5 floors OR
>150,000 ft2
Data applies to New Construction scenario only. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
59
BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
(6) HVAC Systems – Baseline Systems
Fan
Control
Cooling Type
Heating Type
Configuration
1 Pkg Terminal AC
CAV
DX
HW fossil fuel boiler
1 per zone
2 Pkg Terminal Heat Pump
CAV
DX
Electric heat pump
1 per zone
3 Pkg Rooftop AC
CAV
DX
Fossil fuel furnace
1 per zone
4 Pkg Rooftop Heat Pump
CAV
DX
Electric heat pump
1 per zone
5 Pkg Rooftop VAV w/Reheat
VAV
DX
HW fossil fuel boiler
1 per floor
VAV
DX
Electric resistance
1 per floor
7 VAV AHU w/Reheat
VAV
Chilled Water
HW fossil fuel boiler
1 per floor
8 VAV AHU w/PFPMBX
VAV
Chilled Water
Electric resistance
1 per floor
# System Type
6
Pkg Rooftop VAV
w/PFPMBX
Data applies to New Construction scenario only. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
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BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
(6) HVAC Systems –
General System Requirements

Item
Rules
HVAC equipment efficiency
Mandatory minimum efficiency per Section 6
Cooling equipment capacity
Calculated peak load +15%
Heating equipment capacity
Calculated peak load +25%
Outdoor air economizer
Supply CFM sizing
Minimum outdoor ventilation airflow
System fan power
Specific rules for inclusion and high limit shutoff
Larger of CFM from 20 F T or ventilation airflow.
Must match Proposed (DCV exception)
Calculate per Baseline Fan Power Allowance
procedure (G3.1.2.9)
Exhaust air recovery
Unmet load hours
Specific rules for inclusion, eqpt efficiency
Proposed and Baseline both =< 300 hrs
Proposed cannot exceed Baseline by > 50 hrs
Sample checklists apply to New Construction scenario only and include key issues. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
61
BASELINE BUILDING MODEL
(6) HVAC Systems –
System-Specific Requirements

Item
Air source heat pumps
Hot water boiler plants
Chilled water plants
Rules Specify
Electric auxiliary; auxiliary not allowed >40 F
Plant configuration, control, pump performance.
Plant configuration, control, performance of pumps,
cooling towers and cooling tower fans.
VAV supply fan
VFD, part load performance
VAV supply air
Supply temperature control for cooling.
VAV air terminals
Minimum airflow settings
Sample checklists apply to New Construction scenario only and include key issues. Refer to 90.1 Appendix G for full requirements
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
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SURVEY THE COMPETITION
Plan-Then-Execute Method
1. Choose software
2. Determine scope for energy modeling
3. Determine space classifications
4. Determine thermal block strategy
5. Finish modeling plan for Proposed Building
6. Create modeling plan for Baseline Building
7. Survey the competition
8. Execute analysis
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SURVEYING THE COMPETITION
Concepts
Basic Principles
Proposed competes with Baseline
Differentiation between Proposed and Baseline –
Q lifi P
Qualifies
Proposed
d as hi
high
h performance
f
and
d earns LEED® points
i t
Survey differences, assess potential before assembling the models
Outcomes
Go – Good potential for savings and points exists; proceed
No-Go – Poor potential; reconsider design or look elsewhere for pts
Areas of Focus
Envelope – Walls, Roofs, Floors
Envelope – Fenestration
Lighting
HVAC
SHW
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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SURVEYING THE COMPETITION
Example #1
Single story office building
23,000 sqft conditioned floor area
Kansas City, MO (Climate Zone 4A)
65
SURVEYING THE COMPETITION
Example #2
Single story office building
23,000 sqft conditioned floor area
Kansas City, MO (Climate Zone 4A)
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© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
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EXECUTE ANALYSIS
Plan-Then-Execute Method
1. Choose software
2. Determine scope for energy modeling
3. Determine space classifications
4. Determine thermal block strategy
5. Finish modeling plan for Proposed Building
6. Create modeling plan for Baseline Building
7. Survey the competition
8. Execute analysis
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PLAN-THEN-EXECUTE METHOD
Plan-Then-Execute Method
1. Choose software (revisited)
2. Determine scope for energy modeling
3. Determine space classifications
4. Determine thermal block strategy
5. Finish modeling plan for Proposed Building
6. Create modeling plan for Baseline Building
7. Survey the competition
8. Execute analysis
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© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
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SOFTWARE SELECTION REVISITED
Key Conditions for High Quality Modeling
1 The Energy Modeling Tool
1.
Appropriate, robust tool matched to objectives
2. The Energy Modeler
Proficient with:
HVAC engineering fundamentals
Chosen energy modeling software
Procedure required to achieve objective
69
SOFTWARE SELECTION REVISITED
Key Conditions for Efficient Modeling
1 The Energy Modeling Tool
1.
Provides features to automate PRM-related tasks
2. The Energy Modeler
Uses efficient approach (e.g. Plan-Then-Execute)
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
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SOFTWARE SELECTION REVISITED
Challenges for Efficient Modeling
The Problem
Rating procedures require specialized tasks
Outside normal scope of energy modeling
Tasks can be labor intensive
Proposed Solution
Automation of key PRM tasks
71
SOFTWARE SELECTION REVISITED
Sample High Impact Tasks for Automation
Inputs
1. Copying entire Proposed Building as basis for Baseline
2 Efficiently
2.
Effi i tl converting
ti d
data
t tto prescriptive
i ti –
assemblies, lighting, systems
3. Rotating baseline building
Calculations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Setting equipment capacity based on 15% and 25% factors
Setting equipment efficiency per ASHRAE 90.1 minimums
Decompiling EERs and COPs into compressor and fan components
Performing baseline fan power allowance calculation (G3.1.2.9)
Setting PFPMBX fan power based on W/CFM specification
Setting CW, Cond Water, HW pump power based on
W/gpm specification
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© 2013 Carrier Corp.
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
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SESSION OBJECTIVES
After this session you should be able to:
1. Identify the key prerequisites for high quality
energy
gy modeling
g and the risks created by
y failing
g to
meet each prerequisite
2. Explain how the ASHRAE 90.1 Appendix G Performance Rating
Method determines energy cost savings for a building project,
and how the cost savings are used to calculate LEED® Energy
and Atmosphere Credit 1 points
3. State the basic principles used to assemble the Baseline Building
for a given proposed Design in a LEED® Energy and Atmosphere
Credit 1 analysis
4. Describe how to evaluate thermal block modeling issues in a
building to minimize modeling cost and at the same time preserve
accuracy of results
LEED is a registered trademark of the U.S. Green Building Council.
73
ENERGY MODELING FOR LEED
74
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Energy Modeling for LEED 2009 Energy and Atmospheres Credit 1
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