Fx1616-BA User`s Manual - Triangle Research International

Fx1616-BA
With floating point support
Ladder + BASIC
Super PLC
USER’S
Revision 1.1
MANUAL
USER MANUAL
Copyright Notice and Disclaimer
All rights reserved. With the exception of legitimate TRi PLC users, who
may print or make copies of this manual for reference purposes, no parts
of this manual may be reproduced in any form without the express written
permission of TRi.
Triangle Research International, Inc. (TRi) makes no representations or
warranties with respect to the contents hereof. In addition, information
contained herein are subject to change without notice. Every precaution
has been taken in the preparation of this manual. Nevertheless, TRi
assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions or any damages resulting
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Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Inc.
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All other trademarks belong to their respective owners.
Revision Sheet
Release No.
Rev. 0
Rev. 1.0
Date
2/15/2014
10/30/2014
Rev. 1.1
12/01/2015
Revision Description
First Release
Revised section 2.10 on Web Control
Added reference to SmartTILE solution for OEMs
Further revised section 2.10 on Web Control
Added reference to SmartTILE solution for OEMs
Page ii
USER MANUAL
Conditions of Sale and Product Warranty
Triangle Research International Inc. (TRi) and the Buyer agree to the following
terms and conditions of Sale and Purchase:
1.
The TRi Products are guaranteed against defects in materials or
workmanship for a period of one year from the date of registered purchase.
Any unit found during this time to have manufacturing defect/s will, at the
discretion of TRi, be repaired or replaced.
2.
TRi will not be responsible for the repair or replacement of any unit damaged
by user modification, negligence, abuse, improper installation, or
mishandling.
3.
TRi is not responsible to the Buyer for any special, consequential, indirect or
similar damages, including any lost profits or loss data arising from the use or
the loss of use of TRi products. In no case shall TRi's liability exceed the
purchase price for the products.
4.
TRi products are NOT certified to be FAILSAFE and hence must NOT be
used in applications where failure of the product could lead to physical harm
or loss of human life. The Buyer is responsible to conduct his/her own tests to
meet the safety regulation of the respective industry.
5.
Products distributed, but not manufactured by TRi, carry the full original
manufacturers warranty. Such products include, but are not limited to: power
supplies, sensors, I/O modules and battery backed RAM.
6.
TRi reserves the right to alter any feature or specification at any time with
each product revision release.
Notes to Buyer: If you disagree with any of the above terms or conditions you
should promptly return the unit to the manufacturer or distributor within 30 days
from date of purchase for a full refund.
Page iii
USER MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page #
1 INSTALLATION GUIDE FOR FX1616-BA PLC
1.1 1-1 Overview .................................................................................................................................. 1-1 1.2 Physical Mounting & Wiring ..................................................................................................1-3 1.2.1 Analog I/O Ports: .................................................................................................................. 1-6 1.2.2 Digital I/O Ports: ................................................................................................................... 1-6 1.2.3 Output Common Terminal ....................................................................................................1-7 1.3 Power Supply .......................................................................................................................... 1-7 1.4 Digital Input Circuits............................................................................................................... 1-8 1.5 Digital Output Circuits..........................................................................................................1-10 1.5.1 Electrical Specifications:.....................................................................................................1-11 1.5.2 Relay Output Wiring Diagram.............................................................................................1-11 1.5.3 Inductive Load ....................................................................................................................1-12 1.6 LCD Display Port ..................................................................................................................1-13 1.6.1 Wiring Instruction of LCD216 and LCD420 Backlight. .......................................................1-13 1.6.2 Programming The LCD Display..........................................................................................1-14 1.7 Program and Data Memory ..................................................................................................1-15 1.7.1 Program Memory................................................................................................................1-15 1.7.2 Non Volatile FRAM Memory...............................................................................................1-15 1.7.3 Volatile Data Memory .........................................................................................................1-15 1.7.4 Extended Data File Storage ...............................................................................................1-16 1.8 DIP SWITCHES......................................................................................................................1-16 1.8.1 Usefulness of SW1-4..........................................................................................................1-16 1.9 Real Time Clock Battery.......................................................................................................1-16 1.10 CPU Status Indicators ..........................................................................................................1-17 1.10.1 RTC Error (Green LED) .................................................................................................1-17 1.10.2 Pause (Red LED) ...........................................................................................................1-17 1.10.3 Run Error (Red LED)......................................................................................................1-17 1.11 2 Create a Custom PLC with SmartTILE................................................................................1-18 ETHERNET PORT
2-1 2.1 Configuring The Ethernet Port ..............................................................................................2-1 2.1.1 IP Address ............................................................................................................................ 2-2 2.1.2 GateWay IP Addr ................................................................................................................. 2-3 2.1.3 SMTP Server IP Address .....................................................................................................2-3 2.1.4 DNS Server IP Address........................................................................................................2-3 2.1.5 No of Connections (FServer/ Modbus TCP) ........................................................................2-4 2.1.6 FServer Port No.................................................................................................................... 2-4 2.1.7 Modbus/TCP Secondary Port No. ........................................................................................2-5 2.1.8 LAN Speed ........................................................................................................................... 2-5 2.1.9 Node Name .......................................................................................................................... 2-5 2.1.10 Username and Password (FServer only).........................................................................2-5 2.1.11 Use Username/Password (Yes/No)? ...............................................................................2-5 2.1.12 Access Level .................................................................................................................... 2-5 Page iv
USER MANUAL
2.1.13 2.1.14 Advanced Configuration...................................................................................................2-5 Standalone Version of Ethernet Configuration Software .................................................2-6 2.2 Connecting Ethernet to the PLC ...........................................................................................2-7 2.2.1 Connecting the PLC to a Local Area Network......................................................................2-7 2.2.2 Setting up Ethernet Communication Directly Between a PC and a F-series PLC ............... 2-9 2.3 On-line Monitoring/Programming via FServer...................................................................2-15 2.4 Using F-series PLC “Network Services” Commands .......................................................2-16 2.4.1 Get our IP Address.............................................................................................................2-18 2.4.2 DNS command: Resolving Domain Name into IP Address ...............................................2-18 2.4.3 Send Email .........................................................................................................................2-19 2.4.4 Open Connection to Remote FServer or TLServer to Use NETCMD$..............................2-20 2.4.5 Remote File Services .........................................................................................................2-21 2.4.6 Other Network Services Tags ............................................................................................2-21 2.5 MODBUS/TCP Server and Client Connection ....................................................................2-22 2.5.1 Connecting To The PLC’s MODBUS/TCP Server .............................................................2-22 2.5.1.1 Bit Address Mapping..................................................................................................2-22 2.5.1.2 Word Address Mapping .............................................................................................2-24 2.5.2 MODBUS/TCP Access Security.........................................................................................2-24 2.5.3 Making a Modbus/TCP Client Connection to Other Modbus/TCP Server .........................2-26 2.6 Getting data from Internet: Connecting to The Internet Time Server .............................2-28 2.7 Web Service: Accessing PLC's data from MS Excel.........................................................2-29 2.8 Accessing The PLC from Internet.......................................................................................2-31 2.8.1 Small Local Area Network Using Consumer Grade Network Router.................................2-31 2.8.2 Large Corporate Local Area Network.................................................................................2-32 2.9 Installing a Control Web Page Into the F-series PLC........................................................2-33 2.9.1 Installing the FileZilla program ...........................................................................................2-33 2.9.2 Configure FileZilla to Communicate with the F-series PLC ...............................................2-33 2.9.3 Transferring and Retrieving Files from the PLC Web Server.............................................2-36 2.9.4 Troubleshooting FileZilla File Transfer Problems...............................................................2-37 2.10 Accessing and Customizing the HTML Web Interface for Control and Monitoring.......2-39 2.10.1 Next Generation of Super PLC Web Control .................................................................2-39 3 PROGRAMMING I/O AND INTERNAL RELAYS
3.1 3-1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 3-1 3.2 Programming DIO with Ladder Logic ...................................................................................3-1 3.2.1 For Physical I/O .................................................................................................................... 3-1 3.2.2 For Internal Relays (Non-Latching) ......................................................................................3-1 3.2.3 For Internal Relays (Latching) ..............................................................................................3-1 3.2.4 Programming Examples: ......................................................................................................3-1 3.2.4.1 Example 1 – Editing Label Names ..............................................................................3-1 3.2.4.2 Example 2 – Creating a Simple Ladder Logic Circuit..................................................3-2 3.2.4.3 Example 3 – Creating a Latching Relay Circuit........................................................... 3-2 3.3 Programming DIO in a Custom Function .............................................................................3-2 3.3.1 Editing Label Names: ...........................................................................................................3-3 3.3.2 Controlling I/O from Custom Functions: ...............................................................................3-3 3.3.3 Example 1 – Turn on/off an Output ......................................................................................3-3 3.3.4 Example 2 – Toggle an Output.............................................................................................3-4 3.3.5 Example 3 – Test the Status of an Output ...........................................................................3-4 Page v
USER MANUAL
4 TIMERS, COUNTERS AND SEQUENCERS
4-1 4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 4-1 4.1.1 Timer Coils ........................................................................................................................... 4-1 4.1.2 Counter Coils........................................................................................................................ 4-1 4.1.3 Sequencers .......................................................................................................................... 4-1 4.2 Programming timers and counters on Ladder Logic..........................................................4-2 4.2.1 For Timers ............................................................................................................................ 4-2 4.2.2 For Counters......................................................................................................................... 4-2 4.2.3 Example 1 – Creating a Simple Timer Circuit in Ladder Logic ............................................4-2 4.2.4 Example 2 – Creating a Simple Counter Circuit in Ladder Logic.........................................4-3 4.3 Programming timers and counters in Custom Function....................................................4-4 4.3.1 Timers and Counters Present Values ..................................................................................4-4 4.3.2 Inputs, Outputs, Relays, Timers and Counters Contacts.....................................................4-4 4.3.3 Changing The Timer and Counter Set Values in a Custom Function ..................................4-4 4.3.4 Controlling a Timer or Counter in a Custom Function..........................................................4-4 4.4 Programming Sequencers on Ladder Logic........................................................................4-5 4.4.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................... 4-5 4.4.2 Advance Sequencer - [AVseq] .............................................................................................4-6 4.4.3 Resetting Sequencer - [RSseq]............................................................................................4-6 4.4.4 Setting Sequencer to Step N - [StepN] ................................................................................4-6 4.4.5 Reversing a Sequencer........................................................................................................4-6 4.4.6 Program Example................................................................................................................. 4-6 4.5 5 Programming Sequencers in Custom Function ..................................................................4-7 ANALOG INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
5.1 5-1 Analog Power Supply............................................................................................................. 5-1 5.2 Analog Inputs .......................................................................................................................... 5-1 5.2.1 Interfacing to 4-20mA or 0-20mA sensors ...........................................................................5-2 5.2.2 Interfacing to two-wire 4-20mA sensors............................................................................... 5-2 5.2.3 Using Potentiometer to Set Parameters...............................................................................5-3 5.2.4 Reading Analog Input Data ..................................................................................................5-3 5.2.5 Moving Average.................................................................................................................... 5-4 5.2.6 Scaling of Analog Data.........................................................................................................5-4 5.3 Temperature Measurement Using Analog Inputs................................................................5-5 5.3.1 Thermistor Temperature Sensors ........................................................................................5-5 5.3.2 Using LM34 Semiconductor Sensor..................................................................................... 5-6 5.3.3 Using Thermocouple ............................................................................................................5-6 5.3.4 Using PT100 Temperature Sensor.......................................................................................5-6 5.4 Analog Outputs....................................................................................................................... 5-7 5.4.1 Programming The Analog Output.........................................................................................5-7 5.5 Calibration of ADC and DAC & Moving Average Definition ...............................................5-8 5.5.1 ADC Calib............................................................................................................................. 5-8 5.5.2 ADC Zero Offset ................................................................................................................... 5-9 5.5.3 DAC Calib............................................................................................................................. 5-9 5.5.4 DAC Zero Offset .................................................................................................................5-10 5.5.5 A/D Moving Avg..................................................................................................................5-10 Page vi
USER MANUAL
6 SPECIAL DIGITAL I/OS
6-1 7 HIGH SPEED COUNTERS
7-1 7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 7-1 7.2 Enhanced Quadrature Decoding...........................................................................................7-2 7.3 Interfacing to 5V type Quadrature Encoder .........................................................................7-2 F-Series PLC.................................................................................................................................... 1 8 FREQUENCY / SPEED MEASUREMENT
8.1 8-1 Programming of PM Input......................................................................................................8-1 8.2 Applications ............................................................................................................................ 8-2 8.2.1 Measuring RPM Of A Motor .................................................................................................8-2 8.2.2 Measuring Transducer with VCO Outputs ...........................................................................8-2 8.2.3 Measuring Transducer with PWM Outputs ..........................................................................8-2 8.3 9 Frequency Measurement on High Speed Counter Inputs ..................................................8-3 INTERRUPTS
9-1 9.1 Input Interrupts ....................................................................................................................... 9-1 9.2 Periodic Timer Interrupt (PTI) .............................................................................................9-2 9.3 Power Failure Interrupt (PFI) .................................................................................................9-2 10 10.1 STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL
10-1 Technical Specifications:.....................................................................................................10-1 10.2 Stepper Motor Driver ............................................................................................................10-1 10.2.1 Stepper Motor Wiring Types ..........................................................................................10-1 10.2.2 Damping Circuits (Inductive Bypass) .............................................................................10-2 10.3 Stepper Motor Controller .....................................................................................................10-3 10.3.1 Interfacing to 5V Stepper Motor Driver Inputs ...............................................................10-4 10.4 Programming Stepper Control Channel.............................................................................10-5 10.4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................10-5 10.4.2 Examples .......................................................................................................................10-5 10.4.3 Setting the Acceleration Properties................................................................................10-5 10.4.4 Using the STEPMOVE Command .................................................................................10-6 10.4.4.1 Example: PLC as a Motor Controller .....................................................................10-6 10.4.4.2 Example: PLC as a Full-Step Motor Driver............................................................10-7 10.4.4.3 Example: PLC as a Half-Step Motor Driver ...........................................................10-7 10.4.5 Using the STEPMOVEABS Command ..........................................................................10-7 10.4.5.1 Example: PLC as a Motor Controller .....................................................................10-8 10.4.5.2 Example: PLC as a Full-Step Motor Driver............................................................10-8 10.4.5.3 Example: PLC as a Half-Step Motor Driver ...........................................................10-8 10.4.6 Demo Program for Stepper Motor Control .....................................................................10-8 11 PULSE WIDTH MODULATED OUTPUTS
11-1 11.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................11-1 11.2 Fx1616-BA PWM Outputs.....................................................................................................11-1 11.3 Increasing Output Drive Current (Opto-Isolated) ...........................................................11-2 Page vii
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11.4 Position Control Of RC Servo Motor ..................................................................................11-3 11.4.1 Using Fx1616-BA PWM Output To Control RC Servo (Non-Isolated)...........................11-4 11.4.2 Using Fx1616-BA PWM Output To Control RC Servo (Opto-Isolated) .........................11-5 11.4.3 RC Servo Positioning Resolution...................................................................................11-5 12 REAL TIME CLOCK
12-1 12.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................12-1 12.2 TBASIC variables Used for Real Time Clock .....................................................................12-1 12.3 RTC Error Status On Ladder Logic.....................................................................................12-1 12.4 Setting the RTC Using TRiLOGI Software..........................................................................12-2 12.5 Setting the RTC Using TBASIC ...........................................................................................12-2 12.6 Setting the RTC from Internet Time Server........................................................................12-3 12.7 Setting up an Alarm Event in TBASIC ................................................................................12-3 12.8 Troubleshooting the RTC.....................................................................................................12-3 13 LCD DISPLAY PROGRAMMING
13-1 13.1 SETLCD Command...............................................................................................................13-1 13.2 Special Commands For LCD Display .................................................................................13-1 13.3 Displaying Numeric Variable With Multiple Digits.............................................................13-1 13.4 Displaying Floating-point numbers ....................................................................................13-2 14 SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
14-1 14.1 Introduction:..........................................................................................................................14-1 14.2 COMM1: RS232C Port with Female DB9 Connector .........................................................14-1 14.3 COMM2 / COMM3: Two-wire RS485 Port .........................................................................14-2 14.3.1 PROGRAMMING AND MONITORING ..........................................................................14-2 14.3.2 Accessing 3rd Party RS485-based Devices ...................................................................14-3 14.3.3 Interfacing Other Devices to Modbus Host or to the Internet.........................................14-3 14.3.4 Distributed Control .........................................................................................................14-3 14.4 Changing Baud Rate and Communication Formats: Use of the SETBAUD Statement.14-3 14.5 Support of Multiple Communication Protocols .................................................................14-5 14.6 Accessing the COMM Ports from within TBASIC..............................................................14-6 14.7 Using The PLC As a Modbus / Omron Slave
– SCADA, HMI Applications ............. 14-8 14.7.1 MODBUS ASCII Protocol Support .................................................................................14-8 14.7.1.1 BIT ADDRESS MAPPING .......................................................................................14-10 14.7.1.2 WORD ADDRESS MAPPING .................................................................................14-11 14.7.2 MODBUS RTU Protocol Support .................................................................................14-11 14.7.3 OMRON Host Link Command Support .....................................................................14-11 14.7.4 Application Example: Interfacing to SCADA Software.................................................14-12 14.8 Using The PLC As a Modbus Master – Getting Data From Power or Flow Meters .......14-13 14.8.1 Fx1616-BA PLC As MODBUS RTU Master.................................................................14-13 14.9 Using Modem to Remotely Program/Monitor The PLC...................................................14-14 14.9.1 Wiring ...........................................................................................................................14-14 14.9.2 Programming................................................................................................................14-14 Page viii
USER MANUAL
15 HOST LINK PROTOCOL INTRODUCTION
15-1 15.1 Multiple Communication Protocols ....................................................................................15-1 15.2 Native Mode Communication Protocols.............................................................................15-1 15.3 Point-To-Point Communication Format .............................................................................15-1 15.3.1 Command/Response Frame Format (Point to Point) ....................................................15-2 15.3.2 Error Response Format .................................................................................................15-2 15.4 MULTI-POINT COMMUNICATION SYSTEM ........................................................................15-3 15.4.1 Command/Response Frame Format (Multi-point) .........................................................15-3 15.4.2 Calculation of FCS .........................................................................................................15-4 15.4.3 Communication Procedure ............................................................................................15-4 15.4.4 Framing Errors ...............................................................................................................15-5 15.4.5 Command Errors............................................................................................................15-5 15.4.6 SHOULD YOU USE POINT-TO-POINT OR MULTI-POINT PROTOCOL? ..................15-5 15.5 RS485 Primer ........................................................................................................................15-6 15.5.1 RS485 Network Interface Hardware ..............................................................................15-6 15.5.2 Protection of RS485 Interface........................................................................................15-6 15.5.3 Single Master RS485 Networking Fundamentals ..........................................................15-7 15.5.4 Multi-Master RS485 Networking Fundamentals ............................................................15-8 15.5.4.1 Multiple Access with Collision Detection ...................................................................15-8 15.5.4.2 Token Awarding Scheme...........................................................................................15-8 15.5.4.3 Rotating Master Signal ..............................................................................................15-9 15.5.5 TROUBLE-SHOOTING AN RS485 NETWORK ............................................................15-9 16 HOST LINK PROTOCOL FORMAT
16-1 16.1 Device ID Read......................................................................................................................16-1 16.2 Device ID Write......................................................................................................................16-1 16.3 Read Digital Input Channels ................................................................................................16-1 16.3.1 Definition of Input Channels...........................................................................................16-2 16.4 Read Digital Output Channels .............................................................................................16-2 16.5 Read Internal Relay Channels .............................................................................................16-3 16.5.1 Definition of Internal Relay Channel Numbers...............................................................16-3 16.6 Read Timer Contacts............................................................................................................16-3 16.6.1 Definition of Timer-Contact Channel Numbers ..............................................................16-4 16.7 Read Counter Contacts........................................................................................................16-4 16.7.1 Definition of Counter-Contact Channel Numbers: .........................................................16-4 16.8 Read Timer Present Value (P.V.) ......................................................................................16-4 16.9 Read Timer Set Value (S.V.).................................................................................................16-5 16.10 Read Counter Present Value (P.V.).................................................................................16-5 16.11 Read Counter Set Value (S.V.) ........................................................................................16-5 16.12 Read Variable - Integers (A to Z).....................................................................................16-6 16.13 Read Variable - Strings (A$ to Z$) ..................................................................................16-6 16.14 Read Variable – Floating Point (A# to Z#)......................................................................16-6 16.15 Read Variable – Single Data Memory (DM[1] to DM[4000]) ..........................................16-7 16.16 Read Variable – Multiple Data Memory (DM[1] to DM[4000]) .......................................16-7 Page ix
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16.17 Read Variable – Single Floating Point Array FP[1] to FP[1000]...................................16-8 16.18 Read Variable – Multiple Floating Point Data FP[1] to FP[1000] .................................16-8 16.19 Read Variable - System Variables ..................................................................................16-8 16.20 Read Variable - High Speed Counter HSCPV[ ].............................................................16-9 16.21 Write Inputs.....................................................................................................................16-10 16.22 Write Outputs..................................................................................................................16-10 16.23 Write Relays ....................................................................................................................16-10 16.24 Write Timer-contacts......................................................................................................16-10 16.25 Write Counter-contacts..................................................................................................16-11 16.26 Write Timer Present Value (P.V.)...................................................................................16-11 16.27 Write Timer Set Value (S.V.) ..........................................................................................16-11 16.28 Write Counter Present Value (P.V.) ..............................................................................16-12 16.29 Write Counter Set Value (S.V.) ......................................................................................16-12 16.30 Write Variable - Integers (A to Z)...................................................................................16-12 16.31 Write Variable - Strings (A$ to Z$) ................................................................................16-12 16.32 Write Variable – Floating-point (A# to Z#)....................................................................16-13 16.33 Write Variable – Singe Data Memory (DM[1] to DM[4000]).........................................16-13 16.34 Write Variable – Multiple Data Memory (DM[1] to DM[4000]) .....................................16-14 16.35 Write Variable – Singe Float Array (FP[1] to FP[1000]) ..............................................16-14 16.36 Write Variable – Multiple Float Array (FP[1] to FP[1000])...........................................16-14 16.37 Write Variable - System Variables ................................................................................16-15 16.38 Write Variable - High Speed Counter HSCPV[ ]...........................................................16-15 16.39 Halting the PLC...............................................................................................................16-16 16.40 Resume PLC Operation .................................................................................................16-16 16.41 Read Analog Input..........................................................................................................16-16 16.42 Read EEPROM Integer Data ..........................................................................................16-17 16.43 Read EEPROM String Data............................................................................................16-17 16.44 Write Analog Output ......................................................................................................16-18 16.45 Write EEPROM Integer Data ..........................................................................................16-18 16.46 WRITE EEPROM String Data .........................................................................................16-18 16.47 Force Set/Clear Single I/O Bit........................................................................................16-19 16.48 Using OMRON Host Link Commands ..........................................................................16-19 16.48.1 Read IR Registers........................................................................................................16-20 16.48.2 WRITE IR Registers.....................................................................................................16-20 16.48.3 Read Data Memory DM[1] to DM[4000].......................................................................16-21 16.48.4 WRITE Data Memory DM[1] to DM[4000] ...................................................................16-21 16.49 Testing of Host Link Commands ..................................................................................16-22 16.50 Visual Basic Sample Program.......................................................................................16-23 Page x
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16.51 Inter-PLC Networking Using NETCMD$ Command ....................................................16-23 16.52 Inter PLC Networking Using MODBUS Protocols .......................................................16-24 17 IR REMOTE CONTROL
17-1 17.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................17-1 17.2 Applications of IR Remote Control .....................................................................................17-1 17.3 Decoding Sony IR Remote Control Signal .........................................................................17-2 17.3.1 Relocating The IR Remote Sensor ................................................................................17-3 17.4 Learning and Playing back IR Remote Control Signals ...................................................17-3 17.4.1 Recording IR Remote Control Data Set.........................................................................17-3 17.4.2 Loading IR Remote Control Data Set ............................................................................17-4 17.4.3 Playback of IR Remote Control Signal...........................................................................17-4 17.5 18 SETSYSTEM 17, xxx Command Summary ......................................................................17-5 LIGHT DIMMER CONTROL
18-1 18.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................18-1 18.2 Control of 120V/240V AC TRIAC .........................................................................................18-2 18.3 Zero-crossing Detection ......................................................................................................18-3 18.4 Programming Light Dimmer Control ..................................................................................18-4 18.4.1 Enable Zero-Crossing Interrupt......................................................................................18-4 18.4.2 Programming Individual Dimmer Channel .....................................................................18-4 18.4.3 Programming Example ..................................................................................................18-5 19 ZIGBEE NETWORKING
19-1 19.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................19-1 19.2 Installation of the XBEE Module .........................................................................................19-1 19.3 Using The XBEE’s Transparent Mode ................................................................................19-2 19.3.1 Connecting to Fx1616-BA Using XBEE 64-bit Addressing............................................19-2 19.3.2 Defining Node Identifier for XBEE Module.....................................................................19-4 19.3.3 Wring TBASIC Program To Configure XBEE ................................................................19-6 19.3.4 Practical Applications of XBEE Modules In Transparent Mode.....................................19-6 19.4 20 Using The XBEE’s API Mode ...............................................................................................19-7 EXTENDED FILE SYSTEM
20-2 20.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................20-2 20.1.1 Advantage of Using Data Uploading..............................................................................20-3 20.2 File Structure and File Naming of The Extended File System .........................................20-3 20.3 Transferring Files To The PLC’s Web Server ....................................................................20-4 20.4 Accessing The Extended Data Files Using TBASIC .........................................................20-4 20.4.1 Open A File For Writing New Data.................................................................................20-4 20.4.2 Open A File For Appending Data To The End Of The File ............................................20-5 20.4.3 Delete A File...................................................................................................................20-5 20.4.4 Open A File For Reading ...............................................................................................20-5 20.5 Setting Up The FileZilla FTP Server....................................................................................20-7 20.5.1 Download and Setup FTP Server ..................................................................................20-7 20.5.2 Testing Connection To The FTP Server Using Telnet...................................................20-9 Page xi
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20.6 Uploading File From PLC to FileZilla FTP Server Directory...........................................20-12 20.6.1 Overview of The FTP Protocol.....................................................................................20-12 20.6.2 PLC FTP Upload Procedure ........................................................................................20-12 20.6.3 Monitoring The FTP Upload Progress .........................................................................20-13 20.7 Setting Up A FTP Server Behind a Windows Firewall. ...................................................20-13 20.8 Uploading File From PLC to FileZilla FTP Server Directory...........................................20-15 20.8.1 Overview of The FTP Protocol.....................................................................................20-15 20.8.2 PLC FTP Upload Procedure ........................................................................................20-16 20.8.3 Monitoring The FTP Upload Progress .........................................................................20-16 20.9 21 Setting Up A FTP Server Behind a Windows Firewall. ...................................................20-18 USING PLC AS A MODBUS/TCP GATEWAY
21-1 21.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................21-1 21.2 Application Ideas for Modbus/TCP Gateway .....................................................................21-1 21.3 Configuring The PLC As Modbus/TCP Gateway ...............................................................21-1 21.4 Fine-Tuning The Modbus/TCP Gateway Function ............................................................21-2 21.5 Modbus/TCP Gateway Sample Program ............................................................................21-3 Page xii
Chapter 1 Installation Guide
Chapter 1
Installation Guide
For Fx1616-BA
Chapter 1 Installation Guide
1 INSTALLATION GUIDE FOR FX1616-BA PLC
+
1N4007
(optional)
LCD Display Module
1000μF 50V
E.Cap (Optional)
+ -
14-pin LCD
Display Port
Reserved
IR Remote
Sensor
CPU Status
Indicators
24V DC
Power
Supply
for PLC
Output LED
Indicators (Red)
Relay Output
Terminals
Multi-purpose
Outputs (5-8)
Tx Rx
RS232C (COMM1)
Digital & Special
Outputs Section
RS485 (COMM2)
To Expansion
Board
RS485 (COMM3)
+5V Analog Ref
A/D #1 to 8
D/A # 1 to 4
0V Analog Gnd
Digital and Special
Inputs Section
Digital Input
Terminals
Input LED
Indicators (Green)
Figure 1.1a
1.1 Overview
The Fx1616-BA PLC is a new generation of F-series PLC and is designed to replace the F1616-BA
model. Fx1616-BA is electrically identical to the F1616-BA. The main difference is that the Fx1616-BA
supports all the floating-point TBASIC commands available in i-TRiLOGI version 7 (TL7), whereas the
original F1616-BA only supports the 32-bit integer math available in i-TRiLOGI version 6 (TL6).
Fx1616-BA is designed to be 100% backward compatible to F1616-BA, hence it can also be programmed
by TL6 as well as TL7. This means in most cases the F1616-BA users can simply transfer their “.PC6” file
to the Fx1616-BA unmodified.
For existing users of F1616-BA upgrading to Fx1616-BA, the following summarizes the main differences
between the two PLC models:
1-1
Chapter 1 Installation Guide
Fx1616-BA
F1616-BA
Program memory
23.5K words
16K words
Programming software
TL7 and TL6
TL6 Only
Floating point math
32-bit Single precision IEEE754
-
Floating point variables
A# to Z#, FP[1] to FP[1000]
-
Modbus support for
floating-point vars
Mobdus memory mapping for FP[1] to
FP[1000]
-
Hostlink commands for
floating-point vars
New commands added
“RVF” and “RV#A” to “RV#Z”
-
DIP Switch #3 ON
• Default IP = 192.168.1.15:9080
• Bypass username/password and
trusted IP
• No change in IP address.
• Bypass username/password
and trusted IP
Support multiple DM
Read command
New modified RVD command.
Only via OMRON command.
DM volatility
DM[1] to DM[4000] can be non-volatile
Only DM[300] to DM[4000] can be
non-volatile
READMODBUS
READMB2
WRITEMODBUS
WRITEMB2
SETSYSTEM 6, n (n = function #)
Support Function # 01, 02, 03, 04
Support Function # 01, 02, 03, 04
Support Function # 05, 06, 16
Support Function # 15, 16
SETSYSTEM 6, n
Support Function # 03, 04
Support Function # 03, 04
Support Function # 06, 16
Support Function # 16
Will request for IP address from DHCP
server if IP = 0.0.0.0
Not supported.
DHCP IP address.
The Fx1616-BA features an Ethernet port that can be connected directly to a network router, switch, or
hub for access to the LAN or to the Internet. The Ethernet port supports the FServer (for remote
programming or monitoring) and a Modbus/TCP server (for access by third party devices) with up to 6
simultaneous connections. The user’s program can also easily connect to another PLC or Modbus/TCP
slave devices via the Internet, email real time data to any email address(es), or connect to the Internet
Time Server to get the most accurate real time information! The Ethernet port also supports “Web
Services”, allowing enterprise software, such as a database program or MS Excel, to query for
information from multiple PLCs instantaneously.
The basic Fx1616-BA unit comprises 8 analog inputs (12-bit, 0-5VDC), 4 analog outputs (12-bit, 0-5V
DC), 24 digital Inputs, and 24 digital outputs. 12 of the digital outputs (5 to 16) can each sink up to 8A
peak and 4A continuous, 24VDC current from the load and can be used to drive up to 3 small stepper
motors directly – saving you the expense of buying separate stepper motor drivers! In addition, 6 of the
digital inputs can be used for decoding and measuring pulses received from up to 3 digital encoders,
allowing you to measure position and velocity of a moving object in real time. 10 of the digital inputs can
also be defined as interrupt inputs, allowing fast events to be handled in the shortest possible time and to
not be constrained by the program scan time.
The Fx1616-BA is expandable up to a total of 128 digital inputs and 128 digital outputs using optional
expansion modules EXP1616R and EXP4040. It has one RS232 port and two RS485 ports; all of them
are conversant in MODBUS protocol. The built-in LCD port allows for a simple interface to industrystandard LCD modules from 8 characters to 80 characters.
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
The Fx1616-BA features an Ethernet port which can be connected directly to a network router, switch, or
hub for access to the LAN or to the Internet. Though capable of being a full-function, general purpose
industrial PLC, the "BA" in its part number refers to "Building Automation" and suggests its special
application focus. The Fx1616-BA is the ideal choice for controlling "Smart Buildings", whether to it is to
provide creature comfort for its occupants, or more importantly in today's world, to monitor and control the
energy consumption in buildings and homes to eliminate waste, and thereby help to achieve the Green
Revolution!
The Ethernet port on the Fx1616-BA supports the FServer (for remote programming or monitoring) and a
Modbus/TCP server (for access by third party devices) with up to 6 simultaneous connections. The PLC
can also easily connect to another PLC or Modbus/TCP slave devices via the Internet, email real time
data to any email address, or connect to the Internet Time Server to get the most accurate real time
information! The Ethernet port also supports “Web Services”, allowing enterprise software, such as a
database program or MS Excel, to query for information from multiple PLCs instantaneously. Please refer
to Chapter 2 for detailed descriptions of these capabilities.
The basic Fx1616-BA comprises 8 analog inputs (12-bit, 0-10VDC), 4 analog outputs (12-bit, 0-10VDC),
16 digital Inputs (24VAC or DC), and 16 digital outputs. 12 of the digital outputs (5 to 16) are relays with a
single common, while the remaining 4 are high current (24VDC 4A) N-channel MOSFET multi-purpose
outputs. They can also be used as 4 PWM outputs, 2 stepper motor controllers or 1 stepper driver output
(i.e. they can drive a stepper motor directly - saving you the expense of buying separate stepper motor
drivers).
In addition, 6 of the digital inputs are high-speed inputs and can be used for decoding and measuring
pulses received from up to 3 digital encoders, allowing you to measure position and velocity of a moving
object in real time. 10 of the digital inputs can also be defined as interrupt inputs, allowing fast events to
be handled in the shortest possible time and to not be constrained by the program scan time.
The Fx1616-BA is expandable up to a total of 128 digital inputs and 128 digital outputs using optional
expansion modules EXP1616R and EXP4040. It has one RS232 port and two RS485 ports; all of them
are conversant in the MODBUS protocol. The built-in LCD port allows for a simple interface to industrystandard LCD modules from 8 characters to 80 characters.
To view the Fx1616-BA specifications and other product information such as mounting hole locations and
environmental information, please refer to the Fx1616-BA Data Sheet downloadable from:
http://www.tri-plc.com/documents/Fx1616_Product_Info_Sheet.pdf
1.2 Physical Mounting & Wiring
The Fx1616-BA comprises two PCBs that are stacked together in a very compact form factor. There is a
Fx CPU board that carries the RJ45 Ethernet port socket, the DIP switch, and the status LEDs. There is
also a battery compartment that takes one CR1632 primary lithium cell, which powers the battery-backed
real time clock (RTC) to the CPU.
The second PCB is the “F-1616R” carrier board that carries the power elements and all the I/O interfaces
and connectors including the power connector, the RS232 and RS485 terminals, the digital input and
output drivers, and the expansion connector. There is even an Infra Red (IR) remote control sensor that
lets you use a Sony TV or DVD/VCR/Blue-Ray remote control to control your PLC!
The Fx CPU board is plugged into the F-1616R carrier board via two 40-pin IDC headers and one 10-pin
IDC header. IMPORTANT: At no time must the CPU board be unplugged from the carrier board when
the PLC is powered ON. Doing so can cause serious damage to either or both PCBs and is not covered
by warranty. We discourage unplugging the CPU board from the carrier board except for repair or
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
upgrade purposes as doing so may expose the CPU header pins to high voltages or electrostatic
discharge that can damage sensitive components on the CPU board.
The assembled Fx1616-BA can be easily installed in many kinds of plastic or metal enclosures. You need
to use 5 PCB standoffs (or screws and nuts) to support the controller and fasten it to a console box.
Alternatively, you can mount it on the optional “DIN-KIT 2” and clip it onto the standard DIN rail.
CAUTION: DO NOT install the Fx1616-BA PLC with the mechanical relays in the vertical position as
shown in the following three diagrams.
Figure 1.1b : Incorrect Relay Position
The manufacturer of the mechanical relays currently used on the Fx1616-BA PLC (part # JQ1a-24V-F by
Panasonic) is now specifying that the relay not be installed in the vertical position or it could fail to actuate
on occasion, typically after many previous switches. However, the results may vary and it should be
assumed that the relay can potentially fail at any time when installed in the specified vertical position.
According to the relay manufacturers revised documentation: "When installing with the relay terminals
parallel to the ground, the contact terminals at the bottom and the coil terminals at the top, component
friction will occur after numerous switching actions or due to vibration in the non-excitation state. Since
this may cause the relay to stop functioning when the pick-up voltage increases even if the nominal
voltage is applied, please do not install using this orientation." This is demonstrated in Figure 1.1b above.
On the Fx1616-BA, the relays will be orientated this way when the PLC is installed in the following two
positions demonstrated in figures 1.1c and 1.1d. Both of these positions should be avoided when the
relays are being used.
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
Figure 1.1c: Incorrect Fx1616-BA Orientation 1
Figure 1.1d: Incorrect Fx1616-BA Orientation 2
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
The following subsections show some hardware details of the I/Os that are available on the Fx1616-BA
PLC model. Separate chapters in this manual will be devoted to discussing the programming methods for
this hardware.
1.2.1 Analog I/O Ports:
The 8 channels of analog inputs and 4 separate channels of analog outputs are available via a DB15
connector along the left edge of the Fx1616-BA. The Fx1616-BA also supplies a +10V analog
reference-voltage output and the analog ground on the female DB15 connector, as shown below:
Signal
Pin #
A/D #1
A/D #2
A/D #3
A/D #4
A/D #5
A/D #6
A/D #7
A/D #8
D/A #1
D/A #2
D/A #3
D/A #4
Analog Ref. AVCC
Analog ground AVSS
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
14
13
11
10
15
9
AD8
AD1
8
+10V Ref DA1
1
9
NC
DA4 0V (gnd)
*NC - No Connection for pin 12
Figure 1.2
The specifications and programming methods for the analog I/Os are detailed in Chapter 5 of this manual.
1.2.2 Digital I/O Ports:
Detachable screw terminals are provided for quick connection to all digital inputs, outputs and power
supply wires. Each block of screw terminals can easily be detached from the controller body, enabling
easy replacement of the controller board when necessary. Since the terminal block for the digital I/Os is
inserted vertically to the board surface, you would need to remove the terminal block before you can start
wiring. Insert a small flat-head screwdriver under the terminal block and apply even pressure to raise the
terminal block until it becomes loosened from the connecting-pin strip, as shown below:
wire
Insulated crimp
ferrules
Tightening
screw
Connecting-pin strip
Flat-head
screw driver
Figure 1.3 - Removing Screw Terminal block
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
Although wires may be connected directly to the screw terminal, insulated crimp ferrules should be used
to provide a good end termination to multi-stranded wires. Use of ferrules reduces the possibility of stray
wire strands short-circuiting adjacent terminals and their use is, therefore, highly recommended.
1.2.3 Output Common Terminal
The output screw terminal block for output #9 to #16 has a “COM” terminal that is the common terminal
for all 12 relays on the Fx1616-BA.
1.3 Power Supply
The Fx1616-BA PLC requires a single regulated, 24V (+/- 5% ripple) DC power supply for the CPU.
Please use only an industrial grade linear or switching regulated power supply from established
manufacturers. Using a poorly made switching power supply can give rise to a lot of problems if the noisy
high frequency switching signals are not filtered properly.
The PLC typically consumes less than 350mA, even when all 12 relay outputs are being turned ON. If all
your I/Os are also 24V DC type, then you may use the same power supply to power the CPU and small
DC output loads, as long as the total load current is within the power supply maximum limit.
However, the Fx1616-BA is also designed specifically to target applications where most of the digital I/Os
are 24VAC type. Since the PLC’s inputs and outputs (except output 5 to 8) are optically isolated from the
CPU, the PLC can easily interface to 24VAC I/Os, which are commonly deployed in the building control
industry such as HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning) and building automation. In this case,
you will need a 24VDC power supply to power the CPU and a 24VAC transformer to supply power to the
loads. The DC power supply and the 24VAC power should be isolated from each other.
The Fx1616-BA also has 4 multi-function digital outputs that can sink up to 24V, 4A of continuous DC
current per output. Thus, you may use the same 24VDC power supply to power both the CPU and the
loads for these 4 outputs. However, the power supply must be able to deliver sufficient current for both
the CPU and the total peak current drawn by these four outputs.
Note: If your application demands very stable analog I/Os, you should choose a linear power supply
instead of a switching power source for the CPU.
Always place the power supply as close to the PLC as possible and use a separate pair of wires to
connect the power to the PLC. Keep the power supply wires as short as possible and avoid running them
along side high current cables in the same cable conduit. The Fx1616-BA will be reset when the power
supply voltage dips below a certain threshold voltage. It is a good idea to connect a 470μF to 1000μF,
50V electrolytic capacitor near the power supply connector to suppress any undesirable voltage glitches
from conducting into the PLC. If other high current devices, such as a frequency inverter, were to affect
the operation of the PLC, you should then also connect a diode before the capacitor to prevent reverse
current from flowing back to the power supply, as shown in the following diagram:
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
1N4007
+24V DC
Power
Supply
470uF 50V
+24V
Surge suppressor
(Recommended)
0V
Figure 1.4
If the AC main is affected by nearby machines drawing large amounts of current (such as large threephase motors), you should use a surge-suppressor to prevent any unwanted noise voltage from being
coupled into the Fx1616-BA power supply. The required current rating for the power supply depends
mainly on the total output current, taking into consideration the peak current demand and the duty cycle of
the operation.
1.4 Digital Input Circuits
All 16 inputs on Fx1616-BA have green colored LED indicators. Every 8 inputs are grouped together
into a single strip of detachable screw terminal blocks. All 16 inputs employ bi-directional opto-isolators,
with each 8 inputs sharing a single common terminal. Depending on the connection of the common
terminal, you can wire the inputs to be turned on by active Low (a.k.a NPN type inputs), active high (a.k.a
PNP type inputs), or AC signals.
9
0
Low Pass Filter
To CPU
1
10
2
11
12
3
…..
….
13
4
14
5
To CPU
15
6
Low-Pass Filter
16
7
Low-Pass Filter
COM
Low Pass Filter
COM
Figure 1.5
However, please note an important difference between Input group #1 to #6 and Input group #7 to #16:
a) Inputs #1 to #6 are “High-Speed” inputs that can be connected to high-speed devices such as
optical encoders or tachometer pulse inputs in order to determine position and/or velocity of a
device in motion. They can also measure the frequency of incoming pulses.
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
However, their high-speed nature also means that if you connect a 24VAC signal to them, the
CPU and ladder program would see a series of incoming pulses occurring at 100 or 120Hz
(corresponding to 50Hz and 60Hz signal). Hence if you want to connect 24VAC signal to this
group of inputs and use them as regular digital inputs, you may need to use the PLC internal
timers to filter out these 100/120Hz pulses in the software.
b) Inputs #7 to #16 each employ a low pass filter to filter out the 100 or 120Hz glitches that occur
every time the 50/60Hz 24VAC signal changes direction. This means that if you connect a 50 or
60Hz AC signal to these 12 inputs, the CPU and ladder program will see only a steady ON signal
instead of a series of pulses.
Inputs Electrical Specification:
Input Voltage for Logic 1:
Input Voltage for Logic 0:
+9V to +24V, > 4 mA
Open Circuit or leakage current < 1 mA.
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
FX1616-BA
NPN Sensor
Output
FX1616-BA
PNP Sensor
Output
F1616-BA
Input
F1616-BA
Input
COM
COM
0V
+
+
DC 9 to 24V
Power Supply
for sensor
0V
DC 9 to 24V
Power Supply
for sensor
FX1616-BA PLC
Limit Switch
(Normally Open)
1
2
3
4
INPUTS
+12 to 24V DC
Power Supply
5
6
+ (-)
- (+)
7
8
COM
Input = Logic 1 when switch is closed
Figure 1.6
All digital inputs are directly programmable in Ladder Logic, as well as in TBASIC custom functions. Some
programming examples are detailed in “Chapter 3 –Digital I/Os and Internal Relays”
1.5 Digital Output Circuits
All 16 digital outputs have red colored LED indicators. Four of the outputs employ high current “sinking”
(NPN) type MOSFET outputs that turn ON by sinking current from the load to the 0V terminal. The other
12 outputs are electromagnetic relays and, therefore, can switch up to 30VDC or up to 250V AC.
Figure 1.7 shows the wiring diagram of the digital outputs.
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
1.5.1
Electrical Specifications:
Output #1-4 & 9-16
Voltage-free Contacts
Maximum Breakdown Voltage
1000V RMS (1 min)
Output #5 to #8
N-Channel power MOSFET with
low rDS = 0.05 Ω
55VDC
Maximum Output Current:
5A @24V/120VAC
8A
Output Driver type
2A @ 250VAC
Continuous Output Current
5A @24V/120VAC
2A @ 250VAC
4A
Output Voltage when OFF
Open circuit
Resistor pulled up to 24V
Output Voltage when ON:
0V @2A
0.2V @4A
None
Yes (Intrinsic Zener)
Inductive Back EMF Bypass
Note: Output #5 to #8 can also be configured as
1) PWM outputs to drive heating elements or proportional valves using the SETPWM command –
please see Chapter 6 for more information.
2) Stepper Motor Driver: to directly drive a single, unipolar stepper motor. See Chapter 10 for
more details.
3) Stepper Motor Controller: to send pulse and direction signals to up to 2 external stepper motor
drivers. See Chapter 10 for more details.
1.5.2 Relay Output Wiring Diagram
LOAD
LOAD
LOAD
LOAD
1
9
LOAD
2
10
LOAD
3
11
LOAD
4
12
LOAD
13
LOAD
14
LOAD
15
LOAD
16
LOAD
F1616-BA PLC
OUTPUTS
~
~
24V AC
Power Supply
COM
Common terminal for all 12 relays
Figure 1.7 - Relay Output Interfacing to Loads
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
F1616-BA PLC
0V
+24V 0V
OUTPUTS
+24V
5
LOAD
6
LOAD
7
LOAD
8
LOAD
24V DC
Power Supply
Figure 1.8 –MOSFET Outputs Interfacing to Loads
All digital outputs are directly programmable in Ladder Logic as well as in TBASIC custom functions.
Some programming examples are detailed in “Chapter 3 –Digital I/Os and Internal Relays”
1.5.3 Inductive Load
When switching inductive loads such as a solenoid or a motor, always ensure that a bypass diode is
connected to absorb inductive kicks, which will occur whenever the output driver is turned OFF. Although
the PLC MOSFET outputs already incorporate intrinsic Zener bypass diodes to protect the driver, some
may only activate when the inductive kick voltage rises above 100V DC. This can result in a large dose of
noise being introduced into the system and may have undesirable effects. Also, the relay outputs on the
Fx1616-BA PLC do not have any inductive kick bypass circuitry built-in. Hence, we recommend using a
fast recovery diode, such as the UF4001 to UF4007, connected as shown in the following diagram to
absorb the inductive noise:
+24V
(a)
Inductive bypass
diode (DC only)
PLC NPN
Digital Output
Diode's reverse
break down voltage
should be at least
2 x load voltage
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
1.6 LCD Display Port
The built-in 14-pin LCD DISPLAY PORT on the Fx1616-BA is compatible with the Hitachi HD44780
display controller, which is a de facto industry standard. This allows low cost, easily available LCD
modules from third-party manufacturers to be connected directly to the PLC to implement a very
economical man-machine interface. You simply connect the LCD module to the Fx1616-BA LCD port
using a 14-way IDC ribbon cable and header. Make sure that the pin number on the PLC matches that of
the LCD module. Connecting the cable incorrectly can destroy the LCD port or LCD module.
There are quite a number of 14-pin LCD modules available on the market with many different display
sizes or character formats to choose from. E.g.: 1x8, 1x16, 1x20, 2x16, 2x20, 1x40, 2x40 and 4x20.
Triangle Research International (TRi) currently supplies two models of backlit LCD display modules for
use with the Fx1616-BA PLC. Each model is supplied with a 0.5m long, 14-pin ribbon cable for
connection to the PLC’s LCD port. The LCD216 is a 2 line x 16 characters per line module and the
LCD420 is a 4 line x 20 characters per line module. For more electrical and mechanical information on
these two LCD models, please visit our website at:
http://www.tri-plc.com/lcd.htm
The contrast of the LCD can be adjusted using the preset potentiometer VR1, marked with the word
“contrast”, just below the LCD connector. If you find that the LCD display is too dark or too dim, please
adjust VR1 with a small screwdriver to obtain the preferred contrast from the regular viewing angle.
1.6.1 Wiring Instruction of LCD216 and LCD420 Backlight.
To use the LCD, simply plug the 14-pin connector into the LCD port header; making sure that pin #1 (the
colored wire) of the ribbon cable aligns with pin #1 of the port header. (Pin 1 is the pin with a square
solder pad and the pin number is also printed on the PCB.)
Both LCD models provide a yellow-green LED backlight, which can be powered by the same DC power
supply as the PLC with the simple addition of a current-limiting resistor. Wiring of the backlight differs
slightly for the two models, as shown below. It is assumed that the unit will be connected to the 24V
power supply of the Fx1616-BA PLC. If you are using other voltages, then compute the values of the
current limiting resistors to obtain the same backlight current, taking note that the LCD backlight LED has
a forward voltage drop of about 4V.
IMPORTANT!
Please ensure that the current limiting resistor is in place and wired properly before turning on the power
supply. Connecting the LED backlight to the 24V power supply without the current limiting resistor will
definitely destroy the backlight unit. Also, please ensure that the polarity is connected correctly, because
reverse connection is likely to damage the backlight unit as well.
For the LCD420, the backlight is brought to a screw terminal via a small PCB. Use a multi-meter to check
which terminal is connected to pin 15 (Anode) and 16 (Cathode-) if you are unsure of the polarity.
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
A
LCD216.
2 lines x 16 chars.
Current = 90mA
220Ω 5W
K
+
-
Pin 1
24V Power
Supply
Current = 130mA
15
16
150Ω 5W
LCD420
4 lines x 20 chars.
Pin 1
-
+
24V Power
Supply
If you are using voltages other than 24V DC to power the backlight, then compute the resistor value
using the following formula:
R = (V – 4)/I
E.g. For the LCD420 at 12V DC,
R = (12 - 4)/0.13 = 62 ohms. Power dissipation = I2 x R = 0.132 x 62 > 1W.
The resistor value is only approximate. You may increase or decrease the resistance value to alter the
brightness of the backlight.
If you wish to adjust the brightness of the LCD backlight, you could wire the backlight to one of the
PLC’s PWM output. The resistor value selected should provide the current required for full brightness
when the PWM duty cycle = 100%. By varying the duty cycle of the PWM output you can adjust the
brightness of the LCD backlight. E.g. you can create the effect of fade-in/fade-out or flashing LCD
backlight to get the operator’s attention.
1.6.2 Programming The LCD Display
Some programming examples for the LCD display are presented in Chapter 13.
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
1.7 Program and Data Memory
1.7.1 Program Memory
The Fx1616-BA has by default 23.5K words (16-bit) of program memory stored in the CPU Flash memory
area vs a default of only 16K on F1616-BA (some later version of F1616-BA do support up to 23.5K but
requires setting DIP switch #2)
Each ladder logic element (contacts or coils) takes up 1 word of memory. A TBASIC statement or function
takes up half a word to four or five words, depending on the number of parameters the statement or
function has.
The program memory can be erased and reprogrammed more than one hundred thousand times, which
is a limit that you are unlikely to ever reach.
1.7.2 Non Volatile FRAM Memory
Users of the M-Series PLCs (T100MD+ and T100MX+ PLCs) may be familiar with the PLCs’ EEPROM
memory as well as some of its limitations.
The Fx1616-BA does not use the EEPROM memory anymore. Instead, the Fx1616-BA employs 6K
words of a new, high-tech memory product called “Ferromagnetic RAM” (FRAM). FRAM is non-volatile
memory just like the EEPROM that it replaced; yet unlike the EEPROM, which can only be erased and
reprogrammed a limited number of times, FRAM has no practical limit on how often it can be overwritten.
In fact, since they are really RAM memory in nature, there is no “erase” and “program” time penalty and
you can read and write to them at full speed. Also, unlike the case of T100M+ EEPROM. accessing the
FRAM frequently would not have any adverse effect on serial communications.
Since the FRAM are in fact a replacement of the EEPROM data memory, you can use the same TBASIC
commands (LOAD_EEP( ), LOAD_EEP$, SAVE_EEP, and SAVE_EEP$) in TRiLOGI version 6 or 7 to
read and write to the FRAM memory. Just take note that FRAM has all the advantages of EEPROM but
none of its disadvantages.
1.7.3 Volatile Data Memory
All the TBASIC variables used in the Fx1616-BA: A to Z, A# to Z#, FP[1] to FP[1000], DM[1] to DM[4000]
and string A$ to Z$, EMINT[1] to EMINT[16] and EMLINT[1] to EMLINT[16] are in the category of “volatile
data memory” - meaning when you turn off power to the PLC the memory content will be lost and they will
be reset to zero when the PLC is powered up again.
However, the memory array DM[1] to DM[4000]* as well as FP[1] to FP[1000] can be made non-volatile
by turning on DIP switch #1. This is because internally, DM[1] to DM[4000] as well as FP[1] to FP[1000]
are actually implemented in FRAM rather than regular RAM (however, they are not part of the 6K words
available for use mentioned in Section 1.7.2). You can therefore use these DMs as “safe” memory
locations whose content will be preserved in the case of a power failure.
Of course you can also use the SAVE_EEP and LOAD_EEP to achieve the same result as using DM[1] to
DM[4000]. It may be just a little more “natural” to use DM in your program instead of sprinkling
LOAD_EEP and SAVE_EEP commands throughout your program code.
* In the original F1616-BA only memory array DM[301] to DM[4000] can be made non-volatile.
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
1.7.4 Extended Data File Storage
Fx1616-BA supports extended data file storage for storing web pages and some are directly accessible
from within the PLC program. For more information please refer to Chapter 20 of this manual.
1.8 DIP SWITCHES
DIP Switch
SW1-1
SW1-2
SW1-3
OFF
All outputs, relays,
timers and counter
values are nonretentive.
-
SW1-4
Normal Run mode
ON
DM[1] to DM[4000] data are non volatile and will not be
reset.
Disable the use of username/password and Trusted
IP for FServer and Modbus/TCP Server.
• PLC IP address defaults to 192.168.1.15:9080
Suspends execution of the ladder logic program. But host
communication remains active.
•
1.8.1 Usefulness of SW1-4
We have taken every effort to ensure that the host communication is always available even when the
user-program ends up in a dead-loop. This allows the user to re-transfer a new program to the PLC and
overwrite the bad program. However, you may still encounter a situation whereby after transferring a new
program to the PLC, you keep encountering communication errors and you are unable to erase the bad
program. This is especially common if you have been experimenting with the communication commands
such as SETBAUD, SETPROTOCOL, PRINT or OUTCOMM. These commands may modify the
communication baud rate, format, or protocol or set the PLC to send data out of a COMM port that
conflicts with i-TRiLOGI. In such cases, you can turn ON DIP Switch SW1-4 and perform a power-on
reset for the PLC. The PLC will not execute the bad program that causes communication problems and
you can then transfer a new program into the PLC to clear up the problem.
Note that when the PLC has been power-reset with DIP Switch #4 set to ON, all 3 serial port will boot up
with default baud rate and communication format of 38,400, 8,n,1.
1.9 Real Time Clock Battery
All Fx1616-BA PLCs have a built-in, battery-backed Real-Time clock (RTC). On the Fx CPU board there
is a battery holder that takes a single CR1632 lithium primary battery. Due to certain international
aviation safety restrictions on shipping of products that contain lithium cells by airfreight or air courier,
your PLC may or may not be supplied with the battery. If the battery is not included, you can purchase the
battery from a local electronics component supplier, such as www.futureelectronics.com (for US or
Canadian users), and simply press it into the battery holder.
The PLC’s RTC consumes about 1μA during power down. A Ranata CR1632 lithium battery has a charge
capacity of 125 mAh. This means that theoretically the battery should be able to supply the RTC for
125*1000 hours, or about 5200 days (> 10 years). Since this Lithium battery has a shelf life of 10 years,
providing for a safety factor of 2 would mean that the single Ranata CR1632 should be able to power the
PLC’s RTC for at least 5 years, and could be for as long as 10 years if the PLC were never powered
down.
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
1.10 CPU Status Indicators
There are three LED indicators on Fx CPU board with the
markings shown on the right
Run
Pause RTC
Err.
Err.
All these indicators will light up for about 0.5 seconds during power-on. Thereafter they should go off and
if any one of them remains lit, it represents the various operating status of the PLC as follows:
1.10.1 RTC Error (Green LED)
If this indicator is turned ON, it indicates the PLC’s real-time clock (RTC) has lost track of date and time.
The RTC.Err flag in the “Special Bit” menu will also be turned ON. This indicator will be turned OFF
automatically after you have set the PLC’s date and time using the “Set PLC’s Real Time Clock”
command in the “Controller” pull-down menu. For more information about using the RTC, please refer to
Chapter 12.
1.10.2 Pause (Red LED)
This indicator will be turned ON if one of the following has occurred:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The PLC’s program is corrupted.
A PAUSE statement has been executed
The user halts the PLC by pressing the <P> key during On-Line Monitoring.
DIP-Switch SW1-4 is turned ON, which halts the program.
If this light is ON, please connect the host computer running i-TRiLOGI to the PLC and run the “On-Line
Monitoring” program. You will be informed of the reason that caused the PAUSE condition. Except for
condition i) and iv), you can release the PLC from the PAUSE state by clicking on the “Pause” button or
by pressing the <P> key during “On-Line Monitoring”. If the PLC’s program is corrupted, then you must
re-transfer your program to the PLC.
1.10.3 Run Error (Red LED)
When this indicator turns ON, it shows that a run-time error has occurred during execution of a TBASIC
command. The system will halt at the CusFn where the error took place. If the programmer now executes
the “On-Line Monitoring” command in TRiLOGI, the cause of the run-time error and the CusFn where the
error occurred will be reported on TRiLOGI screen. If you have installed an LCD display, the PLC will take
over the LCD screen and display the cause of the runtime error and the function where it occurred.
The TBASIC simulator captures many possible run-time errors including out-of-range values, but in the
Fx1616-BA, only a few most important run-time errors are reported. The remaining errors are ignored.
The following are the few run-time errors that will be reported in Fx1616-BA:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Divide By Zero
FOR-NEXT loop with STEP = 0!
Call Stack Overflow! Circular CALL suspected!
Illegal Opcode - Please inform manufacturer!
System Variable Index out-of-range: This is normally caused by using an unavailable subscript.
E.g. DM[0], INPUT[-1], DM[5000], etc. Check the subscript value, especially if it contains a
variable (e.g. DM[X], if X=0 this will lead to a runtime error).
All run-time errors should be identified and corrected before you proceed any further.
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1.11 Create a Custom PLC with SmartTILE
A SmartTILE (Smart TRi Integrated Logic Engine) is the main CPU control board that can be used by an
OEM equipment maker to build its own custom-made, low cost and very powerful Ladder Logic + BASIC
programmable logic controllers.
In fact the SmartTILE-Fx model is the CPU board used on the powerful F-series Super PLC families that
have been incorporated in a variety of industrial OEM applications since 2009. Each F-series PLC is
made up two components:
1) The SmartTILE-Fx CPU board, which is the brains of each F-series PLC. It is identical
throughout the PLC family. The SmartTILE board is programmable by the Floating-point version
of I-TRiLOGI Version 7.xx (TL7).
2) The carrier board, which is the electrical interface between the SmartTILE controller and more
common industrial voltage level I/Os. It is unique to the PLC model. The SmartTILE plugs into the
carrier board via IDC header pins and sockets. This manual covers the Fx1616-BA PLC, which is
the combination of a SmartTILE-Fx CPU board and carrier board.
The SmartTILE is now being supplied as a separate part so that any form of industrial automation
user/developer/supplier (OEM, product/system designers, machine builders, integrators, etc.) can utilize
the time-proven, powerful and flexible platform already realized in Triangle Research PLC products, such
as the F-series, FMD series, and Nano-10 PLCs, and design their own carrier board to interface to the
specific I/O and communication signals demanded by their application or industry. All the necessary
signals with wiring examples are provided in this manual, so it is easy for any in-house or contracted
design engineer to develop a carrier board that seamlessly integrates with the SmartTILE board and its
inherent platform. For companies that would like to use the SmartTILE as a platform, but would prefer not
to handle the carrier board design, Triangle Research is ready to support you in developing your carrier
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Chapter 1 Installation Guide
board solution. Please contact info@triplc.com with your company info, application, time-to-market,
design requirements, estimated usage, and any other relevant information.
The SmartTILE features an Ethernet port that can be connected directly to a network router, switch, or
hub for access to the LAN or to the Internet. The Ethernet port supports the FServer (for remote
programming or monitoring) and a Modbus/TCP server (for access by third party devices) with up to 6
simultaneous connections. The user’s program can also easily connect to another PLC or Modbus/TCP
slave devices via the Internet, email real time data to any email address(es), or connect to the Internet
Time Server to get the most accurate real time information! The Ethernet port also supports “Web
Services”, allowing enterprise software, such as a database program or MS Excel, to query for
information from multiple PLCs instantaneously.
Each unit comprises 8 analog inputs (12-bit, 0-5VDC), 4 analog outputs (12-bit, 0-5V DC), 16 digital
Inputs (5V CMOS), and 16 digital outputs (5V CMOS) In addition, 6 of the digital inputs can be used for
decoding and measuring pulses received from up to 3 digital encoders, allowing you to measure position
and velocity of a moving object in real time. 10 of the digital inputs can also be defined as interrupt inputs,
allowing fast events to be handled in the shortest possible time and to not be constrained by the program
scan time.
A SmartTILE-based PLC can be designed with up to a total of 128 digital inputs and 128 digital outputs
via the 5V CMOS expansion signals from the SmartTILE. It has 3 independent 3.3V UARTs and all of
them are conversant in MODBUS protocol. The LCD port signal interface allows the carrier board
designer to potentially interface to industry-standard LCD modules from 8 characters to 80 characters, as
well as the standard LCD216 and LCD420 displays that Triangle Research carries.
More information can be obtained from the SmartTILE-Fx product page on the Triangle Research
website:
http://triplc.com/smarttile.htm
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
Chapter 2
Ethernet Port
Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
2 ETHERNET PORT
Every F-series PLC has a single, built-in 10/100 Base-T
Ethernet port that uses the standard RJ45 connector on its
CPU board. You can easily connect the Fx1616-BA PLC to
your network router, switch, or hub using the straight CAT-5
cable. When a connection is made, the yellow “Connection
LED” on the RJ45 connector will light up, indicating that the
PLC has been connected to the network router.
Figure 2.1.1
Once connected to the network, the TRiLOGI programming
software and TRi-ExcelLink works instantaneously with the
PLC, allowing remote programming and process monitoring over the LAN or the Internet. In addition, the
Ethernet facility at this port can host web pages and Java applets so that users of the equipment can
control/monitor their equipment using their web browser from anywhere.
Before connecting the PLC’s Ethernet port, you should configure it using the configuration tool that is now
built into the 6.3x or higher version of i-TRiLOGI programming software. Previously, a standalone
Ethernet Configuration program was required to setup the basic and advanced Ethernet, ADC, and RTC
(Real Time Clock) options. This standalone version is still available and more information on this program,
including where to download it, is available at 2.14 Standalone Version of Ethernet Configuration
Software). Now these settings can be configured directly from the TRiLOGI programming software, as
described next.
2.1 Configuring The Ethernet Port
This tool, which is located in the "Controller" Menu of TRiLOGI, allows you to configure the Ethernet Port
and ADC/RTC calibration settings on a TRi's PLC with built-in Ethernet port, such as the Fx1616-BA.
When the “Ethernet & ADC Calibration” is selected from the “Controller” menu, you will see the following
screen:
The configuration program communicates with the PLC
the same way as i-TRiLOGI, which is through the serial
TLServer or the Ethernet FServer. If your i-TRiLOGI is not
yet connected to a TLServer software or directly to the
PLC’s built-in hostlink command server (known as FServer for all F-series PLCs), then you will need to login
the standard way from the “Controller” menu.
(See the i-TRiLOGI Programmers Reference Manual for
more information on this)
If you are communicating through TLServer, which is via
the RS232 serial port, your PC should have an RS232
port. Otherwise, you should purchase a USB to RS232
converter (see http://www.tri-plc.com/USB-RS232.htm) in
order to run this program.
Figure 2.1.2
Before you make any changes to the PLC's Ethernet
configuration parameters, it is a good idea to retrieve the
current settings. You can do this by clicking on the
“Retrieve Parameters from PLC” button and answer "Yes"
when prompted. If your i-TRiLOGI is not yet connected to
a TLServer software or directly to the PLC’s F-Server,
then you will see the standard login popup window.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
After you have retrieved the existing parameters from the PLC, you will see that various fields in the
configuration software screen are filled up. Note that the Fx1616-BA PLC has two built-in “Server”
programs that listen on a few different ports on the PLC for incoming TCP/IP request packets:
1) The FServer supports the TRi proprietary programs such as the i-TRiLOGI software and TRiExcelLink program. The FServer listens on the default port 9080, which is also the default port
that i-TRiLOGI uses to connect to TLServer (a PC based server program that is needed for
programming the PLCs via RS232 or RS485 serial ports ).
2) A MODBUS/TCP server that listens on port #502 and supports the industry standard
MODBUS/TCP protocols.
Note:
•
•
These two servers share the same Ethernet port and therefore the same IP address and gateway
addresses described in the following sections.
Fx1616-BA hosts both the FServer and Modbus/TCP Server, each providing multiple
simultaneous connections to external clients. This means that it is possible to connect multiple
TRiLOGI, ExcelLink and Modbus/TCP clients to the PLC, all at the same time! Section 2.1.5
shows you how you can change the maximum number of connections for each server.
2.1.1 IP Address
One of the most important parameters that you must define here is the “IP Address” field. By default,
every F-series PLC is shipped with the static IP address: “192.168.1.5”. You will need to assign the PLC’s
with an IP address that is unique on your network and yet is accessible from your PC. If you are on a
company network, then you must consult your company’s system administrator to assign you a useable
IP address.
However, if your PC is connected to a small local area network, then most likely you will have a LAN IP
address of 192.168.XXX.YYY. For proper networking, you should set the PLC’s IP address to
“192.168.XXX.ZZZ”. i.e. The first three numbers should match each other. The fourth number (ZZZ)
should be an IP address that is not used by any other devices on your network.
Note that majority of small LANs are built using a network router that assigns dynamic IP addresses
(called DHCP server) to the PC. You should enter the administrator page of the router and define the
range of DHCP for use by the PCs and then you may assign the PLC with any IP address that is outside
of the DHCP range. E.g. If you define the DHCP address range to be 192.168.1.100 to 192.168.1.150,
then you may assign the PLC with any IP address between 192.168.1.2 to 192.168.99 (Usually the router
itself would have the IP address 192.168.1.1 so that address is not available) and also between
192.168.151 to 192.168.1.254 (again making sure that 192.168.1.254 is not already used by your router).
DHCP IP Address
For a Fx1616-BA PLC, if you set the IP address to 0.0.0.0 then the PLC will send DHCP request to the
network DHCP server to request for an IP address. You can find out the IP address assigned to the PLC
by sending the command: PRINT #4 “<IP>” and then read the response using INPUT$(4) (see
example in “C:\TRiLOGI\TL7\usr\samples\Ethernet\TestEthernet.PC7” and the address can then be
displayed on the PLC’s LCD display using SETLCD command.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
2.1.2 GateWay IP Addr
The Gateway IP address lets the Fx1616-BA PLC communicate with other LAN segments or connect to
the Internet. The gateway address is usually the local IP address of the router where the PLC is
connected. For small local networks with no plan for connection to the Internet, the Gateway IP Address
is not needed and can be set to 0.0.0.0. But if you plan to use the Fserver’s email capability then you
must fill in the correct Gateway IP Address. Ask your system administrator if you have any question about
this.
2.1.3 SMTP Server IP Address
The SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) Server field lets you define the IP address of the email server
that the PLC can use to send out emails from user’s program (please see section 2.3.3 for more details
on how to program the PLC to send emails). This is the same SMTP server that your normal email client
software such as Thunderbird or MS Outlook uses to send out email. You can ask your Internet Service
Provider (ISP) for the IP address of their SMTP server. The ISP usually provides the SMTP server in
domain name form (such as “mail.sbcglobal.net”), but you should also be able to request the numerical IP
address of the SMTP server from the ISP.
For Windows XP or Vista users, you can resolve the IP address as follows: First, launch the “Command
Prompt” window. Then enter the command nslookup <smtpserver name>” to get the IP address. An
example is shown below where the IP address of mail.sbcglobal.net is resolved to the IP address:
“207.115.36.120”:
Figure 2.1.3
Windows users may also search the Internet for a free “host.exe” tool that lets you resolve the IP address
from a given domain name (one host.exe tool that we found to work was downloaded from
http://pigtail.net/LRP/dig/). For example, executing the command line: “host mail.sbcglobal.net” will
resolve its IP address. (Of course you can only use this smtp server provided your ISP is SBC, almost no
SMTP server will relay emails from a client that is not its one of its own subscribers).
If you do not plan to use the FServer to send out emails yet, then you can leave the default SMTP Server
IP Address = 0.0.0.0. You can change the settings anytime later when you need it.
2.1.4 DNS Server IP Address
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
DNS (Domain Name Server) allows the FServer to contact a remote server by means of domain name
instead of IP Address. The DNS takes in the given domain name (such as yahoo.com) and returns the IP
address of the target server. You will need to fill in the DNS IP Address if you intend to ask the Fserver to
resolve a domain name into an IP address, or you intend to contact a client directly by using domain
name instead of using IP Address.
The DNS server IP address could be the same as the Gateway IP Addr described in section 2.1.3. But it
will be more efficient to define the actual DNS server IP address that your ISP provides. You can usually
obtain the DNS server IP address by going to the Administrator page of your router and pull up
information on the WAN. E.g. The DNS server address you can see from the following screen is
64.59.144.92.
2.1.5 No of Connections (FServer/ Modbus TCP)
The Fx1616-BA CPU assigns sufficient memory to support up to a maximum of 10 simultaneous TCP/IP
connections to the FServer and Modbus/TCP server. By default, each server is assigned a maximum of 5
connections each. However, to improve flexibility, you can re-assign the mix of maximum connections
between the two servers as long as the no. of Modbus/TCP connections does not exceed 5 and the no. of
FServer connections does not exceed 8. This means that you can define 5 to 8 FServer connections and
2 to 5 Modbus/TCP connections. When you change the number in one box the other box will change
automatically so that the total number of possible connections remains at 10.
2.1.6 FServer Port No.
The Port number is a 16-bit integer (range 0 to 65535) that needs to be specified on top of the IP address
when accessing the FServer from across the network. The default value is 9080, which is the same
default value used by the TLServer and TRiLOGI client software.
A second port with a value of the main port + 1 is automatically defined for a single FServer connection.
Port 9081 is defined by default. The purpose is to allow for a dedicated access port in case the
connections on the other port are used up
Please see the TRiLOGI programmer’s manual for an explanation of the use of the port number. One
reason why you may want to change the port number is to use the “port forwarding” capability of an NAT
router so that different F-series PLCs may be accessible from the Internet using the same public IP
address of the router but with different port numbers.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
2.1.7 Modbus/TCP Secondary Port No.
According to MODBUS.ORG specifications, all Modbus/TCP servers must listen on port #502. However,
Modbus.org also permits the device to be assigned a different secondary port number. As such, the
Modbus/TCP server will always listen on port #502 for all of its connections by default. Should you choose
to define a secondary port number, then the Modbus/TCP server will only listen on port 502 on one
connection while the additional connections (1 to a maximum of 5) would be listening on the secondary
port.
You may specify any port number between 1024 and 65535 (except for the port number already used by
the FServer) to be the secondary port number. Please see the TRiLOGI programmer’s manual for an
explanation of the use of the port number. One reason why you may want to change the port number is
to use the “port forwarding” capability of an NAT router so that different F-series PLCs may be accessible
from the Internet using the same public IP address of the router but with different port numbers.
2.1.8 LAN Speed
You can set the LAN speed of the F-series PLC to be either 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps (default) per second
using this menu option. Most modern Ethernet switch or router will automatically connect to the PLC using
its default LAN speed and there is usually no need for user to configure this option except in very special
application where the devices are connected via a 10Mbps Ethernet “hub”, which demands all connected
device to be set to the same 10Mbps LAN speed.
2.1.9 Node Name
You can assign up to 16 ASCII characters (any character) in naming a PLC. The node name is currently
not used by the network router so it is merely a convenient name for user to identify a PLC.
2.1.10 Username and Password (FServer only).
You can use the username and password feature to prevent unauthorized access to the FServer. It
adopts the same proprietary encryption scheme used in the TLServer and TRiLOGI software to encrypt
the password transmission. However, unlike the TLServer that allows you to define unlimited number of
usernames and passwords, the FServer only permits a single set of username/password and this is
limited to a length of 16 characters. (Although you may define the passwords for a USER and a VISITOR
privilege).
2.1.11 Use Username/Password (Yes/No)?
In applications where there is no danger of unauthorized access to the PLC via FServer, you can elect not
to use the username/password. With the “No” option selected, the TRiLOGI client can log-in to the
FServer using whatever username and password since FServer will bypass the username and password
authentication and allow the client to log in.
2.1.12 Access Level
You can define the access level that the TRiLOGI client is permitted to operate under on the PLC. Three
access levels are currently defined: 1 for Programmer, 2 for User and 3 for Guest. Please see the iTRiLOGI Programmer’s Reference manual for the definition of the access levels.
2.1.13 Advanced Configuration
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
The Advanced Configuration button lets you configure other more advanced (beyond the basic Ethernet
configuration), but less often used features of the PLC. This includes definition of the “Trusted IP”
addresses (see Section 2.4.2) as well as calibrations of the PLCs Analog I/Os (see Section 5.5).
2.1.14 Standalone Version of Ethernet Configuration Software
The standalone version of the Ethernet Configuration software, that was previously the only option for
configuring the Ethernet port and advanced settings on the F-series, can still be downloaded from our
website at the following URL:
http://www.tri-plc.com/download/FserverConfig/index.htm
Please download and run the “SetupFPLCConfig.exe” file from the above URL to install the “F-series
Ethernet Configuration Utility” program.
After you have installed the configuration program, please click on the Windows “Start” button and open
the “F-series PLC Configuration” group and select the “Ethernet Configuration Utility” program. The
following screen should appear:
The configuration program communicates with the
PLC via the RS232 serial port, so your PC should
have a RS232 port. Otherwise, you should
purchase a USB to RS232 converter.
First, click on the “Serial Setup” button and set the
PC’s COM port to the same settings as the PLC’s
RS232 port. (Default settings are 38,400bps, 8 data
bit, 1 stop bit and no parity). It is important that
you select a valid COM port on the PC, otherwise
the program will crash and exit when it fails to open
the COM port. The selected COM port number is
shown in a small text box below the “Serial Setup”
button so that you can see the currently selected
COM port readily.
Next, click on the “Retrieve Parameters from FPLC” so that you can capture a copy of the current
configuration in the PLC. You can then selectively
modify the parameters of interest.
Figure 2.1.4
The main difference between this standalone version of the F-series Ethernet Configuration software and
the built-in version is that it communicates directly with the PLC via the serial port, whereas the built-in
version requires TLServer or the FServer in order to create a connection. However, the standalone
version can only communicate through the PLCs serial port, whereas the built-in version can connect to
the PLC through a serial or Ethernet connection.
The standalone version can be useful for OEM designers who want to provide their customers with a way
to configure the Ethernet settings, and/or calibrate the ADC, and RTC settings but don’t want to provide
access to the programming software.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
2.2 Connecting Ethernet to the PLC
Introduction
All Fx1616-BA PLCs can connect to the PC running TRiLOGI many ways as follows:
a) Wired connection to a router that the PC is also connected to (PC connection can be wired or
wireless).
b) Direct connection to the PCs wired Ethernet port via crossover cable
c) Wireless connection to a wireless router if the PLC is connected to a wireless bridge (adapter)
Only the first two options, which are most common, will be described here.
2.2.1 Connecting the PLC to a Local Area Network
In a typical local area network (LAN) there would be one router (wired or both wired and wireless) that the
network devices connect to, one modem that provides Internet to the router, and the devices connected
to the router (such as the PLC and PC).
Before You Begin
The first thing you need to do is configure the network settings in the PLC to match those of the LAN. This
is typically done as follows:
1) Find out what your routers gateway address is (typically 192.168.1.1 or 192.168.0.1) and what
static IP addresses are free to use with your PLC.
NOTE: if the routers gateway address is “192.168.1.1”, the default PLC IP address (192.168.1.5)
will most likely work unless it is already used by another device on the same network. If it is free
to use, the next two steps can be skipped as the PLC will already be able to connect to the LAN.
2) Connect to the PLCs serial port from the PC with TRiLOGI and TLServer.
3) Edit the PLC network settings using the Ethernet & ADC Configuration tool from the “Controller”
menu in TRiLOGI. Only the IP address is necessary to configure for basic connection to the LAN.
Please refer to the Quick Connection guide in appendix 1 of the i-TRiLOGI Programmers Reference
Manual. to connect the PLC to your PC via serial port.
Please refer to section 2.1 of this manual for more detailed information on network configuration.
Network Wiring
You will likely already have a network available that consists of an Internet modem that provides Internet
to a wired or wireless router, which has at least one PC connected to it.
In this case, all that needs to be done is connect the PLC to the router with standard Ethernet cable. The
final network configuration will likely resemble the below simple network diagram.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
If you are on a corporate network, then you will need to consult the IT administrator to get the PLC
connected to the network.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
2.2.2 Setting up Ethernet Communication Directly Between a PC and a F-series
PLC
It is possible for your PC to communicate directly with a F-series PLC through the Ethernet port. This
means that you can have a peer-to-peer connection between the F-series PLC and your PC without an
Internet connection or any additional network equipment. The PC being used would need a spare
Ethernet port in order to do this.
What You Will Need
1. A PC with a spare Ethernet port (RJ45 connection)
2. An Ethernet cable**
3. A F-series PLC
**There are two types of Ethernet cables: A standard straight through cable, which is used in most
situations, and a crossover cable, which is required when there is no auto-switching hardware in either of
the two Ethernet ports (PC and PLC). The F-series PLC does NOT have auto-switching capabilities so it
will depend on the PCs Ethernet port whether or not a crossover cable is required. If you are not sure if
your PC’s Ethernet port is able to perform auto-switching (most modern PC has auto-switching built-in),
then it is best to use a crossover cable. A crossover Ethernet cable will work in both situations, but a
straight through Ethernet cable will only work if one or both of the Ethernet ports can perform autoswitching.
How to Set Up Your PC
Before you can communicate with the PLC, you will need to configure the Ethernet port on your PC to
match the settings that you configured in the PLC. For more information on configuring the PLC Ethernet
settings, see section 2.1 Configuring The Ethernet Port. Once you have configured your PLC’s Ethernet
settings, you will need to set your PCs Ethernet port to have a static IP address that is on the same
subnet as the IP address you had set for your PLC. How you do this is a bit different depending on your
operating system, so the following sections will show step-by-step instructions for configuring your PCs
Ethernet settings on Windows XP and then on Windows Vista.
Windows XP Ethernet Configuration
1. Open Network Connections. The first thing you will need to do is open the Network Connections
window from the “Start” menu by selecting “Show all connections” from the “Connect To” menu, as
shown here:
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
Figure 2.8.1
2. Local Area Network Properties. Next the Network Connections window should open, which will
display all of your network connections.
Now you can either right click on the
Local Area Connection and select
“Properties” or highlight it and click on
“Change settings of this connection”
from the Network Tasks sidebar, as
shown above. When you do this, the
following window will open.
Figure 2.8.2
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
3. Edit TCP/IP Properties
Now you want to highlight the Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) item and click on Properties. This will
open up a new window that allows you to change
the network settings for the Ethernet port that you
selected. The Ethernet hardware you are
configuring is shown under “Connect using:” in the
current window.
Figure 2.8.3
4. Configure IP Address and Gateway
By default your Ethernet settings will be
configured to be obtained automatically (in this
case only the IP settings are set to be obtained
automatically). This setting will not work since
the Fx1616-BA PLC does not have the ability
to assign IP address to the PC’s Ethernet port.
So you need to manually set the IP address
and the Subnet mask. The IP address should
be on the same subnet as the IP address you
have set for your PLC. For example, if your
PLCs IP address is set to the default address
of “192.168.1.5”, then you should set your PCs
IP address to be:
192.168.1.xxx
The xxx can be any number between 1 and
255, except for 5 (your PC can’t have same IP
address as your PLC)
Figure 2.8.4
The Subnet mask should be set to
“255.255.255.0” no matter what and the other
settings should be left blank because you won’t
be connecting this Ethernet port to the Internet.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
5. Sample Configuration
Here is an example of a configuration that will work
if your PLC has an IP address of 192.168.1.xxx,
where xxx is anything from 1-255 except 2.
Once you have set the IP address and Subnet
mask, you can click on OK and then click on OK
again to close the “Local Area Connection
Properties” window shown in Figure 2.8.5
Note: When using direct Ethernet connection you
should leave the “Default gateway” field empty. This
can prevent the PC from trying to access the
Internet through its Ethernet port which can cause
the PC to lose internet connection.
Figure 2.8.5
Now your Ethernet port has been configured and you can try to connect to your PLC from TRiLOGI using
your PLCs IP address and port number.
Note:
a. Connecting the PC’s Ethernet port directly to the PLC only establishes a private network
connection between the two devices. That is to say, the PLC connected this way is ONLY
accessible to this PC. Even if the PC is connected to a LAN (e.g. via Wi-Fi connection), the PLC
connected to this PC via direct Ethernet connection will not be accessible by any other devices
on the same LAN. and the PLC will not be able to open network connection to any other devices
beyond the PC that it is connect to this way.
Sometimes the PC that is connected directly to the PLC via Direct Ethernet Connection may lose its
Internet connection via Wi-Fi. This is because the O/S thinks that the direct Ethernet connection to the
PLC is a real network connection and attempt to route TCP/IP packets through it. That will result in a
connection failure. If this occurs and you need to access the Internet, then please temporarily remove the
Ethernet cable from the PLC and the PC should then be able to access the Internet again.
Windows 7 Ethernet Configuration
1. Open the Network Window. The first thing you will need to do is open the Network window from the
“Start” menu by selecting “Network", as shown here:
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
2. Open Network and Sharing Center: In the Network window, click on the Network and Sharing
Center option on the top pane as in the below picture.
3. Manage Network Connections: In the Network and Sharing Center window, click on the Manage
network connections option under the tasks pane on the left side of the window as in the below
picture.
4. Follow steps 2-5 in the Windows XP Ethernet Configuration section above to complete the setup, as it
is the same process.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
Windows 8 Ethernet Configuration
1. Open the Network Window. The first thing you will need to do is open the Control Panel from the
“Start” menu by right-clicking in the bottom left corner of the screen where the Start Menu is accessed
(below left screenshot):
2. Open View Network Status and Tasks Window. Next you need to click on the "View network status
and tasks" link under the "Network and Internet" category (above-right screenshot), which will bring
up the "Network and Sharing Center" window (below screenshot).
3. Click on the "Change Adapter Settings" Link. This will bring up the "Network Connections" window
where you can configure the necessary network settings for the local adapter.
Follow steps 2-5 in the Windows XP Ethernet Configuration section above to complete the setup, as it is
the same process.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
2.3 On-line Monitoring/Programming via FServer
If you have used the TRiLOGI software to connect to TLServer or the X-Server previously, the procedure
is identical. To test TRiLOGI communication with the Fx1616-BA PLC, click on “Controller -> On-Line
Monitoring”, or simply press <CTRL-M> keys.
Figure 2.2.1
When the “Login To TLServer” screen pops up, enter the “IP address : port”, the username and the
password that you have defined for the FServer earlier using the configuration software, and click on the
“Detect ID” button to detect the PLC’s ID. If TRiLOGI is able to connect to the Fx1616-BA PLC via the
Ethernet network, then the PLC’s ID will appear in the ID box. When you click the “OK” button, the on-line
monitoring screen should appear and you should see the “Activities LED” on the RJ45 connector blinking
away. You have now successfully connected to the FServer and you can run all the commands under
the “Controller” menu, including transferring your new program to the PLC or setting the PLC’s Real Time
Clock, etc. For more details on using these commands, please refer to i-TRiLOGI Programmer’s
Reference.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
Likewise, to transfer your new program to the PLC, you can click on the “Controller” menu and select
“Program Transfer to PLC” or press the <Ctrl-T> keys. If TRiLOGI is already connected to the FServer,
the program transfer will begin immediately after you’ve confirmed your action. Otherwise the same
“Login to TLServer” screen, as shown on Figure 2.2.1, will appear for you to complete the login sequence.
Note:
1) Unlike the TLServer, which allows unlimited connection time, the FServer on the PLC will
disconnect the client if there is no activity for more than 10 minutes. The current version of the
TRiLOGI program may not detect that the connection has been closed and it may instead think
that the PLC is not present. When this happens you should click on “Controller” menu and select
“Disconnect” to properly shut down the connection that has already been reset by the PLC.
2) If you are unable to connect to the PLC, then check that both the PLC and the PC running your
TRiLOGI software are connected to the same network and are on the same subnet. Generally for
a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, if the PC’s IP address is 192.168.1.xxx then the PLC should
have an IP address of 192.168.1.yyy and it will not work if the PLC has IP address such as
192.168.0.yyy or 192.168.2.yyy, since this means that the two devices are on different subnets.
Likewise, if your PC’s IP address is “192.168.0.xxx”, then please change your PLC’s IP address
to “192.168.0.yyy”. Also ensure that the PLC’s IP address is not already assigned to another
device on the same network, otherwise a conflict would occur and communication is not possible.
2.4 Using F-series PLC “Network Services” Commands
The Fx1616-BA PLC implements a list of “Network Services” commands similar to what you may have
read in the User’s Manual of the X-Server (“NS commands) and TLServer (“Files and Email Services”).
These “Network Services” or NS in short, can be used to instruct the Fx1616-BA’s operating system to
perform a number of network related functions client connection via the Ethernet port. These commands
allow the PLC to connect remotely to another PLC in another building or another part of the world via the
Internet! This allows peer-to-peer networking, or so-called “M2M” (machine to machine communication) to
take place between the PLCs.
Notes:
1. In the case of the TLServer, the PLC typically communicates with these external hardware
or software servers via its COMM1 serial port, and thus TBASIC statements and functions
such as PRINT #1, INPUT$(1) and NETCMD$(1) are used since the NS commands are
sent through the serial port #1.
2. Since the Ethernet is already built-in on the Fx1616-BA, you do not need to send NS
commands via any of its serial ports (this also means that no serial port is sacrificed in
order to have access to Ethernet communication). However, to help users of the XServer
and TLServer migrate easily to the Fx1616-BA’s Ethernet port, we implement the NS
commands using similar command format as that on the XServer and TLServer. But
instead of sending the commands through COMM1, you will interact with the O/S through
COMM port #4.
Of course, since the Fx1616-BA doesn’t have 4 serial ports, COMM port #4 is therefore
only a “virtual comm. port” and its creation is merely to simplify implementation of the NS
commands.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
3. The “TestEthernet.pc7” (found in “C:\TRiLOGI\TL7\usr\samples\Ethernet\” folder or
download from: http://www.tri-plc.com/trilogi/FPLCsamples.zip) includes all examples of
how to use the NS commands via virtual comm. port #4, which serves as a good starting
point for you to learn these simple but yet powerful methods for making a client connection
over the LAN or the Internet.
4. The PLC reserves only a single client socket to implement the Network Services. If you use
any of the NS commands listed below, please ensure that the command is completed (so
that the client socket can be closed) before issuing a different NS command.
All NS commands begin with a string enclosed within the angle bracket called a “tag”, e.g. “<EMAIL>”,
“<CONNECT>”. Most NS commands end with a closing tag “</>” except the “<REMOTEFS>” tag, which
ends with a “</REMOTEFS>” closing tag. Depending on the command type, the Fx CPU may return one
or more response strings via virtual comm. port #4, from which the PLC can read to determine if the NS
command has been executed properly.
The PLC can operate the Ethernet port by means of TBASIC INPUT$ and PRINT commands operating
on COMM 4. It uses the PRINT #4 command to send out NS commands and the INPUT$(4) command to
receive response data via the Ethernet port.
Notes:
1. Only PRINT #4 and INPUT$(4) are implemented on virtual COMM port #4. Fx1616-BA
currently DO NOT support the INCOMM (4) and OUTCOMM 4 commands. Note that any non zero ASCII data can be sent using the PRINT #4 command.
The following subsections describe the various Network Service commands available to the F-series PLC.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
2.4.1 Get our IP Address
Format:
<IP>
Response:
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:nnnn (IP address:port of FServer)
Example:
PRINT #4 “<IP>”
SETLCD 1,1,”Our IP=”+INPUT$(4)
Note:
This IP address is returned instantly, so there is no need to wait for INPUT$(4).
2.4.2 DNS command: Resolving Domain Name into IP Address
In order to use this command successfully, you must first correctly define the DNS Server IP
address mentioned in Section 2.1.4.
Format:
<DNS [domain name]>
Response:
Response:
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
IP address string returned by DNS server
ERR:07-DNS Unresolved
Either DNS server not properly defined or the
domain name does not exist.
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx (IP address string returned by domain name server)
STATUS(3): This function returns 1 on success and 0 on failure.
Example:
PRINT #4 “<DNS tri-plc.com>“
FOR I = 1 to 10000
A$ = INPUT$(4)
IF LEN(A$) <> 0
SETLCD 1,1,” IP=”+A$
RETURN
ENDIF
NEXT
Notes:
a) There is no need for the closing tag </> to end this command.
b) If your DNS server has been correctly defined, the above program should return the IP address
as a string such as “130.94.216.144”. You can then use this IP address string in all the other NS
commands to be described in the following sub-sections.
c) The DNS server may take some time to resolve the domain name. If it is unable to resolve the
domain name then it will return an error string, so your program should test to see if it receives
the ERR07 error message to determine whether the returned string is useable.
d) Although it is possible to embed the domain name directly in the NS command in place of IP
address, it is usually much more efficient to use the IP address directly if it is known in advance.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
This is because the DNS server may take some time to resolve the domain name into IP address
each time it is called, and there is a possibility that the domain name server may be overloaded or
down momentarily when it is needed, and hence complicating the attempt for the PLC to connect
to a remote server. Therefore we recommend that you use the <DNS domain > tag to resolve the
domain name into IP address first and then use the resulting IP address for all Network Services
commands via the Internet.
2.4.3 Send Email
Format:
<EMAIL [recipient email address]>
SENDER: [sender email address]
SUBJECT: [whatever text string]
[body of the email line 1]
[body of the email line 2]
…..
</>
Response:
<OK>
Email successfully sent
ERR:04-Not Connected
Failed to connect to SMTP server (Section 2.1.3)
ERR:06-Email Failure
Failed to complete email transmission.
STATUS(3): This function returns 1 on success and 0 on failure. Note that this function only
returns the email status after the closing tag </> has been sent. If the function is
polled before the last closing tag is sent, the status is indeterminate.
Description: You can use this command to send out an email for you at any time. The FServer
uses the defined SMTP server and Gateway IP addresses (See Section 2.1) to
perform this task. If it encounters any errors, it will send back an error string,
which begins with the “ERR:” followed by the reason for the error. Although the
sender’s email address does not have to be a valid email address, it is good to at
least use a valid domain name as the sender address. Otherwise the SMTP
server may refuse to send the email because it may deduce that an email with an
invalid domain name is likely to be a Spam mail.
Example:
Please refer to the fnEmail function in the “TestEthernet.PC6” file.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
2.4.4 Open Connection to Remote FServer or TLServer to Use NETCMD$
Format:
<CONNECT [IP address:port of TLServer or XServer]>
[username string]
[password string]
Response:
<CONNECTED>
Successfully connected to remote
TLServer or XServer at the IP address.
FServer,
ERR:05-Prev Conn.ON
Another NS command has been executed and left
the client socket opened but did not execute the
PRINT #4 “</>” to close the client socket.
ERR:04-Not Connected
Failed to connect to remote Fserver or TLServer.
STATUS(3):
This TBASIC function returns 1 if the connection is active and returns 0 if the
connection has ended. You can test the connection status to determine if the
connection is still alive.
Description:
This service allows your PLC to log in to another TRi Super PLC such as
another Fx, FMD or Nano-10 PLC connected via TLServer through the
Internet.
You execute this command by first sending the string “<CONNECT
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:9080>” using the PRINT #4 command, where xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
is the IP address of the remote FServer or TLServer, followed by sending the
username and password needed to log in to the remote server. Each line
should be terminated with a CR (carriage return) character. (The PRINT #4
command automatically appends the CR character).
Once a connection with the remote server is established, the CPU will return
the response string <CONNECTED> to the user program, which can read it
using the INPUT$(4) function. The STATUS(3) function can also be used to
test if the connection is successful and alive. When the program gets the
confirmation of connection, it can then use the TBASIC “NETCMD$(4, x$)”
command to read or write data to the remote PLCs as if the remote PLC is
locally connected to COMM4 port of this PLC, as shown in the following
example:
A$ = NETCMD$(4, “@01RI00”)
Multiple NETCMD$ commands can be executed as long as the connection is
alive. You can test the connection status by checking the result of the
STATUS(3) function.
Once all the command exchanges have been completed, you should send a
</> tag to close the client connection to the remote server so that other NS
commands can be executed in other parts of the program.
Example:
Please refer to the “fnConnect” and “fnNetCmd” custom functions in the demo
program: “TestEthernet.PC6”.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
2.4.5 Remote File Services
Format:
<REMOTEFS [IP Address of remote TLServer 2.1 & above]>
[File Service tag for TLServer]
…..
</REMOTEFS>
Response:
The response strings sent by the remote TLServer in response to the [File
Service tag] sent by this PLC. Or,
ERR:04-Not Connected
Example:
Failed to connect to remote TLServer.
Please refer to the “fnRFS1” and “fnRFS2” custom functions in the demo
program: “TestEthernet.PC6”.
Description: This commands allows the F-series PLC to connect to a remote TLServer to
perform any of the “Files & Email Services” that a TLServer normally provides to
PLCs that are connected to it. This includes creating text files on a remote
TLServer and writing or appending data to it anytime. This makes it very
convenient for the PLC to collect large amounts of data and save them to the
easily accessible, virtually limitless hard disk storage space that is available in
today’s PCs.
For detailed descriptions of the available [File Service Tags] please refer to TRiLOGI
programmer’s reference manual under the chapter “File & Email Services”.
All TLServer’s “File & Email Services” tags, such as <Email>, <WRITE>,<APPEND>, <READ>
and <READ RTC> are available to the F-series PLC through the use of the <REMOTEFS> tag.
You simply have to wrap the abovementioned command tags between the <REMOTEFS
IPAddr:port> and </REMOTEFS> tag, where “IPAddr:port” is the IP address and listening port
of the remote TLServer. E.g. through the <READ RTC[]> tag, the PLC can synchronize its
Real Time clock with a remote TLServer. (As you will later see, this feature is probably not
very useful for the F-series PLC anymore since the F-series PLC has the ability to connect to
the NIST Time Server to update its real time clock to Atomic clock accurately!)
Note: Only TLServer version 2.1 or above can handle the <REMOTEFS> command tag sent
by the F-series PLC.
2.4.6 Other Network Services Tags
We will describe two more Network Services commands:
<MBTCPCONNECT> in separate sections later in this manual.
<TCPCONNECT>
and
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2.5 MODBUS/TCP Server and Client Connection
The Fx1616-BA supports both the FServer and the industry standard MODBUS/TCP server
simultaneously. This means that all F-series PLCs are ready to interface directly with many third party
industrial control devices that support the MODBUS/TCP protocol. These include the SCADA software,
HMI hardware, OPC Server, HVAC controllers and many other industrial control devices.
In addition, the F-series PLC can be used both as a MODBUS/TCP SERVER as well as a MODBUS/TCP
CLIENT simultaneously. This means that the F-series PLC can readily read data from any device that
has a MODBUS/TCP server, such as: flow meters, AC/DC drives, HVAC elements, RTUs, network
sensors etc. It is also possible to perform peer-to-peer networking with other MODBUS/TCP controllers
(e.g. another F-series PLC) over a LAN or over the Internet!
2.5.1 Connecting To The PLC’s MODBUS/TCP Server
By default, the Fx PLC’s CPU supports up to 3 simultaneous MODBUS/TCP connections. You can
change the number of simultaneous MODBUS/TCP connections from 2 to 5 using the “F-series Ethernet
Basic Configuration” program as described in Section 2.1.
The PLC will listen on the default, well-known MODBUS/TCP port #502 for one or all of the connections.
However, it is also possible to define a secondary port number using the F-series Ethernet Configuration
program as described in Section 2.1.7 (Note that if you define a secondary port number, then only one of
the MODBUS/TCP connection will listen on port #502 and the remaining connections will only be listening
on the secondary port number.)
If you have a MODBUS/TCP client program (e.g. you can download a trial version of “Modbus Poll” from
http://www.modbustools.com for testing), you simply specify the F-PLC’s IP address and connect to it.
Once connected, you will then be able to read from or write to most of the F-series PLC’s internal data
from the MODBUS/TCP client. The PLC’s I/O and internal variables are mapped to the MODBUS device
space according to table 2.5.1.
2.5.1.1
Bit Address Mapping
All the F-series I/O bits are mapped identically to both the MODBUS “0x” and 1x space. The bit register
offset is shown in the last column of Table 2.5.1. Although MODBUS names the “0x” address space as
“Coil” (which means output bits) and the “1x” address space as “Input Status” (which means input bits
only), the F-series PLC treats both spaces the same. Some MODBUS drivers only allow a “read” from 0x
space and a “write” to 1x space but you still use the same offset shown on Table 2.5.1.
Example:
1. To map an element to the PLC Input 5, you select the MODBUS register address 0-0005. You
can also map the element to the PLC’s output #2. In that case, you should map it to MODBUS
register address 0-0258.
2. To map an HMI toggle switch symbol to the PLCs input #5, if you are restricted to select only
MODBUS 1x address space, then you will have to map the switch to 1-0005, and, likewise, you
can map the switch to output #2 using the MOBDUS address 1-0258. However, if the driver
allows the switch to be mapped to the 0x space then you can use MODBUS register space 10258 and 0-0258 for the output #2 mapping with identical result.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
Table 2.5.1 Memory Mapping of F-series CPU Internal Data to MODBUS Register
Fx1616-BA
PLC
Input
Output
Timer
Counter
Relay
I/O #
n
1 to 16
17 to 32
33 to 48
49 to 64
65 to 80
81 to 96
n
1 to 16
17 to 32
33 to 48
49 to 64
65 to 80
81 to 96
n
1 to 16
17 to 32
33 to 48
49 to 64
n
1 to 16
17 to 32
33 to 48
49 to 64
MODBUS Holding
Register Mapping
(Modicon convention)
MODBUS Bit
Addr. Mapping
40049.1 to 40049.16
40050.1 to 40050.16
40051.1 to 40051.16
40052.1 to 40052.16
n
1 to16
17 to 32
33 to 48
49 to 64
65 to 80
81 to 96
256 + n
257 to 272
273 to 288
289 to 304
305 to 320
321 to 336
337 to 352
512+n
513 to 528
529 to 544
545 to 560
561 to 576
768 + n
769 to 784
785 to 800
801 to 816
817 to 832
n
1 to 16
17 to 32
33 to 48
49 to 64
40065.1 to 40065.16
40066.1 to 40066.16
40067.1 to 40067.16
40068.1 to 40068.16
1024 + n
1025 to 1040
1041 to 1056
1057 to 1072
1073 to 1088
65 to 80
81 to 96
97 to 112
113 to 128
129 to 144
145 to 160
161 to 176
177 to 192
40069.1 to 40069.16
40070.1 to 40070.16
40071.1 to 40071.16
40072.1 to 40072.16
40073.1 to 40073.16
40074.1 to 40074.16
40075.1 to 40075.16
40076.1 to 40076.16
1089 to 1104
1105 to 1120
1121 to 1136
1137 to 1152
1153 to 1168
1169 to 1184
1185 to 1200
1201 to 1216
193 to 208
209 to 224
..
497 to 512
40077.1 to 40077.16
40078.1 to 40078.16
..
40097.1 to 40097.16
1217 to 1232
1233 to 1248
..
1521 to 1536
40001.1 to 40001.16
40002.1 to 40002.16
40003.1 to 40003.16
40004.1 to 40004.16
40005.1 to 40005.16
40006.1 to 40006.16
40017.1 to 40017.16
40018.1 to 40018.16
40019.1 to 40019.16
40020.1 to 40020.16
40021.1 to 40021.16
40022.1 to 40022.16
40033.1 to 40033.16
40034.1 to 40034.16
40035.1 to 40035.16
40036.1 to 40036.16
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
Fx1616-BA
PLC
Timer
Present Values
1 to 64
Modbus Holding Register
(Modicon convention)
40129 to 40192
Modbus Holding Register
(Binary address)
128 to 191
Counter
Present Values
1 to 64
40257 to 40320
256 to 319
Clock
TIME[1]
TIME[2]
TIME[3]
40513
40514
40515
512
513
514
Date
DATE[1]
DATE[2]
DATE[3]
DATE[4]
40517
40518
40519
40520
516
517
518
519
Data Memory
DM[1]
DM[2]
….
DM[4000]
41001
41002
….
45000
1000
1001
…
3999
Floating-point Array
FP[1]
FP[2]
…
FP[501]
…..
FP[1000]
45001 & 45002
45003 & 45004
…..
46001 & 46002
….
46999 & 47000
5000 & 5001
5002 & 5003
…..
6000 & 6001
….
6998 & 6999
Note: only available
on Fx model
Variables
2.5.1.2 Word Address Mapping
As shown in Table 2.5.1, to access the PLC’s DM[1], you use MODBUS address space 4-1001 (Modicon,
use 1000 for binary addressing) and so on. To access the Real Time Clock Hour data (TIME[1]), use 40513. The I/O channels can also be read or written as 16-bit words by using the addresses from 4-0001
to 4-0320.
Some MODBUS drivers (such as National Instruments “Lookout” software) even allow you to manipulate
individual bits within a 16-bit word. So it is also possible to map individual I/O bits to the “4x” address
space. E.g. Input bit #1 can be mapped to 4-0001.1 and output bit #2 is mapped to 4-0257.2, etc. This is
how it is shown in Table 2.5.1. However, if you do not need to manipulate the individual bit, then you
simply use the address 4-0001 to access the system variable INPUT[1] and address 4-0257 to access the
system variable OUTPUT[1]. Note that INPUT[1] and OUTPUT[1] are TBASIC system variables and they
each contain 16 bits that reflect the on/off status of the actual physical input and output bits #1 to #16.
2.5.2 MODBUS/TCP Access Security
If a F-series PLC is to be accessible only on the local area network, then the direct connections offered by
MODBUS/TCP provide simplicity without time-consuming login sequences. As such Modbus/TCP
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protocol is itself inherently insecure and not meant to be exposed directly to the Internet where malicious
attacker can take control of the equipment.
Typically Modbus TCP devices are deployed in a local area network and protected by the network
firewall. A SCADA or OPC server program is used to connect to the Modbus/TCP devices on LAN and
the PC running the SCADA/OPC server software can then be the only device exposed to the Internet
where secured access can be implemented by the server software. External HMI client software can then
make connection to the SCADA/OPC server which will in turn access the Modbus/TCP devices such as
the F-series PLCs.
However, if you only have a single Modbus/TCP device and need to expose it to the public Internet for
external access, then you ought to consider the security issues associated with MODBUS/TCP
connections.
Since a MODBUS/TCP connection does not require a username/password login sequence (unlike the
FServer login), the only way to protect against unauthorized access is through the “Trusted IP” addresses
defined using the F-Series Ethernet Configuration software.
To define a list of “Trusted IP” addresses, please click on TL7’s “Controller” menu and select “Ethernet
& ADC Configuration”. Next, click on the “Advanced” button on the “FServer Basic Configuration” and you
should see the following Advanced Configuration screen.
The first thing you should do is to click
on the “Retrieve Parameters from PLC”
so that you can capture a copy of the
current configuration in the PLC and
you can then modify selectively.
You can define a list of up to 6 “Trusted
IP” addresses in this panel. To enable
the Modbus/TCP Trusted IP, click on
the “Yes” button next to the
“Modbus/TCP Use Trusted IP”.
Note: The FServer can also be enabled
to only allow connections from devices
that match one of the “Trusted IP”
defined in this panel. This is on top of
the username/password login sequence
that can be enabled/disabled from the
Basic Configuration screen. In other
words, you can choose either security
method to access the FServer or
implement both security methods at the
same time.
After you have defined the list of trusted
IP addresses and checked the “Use
Trusted IP” radio button, click on the
“Save Parameters to FServer” to save
your data to the PLC’s non-volatile
memory.
Figure 2.4.1
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
When “MODBUS/TCP Use Trusted IP” is enabled, it means that only TCP/IP packets that come from a
client whose IP address matches one of the “Trusted IP” would be allowed connection to the
MODBUS/TCP server.
2.5.3 Making a Modbus/TCP Client Connection to Other Modbus/TCP Server
By using the “Network Services” commands described in Section 2.4, it is unbelievably easy for the Fseries PLC to be used as a MODBUS/TCP client to access any industrial control or HVAC device and
sensors that support a MODBUS/TCP server. Best of all, you can do it without learning any specifics of
TCP/IP programming!
To open a client socket and connect to a Modbus/TCP Server that is listening on port 502 (default
Modbus/TCP port), you only need to send the command tags <MBTCPCONNECT xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:502>
to the CPU via virtual COMM port #4. E.g.
PRINT #4 "<MBTCPCONNECT 192.168.1.105:502>"
If connection is successful, the system will return the string “<CONNECTED>” on virtual comm. port #4,
which you can check with the INPUT$(4) command.
Once the connection is successfully established, you can begin to use the built-in TBASIC commands:
READMODBUS, WRITEMODBUS, READMB2 and WRITEMB2 operating on virtual comm. port #4 to
send MODBUS commands and receive processed responses from a remote MODBUS/TCP Server!! This
greatly simplifies your programming task, since it is very similar to communicating with a Modbus RTU
slave that is connected to the serial port #1, 2, or 3. Although in this case, the Modbus/TCP device could
be located in the other hemisphere and connected via the Internet!
The full syntax for the <MBTCPCONNECT> tag is described below:
Format:
<MBTCPCONNECT [IP address:502] of another Modbus/TCP Server>
Response:
<CONNECTED>
Successfully connected to the
server of the specified IP address.
Modbus/TCP
ERR:05-Prev Conn.ON
Another NS command has been executed and left
the client socket opened but did not execute the
PRINT #4 “</>” to close the client socket.
ERR:04-Not Connected
Failed to connect to the targeted Modbus/TCP
Server
STATUS(3):
This TBASIC function returns 1 if the Modbus/TCP connection is live and
returns 0 if the connection has ended. You can test the connection status to
determine if the connection is still alive.
Description:
This service allows your PLC to log in to any device that supports a
Modbus/TCP server and is connected to the same LAN or to the Internet. Of
course, you may also use it to connect to another F-series PLC on the Internet
since every F-series PLC has a MODBUS/TCP server too.
Once the connection with the Modbus/TCP server is established, the CPU will
return the response string <CONNECTED> to the users program, which can
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read it using the INPUT$(4) function. The STATUS(3) function can also be
used to determine if the connection is successful and alive.
When the program gets the confirmed connection, it can then use any one of
the four TBASIC commands: READMODBUS, WRITEMODBUS, READMB2,
WRITEMB2 to read or write data to the remote devices via the virtual comm.
port #4, as if a Modbus slave device has been locally connected to a COMM4
port of this PLC. (You do not need to distinguish between Modbus ASCII and
RTU in this case, simply use comm. port #4 in your all your commands).
Multiple Modbus master commands can be sent as long as the connection is
live. You can test the connection status by checking the result of the
STATUS(3) function at any time.
Once all the command exchanges have been completed, you should send a
</> tag to close the client connection to the remote server so that other NS
commands can be executed in other parts of the program.
Example:
Please refer to the “fnMBTCP”, “fnRdMBTCP” and “fnWrtMBTCP” custom
functions in the demo program: “TestEthernet.PC6”.
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2.6 Getting data from Internet: Connecting to The Internet Time
Server
The F-series PLC features a special NS command tag <TCPCONNECT xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx: portno> that
allows you to connect to any server to download data. However, since the PLC does not have a lot of
memory for storing incoming text data, it is not suitable for downloading information from a commercial
website that sends many kilobytes of data in a single download. It can however, be very useful to connect
to some servers that send small amounts of information. For example, there are many Internet Time
Servers on the Internet that allow users to synchronize their computer clocks via the Internet. The service
responds to time requests from any Internet client in several formats, including the DAYTIME, TIME, and
NTP protocols. The simplest are those that send responses in ASCII data and you can extract the date
and time information from the response ASCII string once you know the format.
You can search on the Internet for a suitable timeserver and use the TELNET program on your PC to
access them to examine their display format. Most timeservers listen either on port 13 or port 123 so you
need to specify the port number together with their IP address when sending the <TCPCONNECT>
command.
Format:
<TCPCONNECT [IP address:portno] of time server>
Response:
- none -
Successfully connected to the
server of the specified IP address.
Modbus/TCP
ERR:05-Prev Conn.ON
Another NS command has been executed and left
the client socket opened but did not execute the
PRINT #4 “</>” to close the client socket.
ERR:04-Not Connected
Failed to connect to the targeted server.
STATUS(3):
This TBASIC function returns 1 if connected, or 0 if connection fails..
Description:
Once a connection is made, you can then interact with the remote server using
the PRINT #4 and INPUT$(4) command. You use the INPUT$(4) command to
read CR-terminated text strings sent by the server. You can also send data to
the remote server using the PRINT #4 command.
Example:
Please refer to the “fnTCPconn1” custom function in the demo program:
“TestEthernet.PC6” to see an example of how the PLC can connect to an NIST
timer server and use the returned data to update the PLC’s real-time clock.
Note: Some NIST time servers have strict policy against abuse so you should
avoid sending repeated request within a short period of time, otherwise further
connections may be denied once you are considered to have violated their
connection policy.
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2.7 Web Service: Accessing PLC's data from MS Excel
The FServer provides an extremely useful feature called “Web Service”. You can actually use your web
browser to access the F-series PLC internal data by specifying the following URL:
<IP Address: portno of FServer>/HOSTLINK/<Point-to-point hostlink command without “*”>
E.g.
Please enter the following URL into your web browser URL address space:
192.168.1.5:9080/HOSTLINK/IR
You will see the following data appear on your browser screen:
IR01
“IR” is one of the many “host link commands” that allows a host computer to read or write to the PLC’s
internal data space using ASCII strings. This particular command “IR” is for reading the PLC’s ID and in
this case the PLC returns “01” by default. For more details on the list of host link commands, please refer
to Chapter 15 of this manual.
Normally the host link commands are sent to the PLC via the serial port (as per all other PLC models
produced by TRi). The Fserver, however, permits these host link commands to be sent using the HTTP
protocol, which enables the F-series PLC to be easily accessible by enterprise software using what is
known as “Web Query” methods. The enterprise software only needs to know the format of the host link
command required to read the target data and then they can use their web query capability to query the
PLC and extract the required data from the response string.
One example, which you can try immediately, is to use the Microsoft Excel 2000 (or later version)
spreadsheet program. First, open a blank spreadsheet, then click on the “Data” menu and select “Get
External Data” -> New Web Query, as shown below:
Figure 2.6.1
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
Next, please enter the text as shown in the following diagram and then click OK. This will command the
Excel spreadsheet to send the web query string “RI00” to the Fx1616-BA that is connected to the network
with IP address = 192.168.1.5 and port 9080. The query string “RI00” is for reading the status of 8-bit
input channel #0 (which covers the logic states of input bit 1 to 8).
If the FServer is accessible by the PC from the network router, it will send the response data, which will
be displayed on the selected spreadsheet cell where the New Web Query was defined earlier.
The response data shown on the cell could be RI00. The response data includes the command header
“RI” as defined in the HostLink Command protocol described in Chapter 15. The data 00 indicates that
none of the inputs 1 to 8 are currently turned ON.
Figure 2.6.2
To see how the response data changes in response to the actual PLC’s input, please turn on some of
PLC’s digital inputs 1 to 8, then right-click on the cell where the web query was defined and select te
“Refresh Data” command. You should see a new “RIXX” string appear at the selected cell where “XX” is
the hexadecimal representation of the 8 input bits 1-8. E.g. if only inputs 2 and 8 are turned ON, then
the binary pattern is 1000 0010 which in hexadecimal form is 82 and the response string would therefore
be “RI82”. You can then write an excel formula to extract the data “82” and use it for your other
computation purpose. By using a different Host Link command, the Excel spreadsheet can read and
write to the PLC’s internal data very easily.
Notes:
1.
If you have enabled “Use Username/Password” for the FServer, you will be prompted by your Excel
program to enter the Username and password before you can receive the response data.
2.
We have provided a more complete Excel spreadsheet example “ExcelQuery.xls” which can be
downloaded from: http://www.tri-plc.com/appnotes/F-series/ExcelQuery.xls The macro in this file
converts the RIXX data it receives into ON/OFF indicators on the Excel Spreadsheet cells. Note that
this spreadsheet file uses the “HEX2DEC” function that is not normally available when you first install
the Excel program. But you can add it in by installing the “Analysis Toolpak”. Please search your
Excel Help file for the specific method of adding in this toolpak as it may change from one version of
Excel to another. On Excel 2000, you can click on the “Tools->Add Ins”, check the “Analysis
Tookpak” check box and then click OK. MS Excel will automatically install the toolpak for you.
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2.8 Accessing The PLC from Internet
2.8.1 Small Local Area Network Using Consumer Grade Network Router
When you connect a Fx1616-BA to your home Ethernet router, the PLC would have joined a “private”
local area network (LAN). It is accessible, through its private static IP address, by other devices on the
same LAN as long as each device is on the same “subnet” (See section 2.1 for an explanation of subnet
settings). The PLC is also able to access the Internet through the router because the router would
translate a private TCP/IP packet sent from the PLC into a public TCP/IP packet out of the Internet and if
there is any return data from the Internet meant for the PLC, the router would know that and automatically
routes the return packet back to the PLC. The router performs what is known as “Network Address
Translation (NAT)” and such routers are called NAT routers.
However, the same FServer and Modbus/TCP servers on the PLC are typically inaccessible from the
public Internet. This is because the router has a built-in firewall that does not permit external TCP/IP
packets from the public Internet to reach the devices on the private LAN. In other words, the NAT router
allows the PLC outgoing access to the Internet but by default does not allow incoming access.
Most small NAT routers for home use such as those produced by Linksys, Netgear, D-Link or Belkin do
allow you to configure the router to “open” and “forward” a specific port number to a specific device on the
private network. For example, if your PLC static IP address is 192.168.1.5 and you wish to open its
FServer port (9080) but not its Modbus/TCP port (502) to the public internet, you would configure your
router such that it will forward the incoming TCP/IP packet destined for port number 9080 to the device at
IP address 192.168.1.5. Once you have done that, you will then be able to access the FServer from the
Internet using the router’s public IP address (this is typically assigned by the Internet Service Provider)
and the port number 9080. However, the Modbus/TCP port is not accessible from the Internet since this
port number is not opened and not mapped by the router.
You should read your router’s User’s Manual to find out how to configure the router to perform the “port
forwarding” described above since each router model has a different user interface. For example, on the
D-Link DI-624 router you configure the router by clicking on the “Advanced” tab and selecting “Virtual
Server” from the router configuration page, as shown below:
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
On the Linksys WRT54G router, you would configure it from the “Applications & Gaming” menu under the
“Port Range Forward” tab, as shown below:
2.8.2 Large Corporate Local Area Network
In the case of a medium to large corporate LAN, whether incoming and outgoing TCP/IP packets are
allowed to go through the corporate firewall is entirely decided by the System Administrator according to
the company’s security policy. Most corporate LANs would not allow incoming packets from reaching an
internal server until the System Administrator has given the permission to do so. Some company’s
network may not even allow devices such as the PLC to open a connection to the Internet to access
external data. If your application requires the PLC to access the Internet or to be accessible from the
Internet, then you would need to consult your system administrator on the required procedure.
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2.9 Installing a Control Web Page Into the F-series PLC
The Fx PLC web server space can host up to 1.7M bytes of data files which can be HTML, JPG, JS
(JavaScript) files etc. Thanks to its support of the “web services” commands, a programmer can create its
own sophisticated control webpages using only standard HTML and JavaScript .
TRi has created an example control webpage which can be downloaded from:
http://www.tri-plc.com/download/webapp/webapp02.zip
When you have successfully unzipped all the files from the Webapp02.zip into your hard disk, you will
need to transfer the files to the PLC’s web server using a FTP client program. The following sections
describe how to use the free FileZilla FTP program to transfer these files and section 2.10 will describe
how to customize the control web pages.
NOTE: The “M.JS” JavaScript file used with the new preloaded 0.HTM file is no longer provided in the
new web app download because it is loaded remotely. In the past, M.JS had been stored inside the PLC
and was available directly for editing. However, now the user modifications in the HTML file are more
expanded and in order to save space for additional files as well as protect against accidental modification
of the M.JS file, it is now stored outside PLC memory.
If you are an experienced web programmer, or you plan to outsource web programming services to
customize your PLCs web interface, then you may obtain a copy of this file for more advanced editing by
writing to support@triplc.com and providing your purchase references (purchaser’s name, company
name, invoice # etc).
Of course, you may also like to build your own HTML and JavaScript/Jquery control structure, which is
entirely feasible for any experience web programmer.
2.9.1
Installing the FileZilla program
First please download the FileZilla client from: http://filezilla-project.org
Once you have gone to the web page from the above link, you will need to select the client version to
download. Then you need to select the software version for your computers platform, typically the
Windows version, and download it to your computer. This is the installation setup file, which you will need
to execute after it has downloaded. Please perform a default installation by following the installation steps.
2.9.2
Configure FileZilla to Communicate with the F-series PLC
After installing the FileZilla client, please open it from the start menu or desktop icon and then go to the
“File” menu and select “Site Manager”. The following menu will then pop up:
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
Under the default “General” tab, you will
need to enter the Host IP address and
configure the “Logontype”.
The Host should be the IP address of the
Fx1616-BA PLC (default IP is shown in
the example). The Port can be left blank
and the Servertype can be left as the
default as shown.
The Logon type should be set to Normal
and the User and Password should be set
to the same as for the login to the Fserver.
Nothing else needs to be configured in
this area. Next go to the “Transfer
settings” tab.
Figure 2.10.1
Under the “Transfer settings” tab you
need to set the Transfer mode to
“Active” and check the box to Limit
number of simultaneous connections.
The maximum number of connections
should be 1.
This is everything that needs to be
configured, so you can now click on
connect.
Figure 2.10.2
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
If FileZilla has made a
successful connection, the
status
should
be:
“Connected”, and “Directory
listing successful”.
Also, you should be able to
see the preloaded files in the
remote site directory, which is
the bottom right window.
Figure 2.10.3
If you are not able to connect to the PLC’s web server or if you can’t get a successful directory listing,
then you should first double check the settings you have configured for FileZilla compared to the settings
configured in the F-Server. The next thing to check is your Windows firewall, which must allow the PLC to
make a connection back to the PC (due to the use of active transfer settings). You can disable the firewall
temporarily to check if it is affecting your FileZilla connection. If you have confirmed that disabling the
firewall allows you to successfully connect to the PLC server and view the directory listing, then you can
add the PLC’s IP address as well as FileZilla program to the firewall exception list so that you can leave
your firewall enabled if you wish.
To add FileZilla to the Windows firewall exception list, you will need to open the Windows firewall from
your network settings configuration area. Then you will need to click on “Change settings”, which will open
up a new window. You will need to go to the “Exceptions” tab in the new window and look for FileZilla in
the list of programs. If you see FileZilla in the list, then you will need to check the box beside it to add it to
the exception list. Otherwise, you will need to manually add it to the list by clicking “Add program” and
searching for FileZilla in its installation directory. Here is a picture of the Windows Firewall status window
and the Change settings window with the Exceptions tab:
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
Figure 2.10.4
2.9.3 Transferring and Retrieving Files from the PLC Web Server
Now that you have a connection to the PLC’s web server and can view the directory listing, you should be
able to see any files that have been preloaded into the PLC.
Downloading Files
The first thing to do is to download the preloaded files from the web server and store them somewhere on
your computer. To do this you will need to open up the folder on your computer that you want to store the
files in. Then you can drag the files from the web server via FileZilla into your destination folder. It is best
to make a copy of these files as a backup on your computer so that you have the original copies available
in case you need them.
Uploading Files
When you are ready to transfer your own web pages or applet to the PLC, you just need to drag it from
the folder it is saved to on your computer into the bottom right window of FileZilla where the current files
are shown. If you didn’t change the filename, you can tell the new file to overwrite the old file. Otherwise,
you will need to manually delete the old file from the PLC’s web server in FileZilla by right clicking on it
and selecting Delete.
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2.9.4
Troubleshooting FileZilla File Transfer Problems
1) FileZilla appears to have connected to the PLC’s FTP server, but it cannot list the directory or
transfer any file to the PLC.
The reason almost always have something to do with the PC’s software firewall. You need to
configure the Windows Firewall (and any software anti-virus firewall on your PC) to allow incoming
connections to the FileZilla program. You can try to disable the firewall temporarily to test the
connection and if does work, you can then be sure that it is the firewall configuration issue that need
to be resolved.
The following paragraphs explain how the firewall can affect the FTP communications for those who
are interested:
The File Transfer Protocol is unique in that it requires two socket connections between two devices
that are communicating via FTP. When FileZilla is connected to the PLC’s FTP server on port 21, it
establishes a “command” channel and it is through this command channel that FTP commands are
being sent.
However, once the command channel is established (FileZilla is “connected” to the FTP Server), a
second socket connection (known as the “data channel”) needs to be made between FileZilla and the
PLC. All data, such as the directory information and content of any files to be transferred between
FileZilla and the PLC will need to go through the data channel. They are two possible ways of
establishing this data channel, one is called the “Active Transfer” and the other is known as “Passive
Transfer”.
FileZilla is able to operate in either transfer mode, but the PLC FTP Server can only operate in “Active
Transfer” mode. “Active Transfer” mode requires that the client (FileZilla) provides a listening socket
for the server (PLC) and the server (PLC) will then try to connect to this socket to establish the data
connection. So if the FileZilla program sits behind the software firewall and no exception has been
configured, then the PLC FTP Server will not be able to make a connection to the FileZilla data
socket because it is blocked by the firewall and the connection will therefore fail. This explains why
FileZilla seemingly able to connect to the PLC but yet is unable to send any data or list the directory –
because there is no data channel connection for it to do so.
However, sometimes the problem could persist after disabling all firewalls and in that case the only
option is to revert to an older version of FileZilla, and then transfer the files by doing a right-click
download or right-click upload (if drag and drop doesn't work). You can do this as follows :
a. Download the FileZilla client version 3.1.5.1 from http://www.oldapps.com/filezilla.php
b. Remove the current version and then install version 3.1.5.1
c.
Connect to the PLC
d. There should be two directories (same as always) : local site (your PC) and remote site
(the PLC). You should see your files in the PLC directory.
e. Open the folder in the local site that you would like to save the files to.
f.
Right click on a file in the PLC directory such as 0.HTM and select download. You should
see the file in the folder on your local site.
g. To move files from the PC to the PLC, open the folder in the local site where the file is
located and right click it to select upload. You should see it in the PLC or you will be
asked to overwrite it if the same file name is there already.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
2) FileZilla Can Connect The First Time But Could Not Re-connect After Time-Out
FileZilla is normally setup to time out after 1 minutes of no activity. However, Since the PLC’s FTP
server can only handle a single FTP connection at a time, it is good to avoid letting FileZilla time out
due to no activity. This is because when FileZilla times out it cutoff the connection to the PLC. But if
for whatever reason the PLC were to miss the disconnection information it will be left in a "half-open"
state and will not be able to accept a new connection. When this happens and if you try to reconnect
to the PLC again after the connection has been dropped by FileZilla, you will most likely be unable to
connect to the PLC again until after the PLC time out its FTP connection due to no activity. The only
quick fix is to power-on reset the PLC so that it starts up fresh and can accept new connection again.
You can set the FileZilla timeout settings to a larger number (e.g. 300 seconds) using the FileZilla’s
“Edit->Settings” menu item so that it will not time-out automatically too quickly. You should always
select "disconnect" after a file transfer to properly close the connection and then the PLC will be
properly disconnected and is ready to accept new connection.
3) Problem Using FileZilla To Transfer Files to Multiple PLCs Configured To The Same Default IP
Address Even Though Only One PLC Is Connected To The Router At A Time.
When you connect FileZilla to a PLC with a particular IP address (e.g. 192.168.1.5) for the first time,
Windows will memorize the MAC-ID address of that PLC and associate it with this IP address in its
“ARP cache” (ARP = Address Resolution Protocol). So when you power off one PLC and immediately
plug another PLC with the same IP address to the network, then Windows will pass to FileZilla the
MACID of the PREVIOUS PLC instead of the new PLC using data in its ARP cache memory. When
FileZilla tries to connect to the right IP address but a wrong MACID, it of course would not be able to
connect properly.
In such a scenario, you must clear the Windows ARP cache first using a command prompt as follow:
The “arp –d” command tells windows to delete its ARP cache data. So when you use FileZilla to
connect to a new PLC Windows will do the necessary to properly connect to the new PLC that has a
different MACID from the previous PLC.
Note that the same issue applies to using I-TRiLOGI to transfer program to multiple PLCs that are all set to
the same default IP address, even though only one PLC will be connected to the network at a time. You will
need to clear the ARP cache after every transfer to avoid problem. Or else you have to wait for windows to
expire its ARP cache data before connecting the next PLC.
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2.10 Accessing and Customizing the HTML Web Interface for Control
and Monitoring
The second generation of Web control application is now available free for any TRi PLC user to download
and install into their PLC. In the previous section (2.9 Installing a Control Web Page Into the F-series
PLC) you were shown how to transfer html files to the FServer.
Click on the following link to download this new web application.
http://www.tri-plc.com/download/webapp/webapp02.zip
The “Webapp02.zip” file you downloaded above (or in Section 2.9) for Fx PLCs contains the following:
•
•
•
•
Four sample control web pages (0-C001-02.HTM, 0-C002-02.HTM, 0-C002-02-NoLCD.HTM, and
0-C003-02.HTM)
A readme file (Readme.txt)
A download link (UserGuide.htm) for the quickstart modification guide
PLC program files for TRiLOGI 6 and 7 (webAppTest.PC6 and webAppTest.PC7) that can be
loaded in the PLC
The user guide describing how you can modify the control webpage can be downloaded directly from:
http://www.triplc.com/documents/WebApp_UserGuide.pdf
2.10.1 Next Generation of Super PLC Web Control
These web files can be accessed from any standard web browser that supports AJAX technology
(Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, Safari) locally as long as your Fx1616-BA PLC is connected to the
LAN (local area network) or from anywhere in the world as long as your Fx1616-BA PLC is connected to
the Internet. Even the iPhone, Android phones, and other smartphones that support AJAX can be used to
access these web pages, which means your application can be controlled and monitored from anywhere
while on the go.
This new version makes use of the newer Jquery UI and no longer utilizes the M.JS JavaScript file.
Instead it calls the Jquery file remotely (no longer stored inside the PLC).
Either way, the web files are only accessible from standard browsers that support AJAX technology.
However, the HTML files are designed to be easily modified by anyone, even if you don’t have any
programming experience. The purpose is to be able to easily customize the web page layout for your
specific application by defining some label names and a background image without having to worry about
the programming required to interface to the PLC, which is already taken care of.
The basic HTML file “0.HTM” is the file where simple modifications can be made. All of the provided
HTML files are actually 0.HTM because only the first character of the name is used, so 0-C001-02.HTM
becomes 0.HTM.
The first release of this new Web control application accepts up to: 16 I/O buttons linked to Relay #128 to
#144; 16 floating point FP[] variables; 16 DM[] variables, and 8 sliders that can be attached to display
and/or control any of the FP[1] to FP[16] or DM[1] to DM[16] variables. Any of these control elements can
be selectively displayed and their position, size and color are all user customizable using a simple text
editor, with no programming required at all. See below for a screenshot of 0-C001-02.HTM.
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Chapter 2 Ethernet Port
Refer to the user guide linked above for more information on the available user modifications.
2.10.2 Advanced Customization
The “M.JS” JavaScript file used with the new preloaded 0.HTM file is no longer provided in the new web
app download because it is loaded remotely. In the past, M.JS had been stored inside the PLC and was
available directly for editing. However, now the user modifications in the HTML file are more expanded
and in order to save space for additional files as well as protect against accidental modification of the
M.JS file, it is now stored outside PLC memory.
If additional modifications need to be made beyond what can be done in the HTML file, then the following
two options are available:
1) Enlist Design Services
Contact our Solution Partner, Sparrow Design LLC, for browser/app control design services.
2) Request the JavaScript Files.
If you are an experienced web programmer, or you plan to outsource web programming services to
customize your PLCs web interface, then you may obtain a copy of this file for more advanced editing by
writing to support@triplc.com and providing your purchase references (purchaser’s name, company
name, invoice # etc).
Of course, you may also like to build your own HTML and JavaScript/Jquery control structure, which is
entirely feasible for any experience web programmer.
Users only need to refer to chapter 16 in this manual for the list of Hostlink commands to be sent in web
query form (refer to section 2.7) in order to implement web based data exchange with TRi PLCs.
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Chapter 3 I/O and Internal Relays Programming
Chapter 3 I/O and Internal Relays
Programming
Chapter 3 I/O and Internal Relays Programming
3 PROGRAMMING I/O AND INTERNAL RELAYS
3.1 Introduction
The Fx1616-BA will have a certain no. of physical digital inputs and outputs depending on the particular
model, but all will have 512 internal relays available in both ladder logic and BASIC.
3.2 Programming DIO with Ladder Logic
The physical I/O and internal relays can be programmed in ladder logic in a few simple steps.
3.2.1 For Physical I/O
1. Edit the label names
2. Place the input contact(s) into the ladder logic circuit
3. Place the output coil at the end of the ladder logic circuit
3.2.2 For Internal Relays (Non-Latching)
1. Edit the label names
2. Place the relay contact(s) into the ladder logic circuit
3. Place the relay coil at the end of the ladder logic circuit
3.2.3 For Internal Relays (Latching)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Edit the label names
Place the activating input/relay contact into the ladder logic circuit
Place the latching relay in parallel with the activating contact
Place the relay coil at the end of the ladder logic circuit
3.2.4 Programming Examples:
3.2.4.1
Example 1 – Editing Label Names
The Digital I/O can be named by selecting “I/O Table” from the “Edit” menu
and choosing the particular digital I/O that you want to name. In Figure 3.1,
physical input #1 is being named “Input1”.
Figure 3.1: I/O Table
3-1
Chapter 3 I/O and Internal Relays Programming
3.2.4.2 Example 2 – Creating a Simple Ladder Logic Circuit
You can place components in the circuit by clicking in the green area to the right of the red arrow, as
shown in Figure 2 below. This will bring up the component tool bar in the gray area above the green
circuit area.
Figure 3.2: Creating Ladder Circuit
Once the component toolbar is shown, you can place your input/relay contact by selecting the #1
and then selecting the digital input from the I/O Table. The contact
component from the toolbar
will then be automatically placed in the ladder logic circuit. The same can be done for the output coil by
and then selecting an output that has been entered
selecting the #7 component from the toolbar
into the I/O Table. After selecting one input and one output, the ladder logic circuit should like something
like Figure 3.3, below:
Figure 3.3: Completed Ladder Circuit
3.2.4.3 Example 3 – Creating a Latching Relay Circuit
The first part of the circuit follows the same procedure as the previous example, except that the #7 coil
should be a Relay coil. So it should look similar to the circuit in Figure 3.3. The next part requires a
parallel contact to be added to the Input1 contact. This is done by selecting the Input1 contact (or
whichever contact was used) and then adding the #3 contact
, as shown in Figure 3.4 below.
Figure 3.4: Completed Latching Circuit
3.3 Programming DIO in a Custom Function
In order to program digital I/O or anything in a custom function, a custom function must be created in the
I/O Table and added in a ladder logic circuit. Custom functions act the same way as coils in ladder logic,
in that that they need a contact to activate them. Once they are activated, the code inside them will
execute.
To create a custom function circuit, follow these 3 steps:
3-2
Chapter 3 I/O and Internal Relays Programming
1. Edit the name of the custom function in the I/O Table
2. Place the activating contact in the ladder logic circuit
3. Place the custom function at the end of the circuit
3.3.1 Editing Label Names:
This is the same as for the digital I/O, except that the I/O table window needs to be scrolled to the custom
function area for editing custom function names.
Placing the custom function in the circuit is done the same way as other ladder logic contacts and coils,
by selecting the
and then choosing the Differential custom function {dCusF} from the pop-up
window
. The circuit should look something like below:
Figure 4: Circuit with custom function {dCusF}
3.3.2 Controlling I/O from Custom Functions:
An empty custom function looks like this:
TBASIC code is entered into the custom function, which allows the possibility of total control of all of the
PLCs functions and hardware.
There are 7 TBASIC functions available to control all of the digital I/O, which are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
SETIO labelname
CLRIO labelname
TOGGLEIO labelname
TESTIO (labelname)
SETBIT v,n
CLRBIT v, n
TESTBIT (v, n)
Each function has its own advantage depending on what needs to be done to a digital I/O. Each of these
functions is explained in the programmer’s reference manual, which should be referred to for further
information. Here are some examples of how to control digital I/O using these functions.
3.3.3 Example 1 – Turn on/off an Output
This can be done using both the SETBIT v,n / CLRBIT v,n command and the SETIO labelname / CLRIO
labelname command.
3-3
Chapter 3 I/O and Internal Relays Programming
1. Using SETBIT v,n / CLRBIT v,n
SETBIT OUTPUT[1], 0
CLRBIT OUTPUT[1], 7
‘This will turn on the first output using the output[] register
‘This will turn off the 8th output using the output[] register
2. Using SETIO labelname / CLRIO labelname
SETIO out1
CLRIO out5
‘This will turn on the output out1
‘This will turn off the output out5
In this case, out1 and out5 would need to be entered in the I/O Table as an output. Otherwise, there will
be a compilation error.
3.3.4 Example 2 – Toggle an Output
TOGGLEIO light
‘This will change the output, light, from off to on or on to off
The output, light, would need to be entered into the I/O Table as an output as well and could represent
any desired output.
3.3.5 Example 3 – Test the Status of an Output
This can be done using both the TESTBIT (v, n) and TESTIO (labelname) command.
Using TESTBIT (v, n)
X = TESTBIT (INPUT[2], 1)
‘status of input #10 (on = 1, off = 0) is stored in variable X
Using TESTIO (labelname)
X = TESIO (button) ‘status of input button (defined in the I/O table) is stored in variable X
3-4
Chapter 4 Timers, Counters & Sequencers
Chapter 4 Timers, Counters & Sequencers
Chapter 4 Timers, Counters & Sequencers
4 TIMERS, COUNTERS AND SEQUENCERS
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Timer Coils
A timer is a special kind of relay that, when its coil is energized, must wait for a fixed length of time before
closing its contact. The waiting time is dependent on the "Set Value" (SV) of the timer. Once the delay
time is up, the timer's N.O. contacts will be closed for as long as its coil remains energized. When the coil
is de-energized (i.e. turned OFF), all the timer's N.O. contacts will be opened immediately. However, if the
coil is de-energized before the delay time is up, the timer will be reset and its contact will never be closed.
When the last aborted timer is re-energized, the delay timing will restart and use the SV of
the timer rather than continue from the last aborted timing operation.
4.1.2 Counter Coils
A counter is also a special kind of relay that has a programmable Set Value (SV). When a counter coil is
energized for the first time after a reset, it will load the value of SV-1 into its count register. From there on,
every time the counter coil is energized from OFF to ON, the counter decrements its count register value
by 1. Note that the coil must go through an OFF to ON cycle in order to decrement the counter. If the coil
remains energized all the time, the counter will not decrement. Hence, a counter is suitable for counting
the number of cycles an operation has gone through. When the count register hits zero, all of the
counter's N.O. contacts will be turned ON. These counter contacts will remain ON regardless of whether
the counter's coil is energized or not. To turn OFF these contacts, you have to reset the counter using a
special counter reset function [RSctr].
4.1.3 Sequencers
A sequencer is a highly convenient feature for programming machines or processes that operate in fixed
sequences. These machines operate in a fixed, clearly distinguishable step-by-step order, starting from
an initial step, progressing to the final step, and then restarting from the initial step again. At any moment,
there must be a "step counter" to keep track of the current step number. Every step of the sequence must
be accessible and can be used to trigger some action, such as turning on a motor or solenoid valve, etc.
As an example, a simple Pick-and-Place machine that can pick up a component from point 'A' to point 'B'
may operate as follow:
Step #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Action
Wait for "Start" signal
Forward arm at point A
Close gripper
Retract arm at point A
Move arm to point B
Forward arm at point B
Open gripper
Retract arm at point B
Move arm to point A
4-1
Chapter 4 Timers, Counters & Sequencers
4.2 Programming timers and counters on Ladder Logic
The 64 timers and 64 counters can be programmed in ladder logic in a few simple steps.
4.2.1 For Timers
1.
2.
3.
4.
Edit the label names
Place the input contact(s) into the ladder logic circuit
Place the timer coil at the end of the ladder logic circuit
Place the timer contact in one or more ladder logic circuits
4.2.2 For Counters
1.
2.
3.
4.
Edit the label names
Place the input contact(s) into the ladder logic circuit
Place the counter coil at the end of the ladder logic circuit
Place the counter contact in one or more ladder logic circuits (optional)
4.2.3 Example 1 – Creating a Simple Timer Circuit in Ladder Logic
You can place components in the circuit by clicking in the green area to the right of the red arrow, as
shown in Figure 4.1 below. This will bring up the component tool bar in the gray area above the green
circuit area.
Figure 4.1: Creating Timer Circuit
Once the component toolbar is shown, you can place your activating contact by selecting the #1
and then selecting the activating contact from the I/O Table. The
component from the toolbar
contact will then be automatically placed in the ladder logic circuit. The same can be done for the timer
and then selecting a timer that has been
coil by selecting the #7 component from the toolbar
entered into the I/O Table. Then a timer contact needs to be added as an input to a ladder logic circuit.
This contact will activate once the timer counts down. This could be used to turn on an output a certain
amount of time after the timer coil is activated. Placing a timer contact in a circuit is the same as placing
any contact in a ladder circuit, except that the corresponding timer should be selected from the “Timers”
section of the I/O table.
After creating a ladder circuit that contains one input and one timer output and another ladder circuit that
contains one timer contact and one output, the ladder logic circuit should like something like Figure 4.2,
below:
4-2
Chapter 4 Timers, Counters & Sequencers
Figure 4.2: Completed Timer Circuit
4.2.4 Example 2 – Creating a Simple Counter Circuit in Ladder Logic
You can place components in the circuit by clicking in the green area to the right of the red arrow, as
shown in Figure 4.3 below. This will bring up the component tool bar in the gray area above the green
circuit area.
Figure 4.3: Creating Ladder Circuit
Once the component toolbar is shown, you can place your activating contact by selecting the #1
and then selecting the activating input from the I/O Table. The contact
component from the toolbar
will then be automatically placed in the ladder logic circuit. The same can be done for the counter coil by
and then selecting a counter that has been entered
selecting the #7 component from the toolbar
into the I/O Table. Then a counter contact needs to be added as an input to a ladder logic circuit. This
contact will activate once the counter counts down. This could be used to turn on an output after a certain
count is reached. Placing a counter contact in a circuit is the same as placing any contact in a ladder
circuit, except that the corresponding counter should be selected from the “Counters” section of the I/O
table.
After creating a ladder circuit that contains one input and one counter output and another ladder circuit
that contains one counter contact and one output, the ladder logic circuit should like something like Figure
4.4, below:
Figure 4.4: Completed Counter Circuit
4-3
Chapter 4 Timers, Counters & Sequencers
4.3 Programming timers and counters in Custom Function
4.3.1 Timers and Counters Present Values
The present values (PV) of the 64 timers and 64 counters in the PLC can be accessed directly as system
variables:
timerPV[1] to timerPV[64], for timers' present value
ctrPV[1] to ctrPV[64], for counters' present value
4.3.2 Inputs, Outputs, Relays, Timers and Counters Contacts
The bit addressable I/Os elements are organized into 16-bit integer variables TIMERBIT[n] and
CTRBIT[n] so that they may be easily accessed from within a CusFn. These I/Os are arranged as shown
in the following diagram:
4.3.3 Changing The Timer and Counter Set Values in a Custom Function
You can use the SetTimerSV and SetCtrSV functions to change the Set Value (SV) for a timer and
counter respectively. An example of this is shown below:
SetTimerSV 1,500 ‘Define Timer #1 to have a Set Value of 500
SetCtrSV 10,1000 ‘Define Counter #10 to have a Set Value of 1000
4.3.4 Controlling a Timer or Counter in a Custom Function
You can activate a timer or a counter directly from within a custom function simply by assigning their
present value counter to a desired value.
E.g. To start a 50 seconds timer:
TIMERPV[2] = 500 ‘ Timer #2 will time out 50.0 seconds later.
E.g. To decrement a counter or a sequencer:
CTRPV[10] = CTRPV[10] - 1 ‘ Counter #10 is decremented by 1.
4-4
Chapter 4 Timers, Counters & Sequencers
4.4 Programming Sequencers on Ladder Logic
4.4.1 Introduction
TRiLOGI Version 6+ supports eight sequencers of 32 steps each. Each sequencer uses one of the first
eight counters (Counter #1 to Counter #8) as its step counter. Any one or all of the first eight counters can
be used as sequencers "Seq1" to "Seq8".
To use a sequencer, first define the sequencer name in the Counter table by pressing the <F2> key and
scroll to the Counter Table. Any counter to be used as sequencer can only assume label names "Seq1" to
"Seq8" corresponding to the counter numbers. For e.g. if Sequencer #5 is to be used, Counter #5 must be
defined as "Seq5". Next, enter the last step number for the program sequence in the "Value" column of
the table.
A circuit that uses the special function "Advance Sequencer" [AVSeq] will need to be constructed. The
first time the execution condition for the [AVseq] function goes from OFF to ON, the designated
sequencer will go from inactive to step 1. Subsequent changes of the sequencer's execution condition
from OFF to ON will advance (increment) the sequencer by one step. This operation is actually identical
to the [UPctr] instruction.
The upper limit of the step counter is determined by the "Set Value" (SV) defined in the Counter table.
When the SV is reached, the next advancement of sequencer will cause it to overflow to step 0. At this
time, the sequencer's contact will turn ON until the next increment of the sequencer. This contact can be
used to indicate that a program has completed one cycle and is ready for a new cycle.
Accessing individual steps of the sequencer is extremely simple when programming with TRiLOGI.
Simply create a "contact" (NC or NO) in ladder edit mode. When the I/O window pops up for you to pick a
label, scroll to the "Special Bits" table as follow:
The "Special Bits" table is located after the "Counters" table and before the "Inputs" table. Click on the
"SeqN:x" item to insert a sequencer bit. You will be prompted to select a sequencer from a pop-up menu.
Choose the desired sequencer (1 to 8) and another dialog box will open up for you to enter the specific
step number for this sequencer.
Each step of the sequencer can be programmed as a contact on the ladder diagram as "SeqN:X" where
N = Sequencers # 1 to 8 and X = Steps # 0 - 31.
e.g. Seq2:4 = Step #4 of Sequencer 2.
Seq5:25 = Step #25 of Sequencer 5.
4-5
Chapter 4 Timers, Counters & Sequencers
Although a sequencer may go beyond Step 31, if you define a larger SV for it, only the first 32 steps can
be used as contacts to the ladder logic. Hence it is necessary to limit the maximum step number to not
more than 31.
Quite a few of the ladder logic special functions are related to the use of the sequencer. These are
described below:
4.4.2 Advance Sequencer - [AVseq]
Increment the sequencer's step counter by one until it overflows. This function is identical to (and hence
interchangeable with) the [UpCtr] function.
4.4.3 Resetting Sequencer - [RSseq]
The sequencer can also be reset to become inactive by the [RSseq] function at any time. Note that a
sequencer that is inactive is not the same as sequencer at Step 0, as the former does not activate the
SeqN:0 contact. To set the sequencer to step 0, use the [StepN] function described next.
4.4.4 Setting Sequencer to Step N - [StepN]
In certain applications it may be more convenient to be able to set the sequencer to a known step
asynchronously. This function will set the selected sequencer to step #N, regardless of its current step
number or logic state. The ability to jump steps is a very powerful feature of the sequencers.
4.4.5 Reversing a Sequencer
Although not available as a unique special function, a sequencer may be stepped backward (by
decrementing its step-counter) using the [DNctr] command on the counter that has been defined as a
sequencer. This is useful for creating a reversible sequencer or for replacing a reversible "drum"
controller.
4.4.6 Program Example
Assume that we wish to create a running light pattern which turns on the LED of Outputs 1 to 4 one at a
time every second in the following order: LED1, LED2, LED3, LED4, LED4, LED3, LED2, LED1, all LED
OFF and then restart the cycle again. This can be easily accomplished with the program shown in Figure
4.5.
The 1.0s clock pulse bit will advance (increment) Sequencer #2 by one step every second. Sequencer 2
should be defined with Set Value = 8. Each step of the sequencer is used as a normally open contact to
turn on the desired LED for the step. A "Stop" input resets the sequencer asynchronously. When the
sequencer counts to eight, it will become Step 0. Since none of the LEDs are turned ON by Step 0, all
LEDs will be OFF.
4-6
Chapter 4 Timers, Counters & Sequencers
Figure 4.5
4.5 Programming Sequencers in Custom Function
You can change the current step of Sequencer easily from within a Custom Function by changing the
present value of their equivalent counter. E.g. Sequencer #3 is the same as Counter #3, thus if you wish
to assign Sequencer #3 to Step 10, you can achieve it as follows:
CTRPV[3] = 10
4-7
Chapter 5 Analog I/Os
Chapter 5 Analog Inputs and Outputs
Chapter 5 Analog I/Os
5 ANALOG INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
5.1 Analog Power Supply
The analog power of the Fx1616-BA PLC is derived from the same 24VDC power supply as the CPU. It
will generate a stable 10V (±1% accuracy), regulated DC voltage source that will be used internally as a
voltage reference and is available externally for use by other analog input devices. The reference voltage
output is available on the analog I/O connector pin #15, and may be used as the source voltage for
connecting to potentiometers. Its current is limited to 10mA only. Thus, if you need more current for your
analog device, you will need to supply your own quiet +10V DC source.
The analog reference voltage is generated by a stable voltage reference IC (LM4040-10) on the carrier
board and is not user-adjustable.
5.2 Analog Inputs
Each Fx1616-BA PLC is equipped with 2 independent, 12-bit A/D (Analog to Digital) converters. Each A/D
converter multiplexes with up to 4 Analog input pins, giving a total of 8 analog input channels. The 2 A/D
converters run simultaneously and thus save conversion time, even when all 8 analog channels are used.
All 8 analog input channels operate in the range of 0-10V full-scale. The pin assignment for these analog
outputs is described in Section 1.2.1.
Electrical Characteristics
No. of A/D channel
Resolution
Input Range
Input Impedance #1 to
8
Moving Average
Conversion Time
8
12-bit
0 to 10V DC
40.00K Ohms
1 to 9 points (user definable)
< 2 μs for one channel. < 6 μs for all 8 channels
(2 A/D converters run simultaneously)
ADC(n) value
4095
4094
4093
3
2
1
0
0
Input Voltage
10.00
Figure 5.1 Transfer Function for 12-bit ADC.
5-1
Chapter 5 Analog I/Os
5.2.1 Interfacing to 4-20mA or 0-20mA sensors
The DC input impedance of each of the 8 Analog inputs is 40.00K ohms (0.1%). This is not a problem
when connected to a 0-10V low impedance analog source.
However, if you need to connect to a 0-20mA or 4-20mA analog source, you have to take into
consideration the low A/D input impedance in your design. The following figures show how to connect 420mA current source signals:
A/D #5 - #8
0-20mA or
4-20mA
Current loop
505Ω 0.1%
0.0 - 10.0V or
2.0 - 10.0V
Internal
40.00K
1.33Ω 0.1%
Analog
0V
Converting 20mA current-loop to 0-10V
Figure 5.1
To convert a 0-20mA or 4-20mA current source into a 0-10V or 2-10V voltage signal, you should use a
506.33 ohm resistor which, when paralleled with the 40K ohm of internal impedance, will yield a 500.0
ohm total resistance. You can obtain 506.33 ohms by combining a 505 ohm and a 1.33 ohm metal-film
resistor.
5.2.2 Interfacing to two-wire 4-20mA sensors
Many 4-20mA analog sensors only have two-wire connections and are designed to be powered by the 420mA output current that flows through them. These types of sensors can be interfaced easily to the 010V analog inputs of the PLC as shown in the following diagram:
PLC’s V+
V+
24V
P.S. for PLC
And Sensors
0V
+
4-20mA
Sensor
-
0-10V ADC Input
506.33 Ω
PLC’s 0V
5-2
Chapter 5 Analog I/Os
The sensor output will be converted to a 2 to10V analog voltage and can be read by the PLC using the
ADC(n) statement, which will return digital readings between 819 and 4095.
5.2.3 Using Potentiometer to Set Parameters
A potentiometer can provide a very low cost means for users to input parameters to the PLC such as
temperature settings, timer or counter preset values, etc. The diagram above shows how easy it is to
implement such a device using the 10V reference output and an analog input. Very accurate parameters
can be set if the LCD display is used as visual feedback of the settings.
A/D#1 to 8
10KΩ
Potentiometer
+10V
GND
Figure 5.2
5.2.4 Reading Analog Input Data
The 8 analog input signals are read by the TBASIC command ADC(1) to ADC(8). The ADC(n) function
will return a number between 0 and 4095(12-bit resolution), which corresponds to the measured voltage
at any of the analog inputs n. The resolution of a 12-bit ADC is 1/4096, which means that for the 0-10V
ADC range, the resolution is 10/4096V = 2.44mV.
That means that if you apply a 5.000V to the PLC’s analog input #3, ADC(3) should return a value of
5.000/10.000 x 4096 = 2048.
Note that the CPU only accesses the analog input #n when the TBASIC function ADC(n) is called. Hence,
in order to monitor the analog input, you have to execute the ADC function periodically. The frequency
that the ADC function is called is known as the “sampling rate” and it depends on how fast the analog
data changes. If the analog data changes slowly (such as room temperature), then there may be no need
to sample the analog at high frequency.
A very simple example of sampling the analog inputs #1 to #4 every second and converting the data into
voltage readings of 0 to 10000 (which represents 0 to 10.000V) is shown as follows:
Figure 5.3
5-3
Chapter 5 Analog I/Os
You can examine the readings of DM[11] to DM[14] from the “Online Monitoring - View Variables-DM[n]”
screen. These readings represent the voltages measured at the analog input pins. You can also read the
raw ADC readings (which will change in the range between 0 to 4095) from the “View Variables - integer”
screen. The measured voltage for ADC1 is also displayed on the LCD display in x.xxx V every second.
5.2.5 Moving Average
The Fx1616-BA PLC offers a built-in “Moving Average” computation routine for each ADC channel. When
moving average is enabled the PLC firmware would store the past analog readings for each channel in its
own historical memory array, and each new instantaneous reading would overwrite the oldest reading.
When you run the ADC(n) function, the PLC firmware would return the average of these past readings
instead of the instantaneous new reading.
You can define a moving average of 1 to 9 points using the procedure described in Section 5.4.5
Defining a larger moving average can better help to even out fluctuations in ADC readings that can be
caused by interference from digital noise. However, the larger the moving average, the slower the ADC(n)
function can detect a sudden change in the amplitude of the analog signal due to the averaging effect.
For a system that needs to quickly detect a signal change, consider using either a smaller number of
moving average points or call the ADC(n) function more frequently so that a sudden change can be
detected earlier.
5.2.6 Scaling of Analog Data
The 12-bit analog inputs on the F1616-BA PLC return data in the range of 0 to 4095, which corresponds
to the full range of the voltage input presented at the analog pin. However, very often a user needs a
formula to translate this numeric data into units meaningful to the process (e.g. degree C or F, psi
etc). To do so, you need to know at least two reference points of how the native unit maps to the PLC's
ADC reading.
Reference Point
x1
x2
ADC Reading
a1
a2
Hence, for any reading A = ADC(1), the corresponding X is derived from:
X - x1
⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯
x2 - x1
A - a1
= ⎯⎯⎯⎯
a2 - a1
==> X = (x2 - x1)*(A - a1)/(a2 - a2) + x1
Note that since x1, x2, a1, and a2 are all constants the actual formula is much simpler then it appears
above.
E.g. Temperature measurement
ADC(n)
Temp
30
200
100
3000
So for any ADC readings A, the temperature is:
X = 70*(A - 200)/2800 + 30
Note: To get better resolution, you can represent 30 degrees as 300 and 100 degrees as 1000 so if X =
123 it means 12.3 degrees.
5-4
Chapter 5 Analog I/Os
5.3 Temperature Measurement Using Analog Inputs
5.3.1 Thermistor Temperature Sensors
A thermistor is a kind of resistor whose resistance decreases when its surrounding temperature
increases. It is a very low cost and stable device that can be used to measure a wide range of ambient
temperatures from freezers to hot water boilers, which are commonly used in HVAC applications.
In order to convert the resistance changes into voltage readings to be read by the PLC’s analog input,
you can use it to form an arm of a voltage divider circuit that provides a variable voltage to the analog
input when the temperature changes. A type of thermistor that measures 10.0K ohm at 25 degree C
(simply called 10K thermistor) is especially suitable for use with the Fx1616-BA, as illustrated below:
The design of the Fx1616-BA analog circuitry makes it extremely simple to interface to the 10K
thermistor: You simply connect the 10K thermistor directly to the analog input since there is already an
internal resistance of 40.00K ohm (0.1% accuracy).
A/D #1 - #8
+10V
10K Thermistor
Internal
40.00K
Analog
0V
Connecting 10K Thermistor to ADC 5-8
Figure 5.4
Note that since the thermistor resistance value vs. temperature change is a non-linear function, you
cannot simply use a formula to calculate the temperature from the voltage value. For better accuracy you
need to use a look up table plus a linear interpolation technique to determine the temperature based on
the ADC readings. The look up table and interpolation method can be implemented using TBASIC. For
your convenience, we have provided sample TBASIC programs that you can download from the following
web page:
http://www.tri-plc.com/appnotes/F-series/ThermistorSensorFPLC.zip
This example uses the R-T (Resistance-Temperature) graph of the Precon Type III thermistor to
implement the temperature look up. We have provided an Excel file that computes the ADC reading vs
ambient temperature for this thermistor type. The TBASIC program uses these ADC readings to
determine the temperature.
The sample program is structured such that the lookup table values are stored in the FRAM and you can
readily adapt it to other types of thermistors with a different R-T graph. The program only implements
lookup for a temperature range of –10oF to 100oF, but you can also easily change the temperature range
of interest.
5-5
Chapter 5 Analog I/Os
5.3.2 Using LM34 Semiconductor Sensor
Figure 5.5
The LM34 is a wonderful, low cost semiconductor temperature sensor with a range of –50 oF to 300 oF. It
is extremely easy to use for measuring temperatures above 0 oF. You simply connect one pin to the
positive voltage (+5 to +30V) and the other pin to 0V, and the signal pin will output a voltage that is
directly proportional to the ambient temperature in oF. The output voltage is 10mV per degree F.
So at room temperature of 72 degrees F, the device will output a voltage of 72 x 0.01 = 0.72V. If you
connect this to the PLC’s 0-10V analog input, you can obtain the temperature in degree F or degree C
using the formula:
OR
F = ADC(1)*1000/4096
C = (F – 32)*5/9
‘ in degree F
‘ in degree C
Although another part number LM35 can output temperature in 10mV per degree C, the output falls into
an even lower ADC range for ambient temperature measurement since the same 72 degree F is only 22
degree C, which means the LM35 only outputs 22 x 0.01 = 0.22V. Hence, for better accuracy and
resolution, we recommend using the LM34 instead of the LM35 and, if need be, converting the
temperature to degrees C using TBASIC.
o
Another advantage for using the LM34 instead of the LM35 is that you can measure down to 0 F (-17
degree C) without using a negative voltage source as shown in the circuit on the right in Figure 5.5.
5.3.3 Using Thermocouple
Thermocouples are very rugged devices that are widely used in the industry because of their stability,
accuracy, and wide functional temperature range. They are commonly used for measuring temperatures
in ovens that may go up to several hundred degrees C.
However, thermocouple output signals are in the range of tens of microvolts to mille-volts, which is too
small to be measured by the Fx1616-BA’s analog input directly. You will need a “signal conditioner” that
can amplify the thermocouple output to 0-10V, which can then be connected to the PLC’s analog input.
5.3.4 Using PT100 Temperature Sensor
The PT100 is a positive temperature coefficient thermistor that is made from platinum. It has the
advantage of being very stable and highly accurate. It is usually connected to a signal conditioner in a
balanced bridge configuration and the signal conditioner will convert temperature changes to a 0-10V
output for the PLC.
5-6
Chapter 5 Analog I/Os
5.4 Analog Outputs
The Fx1616-BA PLC features 4 channels of 0-10V DC, 12-bit analog outputs (Digital-to-Analog
Converters or D/A). Unlike those on the M-series PLC, these 4 D/A outputs each have their own
dedicated pins and, therefore, do not take up any Analog input pins. The pin assignment of these analog
outputs is described in Section 1.2.1.
Note that the D/A #1 to #4 are able to source more than 10mA of current each. However, if you need
higher output current you would need to connect them to external buffer amplifiers.
DAC Output
AVCC
1023
1024
1022
1024
2
1024
1
1024
SetDAC value
0
4
8
12
4088 4092
Figure 5.6
5.4.1 Programming The Analog Output
You can use the TBASIC command SETDAC n,x to set D/A #n to a 12-bit value x. (x = 0 to 4095).
You only need to execute the SETDAC statement once and the D/A output will be set to a voltage
proportional to the given set value.
E.g. SETDAC 1, 1000
The D/A #1 will output 1000/4096 * 10V = 2.441V
5-7
Chapter 5 Analog I/Os
5.5 Calibration of ADC and DAC & Moving Average Definition
The ADC and DAC are factory-calibrated such that a voltage of 5.000V should return a value of 2048
when read by the ADC(n) function. Likewise, an output voltage of 5.000V should be present at the DAC
pin when you SETDAC to 2048. However, if there is a need to re-calibrate the ADC and DAC, you can
follow the procedure outlined below.
To perform calibration of an ADC channel, you need to supply a precise DC reference voltage to the ADC
channel, and then check the analog readings obtained via the ADC(n) function and compare it to the
expected value. If there is an error, you can apply a correction factor to it.
To perform the ADC or DAC calibration, you would need to use the “Ethernet & ADC Configuration”
commands mentioned in Chapter 2.1. Click on the “Advanced” button on the Basic Configuration screen
and open the “Advanced Configuration” screen. The bottom half of the screen contains ADC and DAC
calibration constants that you can enter and transfer to the PLC, as shown below:
Figure 5.7
5.5.1 ADC Calib.
These fields are used to apply a multiplication factor to the value returned by ADC function. The
multiplication factor = (1+ x/10000).
Example 1:
If you apply 5.000V to ADC #1, you would expect the value returned by ADC(1) to be 2048.
But the actual average reading centers around 2060.
Proportional Error = 2060/2048 = 1.005859
Multiplication factor required to correct this error = 1/1.005859 = 0.9942 = (1 – 58/10000)
=> x = -58
You should therefore enter a value of 58 into the “ADC Calib” field for Ch #1 and save it to the PLC.
After the PLC has rebooted, the CPU would apply the multiplication factor of 0.9942 to the readings it
received, which would correct the reading to: 2060 x 0.9942 = 2048.
Example 2:
If you apply 8.000V to ADC #8, you would expect the ADC(8) function to return a value of
8.000/10.000 x 4096 = 3277. However, your program returned a value of 3230 from
ADC(8).
Proportional Error = (3230)/3277 = 0.985658
Multiplication factor required to correct this error = 1/0.985658 = 1.0146 = (1+ 146/10000)
5-8
Chapter 5 Analog I/Os
=> x = +146
To compensate for this error, enter a value of 146 in the “ADC Calib.” for Ch 8 and save it
to the PLC.
After the PLC has rebooted, the CPU would apply the multiplication factor of 1.0146 to the readings it
received, which would correct the reading to: 3230 x 1.0146 = 3277.
Notes:
1) We have created an MS-Excel spreadsheet file “AnalogCalibration.xls” to facilitate the
computations of the correction factor, X, used in the ADC and DAC Calibration. This file can be
downloaded from the following web page:
http://www.tri-plc.com/appnotes/F-series/AnalogCalibration.xls
2) Changes to the ADC calibration data only take effect after the PLC has been cold-booted. You
can either power cycle the PLC or simply check the “Reboot PLC After Save” checkbox and the
PLC will re-boot after you have transferred the parameters to it.
5.5.2 ADC Zero Offset
ADC(n) value
4095
4094
4093
3
Zero
Offset
2
1
0
0
Input Voltage
10.00
Figure 5.8
The zero offset error can be corrected by entering a value into the “ADC Zero Offset” field. Any number
between –100 and 100 can be entered here. The ADC(n) function would add the zero-offset value that
you entered here to the measured value and return the total sum to the calling routine.
5.5.3 DAC Calib.
A value x entered in each of these fields represents the multiplication factor (1 + x/10000) that the PLC
will apply to the “value” parameter, which is executed by the command “SETDAC n, value” before actually
writing to the DAC output. This allows the user to apply a correction factor to the DAC output if there is a
problem with the DAC voltage.
5-9
Chapter 5 Analog I/Os
Example 1: If you execute “SETDAC 1,2048”, you would expect the DAC #1 to output 5.000V, but
instead you only get 4.960V.
Proportional Error = 4.960/5.000 = 0.992
Multiplication factor required to correct the DAC output = 1/0.992 = 1.0081 = (1+81/10000)
You can therefore enter the value “81” into the “DAC Calib.” field corresponding to DAC #1 and save the
parameters to the PLC. After the PLC has rebooted, when you execute the statement “SETDAC 1,2048”,
the CPU would apply the multiplication factor of 1.0081 to the actual digital value it sends to the DAC
output. The actual DAC output =4.960V x 1.0081 = 5.000V.
Example 2: Same as Example 1 but you measure 5.030V when you expect 5.000V
Proportional Error = 5.030/5.000 = 1.006
Multiplication factor required to correct the DAC output = 1/1.006 = 0.9940 = (1 – 0.0060)
You should therefore enter the value –60 into the “DAC Calib” field corresponding to DAC #1 and save it
to the PLC. After the PLC has rebooted, when you execute the statement “SETDAC 1,2048”, the PLC will
apply the multiplication factor of 0.9940 to 2048 before it writes to the DAC hardware.
The actual DAC output = 5.030V x 0.994 = 5.000V
5.5.4 DAC Zero Offset
If you plot the line graph for the output voltage versus the DAC set value, the line should normally pass
through the origin. But if there were any zero offset error, then the line would be above or below the
origin.
The DAC output on the Fx1616-BA should not have any zero offset error and you normally should just
leave these fields set to “0”.
However, if for any reason there is a need to apply a zero offset error correction, you can enter a value
between –100 to +100 into the “DAC Zero Offset” field. The CPU would add the zero-offset value you
enter into this field to the “X” in the “SETDAC n, x” statement and only send the sum to the actual DAC
hardware.
5.5.5 A/D Moving Avg
This field lets you define the number of points of moving average that the Fx1616-BA CPU firmware uses
to compute the value returned by the ADC(n) function (Please see explanation of moving average in
Section 5.2.5).
A larger number of moving Average points has the positive effect of filtering out large noise spikes seen at
the analog input, but the disadvantage is that the PLC would be slower in noticing a sudden step change
at the analog input. If you specify a moving average of 1 point, that means no moving average will be
used and the ADC(n) function will return the most recently sampled data at the analog input #n.
5-10
Chapter 6 Special Digital I/Os
Chapter 6 Special Digital I/Os
Chapter 6 Special Digital I/Os
6 SPECIAL DIGITAL I/OS
12 of the first 16 ON/OFF inputs of the Fx1616-BA can be configured as “special inputs” such as High
Speed Counters, Interrupts and Pulse Measurement. 4 of the 16 outputs can also be configured as
PWM, or stepper motor controller/driver pulse-outputs. If these special I/Os are not used, then they can
be used as ordinary ON/OFF type I/O in the ladder diagram. The High Speed Counters and Pulse
measurement inputs share physical inputs, but they can be used simultaneously as HSC and PMON
(unlike M-Series). Note that if any other two special functions share the same I/O then only one of them
can be active at any one time. The location of these special I/Os are tabulated as follows:
Special Inputs
Input #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
High Speed Counter
Ch #1: Phase A
Ch #1: Phase B
Ch #2: Phase A
Ch #2: Phase B
Ch #3: Phase A
Ch #3: Phase B
-
Interrupt
Ch #1
Ch #2
Ch #3
Ch #4
Ch #5
Ch #6
Ch #9
Ch #10
Ch #11
Ch #12
Pulse Measurement
Ch #1
Ch #2
Ch #3
Ch #4
Ch #5
Ch #6
-
Note: While inputs 1-6 can be used simultaneously as High Speed Counters and Pulse Measurement
pins, any pins defined as interrupts can only be interrupts.
Special Outputs
Output #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Stepper Pulse/Dir outputs
Ch #1 Direction
Ch #1 Pulse
Ch #2 Direction (Special)
Ch #2 Pulse (Special)
-
Stepper Driver Outputs
Ch #1 A phase
Ch #1 A phase
Ch #1 B phase
Ch #1 B phase
-
PWM output
Ch #1
Ch #2
Ch #3
Ch #4
-
These special I/Os therefore share the same electrical specifications as the ON/OFF type I/Os, which
have already been described in the Chapter 1 - Installation Guide. We will describe each of these special
I/Os in greater details in the following chapters.
6-1
Chapter 7 High Speed Counters
Chapter 7 High Speed Counters
Chapter 7 High Speed Counters
7 HIGH SPEED COUNTERS
Technical Specifications:
No. of Channels
Maximum acceptable pulse rate
Quadrature signal decoding
Relevant TBASIC Commands
3
4KHz per channel
Automatic
HSCDEF, HSCOFF, HSCPV[ ]
7.1 Introduction
Digital inputs #1 + 2, #3 + 4, and #5 + 6 form three channels of high speed counter inputs which can
interfaced directly to a rotary encoder that produces “quadrature” outputs. A quadrature encoder
produces two pulse trains at a 90o phase shift from each other as follows:
Direction of Rotation
90
o
Phase A
Phase B
90
o
Direction of Rotation
Figure 7.1
When the encoder shaft rotates in one direction, phase A leads phase B by 90 degrees. When the shaft
rotates in the opposite direction, phase B will lead phase A by 90 degrees. The quadrature signals
therefore provide an indication of the direction of rotation.
The Fx1616-BA PLC handles the quadrature signals as follows: if the pulse train arriving at input #1 leads
the pulse train at input #2, the High Speed Counter (HSC) #1 increments on every pulse. If the pulse train
arriving at input #1 lags the pulse trains at input #2, then the HSC #1 decrements. Note that if input #2 is
OFF, then pulse trains arriving at input #1 are considered to lead the input #2 and HSC #1 will be
incremented. Likewise if input #1 is OFF, then pulse trains arriving at input #2 will decrement HSC #1.
Inputs #3 and #4 form the inputs for High Speed Counter channel #2 and Inputs #5 and #6 form the
inputs for High Speed Counter channel #3. HSC#2 and HSC#3 operate in the same way as HSC#1
described above.
The fact that the Fx1616-BA automatically takes care of the direction of rotation of the quadrature
encoder greatly simplifies the programmer’s task of handling high-speed encoder feedback. The HSCDEF
statement can be used to define a CusFn to be executed when the HSC reaches a certain pre-defined
value. Within this CusFn you can define the actions to be taken and define the next CusFn to be executed
when the HSC reaches another value. Please note that the HSDDEF statement will also activate the
Pulse Measurement hardware as described in the Pulse Measurement section.
A programming example of the HSC can be found in your iTRiLOGI program folder:
C:\TRiLOGI\TL6\usr\samples\HighSpeedCtr.PC6
7-1
Chapter 7 High Speed Counters
7.2 Enhanced Quadrature Decoding
The default method in which the PLC handles quadrature signals as described above is somewhat
simplistic. It does not take into consideration the “jiggling” effect that occurs when the encoder is
positioned at the transition edge of a phase. Mechanical vibration could cause multiple counts if the rotor
shaft “jiggles” at the transition edge of the phase, resulting in multiple triggering of the counter. This
simplistic implementation, however, does have the advantage that the HSC can also be used for singlephase high-speed counting.
For the Fx1616-BA PLC, an enhanced quadrature decoding routine is provided which will lock out
multiple counting by examining the co-relationship between the two phases. You can configure the
Fx1616-BA to use the enhanced quadrature counting by using the SETSYSTEM command, as follows:
SETSYTEM 4, n
The value of n at bit 0, 1, and 2 respectively defines if the HSC channel 1, 2, and 3 is to run in “Simple”
(when the bit is 0) or “Enhanced” (when the bit is 1) mode. As such:
N (bit 2,1,0)
0 (000)
1 (001)
2 (010)
3 (011)
4 (100)
5 (101)
6 (110)
7 (111)
HSC #3
Simple
Simple
Simple
Simple
Enhanced
Enhanced
Enhanced
Enhanced
HSC #2
Simple
Simple
Enhanced
Enhanced
Simple
Simple
Enhanced
Enhanced
HSC #1
Simple
Enhanced
Simple
Enhanced
Simple
Enhanced
Simple
Enhanced
7.3 Interfacing to 5V type Quadrature Encoder
If you have a choice, you should select an encoder that can produce 12V or 24V output pulses so that
they can drive the inputs #1,2,3,4,5 or 6 directly. If you have a 5V type of encoder only, then you need to
add a transistor driver to interface to the PLC’s inputs. The simplest way is to use an IC driver ULN2003
connected as shown in the following figure:
+5V
ULN2003A
5V Phase A
1
16
5V Phase B
2
15
Input #3
Input #4
T100MD1616+
F-Series PLC
Encoder
8
GND
PLC’s 0V terminal
0V
Figure 7.2
Interfacing 5V type Rotary Encoder
7-2
Chapter 8 Frequency / Speed Measurement
Chapter 8 Frequency / Speed Measurement
Chapter 8 Frequency / Speed Measurement
8 FREQUENCY / SPEED MEASUREMENT
The Fx1616-BA PLC provides a very straightforward means to measure the pulse width (of the ON cycle),
the frequency, or the period of a rectangular-wave pulse-train arriving at its Pulse Measurement (PM)
inputs #1,2,3,4,5, or #6. (Which are mapped to digital inputs #1 to #6 – see Chapter 6).
8.1 Programming of PM Input
1) To use the PM input to measure pulse width or frequency, execute the PMON statement ONCE
to configure the relevant input to become a pulse measurement input. You usually put the PMON
statement in the init custom function and execute it with a “1st.Scan” pulse.
2) Thereafter the pulse width (in μs) or the pulse frequency (in Hz) can be easily obtained from the
PULSEWIDTH(n) or PULSEFREQUENCY(n) functions. You can also obtain the pulse period
(inverse of frequency) using the PULSEPERIOD function.
E.g.
A = PULSEWIDTH(1)
B = PULSEPERIOD(1)
C = PULSEFREQUNCY(1)
3) All PM inputs by default return the measured pulse width and pulse period in unit of microsecond.
However, for those who desire better resolution, you can define PM #1 to #4 to return the
measured pulse width and pulse period in 0.1 microsecond resolution by executing the following
command once only during initialization:
SETSYSTEM 20, 1
Once the above statement is executed, if PUSLEWIDTH(1) - PULSEWIDTH(4) returns the
value 1234 it means the measured pulse width is 123.4 μs. However, PULSEWIDTH(5) and
PULSEWIDTH(6) would still only return the measured width in microsecond.
A sample program can also be found on your i-TRiLOGI installation folder at:
C:\TRiLOGI\TL6\usr\samples\PulseMeasurement.PC6
8-1
Chapter 8 Frequency / Speed Measurement
8.2 Applications
+24V
NPN type
Optical
Sensor
Input #3
F-Series PLC
T100MD
PLC
Motor
0V
Figure 8.1 Setting Up a Simple Tachometer or Encoder
8.2.1 Measuring RPM Of A Motor
One useful application of the PM capability is to measure the speed of rotation (RPM) of a motor. A
simple optical sensor, coupled with a rotating disk with slots fitted to the shaft of a motor (See Figure
8.1) can be fabricated economically. When the motor turns, the sensor will generate a series of pulses.
The frequency of this pulse train directly measures the rotational speed of the motor (RPM = Frequency x
60) and can be used to provide precise speed control.
Note that the above setup can also double as a low cost position-feedback encoder when used with the
high speed counter, since the number of pulses counted can be used to determine the displacement.
With the Fx1616-BA, the pulses can be both counted and measured simultaneously on the same input.
8.2.2 Measuring Transducer with VCO Outputs
Some transducers incorporate a Voltage-Controlled-Oscillator (VCO) type of output that represents the
measured quantities in terms of varying frequency of the output waveform. Such transducers may be
used conveniently by the Fx1616-BA PLCs using the pulse measurement capability. However, the
frequency of such signals should be below the maximum input pulse rate.
8.2.3 Measuring Transducer with PWM Outputs
Some transducers may output the readings of their measurands (the quantity that is being measured) in
the form of “pulse-width modulated” outputs. This means that the transducer would send rectangular
pulses with varying duty cycles that are proportional to the measured quantities. You can then easily use
the PULSEWIDTH and PULSEPERIOD functions to compute the duty cycle of the incoming PWM pulses
and readily convert it to the actual units of the measurands. The Fx1616-BA PLC should be able to
measure with reasonable accuracy the pulse width of incoming pulses not exceeding 4KHz. Although the
PLC could measure incoming pulse frequency of higher frequencies, the capacitance in the opto-isolator
would distort the signal at high frequency such that the measured pulse width would be of somewhat poor
accuracy.
8-2
Chapter 8 Frequency / Speed Measurement
8.3 Frequency Measurement on High Speed Counter Inputs
For applications that require frequency measurement and pulse counting of the same signal, you only
need to feed the pulse input into any pair of the inputs #1 & 2, or inputs #3 & 4, or inputs #5 & 6 and
define it as a High Speed Counter (see Chapter 7). This is because an input pin that has been defined as
an HSC will automatically be enabled for pulse measurement.
In other words, if you need to use the HSC and the Pulse Measurement on the same channel, then you
don’t need to execute both the HSCDEF and PMON, you only need to execute the HSCDEF. The
HSCDEF function will automatically start the Pulse Measurement hardware so it is not necessary to use
the PMON function. However, if you use only the PMON function, it would not enable the HSC function.
However, if you execute the HSCDEF function and then execute the PMON function, the HSC will be
disabled, even though it was previously enabled.
8-3
Chapter 9 Interrupts
Chapter 9
Interrupts
Chapter 9 Interrupts
9 INTERRUPTS
9.1 Input Interrupts
During normal PLC ladder program execution, the CPU scans the entire ladder program starting from the
first element, progressively solving the logic equation at each circuit until it reaches the last element.
After which it will update the physical Inputs and Outputs (I/O) at the end of the scan. Hence, the location
of a logic element within the ladder diagram is important because of this sequential nature of the program
execution.
When scanning the ladder program, the CPU uses some internal memory variables to represent the logic
states of the inputs obtained during the last I/O refresh cycle. Likewise, any changes to the logic state of
the outputs are temporarily stored in the output memory variable (not the actual output pin) and will only
be updated to the physical output during the next I/O refresh.
You can see that the CPU will only notice any change to the input logic state when it has completed the
current scan and starts to refresh its input variables. The input logic state must also persist for at least
one scan time to be recognized by the CPU. In some situations this may not be desirable because any
response to the event will take at least one scan time or more.
An interrupt input, on the other hand, may occur randomly and the CPU will have to suspend whatever it
is doing as soon as it can and start “servicing” the interrupt. Hence, the CPU responds much faster to an
interrupt input. In addition, interrupts are “edge-triggered”, meaning that the interrupt condition occurs
when the input either changes from ON to OFF or from OFF to ON. Consequently, the input logic state
need not persist for longer than the logic scan time for it to be recognized by the CPU.
The Fx1616-BA PLC supports up to 10 interrupt inputs: Any one or all of digital inputs #1 to #6 and #9 to
#12 can be defined as interrupt inputs using the INTRDEF statement. The Interrupt inputs may also be
defined as either rising-edge triggered (input goes from OFF to ON) or falling-edge triggered (input goes
from ON to OFF). When the defined edges occur, the defined CusFn will be immediately executed
irrespective of the current state of execution of the ladder program.
A simple interrupt test function is as follow:
Variable A will be incremented on every rising edge
sensed on Input #9.
Note: Since inputs 1 to 6 can also be used as other special inputs such as High Speed Counter (HSC)
inputs and/or Pulse Measurement (PM) as described in Chapter 6, 7 and 8, if these inputs are defined as
interrupts using the INTRDEF statement, then they will lose their other special function. I.e., they can only
be defined either as a HSC/PM or as an interrupt input and not both. Inputs 9 to 12, on the other hand,
9-1
Chapter 9 Interrupts
are not shared with other special functions. Hence, these can be used either as ordinary digital inputs or
as interrupt inputs.
Note that since input #9 to #16 on Fx1616R employs low pass filter to filter out the 50/60Hz variations,
compared to input #1 to #6 these inputs are slower in response to changes even when defined as
interrupt inputs,
9.2 Periodic Timer Interrupt
(PTI)
The Periodic Timer Interrupt (PTI) lets you define a custom function that will be executed by the CPU
precisely every x number of milliseconds (ms). The syntax for setting up a PTI is as follow:
INTRDEF 18, cfnum, x
‘ Interrupt 18 is reserved for PTI
cfnum
- custom function number to execute when PTI event takes place.
xThe period in number of milliseconds between two PTI events.
E.g.
INTRDEF 18, 101, 15 ‘ call function #101 every 15 ms.
The Periodic Timer Interrupt runs independently of the ladder logic and its execution is therefore not
affected by the total PLC program scan time.
When the PTI timer times up, the CPU will suspend the execution of the ladder logic or a (non-interrupt)
TBASIC function and immediately calls up the custom function defined by the INTRDEF 18 statement.
However, if the CPU is currently executing a user-interrupt service routine (e.g. an input interrupt or HSC
interrupt), then the CPU will have to complete the current interrupt service routine before it will run the PTI
interrupt function.
Notes:
1) Limit the use of PTI only for critical code that requires precise timing between two events.
Program bugs that occur due to problems in the PTI interrupt routine may be quite hard to debug.
2) For normal periodic routines, such as checking for temperature or checking serial port for
incoming bar code data every few seconds, it is better to use the system clock pulses e.g.
“Clk:1.0s” to trigger a {dCusF}.
3) Always try to keep your interrupt service routine short and ensure that it will not end up in an
endless loop. The TBASIC custom function execution time should be much shorter than the
period of the PTI events. Otherwise, you may find that the CPU will be spending most of its time
servicing the PTI interrupt routine, leaving very little time for scanning the ladder program, and
that will have an adverse impact on the CPU performance.
9.3 Power Failure Interrupt (PFI)
The Fx1616 CPU has a power failure sensing circuit that will call a custom function when it detects
an impending power failure. This allows you to save critical data to the PLC’s non-volatile memory
(see Section 1.7.2) just before power failure. The syntax for the PFI is as follow:
INTRDEF 17, cfnum, 1
cfnum
E.g.
‘ Interrupt 17 is reserved for PFI
- custom function number to execute when PTI event takes place.
INTRDEF 17, 256, 1 ‘ call function #256 when power failure occur.
9-2
Chapter 10 Stepper Motor Control
Chapter 10 Stepper Motor Control
Chapter 10 Stepper Motor Control
10 STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL
10.1 Technical Specifications:
No. of Channels (control signal)
No. of Channels (full driver)
Max. Pulse Rate (pps)
Continuous Current per phase
Peak Current per phase
Driver Breakdown Voltage
Velocity Profile
(Defined by STEPSPEED)
2
1
10000 (single channel running)
4A @24V DC
8A @24V DC
+55V
Trapezoidal
-accelerate from 1/8 max pps to max pps.
-decelerate from max pps to 1/8 max pps)
2 ~ 231 (= 2.1 x 109)
STEPSPEED, STEPMOVEABS, STEPCOUNTABS( ),
STEPMOVE, STEPSTOP, STEPCOUNT( )
Maximum number of steps
TBASIC commands
It is essential to understand the difference between a stepper motor “Controller” and a stepper motor
“Driver”. A stepper motor “Driver” comprises the power electronics circuitry that provides the voltage,
current, and phase rotation to the stepper motor coils.
The Fx1616-BA PLCs have both the stepper motor driver and controller hardware. Now a stepper motor
can be driven directly from the PLC or the PLC can simply supply the control signals to an external
stepper motor driver.
10.2 Stepper Motor Driver
Each stepper motor needs to be driven by 4 PLC digital outputs. Although theoretically the Fx PLC’s CPU
can drive up to 3 stepper motors directly using digital outputs #5 to #16, on the Fx1616-BA the outputs #9
to #16, being relay type, are simply too slow to be able to drive stepper motor. Hence the Fx1616-BA
can only drive a single stepper motor using outputs #5 to #8. These 4 outputs are capable of driving
stepper motor of up to 4A per phase. Note that any outputs that have been defined for use with a
particular stepper channel would no longer be available as regular digital outputs in the ladder or TBASIC
program. Please refer to Chapter 6 for a definition of the list of special digital I/Os.
10.2.1 Stepper Motor Wiring Types
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
3
4
4
3
5
4-wire (Bipolar driver)
5
2
5-wire (Unipolar or bipolar driver)
6
6-wire (Unipolar or bipolar driver)
Figure 10.1
10-1
Chapter 10 Stepper Motor Control
The most commonly available stepper motors today are either 4-wire, 5-wire or 6-wire types and their
windings are as shown in Figure 10.1
•
4-wire stepper motors require drivers that can reverse current flow from coil terminal 1 to 2 or
from 2 to1, as well as from terminal 3 to 4 or from 4 to 3. These kinds of drivers are known as
“bipolar drivers”.
•
5-wire stepper motors typically connect the common terminal (5) to the power (e.g. +24V DC) and
4 current sink drivers are connected to terminals 1 to 4 to sink the current to 0V. The sequence in
which the four coils are activated controls the rotation of the stepper motor. These kinds of drivers
are known as “unipolar” drivers.
•
6-wire stepper motors are the most flexible and may be connected either to bipolar drivers
(leaving terminals 5 and 6 unconnected) or to unipolar drivers (connecting terminals 5 & 6
together to “+” terminal.
Since all the Fx1616 digital outputs #5 to #8 are NPN (current sink) type, only 5- or 6-wire type stepper
motors can be used.
If you have a stepper motor with 6 wires (most common) but you do not have the wiring diagram, you may
be able to figure out which wire is which terminal by using a multi-meter to measure the resistance
between coils. E.g. the resistance between terminals 1 and 2 will be twice the resistance between
terminals 1 and 5 or between 2 and 5, likewise for terminals 3,4 and 6. There will be no connectivity
between terminal 1 and 3 and between terminal 2 and 4. It will however be more tricky to figure out the
actual wiring of a 5-wire stepper motor since it is difficult to figure out which is the coil 1-2 and which is the
coil 3-4, so some trial and error may be required to get the motor working.
10.2.2 Damping Circuits (Inductive Bypass)
Since the stepper motor windings are all inductors, it is important to connect damping diodes across each
winding to absorb the inductive kicks produced when the windings are turned OFF. There are several
ways to connect the damping circuit; the simplest way is to connect a diode from the PLC’s output to the
Stepper motor power supply V+, as shown below in Figure 10.2.
V+
6
5
F1616-BA PLC
1
2
3
4
Stepper
Outputs
Figure 10.2
10-2
Chapter 10 Stepper Motor Control
The above circuit works best when the stepper motor power is the same voltage as or is a slightly higher
voltage than the PLC’s power supply. (Note: The maximum stepper motor’s power supply voltage must
not exceed the PLC’s stepper output driver breakdown voltage of 55V)
If the stepper motor’s power supply were lower than the PLC’s power supply, then connecting the output
shown in Figure 10.2 would result in the PLC’s output LED to light up, even when the output driver is off.
This is because the PLC’s output LED is tied to the PLC’s power supply and a lower voltage at the load’s
power supply would cause current to flow out of the PLC’s output terminal into the load’s power supply
and therefore turning on the output LEDs. Although this should not affect the driver’s function it can be
misleading to the user as to the PLC’s output state. Hence, we recommend connecting a diode in series
with each of the PLC’s outputs to block such reverse current flow:
V+
6
5
F1616-BA PLC
1
2
3
4
Stepper
Outputs
Figure 10.3 – If V+ is lower voltage than PLC’s power supply voltage.
10.3 Stepper Motor Controller
If the built-in stepper driver is not suitable for your application (e.g. if you need micro-stepping or you need
to drive a very high power stepper motor), then you can use an external stepper motor driver and use the
PLC to send direction and output pulses to the stepper motor driver.
When configured as a Stepper-Motor Controller, the PLC would generate the required number of "pulses"
and sets the direction signal according to the defined acceleration and maximum pulsing rate specified by
"STEPSPEED" and “STEPMOVE” commands. The "pulse" and “direction” outputs are not meant to be
connected directly to the stepper motor. Instead, you will need a stepper motor "driver", which you can
buy from the motor vendor. Depending on the power output, the number of phases of the stepper motor,
and whether you need micro-stepping, the driver can vary in size and cost. Most stepper motor drivers
have opto-isolated inputs which accept a direction signal and stepping-pulse signal from the "Stepper
Motor Controller". In this case the Fx1616-BA is the "Stepper Motor Controller" which will supply the
required pulse and direction-select signals to the driver.
Note that the digital output #5 automatically becomes the direction-select signal for the Stepper controller
channel #1, when the stepper controllers are being used. The direction pin is turned ON when the motor
moves in the negative direction and turned OFF when the stepper motor moves in the positive direction.
The STEPMOVEABS command makes it extremely simple to position the motor at an absolute location,
while the STEPMOVE command lets you implement incremental moves in either direction for each
channel.
10-3
Chapter 10 Stepper Motor Control
10.3.1 Interfacing to 5V Stepper Motor Driver Inputs
Some stepper motor drivers accept only 5V signals from the stepper motor controller. In such a case, you
need to determine whether the driver’s inputs are opto-isolated. If they are, then you can simply connect a
2.2K current limiting resistor in series with the path from the PLC’s output to the driver’s inputs, as shown
in Figure 10.4.
Stepper Motor Driver
Direction Select Input
F-Series PLC
12-24V DC
Power
for PLC
S
R
6
OUTPUTS
0V
If
R
5
+V
Stepping Pulse Input
7
Calculation :
IF = 10mA
8
If
R = (V - 5)/0.01
e.g. for V=24V,
R = (24-5)/0.01 =1.9K
GND
Select R=2K2
Rating = 19 2/2200
= 0.16W
Use 0.5W resistor.
+24V
PLC’s Power Supply
GND
Figure 10.4
However, if the stepper motor driver input is only 5V CMOS level and non opto-isolated, then you need to
convert the 24V outputs to 5V. This can be achieved using a low cost transistor such as a 2N4403. A
better way is to use an opto-isolator with a logic level output, as shown in Figure 10.4. This provides a
galvanic isolation between the PLC and the stepper motor driver.
+5V 0V (Stepper’s supply)
+V
24V DC
Power Supply 0V
for PLC
Logic output
Optoisolator
H11L2
or H11L3
(Quality Technology)
1
OUTPUTS
5
2
6
7
8
2K2 resistor
(2.2K)
6
5
4
To 5V CMOS
stepper driver input
(5mA max)
GND
Figure 10.5 Conversion of Fx1616-BA outputs to 5V logic level
10-4
Chapter 10 Stepper Motor Control
10.4
Programming Stepper Control Channel
10.4.1 Introduction
The Output #5 to #8 can be configured as either a Stepper Controller (direction/pulse) or a Stepper Driver
for stepper channel #. And as a Stepper Driver, they can drive in FULL STEP mode or HALF STEP mode.
The stepper channels are controlled by the PLC program using the “STEPMOVE” and “STEPMOVEABS”
commands. For example,
STEPMOVE ch, count, r
STEPMOVEABS ch, position, r
The ch parameter is the channel. This is how the PLC knows which stepper motor channel to turn on.
Now this parameter is also used to set the stepper motor channel to controller mode, full-step driver
mode, or half-step driver mode.
To set the stepper motor channel #1 to controller mode, the ch parameter should be a “1”. This is the
same as for the M-Series PLCs.
To set the stepper motor channel to driver mode, the ch parameter needs to have a “1” prefixed to it for
full-step mode and a “2” prefixed for half-step mode.
Using Output #7 & 8 as Stepper channel #2 Controller Outputs
Normally a F-series PLC uses output #9 to #12 to control stepper channel #2. But since these 4 outputs
on the Fx1616-BA, being relay type, are too slow to be used for controlling stepper motor, a special
version of STEPMOVE command is developed so that the output #7 & #8 can be used as stepper
motor controller output. This allows the Fx1616-BA to control up to 2 external stepper motor drivers via
its outputs #5, 6, 7 & 8. The Syntax is:
STEPMOVE 32, count, r
‘ stepper channel 2 controller output via output #7 & #8
10.4.2 Examples
STEPMOVE
1, 100, 1
‘Stepper #1 set direction at output #5 and send 100 pulses at output
#6
STEPMOVE 11, 100, 1
STEPMOVE 21, 100, 1
STEPMOVE 32, 100, 1
‘Stepper #1 will be driven 100 full steps via output #5 to #8
‘Stepper #1 will be driven 100 half steps via output #5 to #8
‘Stepper #2 set direction at output #7 & send 100 pulses at output #8
The same format should be used for STEPMOVEABS, except that the count parameter is changed to the
position parameter (more details provided in the Programmers Reference manual and also in the program
examples section of this chapter).
10.4.3 Setting the Acceleration Properties
Whether the stepper motor channels are being used to control a stepper motor driver or to drive the motor
directly, the STEPSPEED command must be executed first in order to define the acceleration settings.
Once this command has been executed, the acceleration settings will not change until another
STEPSPEED command is executed with different settings or if the PLC is powered down. If the PLC is
10-5
Chapter 10 Stepper Motor Control
powered down, the STEPSPEED command will need to be executed again before the stepper motor
channels can be used. However, if a software reset executed (from online monitoring or within the
program), the STEPSPEED command does not need to be re-executed.
STEPSPEED ch, pps, acc
The ch parameter should be a value between 1 and 2. Speed, pps, is based on the no. of pulses per
second (pps) output by the pulse generator. The pps parameter should be set to a value between 1 and
10000 (max rated pps for the Fx1616-BA PLC). The acceleration, acc, determines the total number of
steps taken to reach full speed from a standstill and the number of steps from full speed to a complete
stop. The stepper motor controller calculates and performs the speed trajectory according to these
parameters when the STEPMOVE or STEPMOVEABS commands are executed.
To set stepper motor channel #2 (ch 2 is only available in controller mode) to a speed of 100 pps in 50
steps, the command would be as follows:
STEPSPEED 2, 100, 50
This would be equivalent to an acceleration of 100 pulses/s2, which can be calculated using the following
expression:
A = V2/2S = 1002/2*50 = 100pps2
10.4.4
Using the STEPMOVE Command
Once the STEPSPEED command is executed, the STEPMOVE command can be used to move the
stepper motor forwards or backwards. The STEPMOVE command is also used to specify whether the
PLC is a motor controller, a full-step motor driver, or a half-step motor driver.
STEPMOVE ch, count, r
The ch parameter specifies which stepper motor channel is being used and whether it is being used as a
controller, full-step driver, or half-step driver.
The count parameter specifies how many pulses the motor will move. If the motor were in half-step driver
mode, then count would be in half steps.
The r parameter specifies which internal relay will be activated once the motor has moved count number
of steps. This relay would be cleared when the STEPMOVE command is executed in case it was already
activated.
10.4.4.1 Example: PLC as a Motor Controller
In this example, the PLC would be a controller and would send the control pulse and direction pulse to a
driver board.
Moving Forwards
STEPMOVE 1, 500, 101
STEPMOVE 32,750, 102
‘ channel 1 would send 500 pulses to a driver and then turn on relay 101
‘ channel 2 would send 750 pulses to a driver and then turn on relay 102
Moving Backwards
STEPMOVE 1, -500, 101 ‘ channel 1 would send 500 pulses to a driver and then turn on relay 101
10-6
Chapter 10 Stepper Motor Control
STEPMOVE 32,-750, 102 ‘ channel 2 would send 750 pulses to a driver and then turn on relay 102
10.4.4.2 Example: PLC as a Full-Step Motor Driver
Moving Forwards
STEPMOVE 11,8000,101
‘ channel 1 would send 8000 pulses to a motor and then turn on relay 101
Moving Backwards
STEPMOVE 11,-300,101
‘ channel 1 would send 300 pulses to a motor and then turn on relay 101
10.4.4.3 Example: PLC as a Half-Step Motor Driver
Moving Forwards
STEPMOVE 21,8000,101 ‘ channel 1 to send 8000 forward pulses to motor and turn on relay 101
Moving Backwards
STEPMOVE 21,-300,101
10.4.5
‘ channel 1 to send 300 backward pulses to motor and turn on relay 101
Using the STEPMOVEABS Command
This command allows you to move the stepper motor # ch to an absolute position indicated by the
position parameter. At the end of the move the relay # r will be turned ON. Position can be between -231
to +231 (i.e. about ± 2 x 109). The absolute position is calculated with respect to the last move from the
"HOME" position. (The HOME position is set when the STEPHOME command is executed). The speed
and acceleration profile are determined by the STEPSPEED command as in the original command set.
This command automatically computes the number of pulses and the direction required to move the
stepper motor to the new position with respect to the current location. The current location can be
determined at any time by the STEPCOUNTABS() function.
Once the STEPMOVEABS command is executed, re-execution of this command or the STEPMOVE
command will have no effect until the entire motion is completed or aborted by the STEPSTOP command.
The STEPMOVEABS command is also used to specify whether the PLC is a motor controller, a full-step
motor driver, or a half-step motor driver.
STEPMOVEABS ch, position, r
The ch parameter would specify which stepper motor channel is being used and whether it is being used
as a controller, a full-step driver, or a half-step driver.
The position parameter specifies how many pulses the motor will move relative to its home position. If the
motor were in half-step driver mode, then position would be in half steps.
The r parameter specifies which internal relay will be activated once the motor has moved to its new
position. This relay would be cleared when the STEPMOVEABS command is executed in case it was
already activated.
10-7
Chapter 10 Stepper Motor Control
10.4.5.1 Example: PLC as a Motor Controller
In this example, the PLC would be a controller and would send the control pulse and direction pulse to a
driver board.
STEPMOVEABS 1,500,101
STEPMOVEABS 32,-75,102
‘ Stepper #1 to move fwd 500 steps from home and turn on relay 101
‘ Stepper #2 to move back 75 steps from home and turn on relay 102
10.4.5.2 Example: PLC as a Full-Step Motor Driver
STEPMOVEABS 11,300,101 ‘ Stepper #1 to move fwd 300 steps from home and turn on relay 101
10.4.5.3 Example: PLC as a Half-Step Motor Driver
STEPMOVEABS 21,300,101 ‘ Stepper #1 to move fwd 150 steps from home and turn on relay 101
10.4.6
Demo Program for Stepper Motor Control
A demo program for programming the Stepper Motor Controller and Driver:
“Stepper Motor - F2424.PC6”
can be found in the FPLCsamples.zip file which can be downloaded from:
http://www.tri-plc.com/trilogi/FPLCsamples.zip
10-8
Chapter 11 Pulse Width Modulated Outputs
Chapter 11 Pulse Width Modulated Outputs
Chapter 11 Pulse Width Modulated Outputs
11
PULSE WIDTH MODULATED OUTPUTS
11.1 Introduction
Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) is a highly efficient and convenient way of controlling output voltage to
devices with large time constants, such as controlling the speed of a DC motor, the power to a heating
element, or the position of a proportional valve.
The PWM works by first turning on the output to full voltage for a short while and then shutting it off for
another short while and then turning it on again, and so on, in consistent and accurate time intervals. This
can be illustrated with the following diagram:
Load
Voltage
a
b
Average
voltage =
V Full
a
a+b
x V Full
Figure 11.1
The average voltage seen by the load is determined by the “duty cycle” of the PWM waveform. The duty
cycle is defined as follow:
a
Duty Cycle =
a+b
x 100%
Period = (a + b)
Frequency = 1/period Hz
Average voltage = % duty cycle multiplied by the full load voltage VFull. Since the voltage applied to the
load is either “Fully ON” or “Fully OFF”, it is highly efficient because the switching transistors are working
in their saturated and cut-off region and dissipate very little power when it is fully turned ON.
11.2 Fx1616-BA PWM Outputs
Technical Specifications:
No. of Channels
Duty Cycle range
Worst case resolution
Available Frequencies (Hz)
% Frequency Errors
Relevant TBASIC commands
:
4
0.00 to 100.00
0.1%
50Hz to 50 KHz,
< + 0.01% @ 100Hz
< + 0.5% @ 10KHz
< + 2% @ 50KHz
SETPWM
11-1
Chapter 11 Pulse Width Modulated Outputs
The PWM channels in the Fx1616-BA PLC can generate pulses with frequency ranging from 1Hz all the
way to 50KHz. At the lower frequency range, the output frequency can be extremely accurate (less than
0.01% error). Even at 10KHz the output frequency error is less than 0.5%. This makes it possible to use
the PWM channels to generate square wave pulses of a certain frequency.
For example, in Section 17.4.3 we show you how to use the PWM output to generate the 38KHz carrier
wave pulses for sending encoded IR remote commands. This enables the PLC to control your home TV,
DVD player, and air conditioner!
Usually it is better to select as high a frequency as possible because the resulting effect is smoother for
higher frequencies. However, some systems may not respond properly if the PWM frequency is too high,
in such cases a lower frequency should be selected.
The TBASIC SETPWM statement controls the frequency and duty-cycle settings of the PWM channel. The
Fx1616-BA PLC features four channels of PWM on its digital outputs #5 (PWM channel #1) to output #8
(PWM channel #4 – please see Chapter 6 for the pin assignment).
Since all four PWM outputs are high voltage, high current outputs (24V, 8A peak, 4A continuous) they can
be used to directly control the speed of a small DC motor. They can also directly drive proportional
(variable position) valves whose opening is dependent on the applied voltage. Note: When using the
PWM output to drive a motor or solenoid valve, please take note of the need to add a bypass diode to
absorb the inductive kick that will occur when the output current to the load is turned OFF, as mentioned
in Chapter 1.5.3.
11.3 Increasing Output Drive Current
(Opto-Isolated)
The advantage of using the PWM is that you can easily amplify the drive current to a larger load such as
a larger permanent magnet DC motor by using a power transistor or power MOSFET to boost the current
switching capability. If the load is of a different voltage and the load current is high, you should use an
opto-isolator to isolate the PLC from the load, as in Figure 11.2
Flyback Diode
4N35
Optoisolator
12-24V DC +V
Power
0V
1
5
6
7 (PWM3)
M
+
6
4
AC
~
5
2
D
G
R1
2K2
8
-
220K
For PLC
OUTPUTS
Bridge
Rectifier
R2
S
GND
Voltage divider to obtain approx.
10V DC at gate G. For DC48V
load, choose R1 = 3.9K, R2=1K
Figure 11.2
N-channel Power MOSFET
e.g. IRF530 can sink 12A DC
at up to DC100V max.
PWM Speed Control of a large DC Motor.
Note:
11-2
Chapter 11 Pulse Width Modulated Outputs
1. The opto-isolator must be able to operate at a frequency matching that of the PWM frequency,
otherwise the resulting output waveform will be distorted and effective speed control cannot be
attained.
2. The simple PWM speed control scheme described above is the open-loop type and does not regulate
the speed with respect to changing load torque. Closed-loop speed control is attainable if a
tachometer (either digital or analog) is used which feeds back to the CPU the actual speed. Based on
the error between the set point speed and the actual speed, the software can then adjust the PWM
duty cycle accordingly to offset speed variation caused by the varying load torque. A PID function
may also be invoked to provide sophisticated PID type of speed control.
3. The Fx1616-BA’s PWM can be used to control the speed of small motors only (up to the maximum
current limit that the PLCs output can safely drive). For larger motors, industrial-grade variable-speed
drives should be used instead.
11.4 Position Control Of RC Servo Motor
RC Servo is a class of DC servo motor commonly used in remote control (hence the term RC) for
positioning a device at a desired location. It is often termed “proportional control” because the position
where the motor will turn to is directly proportional to the pulse width of the control signal. When chosen
appropriately, RC Servo can provide an extremely inexpensive and versatile solution for positioning a
device. For example, for controlling the percentage opening of a HVAC damper, or to rotate the angle of
window blinds or to position a solar panel to track the sun light. There are many sizes of RC Servo
available in the market, from those that weigh just a few grams to those for controlling an industrial scale
unmanned vehicle (e.g. UAV or unmanned submarine). A small, self-contained RC servo typically cost
less than $20 retail price and is incredibly easy to control using the PWM output on the Fx1616-BA.
1ms
1.5ms
2.0ms
Figure 11.3
RC Servo and Control Signal
RC Servo typically only have 3 wires: Power “ + ” (typically 4.8 to 6V), “ – “ and a “Control” input.
To position the RC Servo to a position within its range of travel (Some are 0 to 90 degree and there are
those that can go from 0 to 180 degree), you send a positive pulse with pulse width between 1.00 ms to
2.00 ms to the “Control” input once every 20ms. The servo will position the actuator to one end when it
receives a pulse of 1.00ms and the other end when it receive a pulse of 2.00ms. If you send it a pulse of
1.50ms it will position the actuator to the center.
In PWM term, 1.00ms pulse width every 20ms means a duty cycle of 1.00/20.00 = 5.00%. 2.00ms pulse
width every 20ms means a duty cycle of 2.00/20.00 = 10.00% duty cycle. So to control the position of the
11-3
Chapter 11 Pulse Width Modulated Outputs
actuator one only needs to send it a positive PWM signal with frequency = 1/0.02 = 50Hz and duty cycle
between 5% and 10%.
The gear and servo feedback mechanism within the RC Servo produces a huge amount of torque relative
to its weight for positioning the actuator to the position determined by the pulse width at the “control”
input. Yet once it is in the correct position the servo draws only minimum current required to maintain its
position. Hence being a closed-loop controller an RC Servo is actually a much more efficient and effective
positional control device (for a limited range) than a stepper motor which relies on a constant current in its
winding to provide the “holding torque” for positioning. The open loop nature of stepper motor means that
it does not know if the device is actually being knocked out of its desired location whereas in the Servo
any deviation from its desired location is instantly being corrected by the servo mechanism.
11.4.1 Using Fx1616-BA PWM Output To Control RC Servo (Non-Isolated)
As you probably have realized by now that you can use a single PWM output to very easily position the
RC Servo to whatever position within its range of travel.
However, since the Fx1616 power supply is 24V (vs 4.8 to 6V on the typical RC Servo) and the PWM
output is NPN (current sink) type, the signal to the servo is actually inverted if you connect the PLC’s
output to the Servo’s “control” input directly.
+V
24V DC
Power
For PLC
0V
+6V
+
4.8V to 6V
DCPower
For Servo
0V
OUTPUTS
1
1N4001
1K
RC
Servo
Control
2 (PWM2)
3
4
-
0V
Figure 11.4
Non-isolated Interace to RC Servo
As shown in the above figure, we use a 1K ohm resistor to pull up the “Control” input to the RC Servo’s
power supply so that when the PLC’s output is OFF, the Control input is +6V and when the PLC output is
ON, the “Control” input is pulled to low.
The 1N4001 diode is to prevent the 24V weak pullup signal at the PLC output from entering the servo’s
“Control” input. As such, when the PLC output is ON, the “Control” input is pulled down to about 1 diode
drop (about 0.7V).
In other words, the RC Servo connected above are controlled by the PLC’s PWM output but the duty
cycle is inverted. I.e. To send a 5% positive PWM control pulse to the Servo, you can run the following
statement:
SETPWM 2, 9500, 50
‘ Set PWM 2 output to 95% duty cycle at 50 Hz
Likewise, to send a 10% positive PWM control pulse to the Servo, you will need to run the following
statement:
11-4
Chapter 11 Pulse Width Modulated Outputs
SETPWM 2, 9000, 50
‘ Set PWM 2 output to 90% duty cycle at 50 Hz
11.4.2 Using Fx1616-BA PWM Output To Control RC Servo (Opto-Isolated)
You can also use the PLC’s PWM output to drive an optocoupler (such as 4N35) and the output from the
optocoupler is use to provide control pulse to the RC Servo, as shown in Figure 11.5
4N35
Optoisolator
+V
0V
24V DC
Power
For PLC
OUTPUTS
1
1
5
2
4
2 (PWM2)
+6V
2K2
0V
+
1K
RC
Servo
Control
3
4
4.8V to 6V
DCPower
For Servo
-
GND
Figure 11.5
Opto-Isolated Interace to RC Servo
In the opto-isolated interface shown above, the power supply to the PLC and that to the RC Servo are
completely isolated (no common ground required). Also since the interface inverts the output signal from
the PLC, no software inversion is necessary. i.e When the PLC NPN output is OFF, the “control” input to
the RC Servo will be OFF, and when the PLC NPN output is ON, the “control” input to the RC Servo =
+6V.
Hence, to send a 5% positive PWM control pulse to the Servo, you can run the following statement:
SETPWM 2, 500, 50
‘ Set PWM 2 output to 5% duty cycle at 50 Hz
Likewise, to send a 10% positive PWM control pulse to the Servo, you can run the following statement:
SETPWM 2, 1000, 50
‘ Set PWM 2 output to 10% duty cycle at 50 Hz
Of course you can replace the duty cycle with a value (e.g. DM[1]) and run statement such as:
SETPWM 2, DM[1], 50
‘ Set PWM 2 output to DM[1]/100% duty cycle at 50 Hz
11.4.3 RC Servo Positioning Resolution
Since the resolution on the Fx1616 PLC’s PWM output is precise to 0.01% at 50Hz, this means that you
can get a maximum of 500 discrete positions within the travel range of the RC Servo. This should be
sufficiently accurate for many applications such as HVAC damper control or control of proportional valves.
The actual positioning accuracy and precision, however, will depend on the quality of the RC Servo.
11-5
Chapter 12 Real Time Clock
Chapter 12 Real Time Clock
Chapter 12 Real Time Clock
12 REAL TIME CLOCK
12.1 Introduction
A Real Time Clock (RTC) is a device that keeps accurate date and time information down to the second.
The RTC in the Fx1616-BA PLC is battery backed so that time will continue to run if PLC power is lost
with or without warning.
On the FMD Series and Nano-10 PLCs, it is not possible to keep the RTC running after power loss unless
either the FRAM-RTC-0 or FRAM-RTC-256 module is installed. However, the FRAM-RTC modules are
not compatible and are not required with the Fx1616-BA because a battery is used to power the on-board
RTC. Due to safety restrictions by air-transportation, the battery may or may not be included with your
Fx1616-BA. If included, it may not be installed on the PLC in the factory and, in that case, you will need to
install it yourself. Please refer to Section 1.9 for information on both purchasing and installing the RTC
battery.
NOTE:
If the RTC battery is not installed or the battery is removed for more than 15 seconds when the PLC is
powered down, then the PLC will lose its real time clock data when it is powered up again. When this
happens the "RTC Error" status LED on the CPU board will light up and the RTC.Err bit in the ladder logic
special bit will be ON so that user program can use it to alert the operator.
12.2 TBASIC variables Used for Real Time Clock
Date
Time
YEAR
DATE[1]
HOUR
TIME[1]
MONTH
DATE[2]
MINUTES
TIME[2]
DAY
DATE[3]
SECOND
TIME[3]
Day of Week
DATE[4]
There are 7 registers available in TBASIC that are used to access and configure the date and time. These
registers, which are shown above, can be read from and written to just like any other integer variable. The
data for these registers are in integer format.
DATE[1] : may contain four digits (e.g. 1998, 2003 etc).
DATE[4] : 1 for Monday, 2 for Tuesday, .... 7 for Sunday.
12.3 RTC Error Status On Ladder Logic
There is a special bit available in TRiLOGI that allows you to notify the PLC program if the RTC Error
event occurs and the RTC Error status light is turned on. The RTC Error event occurs if the RTC is
corrupted or damaged (see section 12.8 for more detail) or if the battery is not installed. The special bit is
called RTC.Err and can be obtained from the “Special Bits” I/O Table. The RTC.Err contact can be used
12-1
Chapter 12 Real Time Clock
to activate an alarm of some kind. The following ladder logic circuit is an example of this using the
RTC.Err bit as an input that controls an output called RTC_Alarm:
In the circuit above, RTC.Err is a special bit that cannot be renamed in your program. The output
RTC_Alarm is a user-defined output that could be named to anything. If the RTC Error event occurs for
any reason, the RTC.Err bit would activate the RTC_Alarm output.
12.4 Setting the RTC Using TRiLOGI Software
The RTC date and time can be easily set within TRiLOGI by selecting “Set PLC’s Real Time Clock” from
the “Controller” menu. A window will pop up with default values entered as shown below in Figure 12.1.
All of these values can be edited and then written to the PLC by clicking on “Set PLC’s Clock”
Figure 12.1: Set Real Time Clock
12.5 Setting the RTC Using TBASIC
The PLCs RTC can be set from TBASIC using the DATE[] and TIME[] registers shown in section 12.2.
Figure 12.2: Set Date & Time in TBASIC, shown below, is an example of a custom function where the
date is set to October 1st 2008, the day of the week is Wednesday, and the time is 14:30:01 (2:30:01 pm).
Figure 12.2: Set Date & Time in TBASIC
12-2
Chapter 12 Real Time Clock
12.6 Setting the RTC from Internet Time Server
Please refer to Section 2.6 for more detailed information on how your PLC may be able to automatically
set its own real time clock using the timeserver data available on the Internet. A sample program is also
included in that section.
12.7 Setting up an Alarm Event in TBASIC
Since, to the TBASIC program, the RTC data are simply integer arrays DATE[1] to DATE[4] and TIME[1]
to TIME[3], they are fully accessible at any time by your PLC program. Therefore, if you want your
program to execute a certain routine on a specific date and or/time, you would need to periodically check
these variables against the desired settings and activate the action when the RTC variable(s) reach the
set value.
Example: Set up a 1 minute clock pulse to monitor the RTC as follows:
Figure 12.3: Using Real Time Clock Example
12.8 Troubleshooting the RTC
If the RTC Error light comes on and the battery is properly installed, then the RTC could be corrupted or
damaged. This could happen if there was any damage to the components on the board, such as I/O
drivers, communications drivers, or any of the IC’s or PCB circuitry. Also, if a voltage spike came into the
PLC through its I/O, power supply, or communications ports, that could cause some corruption even if
there was no component damage.
If the RTC is only corrupted, then you should only have to reset the RTC to resolve the problem. This can
be done most easily by using the TRiLOGI method of setting the RTC that was described in section 12.4.
After setting the RTC, the PLC should be powered off and then powered on again. The RTC Error light
should be off at this point, but if it isn’t, then there is a possibility of damage to the PLC. At this point you
should contact Triangle Research tech support or if you have purchased the unit from a local distributor,
then you should contact the distributor for assistance.
12-3
Chapter 13 LCD Display Programming
Chapter 13 LCD Display Programming
Chapter 13 LCD Display Programming
13 LCD DISPLAY PROGRAMMING
13.1 SETLCD Command
The SETLCD y, x, string TBASIC command allows you to easily display any string of up to 20
characters on the yth line starting from the xth column. E.g., to display the message “Fx Super PLC”
on the 3rd line starting from the 5th character position from the left end of the screen, you use the
command:
SETLCD 3, 5, “Fx Super PLC”
Normally, y = 1,2,3, 4; x = 1, 2, …. 20. Integers must be converted to strings using the STR$() or
HEX$() function before they can be displayed using SETLCD. You can use the concatenation operator
“+” to combine a few components together in the command. E.g.
SETLCD 1,1,“Rm Temp = ”+ STR$(ADC(1)/100,3)+CHR$(223)+”C”
The function STR$(ADC(1)/100,3) reads the content of ADC channel #1, divides it by 100 and converts
the result into a 3-digit string. The CHR$(223) appends a special character which corresponds to the ‘ o ‘
symbol. E.g. if ADC(1) returns the value 1234, the final string being displayed will be :
Rm Temp = 012 oC.
13.2 Special Commands For LCD Display
If you use the SETLCD command with line #0, then the strings will be treated as special “instructions” to
be sent to the LCD module to program it for various modes of operation. This includes: blinking cursor,
underline cursor or no cursor, as well as display shift mode. You have to refer to the LCD manufacturer’s
data sheet for the detailed commands. Some of the most useful commands are listed below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Action
Clear screen
No cursor
Underline Cursor
Blinking Cursor
Underline + Blinking Cursor
Command
SETLCD 0,1, CHR$(1)
SETLCD 0,1, CHR$(12)
SETLCD 0,1, CHR$(14)
SETLCD 0,1, CHR$(13)
SETLCD 0,1, CHR$(15)
13.3 Displaying Numeric Variable With Multiple Digits
The “SETLCD y, x, string” command only overwrites the exact number of characters in the string
parameter to the LCD display, and thereafter the cursor is placed back to the location specified by the x
and y parameters. Thus if there exists some old characters right after the last character it can cause
confusion, especially if you are displaying a number. E.g. If you first display the following string at row 1
and column 1:
Pressure = 12345
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Chapter 13 LCD Display Programming
And if you subsequently display the string “Pressure = 983” at the same location without first clearing the
line, then you will see the following string being displayed:
Pressure = 98345
What happens is that the string “Pressure = 983” is correctly displayed but the two old characters “45”
left over from previous display would appear to be part of the new data. This can cause confusion.
There are several ways you can eliminate such a display problem:
1) Clear the line first before overwriting with a new string. You can create a custom function just to clear
a particular line. E.g. if you pass the parameter DM[100] to the custom function and inside the custom
function you do the following:
SETLCD DM[100],1, “
”
Hence calling this custom function with DM[100] = 1,2,3, or 4 would clear the corresponding line.
2) A “ quick and lazy” way to do it is to add a few more characters to the back of the string to be
displayed which will wipe out old characters that could be present adjacent to the new string.
E.g.
SETLCD 1,1, “Money = $”+ STR$(D) + “
”
3) If there is data to the right of the currently displayed string that you cannot overwrite with spaces, then
you can restrict the number of digits that a numeric variable may be converted to using the two
parameters from the STR$ or HEX$ command.
E.g SETLCD 1,1, “Temp = ”+ STR$(T,4)
The STR$(T,4) function will always return 4 digits of the data stored in T. If T is less than 4 digits,
then one or more preceding “0”’s will be added. E.g. if T = 12 then this function will return the string
“0012. Note that for negative numbers the negative sign is counted as part of the digit count so you
need to provide enough spaces to take care of the sign if you need to handle both positive and
negative numbers.
13.4 Displaying Floating-point numbers
The STR$(x#) and STR$(x#,n) can convert a floating point number x# into a text string which can
therefore be displayed immediately using the SETLCD command. Please refer to the STR$() command in
the TL7 Programmer’s Reference guide for details.
If you wish to control the number of digit being displayed then you could use the MID$ command to
extract the number of significant digits and the exponents from the string returned by STR$(x#, n)
function.
13-2
Chapter 14 Serial Communications
Chapter 14
Serial Communications
Chapter 14
Serial Communications
14 SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
14.1 Introduction:
There are 3 serial ports on the Fx1616-BA PLC, including 2 RS485 ports and 1 RS232 port. All three of
these serial ports have full Modbus ASCII/RTU and Host Link Protocol drivers so that all three serial ports
can be used independently. All three serial ports on this PLC can also be programmed to accept or send
ASCII or binary data using the TBASIC built-in commands such as INPUT$(n), INCOMM(n), PRINT #n,
OUTCOMM n, d.
The first serial port (COMM1) is an RS232C port, which is compatible with most PC’s RS232C ports. The
second serial port (COMM2) is a two-wire RS485 port that allows multiple PLCs to be connected to a
single host computer or a master PLC for networking or to implement a distributed control system. The
third serial port (COMM3) is identical to the second one (COMM2).
Note: Each of the 3 serial ports has its own pair of comm. LED indicators that will light up whenever the
corresponding serial channel sends or receives data. This makes it extremely convenient for
troubleshooting serial communication problems.
14.2 COMM1: RS232C Port with Female DB9 Connector
This port is configured as a DCE (Data Communication Equipment) and is designed to connect directly to
the PC’s serial port without the need for a null modem cable. COMM1 communicates with the host
computer at a default baud rate of 38,400 bit-per-second with 8 data bits, 1 stop bit and no parity. The
communication baud rate can be changed in software from 1200 bps to 115.2K or 230.4K bps, which is
compatible with most PCs and industrial equipment.
The COMM1 port is the main communication port used by the PLC configuration software (See Chapter
2.1) as well as for program transfer and on-line monitoring of the PLC program when it is not connected to
an Ethernet router or hub. The pin connections with the host PC are shown below:
F2424 COMM1
(Female DB9)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Host PC RS232 or
USB-RS232 Converter
(Male DB9)
Figure 14.1 Connecting COMM1 with PC
However, to connect COMM1 to another DCE device (e.g., a modem), you need to make a special cable
which swaps the transmit and receive signals, as follows:
14-1
Chapter 14
FX1616 COMM1
(Female DB9)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Special cable
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Serial Communications
Modem
(Female DB9)
Figure 14.2 Connecting COMM1 to a MODEM
Pin 4 and 6 are handshaking signals whose presence may be required by some modems to work
properly, so these pins are connected as shown in the diagram.
14.3 COMM2 / COMM3:
Two-wire RS485 Port
These two half-duplex RS485 ports are meant for serial bus type networking or for connecting to optional
peripherals such as a serial LCD message-display unit (e.g. MDS100-BW), external analog modules (e.g.
I-7018), touch panel HMI, or for inter-communication between PLCs.
Up to 255 RS232/RS485 peripheral devices may be linked together in an RS485 network on both
COMM2 and COMM3.
The RS485 ports are available on 2-way screw terminals between the RS232 (COMM1) port and the
analog I/O DB15 connector (please refer to Chapter 1- Installation Guide). For successful communication
using either of the RS485 ports, you need to correctly connect the ‘+’ and ‘-’ terminals to the RS485
equipment using a twisted pair cable. If you are using the PC as the network host, you will need an
RS232C-to-RS485 converter such as the “Auto485”.
The following describes some possible uses of the RS485 ports.
14.3.1 PROGRAMMING AND MONITORING
A Fx1616-BA PLC can be programmed via its RS485 port on a one-to-one or multi-drop manner. Since
most PCs only have RS232 port(s) (or USB ports for which USB-to-RS232 converters are readily
available), you need to purchase an RS232-to-RS485 converter in order to program the PLC via its
COMM2 and COMM3 port. The most commonly available types of RS485 converters today use the RTS
signal to control the RS485 transmitter direction, which is supported by the TLServer software. However,
we strongly recommend an auto-turnaround type of converter such as the Auto485 adapter (configured in
‘Auto’ mode) for use with Windows programs. Under Windows, the application software does not have
very deterministic control of the RTS pin at precise timing and that can contribute to the occasional loss of
communication when the RS485 transceiver is not switched at the proper moment.
Programming via COMM2 or COMM3 is particularly useful if COMM1 is already assigned to other tasks
such as interfacing to modem, bar code readers, a SCADA system or MMI *. The programmer can
continue to program and monitor the PLC using its RS485 port while its COMM1 is actively
communicating with other devices. This makes it much easier to troubleshoot communication problems
14-2
Chapter 14
Serial Communications
at COMM1 since you can continuously monitor the data exchange between the PLC and the external
devices connected to its COMM1.
* Of course, since the Fx1616-BA PLC has a built-in Ethernet port, you can always program it via the
local area network. But the fact that all 3 serial ports can be programming ports makes them truly
flexible for many industrial applications.
14.3.2 Accessing 3rd Party RS485-based Devices
There are more and more industrial devices such as electric power meters, analog I/O modules (e.g. the
I-70xx modules by ICPDAS), variable frequency drives, etc that allows data communication via their
RS485 port. The Fx1616-BA can use either COMM2 or COMM3 port to access these devices. The PLC
has many built-in commands for reading/writing to these serial ports, including built-in commands for
communicating with devices that use the MODBUS ASCII or RTU protocols.
14.3.3 Interfacing Other Devices to Modbus Host or to the Internet
Since the Fx1616-BA PLC supports MODBUS protocols, it can operate as a master PLC and serve as a
gateway to interface non MODBUS-enabled PLCs (such as the E10+ PLCs, or the I-7000 analog
modules) to third party SCADA software or MMI hardware that speaks MODBUS. The Fx1616-BA also
makes it easy for these devices to be controlled or monitored over the Internet. The master Fx1616-BA
will use its RS485 port to pull data from these devices into its data-memory. The data memory in the
Fx1616-BA is in turn accessible by a SCADA program using the Modbus serial or Modbus/TCP protocol.
Through the Fx1616-BA, these other connected devices are also accessible from the Internet using the iTRiLOGI client/server software.
14.3.4 Distributed Control
Another important use of the RS485 port will be to connect a Fx1616-BA PLC to other F-series, M-series,
H-series or E10+ PLCs. One F-series PLC will act as the master and all other PLCs will act as slaves.
Each PLC must be given a unique ID. The master will send commands to all the slaves using the
“NETCMD” or READMODBUS, WRITEMODBUS, READMB2, WRITEMB2 statements and coordinate
information flow between the PLCs. In this way, a big system can be built by employing multiple units of
F, M, E or H-series PLCs connected in a network. This results in more elegant implementation of complex
control systems and simplifies maintenance jobs.
14.4 Changing Baud Rate and Communication Formats: Use of the
SETBAUD Statement
The Fx1616-BA’s COMM ports are highly configurable. All 3 COMM ports can be set to a wide range of
baud rates. You can also program them to communicate in either 7 or 8 data bits, 1 or 2 stop bits, odd,
even or no parity. The baud rate and communication formats of the serial ports are set by the following
command:
SETBAUD ch, baud_no
ch represents the COMM port number (1, 2, or 3 only). The baud_no parameter takes a value from 0 255 (&H0 to &HFF), which allows for additional configuration of the communication format. The upper 4
bits of baud_no specify the communication format (number of data bits, number of stop bits, and
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Chapter 14
Serial Communications
parity) and the lower 4 bits represent the baud rate. Hence the baud_no for 8 data bit, 1 stop bit, and no
parity is the same as the old models, providing compatibility across the PLC families.
Once the new baud rate has been set, it will not be changed until execution of another SETBAUD
statement. The baud rate is not affected by a software RESET but the settings will be lost when the power
is turned OFF. The available baud rates and their corresponding baud rate numbers for COMM1, 2, and 3
are shown below:
Format
8, 1, n
8, 1, e
8, 1, o
7, 1, n
7, 1, e
7, 1, o
Format
8, 2, n
8, 2, e
8, 2, o
7, 2, n
7, 2, e
7, 2, o
baud_no
0000 xxxx
0100 xxxx
0110 xxxx
1000 xxxx
1100 xxxx
1110 xxxx
Where xxxx represents the baud rate of the comm port, as follow:
0000
0001
0010
0011
xxxx
2400
2400
4800
9600
Baud Rate
xxxx
Baud Rate
1000
100K
1001
115.2K
1010
230.4K
1011
110
0100
19200
1100
150
baud_no
0001 xxxx
0101 xxxx
0111 xxxx
1001 xxxx
1101 xxxx
1111 xxxx
0101
31250
0110
38400
0111
57600
1101
300
1110
600
1111
1200
A table of all the available baud rates and COMM formats is shown in the following page. The
communication format written as “7,2,e”, which means 7 data bits, 2 stop bits and even parity. Likewise,
“8,1,n” means 8 data bits, 1 stop bit and no parity. You can use the table to select the baud number for a
certain baud rate and COMM format.
Baud No Table (All numbers in Hexadecimal: &H00 to &HFF)
Format
Baud
8,1,n 8,1,e 8,1,o
110
0B
4B
6B
150
0C
4C
6C
300
0D
4D
6D
600
0E
4E
6E
1200
0F
4F
6F
2400
01
41
61
4800
02
42
62
9600
03
43
63
19200
04
44
64
31250
05
45
65
38400
06
46
66
57600
07
47
67
100K
08
48
68
115K2
09
49
69
230K4
0A
4A
6A
E.g. To set the baud rate of COMM3
statement: SETBAUD 3, &HC4
7,1,n 7,1,e 7,1,o
8B
CB
EB
8C
CC
EC
8D
CD
ED
8E
CE
EE
8F
CF
EF
81
C1
E1
82
C2
E2
83
C3
E3
84
C4
E4
85
C5
E5
86
C6
E6
87
C7
E7
88
C8
E8
89
C9
E9
8A
CA
EA
to 19200, 7 data bit,
8,2,n
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1A
1 stop
8,2,e 8,2,o
5B
7B
5C
7C
5D
7D
5E
7E
5F
7F
51
71
52
72
53
73
54
74
55
75
56
76
57
77
58
78
59
79
5A
7A
bit and even
7,2,n
9B
9C
9D
9E
9F
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
9A
parity,
7,2,e 7,2,o
DB
FB
DC
FC
DD
FD
DE
FE
DF
FF
D1
F1
D2
F2
D3
F3
D4
F4
D5
F5
D6
F6
D7
F7
D8
F8
D9
F9
DA
FA
execute the
Important: Since the three COMM ports are independent, they can be set to different formats and baud
rates from each other. Please note that if you change the baud rate or communication format to
something that is different from that set in the TLServer, then both the TLServer and TRiLOGI will no
longer be able to communicate with the PLC via this COMM port. You will have to either configure the
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Chapter 14
Serial Communications
TLServer’s serial port setting using its “Serial Communication Setup” routine to match the PLC, or you
can cycle the power to the PLC to reset the COMM port to the default format (38,400, 8,n,1).
If you had used “1st.Scan” contact to activate the SETBAUD command than you will need to cycle the
power to the PLC with DIP switch #4 set to ON to halt the execution of the SETBAUD command. When
the PLC is reset this way, its COMM1 will power up at the default format of 38,400, 8,n,1 only so you will
need to configure TLServer’s serial port to 38,400bps to communicate with it.
14.5 Support of Multiple Communication Protocols
The Fx1616-BA PLC is a real communication wizard! It has been designed to understand and speak
many different types of communication protocols, some of which are extremely widely used de facto
industry standards, as follows:
a) NATIVE HOST LINK COMMAND
b) MODBUS ASCII (Trademark of Modbus.org)
c) MODBUS RTU*
(Trademark of Modbus.org)
d) OMRON C20H protocols. (Trademark of Omron Corp of Japan)
The command and response formats of the “NATIVE” protocols are described in detail in Chapter 15 and
16. The other protocols and their address mapping to the Fx1616-BA PLCs are described in Section 14.7.
The three independent COMM ports 1, 2, & 3 support all of the above protocols. Each COMM port can
communicate using the same or different protocols, independent of the other. The most wonderful feature
of Fx1616-BA PLC is that the support of all the above-mentioned protocols can be fully automatic and
totally transparent to the users. There is no DIPswitch to set and no special configuration software to run
to configure the port for a specific communication protocol. The following describes how the automatic
protocol recognition scheme works:
1. When the PLC is powered ON, all three COMM ports are set to the “AUTO” mode, which means
that they are open-minded and listen to all serial data coming through the COMM ports. The CPU
tries to determine if the serial data conforms to a certain protocol and if so, the COMM mode is
determined automatically.
2. Once the protocol is recognized, the CPU sets that COMM port to a specific COMM mode, which
enables it to process and respond only to commands that conform to that protocol. Error
detection data such as the “FCS”, “LRC” or CRC are computed accordingly which method is used
to verify the integrity of the received commands. If errors are detected in the command, the CPU
responds in accordance with the action specified in the respective protocols.
3. When the COMM port enters a specific COMM mode, it will regard commands of other protocol
as errors and will not accept them. Hence, for example, if COMM #1 has received a valid
MODBUS RTU command (which puts it in an “RTU” mode), it will no longer respond to TRiLOGI’s
attempts to communicate with it using the “NATIVE” mode. You will receive a communication
error if you try to use TRiLOGI to access a PLC COMM port that has just been communicating in
other protocol modes.
4. To improve the flexibility of switching from one COMM mode to another, The Fx1616-BA
incorporates a COMM mode self-reset timer such that a specific COMM mode will time out
automatically and enters into “AUTO” mode after 10 seconds if no more commands are received
from that COMM port. When a user wants to switch from one COMM mode to another, he/she
often will be changing the serial connector from one device to another. During this time there is
no data received by the COMM port, which presents an opportunity for it to reset its COMM
mode. However, the surest way to reset the specific COMM mode is to cycle the power to the
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Chapter 14
Serial Communications
PLC so that its COMM port will be reset to “AUTO” mode and ready to communicate with any
supported protocols.
5. If you wish to use the COMM port for serial data input only, you can use the SETPROTOCOL
command to set the COMM port to NO PROTOCOL. This can prevent the PLC from erroneously
treating some serial data as the header of an incoming communication protocol and respond to it
automatically.
The SETPROTOCOL command can also be used to set the PLC to a specific protocol. This may be
desirable if the COMM port has a specific role and you do not want it to enter other modes by mistake.
Please refer to the TBASIC Programmer’s Reference manual for a detailed description of the
SETPROTOCOL command.
Note: If you fix a COMM port to a non-native, non-auto mode, TRiLOGI will not be able to communicate
with the PLC anymore. You may have to power-cycle the PLC to reset the COMM mode. If you
use the “1st.Scan” contact to activate the SETPROTOCOL command, then you will need to cycle
the power to the PLC with DIP switch #4 set to ON to halt the execution of the SETPROTOCOL
command. (Also remember that when the PLC is reset this way, its COMM1 will power up at
default format of 38,400, 8,n,1 only so you will need to configure TLServer’s serial port to
38,400bps to communicate with it.)
14.6 Accessing the COMM Ports from within TBASIC
Besides responding automatically to specific communication protocols described in section 14.5, all three
serial ports COMM #1, #2, and #3 are fully accessible by the user program using the TBASIC commands:
INPUT$, INCOMM, PRINT # and OUTCOMM. It is necessary to understand how these commands
interact with the operating system, as follow:
When a COMM port receives serial data, the operating system of the Fx1616-BA PLC automatically
stores them into a 256 bytes circular buffer so that user programs can retrieve them later. The serial data
are buffered even if they are incoming commands of one of the supported protocols described in section
14.5. In addition, processing of a recognized protocol command does not remove the characters from the
serial buffer queue so these data are still visible to the user’s program.
Each COMM port has its own separate 256-byte serial-in buffer. As long as the user-program retrieves
the data before the 256-byte buffer is filled up, no data will be lost. If more than 256 bytes have been
stored, the buffer wraps around and the oldest data is overwritten first and so on. The following describes
how INCOMM and INPUT$, PRINT # and OUTCOMM functions interact with the serial buffer:
a) INCOMM (n)
Every execution of the INCOMM(n) function removes one character from the circular buffer. When no
more data is available in the buffer this function returns a -1. The data removed by INCOMM will no
longer be available for the INPUT$ command.
b) INPUT$(n)
When the INPUT$(n) function is executed, the CPU checks the COMM #n buffer to see if there is a
byte with the value 13 (the ASCII CR character) which acts as a terminator for the string. If a string is
present, all the characters that make up the string will be removed from the COMM buffer. If a
completed string is not present, then the COMM buffer will not be affected, and INPUT$(n) returns a
null string. This ensures that before a complete string is received, the serial characters will not be lost
because of the unsuccessful execution of the INPUT$(n) function.
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Serial Communications
c) INPUT$(n) in Blocking Mode
INPUT$(n) is designed to be non-blocking and to return immediately – i.e. either it returns a complete
string or it returns an empty string. This means that INPUT$(n) will not suspend the CPU and wait for
a valid string from the COMM port. However, in real world communication very often you will need
to send a command to a device and it takes a while for the device to be able to send back a response
string.
The most efficient way of handling such serial communication exchange with other devices is to send
a command string using the PRINT #n and then start a timer and let the PLC program continue to
scan the ladder program. When timer times out, the timer contact is used to activate a custom
function and use INPUT$(n) to read the return message from the device. This is most efficient use of
the CPU time since the program will not have to waste time to wait for response string from the
device and that’s the reason for INPUT$(n) to default to non-blocking mode.
Another way to deal with this is to use the NETCMD$ function (terminated with “~”). NETCMD$
sends a command string and will return immediately when it receives a response string or if more
than 0.15s has passed. If the device is slow to response the CPU basically sits in a loop to wait for
the response for up to a maximum of 0.15s. NETCMD$ function also re-tries the communication
several times if it does not receive a response in the first try.
A third way of handling serial exchange with other devices is to use the INPUT$(n) command in
blocking mode. Starting from CPU firmware r72 and above, if you run the command
SETSYSTEM 19, t
This will configure the INPUT$(n) command to block the CPU for up to maximum of (t x 10)
rd
milliseconds to wait for a valid string from 3 party device. Although this command also wastes CPU
cycles to wait for a response and hence it is not as efficient compared to using the timer-activated
method mentioned above, it nonetheless is very simple to implement and can be used for non timecritical applications.
You only need to execute SETSYSTEM 19, t once and INPUT$(n) will block for the same t x 10
millisecond every time it is executed until SETSYSTEM 19,t is run again. To return the INPUT$(n) to
non-blocking mode, run SETSYSTEM 19, 0.
d) PRINT #n
The PRINT statement transfers its entire argument to a 256 byte serial-out buffer, which is separate
from the serial-in buffer. The PRINT statement, therefore, does not affect the content of the serial
buffer for incoming characters. The operating system handles the actual transfer of each byte of data
out of the serial-out buffer in a timely manner. Again each COMM port has its own independent 256byte serial-out buffer and, hence, the two serial ports can operate totally independently of each other.
Note that the PLC automatically enables the RS485 transmit driver when it sends serial characters
out of its COMM 2 and 3 ports. When the stop bit of the last character in the serial-out buffer has
been sent out, the operating system immediately disables the RS485 driver and enables the receiver.
This greatly eases the use of the RS485 port since there is no need for a user to bother with the
often-critical timing of controlling the RS485 driver/receiver direction.
e) OUTCOMM
This command sends only a single byte out of the serial COMM port without going through the serial
out buffer. For RS485 port, it enables the RS485 transmitter before sending the character and
disables it immediately after the stop bit has been sent out.
14-7
Chapter 14
14.7
Serial Communications
Using The PLC As a Modbus / Omron Slave
– SCADA, HMI Applications
The Fx1616-BA PLCs support a subset of the OMRON™ C20H and MODBUS™ (Both ASCII and RTU
modes are supported) compatible communication protocols so that it can be easily linked to third-party
control software/hardware products such as SCADA software, LCD touch panels etc. The PLC
automatically recognizes the type of command format and will generate a proper response. These are
accomplished without any user intervention and without any need to configure the PLC at all!
Both MODBUS and Omron protocols use the same device ID address (00 to FF) as used by the native
“Hostlink Command” protocol described in Chapter 15. Since the addresses of I/O and internal variables
in the Fx1616-BA are organized very differently from the OMRON or Modicon PLCs, we need to map
these addresses to the corresponding memory areas in the Modbus address space so that they can be
easily accessed by their corresponding protocols.
All I/Os, timers, counters, internal relays, data memory DM[1] to DM[4000], and floating point data FP[1]
to FP[1000] are mapped to the Modbus Holding Registers space. The Inputs, Outputs, Relays, Timers
and Counters bits are mapped to the MODBUS Bit address space as shown in Table 14.1. Note that
input and output bits are always mapped according to Table 14.1 whether it is MODBUS function 01, 02
or 05.
However, 32 bit variables and string variables are not mapped since they are fundamentally quite different
in their implementation among different PLCs. Internal variables that are not mapped can be still be
accessed by copying the contents of these variables to unused data memory DM[n] (this can be easily
accomplished within a CusFn) so that they can be accessed by these third party protocols.
14.7.1 MODBUS ASCII Protocol Support
The Fx1616-BA PLCs support MODBUS ASCII protocols with the following command and response
format:
START
:
Address
2 chars
Function
2 chars
Data
# chars
LRC Check
2 chars
CRLF
2 chars
The following Function Codes are supported:
01/02
03/04
05
06
16
Read I/O bit (Use Bit Address Mapping in Table 14.1)
Read I/O Word registers
Force I/O Bit (Use Bit Address Mapping in Table 14.1).
Preset Single Word Register
Preset Multiple Word Registers
The exact command/response format of the MODBUS protocol can be found at http://www.modbus.org.
However, if your only purpose is to interface the PLC to other MODBUS hosts such as an LCD touch
panel or SCADA software then there is no need to know the underlying protocol command format. All you
need to know is which PLC’s system Variable is mapped to which MODBUS register, as shown in Table
12.1.
14-8
Chapter 14
Serial Communications
Table 14.1: PLC I/O & Variable to Modbus Address Mapping
Fx PLC
Input
Output
Timer
Counter
Relay
I/O #
n
1 to 16
17 to 32
33 to 48
49 to 64
65 to 80
81 to 96
n
1 to 16
17 to 32
33 to 48
49 to 64
65 to 80
81 to 96
N
1 to 16
17 to 32
33 to 48
49 to 64
n
1 to 16
17 to 32
33 to 48
49 to 64
MODBUS Holding Register
(Modicon Convention)
MODBUS Bit Addr.
40049.1 to 40049.16
40050.1 to 40050.16
40051.1 to 40051.16
40052.1 to 40052.16
N
1 to16
17 to 32
33 to 48
49 to 64
65 to 80
81 to 96
256 + n
257 to 272
273 to 288
289 to 304
305 to 320
321 to 336
337 to 352
512+n
513 to 528
529 to 544
545 to 560
561 to 576
768 + n
769 to 784
785 to 800
801 to 816
817 to 832
n
1 to 16
17 to 32
33 to 48
49 to 64
40065.1 to 40065.16
40066.1 to 40066.16
40067.1 to 40067.16
40068.1 to 40068.16
1024 + n
1025 to 1040
1041 to 1056
1057 to 1072
1073 to 1088
65 to 80
81 to 96
97 to 112
113 to 128
40069.1 to 40069.16
40070.1 to 40070.16
40071.1 to 40071.16
40072.1 to 40072.16
1089 to 1104
1105 to 1120
1121 to 1136
1137 to 1152
129 to 144
145 to 160
161 to 176
177 to 192
40073.1 to 40073.16
40074.1 to 40074.16
40075.1 to 40075.16
40076.1 to 40076.16
1153 to 1168
1169 to 1184
1185 to 1200
1201 to 1216
40001.1 to 40001.16
40002.1 to 40002.16
40003.1 to 40003.16
40004.1 to 40004.16
40005.1 to 40005.16
40006.1 to 40006.16
40017.1 to 40017.16
40018.1 to 40018.16
40019.1 to 40019.16
40020.1 to 40020.16
40021.1 to 40021.16
40022.1 to 40022.16
40033.1 to 40033.16
40034.1 to 40034.16
40035.1 to 40035.16
40036.1 to 40036.16
193 to 208
40077.1 to 40077.16
1217 to 1232
209 to 224
40078.1 to 40078.16
1233 to 1248
..
..
..
497 to 512
40097.1 to 40097.16
1521 to 1536
*
MODBUS is a registered trademark of Groupe Schneider.
OMRON is a registered trademark of OMRON Corporation.
14-9
Chapter 14
Fx1616-BA
PLC
Timer
Present Values
Variables
Serial Communications
1 to 64
Modbus Holding Register
(Modicon convention)
40129 to 40192
Modbus Holding Register
(Binary address)
128 to 191
Counter
Present Values
1 to 64
40257 to 40320
256 to 319
Clock
TIME[1]
TIME[2]
TIME[3]
40513
40514
40515
512
513
514
Date
DATE[1]
DATE[2]
DATE[3]
DATE[4]
40517
40518
40519
40520
516
517
518
519
Data Memory
DM[1]
DM[2]
….
DM[4000]
41001
41002
….
45000
1000
1001
…
3999
Floating-point Array
FP[1]
FP[2]
…
FP[501]
…..
FP[1000]
45001 & 45002
45003 & 45004
…..
46001 & 46002
….
46999 & 47000
5000 & 5001
5002 & 5003
…..
6000 & 6001
….
6998 & 6999
14.7.1.1 BIT ADDRESS MAPPING
All the Fx1616-BA PLC I/O bits are mapped identically to both the MODBUS “0x” and 1x space. The bit
register offset is shown in the last column of Table 14.1. Although MODBUS names the 0x address space
as “Coil (which means output bits) and the “1x” address space as “Input Status” (which means input bits
only), the Fx1616-BA treat both spaces the same. Some MODBUS drivers only allow you to “read” from
0x space and “write” to 1x space but you still use the same offset shown on Table 14.1.
Example:
To map a lamp symbol to PLC Input 5, you select the MODBUS register address 0-0005. You can also
map a lamp symbol to the PLC’s output #2. In that case, you should map it to MODBUS register address
0-0258.
To map a toggle switch symbol to the PLC input #5, if you are restricted to select only MODBUS 1x
address space, then you will have to map the switch to 1-0005, and likewise you can map the switch to
output #2 using MOBDUS address 1-0258. But if the driver allows the switch to be mapped to 0x space,
then you can use MODBUS register space 0-0005 and 0-0258 for the mapping, with identical results.
14-10
Chapter 14
Serial Communications
14.7.1.2 WORD ADDRESS MAPPING
As shown in Table 14.1, to access DM[1] from the PLC, you use MODBUS address space 4-1001
(Modicon convention, 1000 in binary address) and so on. To access the Real Time Clock Hour data
(TIME[1]), use 4-0513. The I/O channels can also be read or written as 16-bit words by using the
addresses from 4-0001 to 4-0320.
Some MODBUS drivers (such as National Instruments “Lookout” software) even allow you to manipulate
individual bit within a 16-bit word. So it is also possible to map individual I/O bits to the “4x” address
space. E.g. Input bit #1 can be mapped to 4-0001.1 and output bit #2 is mapped to 4-0257.2, etc. This is
how it is shown in Table 14.1. However, if you do not need to manipulate the individual bit then you simply
use the address 4-0001 to access the system variable INPUT[1] and address 4-0257 to access the
system variable OUTPUT[1]. Note that INPUT[1] and OUTPUT[1] are TBASIC system variables and they
each contain 16 bits that reflect the on/off status of the actual physical input and output bits #1 to #16.
14.7.2 MODBUS RTU Protocol Support
The Fx1616-BA PLCs also support the MODBUS RTU protocol. The difference between the ASCII and
RTU protocols is that the latter transmits binary data directly instead of converting one byte of binary data
into two ASCII characters. A message frame is determined by the silent interval of 3.5 character times
between characters received at the COMM port. Other than that, the function codes and memory
mappings are identical to the MODBUS ASCII protocol. Table 14.1 therefore applies to the MODBUS
RTU protocol as well.
MOBBUS RTU has the following command and response format:
Start
Silence of 3.5
char times
Address
1 byte
Function
1 byte
Data
# byte
CRC 16
2 bytes
END
Silence of 3.5
char times
The following Function Codes are supported:
01/02
03/04
05
06
16
Read I/O bit (Use Bit Address Mapping in Table 14.1)
Read I/O Word registers
Force I/O Bit (Use Bit Address Mapping in Table 14.1).
Preset Single Word Register
Preset Multiple Word Registers
14.7.3 OMRON Host Link Command
Command Type
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
TEST
STATUS READ
ERROR Read
IR Area READ
HR, AR, LR Area
& TC Status READ
f) DM AREA READ
g) PV READ
h) Status Write
l) IR Area WRITE
Support
Header
Level of Support
TS
MS
MF
RR
RH
Full support
Full support
Dummy (always good)
Full support (0000 to 1000)
Dummy (always returns “0000”)
RD
RC
SC
WR
Full support
Dummy (always returns “0000”)
Dummy (always OK)
Full Support
14-11
Chapter 14
j)
HR, AR, LR Area
& TC Status WRITE
k) DM Area WRITE
l) FORCED SET
m) Registered I/O Read
for Channel or Bit
WH, WJ,
WL, WG
WD
KSCIO
KRCIO
QQMR/
QQIR
Serial Communications
Dummy (always OK)
Full Support (from DM0001-DM4000)
Full Support for IR Area only
Dummy for other areas.
Full Support for IR and DM only
Dummy for other areas (always 0000)
Some OMRON host link commands are described in Section 16.40. For other commands please refer to
the Omron C20H/C40H PLC Operation manual published by OMRON Corporation. If your purpose is only
to use the PLC’s OMRON mode with SCADA or HMI, then there is no need to learn the actual
command/response format.
14.7.4 Application Example: Interfacing to SCADA Software
SCADA software or MMI systems (also known as LCD Touch Panels) normally use an object-oriented
programming method. Graphical objects such as switches indicator lights or meters, etc., are picked from
the library and then assigned to a certain I/O or internal data address of the PLC. When designing a
SCADA system, first you need to define the PLC type. You can choose the MODBUS ASCII, MODBUS
RTU or OMRON C20H. Once a graphical object has been created, you will need to edit its connection
and at this point you will be presented with a selection table that corresponds to the memory map of that
PLC type.
Example 1: To connect an indicator lamp to Input #9 of the PLC.
You will need to program the switch to connect to IR00.8 for the OMRON protocol. However, If you have
defined the PLC as MODBUS type, then this indicator lamp should be connected to bit address 1-0265. In
either case there is no need to learn about the actual command format of the protocol itself, as the
SCADA software will automatically generate the required commands to access the input address that has
been chosen for the object.
Example 2: To display readings from ADC #3 as a bar graph on SCADA.
Since the data from ADC #3 is not directly mapped to MODBUS or OMRON in Table 14.1, you need to
add a statement in the custom function that reads ADC #3 and copies it into a data memory, e.g.,
DM[100] = ADC(3)
Now you can program the bar graph on the SCADA screen to be connected to DM[100] if you use the
OMRON protocol. For the MODBUS protocol, the object should be connected to the address: 4-1100
14-12
Chapter 14
14.8
Serial Communications
Using The PLC As a Modbus Master
– Getting Data From Power or Flow Meters
The Fx1616-BA PLCs support for the MODBUS protocol goes beyond being a MODBUS slave only. You
can use the TBASIC READMOBUS and WRITEMODBUS commands, as well as READMB2 and
WRITEMB2 to send out MODBUS ASCII or RTU commands to access any other F-series, FMD or Nano10 PLCs or any third party MODBUS slave devices. The READMODBUS or READMB2 commands use
MODBUS Function 03 (this can be changed to function 04 using SETSYSTEM 6,4 command) to read
from the slave, and WRITEMODBUS or WRITEMB2 use MODBUS Function 16 to write to the slave.
Note that when using the READMODBUS or WRITEMODBUS commands, the 40001 address stated in
Table 14.1 should be interpreted as address 0000, and 40002 as address 0001, and 41001 as address
1000, etc. This is in accordance with the specifications stated in MODBUS protocol. MODICON defined
zero offset addresses for the MODBUS protocol, yet in their holding register definition these are supposed
to start from address 40001 - hence the unusual correspondence. But to maintain compatibility with the
MODBUS specifications, we have to adhere to their definitions.
14.8.1 Fx1616-BA PLC As MODBUS RTU Master
The Fx1616-BA PLC can also act as a MODBUS RTU master! The same READMODBUS and
WRITEMOBUS commands can be used to send and receive MODBUS RTU commands. What you need
to do is add 10 (decimal) to the COMM port number to signal to the processor that you wish to use
MODBUS RTU instead of MODBUS ASCII to talk to the slaves.
In other words, you should specify port #11 to use RTU commands on COMM1, and specify port #13 to
use RTU commands on COMM3.
E.g. the statement DM[10] = READMODBUS (13, 8, 16)
will access, via COMM3, the slave with ID = 08 and read the content of register #16. This register
corresponds to MODICON address 40017 and is the OUTPUT[1] of the slave PLC.
The ability to speak MODBUS RTU greatly extends the type of peripherals that can be used with a
Fx1616-BA. You can now make use of many off-the-shelf, third party RTU devices to extend the PLC
capability.
14-13
Chapter 14
Serial Communications
14.9 Using Modem to Remotely Program/Monitor The PLC
TLServer 3.x supports remote dial up to M-series and F-series PLCs via standard, off-the-shelf modems.
It takes two modems to communicate between two devices. The host end of the modem setup and
configuration is handled by the TLServer software itself, whereas on the PLC side, the PLC has to
configure the modem so that it can successfully communicate with the host computer running TRiLOGI.
14.9.1
Wiring
The modem is often connected to the PLC’s COMM1. Since the serial port on most modems are DCE
type, you will need a make a special cable (also known as null-modem) to connect them as shown in
Figure 14.2. If the modem only has a DB25 connector, you can connect the wires as shown in the
following diagram:
F1616-BA
COMM1
(Female
DB9)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Modem
(Female DB25)
20
Figure 14.3 Connecting Fx1616-BA’s COMM1 to a modem’s DB25 port
Note that pin 6 (DSR) and pin 20 (DTR) at the modem end are tied together. This is often required to
inform the modem that the device is ready for operation so that the modem can work properly. A modem
may also be connected to COMM2 or COMM3 for multi-drop remote programming and monitoring using
TRiLOGI 6 or 7 software. However, you will need to purchase an auto-turnaround type RS232-to-RS485
converter, such as: the “Auto485” (http://www.tri-plc.com/auto485.htm).
14.9.2
Programming
Please refer to the Internet i-TRiLOGI version Programmer’s Reference guide, Chapter 3 for
programming details for the PLC to communicate with the PC via modem.
14-14
Chapter 15 Host Link Communication Protocol
Chapter 15 Host Link Communication Protocol
Chapter 15 Host Link Communication Protocol
15 HOST LINK PROTOCOL INTRODUCTION
While a Fx1616-BA PLC is running, it may receive ASCII string commands that read or write to its inputs,
outputs, relays, timers, counters, and all the internal variables from a host computer or another F-series,
FMD or Nano-10 PLC. These ASCII commands are known as the "Host-link commands" and are to be
serially transmitted (via RS232C or RS485 port) to and from the controller. The default serial port settings
of the Fx1616-BA for host-link communication are: 38400 baud, 8 data bit, 1 stop bit, no parity. The baud
rate and the communication format may be changed using the “SetBAUD” TBASIC command described
in the i-TRiLOGI Programmer’s Reference.
15.1 Multiple Communication Protocols
The Fx1616-BA PLC supports many different communication protocols to allow maximum application
flexibility. In addition to its own native set of communication protocols, the Fx1616-BA also understands
and speaks the following protocols:
a) *MODBUS™ ASCII mode compatible communication protocol.
b) *MODBUS™ RTU mode compatible communication protocol.
c) *OMRON™ Host Link Commands for the C20H PLC family.
*Note: all trademarks belong to their respective owners.
The native host link command protocol will be described in detail in this and the next chapter. The
MODBUS and OMRON compatible protocols have already been discussed in Section 14.7.
15.2 Native Mode Communication Protocols
When the Fx1616-BA PLC receives a native host-link command via COMM1, COMM2 or COMM3, it will
automatically send a response string corresponding to the command. This operation is totally transparent
to the user and does not need to be handled by the user’s program.
All Fx1616-BA PLCs support both the point-to-point (one-to-one) and multi-point (one-to-many)
communication protocols. Each protocol has a different command structure as described below.
15.3 Point-To-Point Communication Format
In a point-to-point communication system, the host computer's RS232C serial port is connected to the
PLC’s COMM1. At any one time, only one controller may be connected to the host computer. The hostlink commands do not need to specify any controller ID code and are therefore of a simpler format, as
shown below:
15-1
Chapter 15 Host Link Communication Protocol
15.3.1 Command/Response Frame Format (Point to Point)
x
x
....
Header
....
Data
....
*
Terminator
Each command frame starts with a two-byte ASCII character header, followed by a number of ASCII data
and ends with a terminator which is comprised of a '*' character and a carriage return (ASCII value =
1310). The header denotes the purpose of the command. For example, RI for Read Input, WO for Write
Output, etc. The data is usually the hexadecimal representation of numeric data. Each byte of binary data
is represented by two ASCII characters (00 to FF).
To begin a communication session, the host computer must first send one byte of ASCII character: Ctrl-E
(=05Hex) via its serial port to the controller. This informs the controller that the host computer wishes to
send a (point-to-point) host-link command to it. Thereafter, the host computer must wait to receive an
echo of the Ctrl-E character from the controller. Reception of the echoed Ctrl-E character indicates that
the controller is ready to respond to the command from the host computer. At this moment, the host
computer must immediately send the command frame to the controller and then wait to receive the
response frame from the controller. The entire communication session is depicted in Figure 15.1.
After the controller has received the command, it will send a response frame back to the host computer
and this completes the communication session. If the controller accepts the command, the response
frame will start with the same header as the command, followed by the information that has been
requested by the command and the terminator.
As you can probably see, proper handshaking using the Ctrl-E character between the host and the PLC is
important to communicate successfully using the Point-to-point protocol.
Although the “Multi-point” format discussed in the next section seems more complex, the communication
exchange using multi-point protocol is actually simpler than point-to-point since it involves only a single
exchange of command/response string. We therefore recommend using the multi-point format if you are
writing your own communication program.
Note: TBASIC has a built-in command “NETCMD$” that lets a Fx1616-BA access another slave PLC
using the multipoint Host-link protocol format very easily.
If an unknown command is received or if the command is illegal (such as access to an unavailable output
or relay channel), the following error response will be received:
15.3.2 Error Response Format
E
R
*
The host computer program should always check the returned response for possibilities of errors in the
command and take necessary actions.
15-2
Chapter 15 Host Link Communication Protocol
The F-Series PLC
Host Computer
Send Ctrl -E
(05H) and wait
for echo
Ready to process
command: return
Ctrl-E (05H)
Send Command
string to controller
Wait for response
Execute command.
Return Response
string to host
Accept Response
Check for errors
Figure 15.1
15.4 MULTI-POINT COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
In this system, one host computer may be connected to either a single PLC (via either RS232 or RS485)
or multiple PLCs on an RS485 network.
15.4.1 Command/Response Frame Format (Multi-point)
@
n
n
Device ID
x
x
Header
.... .... ....
Data
x
x
FCS
*
Terminator
Each command frame starts with the character "@" and two-byte hexadecimal representation of the
controller's ID (00 to FF), and ends with a two-byte "Frame Check Sequence" (FCS) and the terminator.
FCS is provided for detecting communication errors in the serial bit-stream. If desired, the command
frame may omit calculating the FCS simply by putting the characters "00" in place of the FCS.
Note: we call “00” the “wildcard” FCS, which is available when the PLC is in “auto protocol” mode. This is
to facilitate easy testing of the multi-point protocol. However, the wildcard FCS can be disabled if the PLC
has executed the SETPROTOCOL n, 5 to put its COMM port n into pure native mode. In that case you will
have to supply the actual FCS to your command string.
15-3
Chapter 15 Host Link Communication Protocol
15.4.2 Calculation of FCS
The FCS is 8-bit data represented by two ASCII characters (00 to FF). It is a result of performing an
Exclusive OR on each character in the frame sequentially, starting from @ in the device number to the
last character in the data. An example is as follows :
@
0
4
R
Device ID
@
0
4
R
V
I
A
V
I
Header
A
4
Data
8
*
FCS
0100 0000
XOR
0011 0000
XOR
0011 0100
XOR
0101 0010
XOR
0101 0110
XOR
0100 1001
XOR
0100 0001
0100 1000 = 4816
Value 4816 is then converted to ASCII characters '4' (0011 0100) and '8' (0011 1000) and placed in the
FCS field.
FCS calculation program example
The following C function will compute and return the FCS for the "string" passed to it.
unsigned char compute_FCS(unsigned char *string){
unsigned char result;
result = *string++;
/*first byte of string*/
while (*string)
result ^= *string++; /* XOR operation */
return (result);
}
A Visual Basic routine for FCS computation is included in the source code of a sample communication
program you can download from:
http://www.tri-plc.com/applications/VBsample.htm#VB6sample
15.4.3 Communication Procedure
Unlike the point-to-point communication protocol, the host computer must NOT send the CTRL-E
character before sending the command frame. After the host computer has sent out the multi-point hostlink command frame, only the controller with the correct device ID will respond. Hence it is essential to
15-4
Chapter 15 Host Link Communication Protocol
ensure that every controller on the RS485 network assumes a different ID (If a master PLC is used, then
the master PLC should also have a different ID from all the slaves). Otherwise, contention may occur (i.e.,
two controllers simultaneously sending data on the receiver bus, resulting in garbage data being received
by the host). On the other hand, if none of the controller IDs match that specified in the command frame,
then the host computer will receive no response at all.
The PLC automatically recognizes the type of command protocols (point-to-point or multi-point) sent by
the host computer and it will respond accordingly. If a multi-point command is accepted by the controller,
the response frame will start with a character '@', followed by its device ID and the same header as the
command. This will be followed by the data requested by the command, a response frame FCS and the
terminator.
15.4.4 Framing Errors
When the controller receives a multi-point host-link command frame, it computes the FCS of the
command and compares it with the FCS field received in the command frame. If the two do not match,
then a "framing error" has occurred. The controller will send the following Framing Error Response to the
host:
Framing Error Response Frame (Multi-point only)
@
x
x
Device ID
F
E
Header
x
x
FCS
*
Terminator
15.4.5 Command Errors
If an unknown command is received or if the command is illegal (such as an attempt to access an
unavailable channel), the following error response will be received:
Error Response Format
@
x
x
Device ID
E
R
Header
x
FCS
x
*
Terminator
The host computer program should always check the returned response for possibilities of errors in the
command and take necessary action.
15.4.6 SHOULD YOU USE POINT-TO-POINT OR MULTI-POINT PROTOCOL?
Although at first the point-to-point protocol appears simpler in format (having no ID and no FCS
computation), the communication procedure is actually more complex since it involves the need to
synchronize the two communicating devices by exchanging the Control-E character. The lack of error
checking also makes the protocol less reliable especially in noisy environment.
In fact, the TLServer software will only accept multi-point communication protocol from the client software
with the exception of the “IR*” command, which is needed to obtain the ID of a PLC with unknown ID.
Hence, if you were to write your own communication program to talk to the PLCs, we would strongly
recommend using only the multi-point protocol exclusively due to its simplicity and built-in error checking
capability.
15-5
Chapter 15 Host Link Communication Protocol
15.5
RS485 Primer
15.5.1 RS485 Network Interface Hardware
The built-in RS-485 interface allows the Fx1616-BA controllers to be networked together using very low
cost twisted-pair cables. Since the Fx1616-BAs are fitted with a 1/8-power RS485 driver such as the
75HVD3082, up to 256 devices can be connected together. The twisted-pair cable goes from node to
node in a daisy chain fashion and should be terminated by a 120-ohm resistor as shown below.
+5V
Twisted pair RS485 network cable
Terminating
resistor
560
+
_
RS485
+
_
Host Computer with
RS 485 or
FX PLC
+
_
+
FMD
RS485
_
FX1616
RS485
+
560
_
120
0V
Nano10
RS485
Figure 15.2
Note that the two wires are not interchangeable so they must be wired the same way to each controller.
The maximum wire length should not be more than 1200 meters (4000 feet). RS-485 uses balanced or
differential drivers and receivers, which means that the logic state of the transmitted signal depends on
the differential voltage between the two wires and not on the voltage with respect to a common ground.
As there will be times when no transmitters are active (which leaves the wires in "floating" state), it is
good practice to ensure that the RS-485 receivers will indicate to the CPUs that there is no data to
receive. In order to do this, we should hold the twisted pair in the logic '1' state by applying a differential
bias to the lines using a pair of 560Ω to 1KΩ biasing resistors connected to a +9V (at least +5V) and 0V
supply as shown in Figure 15-2. Otherwise, random noise on the pair could be falsely interpreted as data.
The two biasing resistors are necessary to ensure robust data communication in actual applications.
Some RS485 converters may already have biasing built-in so the biasing resistors may not be needed.
However, if the master is a Fx1616-BA PLC then you should use the biasing resistor to fix the logic states
to a known state. Although in a lab environment the PLCs may be able to communicate without the
biasing resistors, their use is strongly recommended for industrial applications.
15.5.2 Protection of RS485 Interface
The simple, direct multi-drop wiring shown in Figure 15-2 will work well if all the networked PLCs are in
close proximity and they all share a common power supply. They will even work for long distance as long
as there are no wiring errors. However, in an industrial environment, the PLCs are most likely far apart
and may each have their own power supply. Since processes are often modified regularly, should
somebody on one occasion by mistake short one of the PLC’s RS485 to high voltage, all the PLCs
connected to the same RS485 wiring will be fried simultaneously. This can result in very costly down time
for the whole process because all of the PLCs connected to the network will need to be repaired.
Hence, for networking over long distances and involving more than a few PLCs, it is important to either
strengthen or protect the RS485 interface, as described below:
1. You can replace the standard RS485 driver (75HVD3082) on the PLC with a fault-tolerant RS485
driver IC; part number LT1785AIN8. This 8 pin IC is made by Linear Technology and can
withstand wrong voltages of up to +60V! The LT1785AIN8 is a 1/4 power RS485 driver, which
15-6
Chapter 15 Host Link Communication Protocol
means up to 128 PLCs can be connected together.
Unfortunately this IC is much more expensive than 75HVD3082 and hence it is not provided as
standard component on the PLC. You can purchase the IC from any major electronic catalog
company such as www.digikey.com.
2. When using non fault-tolerant RS485 drivers such as SN75176 or SN75HVD3082, we strongly
recommend the following protection circuit to be added between every PLC’s RS485 and the
twisted pair multi-drop network cable:
RS485 Network
+
10 Ω 1/2 W 0.1A Fuses
RS485
24V
9V 1W
Zener
Power
0V
Ground the
Shield
Figure 15.3
Note:
As can be seen from the circuit, the two 9V Zener diodes clamp the signal voltage on the PLC’s RS485
interface to between +9V and - 0.7V. If the high voltage persists, the 0.1A fuse will blow, effectively
disconnecting the PLC from the offending voltage on the network.
Even if you choose to replace the RS485 driver by an LT1785AIN8 IC instead of using the zener/fuse pair
wiring, you should still use shielded twisted pair cables as the multi-drop network “backbone” and connect
the shield to the 0V (DC ground) power terminal of every PLC. The grounded shield then provides a
common ground reference for all the different PLCs’ power supplies. Even though the RS485 network
may still work without a common ground reference because the signal wire pair will somehow “pull” all the
RS485 devices to some reference point. Failure to provide a common ground is a potential source of
serious trouble as signal wires with a floating ground easily induce large voltage differences between
nodes when subjected to electromagnetic interference. Hence, for reliable operation it is important to
provide the common ground. A grounded shield also has the additional advantage of shielding the
electrical signals from EMI.
15.5.3 Single Master RS485 Networking Fundamentals
RS485 is a half-duplex network, i.e., the same two wires are used for both transmission of the command
and reception of the response. Of course, at any one time, only one transmitter may be active. The
Fx1616-BA PLC implements a master/slave network protocol. The network requires a master controller,
which is typically a PC equipped with an RS485 interface. In the case of a PC, you can purchase an RS485 adapter card or an RS232C-to-RS485 converter and connect it to the RS232C serial port. A
Fx1616-BA PLC can also be programmed to act as the master, it can communicate with other PLCs by
executing the “NETCMD$” function or the “READMODBUS” or the “WRITEMODBUS” commands (the
latter two are for communicating using MODBUS protocols only and are covered in Section 14.8).
15-7
Chapter 15 Host Link Communication Protocol
Only the master can issue commands to the slave PLCs. To transmit a command, the master controller
must first enable its RS-485 transmitter and then send a multi-point command to the network of
controllers. After the last stop bit has been sent, the master controller must relinquish the RS485 bus by
disabling its RS485 transmitter and enabling its receiver. At this point the master will wait for a response
from the slave controller that is being addressed. Since the command contains the ID of the target
controller, only the controller with the correct ID would respond to the command by sending back a
response string. For the network to function properly, it is obvious that no two nodes can have the same
ID. You can use the “Setup Serial Port” command in TLServer to set the ID for each Fx1616-BA. You can
also use the "IW” Host Link command to set the device ID. Also, all nodes must be configured to the
same baud rate and communication format.
Care should be taken to ensure that the power supplies for all the controllers are properly isolated from
the main so that no large ground potential differences exist between any controllers on the network.
15.5.4 Multi-Master RS485 Networking Fundamentals
Since the Fx1616-BA is capable of sending out network commands, the obvious question is whether
multiple masters are allowed on the RS485 network? It is possible to have multiple masters on a single
RS485 network provided the issues of collision and arbitration are taken care of. There are several means
to achieve these objectives.
15.5.4.1 Multiple Access with Collision Detection
There is nothing to stop any PLC from sending out host-link commands to other PLCs. However, if more
than one PLC simultaneously enables their transmitters and send out host-link commands, then the
signals will conflict and the messages will be garbled up. If the network traffic is low, then the solution may
be a matter of having the master check for the correct response after sending out a command string. If
there is error in the response string, the master should back off the network for a short while (use different
timing for different PLCs) and then re-send the command until a correct response string is obtained.
Fortunately, the “NETCMD$” function of Fx series PLC automatically senses the RS485 lines until they
are free before sending out the command string to reduce the chance of a collision. It also checks the
integrity of the response string for correct FCS (Frame Check Sequence) characters before returning the
string (Please refer to the Programmer’s Reference for detail description of the NETCMD$( ) function).
However, the program must still check the following items in the response string to verify that the string
returned from NETCMD$( ) function indeed comes from the PLC that it had talked to and not from
another PLC (which tries to send a command to someone else):
i)
ii)
iii)
The ID is correct
The header is identical to the command string
The length of response string is correct.
Pros and Cons: This method does not incur any hardware cost, but it requires careful programming and
strict checking of the response string and hence requires more effort to program. It is also the least
desirable if the network traffic is moderately high as many collisions will occur and there is danger of
some undetected error being allowed to pass through.
15.5.4.2 Token Awarding Scheme
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Chapter 15 Host Link Communication Protocol
A “token” is a software means of telling a PLC that it has been given the right to temporarily act as the
master. A Fx1616-BA PLC or a host PC can serve as the token master. An internal relay bit or a variable
of the PLC can be defined as the token. The token master will begin by giving the token (i.e., by setting
the token relay bit to ‘1’ or the token variable to some fixed value) to the first PLC on the list. The PLC that
has the token can then send host-link commands to other PLCs. When it has finished the job it can then
send a command to the token master to relinquish its token. If it is based on a fixed timing scheme the
master can assume that the PLC will complete its job after a fixed time (say 0.1 seconds) and turn off its
corresponding token relay bit.
The token master then passes the token to the next PLC on the list and so on until the last PLC has
relinquished its token, and the token is passed back to the first PLC on the list again. This way at any one
time there will only be one active network master (the one with the token) and hence there is no danger of
conflicting signals or garbled messages to handle.
Pros and Cons: This method also does not incur any hardware cost, but it requires the programmer to
draw up a plan on what internal relay or variable to use as the token and how the PLC can relinquish its
token to the token master. (It could be by fixed timing or by returning a message to relinquish the token) It
is a challenging job for programmers unfamiliar with networking schemes, but with some experimentation
it can be achieved readily.
15.5.4.3 Rotating Master Signal
In this scheme we make use of the digital inputs of the Fx1616-BA to grant the PLC the right to act as the
network master. Lets call this input the “Be the Master” input. We can use a low cost H-series PLC
running a sequencer to activate the “Be the Master” input line of each PLC one at a time. Each PLC is
given a fixed amount of time to be the master (e.g. 0.1s each). Only when the “Be the Master” input is
ON can the Fx PLC start sending out host-link commands to other PLCs. So at any one time there will
only be one master on the network and no conflict will occur as a result.
Pros and Cons: This method is the easiest to program since there is no need to handle the token with the
token master or perform extensive error check on the response string. However, this method uses one
input of each PLC and as many outputs on the master-signal generator PLC as there are PLC masters. It
also requires wiring the PLCs to the master-signal generator PLC.
15.5.5 TROUBLE-SHOOTING AN RS485 NETWORK
1) Single faulty device
If a single device on the RS485 network becomes inaccessible, problems can be isolated to this particular
device. Check for loose or broken wiring or wrong DIP switch settings. Also double check the device ID
using the host-link command "IR*" sent via the RS232C port of the PLC. If all attempts fail, either
replace the entire PLC or the SN75176 chip that handles the RS485 interfacing and try again.
2) Multiple faulty devices
If all the PLCs are inaccessible by the host computer, it may possibly be due to a faulty RS232C-toRS485 converter at the PC. If this is the case, disconnect the RS485 converter from the network and
check it using a single PLC. Replace the converter if it is confirmed to be faulty. Next check the wire from
the converter to the beginning of the network. A broken wire here can lead to the failure of the entire
network.
Since an RS485 network links many PLCs together electrically and in a daisy chain fashion, problems
occurring along the RS485 network sometimes affect the operation of the entire network. For example, a
broken wire at the terminal of one node may mean that all the PLCs connected after this node become
inaccessible by the master. If the RS485 interface of one of the PLCs has short-circuited because of
15-9
Chapter 15 Host Link Communication Protocol
component failure, then the entire network goes down with it too. This is because no other node is able to
assert proper signals on the two wires that are also common to the shorted device.
Hence, when trouble-shooting a faulty RS485 network, it may be necessary to isolate all the PLCs from
the network. Thereafter, reconnect one PLC at a time to the network, starting from the node nearest to
the host computer. Use the TRiLOGI program to check communication with each PLC until the faulty unit
has been identified.
15-10
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
Chapter 16 Host Link Protocol Format
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
16 HOST LINK PROTOCOL FORMAT
This chapter describes the detailed formats of the command and response frames for all Fx PLC host link
commands. Only the formats for the point-to-point communication protocol are presented, but all these
commands are available to the multi-point protocol as well.
To use a command for multi-point system, simply add the device ID (@nn) before the command header
and the FCS at the end of the data (See Chapter 3 for detailed descriptions of multi-point communication
command format).
16.1 Device ID Read
Command Format
I
R
*
Response Format
I
R
161
160
*
Device ID (00 to FF)
The device ID is to be used for the multi-point communication protocol so that the host computer can
selectively communicate with any controller connected to a common RS485 bus (see Chapter 3 for
details). The ID has no effect for point-to-point communication. The device ID is stored in the PLC's nonvolatile memory and, therefore, will remain with the controller until it is next changed.
16.2 Device ID Write
Command Format
I
W
161
160
*
New Device ID (00 to FF)
Response Format
I
W
*
E.g. To set the PLC’s ID to 0A, send command string “IW0A*” to PLC.
16.3 Read Digital Input Channels
Command Format
R
I
n
n
*
8-bit Channel # (Hex)
16-1
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
Response Format
R
I
161
160
*
8-bit Data (Hex)
16.3.1 Definition of Input Channels
The following table shows the input numbers as defined in TRiLOGI's Input entry table corresponding to
the input channel number.
Bit7
CH00:
CH01:
CH02:
CH03:
CH04:
CH05:
CH06:
CH07:
CH08:
CH09:
CH0A16:
CH0B16:
CH0C16:
….
CH1E16:
CH1F16:
Input/Output Numbers
Bit0
8
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
72
80
88
96
104
7
15
23
31
39
57
55
63
71
79
87
95
103
6
14
22
30
38
56
54
62
70
78
86
94
102
5
13
21
29
37
45
53
61
69
77
85
93
101
4
12
20
28
36
44
52
60
68
76
84
92
100
3
11
19
27
35
43
51
59
67
75
83
91
99
2
10
18
26
34
42
50
58
66
74
82
90
98
1
9
17
25
33
41
49
57
65
73
81
89
97
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
248
256
247
255
246
254
245
253
244
252
243
251
242
250
241
249
The 8-bit inputs of each channel are represented by a two byte ASCII text expression of its hexadecimal
value. For example: if inputs 1 to 3 are logic '0's, inputs 4 to 10 are logic '1's and all other inputs are
logic '0's, then if you send command “RI00*”, you will get the response “RIF8*” (F816 =1111 10002).
16.4 Read Digital Output Channels
Command Format
R
O
n
n
*
8-bit Channel # (Hex)
Response Format
R
O
161
160
*
8-bit data (Hex)
16-2
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
Please refer to the Input/Output vs Channel Number table described in the section “16.3. Read Digital
Input Channels” for details.
16.5 Read Internal Relay Channels
Command Format
R
R
n
n
*
8-bit Channel # (Hex)
Response Format
R
R
161
160
*
8-bit data (Hex)
16.5.1 Definition of Internal Relay Channel Numbers
All Fx PLCs support 512 internal relays, the channel definition of the first 256 internal relays is the same
as the inputs and the outputs. The remaining relays and their assigned channels are shown in the
following table:
bit7
Relay numbers
bit0
CH2016:
CH2116:
CH2216:
CH2316:
CH2416:
CH2516:
CH2616:
CH2716:
CH2816:
CH2916:
CH2A16:
CH2B16:
..
CH3A16:
CH3D16:
CH3E16:
CH3F16:
264
272
280
288
296
304
312
320
328
336
344
352
..
488
496
504
512
263
271
279
287
295
303
311
319
327
335
343
351
..
487
495
503
511
262
270
278
286
294
302
310
318
326
334
342
350
..
486
494
502
510
261
269
277
285
293
301
309
317
325
333
341
349
..
485
493
501
509
260
268
276
284
292
300
308
316
324
332
340
348
..
484
492
500
508
259
267
275
283
291
299
307
315
323
331
339
347
..
483
491
499
507
258
266
274
282
290
298
306
314
322
330
338
346
..
482
490
498
506
257
265
273
281
289
297
305
313
321
329
337
345
..
481
489
497
505
16.6 Read Timer Contacts
Command Format
R
T
n
n
*
8-bit Channel # (Hex)
16-3
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
Response Format
R
161
T
160
*
8-bit data in Hex
16.6.1 Definition of Timer-Contact Channel Numbers
A timer contact is a single bit of memory and 8 timer contacts are grouped into one 8-bit channel similar to
that of the inputs, outputs etc.
The following table shows the timer numbers defined in TRiLOGI's Timer entry table and their
corresponding channel numbers.
bit7
CH0:
CH1:
CH2:
CH3:
CH4:
CH5:
CH6:
CH7:
Timer Contact numbers
8
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
7
15
23
31
39
57
55
63
6
14
22
30
38
56
54
62
5
13
21
29
37
45
53
61
4
12
20
28
36
44
52
60
bit0
3
11
19
27
35
43
51
59
2
10
18
26
34
42
50
58
1
9
17
25
33
41
49
57
16.7 Read Counter Contacts
Command Format
R
C
n
n
*
8-bit channel # (Hex)
Response Format
R
C
161
160
*
8-bit data in Hex
16.7.1 Definition of Counter-Contact Channel Numbers:
The 64 counter contacts are assigned channel #’s in exactly the same way as the 64 timers. Please refer
to the last section: “16.6. Read Timer Contacts” for details.
16.8 Read Timer Present Value
(P.V.)
Command Format
R
M
n
n
*
nn: Timer1=00, ..... Timer16=0F.... Timer64=3F
Response Format
16-4
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
R
M
103
102
101
100
*
Timer present value in Decimal
The present value (PV) of the specified timer is returned in decimal form as four byte ASCII text
characters from 0000 to 9999.
16.9 Read Timer Set Value (S.V.)
Command Format
R
m
n
n
*
nn: Timer1=00, ..... Timer16=0F.... Timer64=3F
Response Format
R
m
103
102
101
100
*
Timer Set Value in Decimal
The Set Value (S.V.) of the specified timer is returned in decimal form as four byte ASCII text characters
from 0000 to 9999. Note that this command header contains small letter “m” instead of “M” in the “RM”
command.
16.10 Read Counter Present Value (P.V.)
Command Format
R
U
n
n
*
nn: Counter1=00, ..... Counter16=0F.... Counter64=3F
Response Format
R
U
103
102
101
100
*
Counter present value in Decimal
The Present Value of the specified counter is returned in decimal form as four byte ASCII text characters
from 0000 to 9999.
16.11 Read Counter Set Value (S.V.)
Command Format
R
u
n
n
*
nn: Counter1=00, ..... Counter16=0F.... Counter64=3F
Response Format
16-5
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
R
103
u
102
101
100
*
Counter Set Value in Decimal
The Set Value of the specified counter is returned in decimal form as four byte ASCII text characters from
0000 to 9999. Note that this header contains small letter “u” instead of “U” in the “RU” command.
16.12 Read Variable - Integers (A to Z)
Command Format
R
V
I
alphabet
*
A,B.C....Z
Response Format
R
V
I
167
166
165
164
163
162
161
160
*
8 Hexadecimal Digit for 32-bit integer
E.g. To read the value of the variable “K”, send host-link command “RVIK*”. If variable K contains
the value 12345610 (=1E24016), the PLC will send the response string as “RVI0001E240*”.
16.13 Read Variable - Strings (A$ to Z$)
Command Format
R
V
$
alphabet
*
A,B.C....Z
Response Format
R
V
$
a
a
a
...
...
a
a
a
*
ASCII characters of the string (variable length)
E.g.
To read the value of the string variable “M$”, send host-link command “RV$M*”. If variable
M$ contains the string “Hello World”, the PLC will send the response string as “RV$Hello
World*”.
16.14 Read Variable – Floating Point (A# to Z#)
Command Format
R
V
#
alphabet
*
A,B.C....Z
Response Format
16-6
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
R
V
167
#
166
Header
E.g.
165
164
163
162
161
160
…
…
8 Hexadecimal Digit in 32bit IEEE format
To read the value of the string variable “M$”, send host-link command “RV$M*”. If variable
M$ contains the string “Hello World”, the PLC will send the response string as “RV$Hello
World*”.
16.15 Read Variable – Single Data Memory (DM[1] to DM[4000])
Command Format
R
V
163
D
162
161
160
*
0001 to 0FA0 (400010)
Address of DM[ ]
Response Format
R
V
163
D
162
161
160
*
4 Hexadecimal Digit for 16-bit integer
E.g. To read the value of DM[3600], send host-link command “RVD0E10*”. If variable DM[3600]
contains the value 1234510 (=303916), PLC will send the response string as “RVD3039*”.
16.16 Read Variable – Multiple Data Memory (DM[1] to DM[4000])
(Note: This new command is available only to Fx PLC)
Command Format
R
V
163
D
162
161
160
163
Starting DM address
0001 to 0FA0 (400010)
162
161
160
*
Number of DM
0001 to 0032 (50 Dec)
Response Format
R
V
163
D
Header
162
161
160
…
…
1st Data (Hex)
4 Hexadecimal Digit for 16-bit integer
163
162
161
160
*
Last data
E.g. To read the value of DM[3600] to DM[3609], send host-link command “RVD0E10000A*”.
16-7
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
16.17 Read Variable – Single Floating Point Array FP[1] to FP[1000]
(Note: This new command is available only to Fx PLC)
Command Format
R
V
163
F
162
161
160
*
0001 to 0FA0 (400010)
index to FP[ ] variable
Response Format
R
V
167
F
166
165
164
163
162
161
160
*
8 Hexadecimal Digit in 32bit IEEE format
E.g. To read the value of FP[20], send host-link command “RVF0014*”. If variable FP[20] contains the
value 1.2345E-2 (0.012345), PLC will send the response string as “RVF3C4A42AF*”.
16.18 Read Variable – Multiple Floating Point Data FP[1] to FP[1000]
(Note: This new command is available only to Fx PLC)
Command Format
R
V
163
F
162
161
160
163
Starting FP[ ] index
0001 to 03E8 (100010)
162
161
160
*
Number of FP
0001 to 0019 (25 Dec)
Response Format
R
V
F
167
166
165
164
163
162
161
160
…
161
160
…
1st Data
8 Hexadecimal Digit in 32bit IEEE format
Header
…
…
167
166
165
164
163
162
*
Last data
E.g. To read the value of FP[101] to FP[110], send host-link command “RVF0065000A*”.
16.19 Read Variable - System Variables
This command allows you to read all the Fx PLC’s 16-bit system variables such as the inputs[ ], outputs[ ],
relays[ ], counters[ ], timers[ ], timers’ P.V., counters’ P.V., CLK[ ] and DATE[ ]. Although inputs, outputs
etc. are also accessible via the “RI”, “RO”, “RR”... commands, the RVS command can access them as 16bit words instead of as 8-bit bytes in those commands. For the 32-bit system variable HSCPV[ ], use the
“RVH” command described in the next section to access it. It may be more conventional for some SCADA
software driver to use a single header command “RVS” to access all the I/O, varying only the “type”
number to access different I/O types.
16-8
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
The RVS command also can be used to access the internal variables used to store ADC, DAC and PWM
values obtained during the latest execution of the ADC(), setDAC or setPWM statement. These are
however not system variables in the TBASIC sense. E.g. it is illegal to use ADC[2] to access the ADC
channel #2 in TBASIC (you have to use the ADC(2) function instead). An 8-bit hexadecimal number is
used to denote the “type” of system variable, as shown in the following table:
System
Variable
input[ ]
output[ ]
relay[ ]
timer[ ]
ctr[ ]
timerPV[ ]
ctrPV[ ]
type
System
type
Variable
clk[ ]
08
date[ ]
09
0A
ADC*
0B
DAC*
0C
PWM*
0D
*Not a system variable in
TBASIC, but readable.
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
Command Format
R
V
S
n
161
n
type
160
*
Index
type (01 to 0D) - denotes the type of system variable to access,
index (01 to 1F) - index into the array, starting from 01.
Response Format
R
V
S
163
162
161
160
*
4 Hexadecimal Digit for 16-bit integer
Example: To read the value of DATE[2] (which represents the month of the RTC), send command
“RVS0902*” and if the PLC responds with “RVS0005”, it means the month is May.
16.20 Read Variable - High Speed Counter HSCPV[ ]
Command Format
R
V
H
n
*
Channel: 1 or 2
Response Format
R
V
H
167
166
165
164
163
162
161
160
*
8 Hexadecimal Digit for 32-bit integer
E.g.
To read the value of HSCPV[2], send hostlink command “RVH2*”. If variable HSCPV[2]
contains the value 12345610 (=1E24016), the PLC will send the response string as
“RVH0001E240*”.
16-9
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
16.21 Write Inputs
Command Format
W
I
n
n
161
Channel #
(00 to 0F)
160
*
Data
Response Format
W
I
*
16.22 Write Outputs
Command Format
W
O
n
n
Channel #
(00 to 0F)
161
160
*
160
*
160
*
Data
Response Format
W
O
*
16.23 Write Relays
Command Format
W
R
n
n
Channel #
Response Format
W
R
161
Data
*
16.24 Write Timer-contacts
Command Format
W
T
n
n
Channel #
(00 to 07)
161
Data
Response Format
W
T
*
16-10
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
16.25 Write Counter-contacts
Command Format
W
C
n
161
n
Channel #
(00 to 07)
160
*
Data
Response Format
W
C
*
16.26 Write Timer Present Value (P.V.)
Command Format
W
M
n
n
103
102
101
100
*
Timer1=00,
New timer PV
........
Timer64=3F (Hex)
Response Format
W
M
*
Please note that the timer number starts from 00, which represent timer #1, then 01 represents timer #2...
and so on.
16.27 Write Timer Set Value (S.V.)
Command Format
W
m
n
n
103
102
101
100
*
Timer1=00,
New timer SV
....
Timer64=3F (Hex)
Response Format
W
Note:
m
*
the 2nd character is a lower case “m” instead of the upper case “M” of “WM” command.
16-11
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
16.28 Write Counter Present Value (P.V.)
Command Format
W
U
n
n
103
102
101
100
*
100
*
Counter1=00,
New PV
....
Counter64=3F (Hex)
Response Format
W
U
*
16.29 Write Counter Set Value (S.V.)
Command Format
W
u
n
n
103
102
101
Counter1=00,
New Counter SV
....
Counter64=3F (Hex)
Response Format
W
u
*
Note: the 2nd character is a lower case “u” instead of the upper case “U” of the “WU” command.
16.30 Write Variable - Integers (A to Z)
Command Format
W
V
167
alphabet
I
A,B.C....Z
166
165
164
163
162
161
160
*
8 Hexadecimal Digit for 32-bit integer
Response Format
W
E.g.
V
I
*
To assign variable
“WVIK00000DD5*”.
“K”
to
number
5678910(=0DD516),
send
hostlink
command
16.31 Write Variable - Strings (A$ to Z$)
16-12
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
Command Format
W
V
$
alphabet
a
a
A,B.C....Z
...
...
a
a
*
ASCII characters of the
string (variable length)
Response Format
W
V
$
*
E.g. To assign the string “ Super PLC” to the string variable P$, send hostlink command “WV$P
Super PLC*”.
16.32 Write Variable – Floating-point (A# to Z#)
Command Format
W
V
#
167
alphabet
166
A,B.C....Z
165
164
163
162
161
160
*
8 Hexadecimal Digit in 32bit IEEE format
Response Format
W
V
#
*
E.g. To write to A# the value 6.265599E9, send command “WV#A4FBABABABA*” where
“4FBABABABA” is the IEEE 32-bit representation of the floating-point number 6.265599E9.
See TL7 Programmer’s Reference on how float number are represented using 32-bit integer
in IEEE single precision format in I-TRiLOGI.
16.33 Write Variable – Singe Data Memory (DM[1] to DM[4000])
Command Format
W
V
D
163
162
161
160
16-bit Index to array
0001 to 0FA0 (400010)
163
162
161
160
*
16-bit Integer Data
Response Format
W
V
D
0
0
0
1
*
Number of DMs written to the PLC (=1)
E.g.
To write the value 123410 (=4D216)to DM[1000], send hostlink command “WVD03E804D2*”.
(100010 = 3E816)
Note: The response to WVD command in the Nano-10, FMD and F-series was simply “WVD*”
without the variable count.
16-13
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
16.34 Write Variable – Multiple Data Memory (DM[1] to DM[4000])
(Note: This new command is available only to Fx PLC)
Command Format
W
V
163 162 161 160 163 162 161 160 163 162
D
1st 16-bit Integer
16-bit Index to array
0001 to 0FA0 (400010)
…
…
163
162
161
160
*
160
*
…
…
2nd 16-bit Integer
last 16-bit integer
Response Format
W
V
D
163
162
161
Number of DMs written to the PLC
16.35 Write Variable – Singe Float Array (FP[1] to FP[1000])
(Note: This new command is available only to Fx PLC)
Command Format
W
V
F
163 162 161 160 167 166 165 164 163 162 161 160 *
16-bit Index to array
0001 to 03E8 (100010)
8 hexadecimal digit
in 32-bit IEEE format
Response Format
W
V
F
0
0
0
1
*
Number of FP[ ] written to the PLC (=1)
E.g.
To write the value 6.265599E9 (=4FBABABABA in IEEE) to FP[1000], send hostlink
command “WVF03E84FBABABABA*”.
16.36 Write Variable – Multiple Float Array (FP[1] to FP[1000])
(Note: This new command is available only to Fx PLC)
Command Format
W
V
F
163 162 161 160 167 166 165 164 163 162 161 160
16-bit Index to array
1st IEEE float data
…
…
2nd float
… … 167 166 165 164 163 162 161 160 *
16-14
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
last IEEE float data
Response Format
W
V
163
F
162
161
160
*
Number of FP[ ] written to the PLC
16.37 Write Variable - System Variables
System
Variable
input[ ]
output[ ]
relay[ ]
timer[ ]
ctr[ ]
timerPV[ ]
ctrPV[ ]
type
System
type
Variable
clk[ ]
08
date[ ]
09
0A
ADC*
0B
DAC*
0C
PWM*
0D
*Not a system variable in TBASIC
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
Command Format
W
V
S
n
n
type
161
160
163
Index
162
161
160
*
16-bit Integer Data
type (01 to 0D) - denotes the type of system variable to access,
index (01 to 1F)
- index into the array, starting from 01.
Response Format
W
E.g.
V
S
*
To set clk[1] (which represents the hour of the RTC) to 14, send the command
“WVS0801000E*” to the PLC.
16.38 Write Variable - High Speed Counter HSCPV[ ]
Command Format
W
V
H
n
1 or 2
167
166
165
164
163
162
161
160
*
8 Hexadecimal Digit for 32-bit integer
Response Format
16-15
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
W
E.g.
V
H
*
To clear the value of HSCPV[2], send hostlink command “WVH200000000*”.
16.39 Halting the PLC
Command Format
C
2
*
Response Format
C
2
*
When the PLC receives this command, it temporarily halts the execution of the PLC's ladder program
after the current scan. However, the PLC continues to scan the I/Os and processes host link commands
sent to it and will report the current I/O data and internal variables to the host computer.
16.40 Resume PLC Operation
Command Format
C
1
*
Response Format
C
1
*
When the PLC receives this command, it will resume execution of the ladder program if it had been halted
previously by the "C2" command. Otherwise, this command has no effect.
16.41 Read Analog Input
This command forces the PLC to refresh the value of its ADC data at the analog channel before returning
its value in the response string (i.e. no need for the PLC to execute ADC(n) function to refresh the analog
input)
Command Format
R
A
n
n
c
Starting Analog
Channel # (01-08h)
c
*
Channel count
(01 to 08h)
Response Format
16-16
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
R
163
A
162
161
160
162
…
Starting channel
16-bit Data (Hex)
…
161
160
*
Ending channel
16-bit Data (Hex)
E.g. To read 4 channels of Analog inputs starting from Ch #2, Send “RA0204*”. The response
string will contain 4 sets of data for channel 2, 3, 4 and 5.
16.42 Read EEPROM Integer Data
Command Format
R
X
n
I
n
n
n
c
EEPROM starting
Address (Hex)
c
*
Word Count
(01 to 20h)
Response Format
R
X
163
I
162
161
160
162
…
1st EEPROM Integer
16-bit Data (Hex)
…
161
160
*
Last EEPROM
16-bit Data (Hex)
Maximum allowable word count per command is 32 (01 to 20 Hex). If “count” is > 32, only the first 32
words will be returned.
E.g. To read the 10 words of EEPROM data starting from address 100, send host-link command
“RXI00640A*”. The response string will contain 10 sets of 16-bit data (4 ASCII hex digit per
set).
16.43 Read EEPROM String Data
Command Format
R
X
$
n
n
n
n
*
EEPROM String starting
Address (Hex)
Response Format
R
X
$
a
a
a
...
...
a
a
a
*
E.g. To read the string data stored at EEPROM address 10, send host-link command
“RX$000A*”. The response string will contain string data stored in the EEPROM (maximum
40 characters).
16-17
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
16.44 Write Analog Output
Upon receiving this command, the PLC updates the value of its DAC data at the analog output channel
(i.e. no need for PLC to execute SETDAC to update the analog output).
Command Format
W
A
n
n
c
Starting Analog
channel # (01-02h)
(Hex)
163
c
channel
count
162
161
160
…
DAC output data
for 1st channel
161
160
*
DAC output data
for subsequent ch
Response Format
W
A
c
c
*
channel count (Hex)
16.45 Write EEPROM Integer Data
Command Format
W
X
n
I
n
n
n
c
Starting EEPROM
Address (0001-xxxx)
163
162
161
160
163
c
count
(01-10h)
…
161
162
161
160
…
Hex data for starting
EEPROM address
160
*
data for subsequent
EEPROM addresses
Response Format
W
X
*
I
Maximum allowable word count per command is 16 (01 to 10 Hex).
16.46 WRITE EEPROM String Data
Command Format
W
X
$
n
n
n
EEPROM String
Address (Hex)
n
a
a
...
...
a
*
ASCII characters
(max. 40 characters)
16-18
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
Response Format
W
E.g.
X
$
*
To write the string data “Hello TRi” at EEPROM String address 12, send host-link
command “RX$000CHello TRi*”.
16.47 Force Set/Clear Single I/O Bit
This new “Wbnnnnxx” command allows you to change a single I/O bit on the PLC. You can force set or
clear any single input, output, relay, timer or counter bit. This has an advantage over other write
commands such as WI, WO, etc that affects the entire group of 8 or 16-bits organized into “channels”.
Command Format
W
b
n
n
n
I/O Bit address
(Hex)
n
x
x
*
00 – Clear I/O bit (OFF)
FF – SET I/O bit (ON)
Response Format
W
b
*
I/O Type
Bit address nnnn (Hex)
Input #1 to #256
0000 to 00FF
Output #1 to #256
0100 to 01FF
Timer #1 to #256
0200 to 02FF
Counter #1 to #256
0300 to 03FF
Relay #1 to #256
0400 to 04FF
Relay #257 to #512
0500 to 05FF
E.g. To force output 1 to ON, send “Wb0100FF*”. To turn it OFF, send “Wb010000*”
16.48 Using OMRON Host Link Commands
Since the PLCs also support OMRON C20H Host Link commands, which are very similar in construct to
our multi-point command/response format, you can also make use of OMRON commands to supplement
the native host link commands.
We will only discuss four of the OMRON host link commands “RR”, “WR”, “RD” and “WD” in this section
because these commands can be used by users to read/write to multiple I/O registers and data memory
in a single command (Note: maximum length of command string should be <=80 characters).
16-19
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
Note: Fx PLC native protocol command set now includes reading and writing of multiple DM and FP that
are not available on F2424/F1616-BA, FMD and Nano-10 PLCs. To maintain backward compatibility with
FMD and Nano-10 PLCs that only support read/write of single DM (there is no FP[ ] in these PLCs), these
OMFRON host link commands may be used to read/write multiple DM locations in a single command.
16.48.1 Read IR Registers
This command refers to Table 14.1 in Chapter 14 to map the PLC’s I/Os to OMRON IR register space
from IR0 to IR519
Command Format
@
d
d
R
Device ID
R
n
Header
f
n
n
n
c
IR Address (Dec)
f
c
c
c
IR count (Hex)
*
FCS
Response Format
@
d
d
R
Device ID
R
Header
163
162
s
s
163
162
160
160
…
…
1st Data (Hex)
Status
00 – OK
15 - Bad
161
161
f
Last data
f
*
FCS
E.g. To read Timer PV #1 to #7 using this command, send:
“@01RR012800074D*”
The PLC will send return a response “@01RR00xxxxyyyyzzzz….*”
16.48.2 WRITE IR Registers
This command refers to Table 14.1 in Chapter 14 to map the PLC’s I/Os to OMRON IR register space
from IR000 to IR519
Command Format
@
d
d
W
R
n
Device ID Header
163
162
n
n
n
163
Last data
160
f
f
161
160
….
1st data
IR Start Addr(Dec)
161
162
*
FCS
16-20
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
Response Format
@
d
d
W
Device ID
R
s
Header
s
f
Status
00 – OK
f
*
FCS
E.g. To Write to CtrPV #1 to #2 using this command, send: “@01WR0256xxxxyyyyff*”
where xxxx and yyyy are the hex values to be written to CtrPV 1 & 2.
16.48.3 Read Data Memory DM[1] to DM[4000]
Command Format
@
d
d
R
Device ID
D
n
Header
f
f
n
n
n
c
DM Address (Dec)
c
c
c
DM count (Hex)
*
FCS
Response Format
@
d
d
R
Device ID
D
Header
163
162
s
s
163
162
160
160
…
…
1st Data (Hex)
Status
00 – OK
161
161
f
Last data
f
*
FCS
E.g. To read DM#112 to #130 (19 words), send: “@01RD0112001357*”
The PLC will send return a response “@01RD00xxxxyyyyzzzz…*”
16.48.4 WRITE Data Memory DM[1] to DM[4000]
Command Format
@
d
d
Device ID
163
W
D
Header
162
n
n
n
n
163
Last data
160
f
f
161
160
….
1st data
DM Start Addr(Dec)
161
162
*
FCS
16-21
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
Response Format
@
d
d
Device ID
W
D
Header
s
s
f
f
*
Status
00 – OK
FCS
E.g. To Write to DM#1200 to #1201 using this command, send: “@01WD1200xxxxyyyyff*”
where xxxx and yyyy are the values to be written to DM[1200] & DM[1201].
16.49 Testing of Host Link Commands
You can try out all the Host-Link commands using TLServer’s “Serial Communication Setup”. However,
TLServer is designed to accept only multi-point protocol commands except the “IR*” command (which is
necessary to obtain the device ID from the PLC). You, therefore, have to enter all your host link
commands in multi-point format.
Since the multi-point protocol requires a FCS (frame check sequence) character to be appended to the
end of the command string, you may be able to get around it by using the “wildcard” FCS “00” in place of
the actual FCS. E.g. To read input channel 02 from a PLC with ID = 01, you can enter the command
string as “@01RI0200*”.
For TLServer version 2.1 and above, there is an “FCS” button that lets you compute the actual FCS for
the string in the command string text field. You can then use the actual FCS with the command string to
completely test your command. E.g. If you type in the string “@01RI02” in the command string (but do not
press Enter) and then click on the “FCS” button, the FCS for this string will be computed and shown as
“FCS = 58”, as shown in the following figure:
16-22
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
You now can enter the complete command string as “@01RI0258*” and it will be accepted by TLServer.
(Note: If the PLC has executed a SETPROTOCOL n,5 to configure its serial port into pure native mode,
then wildcard FCS will not be accepted and you must use the actual FCS with your command. The FCS
button makes it much easier than computation by hand).
If you have changed some data using the write command, then activate On-Line Monitoring and examine
the changes made using the “View Variables” window.
16.50 Visual Basic Sample Program
To help users get started writing their own Visual Basic program to communicate with the PLC, we have
created a sample Visual Basic program with full source code listing. Please visit the following web page to
download the visual basic sample program.
http://www.tri-plc.com/applications/VBsample.htm
16.51 Inter-PLC Networking Using NETCMD$ Command
All Fx PLCs are able to send out host link commands to other Fx PLCs, M-series or H-series PLCs using
the built-in TBASIC function NETCMD$(). This function accepts host link commands in multi-point
format and automatically computes the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) characters, appends them to the
command string and sends out the whole command string together with the terminators. The function
then waits for a response string and checks the integrity of the received response string for errors. This
function returns a string only if a proper response string has been received. Please refer to the TBASIC
Reference for a detailed explanation of this command.
The NETCMD$() function therefore greatly simplifies the programming tasks for handling networking
between PLCs. The programmer only needs to construct the correct command string according to the
formats described in this chapter, pass the formatted string to the NETCMD$() function, and then check
for the response string. A Fx PLC may use the NETCMD$ to map the I/O of another PLC into its internal
relays and use the other PLC as its remote I/O.
There are some programming examples in your “TRILOGI\TL6\usr\samples” folder that illustrate the
use of NETCMD$() to map I/Os of a slave PLC to the master. Please study the two examples:
“RemoteIO-Hseries.PC6” and “RemoteIO-Mseries.PC6” carefully to understand the mechanism of
mapping I/Os between the PLCs. The TRiLOGI program “REMOTE-Hseries.PC6” will work on the Hseries, M-series or F-series PLCs as slaves, whereas the program “REMOTE-Mseries.PC6” will only
work with F-series, FMD or Nano-10. This is because the Fx PLC host link command set is a superset of
the H-series host link command set, and this example uses the more efficient M-series host link
commands to read/write 16-bit data for networking between M-series PLCs.
An application note and example programs demonstrating how to use our other PLC models as slave
remote I/O for the F- or M-series PLC can be found at the following web page:
http://www.tri-plc.com/appnotes/AppnoteMain.htm
16-23
Chapter 16 Host Link Command/Response Format
16.52 Inter PLC Networking Using MODBUS Protocols
The PLCs may also pass data to each other using special MODBUS commands, which are even simpler
to use than NETCMD$ but are restricted to accessing variables that are mapped into MODBUS address
structure. Please refer to the Section 14.7 and 14.8 as well as the TBASIC Reference manual for details
on using the READMODUS, WRITEMODBUS, READMB2 and WRITEMB2 commands.
16-24
Chapter 17 IR Remote Control
Chapter 17 IR Remote Control
Chapter 17 IR Remote Control
17 IR REMOTE CONTROL
17.1
Introduction
The Fx1616-BA PLC features a built-in, Infra Red remote control sensor with 38KHz modulation band
pass filter (part # TSOP32138), located as shown in the following picture:
Figure 17.1
The IR remote sensor enables the PLC to do the following :
1. Receive and decode IR remote control signals sent by hand-held IR remote controls that are
encoded with Sony Corporation’sTM SIRC protocol (which really is just any hand held remote
control that comes with your SONY TV or VCR). The decoded signal can be used to trigger any
actions under your program control and it is unbelievably easy to program!
2. “Learn” (i.e. records) up to 128 IR remote codes (can be a mixture of different brands of devices)
it receives into non-volatile flash memory and playback* the recorded IR remote codes under your
program control to turn ON/OFF or to adjust AV devices, air-conditioning settings etc.
* To playback the recorded IR remote codes you need to purchase a low cost IR LED and a
resistor and connect it to one of the PLC’s PWM output channels (see Section 17.4 for details).
The IR LED emitter is not included with the PLC.
17.2
Applications of IR Remote Control
1. Use your IR remote control to Start/Stop your machine or activate some command remotely.
2. Use the remote control as a keypad to enter parameters into the PLC (preferably use one with
an LCD display so that you can see what you have entered).
3. Use the remote control to enter a multi-digit security code to unlock certain routines or to run
some program code (e.g. setup or calibration routine) that is not normally accessible by the
equipment operator.
17-1
Chapter 17 IR Remote Control
4. Teach the PLC different remote control codes so that the PLC can be programmed to control a
combination of different devices by sending out IR signal to turn them ON/OFF or to adjust their
settings. This is extremely useful for home automation, HVAC or AV control tasks
17.3
Decoding Sony IR Remote Control Signal
You really don’t have to learn anything about how the IR signal is encoded and decoded in the Sony
SIRC protocol in order to use it with the Fx1616-BA. This is because the PLC’s operating system takes
care of decoding the signal and it simply presents the data to you as a single 16-bit binary word.
However, for those who are interested in how the IR signals are encoded by a Sony IR remote control you
can refer to this web site: http://www.sbprojects.com/knowledge/ir/sirc.htm
To enable the IR Remote decoding in the PLC, you need to run the following command once.
SETSYSTEM 17,1 ' enable IR remote
This command enables the PLC’s IR remote interrupt routine and it will sample the incoming IR signal.
This interrupt routine will be disabled when the PLC is turned OFF, or a SETSYSTEM 17,0 command is
run, or when an IR playback function is invoked (see section 17.4).
The IR signal received can be decoded and read by the PLC program using the TBASIC command
“STATUS(17)”.
E.g.
X = STATUS(17)
' read IR code into variable X
THAT’S IT!!!
When you press a different key on the Sony IR remote control, the STATUS(17) function will return a
different number. E.g. If you press the ‘1’ key on the TV remote control, STATUS(17) returns the
hexadecimal number “&H80”, the “2” key returns “&H81”…. and if you press the ‘0’ key on the TV remote,
STATUS(17) returns “&H89”. Do note that a Sony VCR remote would return a different set of data
because a VCR has a different “device” code from the TV. You can then simply use the IF.. THEN
statement to perform different tasks based on the key being pressed.
Note:
1. If no key is pressed, STATUS(17) returns –1.
2. If a key is pressed down and not released, then the first read of the STATUS(17) returns the code
correctly, but a repeat read of the STATUS(17) function would return –1 until the key has been
released and a new key or the same key is being pressed again.
A sample program “IRremoteControl.PC6” that turns on output 1 to 10 in response to a key-press of 0
to 9 received from a Sony TV remote can be downloaded from: http://www.triplc.com/trilogi/FPLCsamples.zip . This program also demonstrates how to turn the key presses on the IR
remote into a numerical keypad. The entered number is displayed on the LCD display along with the IR
code. You can use the “volume-up” button to accept the entry into variable B and use the “volume-down”
button to delete the wrongly entered number. The sample program is ready to use and you can transfer it
to the PLC and use a Sony TV remote control to test it immediately.
17-2
Chapter 17 IR Remote Control
17.3.1 Relocating The IR Remote Sensor
If the PLC is installed inside an opaque enclosure and you want to be able to aim your remote at it without
opening the enclosure, then you need to relocate the IR sensor to the external surface of the enclosure.
We enable you to do this easily by installing the IR sensor with long leads so that you can cut the lead
and relocate it to a desirable location. You will need to connect 3 wires to the leads of the sensor and the
other ends of the wires are to be soldered to the Fx1616-BA PCB. We have provided 3 blank solder pads
next to the original sensor solder pad just to make life a little easier for you, as shown in Figure 17.1
17.4 Learning and Playing back IR Remote Control Signals
Unfortunately there isn’t any international standard for the IR remote control protocol and each brand of
TV, VCR, amplifier and air conditioning, etc manufacturer actually implements their own proprietary
protocols as they wish. Fortunately, most of the IR remote controls encode the digital ‘1’ and ‘0’ using
pulses of IR beams modulated at a frequency between 36 to 42 KHz, with a 38KHz carrier frequency
being the most common. The main difference among most manufacturers’ implementation is the duration
of the ON and OFF time of these modulated IR beams that are used to represent logic ‘0’ and logic ‘1’.
The IR remote control sensor used on the Fx1616-BA is optimized for a 38KHz carrier frequency but it is
also able to receive signals encoded by a wide range of carrier frequencies between 36KHz and 42 KHz.
Although the PLC firmware is designed to only decode IR signal based on Sony SIRC protocol, the IR
remote sensor has another important use, which is to “learn” (record) IR remote control signals sent by
most other brands of IR remote control. The PLC does not attempt to decode these signals. Instead, it
simply measures the pulse width of the ON and OFF times of the carrier pulses and store this timing
information into the PLC’s internal flash memory. This pre-recorded IR signal data can then be called up
under the user’s program control to be played back through an IR LED emitter (user-supplied) connected
to one of the PLC’s digital outputs, #5 to #8.
The PLC uses the PWM capability of any one of these 4 outputs to generate the 38KHz modulating signal
at a 33% duty cycle and uses the recorded timing information to re-construct the IR signals.
Up to 128 IR remote control signal sets, each with up to 128 bits of data can be recorded by the Fx1616BA. Any of the pre-recorded IR data can be called up in any order by a user’s TBASIC program. This
makes the Fx1616-BA extremely useful for home automation tasks that involve controlling devices that
can only be controlled by an IR remote control signal.
17.4.1 Recording IR Remote Control Data Set
After the SETSYSTEM 17,1 statement has been executed as mentioned in Section 17.3, the PLC will
automatically record the IR remote data set into the “Current IR Buffer”. This buffer can only hold one IR
data set of not more than 128 bits of information at any one time. A new data set received will always
overwrite the last data set.
The Fx1616-BA CPU has dedicated 64Kbytes of flash memory to store up to 128 data sets. The data set
in the “Current IR Buffer” can be saved to any of the 128 locations, n, using the following command:
SETSYSTEM 17, n + 2000
That is to say, if you run the SETSYSTEM 17,xxx with the second parameter that is between 2001 and
2128, the CPU will record the data set in the “Current IR Buffer” into the reserved flash memory.
17-3
Chapter 17 IR Remote Control
17.4.2 Loading IR Remote Control Data Set
Any of the 128 data sets that are previously stored in the flash memory can be loaded back into the
“Current IR Buffer” using the following command:
SETSYSTEM 17, n + 1000
That is to say, if you run the SETSYSTEM 17,xxx command with the second parameter that is between
1001 and 1128, the CPU will load the previously recorded data back into the “Current IR Buffer”. You can
use the techniques discussed in the next subsection to “playback” the IR remote signal that is currently in
the “Current IR Buffer”.
17.4.3 Playback of IR Remote Control Signal
If your application requires the PLC to send out IR signals to your devices, then you have to construct an
IR emitter as shown in the following diagram:
V = +24VDC
F1616-BA
Output #5,
6,7 or 8
Power Supply: Can be any voltage from +5V to +24V DC,
but most convenient to use the same +V
of the PLC’s power supply.
IR LED:
(Not included) - Most Infra Red LEDs that
you purchase from Digikey can be used.
You may also salvage one from an old
remote control.
R1 :
It depends on the current, I, that the LED
can handle and the output power you
want. Typically 20 to 50mA should be
adequate.
R1 = (V - 2) / I
E.g. for I = 50mA, V = 24V, R1 = 440 ohms.
R1 power rating = I2R = 1.1 W => Use a 3W resistor.
The LED emitter circuit is to be controlled by one of the PLC’s PWM outputs.
To playback the IR remote data set in the “Current IR Buffer” through PWM channel #n, you simply
execute the following command:
SETSYSTEM 17, n + 10
i.e. If you run SETSYSTEM 17,11 , the PLC will re-construct the IR signal using the data in the
“Current IR Buffer” and send it out via IR emitter connected to its PWM channel #1 (D/O #5).
Likewise, if the IR emitter is connected to PWM #4 (D/O #8), then you need to run the command
“SETSYSTEM 17, 14” to turn ON the IR emitter.
The PLC actually uses the PWM output(s) to turn the IR LED ON and OFF to produce the 38KHz carrier
frequency at 33% duty cycle.
Important Notes:
17-4
Chapter 17 IR Remote Control
1) The IR remote control sensing interrupt will be disabled automatically when you playback the IR
control signal. This is to prevent the reflected IR signals from corrupting the data in the “Current
IR Buffer”. Hence if you need the PLC to re-learn a new IR remote signal after you have done a
playback, you will need to execute “SETSYSTEM 17, 1” again to enable the interrupt service
routine.
2) It is possible to connect multiple IR emitters to the same PWM outputs especially if these emitters
are going to different rooms. The PMW outputs on the Fx1616-BA are capable of sinking up to 8A
peak and 4A continuous current and hence it is able to support many IR emitters simultaneously.
3) Since any of the 4 PWM outputs can be used, it is also possible to use more than one PWM
output to control multiple devices selectively even though they may all share the same IR codes.
For example, you have 4 bedrooms and all of them are installed with same Panasonic brand of
air conditioner. If you connect 4 IR emitters to the same PWM output, then all 4 air conditioners
will be activated at the same time when the PWM channels output the IR control signals. But if
these 4 emitters are each connected to a different PWM output, then you can easily select which
air conditioner to turn ON or OFF.
17.5 SETSYSTEM 17, xxx
Command Summary
The SETSYSTEM 17,xxx command is used by the Fx1616-BA exclusively (not available on M-series
PLCs) for controlling its IR remote control capability. The following summarizes the various parameters
xxx for this purpose.
Xxx
Functions
0
Disable IR Remote Sensor
1
Enable IR Remote Sensor
11 – 14
Playback current IR data through
PWM channel #1 to #4
1001 – 1128
Load the stored IR data set #1 to
#128 into “Current IR Buffer”
2001 – 2128
Store the data in the “Current IR
Buffer” to flash memory data set
location #1 to #128.
*101 to 150
PWM carrier frequency in KHz
(Default is 138 which means 38KHz)
*233 to 250
PWM duty cycles. (Default is 233
which means 33% duty cycle)
* You normally should not change these parameters from their default values
17-5
Chapter 18 Light Dimmer Control
Chapter 18 Light Dimmer Control
Chapter 18 Light Dimmer Control
18
LIGHT DIMMER CONTROL
18.1 Introduction
You may have used one of those commercial light dimmers to control the brightness of incandescent light
bulbs. Modern light dimmers are mostly based on controlling the “firing angle” of a type of semiconductor
switch known as “TRIAC” (which stands for “AC transistor”).
A TRIAC is a semiconductor switch that conducts current when a trigger voltage is applied to its “Gate”
terminal. However, what makes the TRIAC different from a typical transistor is that once the TRIAC starts
conducting current, it cannot be switched off even if the voltage to the gate is removed. I.e. The TRIAC
switch is “latched” once it is turned ON. That also means that you only need to apply a very short trigger
pulse to the “Gate to turn it ON. In control term this is often known as “firing” of the TRIAC.
Since the TRIAC is latched ON and cannot be turned OFF regardless of what voltage or no voltage is
applied to the “Gate”, it will be quite useless for switching DC current as the switch cannot be turned OFF!
However, when a TRIAC is used to switch AC current, since at every half cycle the AC voltage must
change polarity, that means the TRIAC will be switch OFF automatically during zero-crossing. Once the
TRIAC is switched off, it can only be switched ON again by applying a triggering voltage pulse (also
known as “firing pulse”) to the “Gate” again and this process must be repeated every half cycle. This is
illustrated in the following two figures.
Triac
Firing
45 deg
Zero
Crossing
Triac
Firing
45 deg
Triac ON
Triac ON
Triac
OFF
Figure 18.1(a)
Triac
ON
Zero
Crossing
Triac
Firing
90 deg
Triac
ON
Triac
Firing
90 deg
Triac
OFF
Figure 18.1(b)
In Figure 18.1(a) the TRIAC is triggered at the phase angle = 45 degree, whereas in Figure 18.1(b) the
TRIAC is fired at phase angle = 90 degree. The TRIAC conducts the AC current immediately upon
receiving the firing pulse and will only turn itself OFF at the next zero crossing. In the next half cycle the
TRIAC needs to be fired again in order to conduct and this process repeats itself indefinitely.
You can easily see that the TRIAC in Figure 18.1(a) is turned ON earlier compared to the TRIAC in Figure
18.1(b). This means that when a load such as an incandescent lamp is connected to the TRIAC, it will be
turned ON a greater proportion of time using the firing angle shown in Figure 18.1(a) and therefore will
appear brighter compared to the that in Figure 18.1(b). By controlling the “firing angle” applied to the
TRIAC you can achieve the objective of controlling the brightness of the lamp. The lamp will be brightest
when the firing angle is near 0 degree and will be dimmest when the firing angle is near 180 degree.
Controlling lamp brightness this way is highly efficient. Unfortunately the transfer function is non-linear
(i.e. the brightness is neither proportional non inversely proportional to the firing angle) and therefore it
has limited applications in precision digital control system. But it can provide low cost control for devices
such as lamps, since the operator who receives instant visual feedback can vary the firing angle manually
until a satisfactory brightness is obtained.
18-1
Chapter 18 Light Dimmer Control
In a commercial light dimmer, a potentiometer is
typically used with a capacitor to vary the timing
where the TRIAC is allowed to start conducting, as
shown in the example circuit in Figure 18.2:
120VAC
Figure 18.2 – Commercial Light Dimmer Circuit
On the Fx1616-BA PLCs we will make use of the computational power of the CPU to control the firing
angle and therefore achieving the same effect as light dimmer control.
18.2 Control of 120V/240V AC TRIAC
Since 120V/240V AC voltages power most incandescent light bulbs, it is essential to provide galvanic
isolation between the AC lamp power and the PLC’s low voltage electronics. What you should use is an
opto-isolated TRIAC that can be controlled by a low DC voltage between 3 and 30V. These kinds of
TRIACs are commonly known as “Solid State Relay” (SSR), as illustrated in the following diagram:
+24V
Opto-isolated
TRIAC (SSR)
5
F-Series PLC 6
Outputs
7
8
AC120V
Figure 18.3
In the above circuit, if the PLC turns on its output #8, it will provide continuous trigger voltage to the
TRIAC gates and therefore the lamp can be switched on at 100% brightness. When the PLC turns off its
output #8 the lamp will be turned OFF completely.
To achieve light dimming control, the PLC must determine the precise moment that the AC voltage
crosses the zero voltage point and the PLC will then schedule a time delay and then send a short firing
pulse via its digital output to the TRIAC to turn it on for the rest of the half cycle. Since the TRIAC will turn
itself OFF in the next zero crossing, the PLC must do this repeatedly at every zero crossing in order to
maintain the fractional power being applied to the lamp.
The Fx PLC CPU is capable of controlling up to 12 SSR for light dimmer control using its digital outputs
#5 to #16. However, on the Fx1616-BA, the output #9 to #16, being relay outputs, are too slow to be used
for controlling the SSR’s firing angle. Therefore on the Fx1616-BA, only outputs #5 to #8 can be used
effectively for light dimmer control.
Important Note: There are two types of SSR on the market – one type is called “Zero Crossing SSR”
which only switches ON when the AC voltage crosses the zero volt line. Zero crossing type SSR
CANNOT be used by the PLC for light dimmer control. Instead you must purchase the “Non-Zero
Crossing” type of SSR for this purpose.
18-2
Chapter 18 Light Dimmer Control
18.3 Zero-crossing Detection
As explained in 18.2, the Fx1616-BA’s CPU must know the precise moment the zero crossing occurs so
that it can schedule the time interval when it needs to send out the firing pulse to turn on the SSR. This
can be accomplished by feeding the AC power through a bi-directional opto-isolator and the output would
drive input #6 of the Fx1616-BA. The falling edge of the signal detected at input #6 would send an
interrupt to the CPU to start the scheduling of the various time slots that each light dimmer output is to fire
a triggering pulse. This means that if you activate the light dimmer control, you must configure input #6 as
an interrupt input for capturing the zero crossing signal and therefore input #6 will no longer be available
for other functions (such as for HSC or Pulse Measurement)
Note that all Fx1616-BA inputs are opto-isolated and can be connected to AC or DC inputs. If you are
using 24VAC for your PLC inputs (i.e. you are connecting one of the 24VAC wire to the COM terminal),
then all you need to do is to connect the other 24VAC wire to input #6 and voilà! – you instantly have a
zero crossing detection signal at input #6 – It is that simple!
However, if your control system uses 24VDC for all the inputs, then you would not be able to connect
24VAC signal directly to input #6 since the COM terminal would then be connected to either DC +24V
(NPN input connection) or 0V (PNP input connection). In that case, if you still want to use the light dimmer
control, then you will need to construct the following interface circuits:
F1616-BA PLC
F1616-BA PLC
F1616-BA
F1616-BA
Input
2.2K
~
2.2K
Input
~
AC24V
AC24V
H11AA814
H11AA814
COM
+
0V
NPN Input
Configuration
COM
DC 9 to 24V
Power Supply
for sensor
(a)
V+
PNP Input
Configuration
Figure 18.4
0V
DC 9 to 24V
Power Supply
for sensor
(b)
The above shows the wiring diagram of using an external opto-isolator to provide the zero-crossing signal
to the PLC. Both NPN (a) and PNP (b) input configurations are shown.
18-3
Chapter 18 Light Dimmer Control
18.4 Programming Light Dimmer Control
18.4.1 Enable Zero-Crossing Interrupt
Before programming any of the light dimmer channels, you first need to enable the zero-crossing
interrupts for the zero-crossing signal fed into input #6. This is accomplished using the following
command:
SETSYSTEM 22,1
‘ Enable zero crossing interrupt
18.4.2 Programming Individual Dimmer Channel
You can program up to 12 of the Fx1616-BA’s outputs #5 to #16 to control SSR for dimmer control
purposes using the SETDIMMER command (available only on i-TRiLOGI version 6.23 onwards). The
syntax is as follows:
SETDIMMER
ch =
ch
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
ch, value
Light dimmer channel (1 to 12)
This is mapped to the Fx1616-BAs outputs as follows:
Fx1616-BA Output
#
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
value = Integer multiplier of an internal timer resolution (approximately 53 microsecond)
to schedule the next firing time from the last zero crossing.
For 50Hz AC signal, range = 1 to 188
For 60Hz AC signal, range = 1 to 156
The lamp will be fully ON (100% brightness) when *value = 1 and fully OFF (0% brightness) when value
is near the maximum stated above. DO NOT set any of the dimmer channel with value greater than the
maximum allowed for the corresponding AC frequency as it will lead to poor interrupt timing of the CPU
and can affect all the dimmer channel (if you see the light flickering repeatedly then some of the dimmer
channel could have been set with an out of range value.)
* Note: Since the CPU needs a minimum amount of time delay to fire the TRIAC after the last zero
crossing, the minimum value cannot equal 0.
Also, please be reminded again that the voltage applied to the load is non-linear with respect to the firing
angle controlled by the value parameter.
18-4
Chapter 18 Light Dimmer Control
18.4.3 Programming Example
Please find the demo program “SetDimmer.PC6” in the zip file that you can download from:
http://www.tri-plc.com/trilogi/FPLCsamples.zip
The demo program lets you experiment with turning a lamp slowly ON (Fade ON effect) and slowly OFF
(Fade OFF effect) as well as letting you experiment with manual control of the lamp’s brightness using
two push buttons.
18-5
Chapter 19 ZigBee Networking
Chapter 19
ZigBee Networking
Chapter 19 Zigbee Communication
19
ZIGBEE NETWORKING
19.1 Introduction
ZigBeeTM (trademark of ZigBee Alliance) is the commercial name of a specification for a suite of highlevel communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4
standard. Please refer to Wikipedia for a good fundamental description of the ZigBee networking
protocols.
ZigBee is gaining popularity with building automation and HVAC equipment suppliers as a low cost,
secure and open standard intercommunication medium among devices used for the building industry.
More equipment will soon appear with built-in support for communication using the ZigBee protocol.
19.2 Installation of the XBEE Module
The Fx1616-BA is designed to easily interface to the XBEETM family of ZigBee modules produced by Digi
International, Inc. There are two rows of 10-pin solder pads on the Fx1616-BA’s PCB and to each you can
solder a 2mm pitch, single-in-line socket that you can purchase from http://www.digikey.com (Part
number : S5751-10-ND), as shown in the following diagrams:
Remove U3 (RS485
Driver for COMM2)
Figure 19.1
Once you have soldered the two rows of sockets, you can purchase the XBEE module directly from Digi
International (http://www.digi.com) and plug the XBEE module into these two sockets. Through these
connector pins the Fx1616-BA provides the 3.3V power to the XBEE module as well as connects its
COMM2 Receive and Transmit data lines to the XBEE module. However, the PLC does not support the
XBEE serial port hardware handshaking.
The Fx1616-BA PLC uses only its COMM2 serial port to communicate with the XBEE module. It can use
the PRINT #2, OUTCOMM 2, INCOMM(2) and INPUT$(2) commands to configure the XBEE module for
Transparent mode or API mode to integrate it with a ZigBee network.
However, since the Fx1616-BA’s COMM2 port is already pre-installed with an RS485 driver IC at the U3
socket (IC part number is 75HVD3082 or equivalent), you MUST REMOVE the COMM2 RS485 driver IC
if you wish to install the XBEE module to prevent signal conflicts. You can easily remove the 8-pin RS485
driver IC from its DIP socket and store it in your parts bin as spare parts. Since the Fx1616-BA’s COMM3
port also uses the same RS485 driver chip, the RS485 driver you just removed from COMM2 port would
come in handy if the COMM3 driver happen to be damaged due to bad wiring.
Note:
1. DO NOT be tempted to solder the XBEE board directly to the Fx1616-BA’s PCB solder pad. You
will need to be able to remove the XBEE from Fx1616-BA and put into the Digi’ interface board
whenever you need to upgrade the firmware or change the role of the XBEE module (e.g.
19-1
Chapter 19 Zigbee Communication
configure it to be a coordinator, a router or an end device, to operate in AT mode or API mode
etc).
2. Although the XBEE socket can also accept the XBEE-PRO module, the current requirement for
the XBEE-PRO module at maximum transmission power exceeds the peak current capability of
the PLC’s voltage regulator and therefore we do not recommend installing the XBEE-PRO OEM
module into the Fx1616-BA’s XBEE socket. If you must use an XBEE-PRO, you can install the
XBEE-PRO module onto the RS232 carrier board provided by Digi and interface to the PLC via
the PLC’s RS232 or RS485 port (use Auto485 to convert the signal).
19.3 Using The XBEE’s Transparent Mode
The simplest way that the Fx1616-BA can use the XBEE modules is to put the XBEE into “Transparent
Mode”. The Fx1616-BA can configure the XBEE module to make a transparent connection to any other
XBEE module on the same ZigBee Personal Area Network (PAN). After a transparent connection has
been established, A PC will be able to connect to any Fx1616-BA via ZigBee, or any two Fx1616-BAs will
be able to communicate with each other wirelessly using the same NETCMD$, READMODBUS and
WRITEMODBUS commands, as if they have been connected by physical wires.
19.3.1 Connecting to Fx1616-BA Using XBEE 64-bit Addressing
1. Use the X-CTU software and the
USB/RS232 interface board provided in the
XBEE Development Kits to configure one
XBEE module as ZIGBEE Coordinator AT
(e.g. firmware version 2041) and another
one or more XBEE module as ZIGBEE
Router AT (e.g. firmware version 2241).
Follow the procedure outlined in the XBEE
user’s manual to setup a ZigBee PAN
(Personal Area Network). When setup
properly, the Coordinator will blink its red
LED once every second while the Routers
will be blinking their red LED twice a
second. The red LED on the interface board
is the “Associate” LED that is used to
indicate that a router or end device has
successfully joined a PAN.
2. With the X-CTU “Terminal” connected to the
Coordinator, enter command mode by
entering “+++” and the Coordinator should
return “OK”, then quickly enter “ATND”
followed by a carriage return. After a while
the XBEE coordinator will return the 64-bit
serial numbers of the devices are that joined
to it. In our example shown on the right, the
two devices are: 0013A200-400A6364 and
0013A200-403E0279. Note down these two
numbers, as they are needed for our tests.
19-2
Chapter 19 Zigbee Communication
3. The 64-bit serial number is unique for each
XBEE
device
produced
by
the
manufacturer, so your XBEE module will
definitely have a different serial number
from ours (the upper 32-bit typically would
be the same for devices from the same
manufacturer). For Digi ZigBee products it is
“0013A200” but the lower 32-bit will be
different for each device.
In transparent mode we can force the
coordinator to make a transparent
connection to a specific router or end device
by specifying the serial number in two
commands: ATDH and ATDL (destination
address High and destination address Low).
Each command will specify the 32 bit half of
the 64-bit serial number.
4. Next, use the X-CTU terminal to enter the
following commands:
ATDH0013A200
ATDLXXXXXXXX
where XXXXXXXX is the lower 32-bit
address of the router device that you want
to connect to. In our example we entered
ATDL403E0279, which is the serial number
of the router that we want the coordinator to
connect to. You can confirm that the
destination address has been correctly
setup by entering “ATDH” and “ATDL”
without any parameters and the XBEE
module would return the previously defined
destination address. You can enter “ATWR”
if you wish to store the destination address
into non-volatile memory.
Note: XBEE automatically exits command mode
within 10 seconds of no activity so if you enter a
command and did not see any response, then you
need to re-enter command mode by typing “+++”
again and then re-enter the command.
5. If you have another PC connected to the Router’s interface board via RS232, you can run the
HyperTerminal program (default to 9600 bps, 8 data bit, 1 stop bit and no parity) to test the
connection. Once the coordinator is connected to the router designated by the ATDH & ATDL
command, anything you type on the terminal at the coordinator terminal side will appear at the router
terminal screen and vice versa. This means that you now have a proper transparent connection
between the coordinator and the router.
6. Next you can turn off power to the Router interface board, remove the XBEE module and plug it into
the Fx1616-BA’s XBEE socket (make sure power to PLC is turned OFF before doing this). Turn on
power to the Fx1616-BA and you should see the green “Assoc.” LED located next to the lower left
corner of the XBEE socket starting to blink twice a second. This means that the XBEE module on the
Fx1616-BA is connected to the PAN setup by the Coordinator.
19-3
Chapter 19 Zigbee Communication
7. We will next attempt to use the TRiLOGI
software to connect to the PLC via the XBEE
connections. Remember that the XBEE
module is physically connected to COMM2 of
the Fx1616-BA with the default serial baud
rate of 38,400, 8, 1, n. But the XBEE
module’s serial port is default to 9600, 8,1,n
so either one of them must change so that
the XBEE module can talk to the PLC’s
COMM2 using the same serial settings. You
can change the PLC’s baud rate by adding
the statement “SETBAUD 2,3” to initialize the
PLC’s COMM2 port to 9600,8,1. You need to
transfer this program to the PLC using the
regular program transfer method (e.g. via
Ethernet port or comm. Port) before our test.
8. You should now click the “Close Com Port”
button to close the COM Port at the X-CTU
and start up TLServer. Click the “Serial Port
Setup” button on TLServer and select the
same COM port that X-CTU uses to connect
to the coordinator. Set the serial port to
9600,8,n,1. Then enter the command
“@01IR00*” and press the Enter key
(assuming the PLC’s ID is 01) and the PLC
should
send
a
response
string
“@01IR015B*”. This shows that TLServer is
now connected to the PLC via Zigbee radio.
9. You can now use TRiLOGI to perform online monitoring or programming of the PLC via TLServer in
exactly the same way as if the PLC is connected to the PC serial port directly. However, in this case
the connection is done wireless via the two XBEE modules. The XBEE modules thus perform the
same task as a pair of radio modems, except that the actual connection is via a ZigBee mesh network
instead of a point-to-point radio link.
10. If you have more than one PLCs installed with the XBEE module, you can change the destination
address by repeating the ATDH and ATDL command as mentioned in step #4 and you would then be
able to connect to a different PLC wirelessly. While this is certainly not a practical way of using the
XBEE module, it is a good way to gain some understanding of the XBEE addressing method. In the
next example we are going to simplify the connection process using “Node Identifier”.
19.3.2 Defining Node Identifier for XBEE Module
In the last example we showed you how to use the ATDH and ATDL commands to set the 64-bit
destination address of a slave XBEE module. It is certainly not convenient having to enter so many digits
just to change a destination node to connect to. To simplify the connection procedure, XBEE offers a very
useful “Node Identifier” command that allows you to assign alphanumeric names (up to 20 characters with
no spacing) to each XBEE module using the ATNI command.
1.
First, turn off power to the PLC and then move the XBEE module to its RS232 interface board. Next,
use the X-CTU terminal screen to enter the command as shown below:
19-4
Chapter 19 Zigbee Communication
2.
By using the command “ATNIPLC1”, we have defined this XBEE module with the identifier “PLC1”.
We next issued the ATWR command to save the identifier to the non-volatile memory. To confirm
that the identifier has been saved, you can power off the XBEE module and then on again and enter
the command “ATNI” and the XBEE module will report the pre-defined identifier, as shown in our
example.
3.
If you have more than one Fx1616-BA PLC with an XBEE module, you can define them similarly
with a different name suitable for your application. In our case we have simply defined another XBEE
module as “PLC2”.
4.
Next, turn off power to the interface board
and move the XBEE modules to the Fx1616BAs and then turn on power to the PLCs. The
PLCs’ XBEE modules should still be joined to
the coordinator, which is indicated by the
blinking “Assoc.” LED on the PLC.
5.
Now run the X-CTU terminal program and
connect to the Coordinator, enter the “node
discovery” command “ATND” and you will see
the details of the XBEE nodes that are joined
to this PAN. This time you can see that the
PLC’s node identifiers, “PLC1” and “PLC2”,
have been listed together with their 64-bit and
16-bit addresses.
6.
Now, instead of using ATDH & ATDL to enter
the 64-bit node address, we can simply use
the ATDN command followed by the node
identifier to set the destination address. In our
example we show a host link command
“@01IR00*” (blue) being sent from the X-CTU
terminal to PLC2 and the response string
received from PLC2 (red).
7.
You can see that using the Node Identifiers greatly simplify the connection procedure. Note that for
nodes PLC1 and PLC2, their destination address by default all points to address 0, which is the
default network address of the coordinator. Therefore, although we didn’t specify the destination
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address for the Router nodes PLC1 and PLC2, they would automatically send all their responses
back to the coordinator.
8.
If two Routers XBEE modules need to communicate with each other instead of with the Coordinator,
then it is necessary to set the destination node ID of each XBEE module to that of the other module
so that the two nodes can talk to each other directly to exchange data. However, two nodes
connected this way still would not exclude other nodes from sending data to either of them. I.e. Any
node, including the coordinator, can still send data to either PLC1 or PLC2 as long as it sets its
destination address to either node. But any response string returned from these two PLCs will not
go back to the third sender since their destination address is not pointing to the sender. You should
remember this in order not to be surprised if the slave AT appears not to respond to a host link
command that it received via the XBEE channel.
19.3.3 Wring TBASIC Program To Configure XBEE
So far we have been using the X-CTU Terminal software provided by Digi to manually enter command
mode to configure the XBEE module, such as to set the destination address. This is useful as it gives us
the visibility of what’s going on when you send commands to the XBEE module.
For real world applications you may want to program the Fx1616-BA PLC to configure the XBEE module
instead of doing it manually by X-CTU software. To put the XBEE module into transparent mode, the PLC
needs to send three “+” character to COMM2, while observing the guard time before and after the “+++”
characters. (We also find that adding a small delay between each “+” character works better). If
successful, the XBEE module would return an “OK” string that is terminated with a carriage return. You
can use the INPUT$(2) command to read the “OK” string as a confirmation that the command mode has
been entered. Next, you can use the PRINT #2 statement to send the commands to the XBEE module
and the INPUT$(2) statement to read the response.
We have created a sample program “XBEE-COMM2.PC6” that will put the XBEE module into command
mode and send a command string stored in A$ to the XBEE module and return the response string from
XBEE in A$ back to the calling program. You can download the sample program from http://www.triplc.com/trilogi/XBEE-demo.zip - the program has been tested and fine-tuned to match the XBEE behavior
and is easy for you to incorporate into your own software.
19.3.4 Practical Applications of XBEE Modules In Transparent Mode
1) One possible application is to setup a Fx1616-BA PLC installed with an XBEE Coordinator as a
master PLC. A number of Fx1616-BA PLCs installed with XBEE router or end device modules can be
spread across the control environment to perform local control independently, but at the same time
they also act as ZigBee slave controllers. All ZigBee slave controllers would set their destination node
address to the Coordinator attached to the master PLC. If a ZigBee PAN is properly setup and
operational, then the master PLC can access any slave controller to read/write data simply by setting
the Destination node to the slave controller’s node identifier and then send host link commands to the
slave controller. However, due to the time taken to get in and out of the command mode to set the
destination node address, such a system is only suitable if the master PLC does not need to access
the slave PLC frequently, or if there are only a small number of slave controllers it needs to access. It
would not be suitable for implementing remote I/Os where the master controller needs constant status
updates of remote I/Os.
2) A modification of a system described above is to program each of the slave PLCs to monitor its local
I/O. Then it can then send an ASCII string to the master PLC if there are changes that require it to
inform the master PLC to take action. You can design the ASCII string format in whatever way
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suitable to your application as long as it contains enough information to inform the master who is
calling for attention and what the master needs to do.
In such a system, the master PLC must regularly read incoming ASCII strings using the INPUT$(2)
function and check to see if it is of the correct user-designed format (you can use a certainly starting
characters e.g. “AT#xxxx” where “AT#” means “Attention to node #” and “xxxx” is the node identifier
of the slave that requires attention) and if so, interprets the content of the string to decide what it
needs to do with the slave controller. Based on the information in the received string, the master can
selectively set its Node Destination to the slave node identifier so that it can issue host link
commands to access the designated slave PLC’s data.
Such a system would be quite efficient for collecting data from slave I/O since the slave I/O can
simply embed the information inside the ASCII string and the master PLC will receive the data almost
immediately. For example, a slave controller could be monitoring outdoor temperature and it will only
send the new temperature information to the master PLC if the temperature varies more than +/- one
degree C. If the master PLC does not receive updated information, it can then assume that the
temperature did not change.
Of course, in order to ensure that all the slave PLCs are still operational and are connected in the
network, you can also design the system in such a way that the master PLC expects the slave PLC to
always send a message within a certain time (say every 5 minute). The master will query the slave if
it did not see any update after a certain amount of time and it could sound an alarm if it discovers that
the slave is no longer accessible on the ZigBee network.
We have created a simple demonstration project based on the abovementioned arrangement. You
can download the demo programs from the following URL.
http://www.tri-plc.com/trilogi/XBEE-TransparentModeMasterSlaveDemo.zip
In this project two Fx1616-BA PLCs with XBEE Router modules are used as slave controllers and
they will only send ASCII strings to the master PLC when its digital input status has changed. The
master PLC will interpret the ASCII string and extract the input status of the two PLCs and then echo
them on the master’s PLC digital output 1-16 for the first PLC and 17-32 for the second PLC. It is a
simple project but does illustrate the concept well and you should be able to easily modify the
programs to suit your application needs.
19.4 Using The XBEE’s API Mode
(To be Appended)
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Chapter 20 Extended File System
Chapter 20 Extended File System
20
EXTENDED FILE SYSTEM
Before you begin, please download a sample I-TRiLOGI program that will be referred to throughout this
manual from our website:
http://www.tri-plc.com/trilogi/ExtendedFileSystem.zip
20.1 Introduction
A Fx1616-BA PLC supports up to 1,740K bytes of file space that can be used for storing up to 435 web
page control files!
More importantly, a Fx1616-BA PLC can open local data files in this file space and write/append data to it.
The PLC can therefore log a large amount of data into one or more data files, which can be retrieved for
analysis anytime.
There are two ways to retrieve the stored data files from the PLC:
1. Download the file from the PLC’s built-in web server: The file created by the PLC can be
downloaded from the PLC’s built-in web server using any web browser. This allows the user to
access the data file at any time of the day.
2. Automatic FTP upload from the PLC to an external web-server: You can program the Fx1616-BA
to make an FTP client connection to any web server on the local network or on the Internet/Cloud
and upload the data file it has created to the web-server using any filename.
Imagine what the Fx1616-BA can do with this new uploading capability! The ability to log data locally and
automatically upload the data to a web server transforms the PLC into a potent data-logger! The PLC
can be programmed to capture daily, weekly or monthly data and then periodically upload the data file to
an Internet web server with a unique, time-stamped filename (E.g. “temperaturelog2012-01-01.xls”).
This allows the PLC to log data completely unattended.
The data uploaded by the PLC to the external web server can therefore be viewed or downloaded into a
PC using any web browser, anywhere in the world. This allows you to carry out analysis of past logged
data file for performance or diagnostic analysis at any time without having to physically access the PLC to
retrieve the logged data.
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20.1.1 Advantage of Using Data Uploading
1) Although it is possible to directly access the PLC’s internal web server to download the data file it
has created, this does require active action by the user and to ensure that the data are retrieved
before the file is full and deleted by the PLC to create space to log new data.
2) By programming the PLC to upload the data periodically the PLC can delete the file after it has
successfully uploaded the data file to free up space to accept new data. In other words the PLC
will never run out of data space to log data since it can store the logged files on any server
including the Cloud!
3) To directly access the file stored on the PLC from outside of the LAN, you will need to setup the
router or firewall to “forward” the PLC’s server port (e.g. 9080) to the PLC. If you have multiple
PLCs logging data, then each PLC will need to have a different port number in order to properly
forward the data. This not only complicates the setup, but also is often frown upon by System
Administrator and may not even be permitted by the corporate network security policy.
4) The PLC is designed to upload data to any web server via FTP passive mode by providing the
login username and password. Using FTP passive mode allows the PLC to open a network
connection to an external web-server to upload a file and then close the connection immediately.
It does not require opening a port on your router to permit external access to the PLC from the
Internet. Hence there is no complicated router setup involved as there is no port forwarding
required. It also eliminates the security risk from someone trying to take control of the PLC from
outside of your LAN and is generally much more acceptable to the System Administrator.
If you have multiple PLCs in use, you can program each PLC to upload data to a different directory or
append a different file name prefix, or to a different server, and once programmed all PLCs will happily log
data unattended indefinitely!
20.2 File Structure and File Naming of The Extended File System
Fx1616-BA PLC uses a very simple file system, where the 1740K bytes of file space are divided into 435
slots of 4K bytes each. The file system does not use any kind of file allocation table; hence it must follow
a strict naming scheme because the file name directly relates to where it is stored in the file space. The
followings describe how the files are named and where they are stored.
1. The first 35 files are named “0.yyy”, “1.yyy”….”X.yyy”, “Y.yyy”.
2. The ‘yyy’ part of the file name is the “extension”, and only the following MIME extension are
accepted by the PLC:
HTM, JPG, GIF, CSS, JS, BIN, TXT, JAR, ZIP, XLS
Any other extension names will be replaced by “???”. The MIME extension are respected by the
web browser when you download a file from the built-in web server so you should always only
store files with one of the above extension.
3. The file “0.yyy” occupies the first 4K byte slot, “1.yyy” occupies the second slot… the “Y.yyy”
occupies the 35th slot.
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4. The next 400 files can only use the file name “Zxxx.yyy”. where the xxx part of the filename is a 3
digit decimal number which can be any number from 000 to 399. The yyy part is an extension
and the same as what’s described in (2) above.
5. “Z000.yyy” occupies the 36th slot, “Z001.yyy” occupies the 37th slot .., and the file “Z399.yyy”
occupies the last 4K slot.
6. Any file may occupy more than 1 slot so you can specify “0.yyy” to occupy the entire 1740K bytes
of the file space. Or you can configure “Z000.yyy” to occupy 20K (=5 slots) from the 36th slot, and
the next valid file should only start from Z005.yyy. i.e. If you want to allocate 20K bytes of file
space to file Z000.yyy you cannot use any file name Z001, Z002, Z003 and Z004, otherwise
these file will corrupt the file space of Z000.yyy.
7. This means that the programmer will have to design the file space carefully and determine how to
best use the file structure to provide the right balance between the number of data files and the
amount of data space allocated to each data file.
Note: The file name restriction only applies to files stored on the PLC’s internal file space. When you
use the FTP upload function described later, you can specify any destination filename as long as they
are acceptable to the external FTP server.
20.3 Transferring Files To The PLC’s Web Server
If you are only using the extended file space for the purpose of storing additional web pages on the builtin web server, then you can use the FTP client software such as FileZilla client to transfer the program to
the PLC as described in Section 2.10.
20.4 Accessing The Extended Data Files Using TBASIC
TBASIC program on a Fx1616-BA can directly access any data file with names from “Z000.yyy to
Z399.yyy”. File with names from “0.yyy” to “Y.yyy” are reserved for storing web pages only and
hence are not accessible by TBASIC.
The PLC can open a new file for writing new data (essentially deleting the old file content), or open an
existing file and append data to the end of the file. It can also open a file and read data from the file as
ASCII strings. It can achieve this by using the PRINT #8 and INPUT$(8) functions, which will be
described in details in the following sections. We have created a sample program:
“ExtendedFileSystem.PC6” (click here: http://www.tri-plc.com/trilogi/ExtendedFileSystem.zip to download)
that demonstrates all these new capabilities.
20.4.1 Open A File For Writing New Data
Syntax: PRINT #8 “<WRITE Zxxx.yyy>”
where “Zxxx.yyy” is the file name. If successfully executed, the “<WRITE>” command will open
the file and set the file pointer to the beginning of the file. Thereafter the PLC can start writing
ASCII data to the file using the PRINT #8 <string data> command. [Note: the PRINT #8
command automatically appends a carriage return to the end of the string data unless the string
data is terminated with a semi-colon (‘;’) ].
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When the PLC has completed writing data, it must close the file by executing the command:
PRINT #8 “</>”.
E.g.
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT
#8
#8
#8
#8
“<WRITE Z005.TXT>”
“The current Greenwich Mean Time is”
STR$(TIME[1]);”:”;STR$(TIME[2]);”:”;”00”
“</>”
The CPU should use the STATUS(2) command to check whether the <WRITE> has been
successfully executed before begin writing data to it. STATUS(2) command returns a 1 if
“<WRITE>” operation is successful and returns a ‘0’ if the operation failed. The CPU can only
write or access to a single file at a time so any opened file must be closed by the PRINT #8 “</>”
command before another file can be opened for writing.
20.4.2 Open A File For Appending Data To The End Of The File
Syntax: PRINT #8 “<APPEND Zxxx.yyy>”
where “Zxxx.yyy” is the file name. If successfully executed, the “<APPEND>” command will open
the file and set the file pointer to the end of the file. Thereafter any string data following a PRINT
#8 command will be appended to the end of the file. When the PLC has completed appending
data, it must close the file by executing the command: PRINT #8 "</>".
As per the “<WRITE>” command, the CPU should also use the STATUS(2) command to check
whether the <APPEND> command has been successfully executed before begin writing data to it.
Example
PRINT #8 "<APPEND Z"+STR$(F,3)+".txt>"
S = STATUS(2)
‘ Status(2) returns 1 if successful.
IF S <> 1 RETURN: ENDIF
FOR I = 1 to 100
PRINT #8 STR$(I,4)+":This is the Appended first line"
PRINT #8 STR$(I,4)+":This is the Appended second line"
SETLCD 1,1, "Append #"+STR$(I,4)
NEXT
PRINT #8 "</>"
‘ close the file
20.4.3 Delete A File
Syntax: PRINT #8 “<DELETE Zxxx.yyy>”
where “Zxxx.yyy” is the file name of the file to be deleted. There is no need to close a deleted file.
20.4.4 Open A File For Reading
Syntax: PRINT #8 “<READ Zxxx.yyy>”
where “Zxxx.yyy” is the file name of the file to be opened for reading. If the file has been
successfully opened for reading after execution of the PRINT #8 “<READ>” command, the PLC
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can start to retrieve ASCII data from the file line-by-line using the INPUT$(8) command. A line is
either a string that is terminated with a Carriage Return character (ASCII 13), or is a 70-character
long string (which is the maximum length of any string variables A$ to Z$) without carriage return.
In either case the return string does not contain the CR character itself.
The PLC can check if a file has been successfully opened for reading using the STATUS(2)
function AFTER executing the PRINT #8 “<READ>” command. STATUS(2) will only return a 1 if
a file has been successfully opened.
The PLC can determine if the End-of-File (EOF) has been reached using the STATUS(2)
function after every INPUT$(8) command has been executed. STATUS(2) returns a 255 if the
EOF has been reached. The PLC should then close the file by executing the “PRINT #8 “</>”
command.
A$ = "<READ Z"+STR$(F,3)+".txt>"
S = STATUS(2)
IF S <> 0
SETLCD 1,1, "Failed to Open File"
GOTO @100
ENDIF
C = 0
PRINT #8 A$
SETLCD 1,1, A$
WHILE 1
A$ = INPUT$(8)
S = STATUS(2)
IF S = 255 EXIT : ENDIF ' S = 255 means EOF
SETLCD 2,1,A$
DELAY 50
' So that reader can read from the screen.
C = C+1
ENDWHILE
SETLCD 1,1, "Read ” +STR$(C) + " lines "
@100
PRINT #8 "</>" ' close the opened file
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20.5 Setting Up The FileZilla FTP Server
One important capability of the PLC is the ability to upload file created by the PLC to an external server
on a local area network or on the Internet via the FTP protocol. If you have access to an FTP username
and password on your company’s server (or if the SysAdmin is authorized to set up an account for you)
you can certainly use your own account for testing. If not, you can download the free Filezilla FTP Server
and set it up for testing. The “ExtendedFileSystem.PC6” has an FTP upload demo and it was configured
to work with a FileZilla FTP server.
Using Filezilla has the advantage that you can see the login sequence performed by the PLC when it
attempts to connect to the FTP Server so that it is easier to troubleshoot connection problem. (For
professional grade troubleshooting, one handy program to have is the “Wireshark” program which is a
TCP/IP packet sniffer that allows you to look at the actual TCP/IP packets sent between your PC and the
PLC). However, it is important to setup the Filezilla server program properly to minimize connection
trouble.
20.5.1 Download and Setup FTP Server
1. First download the FileZilla server installer from the following website:
http://filezilla-project.org/download.php?type=server
2. Run the “FileZilla Server Interface” program which is meant for managing the FTP Server settings.
3. If the FileZilla Server is running on the same PC that you are running the FileZilla Server Interface
program then you can use the localhost IP address which is 127.0.0.1 – the Port can be anything
since this is a client port that the Interface program is using to interact with the FTP Server (don’t be
confused with the FTP Server listening port which is by default = 21).
4. If this is the first time you run the program after setting up Filezilla FTP Server there will be no
Administration password so you can leave it blank. Click OK to connect.
5. Click “Edit->Settings” and then “General Settings -> Welcome message” – leave only one line of
welcome message so that the PLC has less work to do. Then click OK to accept the change.
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6. Click “Edit –> Users” in order to setup a user name and password for your test. The
“ExtendedFileSystem.PC6” program uses a username = “PLC” and password = “1234” so for a
quick test you may like to setup the same username and password:
7. At the “General” page of the setup screen, click “Add” button at the “Users” pane to add a username
“PLC”. Since no group has been defined simply leave the default as “<none>” in the second text box
as shown in the following diagram.
8. Next click “Shared folders” page and you must setup a folder that is to be used to receive uploaded
file. Click “Add” at the “Directories” pane to add the folder. You can choose any folder on your PC to
be used for the FTP upload and you just have to remember the location so that you can look for the
uploaded file later in the test. However, make sure that you check all the check boxes for “Read”,
“Write”, “Append” etc as shown in the diagram.
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9. Click “OK” to complete the setup. The FTP server should now be waiting for connection.
20.5.2 Testing Connection To The FTP Server Using Telnet
You can now test the FTP Server using the FileZilla client as mentioned in Chapter 2.9 of the PLC User’s
Manual.
But a better way to test is to use the “Telnet” program on your PC (if you are running Windows Vista or
Windows 7 you may need to enable the Telnet program since it is disabled by default – do a quick Google
search on how to enable the Telnet client software on your PC).
Also you may want to find out the IP address of your PC that is running the FileZilla Server. If you have
TLServer running on your PC your IP address is reported on the TLServer’s front panel. You can also get
the IP address from the Windows “Network Connection Status” as shown below. Our test PC has an IP
address = 192.168.1.168 which will be used in the following tests as well as used in the PLC program to
connect to the FTP Server.
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1. First open a command prompt window and then type “telnet 192.168.1.168 21” - this will
open a telnet connection to the FTP server on our test PC with IP address 192.168.1.168 and
listening at port 21. Please replace the IP address with the actual IP address of your PC. The
following screen shot captures the test sequence. Note that the same command/response
sequence with the server is also shown on the FileZilla Server Interface program front panel:
USER PLC
PASS 1234
2. Once you get the “230 Logged On” message you know that the FTP setup is done correctly. Note that
the welcome message from the FTP Server shows only one line “220 FileZilla Server
Version x.xx” which is what we have set it up to be. You can now disconnect from the FTP server
by typing “Quit” at the command prompt.
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3. There is one more things you need to do before you proceed to test the FTP upload features of the
PLC to avoid connection problem – that is to temporarily TURN OFF the Windows Firewall and any
software firewall setup by anti-virus software during your test. You can always re-enable your
software firewall(s) after the test if you wish. PC operating system are designed to run client program
normally instead of acting as a server so Windows Firewall by default is to block all incoming
connections to the FTP Server. Thus it can give you a lot of headache when you are trying to connect
to the FTP server operating behind the Windows Firewall.
Notes:
a) The main purpose of Windows Firewall is to protect your PC when you are connected to say
a public wi-fi network. But if your PC is connected to the Internet via a router at work or at
home, the router hardware itself would act as a firewall to isolate your PCs and a software
Firewall is actually redundant. (If a hacker tried to connect to a port to your public Internet IP
address what he reached would be the port on the router and he would not be able to reach
your PC, unless you have specifically set up to forward all TCP/IP messages sent to that port
to a specific PC).
b) If you really want to use the Filezilla FTP Server as a permanent server on a PC to receive
files, and still want to have the Windows Firewall enabled, you can refer to the last section in
this chapter which describes how to do it.
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20.6 Uploading File From PLC to FileZilla FTP Server Directory
20.6.1 Overview of The FTP Protocol
The FTP protocol requires two socket-connections between the devices performing the file transfer. One
connection is the “command” channel where FTP commands such as STOR or DELE and the responses
are sent as plain ASCII text strings between the FTP client and the FTP server. The second connection is
the “data” channel where only the file content or the file directory data are being transferred.
There are two transfer modes: “Active” mode and “Passive” mode. Active mode requires that the server
establish a data connection back to the client. Passive mode on the other hand, requires that the client
also be the one to establish the data connection. i.e. For passive mode, both the command and the data
connections are performed by the client (the PLC in this case).
The PLC has been designed to use only passive mode to transfer file to the FTP server. Passive mode is
preferred because that is the only way to transfer file if the FTP Server is located on the Internet. The
alternative active mode transfer requires the server to make a data connection back to the PLC that is
sitting behind a router firewall, and that can be problematic unless the router is specifically configured to
forward the data port to the PLC.
20.6.2 PLC FTP Upload Procedure
In order to upload file to the FTP Server, the PLC would use the PRINT #4 “<TCPConnect
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:21>” command tag to connect to the FTP server port 21 to establish the “command”
connection to the FTP Server. The PLC uses its PRINT #4 to send and INPUT$(4) to receive ASCII text
strings from the FTP server via the command channel. The PLC would then send the command “PASV”
to inform the FTP server that it wants to transfer a file in passive mode.
At this point you can use the PRINT #4 command to send any valid FTP command to the server,
including changing directory (CWD command – make sure the directory exist), deleting a file (DELE
command – beware of what you are deleting!) etc.
When the PLC is ready to start a file transfer to the FTP server, the server will in turn provide the PLC
with the port number that it has opened for the PLC to connect to establish a data connection. Upon
receiving this port number the PLC will make a second TCP connection to the given port and then the
actual file transfer will begin.
A new, network service command tag named “FTPUPLD” handles the negotiation between the FTP
Server and the PLC as well as handling of the data transfer from the PLC to the FTP server. The following
is the syntax:
PRINT #4 “<FTPUPLD Zxxx.yyy [destination file name]>”
Where: Zxxx.yyy is the file name of the extended file that the PLC has access to. The [destination
file name] can be any legal name acceptable to the server so you can attach a date or time
stamp to the file name for easy identifications.
When the above <FTPUPLD> command is run, the PLC will send the actual “STOR” command in the
background to the FTP server and then obtain the port number from the server and it will then make a
data connection to it, and file transfer can then begin.
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20.6.3 Monitoring The FTP Upload Progress
Once the file transfer begins the PLC firmware will handle the rest of the file transfer until either the file
has been completely transferred or the transfer is aborted due to a network or server trouble. You can
monitor the progress of the file transfer using either the STATUS(4) or STATUS(20) functions.
STATUS(4)= 0
:
1 :
2 :
3 :
FTP client was idle or last FTP failed
FTP data transfer just started
1st FTP segment transferred, now transferring the rest
FTP data transfer completed.
STATUS(20) > 0: Number of bytes uploaded to FTP Server. Transfer is in progress.
< 0:
Total number of bytes uploaded. Transfer completed.
For example, If 2,345 bytes has been uploaded to the server and the transfer has ended, STATUS(20)
will return the number = –2345.
Since file transfer can take substantial amount of time to complete, it is not wise to run a loop to wait for
the file transfer to complete since this will block the PLC from processing any other part of the program.
The demo “ExtendedFileSystem.PC6” shows you how to setup a monitoring function to periodically
monitor the progress of the file transfer and report the transfer status on the LCD display.
Please refer to the comments in the custom function “fnConnFTP” and “fnMonFTP” of the
“ExtendedFileSystem.PC6” program for more detailed descriptions of each command involved in the FTP
file transfer.
20.7 Setting Up A FTP Server Behind a Windows Firewall.
Please refer to the following Microsoft document describing issues and solutions related to FTP server
behind the Windows Firewall.
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd421710(WS.10).aspx
Microsoft focuses mainly on the FTP server in their IIS server (for obvious reasons) instead of Filezilla. If
you are setting Filezilla as a permanent FTP server behind a software firewall you can try to make the
following configuration setup:
1) You must specifically setup a range of port number for Passive mode use. These are the port number
that Filezilla will assign to the PLC to make a data channel connection when it attempts to transfer a file
using passive mode. The following is an example where two port numbers are assigned so that two PLCs
may connect to the Filezilla simultaneously. You can add a larger port range if more PLCs may connect to
the FTP Server simultaneously.
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Chapter 20 Extended File System
Next, open up Windows Firewall and add to the Exception list the port 21 (command port) and ports
41000 to 41001 (or whatever range limit you have set to in the FileZilla Setup screen). This should allow
the FTP Server to receive connection from these ports that the PLC will be using to make the command
and data connections.
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Chapter 20 Extended File System
20.8
Uploading File From PLC to FileZilla FTP Server Directory
20.8.1 Overview of The FTP Protocol
The FTP protocol requires two socket-connections between the devices performing the file transfer. One
connection is the “command” channel where FTP commands such as STOR or DELE and the responses
are sent as plain ASCII text strings between the FTP client and the FTP server. The second connection is
the “data” channel where only the file content or the file directory data are being transferred.
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Chapter 20 Extended File System
There are two transfer modes: “Active” mode and “Passive” mode. Active mode requires that the server
establish a data connection back to the client. Passive mode on the other hand, requires that the client
also be the one to establish the data connection. i.e. For passive mode, both the command and the data
connections are performed by the client (the PLC in this case).
The PLC has been designed to use only passive mode to transfer file to the FTP server. Passive mode is
preferred because that is the only way to transfer file if the FTP Server is located on the Internet. The
alternative active mode transfer requires the server to make a data connection back to the PLC that is
sitting behind a router firewall, and that can be problematic unless the router is specifically configured to
forward the data port to the PLC.
20.8.2 PLC FTP Upload Procedure
In order to upload file to the FTP Server, the PLC would use the PRINT #4 “<TCPConnect
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:21>” command tag to connect to the FTP server port 21 to establish the “command”
connection to the FTP Server. The PLC uses its PRINT #4 to send and INPUT$(4) to receive ASCII text
strings from the FTP server via the command channel. The PLC would then send the command “PASV”
to inform the FTP server that it wants to transfer a file in passive mode.
At this point you can use the PRINT #4 command to send any valid FTP command to the server,
including changing directory (CWD command – make sure the directory exist), deleting a file (DELE
command – beware of what you are deleting!) etc.
When the PLC is ready to start a file transfer to the FTP server, the server will in turn provide the PLC
with the port number that it has opened for the PLC to connect to establish a data connection. Upon
receiving this port number the PLC will make a second TCP connection to the given port and then the
actual file transfer will begin.
A new, network service command tag named “FTPUPLD” handles the negotiation between the FTP
Server and the PLC as well as handling of the data transfer from the PLC to the FTP server. The following
is the syntax:
PRINT #4 “<FTPUPLD Zxxx.yyy [destination file name]>”
Where: Zxxx.yyy is the file name of the extended file that the PLC has access to. The [destination
file name] can be any legal name acceptable to the server so you can attach a date or time
stamp to the file name for easy identifications.
When the above <FTPUPLD> command is run, the PLC will send the actual “STOR” command in the
background to the FTP server and then obtain the port number from the server and it will then make a
data connection to it, and file transfer can then begin.
20.8.3 Monitoring The FTP Upload Progress
Once the file transfer begins the PLC firmware will handle the rest of the file transfer until either the file
has been completely transferred or the transfer is aborted due to a network or server trouble. You can
monitor the progress of the file transfer using either the STATUS(4) or STATUS(20) functions.
STATUS(4)=
0
1
2
: FTP client was idle or last FTP failed
: FTP data transfer just started
: 1st FTP segment transferred, now transferring the rest
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Chapter 20 Extended File System
3 : FTP data transfer completed.
STATUS(20) > 0: Number of bytes uploaded to FTP Server. Transfer is in progress.
< 0:
Total number of bytes uploaded. Transfer completed.
For example, If 2,345 bytes has been uploaded to the server and the transfer has ended, STATUS(20)
will return the number = –2345.
Since file transfer can take substantial amount of time to complete, it is not wise to run a loop to wait for
the file transfer to complete since this will block the PLC from processing any other part of the program.
The demo “ExtendedFileSystem.PC6” shows you how to setup a monitoring function to periodically
monitor the progress of the file transfer and report the transfer status on the LCD display.
Please refer to the comments in the custom function “fnConnFTP” and “fnMonFTP” of the
“ExtendedFileSystem.PC6” program for more detailed descriptions of each command involved in the FTP
file transfer.
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Chapter 20 Extended File System
20.9 Setting Up A FTP Server Behind a Windows Firewall.
Please refer to the following Microsoft document describing issues and solutions related to FTP server
behind the Windows Firewall.
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd421710(WS.10).aspx
Microsoft focuses mainly on the FTP server in their IIS server (for obvious reasons) instead of Filezilla. If
you are setting Filezilla as a permanent FTP server behind a software firewall you can try to make the
following configuration setup:
1) You must specifically setup a range of port number for Passive mode use. These are the port number
that Filezilla will assign to the PLC to make a data channel connection when it attempts to transfer a file
using passive mode. The following is an example where two port numbers are assigned so that two PLCs
may connect to the Filezilla simultaneously. You can add a larger port range if more PLCs may connect to
the FTP Server simultaneously.
Next, open up Windows Firewall and add to the Exception list the port 21 (command port) and ports
41000 to 41001 (or whatever range limit you have set to in the FileZilla Setup screen). This should allow
the FTP Server to receive connection from these ports that the PLC will be using to make the command
and data connections.
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Chapter 20 Extended File System
20-19
Chapter 21 Using PLC As a Modbus/TCP Gateway
Chapter 21 PLC As A Modbus/TCP Gateway
Chapter 21 Using PLC As a Modbus/TCP Gateway
21 USING PLC AS A MODBUS/TCP GATEWAY
21.1 Introduction
A Fx1616-BA can be configured to act as the "MODBUS/TCP GATEWAY" for other Modbus serial
devices while continue to function as a Super PLC!
A Modbus/TCP gateway essentially translates a Modbus/TCP command packet it receives from its
Ethernet port into a Modbus RTU serial command and sends it out of its serial port (RS232 or RS485). If
the Modbus RTU slave sends back a serial response, the gateway will in turn translate the RTU response
data back to Modbus/TCP response packet and return to the client via the Ethernet port.
As such the Modbus/TCP gateway enables any non-Ethernet equipped, both TRi or 3rd party serial
Modbus slave device to be directly accessible by a Modbus/TCP client via the Ethernet or the Internet. In
addition, the user PLC program does not need to handle the gateway function at all as the CPU performs
the translation functions automatically and transparently to the PLC’s program.
Best of all, while acting as a gateway, the Fx1616-BA program can simultaneously act as a Modbus
master PLC and read/write to any registers inside any of the attached Modbus RTU slave! The CPU
firmware automatically schedules the order of the command/response packets whether it is originated
from the client or from the PLC itself so that the Modbus/TCP command from the client will be responded
to in the correct order and in a timely manner.
21.2 Application Ideas for Modbus/TCP Gateway
The Modbus/TCP gateway function can be very useful for many large area control systems, such as a
building automation system. A master FMD or F-series PLC is linked to many Modbus RTU slave
controllers via RS485 bus distributed across an entire building. The master PLC can perform
sophisticated control functions since it has read/write access to ALL the Modbus RTU slaves it connects
to. At the same time, a Modbus TCP client software such as a Building Management System (BMS) can
access any registers in the master PLC or ANY of the slave Modbus RTU controller directly via the
master PLC acting as a gateway for the slave PLCs.
21.3 Configuring The PLC As Modbus/TCP Gateway
The command used to define a serial port to become Modbus/TCP Gateway serial port is as follow:
SETSYSTEM 12, n
Where n = 1, 2 or 3 for COMM1, COMM2 and COMM3 port.
This statement must be run once (could be during start up via 1st.Scan pulse) to configure the serial port
#n to be used to send out RTU commands and received RTU responses. If SETSYSTEM 12,n is not run
then the Modbus gateway function will be disabled.
Here is how it works: A Modbus/TCP client (such as a SCADA, HMI etc) would send a Modbus/TCP
request with a specific 8-bit Modbus slave ID to the gateway PLC. If the ID matches the native ID that is
assigned to the gateway PLC then the PLC will react normally by sending its own Modbus/TCP response
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Chapter 21 Using PLC As a Modbus/TCP Gateway
packet back to the client. The PLC will not send any RTU command out of the gateway serial port. This
means that the client can access the master PLC’s own register as per normal.
However, if the client send a Modbus/TCP packet with a different ID from that of the gateway PLC’s ID,
then the gateway PLC will translate the command into a Modbus RTU command and send it out of the
gateway serial port #n defined by the “SETSYSTEM 12, n” statement. The PLC will also wait for a
response from the RTU slave via the gateway serial port, and if it does receive a response it will translate
it into Modbus/TCP response packet and return to the client.
Note:
1) If the Modbus/RTU slave being addressed does not respond to the RTU command, then the
gateway PLC will wait till time-out (default is about 150ms) and then resend the Modbus RTU
command and wait for a response again. By default the gateway PLC will repeat this procedure
twice and if it still doesn’t receive a response after repeated attempts, it will send back a
“TARGET DEVICE FAILED TO RESPOND” error packet back to the Modbus/TCP client. (i.e. It
will set the 7th bit of the function code to “1” and send back an exception code “0B” hex).
2) The CPU firmware is designed to handle only one Modbus gateway translation for each
Modbus/TCP connection per ladder logic scan. This is to ensure that the CPU is not completely
bogged down by its Modbus gateway job and will have time to run its own program. If the
Modbus/TCP clients attempt to overload the PLC with more requests than it can handle the PLC
will frequently return “SLAVE DEVICE BUSY” error response packets back to the client. (i.e. It will
set the 7th bit of the function code to “1” and send back an exception code “06”).
21.4 Fine-Tuning The Modbus/TCP Gateway Function
It is important to know that every time the PLC runs a Modbus/TCP to Modbus RTU translation its own
program scan time increases due to the need for the CPU to wait for a response from the slave Modbus
RTU devices. The delay becomes much more pronounced when a Modbus slave device fails to respond
(e.g. not online). The system designer must therefore take this into consideration when designing the
system:
1) The Modbus/TCP client should not overload the Modbus gateway with unnecessarily frequent
Modbus requests. Whenever the PLC report a “TARGET DEVICED FAILED TO RESPOND”
function the client program should back off for a while before re-trying communication with the
Modbus/RTU slaves again.
2) You can change the number of wait states
Modbus/RTU slave by running:
the gateway will wait for a response from the
SETSYSTEM 1, w
Where w = number of serial port wait states for each COMM port as follow:
Bit 7
Bit 6
Ethernet
Bit 5
Bit 4
COMM3
Bit 3
Bit 2
COMM2
Bit 1
Bit 0
COMM1
Thus each COMM port could be configured to wait from 0 to 3 wait states for a response. The
default settings for w = &H55 (or 01010101 binary) which means each COMM port as well as the
Ethernet port uses 1 wait state of about 150ms..
3) You can change the number of retries (default = 2) the gateway will attempt to get a response
from the Modbus RTU slave by running:
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Chapter 21 Using PLC As a Modbus/TCP Gateway
SETSYSTEM 2, n
Where n = number of retries for each COMM port as follow:
Bit 7
Bit 6
Ethernet
Bit 5
Bit 4
COMM3
Bit 3
Bit 2
COMM2
Bit 1
Bit 0
COMM1
Thus each COMM port could be configured to re-attempt to send the command from 0 to 3 times
if it does not get a response from a Modbus RTU slave.
The default settings for n = &HAA (or 10101010 binary) which means each COMM port as well as
the Ethernet port will retry twice (making a total of 3 attempts). E.g. If you run SETSYSTEM 2, 0
the gateway will not resend the RTU command on any of its COMM port if does not receive a
response on the first attempt. This can help to reduce the CPU scan time if a Modbus RTC slave
does not respond.
4)
We strongly recommend that the serial port #n that is to be used as a gateway serial port be
configured to be “No protocol” by running the SETPROTOCOL n, 10 statement once. This is to
ensure that the serial data returned from the RTU slaves will never be interpreted wrongly by the
master PLC as incoming commands, which could lead to errors. (The same advise applies to
PLC programs that use the serial port to run READMODBUS, WRITEMODBUS, READMB2 and
WRITEMB2 commands).
21.5 Modbus/TCP Gateway Sample Program
Please download the following self-explanatory I-TRiLOGI sample program that demonstrates the new
Modbus/TCP Gateway capability via any of the selected COMM port:
http://www.tri-plc.com/trilogi/modbusgateway.zip
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