Manual - RayBiotech, Inc.

RayBio Label-Based (L-Series)
Human Obesity Antibody Array 182 (L-182)
Patent Pending Technology
User Manual (Revised September 9, 2014)
For the simultaneous detection of the relative expression of 182 (L-182) human
obesity proteins in serum, plasma, cell culture supernatants, cell/tissue lysates or
other body fluids.
L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182
Cat# AAH-BLG-ADI-2 (2 Sample Kit)
Cat# AAH-BLG-ADI-4 (4 Sample Kit)
Please read manual carefully
before starting experiment
Your Provider for Excellent Protein Array Systems and Services
Tel: (Toll Free) 1-888-494-8555 or +1-770-729-2992; Fax: +1-770-206-2393;
Website: www.raybiotech.com Email: info@raybiotech.com
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.
II.
Introduction and How It Works…………………………………………………………………………………2
Materials Provided…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
A. Storage Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………………… 3
B. Additional Materials Required……………………………………………………………………..…… 3
III. Overview and General Considerations……………………………………………….…………… 4
A. Preparation and Storage of Samples………………………………………………………… 4
B. Handling the Glass Slides…………………………………………………………………………………….…… 6
C. Layout of Human L-182 Slide…………………………………………..………
7
D. Incubation and Washes……………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
IV. Protocol………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………… 8
A. Dialysis of Sample……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
B. Biotin Labeling of Sample…………………………………………………………………………………………10
C. Drying of the Glass Slide…………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
D. Blocking and Incubations……………………………………………………………………………….…………12
E. Fluorescence Detection…………………………………………………………………………………..………… 15
V.
Antibody Array Maps and Target Lists…………………………………………………..………… 16
A. RayBio Human Antibody Array L-182 Map………………………………………… 16
B. RayBio Human Antibody Array L-182 Target List…………………….… 16
VI. Interpretation of Results…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
A. Explanation of Controls Spots…………………………………………………………………….……… 17
B. Typical Results……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……… 18
C. Background Subtraction……………………………………………………………………………………….……19
D. Normalization of Array Data…………………………………………………………………………………19
E. Threshold of Significant Difference…………………………………………………………..… 20
VII. Troubleshooting Guide………………………………………………………………………………………………..……… 21
VIII. Selected References……………………………………………………………………………………………………..………… 22
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
1
I. Introduction
Obesity research has seen a surge in interest over the past 10 years.
One of the key driving forces is that adipose tissue is found no longer to be
an inert energy storage organ, but is emerging as an active participant in
regulating physiological and pathologic processes. Many soluble factors
have been identified from the adipose tissue and are known as
adipocytokines or adipokines. Some adipokines, such as leptin and resistin,
are produced mainly by the adipose tissues while others, such as TNF-alpha,
IL-6, MCP-1, and IL-1, are also synthesized in other tissues. Because all of
these factors can act in an autocrine, paracrine or endocrine manner,
adipokines are thought to serve as mediators linking obesity, inflammation,
immunity and other obesity related diseases.
Recent technological advances by RayBiotech have enabled the largest
commercially available antibody array to date. With the L-Series Antibody
Array 182, researchers can now obtain a broad, panoramic view of
adipokine expression. The expression levels of 182 human target proteins
can be simultaneously detected, including cytokines, chemokines,
adipokines, growth factors, angiogenic factors, proteases, soluble receptors,
soluble adhesion molecules and other proteins in cell culture supernatants,
serum and plasma.
The first step in using the RayBio® L-Series Human Obesity Antibody
Array 182 is to biotinylate the primary amine of the proteins in serum or
plasma samples, cell culture supernatants, cell lysates or tissue lysates. The
glass slide arrays are then blocked, just like a Western blot, and the biotinlabeled sample is added onto the glass slide, which is pre-printed with
capture antibodies, and incubated to allow for interaction of target
proteins. Streptavidin-conjugated fluorescent dye (Cy3 equivalent) is then
applied to the array. Finally, the glass slide is dried, and laser fluorescence
scanning is used to visualize the signals.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
2
II. Materials Provided
A. Storage Recommendations
Upon receipt, the kit should be stored at -20°C until needed. Please use
within 6 months from the date of shipment. After initial use, remaining
reagents should be stored at 4°C and may be stored for up to 3 months
(Labeling Reagent, Item B, should be prepared fresh each time before use).
Unused glass slides should be kept at -20 °C and repeated freeze-thaw
cycles should be avoided (slides may be stored for up to 6 months).
ITEM
A
B
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
n/a
M
DESCRIPTION
AAH-BLG-ADI-1-2
Dialysis Vials & Floating Dialysis Rack
Labeling Reagent
Stop Solution
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody
Array L-182 Glass Slide*
Blocking Buffer
20X Wash Buffer I
20X Wash Buffer II
Cy3-Conjugated Streptavidin**
Adhesive Plastic Strips
Labeling Buffer
2X Cell Lysis Buffer***
30 ml Centrifuge Tube
AAH-BLG-ADI-1-4
4 vials
1 vial
8 vials
2 vials
1 vial (50 µl)
1 slide (L-182)
1 slides (L-182))
1 bottle (8 ml)
1 bottle (30 ml)
1 bottle (30 ml)
1 vial
1 bottle (8 ml)
1 bottle (30 ml)
1 bottle (30 ml)
2 vials
1 bottle (8 ml)
1 bottle (10 ml)
1 tube
*Each slide contains 2 or 4 identical subarrays
**HiLyte PlusTM 555
***Only needed if testing cell or tissue lysates
B. Additional Materials Required
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
KCl, NaCl, KH2PO4, Na2HPO4 and ddH2O
1 ml tube, small plastic or glass containers
Orbital shaker or oscillating rocker
Beaker, stir plate and stir bar
Pipettors, pipette tips and other common lab consumables
Laser scanner for fluorescence detection (list available online)
Aluminum foil
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
3
III. Overview and General Considerations
A. Preparation and Storage of Samples
1) Preparation of Cell Culture Supernatants
1. Seed cells at a density of 1x106 cells in 100 mm tissue culture dishes.*
2. Culture cells in complete culture medium for ~24–48 hours.**
3. Replenish with serum-free or low-serum medium such as 0.2%
FCS/FBS serum, and then incubate cells again for ~48 hours.**,† The
membrane-based array is recommended if high serum medium such
as 10% FCS/FBS is used, as high background can occur on glass slide
arrays with high serum containing media samples.
4. To collect supernatants, centrifuge at 1,000 g for 10 min and store as
≤1 ml aliquots at -80°C until needed.
5. Measure the total wet weight of cultured cells in the pellet and/or
culture dish. You may then normalize between arrays by dividing
fluorescent signals by total cell mass (i.e., express results as the
relative amount of protein expressed/mg total cell mass). Or you can
normalize between arrays by determining cell lysate concentration
using a total protein assay (BCA Protein Assay Kit, Pierce, Prod #:
23227).
*The density of cells per dish used is dependent on the cell type. More
or less cells may be required.
**Optimal culture time may vary and will depend on the cell line,
treatment conditions and other factors.
†Bovine serum proteins produce detectable signals on the RayBio® LSeries Array in media containing serum concentrations as low as
0.2%. When testing serum-containing media, we strongly
recommend testing an uncultured media blank for comparison
with sample results.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
4
2) Extracting Protein from Cells
1. Centrifuge Cells:
a. Adherent Cells:
i. Remove supernatant from cell culture and wash cells gently
twice with cold 1X PBS taking care not to disturb cell layer.
ii. Add enough cold 1X PBS to cover cell layer and use cell
scraper to detach cells. Proceed to b. Cells in Suspension.
b. Cells in Suspension: Pellet the cells by centrifuging using a
microcentrifuge at 1500 rpm for 10 min.
2. Make sure to remove any remaining PBS before adding 1X Cell Lysis
Buffer (2X Cell Lysis Buffer should be diluted 2 fold with ddH2O).
Solubilize the cells at 2x107 cells/ml in 1X Cell Lysis Buffer.
3. Pipette up and down to resuspend cells and rock the lysates gently at
2–8 °C for 30 minutes. Transfer extracts to microfuge tubes and
centrifuge at 13,000 rpm for 10 min at 2-8 °C.
Note: If the lysates appear to be cloudy, transfer the lysates to a clean tube,
centrifuge again at 13,000 rpm for 20 minutes at 2-8°C. If the lysates
are still not clear, store them at -20°C for 20 minutes. Remove from the
freezer and immediately centrifuge at 13,000 rpm for 20 minutes at 28°C.
4. Transfer lysates to a clean tube.
Determining cell lysate
concentrations using a total protein assay (BCA Protein Assay Kit,
Pierce, Prod# 23227). Aliquot the lysates and store at -80°C.
3) Extracting Protein from Crude Tissue
1. Transfer approximate 100 mg crude tissue into a tube with 1 ml 1X
Cell Lysis Buffer (2X Cell Lysis Buffer should be diluted 2 fold with
ddH2O).
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
5
2. Homogenize the tissue according to homogenizer manufacturer
instructions.
3. Transfer extracts to microcentrifuge tubes and centrifuge for 20 min at
13,000 rpm (4°C).
Note: If the supernatant appears to be cloudy, transfer the supernatants to
a clean tube, centrifuge again at 13,000 rpm for 20 minutes at 2-8°C. If
the supernatant is still not clear, store the lysate at -20°C for 20
minutes. Remove from the freezer, immediately centrifuge at 13,000
rpm for 20 minutes at 2-8°C.
4. Transfer supernatant to a clean tube and store at -80°C.
B. Handling the Glass Slides
• The microarray slides are delicate. Please do not touch the array
surface with pipette tips, forceps or your fingers. Hold the slides by the
edges only.
• Handle the slides with powder-free gloves and in a clean environment.
• Do not remove the glass slide from the chamber assembly until step
20 on page 14, and take great care not to break the glass slide when
doing so.
• Remove reagents/sample by gently applying suction with a pipette to
corners of each chamber. Do not touch the printed area of the array,
only the sides as seen in image below.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
6
C. Layout of Human L-182 Glass Slide
Two or four identical sub-arrays on one slide
2 Subarray
4 Subarray
Blank
D. Incubations and Washes
• Cover incubation chamber with a Plastic Adhesive Strip (Item J) to
prevent evaporation during incubation or wash steps, particularly
those steps lasting 2 hours or longer.
• During incubation and wash steps avoid foaming and remove all
bubbles from the sub-array surface.
• Perform all incubation and wash steps under gentle rotation or
rocking motion (~0.5 to 1 cycle/sec).
• Wash steps in Wash Buffer II and all incubation steps may be
performed overnight at 4°C.
• Avoid cross-contamination of samples to neighboring wells. To
remove Wash Buffers and other reagents from chamber wells, you
may invert the Glass Slide Assembly to decant, and aspirate the
remaining liquid.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
7
• Unlike most Cy3 fluors, the HiLyte Plus™ 555 used in this kit is very
stable at room temperature (RT) and resistant to photobleaching on
the hybridized glass slides. However, please protect glass slides
from directly strong light and temperatures above RT.
IV. Protocol
Assay Diagram
1. Cell culture supernatants
or cell/tissue lysates
2. Serum or plasma
Note: If using cell or tissue lysates, start at “Dialysis of sample”
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
8
A. Dialysis of Sample
Note: Samples must be dialyzed prior to biotin-labeling (Steps 5–7).
1.
To prepare dialysis buffer (1X PBS, pH=8.0), dissolve 0.6 g KCl, 24 g
NaCl, 0.6 g KH2PO4 and 3.45 g Na2HPO4 in 2500 ml de-ionized or
distilled water. Adjust
pH=8.0 with 1M NaOH and adjust final
volume to 3000 ml with ddH2O.
2.
Add each sample into a separate Dialysis Tube (Item A). Loading
volumes are as follows: 200 μl cell culture supernatant; 100 μl cell or
tissue lysate (1~2 mg/ml total protein) or 20 μl serum or plasma + 80
μl 1X PBS, pH=8 (5-fold dilution). Carefully place Dialysis Tubes into
Floating Dialysis Rack.
Note for cell culture supernatants: if using a 2-fold dilution of biotinlabeled sample in the array incubation step (page 12, step 11), you will
need to load a total of 400 μl of original cell culture supernatant into 2
separate Dialysis Tubes (200 μl /tube).
Note: If the samples appear to be cloudy, transfer the samples to a
clean tube, centrifuge at 13,000 rpm for 20 minutes at 2-8°C. If the
samples are still not clear, store them at -20°C for 20 minutes. Remove
from the freezer, immediately centrifuge at 13,000 rpm for 20 minutes
at 2-8°C.
3.
Note:
Place Floating Dialysis Rack into ≥500 ml dialysis buffer in a large
beaker. Place beaker on a stir plate and dialyze, for at least 3 hours
at 4°C, stirring buffer gently. Then exchange the 1X PBS buffer and
repeat dialysis for at least 3 h at 4°C. Transfer dialyzed sample to a
clean microfuge tube. Spin dialyzed samples for 5 min at 10,000
rpm to remove any particulates or precipitates, and then transfer
the supernatants to a clean tube.
The sample volume may change during dialysis.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
9
Note:
Dialysis procedure may proceed overnight.
Note: Determine the total protein concentration for cell culture
supernatants or cell/tissue lysate after dialysis procedure (Step 3). We
recommended using a BCA total protein assay (eg, Pierce, Catalog # 23227).
B. Biotin-labeling Sample
Note: Amines (e.g., Tris, glycine) and azides quench the biotinylation
reaction. Avoid contaminating samples with these chemicals prior to
biotinylation.
4. Immediately before use, prepare 1X Labeling Reagent. Briefly spin
down the Labeling Reagent tube (Item B). Add 100 µl 1X PBS into the
tube, then pipette up and down or vortex slightly to dissolve the
lyophilized reagent.
5. Add 1X Labeling Reagent to dialyzed samples.
a. For labeling cell culture supernatants: transfer 180 μl dialyzed
sample into a new tube. Add 36 μl of 1X Labeling Reagent
Solution per 1 mg total protein in dialyzed cell culture
supernatant. Mix well. For example, if sample’s total protein
concentration is 0.5 mg/ml you need to add 3.24 µl 1X Labeling
Reagent to the tube of 180 μl dialyzed sample.
Note: You need to biotin-label 360 μl of dialyzed sample if dilution of the
biotin-labeled samples is 2 fold in step 11 on page 11.
b. For labeling serum or plasma: Add 22 μl of 1X Labeling Reagent
Solution into a new tube containing 35 μl dialyzed serum or
plasma sample and 155 μl Labeling Buffer (Item K).
c. For labeling cell or tissue lysates: transfer 30 µg (15 μl of 2
mg/ml) cell or tissue lysates into a tube and add labeling buffer
(Item K) for a total volume of 300 μl. Then add 3.3 μl of 1X
Labeling Reagent Solution.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
10
Note: To normalize serum/plasma or cell/tissue lysate concentrations during
biotinylation, measure sample volume before and after dialysis. Then
adjust the volumes of dialyzed serum/plasma or cell/tissue lysates and
Labeling Buffer to compensate. For example, if the sample volume
doubles after dialysis, then use twice as much serum/plasma in the
labeling reaction (70 μl) and reduce the Labeling Buffer to 120 μl.
6. Incubate the reaction solution at RT with gentle rocking or shaking for
30 min. Mix the reaction solution by gently tapping the tube every 5
minutes.
7. Add 3 μl Stop Solution (Item D) into each reaction tube and
immediately dialyze as directed in Steps 1–3 on pages 8-9.
Note: Biotinylated samples can be stored at -20°C or -80°C until you are
ready to proceed with the assay.
C. Drying the Glass Slide
8. Remove the package containing the Assembled Glass Slide (Item E)
from the freezer. Place unopened package on the bench top for
approx. 15 min, and allow the Assembled Glass Slide to equilibrate to
RT.
9. Open package, and take the Assembled Glass Slide out of the sleeve
(Do not disassemble the Glass Slide from the chamber assembly).
Place glass slide assembly in laminar flow hood or similar clean
environment for 1-2 hours at RT.
Note: Protect the slide from dust or other contaminants.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
11
D. Blocking and Incubations
Note: Glass slide should be completely dry before adding Blocking Buffer to
wells.
10. Block sub-arrays by adding 400 μl of Blocking Buffer (Item F) into
each well of Assembled Glass Slide and incubating at RT for 30 min.
Ensure there are no bubbles on the array surfaces.
11. Immediately prior to sample incubation, spin biotin-labeled samples
for 5 min at 10,000 rpm to remove any particulates or precipitates.
Dilute samples with Blocking Buffer. Recommended dilution of the
biotin-labeled samples with Blocking Buffer is 2-10 fold for cell
culture supernatants, 20-fold for serum/plasma and 30 fold
cell/tissue lysate.
Note: Optimal sample dilution factor will depend on the abundance of
target proteins. If the background or antigen-specific antibody signals
are too strong, the sample can be diluted further in subsequent
experiments. If the signal is too weak, more concentrated samples can
be used.
12. Completely remove Blocking Buffer from each well. Add 400 μl of
diluted samples into appropriate wells. Remove any bubbles on array
surfaces. Incubate arrays with gentle rocking or shaking for 2 hours
at RT or overnight at 4°C.
Note: Avoid the flow of sample into neighboring wells.
13. Based on number of samples and remaining protocol, calculate the
amount of 1X Wash Buffer I and 1X Wash Buffer II needed to
complete the experiment. Separately dilute the required amounts of
20X Wash Buffer I Concentrate (Item G) 20-fold and 20X Wash Buffer
II Concentrate (Item H) with ddH2O.
14. Decant the samples from each well, and wash 3 times with 800 μl of
1X Wash Buffer I at RT with gentle rocking or shaking for 5 min per
wash.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
12
15. Obtain a clean container (e.g., pipette tip box or slide-staining jar),
place the Assembled Glass Slide into the container with enough
volume of 1X Wash Buffer I to completely cover the entire assembly,
and remove any bubbles in wells. Wash 2 times at RT with gentle
rocking or shaking for 10 min per wash.
16. Decant the Wash Buffer I from each well, place the Assembled Glass
Slide into the container with enough volume of 1X Wash Buffer II to
completely cover the entire assembly, and remove any bubbles in
wells. Wash 2 times at RT with gentle rocking or shaking for 5 min
per wash.
17. Prepare 1X Cy3-Conjugated Streptavidin:
a) Briefly spin down tube containing the Cy3-Conjugated
Streptavidin (Item I) immediately before use.
b) Add 1000 μl of Blocking Buffer into the tube to prepare a
concentrated Cy3-Conjugated Streptavidin stock solution.
Pipette up and down to mix gently (do not store the stock
solution for later use).
c) To prepare 1X Cy3-Conjugated Streptavidin add 200 μl of the
concentrated Cy3-Conjugated Streptavidin stock solution into a
tube with 800 μl of Blocking Buffer. Mix gently.
18. Carefully remove Assembled Glass Slide from container. Remove all
of Wash Buffer II from the wells. Add 400 μl of 1X Cy3-Conjugated
Streptavidin to each sub-array. Cover the incubation chamber with
the plastic adhesive strips.
Note: Avoid exposure to light in Steps 19–25 by covering the Glass Slide
Assembly with aluminum foil or incubate in a dark room.
19. Incubate with 1X Cy3-Conjugated Streptavidin at RT for 2 hours with
gentle rocking or shaking.
Note: Incubation may be done overnight at 4°C.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
13
20. Decant the solution and disassemble the glass slide from the
incubation frame and chamber. Disassemble the device by pushing
clips outward from the side, as shown below. Carefully remove the
glass slide from the gasket.
Note: Be careful not to touch the printed
surface of the glass slide, which is on the
same side as the barcode.
21. Gently place the glass slide into 30 ml Centrifuge Tube (Item M). Add
enough 1X Wash Buffer I to cover the entire glass slide (about 30
ml). Wash with gentle rocking or shaking for 10 min. Remove the
wash buffer. Repeat 2 times for a total of 3 washes.
22. Repeat step 20, this time with 1X Wash Buffer II. Repeat one time for
a total of two washes for 5 min per wash.
23. Finally, wash the glass slide with 30 ml of ddH2O for 5 min. Remove
glass slide and decant water from Centrifuge Tube.
24. Remove buffer droplets from the slide completely by one of the
following ways:
• Put the glass slide into the Slide Washer/Dryer, and dry the glass
slide by centrifuge at 1,000 rpm for 3 minutes without cap.
• Or, dry the glass slide by a compressed N2 stream.
• Or gently apply suction with a pipette to remove buffer droplets.
Do not touch the array, only the sides.
Note: Make sure the finished glass slide is completely dry before scanning or
storage.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
14
E. Fluorescence Detection
25. You may proceed immediately to scanning or you may store the slide
at -20 °C in the Centrifuge Tube provided or at RT to scan at a later time.
Note: Please protect the finished glass slides from temperatures above RT
and store them in the dark. Do not expose glass slide to strong light,
such as sunlight or a UV lamp.
Note: If you need to repeat any of the incubation steps after finishing the
experiment, you must first re-assemble the glass slide into the
incubation chamber by following the steps as described below. To
avoid breaking the printed glass slide, you may first want to practice
assembling the device with a blank glass slide.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Apply slide to incubation chamber barcode facing upward (image A).
Gently snap one edge of a snap-on side (image B).
Gently press other of side against lab bench and push in lengthwise
direction (image C).
Repeat with the other side (image D)
A
B
C
D
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
15
Glutathione peroxidase 3
IL-1a
6
7
CNTF
BMP-4 RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
IL-11
LOX
Myostatin
PDGF-AA
9
10
VEGF
IGF-1
6
7
8
13
GITRL
S100b
ENA-78
Thrombospondin 4
BMPR-IB / ALK-6
3
4
5
11
ApoB
12
ADFP
Visfatin/PBEF1
TIMP-1
S100 A8+A9
PDGF-AB
NAIP
Lymphotactin
IL-12
IGF-1 sR
GLP-1
Endophin Beta
BMPR-II
ApoE
Adiponectin / Acrp30
TACE
11
12
13
1
Prohibitin
TNF alpha
10
2
Orexin B
9
18
Visfatin/PBEF1
TIMP-1
S100 A8+A9
PDGF-AB
NAIP
Lymphotactin
IL-12
IGF-1 sR
GLP-1
Endophin Beta
BMPR-II
ApoE
Adiponectin / Acrp30
TNF alpha
TACE
Prohibitin
Orexin B
POS-1
MIP-3b
POS-1
IL-1a
Glutathione peroxidase 3
FGF-10
MIP-3b
17
2
POS-1
Angiotensinogen / Angiotensin II
8
16
CNTF
5
BMP-4 FGF-10
4
3
1
POS-1
Angiotensinogen / Angiotensin II
1
2
XEDAR
TIMP-2
S100 A10
PDGF-C
NeuroD1
MCP-1
IL-25 / IL-17E
IGFBP-1
Glucagon
Epiregulin
b-NGF
Axl
Adipsin (Factor D)
19
TNF sRI
TDAG51
Prolactin
OSM
MMP-2
POS-2
IL-1b
GROa
FGF-6
C-peptide
BMP-5
Ang-like Factor
POS-2
3
20
XEDAR
TIMP-2
S100 A10
PDGF-C
NeuroD1
MCP-1
IL-25 / IL-17E
IGFBP-1
Glucagon
Epiregulin
b-NGF
Axl
Adipsin (Factor D)
TNF sRI
TDAG51
Prolactin
OSM
MMP-2
POS-2
IL-1b
GROa
FGF-6
C-peptide
BMP-5
Ang-like Factor
POS-2
4
21
NEG
TIMP-3
SAA
PDGF-D
Neurophilin-2
MCP-3
INSL3
IGFBP-2
Glut1
E-selectin
C3a des Arg
BDNF
AgRP
TNF sRII
TECK
PYY
Osteocalcin
MMP-9
POS-3
IL-1ra
HCC4
FSH
CRP
BMP-6
ANGPTL1
POS-3
5
22
NEG
TIMP-3
SAA
PDGF-D
Neurophilin-2
MCP-3
INSL3
IGFBP-2
Glut1
E-selectin
C3a des Arg
BDNF
AgRP
TNF sRII
TECK
PYY
Osteocalcin
MMP-9
POS-3
IL-1ra
HCC4
FSH
CRP
BMP-6
ANGPTL1
POS-3
6
23
NEG
TIMP-4
SDF-1
PEDF
NGF R
M-CSF
INSRR
IGFBP-3
Glut2
ET-1 (Endothelin)
CART
bFGF
AMPKa1
TSG-6
TGF-a
RANTES
Osteonectin
MMP-11
NEG
IL-6
HGF
Galectin -1
Cystatin C
BMP-7
ANGPTL2
NEG
7
24
NEG
TIMP-4
SDF-1
PEDF
NGF R
M-CSF
INSRR
IGFBP-3
Glut2
ET-1 (Endothelin)
CART
bFGF
AMPKa1
TSG-6
TGF-a
RANTES
Osteonectin
MMP-11
NEG
IL-6
HGF
Galectin -1
Cystatin C
BMP-7
ANGPTL2
NEG
8
25
Amylin
BMP-2 Pos 3
Tissue factor (CD142)
SEMA3A
Pentraxin-3
10
Dtk
BMP-8
ANGPTL3
ACE / CD43
26
Amylin
MIF
Insulin
IGF-II
Glut3
FABP4
CD137 (4-1BB)
BMP-2 Pos 3
IL-8
ICAM1
Ghrelin
EGF
BMP-15
RELMb
PARC
MSHa
27
MIP-1a
Insulin R (CD220)
IL-1 R1
Glut5
FAM3B
CD36
BMP-3
Angiopoietin-1
Pos 2
TLR2
Serotonin
PPARg2 / NRIC3
12
ACE-2
IL-8
ICAM1
Ghrelin
EGF
BMP-15
ANGPTL4
28
IL-1 R1
Glut5
FAM3B
CD36
BMP-3
Angiopoietin-1
Pos 2
TLR2
Serotonin
PPARg2 / NRIC3
13
APJ
ACTH
VCAM1
FAS / Apo-1
Clusterin
BMP-3b / GDF-10
Pos 1
TLR4
Syndecan-3
Pref-1
Orexin A
MIP-1b
Leptin
IL-1 R4
15
FAS / Apo-1
Clusterin
BMP-3b / GDF-10
Angiopoietin-2
30
VEGF
Thrombospondin 4
S100b
PDGF-AA
Myostatin
LOX
IL-11
IGF-1
GITRL
ENA-78
BMPR-IB / ALK-6
ApoB
ADFP
Pos 1
TLR4
Syndecan-3
Pref-1
Orexin A
MIP-1b
Leptin
IL-1 R4
Glutathione peroxidase 1
Thrombospondin 2
Resistin
PDGF-BB
MSPa
LIF
IL-10
IFNg
GITR
EGF-R
BMPR-IA / ALK-3
Angiopoietin-2
29
14
APJ
ACTH
Glutathione peroxidase 1
VCAM1
Thrombospondin 2
Resistin
PDGF-BB
MSPa
LIF
IL-10
IFNg
GITR
EGF-R
BMPR-IA / ALK-3
Obestatin R (GPR-39)
MIP-1a
Insulin R (CD220)
Vaspin
Thrombospondin 1
RELMb
PARC
MSHa
LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
Obestatin R (GPR-39)
Vaspin
Thrombospondin 1
Tissue factor (CD142)
SEMA3A
Pentraxin-3
11
ACE-2
ANGPTL4
LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
NPY (Neuropeptide Y)
TSH
TGF-b
RBP4
Osteoprotegerin
MMP-19
Leptin R
IL-6 sR
HSD-1
GH (Growth Hormone)
NPY (Neuropeptide Y)
MIF
Insulin
IGF-II
Glut3
FABP4
CD137 (4-1BB)
TSH
TGF-b
RBP4
Osteoprotegerin
MMP-19
Leptin R
IL-6 sR
HSD-1
GH (Growth Hormone)
Dtk
BMP-8
ANGPTL3
ACE / CD43
9
RayBio® Biotin Label-based Human Adipokine Antibody Array 1 Map
V. Antibody Array Map
16
VI. Interpretation of Results:
A. Explanation of Controls Spots
1) Positive Control spots (POS1, POS2, POS3) are standardized
amounts of biotinylated IgGs printed directly onto the array. All
other variables being equal, the Positive Control intensities will
be the same for each sub-array. This allows for normalization
based upon the relative fluorescence signal responses to a
known control, much as “housekeeping” genes or proteins are
used to normalize results in PCR or Western blots, respectively.
2) Negative Control (NEG) spots contain a protein-containing
buffer (used to dilute antibodies printed on the array). Their
signal intensities represent non-specific binding of Biotinconjugated anti-Cytokines and/or the Cy3-Conjugated
Streptavidin. Negative control signal intensities are usually very
close to background signals in each sub-array.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
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B. Typical Results
The following figure shows the RayBio® L-Series Human Obesity Antibody
Array 182 probed with serum sample. The images were captured using a
Axon GenePix laser scanner. The strong signals in row 20 and the upper
left and lower right corners of each array are Positive Controls, which can
be used to identify the orientation and help normalize the results
between arrays.
RayBio® L-Series Human Obesity Antibody Array 182
Sample-1
Sample-2
If scanned using optimal settings, 3 distinct signal intensities
will be seen: POS1>POS2>POS3. If all of these signals are of similar
intensity, try increasing or decreasing laser power and/or signal gain
settings.
NOTE: in the absence of an external standard curve for each protein
detected, there is no means of assessing absolute or relative
concentrations of different proteins in the same sample using
immunoassays. If you wish to obtain quantitative data (ie, concentrations
of the various analytes in your samples), try using our Quantibody® Arrays
instead.
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C. Background Subtraction
Once you have obtained fluorescence intensity data, you should subtract
the background and normalize to the Positive Control signals before
proceeding to analysis.
Most laser fluorescence scanner software have an option to automatically
measure the local background around each spot. For best results, we
recommend comparing signal intensities representing the MEDIAN
background signals minus local background. If your resulting fluorescence
signal intensity reports do not include these values (e.g., a column labeled
as “MED532-B532”), you may need to subtract the background manually
or change the default settings on your scanner’s data report menu.
D. Normalization of Array Data
To normalize signal intensity data, one sub-array is defined as "reference"
to which the other arrays are normalized. This choice is arbitrary. For
example, in our Analysis Tool Software (described below), the array
represented by data entered in the left-most column each worksheet is
the default “reference array.”
You can calculate the normalized values as follows:
X(Ny) = X(y) * P1/P(y)
Where:
P1 = mean signal intensity of POS spots on reference array
P(y) = mean signal intensity of POS spots on Array "y"
X(y) = mean signal intensity for spot "X" on Array "y"
X(Ny) = normalized signal intensity for spot "X" on Array "y"
The RayBio® Analysis Tool software is available for use with data obtained
using RayBio® Biotin Label-based Antibody Arrays. You can copy and paste
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
19
your signal intensity data (with and without background) into the Analysis
Tool, and it will automatically normalize signal intensities to the Positive
Controls.
To order the Analysis Tool, please contact us at +1-770-729-2992 or
info@raybiotech.com for more information.
E. Threshold of Significant Difference
After subtracting background signals and normalization to Positive Controls,
comparison of signal intensities between and among array images can be
used to determine relative differences in expression levels of each protein
between samples or groups.
Any ≥1.5-fold increase or ≤0.65-fold decrease in signal intensity for a single
analyte between samples or groups may be considered a measurable and
significant difference in expression, provided that both sets of signals are
well above background (Mean background + 2 standard deviations,
accuracy ≈ 95%).
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
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VII. Troubleshooting Guide
Problem
Cause
Inadequate detection
Weak Signal
Inadequate reagent volumes or
improper dilution
Short incubation time
Too low protein concentration in
sample
Improper storage of kit
Bubble formed during incubation
Uneven signal
Arrays are not completed covered
by reagent
Reagent evaporation
Cross-contamination from
neighboring wells
Comet tail formation
General
Inadequate detection
Overexposure
Dark spots
High
background
Insufficient wash
Dust
Slide is allowed to dry out
Recommendation
Increase laser power and PMT
parameters
Check pipettes and ensure correct
preparation
Ensure sufficient incubation time and
change sample incubation step to
overnight
Dilute starting sample less or concentrate
sample
Store kit as suggested temperature.
Don’t freeze/thaw the slide.
Handle and pipette solutions more
gently; De-gas solutions prior to use
Prepare more reagent and completely
cover arrays with solution
Cover the incubation chamber with
adhesive film during incubation
Avoid overflowing wash buffer between
wells
Air dry the slide for at least 1 hour before
usage
Increase laser power so the highest
standard concentration for each cytokine
receives the highest possible reading yet
remains unsaturated
Lower the laser power
Completely remove wash buffer in each
wash step
Increase wash time and use more wash
buffer
Minimize dust in work environment
before starting experiment
Take additional precautions to prevent
slides from dying out during experiment
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
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VIII. Selected References
Christina Scheel et all., Paracrine and Autocrine Signals Induce and Maintain
Mesenchymal and Stem Cell States in the Breast. Cell. 2011;145, 926–940
Lin Y, Huang R, Chen L, et al., Profiling of cytokine expression by biotinlabeled-based protein arrays. Proteomics. 2003, 3: 1750–1757.
Huang R, Jiang W, Yang J, et al., A Biotin Label-based Antibody Array for
High-content Profiling of Protein Expression. Cancer Genomics Proteomics.
2010; 7(3):129–141.
Liu T, Xue R, Dong L, et al., Rapid determination of serological cytokine
biomarkers for hepatitis B–virus-related hepatocellulare carcinoma using
antibody arrays. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin. 2011; 43(1):45–51.
Cui J, Chen Y, Chou W-C, et al., An integrated transcriptomic and
computational analysis for biomarker identification in gastric cancer. Nucl
Acids Res. 2011; 39(4):1197–1207.
Jun Zhong et all., Temporal Profiling of the Secretome during Adipogenesis
in Humans. Journal of Proteome Research. 2010, 9, 5228–5238
Chowdury UR, Madden BJ, Charlesworth MC, Fautsch MP., Proteomic
Analysis of Human Aqueous Humor. Invest Ophthalmol Visual Sci. 2010;
51(10):4921–4931.
Wei Y, Cui C, Lainscak M, et al., Type-specific dysregulation of matrix
metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in end-stage heart failure
patients: relationshp between MMP-10 andLV remodeling. J Cell Mol Med.
2011; 15(4):773–782.
Kuranda K, Berthon C, Lepêtre F, et al., Expression of CD34 in
hematopoietic cancer cell lines reflects tightly regulated stem/progenitorlike state. J Cell Biochem. 2011; 112(5):1277–1285.
Toh HC, Wang W-W, Chia WK, et al., Clinical Benefit of Allogenic
Melanoma Cell Lysate-Pulsed Autologous Dendritic Cell Vaccine in MAGEPositive Colorectal Cancer Patients. Clin Chem Res. 2009; 15:7726–7736.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
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Zhen Hou, Cytokine array analysis of peritoneal fluid between women with
endometriosis of different stages and those without endometriosi.
Biomarkers. 2009;14(8): 604-618.
Yao Liang Tang, et al., Hypoxic Preconditioning Enhances the Benefit of
Cardiac Progenitor Cell Therapy for Treatment of Myocardial Infarction by
Inducing CXCR4. Circ Res. 2009;109:197723
RayBio® L-series Antibody Arrays are patent-pending technology developed
by RayBiotech.
This product is intended for research only and is not to be used for clinical
diagnosis. Our produces may not be resold, modified for resale, or used to
manufacture commercial products without written approval by
RayBiotech, Inc.
Under no circumstances shall RayBiotech be liable for any damages arising
out of the use of the materials.
Products are guaranteed for six months from the date of shipment when
handled and stored properly. In the event of any defect in quality or
merchantability, RayBiotech’s liability to buyer for any claim relating to
products shall be limited to replacement or refund of the purchase price.
RayBio® is a registered trademark of RayBiotech, Inc.
HyLite Plus™ is a trademark of Anaspec, Inc.
GenePix® is a registered trademark of Molecular Devices, Inc.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
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This product is for research use only.
©2011 RayBiotech, Inc.
RayBio® L-Series Human Antibody Array L-182 Protocol
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