sound - Free

The Kurzweil250
Sound Modeling ~rograrn'~
version 2.0
by Bill Gardner
@Copyright 1985, Kurzweil Music Systems, Inc.
All rights reserved
KMS PIN 91001501 Rev 0
September, 1985
SMP version 2.0
inputs ror sarnpi
Operating the D i
RIM SOUND........................................
LOOP SOUND....................................................................
NAME OBJECT...........................
KBD and INST editors.,........
h and MacDuptex.....................
ror messages......
SMP version 2.0
About your warranty
The Sound Modeling Program warranty covers parts and labor for one year
from date of purchase. It is IMPORTANT that you send in your warranty card
as soon as possible so that your warranty Is activated and you are included
in our mailing list for user information and notification of future products.
The Kurzweil Sound Modeling programTM(SMP) gives you, the user, the tools
you need to sample sounds into the K250, modify them, and play them from
the keyboard. The techniques used in the Sound Modehng Program are
simplified versions of the Contoured Sound odel ling^' system used to
create the K25U's factory preset sounds.
Do not confuse the Sound Modeling Program with i t s software subset, the
"digitizer". The Sound Modeling Program is the trademarked name for the
option as a whole, both hardware and software. The operational software is
more briefly termed the "digitizer". As used in this manual, the terms are
essent ia11y synonymous.
This manual describes SMP version 2. As this is the second release of SMP,
some of you w il I be receiving it as an upgrade from SMP version 1. I f you
are one of these users, you w i l l be pleased to see that SMP version 2 not
only fixes bugs found in SMP version 1, but offers many new features as
well. However, YOUMUST read the section on compatibility before using
SMP version 2 to modify sound disks made with SMP version 1. You w i l l not
lose your sounds made with SMP version 1, but in some cases the keyboard
setups must be rebuilt using SMP version 2.
SMP version 2.0
This is a brief list of some of the
version 2:
new features available
with SMP
S a m p / m ~rates up to 50kHz Four new sampling rates (3 1250, 3571 4,
41667,and 50000 Hz.)have been added. Compression modes are avai lable at
3 1 250 Hz. only.
flu//fp/e soundfffe assignmen&! Sounds may now be assigned t o different
root positions on the same keyboard setup or different keyboard setups with
no transposition side effects.
BMP version 2.0
Set high andlow sp//tpoints. The user may now manually select the split
points of
an assigned sound.
Re-/r/ggerrecorcf//y Up to 50 mi lliseconds of sound may be recorded prior
to the trigger level being exceeded.
Oct3vep//chshfftin TR/H Octave pitch shift
SHOW ROOT5 funotjon.
Is usable in the TRIM function.
This function allows the user to see root
assignments to' keyboards.
DUPL/CATEKBDfuno//on. Allows the user to duplicate keyboards.
The digitizer menu
en changed slightly.
now has opt ion submenus.
Setting up
Hooking up a Kurzweil 250 with SMP installed Is exactly the same as the
procedure for hooking up a standard K250 base unit, except that i f you wish
to save your sound files via ~ a c ~ t t a c the
h ~ Macintosh
computer should be
hooked up before you begin sampling. (For information on hookup procedures
for the K250 and Macintosh, consult A Player's Guide t o the Kurzwell
250 and Welcome t o MacAttach.1
The first time you use your K250 with SMP installed, It is a good idea to
power the unit up while simultaneously holding down the READ, SEND, and
LIST buttons in the Media section of the K250 front panel. This is a hard
reset, which initializes all K250 internal memory. Your service center
should have done this already, but It's better t o be sure.
When the K250 is powered up, the LCD display should read "KURZWEIL GRAND
PIANO/PLAY MODE" Just as usual. If you release the READ button a little
late when doing a hard reset, the display will show "LOAD FILE FROM
COMPUTER?" Simply hit NO or PLAY and you w i l l return to PLAY mode.
Inputs for sample sources
We input. The K250 Mic input is a 1/4" mono phone jack, designed to accept
high level, high impedance dynamic microphones, If you are using a low
level mic, you will need a line transformer (female XLR t o mono phone
Use the mic input with great care, and watch out for situations where
feedback loops could occur. if you've just sampled a sound, i t is not a good
idea t o leave the open mic lying on top of the K250. If the mic should jlggle
or fall on the floor, the resulting transient can feed through the input
electronics of the K250 and can result in a very loud popping sound. Similar
situations can occur i f the mic is live while monitoring through speaker
systems. If problems occur, you should disable the rnic while monitoring
your take.
Input The K250's line input is also a mono I / & phone jack. The line
input is suitable for sampling from line sources such as keyboards, tape
recorders, or mixing boards.
A level check should always be done before sampling. Based on the level
check, you may decide to sample using the other input. For instance, some
guitars are too "hot" to go into mfc input; they can be sampled into line input
SHP version 2.0
Operating the Digitizer
Once you enter the digitizer, you need t o exit It t o perform standard K250
operations. When in the digitizer, for instance, you w i l l not be able t o
access PLAY mode features, edit instruments or keyboards, record or play
sequences, or transfer files to/from the Macintosh. This Is not a big
limitation because it Is easy to exit the digitizer (by hitting PLAY) and when
you have left the digitizer, any objects you have created will be accessable
by the K250. While In the digitizer, the keyboard is still active with the
current keyboard and Instrument, but you are not In PLAY mode. As you
record sounds and create keyboards with the digitizer, it will let you
preview the sounds by making them the current ones, but to ftddle with
chorusing and transpose (for example) you would have t o exit the digitizer
to PLAY mode,
When you enter the digitizer, It turns off the following:
Sequencer *
Transpose *
Assignable sliders
The asterisk indicates those items that are NOT restored upon leaving the
digitizer. You must turn them back on yourself. All the other items are
fully restored to their previous state.
Getting Into the digitizer
Now that you understand these limitations, to get into the digitizer press
the INST button from PLAY mode. I f the digitizer software is not Installed,
the unit will do nothing. Otherwise, you wilt enter the digitizer menu at the
option "RECORD SOUND?". The digitizer menu has the same format as the
edit menus, but it's worth describing again.
SMP version 2.0
Menu operation
See the following diagram of themenustructure for thedigitizer. At the
top level, there are the functions RECORD, TUNE, TRIM, and LOOP, and five
opt ion sub-menus. Whi le in a menu, the LCD looks t ike:
A 24 CHARACTER PROMPT is the name of the menu Item you
are currently at. When you enter the digitizer, you will find yourself
at the "RECORD SOUNOT menu item.
2. NAME Is a 0 to 4 character name of the menu you are in. For the
digitizer, the name Is "DIG".
3. I Is the number of the item In the menu you are currently at.
Every Item In the menu has a unique number whfch can range from
0 to 99.
The menu Item displayed refers to a function of the digitizer. To execute a
digitizer function you must get to the function you desire and select i t by
pressing SELECT or DOWN-ARROW. To move to a different Item, you can
navigate to It using the cursor buttons (these are UP-ARROW, DOWN-ARROW,
LEFT-ARROW, RIGHT-ARROW), If the function desired is on the same level as
you are, youcan simply use the left and right cursor buttons to get there. If
the function is located in an option sub-menu, you must get to the desired
option sub-menu and select It with SELECT or DOWN-ARROW. This will put
you In the option sub-menu, where you can use the left and right cursors to
get to the desired function. To get out of a sub-menu, press the UP-ARROW
cursor button. Because each menu Item has a unique Identification number,
you can get to any itern by entering the number of the item and pressing
SELECT. Also, all of the functions are "mapped" to buttons on the front
panel. For instance, pressing the ASS4 GN-TO-KEY button will take you to the
ASSIGN SOUND TO KBD menu Item. See the following diagram of button
mappings for the digitizer. Thus, there are three different ways of getting
to a function; navigation with the cursor buttons, Item number entry, and
front panel button mapping. To exit the digitizer menu back to PLAY mode
press the PLAY button. All digitizer functions can be aborted back to the
digitizer menu by pressing PLAY.
Rename object
Show version
Tune sound
Ploy /Abort
Enter Digitizer
Record sound
Edit KBD crossover
Show free samples
Duplicate sound
Duplicate KBD
Initialize memory
MP version 2.
€LE LOOP (*1 2, MODE21
(x 1
SMP version 2.0
Selection of objects
Many of the digitizer functions require you t o select a particular sound file
or keyboard or performance key. In this manual, sound files are referred t o
as SFs and sounds, and keyboard setups are referred t o as KBDs and
keyboards. Mien the digitizer wants you t o select a keyboard, it w i l l use
the same keyboard selection feature as the K250 uses. The up and down
arrows select global keyboards, and the l e f t and right arrows select user
(digitizer) keyboards. SELECT confirms the choice of keyboard. The sound
file selection is pretty much the same as keyboard selection except that the
up and down arrows confine you to user sound files. This is done to prevent
users f rorn travel ling through our ROM-based sound f iles. Perf orrnance key
selection is always indicated by the message "strike key to ------. This
means that the K250 i s waiting for you t o hit a performance (piano) key
from A 0 t o C8. This i s much the same as the keyboard editor,
The digitizer creates only three types of objects: Instruments, sound files,
and keyboard setups. All of these are numbered starting from 500. The
digitizer creates one special object of each type for its own use and each 1s
number 500. The digitizer only creates one instrument definition which is
totally generic (no effects). The user must use the instrument and keyboard
editors to change instrument assignment to digitizer keyboards. This
instrument i s number 500 and is called "DIGITIZER INSTRUMENT*. Keyboard
number 500 is called "DfG PREVIEW KBD" and is used for previewing sounds.
Sound f i l e 500 i s called "DIGITIZER SF" and is used to hold the sounds played
on the preview keyboard. The user may create sound files and keyboards
starting at number 501. The digitizer keeps track of the last SF and KBD
that the user has modif led and w i l l always default the SF and KBD selection
to the object last used.
When the user attempts to process a sound (1.e. TRIM, LOOP, TUNE), the
digitizer asks for the sound t o process and a keyboard setup to use while
processing. This is because the user will need to play the sound while
processing f t and may desire that a certain keyboard setup be used. The
digitizer wilt first ask for the sound to process. If the sound is not
assigned t o any keyboard, the digitizer w i l l automatically assign i t t o the
DIG PREVIEW KBD and use that. If the sound i s assigned to a keyboard, the
digitizer will ask for the keyboard. If the user picks a keyboard that does
not use the sound, the digitizer w i l l use the lowest numbered keyboard that
does use the sound. In all cases where the digitizer is thinking for the user,
it w i l l display descriptive messages (see Warning messages).
--- SHP version
--- 2.0
Warnings about 4/5/SELECT
The 4/5/SELECT feature of the 250 enables the user to restart the machine
at any time without losing any presets. 4/S/SELECT can usually be used
safely, but there is no guarantee that everything will be back to normal and
some data may get corrupted as a result. The digitizer Is particularly good
about 4/5/SELECT, although PLAY should ALWAYS be tried first.
4/5/SELECT should not be used in the TUNE SOUND or the SET KBD
CROSSOVER LEVEL function (PLAY works fine) and i f used in TRIM, LOOP. or
during the level check meter, i t may cause your slider assignments t o be
lost. NEVER abort "REPLACING..." with 4/5/SELECT or you risk scrambling all
your sounds. 4/5/SELECT can safely be used to abort "PROCESSING SOUND...".
which is the only reasonable appication of 4/5/SELECT in the digitizer. I f
4/S/SELECT Is used to abort out of a function this w i l l often leave partially
built objects. Thus, the next function invoked may cause the "freeing
partially built objects" warning message to appear,
The following is
a description of
the functions that appear in the digitizer
Is the function used to record a sound onto
the K250. RECORD first
asks you for the sound type:
The sound type refers to the mode of recording and processing that RECORD
will use to digitize your sound. There are currently 6 modes of operation:
no processing, bright
de-emphasis only
compression, de-emphasis
compress ion, de-emphasis
compression, de-emphasis
compression, de-emphasis
QUICK TAKE does what is says. It lets you record a sound and listen t o It
immediately. Recording sounds with the QUICK TAKE mode will result in
overly bright sounds due to high frequency pre-emphasis (read on), but this
can be a useful feature.
DE-EMPHASIS instructs the K250 to do a high-frequency de-emphasis filter
on the sound after it has been recorded. As the sound enters the K250, the
high frequencies in the sound are boosted. in order to get the original
balance of frequencies in the sound, the K250 must de-emphasize the high
frequencies. By doing this, the K250 actually obtains a better quality sound.
Any high frequency noise picked up In the circuitry of the digitizer will also
be de-emphasized and thus reduced, whereas the sound itself is simply
being restored to its original equalization. Because of the pre-emphasis,
recording sounds with the QUICK TAKE mode will result in overly bright
sounds, but this Is a useful feature. The DE-EMPHASIS mode Is great for
recording sustained sounds. Note that the processing time required for
DE-EMPHASIS Is only half the processing time required for compression
processing, described below.
SMP version 2.0
SLOW DECAY instructs the K250 to extract the natural amp11tude envelope
from the sound as t t is being recorded, thus compressing the d~namicrange
of the sound. For this reason, SLOW DECAY i s called a compression mode.
The K250 digitizer calculates the proper amplitude envelope segments to
expand the compressed sound back to its original dynamic range. This
results in an improved signal t o noise ratio overall. There are currently
four compression modes and each is optimized t o accomodate a different
type of envelope. The SLOW DECAY mode is optimized to compress a sound
with a slow decay such as low piano notes, vibes, etc. Each of the
compression modes requires processing in add1t ion to the de-emphasis
processing and thus they are more time consuming. The processing time is
about 1.5 milliseconds per sample, thus a 2 second sound at 25kHz will take
75 seconds t o process. Note that all the compression modes automatically
do the de-emphasis f 1 l ter,
NORMAL DECAY 1s a compression mode that is optimized t o compress sounds
that decay similar to a mid to upper piano note. Other examples Include
synth swept filter sounds, acoustic bass, marimba, etc. NORMAL DECAY will
work better than SLOW DECAY for sounds that have a pulsating decay.
FAST DECAY Is a compression mode that is optimized for pretty fast decays,
such as quick percussive sounds. Examples are high piano notes, snare drum,
wood block, etc.
SPEECH is a compression mode optimized Tor sounds with square wave
envelopes, such as speech. Put another way, SPEECH Is useful on sounds that
have silent sections in them. On playback, the quiet sections will be made
quieter to avoid noise problems associated with quantization of the sound
samples. SPEECH mode i s less robust than the others, so if you have
excessive problems using It, try another mode.
Remember that the first three compressed modes work best on sounds that
decay. There is nothing to gain by using them on sustained sounds.
Sustained sounds should be recorded with QUICK TAKE or DE-EMPHASIS.
The sound type can be chosen by entering the associated sound type index
( 1 -61. A much easier way of entering the sound type is t o use the left and
right cursor buttons to step through the sound type choices. When you are
sat isf led w f th your select ion, press SELECT to confirm your choke.
RECORD next asks for the sampling rate:
rate (1-14):
There are fourteen sampling rates provided and they can be chosen by
entering the corresponding sampling rate Index (1-14). The sampling rates
and their indices are given in the table below:
* No compression.
Also given in the table is the amount of recording time available in the
QUICK TAKE mode, the f il ter corner frequency by the 2/5ths sampling rate
rule, and the transpose up ltrntt in semitones. If you have selected a
compression mode, you will not be able t o use a sampling rate greater than
3 1250 HZ. AS w I t h the sound type, you may use the left and right cursor
buttons to move you through the sampling rate choices. Press SELECT t o
confirm your choice.
RECORD next asks for the length of sound you wish to record:
Here, nn ts the maximum time ~n seconds Wailable for recording. The
number is based on the amount of free memory In the sound RAM, the
sampling rate you chose, and the sound type. Compressed types require
additional space In sound RAM to store temporary data; thus, you will notice
smaller estimates of time remaining when selecting the compressed types.
If you want to use up the remaining sound RAM, press SELECT, If you desire
a different amount of time (RECORD will not accept a larger number) enter
It using the numeric keypad and press SELECT twice. RECORD only accepts
Integer number of seconds. If there Is no more sample memory available
RECORD will display "Out of sample space" and return to the digitizer menu.
RECORD next asks for the trigger level:
The trigger level refers to the level of Input signal necessary before
recording w i l l start. This Is a useful feature that prevents the recording of
unwanted silence at the beginning of sounds. The various trigger levels have
corresponding indices from 0 to 6 given in the table below:
As with the sampling rate, these choices can be selected using the left and
right cursor keys and confirmed by pressing SELECT. NO TRIGGER means that
recording wi l l start as soon as you hit the RECORD button. The other choices
refer to the number of bits that must be changing In the digitized Input
signal, 6 dB per bit. Thus, the dB's do not really correspond to the actual
power In the Input signal, but they're close. The best trigger level t o use
depends a lot on the level of sound you want t o catch and the background
noise level you want to avoid. Larger triggers must be used with the
microphone input because it is inherently noisier than the tine 'input. In
general, 18-24 dB for quiet line Input and 30-36 dB for noisy mfc Input w i l l
catch the first event without recording the background noise. If you select
a trigger, RECORD w i l l ask If you want any pre-trigger recording:
Pre-trigger recording?
~ h i feature
allows sound to be saved prior t o the record trigger level being
exceeded. The use of a large trigger level t o Initiate recording normally
results in the loss of the very start of the sound (that part of the attack
below the trigger level). Invoking this feature will cause the digitizer t o
save samples in a FIFO buffer (analogous t o a continuous tape loop) until the
trigger level is exceeded, at which point recording resumes as usual The
FIFO buffer wilt then contain the sound prior t o the trigger level being
exceeded. The amount of pre-trigger recording Is selectable from 0 t o 50
milliseconds. This feature works with at1 recording modes at all sampling
rates, provided the user has selected a trigger level. The possible
selections are given below.
pre-triager recording
1 0 msec
20 msec
30 msec
40 msec
50 msec
The default Is not to do any pre-trigger recording. Use the left and right
cursors to select the amount of pre-trigger recording. RECORD next asks
whether you wish to check the input level using the software driven LCD
level meter:
Check level (YfN)?
To respond, press either the YES or NO button. If you choose NO, RECORD
proceeds to "HIT RECORD TO START" described below. Choosing YES pops you
Into the level check meter which looks like the following:
line of the display acts as a contlnous level meter and the bottom
line holds peak values. The leftmost asterisks are always present. The
The top
meter bars can extend all the way to the right hand
Side of the
SMP version 2.0
which represents a clip. Clips are represented by a + in the meter bars. A
clip also causes the LED on the SPLIT KEYBOARD button to light. The
duration of time the LED stays lit after a clip Is the same as the time the
peak hold bar holds.
To use the level check meter to set a proper Input gain, do the following.
Ffrst, make sure the master volume slider is turned all the way up, The
master volume control will control the input gain to the digitizer, but doing
so will also Increase the distortion In the gain circuit, so leave It up.
If you have NOT selected a compression mode (either QUICK TAKE or
DE-EMPHASIS), do the followhg to set the input level.
When in
non-compression mode, the rightmost sllder (slider 3) serves as a gain
adjust. At I t s lowest position, the gain boost is 0 dB; at the highest
position it is 30 dB. With the slider at halfway, produce an input signal that
you consider typical and watch the meter, Using the sltder adjust the input
gain until the meter readings are very full but do not quite clip. This is the
best setting. If this 1s not possible using the range of the slider, than you
must affect the signal strength with some external means (also check that
you are plugged into the proper input, either mic level or line level). I f you
do not enter the meter function, slider 3 will not affect the gain, and the
gain w i l l be defaulted to 6 dB boost.
If you HAVE selected compression, the rightmost assignable slider has no
effect on the input gain and it will default to 6 dB boost. Thus you must use
some external means to adjust the gain until you get a level reading just
below clipping.
While checking the level, pressing the CHORUS button will cause the
digitizer to send the input signal through to the K25Q'soutput. While In this
monitor mode the CHORUS LED will be H t . Pressing the CHORUS button again
turns off monitoring and extinguishes the CHORUS LED, The monitor output
is assigned to group A, so the monitor can be panned to either left or right
as desired by using the group A slider. This will not affect the input level
to the digitizer or the level check meter. Note that the monitor signal
comes out brighter because of the pre-emphasis circuitry. WARNING: when
using sensitive microphones, beware of feedback when monitoring is turned
on. Always turn down the input level or pan the monitor to an unused
channel (If this Is your setup) before turning on monitoring.
To leave the level check meter, press the SELECT button. The monitoring of
the Input signal will end.
SMP version 2.0
The RECORD LED on the RECORD button will start to blink. When you are
ready to go, hit the RECORD button. The RECORD LED will turn on and the
display will read
Now the K250 Is watting for the trigger level to be exceeded by the input
signal at which point It will begin saving samples. (If a pre-trigger
recording amount was selected, the K250 Is continuously recording). There
is no need to panic if you set a decent trigger level; the K250 w i l l patiently
waft for the sound t o arrive. If you selected NO TRIGGER, the K250 will
immediately start saving samples. Note that there Is no indication as to
when the digitizer actually sees the trigger and starts recording. Also, if
you have selected a large trigger and no signal is coming in to the digitizer,
the K250 w i l l sit there Indefinitely and there is no way to abort it. If you
think you are stuck like this, just blast something into the input that w i l l
get the trigger to occur. This will NEVER happen if you have done a level
When the selected time has been recorded, RECORD displays:
RECORD scans through the samples and finds the maximum value in the
sound. If the sound clipped, the number of clipped samples are counted. It
then displays on the upper 1 he:
K the sound clipped. The number of clips is nnn, the absolute maximum
value Is mmm. A large number of clips 0 50)or a small maximum U 200)ts
indicative of a bad take. A table below shows the ideal maximum for each
of the sound types:
If you have selected a compression mode, it is not desirable to get as high a
maximum as possible. Trying to force the maximum out of the ranges given
above w i l l not necessarily result in a better quality sound.
If you have selected compression or de-emphasis, RECORD will ask you i f
you wish to continue with the processing based on your knowledge of the
maximum and number of clips. It displays on the lower line:
Continue (Y/Nl?
If you answer NO, RECORD will assume you want to re-record and w i l l ask
you if you want to use the same setup. See the setup question described
below. If you answer YES, RECORD wUl go off and process the sound. It wit1
Where mm:ss Is the estimated time remaining t o process in minutes and
seconds accurate t o within a few seconds. The time display will count down
as processing continues. The time to process a compressed sound is
currently about 1.5 ms per sample (you can abort by hitting 4/5/SELECT
simultaneously which w i l l reset the K250). Thus, a 2 second sound at 25kHz
(50000 samples) would take about 75 seconds t o process. Just doing
de-emphasis takes about half this time. When the processing Is finished the
disp l ay should read:
This message would have come up Immediately after the "DONE.
EVALUATING..." message If you had not selected compression or de-emphasis.
What the dig1tizer has done here Is place the sound you have just recorded
onto a special keyboard called the DIG PREVIEW KBD. This keyboard has a
SMP version 2.0
single root at C4 Thus, you can now listen to the sound you have just
recorded by playing C4, and you can play i t polyphonically, but remember you
are not in PLAY mode so many effects won't work. When satisfied (or not, as
the case may be) press the SELECT button. RECORD now asks:
Save this sound W N ) ?
Here you must decide whether you want t o keep this sound or not. If you
select NO, don't save the sound, you w i l l lose this sound and free up the
memory associated with the sound. RECORD then asks:
Retake W N ) ?
If you select NO retake, RECORD exits back to the digitizer menu. If
select YES retake, RECORD asks:
Use same setup (Y/N)?
If you select YES, use same setup, RECORD will record the next sound with
the same parameters and w i l l put you at the "Check level (Y/N)?" quest ion.
Selecting NO, don't use same setup, will put you back at the very beginning
at the sound type question.
If you had selected YES, save the sound, RECORD asks you to name the sound:
Input sound f i l e name:
The ALPHA LED will light, indicating that you should use the ALPHA slider
and ALPHA button to enter characters to make the sound file name. When
satisfied, hit SELECT to enter the name. t f you hit SELECT without forming
a name with the ALPHA mechanism, RECORD wilt assign a name to the sound
file for you. The format of the name is "DIG SF nnn", where nnn is the next
available sound f i l e number. Users are urged to assign meaningful names to
sounds recorded, because you WILL get confused later when each sound has
the same name and different numbers. You can later rename sounds or
keyboards with the RENAME OBJECT function,
After naming the sound f ile, RECORD asks;
Assign to a KBD €Y/N
If you wish t o assign the sound file to a digitizer keyboard, selecting YES
will pop you Into the ASSIGN TO KEY digitizer function, described later. You
can always assign any sound file to any keyboard with the ASSIGN TO KEY
function, so answering NO here does not restrict you In any way. If you
answer NO, RECORD exits t o the digitizer menu. If you answer YES, then
after you have assigned the sound t o a keyboard, RECORD will exit back to
the digitizer menu.
SMP version 2.0
The TUNE function allows the user to set various performance parameters
associated with a sound, These are the volume, pitch, decay and release
rate of the sound, and whether the anti-alias filter tracks the sound as i t is
played or "anti-tracks" the sound (explained below). The TUNE function
allows the user to adjust these parameters while the sound i s being played.
The TUNE function first asks for the sound file to tune, and then the
keyboard to make Into the performance keyboard for tuning. I t real ly doesn't
make sense t o tune a sound file without Being able t o hear It by playing a
keyboard that the sound is assigned to. Once the sound file and keyboard are
chosen, TUNE asks for the volume adjustment:
VOLUME adjust (dB):
nn Is the current
volume adjust In decibels. After recording, this will
always be 0. The format of this input is found throughout the K250. The
user may enter a number with the keypad and SELECT, or the user may use
the VALUE slider to input the adjustment. Using the VALUE slider is the
preferred method. Press the VALUE button and then move the VALUE slider
as you play the sound. The number of dB's volume adjustment will appear in
the display and w i l l be applied to the sound as you play (you must re-attack
the note to hear each change). The amount of volume adjustment possible Is
from -42 dB to +42 dB; however, i f a large number is used here it will
reduce your keyboard dynamics dramat ical ly, possibly resulting In the loss
of touch sensitivity altogether, so be very conservative (+/- 1 0 dB). When
satisfied with the adjustment, hit SELECT. TUNE now asks for the pitch
adjustment step size:
The three choices here are:
No PITCH adjust
This Input works just like all the other enumerated Input. Selecting No
PITCH adjust will bypass the pitch tuning altogether. Selecting cents
causes the pitch adjustment to have a range of - 100 to + 100 cents in one
cent increments. Selecting sernitones causes the pitch adjustment t o have a
range of -48 sernitones (4 octaves down) to + 12 semitones (one octave up)
in one semitone steps. If semitones were selected, TUNE would ask for the
pitch adjustment in semitones:
nnn i s
the current pitch adjustment in semitones. After digitizing, this
number will be 0. After fnputing the semitone adjustment, TUNE
automatically asks for adjustment in cents:
nnn is the current pitch adjustment in cents (hundredths of a semitone),
TUNE would have jumped directly to the above question If cents adjustment
was originally selected, After selecting the pitch adjustment, TUNE asks
for the decay rate:
nnn Is the current decay rate of the sound expressed in decibels per second.
Because the decay rate only applies to the looping section of a sound, TUNE
will not ask this question if the sound has not been looped. After setting
the decay rate, TUNE asks for the release rate:
is the current release rate of the sound expressed In decibels per
second. The release rate is the rate at which the sound decays after you
have physically released the performance key. After digitizing, this number
defaults to 1000 dB/sec. The release rate is currently adjustable from 1
dB/sec to 2000 dB/sec. After setting the release rate, TUNE asks:
Filter tracking (ON):
TUNE Is looking for I (meaning ON) or 0 (meaning OFF). It Is a1so possible to
use the left and right cursor keys or the yes and no buttons to respond What
does filter tracking mean? Filter tracking is simply the fact that the
anti-alias filter tracks the sound as you play it higher or lower in pitch.
That is, If you sampled a sound at 25kHz and played it at root position you
will hear the original sound. The anti-alias filter will be set to cutoff a t
10kHz (2/5 ths the sampling rate). tf you play the sound up an octave the
filter w i l l be at 20kHz, and i f you play down an octave the f i l t e r will be at
SkHz Thts Is filter tracking
The alternative t o filter tracking is called "filter anti-tracking". This is
just like filter tracking except that as you play up from a root position, the
filter moves DOWN rather than up. Playing up an octave w i l l cause the filter
to behave as If you were playing down an octave. This doesn't seem useful
at first, but it is. Consider the following situation. You have sampled two
piano notes, C4 and C6, a t 25kHz and you have assigned these to the C4 and
C6 keys of a keyboard. Playing at C5 w i l l cause the C4 root to be played up
one octave. With filter tracking enabled, the anti-alias filter will be at
20kHz. As you move from C5 t o C*5, you will now be hearing the C6 root
being played down almost one octave causing the anti-alias filter to cutoff
at about 5kHz. Thus, moving up one semi tone has caused the frequency
response of the K250 to change from 20kHz to 5kHz. and this is clearly
audible. With anti-tracking enabled, both roots would have a cutoff of SkHz
about C5, and thus the transition between adjacent roots would be smoother.
Antl-tracking i s thus useful when creating musical instrument keyboards
(as opposed to "random sounds" keyboards). You may want every root sound
file to anti-track except for the top root of such a Keyboard. When creating
"random sounds* keyboards, you may want to select normal tracking. The
user is urged to think about the sampling rates used and the spacing
between roots, and to experiment with filter tracking modes h e . LISTEN to
the keyboard as you switch between modes). Normal filter tracking Is
selectable with ON (or 11, and filter anti-tracking Is selectable with OFF
(or 0).
After selecting filter tracking mode, TUNE exits to the digitizer menu.
SMP version 2.0
The trimming option allows the user t o t r i m sound files, resulting in a new
sound file w i t h fewer samples. The most common use for trimming i s t o
eliminate unwanted silence at the beginning and/or end of the sound, but
this Is only one of many possible uses. Sound may be trimmed from the
beginning and end of an existing sound by using the assignable sllders to set
the start and end point of the sound while playing the sound on the keyboard.
If the sound has already been looped, sound may only be removed from the
start. This can be used to remove all sound but the looping section. TRIM
first asks for the sound file and keyboard in the same manner as other
digitizer functions. The keyboard selected becomes the current playable
keyboard and the display w i l l look something like:
The display always shows the selected start and end points of the sound in
seconds. Assignable slider 1 sets the start of sound and assignable slider 2
sets the end of sound. As the start and end sliders are moved, TRIM creates
the proper sound f i l e header t o play the sound for the specified range. The
user must play the sound on the keyboard t o hear the effects of trimming.
The sound may be played polyphonically with itself or other sounds on the
same keyboard. Only the selected sound i s trimmed; other sounds that may
happen to be on the same keyboard are unaffected. Each slider spans the
duration of the sound; the lowest position of the slider means the start of
the sound (0.000 seconds) and the highest position of the slider means the
end of the sound. There i s a small deadband at each end of each slider to
ensure that the start and end are achievable by pegging the sliders to their
rails. Thus, the above display would occur i f the sound was 2 seconds long
and slider 1 was at i t s lowest position and slider 2 was at i t s highest
position. This would result in the original sound being available (i.e. no
trimming). Until the user decides to replace the original sound with the
trimmed sound, the effects of trimming are totally non-destructive. The
original sound Is s t i l l intact within the machine. Thus, the philosophy of
trimming is to adjust the sliders and play the sound, adjust and play again,
etc. until the desired final sound is achieved or the user decides to abort
with no changes made.
If the sllders are set such that the start Is greater than or equal to the end,
the display will read:
SHP version 2.0
In the above situation, TRIM w i l l create a NULL sound that contains no
samples except for those samples in the looping section i f there is one. The
K250 can potentially play extremely short sounds. However, in heavy
performance situations with a l l channels steaming, LFOs on, and the
sequencer running w i t h MIDI, sounds less than 0.05 seconds must be avoided
or the CPU won't be able t o keep up. For this reason, the digitizer prevents
the creation of sound segments with a duration of 0.05 seconds or less.
If the sound you are trimming has already been looped with LOOP, TRIM w i l l
peg the end postion t o the end of the sound and only let you adjust the
starting position. In general, you should trim a sound before looping f t, but
this feature allows the user to eliminate all sound except for the looping
Although TRIM is pretty interactive, there are some limitations. Once you
play a sound, the sliders wit1 have no effect on that sound. Also, you must
wait f o r a l l sounds t o fully release t o silence before re-adjusting the
sliders w i l l have any effect. This seems easy t o do, but most players can't
keep their hands o f f the keyboard. Remember that the display always
reflects the actual sound you are going to hear ff you play.
The sliders each have a range of two hundred ticks (the smallest possible
slider change). This means that the resolution of your trimming i s only
1/200th the total length of the sound. For a 100 second sound, each slider
tick w i l l result in a 1/2 second endpoint change which is clearly
unacceptable for precision trimming. To get more precision out of the
sliders, there 1s a
a which works as follows. Each
slider is normal ly in "coarse" mode as described above. Each tick represents
1/200th the length of the sound. For more precision, you can put either
slider In "fine" mode by pressing the slfder select button above the slider.
The LED on the button w i l l light, indicating that the slider is in fine mode.
In this mode each tick represents M o t h the length of a coarse tick, or
1/10,00Oth the length of the sound. When going Into fine mode, TRIM
remembers the last coarse setting such that the fine adjustments are
relative to the last coarse mode setting. The fine mode adjustment i s zero
at the center of the slider, negative on the lower half, and positive on the
upper half. Thus, when you pop into fine mode, you must center the slider to
get the original coarse setting. To get out of fine mode back t o coarse
mode, simply press the slider select button again. The LED w i l l go out
indicating that the slider is in coarse mode. Note that the slider postion
will be interpreted as a coarse mode setting which may result in a large
change from the previous fine mode setting. In general, the fine mode
adjustments w i11 only be necessary for long sounds.
TRIM can trim compressed sounds as well as non-compressed sounds. When
trimming compressed sounds, the envelope of the trimmed section is
normalized to 0 dB, thus the trimmed section wilt play out at the maximum
volume possible for that section.
While trimming, the transpose buttons are operational and provide the
OCTAVE PITCH SHIFT function. This is useful for pitch shifting down
several octaves to hear a slow version of the sound. The allowed range of
pitch shift Is down five octaves to up one octave (sounds recorded at
sampling rates greater than 25kHz will not transpose up an entire octave).
The only indicators of the transposition are the LEDs on the transpose
buttons, which work as they do in PLAY mode. Also, the transposition is
only temporary and w i l l not apply to the sound after leaving TRIM.
At any time during TRIM, pressing the PLAY button will cause TRIM to return
to the digitizer menu without making any changes t o the original sound file.
I f you are satisfied wtth your trimmed sound, press the SELECT button.
TRIM w i l l respond with:
Replace existing sound
with trimmed sound (Y/N)?
Pressing the YES button will cause TRIM t o replace the existing sound with
your new, trimmed sound. This means that all keyboard setups that used the
original sound w i l l now use the new, trimmed sound. The name and number
of the sound do not change. TRIM will now return to the digitizer menu.
Note that the original sound is no longer available and that the number of
free samples should increase. Pressing NO w i l l return you to the digitizer
menu with no changes made t o the original sound.
LOOP allows the user to create a looping section fora sound file. A looping
section always occurs at the end of a sound file and repeats itself
indefinitely until the sound ends. The sound may end because: I ) the key
that caused the sound to play is released, 2) the mute pedal is depressed, 3)
the decay section of the envelope causes the sound output to decay to
silence, 4) the channel the sound is playing out on i s stolen by another
sound. There are many uses for looping, but they all result in an artificial
extension of the sound without using up extra memory. Loops can be
separated Into two categories, the long "natural" loop, and the short "cycle"
loop. Both of these can be created with the LOOP function,
The long natural loop refers to a looping section of sufficient length that
the sound changes noticablv during the course of the loop. I f one was to
digitize the spoken alphabet "A 0 C D E F G.,."and loop the "D E F" part, the
final sound would be "A B C D E F D E F O E F..." This is somewhat like a
record skip. A different example would be looping the sound of a terrifying
car skid. The original "SCREEECH!" could be turned into "SCREEEEEE..." by
looping the intermediate part of the sound. To do this kind of sound
properly, the loop has to be long enough so that the repetition rate of the
loop is not extremely noticable, To help with this, it is possible to do a
crossfade at the end of the loop with the sound that immediately proceeds
the start of the loop, In the alphabet example, the T" would get blended
with the "C" to make the transition t o "D" smoother. Note that a long
crossfade length tends to make the 1 oop sound chorused. However, this long
loop technique works best when looping sustained chorused sounds such as a
car skid (4 tires each with l i t t l e "treadlets"an making a skidding noise), a
bowed string section, rain, applause, etc.
The short cycle loop refers to a short looping section consisting of a small
number of cycles of the fundamental frequency of the sound. The purpose of
cycle looping Is to extend the timbre of a tonal sound. In order to properly
select the cycles to loop, the loop must start and end on a zero-crossing.
Figure 1 shows negative t o positive zero-crossings of a waveform; these
are all candidates for start and end points of a loop.
SMP version 2.0
FIG. 1
SMP version 2.0
Cycle loops are only successful when applied to strongly pitched sounds. If
there i s no clear fundamental, looping a few cycles may result in a bizarre
sound not well connected with the previous timbre, Also, the loop points
must be carefully chosen with repeated listening t o get a good loop. Figure
2 shows how looping between START and END w i l l result in a big pitch jump.
Choosing point A for the start point would result in a better loop.
FIG. 2
SMP version 2.0
Figure 3 shows a loop that will cause clicks when played. Notice how the
difference in the waveform slope a t START and END creates a cusp in the
waveform. Applying a crossfade would smooth out the cusp somewhat, but
in general, crossfades cannot f i x a bad choice. Choosing point A and then
crossfading would result in a better loop.
FIG. 3
SMP version 2.0
Figure 4 shows the looping process in more detai l. Notice how the crossf ad@
occurs at the end of the looping section and how f t causes the loop to blend
into itself.
Operation of LOOP
LOOP works by allowing the user to select the start of loop, end of loop, and
duration of crossfade. These three values can be input by using the
assignable sliders (SLIDER mode) or by single stepping the values (STEP
mode). After the values have been input, LOOP finds the proper
zero-crossings closest t o your values, creates the looping sect ion, and then
allows the user to play the creation on the keyboard. The type of loop
created depends only upon the values selected by the user. I f you want a
long loop, select the loop values such that start and end are far apart; for a
short loop, select start and end such that they are close together. In
essence, LOOP always does the same processing regardless of the slider
postions, but the results categorize themselves into the two groups
mentioned above. The operation of LOOP from a user perspective is similar
to TRIM; you should read about TRIM before continuing.
LOOP first asks the user for the sound file t o loop, and the keyboard setup t o
use for review. If the sound selected has already been looped, LOOP w i l l
display an error message and return t o the digitizer menu. After the user
has selected these, the display will look something like the following:
The display always shows the current start, end, and crossfade times in
seconds. LOOP always starts up in SLIDER mode, meaning the start, end, and
crossfade values are input using the sl iders.
Assignable slider 1 controls the start of loop; slider 2, the end of loop;
slider 3, the duration of crossfade. The length of the loop created is always
the difference between end and start. The sliders work the same as with
TRIM, including the fine precision capabilities. However, the display may
not seem to respond as well to movements of the sliders as with TRIM. One
reason for this is that LOOP uses the start and end sliders as initial search
points in its quest for zero-crossings.
After it finds the start
zero-crossing, i t limits the end of loop point based on the start of loop
point. This Is necessary because there Is a maximum loop length of 64K
samples. The table below gives the maximum loop time available for each
sampling rate given that there is at least 64K free samples at the time of
looping. If there are fewer free samples than this, the maximum loop time
SMP version 2.0
available w i l l be smaller. After the end zero-crossing Is determined, LOOP
Umits the crossfade length based on start and end. Of course, the length of
the crossfade cannot be greater than start (see figure 4) and cannot be
greater than the loop length. LOOP now constructs the looping section based
on these final values. While LOOP Is calculating a new looping section, the
SELECT LED will extinguish and the keyboard will not respond to attacks BE PATIENT. If the crossfade is of an appreciable length, it will take some
time for LOOP to compute the crossfade (several seconds). Finally, the new
values are displayed, the SELECT LED lights, and the new sound is playable
on the keyboard. A good idea Is to leave the crossf ade slider on zero until
you have chosen start and end, then raise the crossfade to the desired
amount This will decrease the turnaround time from slider input to
As with TRIM, once you start to play a sound, the sliders no longer have an
effect on the sound playing. Also, al l sounds must release fully before LOOP
wf l l compute a new sound. Because of this, LOOP will temporarily replace
the release rate of the sound with a 1000 W s e c release while you are
looping. LOOP will put back the original release rate when done.
If the sliders are set
such that the loop start is greater than the loop end,
the display will show;
SMP version 2.0
In this case LOOP w i l l act very much like
TRIM, playing only the first 1.4
seconds of sound.
STEP mode
STEP mode is extremely useful f o r creating cycle loops. STEP mode i s
entered a t any time by pressing the SPLIT KBD button. The LED on the button
will light, indicating that LOOP is in STEP mode. In STEP mode It is possible
to single step start and end t o achieve far better accuracy when creating a
cycle loop. The two buttons over slider I control the start of loop point; the
ASSIGN- I button retreats the start point t o the previous zero crossing, the
ALPHA button advances the start point to the next zero crossing. Similarly,
the two buttons over slider 2 control the end of loop point; the ASSIGN-2
button retreats the end point t o the previous zero crossing, the VALUE
button advances the end point t o the next zero crossing. The crossfade
amount Is still read from sl ider 3 as before. Because the display resolution
is in milliseconds, i t is possible that changing a zero crossing w i l l not
result in a display change i f there is more than one zero crossing during that
millisecond of sound. Note also that the same limiting applied to slider
Input values applies here. Thus, it i s possible that you will get "stuck"
advancing the end point because you are attempting to create a loop larger
than the available free space. When in STEP mode, the start and end sUders
are de-activated, although the LED5 on the assignment buttons (which
Indicate the sliders are in FINE mode) do not change. Pressing the SPLIT KBD
button again will return you to S U E R mode, the SPLIT KBD LED w i l l
extinguish, and the start and end points will be read from the sliders. Note
that this will probably result in the values changing.
Regardless of the input mode, pressing PLAY w i l l abort LOOP and return you
to the digitizer menu with no changes made. If you like the loop you have
made, press the SELECT button. LOOP w il l respond with:
Replace existing sound
w i t h looped sound (Y/N)?
Pressing the YES button w i n cause LOOP to replace the existing sound with
your new looped sound. This means that all keyboard setups that used the
original sound will now use the new, looped sound. The name and number of
the sound do not change. LOOP will now return to the digitizer menu. Note
that the original sound is no longer available and that the number of free
samples may Increase as a result of looping. Pressing NO will return you to
the digitizer menu with no changes made to the original sound,
SMP version 2.0
A decay rate can be applied to the looping section with the TUNE function.
LOOP always uses a decay rate of zero (no decay) when playing loops, After
a sound has been looped, it cannot be looped again until the loop is deleted
with DELETE LOOP. Also, the TRIM function can be used to isolate just the
looping section by setting the start slider to its highest position.
The ASSIGN SOUND TO KBD functton allows the user to build keyboards that
contain sounds recorded by the digitizer. This is done by assigning a sound
me to a performance key of a keyboard, When the key is struck, the original
sound 1s played back, Playing higher or tower keys wll l af feet the pitch of
the sound correspondingly. When sounds are assigned t o different keys,
there are points on the keyboard between the assigned keys where one sound
ends and another begins; these are called "split points". ASSIGN can
automatically calculate split points or allow the user t o enter them
manually, ASSIGN will allow sound flies to be assigned t o more than one
keyboard at a time, and w i l l allow multiple assignments to the same
keyboard. It is also possible to assign two sounds t o the same key such that
one sound plays when the key 1s struck softly and the other sound plays
when the key is struck forcefully. This is know as hardness mapping,
multiple-hardness keyboards, or timbre-dynamic keyboards. ASSIGN allows
the user t o Construct both single and dual amplitude keyboards. ASSIGN has
no keyboard edit functions other than assigning a sound file to a hardness
level of a key. Thus, ASSIGN Is a keyboard creator and editor, but performs
wholly different functions than the K250 keyboard editor.
ASSIGN first asks for the sound file to assign. I f ASSIGN is being called by
RECORD It w 1 l l use the sound that RECORD Just recorded. The format of the
sound file select ion Is as described earlier. ASSIGN next asks if you wish t o
assign the sound to an existing digitizer keyboard or i f you wish to create a
new keyboard:
Assign t o existing KDD (YIN)?
If you answer YES, ASSIGN will ask you Tor the keyboard to assign to. The
format for keyboard selection is as described earlier. I f you answer NO,
ASSIGN w i l l create a new keyboard for you and will ask you to name it;
Input new KBD name:
This name entry Is identical to the naming of sound files in RECORD. If you
press SELECT, ASSIGN w i l l create a name for you of the format "DIG KBD
nnn",where nnn Is the next available keyboard number,
SMP version 2.0
ASSIGN Is pretty smart about the number of keyboards that the digitizer has
created, If none have been created, it will not ask you If you wish t o assign
to an existing keyboard (remember that you can only assign to digitizer
[RAM-based] keyboards); Instead, I t will create a new keyboard for you and
ask you to name it. Conversely, if you have created the maximum number of
digitizer keyboards (this is 151, ASSIGN will not allow you t o create a new
If you have selected an old keyboard, ASSIGN will let you review It before
you assign the new sound file to it:
it SELECT t o conti
Now ft 1s time to actually make the assignment. There are two things you
can do when assigning a sound f ile to a keyboard: 1 ) Assign the new sound file to a previously unassigned key. ASSIGN
figures out the split points based on adjacent roots or will ask you to enter
them manually. I f the keyboard happens t o be a dual amp1I tude keyboard, the
assignment will be made t o both the hard and soft strikes.
2) Assign the new sound f 1 le to a hardness level of a previously assigned
key. If the assignment Is made to the soft strike, the previously assigned
sound becomes the hard strtke, and if the assignment Is made to the hard
strike, the previously assigned sound becomes the soft strike. If the
keyboard Is a single amplitude keyboard it wtll automatically be converted
to a dual amplitude keyboard.
No means do 0, YES means do 2). The tricky part Is to avoid selecting 2)
until you have already assigned one of the strike levels to the keyboard and
you now have the other. Note that ASSIGN wit) not ask you the above
question unless the keyboard has at least one root already assigned to It.
If you answer YES, assign to multiple hardness, ASSIGN asks:
This establishes the hardness level
of the sound you are assigning.
I f you are assigning to multiple hardness, strike the previously assigned key
you wish to make into dual hardness; ASSIGN w i l l only accept a key that has
already been assigned, displaying "key not assigned" i f you err. I f you are
NOT assigning to multiple hardness, strike an unassigned key you wish t o
assign; ASSIGN will only accept an unassigned key, displaying "key already
assigned" tf you err. Unti I this process is understood, users get confused
with these messages and want to abort. Because ASSIGN is looking for a
performance key strike, It will not abort immediately i f you hit PLAY. To
abort, hit PLAY and then strike a key; ASSIGN w i l l return to the digitizer
menu with no assignments made.
If you are assigning to multiple hardness, ASSIGN will
already establ ished for the previously assigned sou
assigning t o multiple hardness, ASSIGN asks:
he split points
f you are not
Automatic split points
Answering YES w i l l cause the digitizer to create split points exactly
between adjacent root positions. Answering NO allows the user to set the
rangemanually. ASSIGN will ask:
(User strikes desired highest key In range of sound.)
Note that ASSIGN w i l l not allow the range of one sound t o extend over an
adjacent root, nor will It allow the range of a sound to extend beyond the
transpose l i m i t of the sound. Ail sounds can transpose down 5 octaves
regardless of sampling rate. However, the amount a sound can be transposed
up varies with the sampling rate. After this limit is exceeded the sound
will no longer play. The following table gives the maximum amount a sound
can be transposed up for each sampling rate:
I octave and min. 6 t h
t octave and maj. 7th
2 octaves and maj. 2nd
2 octaves and tritone
2 octaves and maj, 7th
3 octaves and maj. 2nd
3 octaves and tritone
A sound file may be assigned to more than one keyboard or may be assigned
to different keys on the same keyboard without using up any sample memory.
The sound w i l l play at root pitch at each assigned root position. The SHOW
ROOTS option allows the user to see which sound files are assigned to a
After the assignment
Is made, ASSIGN returns to the digitizer menu.
REMOVE SF FROM KBD is a keyboard edit function which removes a sound
from a keyboard without deleting the sound; thus, the sound can still be
assigned to any keyboard. REMOVE first asks for the sound file t o remove
and the keyboard to remove it from. REMOVE next asks the user whether t o
extend the range of sounds adjacent t o the sound that is being removed:
Extend the range of
adjacent sounds (YES)?
The default is to extend
adjacent sounds; new split points will be
automatically calculated as in ASSIGN SOUND TO KBD.. The alternative is t o
replace the existing sound with dead (silent) keys. An exception t o this
occurs when the sound you are removing is assigned to the soft or hard
strike (not both) on a single key. When the sound file is removed, the
hardness that is left w i l l become assigned to both hardness levels,
regardless of your answer to the extend question. when removing a sound
from a keyboard, all occurrences of the sound will be removed from the
keyboard, a message to this effect w i l l be displayed, and REWOVE will
return to the digitizer menu. I f the sound is not assigned to the keyboard, a
warning message wilt be displayed and REMOVE will return to the digitizer
SET KBD CROSSOVER LEVEL allows the user t o change the sensitivity of dual
hardness keyboards. The keyboard crossover level is the key strike level at
which the keyboard will play the hard strike sound instead of the soft strike
sound. SET KBD CROSSOVER LEVEL first asks for the keyboard to edit, I f the
selected keyboard is not a dual amplitude keyboard, SET KBD CROSSOVER
LEVEL wit1 display a warning and return t o the digitizer menu. After
selecting a dual hardness keyboard, SET KBD CROSSOVER LEVEL asks for the
crossover level:
KBD crossover l eve I:
The range is from 0 to 255 and 235 i s the default amount. Selecting 255
will cause the soft strike sound to always play. Selecting 0 w i l l cause the
hard strike sound to always play. You w i l l notice that the useful range of the
crossover amount i s over 200. As you change the value with the VALUE
slider, play the keyboard until you are comfortable with the transition point.
When satisfied, hit SELECT. SET KBD CROSSOVER LEVEL will now return to
the dig1t izer menu.
DELETE SOUND deletes a sound file from the digitizer, DELETE SOUND first
asks for a sound file to delete. Then DELETE SOUND asks whether to extend
the range of sounds adjacent to the sound that is being deleted (every
occurrence of this sound must be removed from all keyboards that use it,
and the digitizer needs t o know how t o remove it; see the section on REMOVE
SOUND FROM KBD). The sound f ile 1 s removed from all keyboards that use f t ,
the sound Die is deleted, and the memory Is reshuffled t o free up
fragmented space caused by the deletion. If the memory is very full, the
reshuffling can take a while (possibly ten seconds). During this interim,
DELETE displays "DELETING...",
DELETE KBD deletes a keyboard setup from the digitizer without affecting
any sound files. DELETE KBD asks for a keyboard t o delete, deletes the
keyboard, and returns to the digi t izer menu,
DELETE LOOP deletes the looping section of a sound. Several functions
cannot be performed on looped sounds; these are t looping a sound,
2) trimming the endof a sound, and 3) reversing a sound. By deleting the
existing looping section, these functions can be used on the sound, For
Instance, i f you have looped a sound and you decide you don't like it, you can
delete the loop and loop the sound again. Keep in mind that the sound in the
looping section will not be available after it is deleted. DELETE LOOP first
asks for the sound tile, then it deletes the looping section and compacts the
memory. DELETE LOOP displays "DELETING..." while this processlhg Is taklng
place, If the sound you select has no looping section, DELETE LOOP will
display an error and return to the digitizer menu.
INITIALIZE MEMORY does Just what Is says:
CAUTION: Initialize
digitizer memory (Y/N)?
Answering YES wipes out the sound RAM; all digitizer sound files and
keyboards will be deleted and can NOT be recovered. This is a quick and
effective way of starting over from scratch.
DUPLICATE SOUND makes an exact duplicate of any existing digitizer sound.
The duplicate sound will be assigned a new name and number; the number
will be the lowest currently available sound tile number, but the name may
be entered by the user. DUPLICATE SOUND first asks for the sound to
duplicate, and then DUPLICATE SOUND attempts t o copy the sound Into free
sound space. If there is not sufficient space t o make a copy, DUPLICATE
SOUND w i l l give a warning message and return to the digitizer menu.
Otherwise, DUPLICATE SOUND wUl display "DUPLICATING..." and copy the
sound. DUPLICATE SOUND then asks for the new sound Tile name. This is
implemented as in the RECORD function; use the ALPHA slider to spell out
the name, or hit SELECT to get a default name. DUPLICATE SOUND w i l l then
return t o the digitizer menu.
Consider the following example of how DUPLICATE SOUND is useful. Let's
say you have just recorded the sound "One for the money, two for the show",
and you want to split the sound up into two parts and assign them t o
different keys. You can first duplicate the sound, creating two identical
sounds which you might call "50UND1"and "50UND2. Using TRIM, you trim
SOUND1 so that It becomes "One for the money", and you trim SOUND2 so that
it becomes "Two for the show" You can now use ASSIGN SOUND TO KBD to
assign these t o different performance keys of a keyboard setup,
DUPLICATE KBD makes an exact duplicate of any existing digitizer keyboard.
The duplicate keyboard will be assigned a new name and number; the number
wilt be the lowest currently avallabie keyboard number, but me name may
be entered by the user. DUPLICATE KBD asks for the keyboard to duplicate,
and then DUPLICATE KBD copies the keyboard and asks you to name it. As
with all names, you can use the ALPHA slider t o spell the name, or hit
SELECT to get a default name. DUPLICATE KBD w i l l then return to the
digitizer menu. if there is no more space to create another keyboard,
DUPLICATE KBD w i l l give a warning message and return to the digitizer
An exampleof how thisoption Isuseful follows. Let's say that youhave an
electric bass keyboard with a lot of dual amplitude roots. You have just
recorded a second A l soft root and you are not sure whether it is better
than the original A1 soft root recorded. You can duplicate the electric bass
keyboard, remove the A l soft root, and replace f t with the new A l soft root
Now you have two keyboards, each w i t h a different A l soft root. E x i t the
digitizer into play mode and assign these two keyboards to the keypad bins.
Now you may play and freely switch between the two different keyboards
until you have decided which one is better.
SMP version 2.0
SHOW FREE SAMPLES shows how many samples of memory are available for
recording and also shows the number of sound files and keyboards currently
used by the digitizer, i f SHOW FREE SAMPLES was selected immediately
after initialization, the display would look like:
free: 500000 samples
used: 0 SFs, 0 KBDs
To determine how much time is available, the user must dtvlde the number
of samples by the desired sampling rate. For Instance, 500,000 samples at
50kHz would yield 10 seconds of recording time in QUICK TAKE or
DE-EMPHASIS mode. The amount of time available depends on the mode of
digitizing. If compression is used, there w i l l be slightly less time
available. The best way to determine the time remaining is to enter the
RECORD function, answer the questions about sound type and sampling rate,
and then see how much time RECORD offers t o record. A t this point the user
can simply abort out of RECORD by pressing PLAY. Some space in the
digitizer is known as fragmented space and is not available for recording,
The digitizer tries to keep the memory compacted optimally at all times so
that the maximum amount of space is available for recording. Every time
any old samples are discarded, the digitizer w i l l repack the memory.
The number of used sound f ftes and keyboards does not include the DIG
PREVIEW KBD 500 and the DIGITIZER SF 500,which are always present and
reserved for use by the dig1t tzer.
This function allows the user to Hst each sound file assigned to a particular
keyboard. After selecting the keyboard, SHOW ROOTS w i l l display each root
assigned to the keyboard in the order low keys to high keys and soft strikes
to hard strikes. An example display follows:
Ax3 HARD (A0 C4) 501
The root position i s given In ASA notation (C4 = middle C, octaves are
between C's), thus the above root is A sharp below rniddle C. HARD
Indicates that the root is assigned t o the hard strike of a dual amplitude
keyboard, SOFT indicates soft strike, BOTH indicates both hard and soft
strikes, and DO specifier is given i f the keyboard is a single amplitude
keyboard. The notes given in parentheses specify the range of the sound. In
the example, (A0 C4) Indicates the range of the sound is from A0 to C4,
inclusive (lowest piano note through middle 0. The sound file number is
given on the far right, in this case 501. The sound f i l e name appears on the
lower line. Use the left and right cursor buttons t o scan through the list of
roots. Pressing SELECT, PLAY, or the up cursor will cause SHOW ROOTS to
return to the digitizer menu. I f no roots are assigned t o the keyboard, SHOW
ROOTS wilt display "No roots assigned" and exit.
This function tells the user the version number and date of release of the
current software. For instance:
SMP version 2.0
Sept 1 1, 1985
SMP version 2.0
REVERSE SOUND reverses the samples of a sound in-place. Thus, when the
sound is played, tt will have the same effect as playing the sound
backwards. REVERSE first asks for the sound t o reverse, then it proceeds to
reverse the sound. REVERSE displays "REVERSING..." while processing; this
takes about a second for every 10,000 samples In the sound. Compressed
sounds can be reversed, but looped sounds cannot be reversed without first
deleting the looping section. I f a looped sound is selected, REVERSE will
display a warning message and return t o the digitizer menu.
The RENAME OBJECT function allows the user to rename any digitizer sound
file or keyboard setup. RENAME first asks for the type of object to rename:
Rename SF or KBD?
Pressing YES will cause RENAME to rename a sound file, NO will cause
RENAME to rename a keyboard, PLAY will abort RENAME. RENAME will now
ask for the object to rename of the selected type. After selecting the
object, RENAME wilt ask for the new name:
The above display would occur i f the user selected to rename a sound file.
The new name Is entered by using the ALPHA slider. If SELECT is pressed
before any characters are entered, the name will be left unchanged,
otherwise the new name will replace the old one. After entering the new
name, RENAME will return to the digitizer menu.
Using the K250 INST and KBD editors
After you have created an interesting digitizer keyboard, you may want t o
edit the Instrument voicing t o add special effects such as vibrato, tremolo,
chorusing, etc. The DIGITIZER INST (number 500) and digitizer keyboards
(numbers 501 through 564)are not directly editable w i t h the K250 editors,
but they can be copied to the user INST and KBD area (numbers 250 on up)
and then edited. A simple example of how t o do this follows. For this
example, let's assume that the digitizer keyboard you have created ts
number 501. From PLAY mode, get into the instrument editor by entering
EDIT INST. You want to edit the DIGITIZER INST, so enter NO YES 500
SELECT SELECT. Now the DIGITIZER INST has been copied t o the INST EDIT
BUFFER and you will find yourself at the VOICING OPTIONS menu. At this
point, you may use the instrument editor to create whatever effects you
wish (see the K250 user's manual). There are two important things t o
remember; you MUST set the current keyboard t o be the digitizer keyboard
(In this case 5011, and you MUST set the effects flags t o use the local
effects you have set up. When satisfied, save the instrument by entering
SAVE NO SELECT SELECT. Exit the instrument editor by entering PLAY.
Now you must create a new keyboard and layer this instrument on top of It.
To do this, enter EDIT KBD NO NO YES INST. Now you must select the
instrument that you just created with the instrument editor. After doing
this, strike key A0 (low key) and C8 (high key). Save the new keyboard by
entering SAVE YES SELECT SELECT. Now you have created a keyboard that
is a copy of keyboard 501, except that i t uses the new instrument with
effects that you created.
Using ~ a c ~ t t a cand
h ~MacDuplex
In order t o save your digitized sounds for future use, you must save them on
the Macintosh wtth the MacAttach utility. You should read the MacAttach
user's manual; this section is only Intended as a reinforcement of key
concepts. For use saving sounds, the MacAttach utility is best set up as
follows. The MacAttach program should reside on a disk that includes a
sytem folder. If this Is not already so, MacAttach should be copied to a
Macintosh system disk; this disk now becomes your MacAttach disk. Boot
MacAttach in the external disk drive by powering up the Macintosh and
placing the MacAttach disk in the external drive. The internal disk drive
should now be used f o r ail your data disks.
There are two Important numbers to remember when creating your own
library of sounds. In order t o save the digitizer memory on one disk, there
SMP version 2.0
must be at least 205,500 free samples remaining. In order t o create a
single disk ffte that can properly be renumbered with MacDuplex, there must
be at least 262,145 free samples remaining. Use the SHOW FREE SAMPLES
function to see i f these constraints are met.
currently have a set of sounds in digitizer memory, and you wish t o
load a MacOuplex image to the top of digitizer memory, there are certain
things to keep in mind. First, the existing digitizer memory must have at
least 262,145 free samples remaining. I f not, some data w i l l be destroyed
when you load In the MacDuplex image t o the top of digitizer memory. Also;
after loading in the MacDuptex Image, you w i l l not be able t o freely use the
digitizer without destroying the sounds that are loaded at the top of
memory. You may TUNE sounds, and you may record new sounds, provided
that after recording there are st I 11 at least 262,145 samples free.
If you
All Macintosh disks created by SMP version 1 (or any other version, for that
matter) will ALWAYS be playable when loaded into the K250. Even disks
that contain 50kHz samples will be playable on K250s that do not have the
50kHz digitizer installed. The compatibility issues concern whether or not
the sounds and keyboard setups created by other versions of SMP can be
edited using the current version of SMP.
Using SMP version I disks with SMP version 2 software
Disks made with SMP version 1 are almost compatible with SMP version 2.
The difference lies in the keyboard setups. If SMP version 2 is used with
SMP version 1 data in the sound RAM, care must be taken not to assign or
de-assf gn sounds to/f rom the keyboard setups. The functions ASSIGN SOUND
work, If you use these functions, the error message "ERROR: Corrupted KBD"
will show up. Before these functions can be used, the WP version 1
keyboards must be rebuilt using the SMP version 2 software. This can be
done by first deleting all the old keyboard setups with the DELETE KBD
function and then rebuilding them using the ASSIGN SOUND TO KBD function.
This requires that you remember the root assignments t o the old keyboards
and that you name the new keyboards correctly. This task will be easier i f
the names of the sounds contain the instrument, pitch, and hardness, such as
'piano C*3 hard". If they have not been named 1n this fashion, you may have
t o do some detective work to figure out the old assignments. Rebuilding
will fully upgrade the old keyboard setups so that all the functions may be
SMP version 2.0
Using SMP version 2 disks with SMP version t software
I f SMP version 1 is used with data from SMP version 2 in the sound RAM
(this is an unlikely situation), care must be taken not t o edit (TUNE, TRIM, or
LOOP) any sound that was recorded with a sampling rate greater than 25kHz.
SMP version 1 simply doesn't know about those sampling rates, so you can
expect unpredictable results. In order to assign or de-assign sounds
to/from the keyboard setups, the SMP version 2 keyboards must be deleted
and then rebuilt w i t h the older software. This will fully downgrade the new
keyboard setups. Note that there will be no error message given by SMP
version 1 when U is editing SMP version 2 keyboards.
Warning Messages
The following is a list of digitizer warnings that are displayed when the
user makes an error. The messages are displayed for 1.6 seconds after
which the digitizer w i l l take the appropriate action (usually returning to
the main menu).
No user keyboards
The user has attmped an operation that requires a digitizer keyboard setup,
and there are non
SS16N SOUND TO KBD creates digitizer keyboard
The user has attempted an operat ion that requires a digitizer sound file, and
there are none. RECORD SOUND creates digitizer sound f iles.
No more roots
The user Is attempting to assign too many root positions to an individual
keyboard setup. The maximum i s 3
No roots assigned
The user
Is attempting to
Keyboard list full
SHOW ROOTS of a keyboard that has no sounds
Out of sample space
There is no more free space in sample memory. No more sounds can be
recorded (or dupl icated) unt il something is deleted. DELETE SF, DELETE
LOOP, TRIM, and LOOP can all free up sample memory.
Key not assigned
The user is attempting to assign a sound file t o mu1t i p l e hardness levels and
is, an already assigned
has specified a key which i s not assi
key must be specified.
Key already assigned
The user is attempting t o assign a sound file to a single hardness level and
has specified a key which is already assigned. To do this, a unassigned key
must be specified.
SF nnn not assigned
t o KBD mmm
(de-asstgn) sound file number nnn from
keyboard mmm and the sound file is not assigned t o the keyboard,
The user is attempting to remove
Freeing partially
built objects
The digitizer has encountered objects which were not completely built.
This can occur ff the user does a 4/5/SELECT during some function t o abort
out of It, in which case there may be data objects which are only partially
built and cannot be used. The digitizer w i l l free all such objects (akin t o
deletion) and continue.
nnn not assigned,
The user has selected sound f i l e nnn for processing and the sound file is not
assumed to any keyboard. The digitizer has automatically assigned the
sound to the DIG PREVIEW KBD (number 500)and has made this the current
playable keyboard. This keyboard, which is used for temporary previewing,
always contains a single amplitude root sound file at middle C. The sound
w i 1 l be removed (de-assigned) from this keyboard whenever the keyboard is
SMP version 2.0
needed to preview another sound.
nnn not assigned
t o KBD mmm...
using KBD xxx
The user has selected a sound file for processing and has selected a KBD
that the sound is not assigned to. The digitizer has automatically chosen
the lowest numbered KBD that the sound IS assigned to, and is using that
instead. This is a two screen message.
Sound already looped
The user is attempting to loop asound that already has a looping section. If
a new loop is desired, the old one must first be deleted with DELETE LOOP.
Not a loopable sound ?l
The user is attempting to loop a sound which (miraculously enough) has no
zero crossings. This w il 1 probably never occur.
Not enough free
sample space
The user is attempting an operation which requires free sample space and
there i s not enough available. The LOOP and DUPLICATE SOUND functions
both need free sample space to operate.
Not a dual amplitude KBD
The user is attempting to edit the keyboard hardness crossover level and has
selected a single amp1itude keyboard setup.
Can't reverse a
The user is attempting to reverse a sound which has been looped. The
must be deleted before the sound can be reversed.
SF nnn
has no loop
SMP version 2.0
and it doesn't have one.
Not enough space
t o compact memory
The digitizer cannot reliably compact sample memory because there is not
enough free space. This means that the last operation which caused the
digitizer t o try t o compact memory did not result in the memory behg
Too many expansion
segments ... cl ipping
There are too many expansion segments required t o property expand the
compressed sound (250 segments i s the maximum that can be used for
expansion). The digitizer is taking the easy way out and simply clipping o f f
all extra segments. During playback, the sound will be properly expanded for
the first 250 segments and then end. This should only happen when
compressing lengthy sounds more than 20 seconds long.
SMP version 2.0
Error Messages
The following is a list of digitizer error messages. These errors represent
Internal malfunctions in the digitizer. Only one of these, "Not enough heap
space", should occur with normal usage. At1 the rest indicate corrupted
Internal data, hardware failure, or unknown software bugs. Contact
Kurzweil if these errors occur so that we can discover the problem. These
errors are all displayed with "ERROR:" on the top line of the LCD and the
message on the bottom line. The error message w i l l not go away until the
lit SELECT button is pressed,
Not enough heap space
Thjs error may occur If you have created a large number of sound files and
keyboards and you are engaged in processing (TRIM or LOOP). The heap space
is where the digitizer saves sound file headers, keyboard setups, and lots of
other internal data that is largely invisible t o the user. Under certain
circumstances, the heap may run out of space before the maximum number
of objects ( 15 KDBs, 63 SFs) has been exceeded. TRIM and LOOP both require
a lot of temporary space in the heap to perform their functions. To free up
heap space, delete keyboards and/or sound f iles.
A11 the remaining errors are pretty fatat and should be reported to KurzweH
or your authorized Kurzwei1 Service Center.
An attempt was made to free heap memory which was never allocated.
result in n
ft may indicate a faulty CGP (memory) board.
errors will
these errors,
SMP version 2.0
RAM memory fails test
Upon initialization, the digitizer performs a quick w r i te/read test of each
memory chip In the soundRAM. This isNOT arobust test, but shoulddetect
the majority of gross Installation mistakes (1.e. chip put in backwards or
chip missing). This error indicates that this simple test failed, and the
memory is not working correctly.
Corrupted KBD
The selected KBD has an inconsistent structure. This keyboard should be
deleted and rebuilt. This is possibly the result of editing data created by
SMP version 1. See the section on compatibility.
The following errors all indicate corrupted data.
Fatal collision
find-hdr: can't find hdr
remsf: can't find root
Bad del-obj
Bad sr_alloc
Bad sl-passi
Bad s1-pass2
Bad sl_pass3
sl-pass3: f il e request
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