System 8813 WordMaster Manual - PolyMorphic

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System 88
WordMaster
© 1978 - Interactive Products Corporation
For ease of preparation
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PolyMorphic
Systems
460 Ward Drive
Santa Barbara, California, 93111
(805) .967-0468
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System 88
WordMaster
PolyMorphic
Systems
460 Ward Dive Santa Barbara Califomia 93111 (805) 967-2351
System 88 Word Processing
User's Guide to WordMaster/2.0
WordMaster was designed and implemented by
Robin C. Soto, who also wrote this manual.
810153
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PREFACE
The WordMaster printer driver .is not the same printer driver as
is on your System Disk.
TheWordMaster disk contains Printer
30 which is described in Appendix B of this manual.
When using
the WordMaster disk, you can not create sub-directories.
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CONTENTS
Section 1
PAGE
INTRODUCTION TO THE MANUAL .•..•.•••..•.•••••••.•• 1
1.1 This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 The Contents of This Manua1 ••.••..•.•••••••• 2
PART I
INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM 88 WORD PROCESSING
INTRODUCTION TO PART I ••••••.•.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 5
Section 2
INTRODUCTION TO WORD PROCESSING ON
THE SYSTEM 88 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 7
2.1
2.2
Section 3
Introduction to the Text Editor ••.••••••.•.• 7
Introduction to WordMaster •••••••••••.•••••. 8
A FIRST LOOK AT THE SYSTEM 88 ••.••••••..••.••.•• 11
3.1 The Keyboard ••••••.•.•••.••••••••.•.••.••.• 11
3.1.1 The SHIFT and CAPS LOCK Keys •••••••• 11
3.1.2 The DELETE Key •••.. ·••••.•..••...••.. 11
3.1.3 The RETURN Key ••••••••••••••.••••••• 12
3.1.4 The CONTROL Key •••.•••..•.•...•.•..• 12
3.1.5 The ESCAPE Key ••••....••.••.•.•••••• 13
3.1.6 The Cursor Control Keys
(Arrow Keys) •••••••••••••••••••••••• 13
3.2
Operating Your System 88 •••..•••••••••••••• 13
3.2.1 Placing Disks in the Disk
Drives •.••••••
3.3
PART II
~
••••••.•••..••••••.•• 13
3.2.2 Loading the System Disk •..••••.••••. 14
A Quick Demonstration of the Systen 88 .••.• 14
3.3.1 Creating a Document
(Using the Editor ••••••••••••.••.•.. 15
3.3.2 Printing a Document
(Using the Printer Driver) •.•...••.• 15
3.3.3 Formatting a Document
(Using WordMaster) .••.•••...••..•••. 16
TALKING TO THE TEXT EDITOR
INTRODUCTION TO PART II ..•••••••.••.•••••••...••••.••••••••.•.•• 19
Section 4
CREATING A DOCUMENT ••••••.•••••••••••••...•••... 21
4.1 Choosing a Document Name ••.•••••••••••..••• 21
4.2 Getting the Editor to Talk to You ..•.•..•.. 22
4.3 Typing Your Document •••.•••.•.••••••.••...• 22
4.3.1 More About Moving the Cursor ...••.•. 23
4.4 Leaving the Editor ..••...•....••...•...•••• 25
Section 5
CHANGING A DOCUMENT •••....••••••..•••••....•..•. 27
5.1 Getting the Editor to Talk to You •....••... 27
5.2 Fitting Your Document Into Memory •.....•..• 28
5.3 Getting Rid of A Document on the Disk ..•... 29
5.3.1 Finding Out What Documents
are on a Disk .••.•••.••••••.•.••••.. 29
5.3.2
5.4
Section 6
Erasing a Document from
the Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
What to DO if the Document Won't
Fit on the Disk •••••••.••...••••••••••••.•• 30
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE EDITOR •.•••.•••••••••••• 33
6.1 Copying, Erasing and Moving
Block~ of Text •••••••••••.••••.••••••.••••• 33
6.1.1 Copying a Block of Text ••••••••••••• 34
6.1.2 Erasing a Block of Text .•.••••••...• 34
6.1.3 Moving a Block of Text •••••••••••••• 34
6.1.4 Printing a Block of Text ••..•••••••• 34
6.2 Merging and Splitting Documents •••••••••••• 34
6.2.1 Merging Documents ••••••.••.••••••••• 35
6.2.2 Splitting Documents ••.•••••••••••••• 36
6.3 Finding a Specific Group of Symbo1s •...••.• 37
6.4 Using Escape-Characters to Save
.
Yourself Work •.••.•••••••••••••.•••.•.•.••. 38
Section 7
FUNCTIONAL SUMMARY OF EDITOR COMMANDS ••.••••••.• 41
Section 8
PRINTING AN UNFORMATTED DOCUMENT: THE
PRINTER DRIVER ••••••••.••.•••••••••.•••••..••••. 45
8.1 Setting Up the Printer Driver
for Your printer .•••.•..••...•..••...•.•.•. 45
8.2 Printer NULL and printer Screen •.•.•....... 46
8.3 Printing a Document •••••..••.•••.•.••.••••• 46
PART III
BEGINNING TO FORMAT
INTRODUCTION TO PART III •••••••••. ••••••..••••••..•.••.••.••..••• 47
Section 9 A FIRST LOOK AT FORMATTING COMMANDS .•••.•.•••••• 49
9.1 What's a Formatting Command? ..••.•.•••.•.. 49
9.2 What Do Formatting Commands
Lo 0 k L ike? •••••.•..••.•••••••...•.....•..•. 49
9.3
9.4
WordMaster Assumptions ...••..........•..••. 50
9.3.1 The Assumptions •..••••••••...•...•... 51
Using the Editor to Prepare a
Documen't for WordMaster •••••••..••••••..•.• 52
Section 10
SETTING UP A PAGE ••..•.•••..•••.•••.••..••••..•. 55
10.1 Lines Per Page Command {lpp n} .•....•..... 56
10.2 Page Width Command {wid n} ••••...••••••••• 57
10.3 Right and Left Margin Commands
{rm n} and {1m n} •••••••••..••••••••••.••. 57
10.4 Top and Bottom Margin Commands
{tm n} and {bm n}.............. . . . . . . . . . . . 5 8
10.5 Page Numbering Commands {npgn},
{pgn} and {rpgn n} ..••••.•..........•..... 58
10.6 Setting Line Spacing {lsp n} ••...•......•• 60
Section 11
FI LLED AND UNF I LLED TEXT ••....•..•........•..•.. 61
11.1 Filling Text {fill} •..•........•.•....•.•. 61
11.2 Unfilled Text {nfil} ..•••••••..•.......•.. 62
Section 12
BREAKING AND SKIPPING •••••••••••.•..•••...•..... 65
--)
"
12.1
o
12.2
The Break Command {br} ••..••••••••.••..••• 65
12.1.1 Sample Use •••••.•••..••••••••••••• 65
The Sk ip Command {skp n} ••..•..••••••••••. 66
12.2.1 Sample Use ••••••••...••.•••••••••• 67
section 13
RIGHT JUSTIFYING TEXT •..•••••.•.•••.•..•.•.••••• 69
13.1 Right Justify Command {rj} .•••••.•••••.•.• 69
13.2 No Right Justify Command {nrj} ••••••..•••• 69
13.2.1 Sample Use ••.•.•••.••••.••••..•••• 70
Section 14
HOW TO OPERATE WORDMASTER ••••.....••....•....•.. 73
14.1 Setting Up the Printer ••....••.•••.••.•••• 73
14.2 Getting WordMaster to Talk to You ••••.•••• 73
14.3 Formatting Option~ ••..•••..••••..••••.•••• 75
14.3.1 wait at End of Every
Page Option ••••.•.•.••.•••••..•..• 75
14.3.2 Exit on Error Option ••••.•.•.••••• 75
14.3.3 Error Reporting Option ••••••...•.. 75
14.3.4 Sentence Format Option •••••••••••• 76
14.4 What Happens When WordMaster
is Done? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
14.5
14.6
Section 15
Exiting WordMaster ••...••••••.••.•....•... 77
Using the Keyboard to Talk to
WordMaster .•..•..•••.•.•..•••••.•••.....•. 77
FUNCTIONAL SUMMMARY OF BASIC FORMATTING
COMMANDS •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 79
PART IV
ADVANCED FORMATTING
INTRODUCTION TO PART IV •....•••••...•.....•..........•••••...•.• 81
Section 16
WORDMASTER SPECIAL SYMBOLS .••.....••.•.•.••...•• 83
16.1 The Non Expandable Blank, @..•.••.•......• 83
16.2 The Current Page Number Symbo1 ...•.•...... 84
16.2.1 Sample Use ••....•..•••.••••....... 85
Section 17
HOW TO CENTER, UNDERLINE AND CAPITALIZE ••••••.•• 87
17.1 Center Command {ce n} •..•.••.....••.•.•••• 88
17.2 Capitalize Command {cap n} ...••.••...••... 89
17.3 Word Only Underline Command {wul n} .•..••. 89
17.4. Underline Command {u1 n} .•...••••••.•.•... 90
Section 18
BEGINNING A NEW PAGE ...•..•••....•••..••.•.•.•.. 91
18.1 The Begin Page Command {bpg} ••.•.••••••.•• 91
18.2 The Begin Odd Page Command {bop} .•.•..•... 92
Section 19
INDENTS: PERMANENT, TEMPORARY AND DOUBLE •..... 93
19.1 Permanent Indent Command lind n}.~ ...•.... 93
19.2 Double Indent Command {dind n} ••.•.....•.. 94
19.3 Temporary Indent Command {tin n} .•.......• 94
19.4 The No Indent Command {nind} •...•••.•••... 95
Section 20
HEADER AND FOOTER TITLES ...............•........ 97
20.1 Header Command {he} •............•....••.•• 97
20.1.1 Other Header Commands
(ohe} and (ehe} ..•.•.•••••••..•... 98
20.2
20.1.2 More About Headers .••••••••••••••• 99
Footer Commands {fo}, {efo} and {ofo} ••••. 99
Section 21
THE PARAGRAPH AND NEED COMMANDS •••••••••••.•••• 101
21.1 The Paragraph Command {par} ••••.••.•..••• 101
21.2 The Need Command {ne n} •••••••..••••.•••• un
Section 22
WORDMASTER STRATEGIES •••••••••••..•••..•••••••• 103
Section 23
FUNCTIONAL SUMMARY OF ADVANCED
FORMATTING COMMANDS •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 105
PART V
TROUBLE SHOOTING
INTRODUCTION TO PART V •••••••••..••••••••••••
t ••••••••••••••••••
107
Section 24
WORDMASTER ERROR MESSAGES •••••••••••..••.•••.•. 109
24.1 Error Reporting ••••• ~ .•••••••••.....••••• 110
24.2 The Error Messages ••••••••••.•.•••••••••• 110
Section 25
WHAT MADE IT DO THAT? ••••••••••..••.••••••••.. 115
25.1 Some Problems and Solutions •••..••.•.•••• 115
Section 26
FORMATTING SAMPLES ••.••••••••••••••••••••••.•.• 119
APPENDIX A
WORDMASTER COMMAND SUMMARY ••.•••••.•.•.••..••.. 125
APPENDIX
WORDMASTER PRINTER DRIVER .••••.••••••..•••.•••• 127
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Section 1
Introduction to the Manual
Page 1
Section 1
INTRODUCTION TO THE MANUAL
1.0
until
recently,
word processing systems were generally
computer-controlled
machines
that
were
large
and
very
expensive.
They were sophisticated and complicateq, and large
corporations (such as major newspapers or publishing houses) spent
hundreds of thousands of dollars for such systems.
Besides the
obvious disadvantages of size and price, the main drawback to
using these systems was the fact that they could only do word
processing.
Most businessmen, however, realized that it would not
be . cost-efficient for them to buy one computer system to do their
accounts-receivable, one system to enter
inventory changes,
and
another
to handle their need for word processing.
This is where
the microcomputer revolution comes in.
For the first
time word
processing is within the reach of a wide variety of people; owners
of small businesses,
researchers, writers, teachers, and so on.
Because many of the people who use the System 88 will not
necessarily have experience in the use of computers or
in
professional word processing, the System 88 programs
(WordMaster
and
the Text Editor) that work with you to do word processing are
simple to use and understand.
Even if you've never seen a
computer before, with · a little practice you will soon feel
comfortable and skillfull using these tools.
NOTE: The different WordMaster System Disks are listed
below,
beneath the particular PolyMorphic System in
which they are to be used.
Please check the part number
of the disk you received to make sure that it is
compatable with your system.
Single-Density System 88
5" WordMaster System
Double-Density System 88
5" WordMaster System
Single-Sided System 88/MS
8" WordMaster System
Double-Sided System 88/MS
8" WordMaster System
Disk No.
820131
Disk No.
820162
Disk No.
820166
Disk No.
82~166
1.1 THIS MANUAL
The major purpose of this manual
is to tell you how to
use
the
PolyMorphic
Systems
Text Formatter
(WordMaster).
More importantly, though, we want you to feel at ease with both ot
the major components of the System 88 word processing system,
WordMaster and the Text Editor since you'll be using both of them
often. We want to tell you not just how to work WordMaster and
the Editor,
but how to use them--an entirely different subject.
Page 2
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
To that end we've divided up the manual into five parts, each of
which builds logically upon the information in previous sections.
There is very little theory in this manual; think of it as a
how-to-do-it book.
We will often ask you to work with us by
trying some of the examples in this manual.
You will get the
maximum use out of this manual if you sit down with it in front of
the machine and use it as a learning tool.
After
you've
proficient using WordMaster, you
become
will probably only
need
to
refer
occasionally
to
the
reference sheets in the manual which summarize WordMaster and
Editor commands.
It takes a little time to learn how to use something
new,
but please read this manual over carefully before you
begin to use WordMaster. The small time that you invest now in
learning how to use these tools will payoff quickly as you learn
to your pleasure how much time you will save when you write and
format documents.
As you read the manual, remember that it was
formatted using WordMaster.
1.2 THE CONTENTS OF THIS MANUAL
PART I: Introduction to Word Processing on the System 88
Section 2: What is Word Processing?
We talk -srTefIy--about what we mean when we say word
processing.
For the most part, this section serves as an
introduction to the text Editor and to WordMaster.
Section 3: A Brief Introduction to the System ~
You will-want to read the System-aB User's Manual for more
information
on
this topic, but this section briefly
discusses a few of the things that you will need to know if
you are new to the System 88. We also go through a brief
demonstration of the use of the Editor and of WordMaster.
PART II: Talking to the Text Editor
Section 4: Creating ~ Document
We provide step-by-step instructions on how to use the Text
Editor to create a document. More information on the Editor
is available in the System 88 User's Manual. We also tell
you how to print a document without formatting it.
Section 5: Changing ~ Document
Now that you know how to create a document, we tell you how
to change a document. We also talk more about some of the
Editor commands.
For the first time we briefly mention a
couple of the system commands.
Section 6: Special Features of the Editor
.
We discuss some of the many special features of the Edltor.
We discuss the new Escape-character definition ability of
the Editor.
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Page 3
Introduction to the Manual
Section 1
Section 7: Functional Summary of Editor Commands
A quick summary of all of the Editor commands,
function.
grouped
by
Section 8: Printing and Unformatted Document: The Printer Driver
We discuss the system Printer Driver, and talk about how to
print a document without using WordMaster.
PART III: WordMaster
Section 9: ~ First ~ at Formatting Commands
.
What's a formattlng command, what do they look llke?
We
discuss WordMaster's assumptions about what you want in a
formatted document. We tell you how to use the Editor to
insert formatting commands into your document to prepare it
for WordMaster.
Section 10: Setting Q£ ~ Page
The fundamental formatting commands that you use to set up a
page:
lines per page, margin, page width, page numbering,
and line spacing commands.
Section 11: Filled and Unfilled Text
Two of the more important concepts in formatting are fill
We talk about the two commands that perform
and no fill.
these functions, and explain just what WordMaster does when
it "fills" text.
Section 12: Breaking and Skipping
We describe the break and skip commands, and explain why
they are the most useful of all formatting commands.
Section 13: Right Justifying Text
We discuss how WordMaster right justifies text, and how to
switch back and forth between justified and unjustified text
within the same document.
Section 14: How to Operate WordMaster
Now that you know the basic formatting commands,
about how to actually operate WordMaster.
we
talk
Section 15: Functional Summary of Basic Formattin~ Commands
A list of the basic commands, grouped by functIon.
PART IV: Advanced Formatting
Section 16: WordMaster Special Symbols
We begin to get into the more advanced formatting commands
and concepts.
The WordMaster special symbols are the Non
expandable blank and the Current page number symbol. We
talk about how to use them in your documents.
Section 17: How to Center, Underline and Capitalize
We talk about~he center and capitalize commands,
discuss
the
and
we
two underlining commands: word only underline,
and total line underline.
Page 4
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
Section 18: Beginning ~ New Page
WordMaster has two commands that allow you to start a new
page; a begin new page command, and a begin odd-numbered
page command.
Section 19: Indenting: Permanent, Temporary and Double
We explain the three indenting commands, and mention the
indent command which turns them off.
no
Section 20: Header and Footer Titles
How to specify header and footer titles.
We also talk about
the commands that enable you to specify headers or footers
for just the odd or the even numbered pages.
Secti?n 21: ~ Paragraph and Need Command
ThlS sectlon discusses the paragraph command, and explains
the need command (a command to get rid of floating titles at
the bottom of pages).
Section 22: WordMaster Strategies
A brief discussion of some
advanced formatting.
of
the
tricks
involved in
Section 23: Functional summar of Ad " anced Formatting Commands
A list of the advanced
ormattlng commands, grouped by
function.
t
PART V: Trouble Shooting
Section 24: WordMaster Error Messages
A list of the WordMaster error messages, along with probable
reasons for the errors.
Section 25: What Made it Do That?
We discuss-50me possible causes for hypothetical examples of
suboptimum formatting.
Section 26: Formatting Samples
We give some unformatted samples of pages from this manual
so that you can see how we used the WordMaster formatting
commands.
o
Part I
Introduction to System 88 Word Processing
Page 5
o
PART I:
INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM 88 WORD PROCESSING
Before we begin to really talk about how to use the text
Editor and WordMaster, we'd like to introduce you to them and
to the System 88.
If you are already quite familiar with the
Editor and
the System 88 you probably want to just skim these
sections, and spend most of your time on Part III, WordMaster.
page 6
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/?.0
Section 2
Introduction to System 88 Word processing
Page 7
Section 2
INTRODUCTION TO WORD PROCESSING ON THE SYSTEM 88
2.0
Many people think of a computer as something that does
mathematical operations.
It is true that computers are very
good at that. But the real strength of the computer lies in its
ability to manipulate and store information extremely quickly and
without error.
It makes no difference at all to the computer if
we call the symbols that make up this information numbers or words
(text).
In actual fact, a HUGE proportion of the money spent on
renting and using computers in this country is spent on preparing
documents, manuals, letters, and reports.
It is this process of
creating and printing text that we call word processing.
In this section we talk a little about what it means to
do word processing, and what kinds of things you can expect to do
on your System 88. We introduce two of the tools which will help
you in your efforts to create polished and
professional-looking
documents: the text Editor and text Formatter (WordMaster).
You do word processing every time you put words on a
piece of paper.
First you choose the words you want to· use
(the
contents 0 f
yo ur document), and
then yo u choose the
arrangement of those words on the page (the
format of your
document) •
Usually you do these two actions simultaneously
without thinking too much about it.
For example, you don't
usually notice at what point you break a sentence and start
putting the next words on another line.
The tools that help you to perform these
functions on
the System 88 are the text Editor and
the WordMaster. The
Editor helps you to create an original document, and WordMaster
helps you to format and print it.
Both of these programs are on
the disk labeled System Disk.
In the next section of the manual
we will take you through a brief demonstration of the Editor and
WordMaster.
Later sections will discuss the operation of these
programs at some length.
For now, we'll just introduce you to
them.
2.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE TEXT EDITOR
The text Editor
is a
program that helps you to create
text.
Tell the system that you want to use the Editor to
create a new document. After you've done that, you can just start
typing.
The Editor saves the document in the memory of the
computer.
When you leave the Editor it transfers that text onto
the disk.
(We'll discuss these storage devices in the next
section.)
You can then create another new document, or ask the
Editor to re-edit your original ,document which is on the disk.
So, using the Editor you
can
both
create
a
new
document
Page 8
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
and change an old one. You can then print that document directly;
it will
appear on the page in exactly the same form as when you
created it.
If you decide that you want to change the number of
characters per line you have to retype the document.
If you want
to bring all of the lines out flush to the right margin you have
to go back and laboriously right justify your document manually by
adding
spaces between words until the last letter on the end of
every line lines up.
However, with the aid of a
formatter,
it
becomes extremely easy to change a document's format.
2.2 INTRODUCTION TO WORDMASTER
Given the computer's incredible speed and
resistance to
boredom, why not make it retype documents for you, recenter lines,
change margins, etc.? The purpose of a
text formatter
is to
relieve you of the tedious details that are inevitable when you
change the form of a document.
In fact, it, takes so little time
to change the
format of your text that you will find yourself
making those small changes in your documents that you always knew
you wanted
to, but simply never before had the time to do. We
have al ready roughly defined formatting as the arrangement of your
words on paper.
Besides the obvious things like the number of
printed lines on each piece of paper, the width of the lines, the
indentation values, etc., WordMaster pays attention to page
numbering, centering and
underlining groups of words, right
justifying, and many other things. You've probably noticed
that
WordMaster formatted this manual.
Here
is a
partial
WordMaster can do for you:
list
of
the
kinds
of
things
-- Print pages of text of specific length and width, and
with specific margins.
Print header and footer titles (on even and/or odd
numbered pages).
(Headers and footers are certain lines
of text that WordMaster prints at the top and the bottom
of every page.)
Number pages (with the page number either at the
of the page or inside header or footer titles.)
top
Start page numbering at any number, change the page
number at any point in your document, or not number
pages at all.
The maximum page number is greater than
60,!2H.'J0.
-- Automatically right justify text (i.e., insert spaces
so
that the last words on a line all line up flush with
the right margin.
-- Underline, capitalize or center up to
text at one time.
255
lines
of
-- Indent one line, indent permanently, indent from both
left and right margins at the same time, change indent
that
Section 2
o
Introduction to System 88 Word Processing
Page 9
values, turn off indenting.
Set line spacing to single, double or triple.
Automatically fill text (i.e., put as many words as
will fit on a line of specific width, regardless of the
length of the original text lines.)
-- Begin a new paragraph, line or page.
WordMaster is a program that reads a document on the
disk. When you use the Editor to create this document you
place WordMaster commands in the document. You then leave the
Editor, and ask for WordMaster.
When WordMaster reads the
document, the commands tell it how to format your document (e.g.,
print it double spaced, 65 lines to the page, not right justified,
etc.). WordMaster then prints your document on your printer
in
that form. Weill discuss how to insert these commands in Section
9, A First Look at Formatting Commands.
You can radically change
the-format of your document by using the Editor to change a single
formatting command in your document.
Page 10
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0I
Section 3
A First Look at the System 88
Page 11
o
Section 3
A FIRST LOOK AT THE SYSTEM 88
3.0
This section serves as an introduction to your computer.
We'll
talk about some of the physical components
of
the
System 88, and
then we'll go step-by-step through a brief
demonstration of the software components of your word processing
system.
If you would like more information about the non-word
processing capabilities of your machine refer to the System 88
User's Manual.
Remember that this section is meant as a brief
introduction to your computer; you will
find a much fuller
description in the System 88 User's Manual.
If you are already a
practiced user of the System 88 Editor and system software you
probably will want to skip this section. On the other hand, you
might enjoy the review.
System
Set-Up
To set up your machine seethe
Unpacking
Instructions.
To
hook your pr in ter up to
-computer see the PrInter Interface Manual.
and
the
3.1 THE KEYBOARD
Take a look at the keyboard
that
comes
with
your
machine.
You will see that it looks a lot like a typewriter
keyboard.
In general you type on the keyboard in exactly the same
way as if you were typing on a typewriter. The main difference is
that the symbols you type are entered into the computer
(and you
see them on the video screen)
instead of appearing on paper.
There are some other differences which we'll talk about now.
3.1.1 The SHIFT and CAPS LOCK Keys
To type a lower case letter hit the appropriate key on
the keyboard.
To . type an upper case letter hold down the key
labeled SHIFT while you hit the letter key. Notice that the top
row 0 f keys (mostl y n umber keys) have two symbol s on each key. To
type the upper symbol hold down the SHIFT key and then hit the
co rrect key.
There is no Shi ft-Lock key on the keyboard.
Instead, there is a key labeled CAPS LOCK.
Lock the CAPS LOCK key
by pressing down on it. After that point any letters that you
type will be upper case. The CAPS LOCK key affects only the
let ter keys on the keyboa rd. Fo r ex ampl e, even if the CAPS LOCK
key IS on you must hold down the SHIFT key to type an exclamation
mark.
3.1. 2 The DELETE Key
If you make a mistake and want to erase one symbol hit
the DELETE key (located on the right hand
side
of
the
keyboard) •
You will see the cursor back up erasing as it goes
Page 12
System 88 Word Processing
from right to left.
(The cursor is the
screen that marks your position.)
white
WordMaster/2.0
rectangle
on
the
3.1.3 The RETURN key
To tell
the computer that you want to end a line hit the
This key is located at the far
right of the
RETURN key.
Hitting a RETURN is similar to hitting the carriage
keyboard.
return key on an electric typewriter.
There is an important difference between
an
apparent
line of text on the screen and a real line of text. Notice
that if you keep typing when you reach tne right edge of the
screen the next symbols that you type will appear one line down on
the left side of the screen. Although it may look 1 ike you have
two lines of text, you don't. That is because you did not type a
RETURN, and you in fact have only one line of text which
wrapped-around the screen onto the next line.
The System 88
defines a line of text as being the group of symbols (including
spaces and tabs) between two carriage returns.
This point will
become
important later when we talk about the Editor and
WordMaster.
For now, remember to avoid wrap-around when you type;
use carriage returns at the end of every screen line.
3.1.4 The CONTROL Key
You already know that the SHIFT key enables you to
type
twice
as many symbols as there are keys on the keyboard
(upper or lower case).
In the same way, the Control
key allows
you to type a whole new kind of symbol. The Control key (labeled
CTRL) is on the left side of your keyboard. To type this new kind
of symbol (a Control-character) hold down the Control key.
While
you are holding it down type the appropriate key.
For example, to
type a Control-G hold down the CTRL key and type a G. The System
88 uses some of th~ Control-characters to perform some functions;
others are undefined.
Some of the System 88 Control-characters:
Contr6l-W
Use to delete an entire word
Control-X
Use to delete an entire line
(the symbol s between two carriage returns)
Control-Y
Interrupt current action.
Control-I
Types a tab; that is, moves the
cursor to the right across the
screen to
the hext tab stop.
(Tab stops are every eight spaces
across the screen starting
from the left edge.)
Or use the
TAB key.
Section 3
o
A First Look at the System 88
Control-D
Deletes one symbol.
DELETE key.
page 13
Or use
The Text Editor recognizes other Control-characters as commands.
We will talk about those characters when we discuss the Editor in
Part II, Talking to the Text Editor.
3.1.5 The ESCAPE Key
Like
the Control key the Escape key is a key which
enables you to type a new kind of symbol.
To
type
an
Escape-character, hit the Escape key (on the left side of
your keyboard, labeled ESC). Release the Escape key.
Then type
the appropriate symbol. For example, to type an Escape-E hit the
ESC key.
Release ESC and type an E.
You will be using
Escape-characters later when you use the 'Editor and \oIfordMaster.
3.1.6 The Cursor Control Keys (Arrow Keys)
The Text Editor recognizes the cursor control keys (the
four keys marked with arrows located on the right hand side of the
keyboard). While you are using the Editor you can move the cursor
around in your text (up, down or sideways) by hitting one of these
cursor control keys.
3.2 OPERATING YOUR SYSTEM 88
i~
..
~
Turn on the video monitor.
Turn on your machine:
If yo u have an 8810:
f1 ip the. red
front panel to ON.
The switch will
the machine .is on.
rocker swi tch on the
light to tell you that
If you have an 8813:
turn the key in the lock to the
right.
The red light above the lock will come on to tell you
that the machine is on.
3.2.1 Placing Disks in the Disk Drives
Yo ur computer sto res data on a small, fl ex ibl e d ev ice
known as a minifloppy diskette.
This type of disk holds over
89,000 symbols. This represents about 40 pages of single-spaced
text.
Take the disk out of the white paper envelope, but don't
remove the black cardboard holder. The disk itself is the round
magnetic
recording
device which revolves within the black
cardboard holder.
You can see it through the cutouts in the
cardboard.
Never touch the disk surface, and don't write on the
disk label except very lightly with a felt pen.
The black slots in the front of your machine are the
doors to the disk drives, the devices which read and write
da ta on and to the disk. The slot on the far left
(or the ONLY
slot in the case of the 8810) is the System Drive. This is the
d r i v e i n wh i c h you must place your disk labeled System Disk.
Now
page 14
System 88 Word processing
WordMaster/2.~
we'll put the System Disk in the System Drive.
If you have an 8813:
Take the disk and hold it so that
the disk label is to the left and the cutout notch is facing
down. Now open the System Drive door and insert the disk.
If you have an 8810: Take the disk and hold it so that
the label faces up and
the cutout notch is .to the left.
Insert it in the drive.
3.2.2 Loading the System Disk
When the disk is securely seated
in the drive close the
door.
If the door doesn't close take the disk out and try
re-inserting
it.
Now push the button on the front panel labeled
LOAD.
You will see an identifying message on the screen which
tells you the version number of your system software, and the
amount of memory that you have on your machine.
The next thing
that you will see will be a single dollar sign. This is a prompt,
that is, a symbol which tells you that the system is ready for
orders.
If you don't see this on the screen you will see
something like this:
(Error 0306)
The number
following:
may
vary,
but
such
a
message
means
1) The disk in your System Drive is not a System
Make sure that the disk is labeled System Disk.
one
of the
Disk.
2) The System Disk is not in the System Drive. Make
sure that the drive is the drive farthest to
the left.
(Of course with a System 8810 you have only the one
drive.)
3) You did not insert the disk correctly. Try to insert
the disk again, following the instructions above. Make
sure that the disk label (the white rectangle that says
System Di sk) is fac ing the correct wa y.
4) The System Disk is a bad diSk • . Try using another
System Disk. Or, the System Drive may be bad.
Check
wi th yo ur deal er.
When the red light next to the System Drive door comes on, the
drive is reading from or writing to the disk.
Never open the
drive door, push the LOAD button, or turn off the machine when
that light is on; you could scramble the information on the disk.
3.3 A QUICK DEMONSTRATION OF THE SYSTEM 88
Let's say that you have followed all of the instructions
above, and have your machine up and running (that is, you see the
S prompt).
you
want
You are talking to the System 8A system software.
If
to create a document or format a document you must tell
o
A First Look at the System 88
Section 3
Page 15
the system what yo u want to do.
We'll be going
into great detail
later concerning
these
matters,
but
let's
try a
simple exercise in creating a
document and formatting it. Don't worry about the details right
now; we'll explain everything later.
If you're new to the System
88 you'll probably get the most out of the following discussion if
you sit down in front of the machine with this manual and tryout
our instruc tions ••
3.3.1 Creating a Document (Using the Editor)
1) After the dollar sign prompt type:
EDIT DEMO
Now
hit the RETURN key.
We are telling
the Text Editor
that we want to create a document named DEMO.
Until we hit the
RETURN the request to
the Editor does not get entered into the
computer. After we hit RETURN the screen clears and we see the
Editor's version number in the top left corner of the screen.
Then the Editor tells us that it couldn't find a document on the
disk named DEMO (Input file: not found) , and so it is creating a
new document named DEMO (Creating output file: opened).
Then it
says: Hit any key to continue •••
2) Hit any key. Now we have an empty screen. To create your file
just start typing.
There are many Ed itor commands that you can
use now, but we'll save those till Part II,
Talkingto the Text
Editor.
For now, type the example below as if you were typing on
a typewriter.
Before you begin to type make sure that you have
not typed any spaces.
{Hi t the DELETE key a few t im.es un til
the
cursor no longer moves to the left; this means that there are no
spaces yet in you'r document}. Now type the left curly bracket,
and continue on with the sample exactly as shown. The symbol {CR}
means hit the RETURN key.
If you make a mistake hit the DELETE
key and retype.
The Sample:
{wid 30,ce}Hello (CR)
This is a demonstration of creating and formatting
a document. (CR)
(CR)
3) After you finish typing the sample type an Escape-Control-E.
That is, hit the ESC key. Release it. Now hold down the Control
key. While you are holding down the CTRL key, type an E.
You are
now leaving the Editor.
(It says: Exiting ••• ) The red light on
the System Drive means that the Editor is writing your document
onto the System Disk.
3.3.2 Printing a Document (Using the Printer Driver)
The Printer Driver is the program that sends
symbols
from your computer to your printer.
Since every printer is
different you need a program like the Printer Driver which knows
page 16
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2. '"
which printer you are using so that it can send the symbols at the
proper rate, and
in the proper form.
For information on how to
tell the Printer Driver about your printer see the System 88
User's Manual.
For now, 1e"t'Ste11 the Printer Driver to send
symbols to a special printer that it already knows about,
Printer
Screen.
1) After a $ type:
Pr in te r Sc reen
Printer
Hit
RETURN.
monitor.
Screen
is
actua11 y
the
video
the
system software
(by
From now on until
we re-10ad
the machine off and on)
pushing
the LOAD button or turning
any symbols that we
send
to a printer will be displayed on
the screen instead.
2) After a $ type:
PRINT DEMO
Hit
RETURN.
We
are
now
"printing"
our document.
appears on the screen just as it would on a printer.
It
3.3.3 Formatting a Document (Using WordMaster)
Let's see what this document will
look like when
it is
formatted.
As you may have guessed, the curly brackets tell
WordMaster that the symbols inside the brackets are commands and
not text to
format. WordMaster usually reads your document and
send s the fo rmatted tex t to a pr in te r.
In th i s case, because
you've told the Printer Driver that the screen is your printer
(See Section 3.3.2), WordMaster displays the formatted text on the
screen.
1) After a $ type:
FORMAT DEMO
This tells WordMaster that
named
DEMO.
The
sc reen
WordMaster's version number.
you want to
fo rmat a
document
clears and
a message tells you
2) WordMaster asks you if your printer is set to the
page. Type a Y.
Hit RETURN.
3)
WordMaster
asks if you want options.
Type an N.
top
of
the
Hit RETURN.
Then WordMaster tells you it has found
your document and
is working on it (it says: I'm formatting ••• ). Now you will see
DEMO in its formatted form on the screen. You can now see that
the symbols {wid 30,ce} told WordMaster that you wanted a line of
text 30 symbols wide, and that you wanted to center the next line.
Section 3
o
A First Look at the System 88
Page 17
4) WordMaster now tells you that your input file is empty.
That
means that it has reached
the end of your document. You will
notice that all of your document is not yet on the screen.
That
is because WordMaster
is waiting
to see if you want to format
another document.
Hit RETURN.
Now WordMaster knows that you
don't want to add on another document and that it can print that
last line of your document.
It does so.
It now tells you that it
is leaving.
(It says: I'm done formatting. Goodbye ••• )
Of course there are a lot of details still
to come, but
you have just done your
first word processing on the System
88.
Everything else that you will learn will just be refinements
of this process.
Page 18
System 88 Word processing
WordMaster/2.0
:)
Part II
Talking to the Text Editor
page 19
o
PART II: TALKING TO THE TEXT EDITOR
You already know that you use the Editor to create the
document that WordMaster formats.
Even so, it may surprise
you to see that a manual for a text formatter has such a large
section on the Editor. Well, beyond being merely a user's guide
for WordMaster this manual has the broader aim of wanting to help
you create documents. That meacs not only the finished, formatted
document, but al so the roug h, "cut and paste" fi r st d ra ft 0 f tha t
document. You're going to learn how to create a document, and how
to change it. We'll talk about the special features of the Editor
that help you to merge documents, split them up into separate
documents, move paragraphs around
inside your document, erase
whole blocks of text and whole documents, and
all of the other
Editor abilities that save you time.
If you have any questions
about using the Editor after reading this section see the System
88 User's Manual (Section 10, The Editor).
If
you are already very familiar with the System 88
Editor, you will probably want
to
skip
over
the
next
sections,
and
go
directly
to
Section
1i.4,
Using
Escape-Characters to Save Yourself Work.
The ability of the
Editor to memorize Escape-character--definitions is a new one
belonging only to the latest versions of the Editor
(versions 80
and later), and may be new to you.
Even before you begin to use WordMaster you will find
that the Editor is very useful
for creating the documents
that you don't need to format. After we talk about how to create
and change a document we will discuss how to print that document
directly without having WordMaster read and
format it.
(See
Section 8,
Printing an Unformatted Document
The Printer
Dr i ve r.)
page 20
System 88 Word processing
WordMaster/2.0
t)
Section 4
page 21
Creating a Document
o
Section 4
Creating a Document
4.3
Most writers are accustomed
to creating document rough
drafts by sitting down with a
pad of paper and a pen. After
a little practice most people find that the Editor
is a superb
tool
for
this purpose. Not only can you create text quickly and
easily, but you can move paragraphs around, merge documents, split
them up, erase whole paragraphs at a time, copy whole paragraphs,
and all of the other "cut and paste" functions that used to take
so much time.
(We will cover these advanced functions in Section
6, Special Features of the Editor.)
The
function of a
text Editor
is to save the text that
you type in from the keyboard.
It stores everything
that you
type in a temporary storage place called memory.
Everything that
you type on the keyboard we call characters or symbols. When you
turn off your machine or leave the Editor and
start doing
something else, everything that you typed in is gone.
So, when
you exit the Editor it makes a copy of your document that was in
memory on a permanent storage device, the disk.
At a later time
you can have the Editor bring into memory a copy of the document
that is on the disk so that you can re-edit it.
Throughout this manual we will be creating and erasing
documents only on your System Disk. Of course there is a way
to read documents from the disks in drives other than the System
Dr i ve, and
to save a document on 0 ther disks.
It is 0 ften
necessary to do so if your documents will not fit on the System
Disk.
But to make our explanations simple we will pretend that
you have only one disk drive.
If you should want to use the other
drives, please refer to the System 88 User's Manual
(Section 3,
Disk Specifiers and Section 13, The Editor).
We are now going
to go through the process of creating a
document step by step. Turn on the machine and load
the System
Disk.
(See
Section
3.2,
Operating
your System 88
for
in str uc tions.)
4.1 CHOOSING A DOCUMENT NAME
First, choose a name for your document.
This name must
be less than 31 symbols long and cannot contain any of the
following symbols: comma, space, period, tab, plus sign, carriage
return, or an escape. You should not use Control-characters in
your name, and do not use the single-symbol name *
The
document-name can have upper and lower case letters in iot,-as well
as numbers.
-You
will
tell
the
Editor
to
assign
this
name
to your
page 22
System 88 Word Processing
document. After the Editor saves
you can re-edit that document.
the
WordMaster/2.
document
on
the
disk,
4.2 GETTING THE EDITOR TO TALK TO YOU
to tell the system
You need
Ed ito r. After a $ prompt type: .
that
you
want
to use the
name
that
you
EDIT document-name
Hit RETURN.
The document-name
chosen for your document.
is
the
have
Now the screen clears.
You see a message in the upper
left hand corner of the screen (Edit/i)
which tells you the
version number of your Editor. You see the message:
Input file: not found
Creating output file: opened
Hit any key to continue ••••
This means that the Editor did not find a document nam€d
document-name on the System Disk (Input file: not found), and so
1S
creatTrig a new document of that name {Creating output file:
opened). Hi t any key.
Now the screen clears and you
are ready to start typing.
have
an
empty
screen.
You
4.3 TYPING YOUR DOCUMENT
Start to
type.
The white rectangle on the screen (the
cursor) always shows your position on the screen.
Go ahead
and type a few lines. Hit RETURN at the end of every screen line.
If you make a mistake hit the DELETE key, and the cursor will back
up from right to left erasing symbols as it goes. Type a
Control-W (hold down the CTRL key and type a W) to erase one word
to the left of the cursor. Type a Control-X to erase all of the
characters from the left of the cursor back to the last RETURN.
What if you want to go back and change a word without
erasing
everything
back
to
that point?
Use the cursor
control keys (the four keys at the right of the keyboard marked
with arrows).
To go to the left use the key marked with the
left-arrow. To go to the right use the key marked with the
right-arrow. Notice that as the cursor moves it creates a kind of
space of its own; that is, it never covers up a symbol, but
manages to fit in between symbols. Moving the cursor does not
change the text in your document. Move the cursor to the point in
your document where you want to make a change.
For instance, if
you want to insert words move the cursor to the point where you
want the insertion to begin. Now, just start typing.
If you want
to change a word, move the cursor directly to the right of the
word you want to change. Delete the word. Next, type the correct
word. To move the cursor up in the document use the key marked
(1J
Creating a Document
Section 4
with an up-arrow.
There
you type:
are
Page 23
To move the cursor down use the down-arrow key.
a
few
things
that
you
should
remember while
If you accidently type a Control-Y you will
interrupt
the Editor.
'{ou'll see the $ prompt. Before
do
anything else type REENTER.
Then hit RETURN.
I
you
don't do~is you will lose the document that you've
been typing, since the Editor doesn't save the document
on the disk until you leave the Editor in the normal way
(using its exit command) •
tOU
When you type a space the Editor actually puts a space
symbol
into your document. A space is not the absence
of a character, but is a character itself. In the same
way when you hit RETURN, besides making the cursor go to
the next line, the Editor actually puts an invisible
carriage return symbol at the end of the line before it
moves the cursor.
You
know
from
our
previous
discussions that if you don't hit RETURN at the end of a
sc reen 1 ine, the tex t wi 11 wrap-around · the sc reen and
begin at the left side of the screen one line down.
Although it may look like you have two lines, you
actually only have one.
So, you have two screen lines,
but only one real line. This becomes important later
because 1fyou print the document you created using the
Editor, the printer will not wrap-around
the text.
A
printer prints one line-Qf text (the group of symbols
between two carriage returns) as one line of text, even
if that line is one or two hundred characters long.
Since your paper is only wide enough for 9A or so
symbols, you could have problems. WordMaster reads your
document a line at a time; the line must be less than
127 symbols in length. The point we are trying to get
across is: always hit RETURN at the end of a screen
line.
--4.3.1 More About Moving the Cursor
Think of the screen as a "window"
into your document.
You can see fifteen lines at a time (a screen-full).
As you
move within your document the window moves too.
If you are at the
end of the screen and you move the cursor down, the lines on the
screen will "scroll" up so you see new lines of text at the bottom
of the screen, and old lines disappear from the top.
We'll talk
about how to move the cursor one line at a time, and one screen
"page" at a time.
A summary of the use of the cursor control keys:
To ~ to the right:
use the key marked with the
right-arrow.
When the cursor reaches the end of the
line it jumps down to the front of the next line.
To . ~
to
the
~:
use
the
key
marked
with
the
Page 24
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
left-arrow.
When the cursor reaches the front of the
line it jumps up to the end of the previous line.
To ~ ~: use the key marked with the up-arrow.
When
the cursor reaches the beginning of your document it
stops moving.
To move down: use
---When the cursor
the key marked with the down-arrow.
reaches the end of yo ur document it
stops moving.
When you use the up-arrow key or the down-arrow key the cursor
tries to move to the position exactly above or below its current
line position. Sometimes this is not possible.
For instance, the
current line may be longer than the previous line.
The position
in the previous line corresponding to the current cursor position
may be empty (that is, without even a space or a tab).
In this
case if you try to move up the cursor moves to the end of the
previous line. This is now its new position.
If you move the
cursor up or down again, it will try to move to the position above
or below its new position.
If you try to move up or down, and the
symbol
in the corresponding cursor position is a tab the cursor
moves up or down to the left of the tab.
Other ways to move the cursor:
type an
To move to the front of the previous line:
Escape-up-arrow.
That is, hit the" Escape key (marked
ESC). Re lea se the ke y • No w hit the up-arrow key.
The
cursor moves to the front of the previous line.
To move to the front of the next line down: type an
Escape-down-arrow. Hit the Escape--key:- Release the
key.
Now hit the down-arrow key. The cursor moves to
the front of the next line.
The two Escape-arrow key commands above will come in very handy.
You use these commands primarily to move around in your document.
When you use them you will find
that they have a valuable
side-effect. They decide where a front of a line is by looking at
the carriage return symbols in your document. That means that
they let you know if you have forgotten to hit RETURN at the end
of a line. When you type an Escape-up-arrow the Editor moves the
cursor up to the front of the previous line.
If the cursor
instead jumps up past the previous line to the front of the line
before that, you know that you have forgotten to hit RETURN at the
end of the screen line that was just above the original cursor
position.
If you type an Escape-down-arrow the Editor moves the
cursor to the position just after the next carriage return (the
front of the next line).
If instead the cursor jumps past that
line to the front of the next line beyond, you know that you have
forgotten a RETURN at the end of the line where you did the
Escape-down-arrow.
a
If a line without a carriage return wraps-around by only
couple of characters you're all right; hit RETURN at the end of
.J
Creating a Document
Section 4
o
page 25
the overlapping characters.
If the overlap is more than a
few
characters, however, you'd better insert a RETURN at the end of
the screen line that ends just above the overlapping characters.
When you insert text be sure to check to see if you need to insert
or delete carriage returns.
For instance, if you have a full
screen line and move your cursor to the middle of that line and
start typing
text, the carriage return symbol at the end of that
screen line will be pushed farther and farther to the right until
it wraps-around to the next line. You'll want to move the cursor
back and hit RETURN at the end of the screen line.
To delete a
carriage return symbol from your text move the cursor to the front
of a line, and hit the DELETE key. You have now deleted the
carriage return at the end of the previous line.
Moving the cursor more than one line at a time:
To ~ to the front of your document: type a
( fo r Beg inn i ng) •
Control-B
To move to the end of your document: type a Control-E
(for End).-- You see a blank screen.
Now use the
up-arrow key once, and you will be on the last line of
yo ur document.
To move fifteen lines toward the end of your document:
type a Control-N
(for Next).
The cursor moves down
fifteen screen lines.
To ~ fifteen lines toward the beginning of your
document:
type a Control-P (for Previous). The cursor
moves up fifteen lines.
4.4 LEAVING THE EDITOR
NOW, to leave the Editor:
Esc ape-Con trol-E.
(Hi t
the ESC
the CTRL key while you type an E.)
see the words: Exiting...
-
an
after a $ prompt type
Release it. Hold down
key.
The screen clears and you
As you exit, the Editor writes a copy of your document
on the disk. You can re-edit that document later by asking
for it by name.
(See Section 5, Changing ~ Document)
As you exit, the red light on the System Drive comes on
indicating that the Editor is saving your document on the disk.
When you see the $ prompt you know that the Editor has finished
and you are free to do something else. You can see the disk copy
of your document. After a $ prompt type:
TYPE document-name
Hit
RETURN.
(Document-~
is the name of the document
you want to see.)
Now you see your document on the screen.
If
the whole document won't fit on the screen at once you see a small
dot at the left hand corner of the screen. Type any character
except X to see the next screenful.
Type an X to stop the
page 26
display.
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
page 27
Chang ing a Document
Sec tion 5
o
Section 5
CHANGING A DOCUMENT
5.0
Once you create a document you usually want to re-edit
it at some point.
When it comes time to use WordMaster you
will find that you often use the Editor to
re-edit documents so
that you can change the formatting commands in the document which
affect the way WordMaster formats the document.
5.1 GETTING THE EDITOR TO TALK TO YOU
Awaken the Editor
in exactly the same way as when you
first created a document.
This time, however, give it the
name of a document that already exists on the disk.
After a $
prompt type:
EDIT document-name
You are telling
the Editor that you don't want to create
a new document, but
to
chang e
an
ex ist ing
one.
The
Editor looks for your document and copies it into memory. When it
finds your file the Editor says:
Input file: opened
(Old input file deleted)
Output file: opened
Hit any key to continue •••
This means that you have a copy of your document in memory to work
on.
The Editor has deleted the copy that is on the disk so that
the
when you exit it can write your changed document back onto
disk with the same name as your original document.
Although it sometimes happens that you have more than
one document on a disk of the same name (through a
special sequence of events that we'll talk about later) ,
in general you cannot create a document of the same name
as another document already on the disk.
If you do not want the Editor to delete your old document you can
ask it to save your changed document on the disk under a different
name than that of the original document. To keep the Editor
from
deleting
your
original
document,
instead of typing
EDIT
document-name, type:
EDIT document-name new-document-name
You
thus
tell
the
Editor
what
document
you
want
to
edit,
System 88 Word processing
Page 28
WordMaster/2.eJ
and what name you want to give the new version.
Now you are ready to start working on your old document.
Hit any key. Move through the text using the cursor control keys
and the Contro1-B, Contro1-E, Contro1-P, and Contro1-N commands.
Insert and delete text as we did above. When you are ready to
leave, type an Escape-Contro1-E.
In section ~, Special Features
of the Editor, we will be discussing the special commands that
WI1-1--a110w you to copy blocks of text, erase blocks of text, and
find specific groups of words or letters. These will all come in
very handy when you are re-editing documents.
5.2 FITTING YOUR DOCUMENT INTO MEMORY
When you create a document you beg in to use memory as
you type
in more and more words.
You probably won't fill
memory (when your document fills memory the cursor refuses to move
even though you are still typing), but what if you do? Or,
suppose that you want to change a document. What happens if the
Ed ito r can't fi t
the who1 e document into memory a t one time?
Several Editor commands take care of situations such as these so
that the size of your documents is not dependent upon the amount
of memory on your machine.
To make room for more text in memory: type a Contro1-0
{for--output)-.-- This tellS- the Editor to go ahead and
write the first half of your document out to the disk.
If your document fills memory use Contro1-0 to save the
first half of it on the disk.
Once that part of your
document is written out to the disk it is gone from
memory and you have more room.
But, be warned: you
cannot now go back and edit that text unless you leave
the Editor (thus writing out the whole document to the
disk)
and then re-edit the whole document. You can use
Contro1-0 at any time, and every time you do so the
Ed ito r wr i tes hal f 0 f yo ur remain ing tex t to the disk.
To bring ~ text into memory: type a Contro1-A (for
Append) •
When you first ask the Editor to edit an
existing document, the Editor copies enough of the
document', into memory so that your text fills half of
memory.
Every time yo u type a Control-A the Ed ito r
brings in enough text to fill half the remaining space.
At last if nothing happens when you type a Control-A it
means that memory if full, or that the last of your
document is already in memory.
You can use Control-Os and Control-As at any time during
your editing.
Usually after doing a Contro1-0 you will want
to bring in more of your document by doing a Control-A. When you
exit the Editor it automatically copies any of the document
remaining in memCH:"Y onto the disk.
So you only need
to do a
Contro1-0 when you want to make room for more text. You also do
not need to bring into memory any more of your document than you
actually
have
to
change.
Even if you do not bring all of your
document into memory the Editor will transfer
that
part
of
the
Chang ing a Document
Section 5
o
document
Ed ito r.
Page 29
over to your new document on the disk when you leave the
Remember that although we talk about
the
Editor
as
though it were actually moving your document from the disk to
memory and back again, the Editor only copies your document;
the
original never disappears. When you do a series of Control-Os and
Control-As, the Editor keeps track for you what portions of the
document it has copied
into memory and what portions it has
written out to the disk. You never have to worry about it getting
nmixed up"
and bringing
in text that it already copied into
memory, or writing a portion of your document out to the disk
twice.
5.3 GETTING RID OF A DOCUMENT ON THE DISK
Once
you have left the Editor there are some System
commands that you can use to get rid of documents on the
disk, and
to see the contents of the disk.
For more information
on these system commands (for instance, how to use them on disks
in drives other than the System Drive) see the System 88 User's
Manual. You may want to follow the instructions below and get rid
of the document that you just created.
5.3.1 Finding Out What Documents Are on a Disk
First, to see what is on the disk type:
LIST
Hit RETURN.
You will
then
see
all
of
the
different
items on the disk.
Some of them are documents (they have the
symbols .TX at the end of their names.)
The rest are parts of the
System sOftware. To find out more about what you're seeing, turn
to the System 88 User's Manual.
5.3.2 Erasing a Document from the Disk
You 0 ften need to reclaim the space on a disk used by a
docum ent. How do yo u get rid 0 f a document after you no
long er need it? After a $ prompt type:
DELETE document-name
Hit
RETURN.
Document-name
is
the name of the document
you wish to delete.
The system will tell you if it found your
document and deleted it. Once you delete a document you won't be
able to edit or format it.
If you use the LIST command
to see
what items are on the disk, it will look like your document is no
longer on the disk. Well, it is still there, and
the space it
uses is not yet free for other use. At this point you can get the
document back by using the UNDELETE command. After a $ prompt
type:
UNDELETE
page 30
System 88 Word processing
WordMaster/2.'"
Hit RETURN.
This will undelete all of the deleted
items
on the System Disk.
(The system will tell you the names of all of
the items on the disk that it undeleted.)
Let's say that you have
deleted all of the documents that you don't need any more. To
remove them entirely from the disk '(and reclaim the space they
used on the disk), use the PACK command. After a $ prompt type:
PACK
Hit RETURN.
After a few moments the system tells
is done "packing" the disk~ it displays the $ prompt.
you
it
5.4 WHAT TO DO IF THE DOCUMENT WON'T FIT ON THE DISK
Every once in a while if you haven't been careful about
deleting
and
packing your disk, you will try to edit a
document only to find that the new version of the document will
not fit on the disk.
How do you know this? The Editor is
thoughtful enough to warn you when you ask it to edit a document
larger than the remaining space on the disk. You will see:
Output file: Opened
WARNING:
The
output disk
entire
output
file
will not fit on the
There are only two things that you can do to get out of this
predicament: either make the document much smaller so that it will
fit on the disk, or interrupt the Editor and make more room on the
disk so that there is room for your whole document.
To make the copy of your document that is in memory
small enough to fit on the disk, you must erase a large
portion of it. You can use Control-Xs to erase entire
lines, or you can mark a block of text and delete it as
a whole (see Section 6.1 Deleting a Block of Text). This
is usually not a very satisfactory soTUtron- to
the
problem because at this point you don't have any way of
knowing how much room there is on the disk, so you don't
know how much to reduce your document.
(The System AA
User's Manual will explain the information that you see
when you LIST a disk, so that you will know exactly how
much room you have left on a disk.)
To interrupt the Editor so that it doesn't try to copy
the document onto the disk type a Control-Y. Now you
see a $ prompt.
If you were editing a document under
its original name, the Editor deleted your original
document before it gave you the warning message.
So,
you have to get back your original document. Use the
UNDELETE command. We might have a problem here.
You
remember that the Editor deletes documents when you
re-edit them so that your new document can have the same
name as your original document.
If you haven't packed
the disk recently you may find when you undelete the
disk that you have more than one document wi th the same
Section 5
o
Chang ing a Document
Page 31
name suddenly restored to undeleted status. You've got
to get rid of the old documents, while still leaving the
one that you want to edit.
As it turns out, when you delete
documents,
the DELETE command deletes the oldest document of
that name on the disk. So, let's say that the UNDELETE
command
undeletes three documents with the same name.
You want to keep the latest copy.
After a S prompt
type:
DELETE document-name, document-name
Hit RETURN.
(Document-name is the same for all three of
the documents.)
The DELETE command will delete the two
oldest documents of that name on the disk. Delete any
other documents that you don't want. Then pack the disk
using PACK, and again try to re-edit your document.
If you've tried the above suggestions and your document still
won't fit, see the System 88 User's Manual
for
information on
using drives other than the System Drive.
(A disk that isn't a
System Disk will have more room on it.)
Try to avoid
this whole
mess by being very careful to delete documents that you don't need
anymore, and to pack the disk regularly.
Page 32
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
Section 6
o
Special Features of the Editor
page 33
Section 6
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE EDITOR
6.0
Now tha t yo u know how, to use the Editor you know all of,
The Ed itor has special
the
basics of creating documents.
abilities at its command that we really haven't discussed before
that help make creating a document a much more enjoyable and
efficient process.
In this section you are going
to learn how to: move
blocks of text, erase blocks of text, split documents up into
more than one document, merge several documents into one, and find
a specific group of words.
At the end of the section we'll
explain how to use Escape-Characters to save yourself tedious
typing.
6.1 COPYING, ERASING AND MOVING BLOCKS OF TEXT
Whenever you tell the Editor to copy or erase a block of
text the Editor has to have some way of knowing which section
of your document you are talking about. A block of text can be a
letter, a word, a
paragraph, or even larger groups of text.
Before you tell the Editor to act on a section of 'your document
you "mark" that block.
To mark a block of text: Move the cursor to the left of
the first-symbol of the block of text.
Now type an
Escape-right-arrow.
Hit the ESCAPE key.
Release it.
Hit the right-arrow key. A small
right-pointing arrow
appears on the screen to the left of your cursor. Now
move the cursor to the end of your block so that it is
to
the right of the last symbol in the block. Type an
Esc ape-left-arrow. Yo u wi 11 see a 1 eft-po in ting arrow
on the screen.
Your block of text is now enclosed by
two arrows which point inward toward the block.
Type an
To delete the arrows that mark the block:
Escape-DELETE.
The cursor will blink while the Ed i tor
is finding the first marked block in your document.
Then the arrows surrounding that block will disappear.
You can always mark more than one block of text. When you ask the
Editor to do something to a block of text it will
perform the
action on the first marked block of text that it finds in your
document. Be careful that your blocks are marked correctly.
If
you have several blocks in the document marked incorrectl y (that
is, the arrows do not point inward toward the block) there is no
telling what section of text the Editor may decide is a block.
When you exit the Editor you don't have to remember to remove any
arrows left in your document; the Editor will get rid of them
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
before it writes the copy of your document on the disk.
6.1.1 Copyi ng a Block.
0
f Text
Mark a
block of text by typing
Escape-left-arrow
and
Escape-right-arrow.
(See above.)
Now, move the cursor to
the point in your document where you want to
insert the marked
block.
Type an Escape-Control-C.
(Hit the ESCAPE key.
Release
it. Hold down the CTRL key while you type a C.)
A copy of your
marked
block
appears at the cursor po~ition
(without the
arrow-markers) •
Your marked block remains in its
original
position still marked with arrows.
You
can
use
this
procedure
to
copy
paragraphs,
sentences, symbols, equations, anything
that you can imagine
of any size.
You can copy a block of text again and again
throughout your document.
If ther.e is not enough room
in memory
for the Editor to copy the marked block ta very rare occurrence)
the copy simply will not appear.
At that point you know that you
have to do a Control-O command to make more room.
6.1.2 Erasing a Block of Text
Mark a block 0 f text as you did above.
Now, just type
an Escape-SHIFT-DELETE.
That
is,
hit
the
ESCAPE
key.
Release
it. Now hold down the SHIFT key while you hit the DELETE
key. The cursor is blinking while the Editor
finds the
first
marked block of text in your document. Now the cursor stops
blinking. Your block of text (along with the arrows) is gone.
Be
careful; once you erase a block of text it's gone for good.
6.1.3 Moving a Block of Text
Use the pr oced ures above to mark a block 0 f
text.
Now
copy it by moving your cursor to the appropriate place in
yo ur docum ent, and typi ng an Esc ape-Control-C.
Er ase the or ig inal
block of text by typing an Escape-SHIFT-DELETE.
6.1.4 Printing a Block of Text
You sometimes want to print just part of a document.
is hooked
up, on, and that the
Make sure that your printer
Printer Driver knows that you want to use that particular printer.
(See Section 8, Printing an Unformatted Document
The Printer
Dr i ve r.)
Mark the block of text that you want to print. Now type
an Escape-Control-P.
The Editor will print only that block of
text.
6.2 MERGING AND SPLITTING DOCUMENTS
Usually
memory, you
you ask the
Editor to
make your changes, and
read one document
the
Editor
takes
edited copy of the whole document and saves it on the disk.
are
times,
however,. when you don't want to do this.
into
the
There
Perhaps you
Section 6
o
Special Features of the Editor
Page 35
want to divide up a long report into several
smaller documents.
Perhaps you want to combine several memos into one larger
document.
Using the Editor you can easily combine and divide
documents.
6.2. 1 Merg ing Documents
Let's say that you
want to combine into one.
1) Tell the editor that you
After a $ prompt type:
have
want
two
to
small
edit
documents
the
first
that
you
document.
EDIT First-document-name
Now
hi t
RETURN.
By the time you leave the Editor, it
wi 11 merge your separate documents into one. This document will
bear the name you've just given to the Editor.
If you want your
ul timate document to have a different name than the f1 rst
document, after $ prompt type:
EDIT First-document-name Ultimate-document-name
;--,
~
When you start to edit your document make sure that the end
of the document is in memory.
If the document is too big to
fit
into memory all at once make sure that the end of your document is
in memory. To do this type a series of Control-Os and Control-As.
(See Section 5.2 Fitting Your Document into Memory.) - You remember
that a Control-E takes you to the end of the text in memory. When
that text is the actual end of your document you know that you
don " t have to bring any more of your document into memory.
2) Now, you want to add the second document onto the end of your
first.
While
you
are
still
using the Editor type an
Escape-Control-I.
The screen will clear and the Editor will say:
New input file name:
Type the name of your second
Now the Editor either says:
document
and
hit
RETURN·.
Input file: I can't find that file
New input file name:
(which
means
that
again), or it says:
your
document
name
isn't
correct;
try
Input fil e: opened
Hit any key to continue •••
3) Type any key.
Now do a Control-A to bring
the
text
from
your
second
document
into
memory.
Your
two
documents are now merged into one.
If you leave the Editor now,
even if the rest of your second document is not all in memory, the
Editor will transfer all of the second document over to the end of
the first document, and save both on the disk under the name of
page 36
System 88 Word processing
WordMaster/2. '"
the first document. You can add any number of documents together
by
doing
Escape-Control-Is.
By
the way, if' you type an
Escape-Control-I by accident simply hit RETURN when the Editor
asks for a new input file.
You will see the message: New input
file name: no input file selected. Then hit any key to continue,
and you will be back where you were before making the mistake.
6.2.2 Splitting Documents
Suppose that you have a long document
you want to divide up into two shorter ones.
1) Tell the Ed ito r tha t yo u want to ed it yo ur
After a $ prompt type:
on the disk that
or ig i J1 ,al
document.
EDIT document-name
Now hit RETURN.
2) After you start editing, decide at what point in the text you
want to divide the document. Now, mark the block of text that you
want as your first document by typing an Escape-right-arrow and an
Escape-left-arrow as we did in Section ~.l, Copying, Erasing and
Moving Blocks of Text.
.
3) Type an Escape-Control-D.
This tells the Editor that you want
it to write the block of marked text onto the disk.
It does so,
and saves this part of the document under the document name that
you gave the Editor when you asked it to edit a document.
The
marked block is still in memory, even though a copy of it is now
on the disk. You can erase the block of text in memory by typing
an Escape-SHIFT-DELETE, or you can just remove the arrow markers
by typing an Escape-DELETE.
Since you are splitting up the
document, you probably want to erase that block of text.
4) Now, type an Escape-Control-O.
This tells the Editor. that from
now on any text in memory is going to be saved on the disk under a
new document name.
After you type' the Escape-Control-O, the
screen clears and the Editor says:
New output file name:
Give it a new document name.
not that of an-9xisting document.
Be
sure
that
this
name
is
5) Now the Editor says:
Output file: closed
Output file: opened
Hit any key to continue ••••
This
means
that the Editor now will write
out to the disk under the first document name
closed).
the
no more text
(Output file:
From now on (or until you type another Escape-Control-G)
Editor will save any of ,your text under the new document name
," )
•
o
Section 6
Special Features of the Editor
(Output file: opened).
You can split up your
further by following the procedure above again.
Page 37
document
even
6.3 FINDING A SPECIFIC GROUP OF SYMBOLS
Suppose
you
realize that you've misspelled "separate"
throughout your document.
It would be tedious to move the
cursor a line at a time searching for an occurence of the word so
that you could fix it. Make the Editor search for you.
Type a Control-B to move to
the front of your document.
Now type a Control-F.
In the place of the one cursor you will now
see two.
This is your signal that the Editor is waiting for you
to type in a group of letters or symbols. Type
in the word or
group of symbols that you want the Editor to find for you.
You
can type about 30 characters. Now hit the ESCAPE key to tell
the
Editor that you are done entering the search item. The second
cursor now disappears. Now, one of two things will happen:
1) The single cursor remains where it is, and doesn't
blink.
This means that the Editor cannot find the
symbols that you entered. Make sure that you have typed
the symbols exactly as they appear in the document.
For
example, if you misspelled the word "separate" make sure
that you typed the word in its misspelled form, and not
as you want it to look after you correct it.
If you
type a group of words, make sure that you also type in
the spaces and tabs that may appear in that group. Make
sure that the part of you document that contains that
item is actually in memory. Another thing to watch out
for
is the
fact that the Editor can only look for
symbols that appear in the document after your current
cursor
position.
That's why we advise typing a
Control-B to get to the front of your document before
you start looking for things.
2)
The cursor stays where it is for a time, but blinks.
This means that the Editor has found your group of
symbols, and
is in the process of arranging things so
that it can move your cursor to
that spot.
After a
brief moment the screen display changes and the cursor
appears exactly to the right of the group of symbols you
were looking for.
Now go ahead and erase those symbols
and type in the correct ones.
After you've found the item you were looking for
you can always
use the Control-F command to find the item's next occurrence. You
don't need
to do that if you are just going to look for the same
symbols (and not a new group). After you've used
the Control-F
command
once,
just type a Control-C. This tells the Editor to
continue the search. When the cursor remains where
it is and
doesn't
blink, you'll know that the Editor has found
all
occurences of your search item.
Page 38
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
6.4 USING ESCAPE-CHARACTERS TO SAVE YOURSELF WORK
First, a word on what an Escape-character is.
We've
been
using
Escape-characters
throughout this section.
An
Escape-character is just another kind of character like
a
Control-character or an upper-case character. As we've mentioned,
to type an Escape-character hit the ESCAPE key. Release it. Now
type a key on the keyboard. So, to type an Escape-A, hit the
ESCAPE key. Release it. Then type an A.
It often happens that a particular phrase or name occurs
frequently within a document.
Naturally you get tired
of
typing "McPherson's & Sons, Ltd."
every few lines. You can teach
the
Editor
to type such phrases for itself.
Follow the
instructions below.
(If you are not already using the Editor as
you read
this section, please do so now. The explanation that
follows will be easier to understand if you are actually using the
Editor. Refer back to Section 4 Creating a Document, if you need
a reminder on how to run the Editor. )
Let's say that you are actually in the process of using
the Editor to create or change a document.
Now, you are
going to teach the Editor about the phrases you want it to type
for you. You do this by telling, the Editor to associate a
specific Escape-character with a specific phrase.
l} Pick a
key on the keyboard. Hit the ESCAPE key.
Release it. Now hold down the SHIFT key and type an =.
Next type the key that you've picked. Now you see two
cursors next to each other. This is your signal
that
the Editor is ready to memorize the phrase it is to
associate with the character that you've just typed.
Type in your phrase. Now hit the ESCAPE key.
2} You have just defined an Escape-character. Whenever
you type that Escape-character the Editor will type the
phrase associated with it.
Let's go through an example.
Ed i to r to type the phr ase :
Say
that you want to teach the
To Whom it May Concern
whenever you type the Escape-character
Escape-A.
Hit
an
ESCAPE.
Release
it.
Type
an
equals
sign.
Type the
letter A. You see two cursors. Now type: To Whom it May Concern.
Hit an ESCAPE.
From now on until you leave the Editor, every time you
type an Escape-A, the Editor will type out the phrase: To
Whom it May Concern. So, move the cursor to wherever in your
document you want that phrase to appear. Then type an Escape-A.
To see the Escape-character definitions that you've made
type an Escape-question mark.
The screen will clear and you
will see the Escape-characters that you have defined listed on the
o
Section 6
Special Features of the Editor
Page 39
left side of the screen followed by a colon and
their associated
phrases.
The screen also says: Hit any key to continue. Do so.
If you try to define Escape-characters
uses
(like an Escape-Up-arrow), the screen
message will say:
that
will
the Ed i tor
clear and a
You cannot define control keys!
Hit , any key to continue •••
Afte r yo u hit a key you again
yo ur document. No harm done.
see
the
screen
display
of
Any Escape-characters that you define are good only for
the time that you are in the Editor.
That means that next
time you use the Editor those definitions are gone, and you must
define those Escape-characters anew.
page 40
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.~
Section 7
page 41
Functional Summary of Editor Commands
Section 7
FUNCTIONAL SUMMARY OF EDITOR COMMANDS
7.0
Below is a quick summary of all of the Editor commands
and
features that we've discussed
in this manual.
If you
would like more information about the Editor see the System 88
User's Manual, Section 10, The Editor.
Waking the Editor
After a $ prompt type:
EDIT document-name
or:
EDIT document-namel document-name2
Erasing Text in Your Document
To de1~te one character: DELETE key.
To delete one word: Control-W.
To delete one line of text: Control-X
To delete first marked block of
text:
Escape-SHIFT-DELETE.
Moving the Cursor Throughout Your Document
One character to the right.: Right-arrow key.
(Cursor jumps
to the ' front of the next line after you reach end of current
1 ine.)
One character to the left: Left-arrow key.
(Cursor jumps to
the end of the previous line after you reach the
front of
current line.)
One line up:
Up-arrow key.
(Cursor
directly above current cursor position.)
moves
One line down: Down-arrow key.
(Cursor moves
d ire c t 1 y below cur r e n t cur so r po sit ion. )
Beginning of previous line: Escape-up-arrow key.
~eginning
of next line: Escape-down-arrow key.
Beginning of Previous fifteen lines: Control-Po
End of Next fifteen lines: Control-No
to position
to
position
page 42
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.
\)
Beginning of document: Control-B.
End of document: Control-E.
Fitting
~
Large Document into Memory
To transfer
Control-O.
half of your document from memory to the disk:
To transfer enough of your document from the
half of memory: Control-A.
disk
to
. fill
Marking a block of text
Mark front of block: Escape-right-arrow.
Mark end of block: Escape-left-arrow.
Erase markers: Escape-DELETE.
Copying
~
Block of Text
Mark block of text. Then move cursor to where you want to
insert the block.' Type ,an Escape-Control-C.
To delete
marked block 0 f tex t, type Escape-S HIFT-DE LETE.
Splitting a Document
Mark
a
block
of
text.
Copy
it
to
the
disk
(Escape-Control-D) •
Erase
the
block
from
memory
(Escape-SHIFT-DELETE) •
Create
a
new
document
(Escape-Control-O). NOW, when you leave the Editor it will
write out the rest of the document remaining in memory to
the disk under the new document name.
Merging Documents
Bring the end of your first document into memory.
(Use
Control-Os and Control-As if you have to, if the document is
too large to fi t into memory a t one time.)
Br ing another
document into memory (Escape-Control-I). Now when you leave
the Editor it will write a copy of the second document to
the disk as part of the fir.st document.
Printing Part of
~
Document
Make sure that the Printer Driver knows what printer you are
going to use, and that the printer is hooked up.
Mark the
block of text. Type an Escape-Control-P to print the block.
Finding
~
~
Group of Characters
Type a Control-F. Now type the group of symbols you want to
find.
When you are done, hit the ESCAPE key. To continue
the search, type a Control-C.
Section 7
Functional Summary of Editor Commands
page 43
Defining Escape-characters
Hit the ESCAPE key. Type an =.
Type a character. Now type
a group of symbols.
Hit the ESCAPE key. To see what
Escape-characters you've defined, type an Escape-question
mark.
Exiting the Editor
To leave the Editor: Escape-Control-E.
page 44
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
Section 8
Printing an Unformatted Document
Page 45
Section 8
PRINTING AN UNFORMATTED DOCUMENT: THE PRINTER DRIVER
8.0
We've mentioned the Printer Driver before.
It acts
as an intermediary between the computer and your printer.
All of the parts of the system use the Printer Driver.
This
includes the Editor
(when you send a block of text to the
printer using the Escape-Control-P command), WordMaster and the
system itself (the PRINT command). The Printer Driver makes
sure that the characters the computer sends to the printer are
at the proper speed and in the form that your printer can
understand.
The System software automatically starts up the
Printer Driver every time you turn on the machine, or reset the
machine (hit the LOAD button) •
When you get your System Disk your Printer
Driver
about
these printers:
Diablo, Qume, and
al ready
knows
Terminet. The Printer Driver also knows about two other
devices that it thinks are printers: Null and Screen.
8.1 SETTING UP THE PRINTER DRIVER FOR YOUR PRINTER
If you have a printer hook it up to the machine, and
turn it on.
(See
the
Printer
Interface
Manual
for
information on connecting printers to the computer.)
Make sure
that the printing mechanism is set to the top of the page. To
tell the Printer Driver which printer you are going to use,
after a $ prompt type:
Printer Printer-name
Hit
RETURN.
(Printer-name is the name of the printer
you want to use.)
The Printer Driver and the printer cooperate
together to set up tab stops every eight spaces across the
printer carriage. The Printer Driver then tells the printer to
advance to the next page (do a form feed).
If the description
that the Printer Driver has of your printer says to do a top
page margin, the Printer Driver does so.
(This description can
also specify a left margin for the Printer Driver to use.)
When the system responds with another $, the Printer Driver is
ready to send symbols to that printer. Now you can go ahead
and do other things on the system.
Until you turn off the
machine or push the LOAD button, the Printer Driver will
remember which printer you want to use.
If your printer is not
a Qume, Diablo or Terminet, you must teach the Printer Driver
about the characteristics of your printer. To do that, refer
to Appendix B of this manual.
)
8.2 PRINTER NULL AND PRINTER SCREEN
Now, for
those printers that aren't really printers.
Unless you instruct it otherwise, every time you push the LOAD
button or turn on the machine the Printer Driver decides that
you want to use Printer Null. This is because Null is the
default printer.
(To change the default printer to another
printer,
refer to System 88 User's Manual, Section 12, The
System 88 Printer Driver.)
Well, Null isn't really a printer:
When you tell the Printer Driver to use Null what you are
really telling the Printer Driver is that you don't want to use
a printer.
Everything that the Printer Driver sends to printer
Null is simply thrown away.
This allows you to use programs
that send data to a printer even if you don't have a printer.
Remember that you won't get any printout.
.
Printer Screen isn't really a printer either;
it's
the video screen.
When you tell the Printer Driver that
you want to use the Screen as a printer the Printer Driver
"prints" your document to the screen.
Once the Printer Driver knows what printer you want
to use (or that you want to use Null or Screen), whenever
a
program sends symbols to a printer the Printer Driver makes
sure that they are sent in the proper way.
8.3 PRINTING A DOCUMENT
To print a document that you have created using the
Editor make sure that your printer is connected and that
the Printer Driver knows which printer you want to use.
Make
sure that the printer knows where the top of the page is.
(Most printers have a Top-of-Form button to push after you've
set the printer to, the top of the page. This tells your
printer that this is the top of the page.)
Then after a $
prompt type:
PRINT document-name
Hit
RETURN.
The
Printer
Driver
will
document. To tell the printer to go to the top
page, after a $ prompt type:
print
of the
your
next
PAGE
Hit RETURN.
You will see your document
in exactly the same form
that you typed it in.
If you seem to be missing a
line of
text, or a line didn't stop printing at the right edge of the
paper but continued onto the printer carriage, you left out a
RETURN at the end of a screen line when you created the
document. Re-edit the document and insert the carriage return
symbols by hitting RETURN at the proper places in your
document.
Part III
Beg inning to Format
Page 47
o
Part III
Beg inning to Format
By this time you are an expert at using the Editor. You
can create documents and print them.
Now it's time to start
getting
into formatting those documents. The rest of the manual
is devoted completely to the use of WordMaster.
Before you can
begin to
format a document, however, you have to understand the
relationship between the Editor and WordMaster.
You know by now that the use of the Editor and
WordMaster
are strongly interrelated.
You will usually
back and forth between the Editor and WordMaster adjusting
finetuning
the formatting
of your document by changing
formatting commands in your document and
then re-formatting
And so, before we describe the specific formatting commands
how to use WordMaster itself we'll
talk about how to use
Editor to insert the commands in your document.
of
go
and
the
it.
and
the
Next
we'll
introduce
you
to
the
basic
formatting
commands that you'll need
to know.
In the process you'll
learn how WordMaster "thinks" and what it expects from you. The
last section of Part III consists of, at last, the actual
operating instructions for WordMaster.
Page 48
System 88 Word processing
WordMaster/2.0
Section 9
A First Look at Formatting Commands
o
page 49
Section 9
A FIRST LOOK AT FORMATTING COMMANDS
9.e
We'll talk about specific
formatting
commands in later
sections.
The purpose of this section is to introduce you to
the idea of a formatting command, and to give you advice on using
the '!OTtor to insert those commmands into your document.
9.1 WHAT'S A FORMATTING COMMAND?
WordMaster has some idea of what it means to format a
document.
Even if your
document
contains
no
formatting
commands at all, WordMaster makes some assumptions about what you
probably want.
(See Section 9.3, WordMaster Assumptions, for a
discussion of those assumptions.)
Although WordMaster tries to be
reasonable, you may not agree with its ideas about how to format
your document. Therefore we have formatting commands. These are
symbols that WordMaster sees while it is reading your document.
The commands tell WordMaster how to
format according
to your
.desires.
~
9.2 WHAT DO FORMATTING COMMANDS LOOK LIKE?
symbols is a
How does WordMaster know that a group 0 f
Word Master
format?
command
rather than just more text to
reads any symbols surrounded by curly brackets {} as fo rmatt ing
commands.
So, if WordMaster sees a line which says:
As per your letter of the tenth {skp}
it immediately
knows
that
"skp"
is
not
something
to
format,
but is instead a formatting command.
Formatting commands
are groups of letters from two to four characters (e.g., skp, ce,
pgn) •
They are always lower case.
You can have more than one
command within a set of curly brackets, as long
as you separate
them with commas:
{ce ,skp ,pg n ,cap}
A
set
of
curly
brackets
that
contains
one
or more
commands is called a command group.
The
order
of
the
commands within a command group makes no difference.
{ce,skp} is
the same thing as saying {skp,ce}.
WordMaster reads and
understands your
command
groups,
but never prints them
in your document.
Some commands have
values that accompany them.
For example, the lines per page
command {lpp n} tells WordMaster how many printed lines fit on the
paper you are using in your printer •.
System 88 Word Processing
Page 50
WordMaster/2.0
o
From now on when we mention a command, look to see if
the command symbols are followed by a space and a small
n.
For example: {lpp n}.
If so, you know that we are
talking about a command that WordMaster expects to be
accompanied by a command value.
Always put one space between a command and its command value. You
must never interrupt a set of brackets with a carriage return.
That is, each command group must be all on one line in your
document.
If you should have two of the same commands in a group
(which you would only do by mistake), the command
farthest to
the right takes precedence. For example, if you say {skp 2,ce~skp
3}, WordMaster will assign the value of 3 to the {skp} command.
You can have more than one command group on a line of text
Your report is{ul} a week{cap} overdue
or just one command group on a line:
{ce,ul}
If you should have
a carriage return:
two
command
groups
separated
only
by
{skp 5}
{skp 2,ce}
WordMaster sees these
then, WordMaster reads:
as one command group.
In the case above,
{skp 5,skp 2,ce}
and so assigns the value 2 to the skip command.
The maximum value for all command values
except
the
reset
page
number command
is 255.
If you use a number
greater than that, WordMaster prints the line of your document
that contains the illegal value, points to the illegal command
value, and displays the message: *Illegal command value--I'll use
default.* WordMaster then uses the command's default value. We'll
talk about default values below.
9.3 WORDMASTER ASSUMPTIONS
We
might want to call this section: "What WordMaster
Does When it Tries to Read Your Mind."
There will be times
when WordMaster must make a formatting decision.
If you have not
told WordMaster what you want it to do in a particular situation,
or
it doesn't understand your instructions, WordMaster relies on
its large backlog of default . formatting instructions and default
command values.
When we talk about a default we mean something
that WordMaster uses if it doesn't get a legal, understandable
instruction or command value from you.
Every command has a
default value.
Every formatting
decision
has
a
default
Section 9
o
A Fi rst Look at Fo rmatting Command s
Page 51
instruction.
So, if instead of specifying a left margin of 5
spaces {1m 5} you say: {1m -sx3k}, WordMaster will decide to
use
the default left margin value of zero.
If it comes time to print
a line, and you have not told WordMaster whether or not you want
to right justify the line WordMaster will use its default
instruction for that situation: right justify all lines.
These
are the situations in which WordMaster uses default values and
instruc tions:
1) WordMaster doesn't understand a command value.
2) You didn't supply any commands to cover
formatting situation.
3) A command value
impossible to use.
that
the
present
you supplied is illegal, or
Whenever WordMaster uses a default command value it tells you that
it is doing so by displaying an error message on the sc reen and
showing the line in the document that confused it. There is one
case when this is not so, and that is:
When~ver
you use the type of command that is accompanied
by a command value WordMaster expects to see a number
follow the command. For some commands, if you don't
supply a command value WordMaster assumes that you want
to use the command's default value. This does not cause
an error; it's a perfectly legal way to terr-WordMaster
that you want it to supply the command value.
For
example, if you use the center command Ice n}, and do
not supply a number with the command {ce}, WordMaster
knows that you want to center 1 unit of text.
(1 is the
default value for the center command.)
When we talk
about each command specifically we'll tell you if it is
one for which WordMaster will supply the command value.
The result of this default-system is that WordMaster never stops
formatting
just because
it doesn't understand something. No
matter what, it tries its best to keep going.
9.3.1 The Assumptions
If you don't give WordMaster
instruct it otherwise, it assumes:
the
commands
that
You want your pages numbered.
You want your page numbers centered at the top of every
page with a hypen on either side (e.g., -34-).
You want no top, bottom, left, or right margins.
Your pape~ is 80 characters wide, and as many lines long
as the value used by the Printer Driver for your
pr inter.
would
Page' 52
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
You want your document single spaced, right justified,
and "filled."
(We talk about filling text in a later
section.)
You want two spaces at the end of every sentence.
You want errors reported in
well as on the screen.
Remember that you can change
using the proper commands.
your
printed
document
as
any of these assumptions just by
9.4 USING THE EDITOR TO PREPARE A DOCUMENT FOR WORDMASTER
The first step in preparing a document for WordMaster is
to
tell the Editor to edit that document.
When you are
actually editing the document you can begin" to
insert formatting
command s. When yo u become more fam 11 iar wi th Wo rdMaster, yo u wi 11
find that you usually include WordMaster commands in your document
as you create that document.
For example" it soon becomes second
nature to type a center command ,before any section of text that
you want to center.
There
are
two
special
symbols
that
WordMaster
recognizes: a double-# symbol and @.
We'll
talk about what
they are used
for
in a later section (Section l~, WordMaster
shecial Symbols).
For now, just remember that if WordMaster sees
t ese symbols in your document
it's going to think they mean
something special. Therefore you cannot use them as regular
characters in your document.
If you want a single @ symbol in
your document type two of them. WordMaster then knows that you
aren't using the special symbol @ that it knows about, but that
you want one @ in your text as a regular character.
As for
putting a double-# symbol in your document (two #s one after the
other) the answer is simple: you can't. It's easy to find
any
occurences of the special symbols in your document. Use the
Editor's Control-F
(Find)
command to find
a single @ or a
double-i.
Then change them.
We'tJe
already
mentioned
that
you should always hit
RETURN at the end of every screen line.
This is because both
the Printer Driver and WordMaster define a line of text as being
the symbols between two carriage return symbols. Even if it looks
like two separate lines, if there is no RETURN at the end of the
first screen line you really only have one line. When you print
that line, or when WordMaster reads that line, you will have
t r 0 ub Ie.
So :
Always make sure that you have hit a RETURN at the end
of every screen line, or at least that the screen line
only overlaps onto the next line by a few characters.
Go back and insert RETURNS if you need
to.
Remember
that generally the width of the line that WordMaster
prints has no relationship to the width of the line in
your
original document, so don't think that your
document is limited to the 64-character screen width ..
Section 9
o
A First Look at Formatting Commands
Page 53
When you are ready to insert formatting commands move the cursor
to the place in the document where you want your first set of
commands. Type a left curly bracket {, and then type the command
or commands you need to insert. Remember to place commas between
the commands, and a space between a command and
its value.
Now
type a curly right bracket}.
One of the reasons we mentioned using Escape-characters
in the last section (Section 6, Special Features of the Editor)
was because they are so handy when you prepare-a document for
WordMaster. Very often you will
find
that you use the same
formatting command groups over and over throughout your document.
For example, a very common command group might be:
{skp 2,ce,wul}
This tells WordMaster that at this
point
in
your
text
you want to skip two lines (that is, print two blank lines) , and
then center and underline the next unit of text. Ra ther than type
this one command group many
times,
you
can
define
an
Escape-character so that whenever you type that one character the
Editor will type the entire command group above. This will save
you a lot of time.
The question will arise, what if I need to have a curly
bracket as part of my document?
How will WordMaster know
that I don't mean it as the start of a command? Whenever you want
a left curly bracket { in your document, type two of them. The
Formatter will realize that you want one left curly bracket in
your text.
You only need to type one right curly bracket,
however, and WordMasterwill put it into your document.
(The
Formatter ignores right curly brackets when it is not reading a
command group.)
After you insert your
first set of brackets
(remembering
not to split a command group with a carriage return), just keep
moving your cursor to the places you need commands, and go ahead
and type them in. Take care that your insertions do not push the
screen line so far to the right that the line wraps around by more
than a few words on the next line.
If the line does get that
long, insert a RETURN before or after the command group.
finished
inserting
commands,
exit
When
you've
Ed ito r • No w yo ur document contains formatting commands,
is ready to be read by WordMaster.
the
and
page 54
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2. "
Section 10
o
Setting up a Page
Page 55
Section 10
SETTING UP A PAGE
10.0
A formatter's most basic function is to set up the page
format so that it prints each page of your document with the
proper margins, and the proper number of lines per page.
The first thing that WordMaster has to know is the size
of your paper.
You specify the size of your paper by using
the lines per page command {lpp n}, and 't he page width command
{wid n}.
With the margin commands you also tell WordMaster what
size margins you want it to use:
{1m n,rm n,tm n,bm n}.
If you
don't provide this information, WordMaster has some default
instructions that it uses to determine page size and margin
values.
We'll mention those default values below when we talk
about the specific commands that you use to set up a page.
Remember that we're talking about the total
size of your
paper.
When we talk about page width we're not talking about how
wide you want your printed line to be. We're talking about the
to tal number of characters that yo u could pr in t on a pag e if yo u
started at the left edge of the page and continued on over to the
right edge.
Perhaps it will help you visualize how WordMaster
sees your page if you remember that WordMaster decides how many
lines to actually print on a page by subtracting your top and
bottom margins from the lines per page value.
Other things that WordMaster
takes
care
of
include
setting
line spacing, page numbering, and printing of header
and footer titles.
(We'll tell you how to use headers and footers
in Section 20,Header and Footer Titles.)
There's one term that we should define before we start
talking about specific commands.
That term is "break." We
often say that WordMaster does a break. What that means is this:
WordMaster does a break in response to a formatting
command. When WordMaster breaks a line it starts a new
formatted line with the text after that command.
Before
it can do this it must . print the old, partial line it
had been working on. This may sound complicated, but we
do breaks all of the time.
Every time you start a new
paragraph you break off the old line you were working on
(and usually that text doesn't fill
an entire line),
skip a line, and then start a new line with new text.
Many of the commands that we'll be talking about cause WordMaster
to do a break.
For instance, when you change the left margin
value, WordMaster does a break. This is so that you will know
exactly what text is affected by the new value. WordMaster prints
page 56
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.Cll
the old, partial line using the old margin value.
The new line
that starts with the text just after the margin command will be
printed using the new margin value.
10.1 LINES PER PAGE COMMAND {lpp n}
Default value: The Printer Driver lines per
page value that is in its description of your
printer.
The lines per page command
tells WordMaster the length
of the paper that you are using
in your printer. The value
that follows the command gives the total, possible printed lines
on the page.
This is NOT the number of lines of text that you
want printed on the page, but is the potential number of lines
that could be printed on the page if you were to print a line of
text at every possible position on the page from the very top to
the very bottom of the paper.
This number will vary depending on your printer.
For a
Diablo or Qume printer the lines per page value is about ~5
or 64.
Experiment with your particular printer to find the lines
per page value that works for you. The defaul t
1 ines per page
value
(the value that WordMaster uses if you do not use the lines
per page command) is the value that the Printer Driver is using
for your printer.
How to Use the Command
WordMaster must know your page size before it begins to
format any of your document.
Therefore if you are going to
use a lines per page command make sure that the command is in the
first command group of your document, and that no text precedes
the group.
In other words, make sure that no spaces, tabs, or
other characters are before this command group.
(To make sure
that there are no spaces in front of the first command group
position the cursor to the left of the command group's left curly
bracket, and hit the DELETE key until the cursor no longer moves
to the left.)
An example of a
command:
command
group
containing
the
lines
per
page
{lpp 57,wid 70,skp}
The
order
of
no difference.
the
commands
within
a
command
group
makes
If WordMaster needs more lines per page than you have specified
(to print page numbers, report an error, etc.)
you will see:
*Lines per page value too small--I will use the default values.*
In this case WordMaster uses its default lines per page value.
also
resets the top and bottom margins to zero.
It
This makes sure
)
Setting up a page
Section HI}
o
that WordMaster has enough room on the page to
your document.
Page 57
print
a
line
of
10.2 PAGE WIDTH COMMAND {wid n}
Default value:
8~
characters
The page width command tells WordMaster the width of the
paper that you are using. The page width value is the total
number of characters that WordMaster could possibly print from the
left to
the right edge of the paper. This number is NOT the
number of characters that you want to print on each line;
WordMaster determines that value by subtracting any left and right
margins from the page width.
Experiment with your printer to see how many characters
it can print ona line.
If you use standard 8 1/2 by lA inch
paper, most printers print 80-95 characters per line.
How to Use the Command
You must tell WordMaster the width of your page before
it does any
fo rmatting.
Otherwi se
Wo rdMaster
use s
the
default value of 80 characters.
Like the {lpp n} command, you
must put the {wid n} command in the first command group of your
document, and make sure that the group precedes any text. An
example:
{lpp 61,wid 95,rm 5}
If WordMaster sees that your margins
to tal pag e wid th, it wi 11 tell yo u so:
are
larger
than
the
*The page width is too small--I'll use default value.*
From that point on WordMaster will use the default values for the
page width and reset left and right margins to zero to make sure
that there is room enough on the line to print something.
10.3 RIGHT AND LEFT MARGIN COMMANDS {rm n} AND {1m n}
Default values: 0 characters
Now that WordMaster has a mental picture of our page (so
many 1 ines long, and so many character-positions wide), we
need to be able to specify our margins. Since ~10rdMaster already
knows exactly how wide your paper is, it becomes easy to specify
marg ins.
The
1 eft
marg in
val ue
is
the
number
0 f
character-positions from the left edge of the paper that you want
WordMaster to space over before it begins to print your formatted
line. The right margin is the number of character-positions from
the right edge of the paper that you want WordMaster to leave
blank at the-enQ of the printed line.
System 88 Word processing
Page 58
WordMaster/2.VI
How to Use the Commands
You usually want WordMaster to start using your margins
with the very first line, so make sure that you put these commands
in the first command group of your document that precedes any
text. You can also change left and right margins at any time in
your document.
When you do so WordMaster goes ahead and prints
whatever formatted line it was working on; it uses the old margin
values.
The next time it prints a line it uses your new margin
values.
It is very awkward, however, to change your margins in ·
mid-stream.
In Part IV, Advanced Formatting, we'll tell you about
indents, temporary indents, and double indents. Almost always you
will want to use those commands to indent your formatted line
instead of actually changing the margins.
You can specify just a right margin, just a left margin,
or you can specify both margins. Remember that the right and
left margin default value is zero character-positions.
If your margin values are larger
WordMaster will display the message:
than
your
page
width,
*Page width is too small--I'll use default values.*
WordMaster then resets the page width to its default value and
re sets the I eft and right marg ins to zero.
1~.4
TOP AND BOTTOM MARGIN COMMANDS {tm n} AND {bm n}
Default value:
~
lines.
The top and bottom margins are the blank lines at. the
top and the bottom of the page.
A top margin of 3 tells
WordMaster to print three blank lines before it prints the page
number line. A bottom margin of 4 tells WordMaster to leave four
blank lines at the bottom of the page.
How to Use the Commands
You
will want to spec i fy yo ur top
fi rst
thing
in
your
document.
Make
precedes the command group.
Example:
and bottom marg ins
sure that no text
{lpp 51,wid 72,rm 5,lm 5}
If your margin
error message:
values
*Lines per
val ues.*
1~.5
are
page
too
value
large,
too
you
will
small--I'll
see
use
the
default
PAGE NUMBERING COMMANDS {npgn}, {pgn}, AND {rpgn n}
The
numbering
next
few
commands.
paragraphs
summarize
WordMaster's
the
default
WordMaster
page
page
numbering
Section 10
o
Setting up a Page
Page 59
instructions are: print the current page number centered on the
top line of the page after the top margin, and surround the page
number with two hyphens (e.g., -135-).
If you don't want WordMaster to number
your
a tall,
use the no pag e number command,
pages
{npgn} • Now WordMaster will not pr int a page number at
It will, however, keep track of
the top of the page.
the page number, so that at some future point in · the
document you can start page numbering again.
To start page numbering after having used the
{npg n} command, use the pag e number command {pgn}.
The next time that WordMaster reaches the top of the
page, it will start printing page numbers again.
To reset the page number at any point in your
document, use the reset . page number command, {rpgn
n}. The reset page number value may be any number from
1 to 65535.
Up till now your only option when it came to printing a
page number was to either not print it, print it, or reset
it.
In Part IV, Advanced Formatting, we will discuss how you can
make WordMaster prInt the current page number at any position on
the page.
(Hint for now: notice the tops lines of these pages.)
How to Use the Commands
If you don't want any page numbering
in your document,
you must use the no page number command {npgn}
first thing
in
the document, making sure that the command group has no text in
front of it.
If you want to turn off page numbering later in the
document use the no page numbering command at any place in the
document.
The next time WordMaster goes to print a page number,
it won't do it.
You
may
reset the page number at any time in your
document.
If you don't use the {rpgn n}
command
first thing
in your document, however, the first page of your document will be
pag e it 1.
You
may
restart page numbering at any
document using the page numbering command {pgn}.
time
in
your
None of the commands above can cause an error.
However,
if you try to use a page number greater than 115535, you will find
that page number that WordMaster prints is nowhere near to being
right.
An example of a command group containing page numbering commands:
{ pg n , r pg n 3 0'" }
page 60
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
10.6 SETTING LINE SPACING {lsp n}
Default value: single spacing
WordMaster usually
want it to double or
command.
sing Ie
tr ipl e
spaces your
space them,
documents.
If you
{Isp n}
use the
How to Use the Command
Use the line spacing command
in the first command group
of your document. Make sure that there are no characters in fr.ont
of that command group. Example:
{lpp 57,wid 80,lsp 2,pgn}
You may specify single, double or triple line spacing
by
supplying a command value of 1,
2 or 3.
If you try to use a
number larger than 3, you will see the . error message:
*Illegal line spacing value--I'll reset line spacing to 1.*
You can change the line spacing at any point in your document.
When you do change the line spacing, WordMaster does a break.
(See Section 10.0 for a discussion of the word "break.")
Section 11
Filled and Unfilled Text
page iiI
o
Section 11
FILLED AND UNFILLED TEXT
11. 0
A major advantage of a
formatter is that it can impose a
format on your text which may look very different from the form in
which you originally typed the documen"t.
This is an advantage
because
it allows you to create your text without really worrying
about what it is going to look like when it's printed.
The way
your document looks when you edit it really has very 1 ittle
relationship to how it will look when it is formatted.
It's
important to remember that your original document line (input
line) is different than the final formatted 1 ine.
On the other hand, you sometimes want a
formatter
to
pr int a
portion of your document exactly as you have typed it
in, ending lines where you have ended
them, printing tabs and
blank lines where you " have placed
them, etc. You might, for
example, want to print a chart or a series of columns of numbers.
These
two
different
modes
of formatting
are called
"fill" and "ho fill."
Let's take a look at a small piece of
a document both in its original and formatted forms.
Original, unformatted text:
{skp,n fil}
{skp}We've
mentioned
"filling" text
several times.
Understanding what
is meant by filled text
i s c r uc i a 1 to
understanding how WordMaster operates on your document.
Formatted text:
We've mentioned "filling" text several times.
Understanding
what is meant by filled text is crucial to understanding how
WordMaster operates on your document.
You can see the difference between the two samples
of text above.
The top sample is what the formatted
paragraph looks like
in its original form as we edited it.
The bottom sample is what that same text looks like filled.
11.1 FILLING TEXT {fill}
How did the sample above get transformed
into the sampl~
below it?
WordMaster knows how many characters you want it
to print on a formatted line of text (page width minus right and
left margins).
Its default formatting instructions say to fill
lines of that width with characters from your document. What does
Page 62
that mean?
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
.~)
When WordMaster fills a line it does the following:
WordMaster reads a line of text from your document.
(A
line is the group Of symbols between two carriage
returns.)
It replaces any tabs in that line with single
spaces.
If there is more than one space between words
WordMaster removes the extra spaces.
WordMaster then
starts building a formatted line by placing one word
after another from your input line onto a line of the
proper width un til
it cannot fi t another word.
If it
runs out of words before it finishes the formatted line
WordMaster reads another input 1 ine from your document
and continues putting words on the formatted
line.
WordMaster ignores the blank lines in your document when
it is working in fill mode. To print blank lines you
must use the skip command.
(See Section 12, BreakIng
and Skipping.)
In summary, when WordMaster fills a line it writes as
many whole words from your input line onto a final
formatted line as can fit regardless of the length of
the line in the original document. When it comes time
to decide what words should go on each formatted
line
WordMaster ignores the carriage returns in your original
document. That is, it doesn't end a formatted line just
because it found a carriage return in the input line at
that point in the text.
Instead
it converts carriage
return symbols into spaces.
Now you can see what WordMaster did with the sample above.
It got
rid of the extra spaces, and placed one word after another from
the input lines onto final formatted lines.
How to Use the Commands
Word Master 's d efa ul t
fo rmatt ing
instruc tions tell
it to
always fill
text unless you order otherwise by using the no fill
command {nfil}. Once you have used the {nfil}
command you can
tell WordMaster to start filling again by using the fill command
{fill} at any place in your document.
11.2 UNFILLED TEXT {nfil}
When you want WordMaster
fill command {nfil}.
not
to
fill
text
use
the
no
Suppose you have a table in the middle of your text that
you want to print 1 iterally.
However, you want WordMaster to
fill
the text surrounding the table. WordMaster fills the text
automatically, so at the point in your text where you want it to
stop filling, insert the no fill command {nfil}. Then insert a
fill command {fill} where you want to resume filling text.
Unformatted Example:
Filled and Unfilled Text
Section 11
o
Page fi3
Dear Sir:{skp}
As you may be aware, your account is considerably in arrears.
We hope that legal action will not be necessary. As you
can see from the figures below, we certainly have grounds
for comp1aint.{nfil}
Cumulative Record of Indebtedness
1975
1976
1978
$225
$36~5
$5678
{fi11}Please let us know as soon as possible what your plans
are concerning a solution to this problem.
If you have
already sent a payment please disregard this notice.
{skp}
Formatted Example:
Dear Sir:
As you may be aware, your account is consid~rably in arrears.
We hope that legal action will not be necessary. As you can
see from the figures below, we certainly have grounds for
complaint.
Cumulative Record of Indebtedness
1975
1976
1978
$225
$36~5
$Sn78
please let us know as soon as possible what your plans are
concerning a solution to this problem.
If you have already
sent a payment please disregard this notice.
You see the difference the no fill command makes. You will want
to experiment; sometimes using the no fill command takes a little
practice.
Most of the commands that you use for filled text also
affect unfilled text.
You can center, indent, underline and
capitalize unfilled text.
Using Tabs in No fill Mode
tab
in unfilled text, it sends a
When WordMaster sees a
tab character to your printer. When the ~rinter receives a tab
character it advances the printing mechanIsm to the next tab stop.
The tab stops on the printer were set up by the printer and the
Printer Driver. These stops are set up with relation to the
entire printer carriage, and not with relation to your left
margin. Therefore text with tabs in it may be spaced a little
differently than it was on the screen when you typed it in.
Experiment with different combinations of spaces and
tabs until
you are pleased with how it looks when it is formatted.
Page 64
System 88 Word processing
WordMaster/2.0
,)
Section 12
Breaking and Skipping
Page 115
o
Section 12
BREAKING AND SKIPPING
12.~
This might seem an odd title for a section, but as a
matter of fact breaking and skipping are two of the most
important things that a formatter does. You have probably noticed
the skip command {skp} and the break command {br} in our examples
throughout the manual. Now it's time to finally explain what they
mean.
When
WordMaster
is
filling
text it builds formatted
lines by fitting as many whole words from your document as it
can on each line.
It also ignores blank lines in your document.
That's fine for most purposes. Still, what if you don't want a
full line?
What if you want blank lines? It would be very
awkward if you couldn't set titles apart from the rest of the
document, for example.
12.1 THE BREAK COMMAND {br}
When WordMaster sees a break command in your document it
stops building
the formatted
line
(even if it isn't
full
yet), and prints that partial line. Now it begins building a new
formatted line with the text directly after the break command.
This act of "breaking" off the old formatted line and starting a
new one we call doing a break.
You will use
this command a great deal.
An important
thing
to remember is that many formatting commands also do a
break.
For instance, when you change some margin values or
indentation values, WordMaster does a break. This is so that it
is completely clear to you which text is affected by the new
values.
WordMaster prints the text behind the command using the
old values. The text directly in front of the command starts a
new line which will be printed using the new values.
How to Use the Command
You may place a break command anyplace in your document.
You cannot cause any errors using the break command1 just remember
that it is the text after the command which begins the new
formatted line.
12.3.1 Sample Use
Take a look at the samples below. Some of them are unformatted
(that is, in the same form as when we typed them in the original
document) •
After the unformatted samples you see the formatted
version of that text.
System 88 Word Processing
Page 66
WordMaster/2.0
Sample #lA (Original unformatted text):
How would you keep WordMaster from putting all of
these words on full formatted lines if we didn't have a
break command?
"
Sample #lB (Usual formatting):
How would you keep WordMaster from putting all of these
words on full formatted lines if we didn't have a break
command?
Sample #2A (Unformatted text with break commands):
We can allow WordMaster to fill most of our text while
still ordering it to break off a formatted line where
we want it to. Then it starts a new line with the exact text
that we want at the front of the new line:{brl
like this, and{br}
like this.
Sample #2B (Formatted text with break commands):
We can allow WordMaster to fill most of our text while
still ordering it to break off a formatted line where we
want it to. Then it starts a new line with the exact
text that we want at the front of the new line:
1 i ke th is, and
like this.
12.2 THE SKIP COMMAND {skp n}
Default value: 1 line
It's probable that the skip command
is the command that
you will use the most.
You know that when WordMaster fills
text it ignores any blank lines in your document. This is so you
can separate blocks of text in your original document with blank
lines without worrying about how those blank lines will affect the
ultimate format of the document.
The skip command allows yo u to explicitly demand blank
lines in the formatted document.
Yo u may specify from 1 to
255 blank lines.
If all you want is one blank line, you do not have to
type {skp l};
a
{skp}
is sufficient since 1 is the
skip
command default value. This will not cause an error.
How to Use the Command
You may use a skip command at any point in your document
that you want a blank line.
The skip command {skp n}
also
does a break (see Section 12.1 above). WordMaster breaks off its
current formatted line and prints the line.
WordMaster then
prints the correct number of blank lines, and starts a new
formatted line with the text after the skip command.
WordMaster will not print more
room
for
on
the
current
page.
blank
lines
Let's
say
than
you
have
that you have the
o
page
Breaking and Skipping
Section 12
P-,7
command {skp 5} in your document.
If WordMaster has room left for
only three lines on the current page when it reaches your skip
command, WordMaster will only print three blank lines.
It will
NOT print two blank lines at the top of the next page to make a
to ta 1 0 f f i v e •
12.2.2 Sample Use
Any time
For example:
we
want
a
blank
line
we
use
a skip command.
Unformatted sample:
Dear Si r:{ skp}
We are very interested in any information that you ma¥ have
concerning your new product, the Infinite Storage DeVIce.
{skp}Please let us know what the availability is of this
product and what delivery times we are talking about.
We are interested in the price of this product in quantities
of twenty-five per shipment.{skp}
Thank you for your help. please address your reply: Attention
J. Milne.{skp 3}
James. N. Milne{br}
Materials and Control
~
Formatted sample:
Dear Sir:
We are very interested in any information that you may have
concerning your new product, the Infinite Storage Device.
please let us know what the availability is of this product
and what delivery times we are talking about.
We are
interested
in the price of this product in quantities of
twenty-five per shipment.
Thank yo u fo r yo ur
Attention J.
Milne.
James. N. Milne
Materials and Control
help.
pI ease
address
your
reply:
Page 68
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.~
)
o
Section 13
Right Justifying Text
Page e;g
Section 13
RIGHT JUSTIFYING TEXT {rj}
13.0
Almost always we left justify our documents.
That is,
we start all of our lines of text at the same position on the
left side of the paper. As you scan down the page you see that
the first characters at the front of every line are lined up
directly beneath one another.
This is so easy to do that we do it
without a moment's conscious thought.
d i fficul t i s
the
process
0 fright
Somewhat
more
you
look
at
this
page
you
see
that the
justifying text. As
last characters of every line are lined up directly beneath one
another on the right. We say that the lines are right justified.
WordMaster
only
right
justifies
filled
text.
You
remember from our discussion of filling
text that WordMaster
puts as many whole words on a formatted line as it can fit.
This
usually leaves a few spaces left over on the line.
To right
justify the line WordMaster inserts extra spaces between the words
on the line until the last word on the line is pushed over flush
to the right margin.
13.1 RIGHT JUSTIFY COMMAND {rj}
tell
don't
used.
right
WordMaster always right justifies your text unless you
it not to
(the no right justify command {nrj}). So,
bother to tell WordMaster to right justify unless you have
the no right justify command and want WordMaster to start
justifying again.
How to Use the Command
You can put the right justify command any place in your
document.
You can right justify a section of your document,
tell WordMaster not to right justify another section, and then go
back to right justifying again.
Whenever WordMaster sees a
right justify command it does
a break so that you know at exactly what point in
your
document WordMaster will begin right justifying.
13.2 NO RIGHT JUSTIFY COMMAND {nrj}
To turn off right justification use the no right justify
command {nrj}. This command only affects filled text.
Now when
WordMaster finishes putting text from your document onto the
formatted line, it won't insert spaces to bring the right most
word out £1 ush to the right marg in.
Instead the end of the 1 ines
in your document will vary somewhat in length.
)
Page 70
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
How to Use the Command
Insert a no right . justify command at any place in your
document
that
you
want
to
stop
right
justification.
WordMaster does a break when it sees an {nrj} command so that you
know
exactly what text begins the next formatted
un-right
justified line.
If don't want WordMaster to right justify any of your
document, make sure that the {nrj}
command
is in the first
command group of the document. Make sure that no text precedes
that command.
If you want to turn right justification back on,
use the {rj} command.
13.2.1 Sample Use
You will sometimes want to
right justify some parts of
your document, but not others.
Take a look at the sample
below:
Unformatted Sample:
Some types of documents look very nice
with the words flush to the right m~rgin. However, if you
are using very long words, or hyphenated groups of
words, sometimes you will be more pleased with the look of
the text if it is not right justified. This is because
WordMaster only puts whole words on a formatted line.
If
the words are very long it can only fit a certain number
on the line, and must insert a lot of spaces to right justify
the line. Now we'll look at the same text as above but not
right justified:
{nrj,skp}Some types of documents look very nice
with the words flush to the right margin. However, if you
are using very long words, or hyphenated groups of
words, sometimes you will be more pleased with the look of
the text if it is not right justified. This is because
WordMaster only puts whole words on a formatted line.
If
the words are very long it can only fit a certain number
on the line, and must insert a lot of spaces to right justify
the line.
Formatted sample:
Some types of documents look very nice with the words flush
to
the right margin.
However, if you are using very long
words, or hyphenated groups of words, sometimes you will be
more pleased with the look of the text if it is not right
justified. This is because WordMaster only puts whole words
on a formatted line.
If the words are very long it can only
fit a certain number on the line, and must insert a lot of
spaces to right justify the line. Now we'll look at the same
text as above but not right justified:
o
Section 13
Right Justifying Text
Page 71
Some types of documents look very nice with the words flush
to the right margin.
However, if you are using very long
words, or hyphenated groups of words, sometimes you will be
more pleased with the look of the text if it is not right
justified. This is because WordMaster only puts whole words
on a formatted line.
If the words are very long it can only
fit a certain number on the line, and must insert a lot of
spaces to right justify the line.
Page 72
System 88 Word processing
WordMt'lster/2.
QJ
o
Section 14
How to Operate WordMaster
Page 73
Section 14
HOW TO OPERATE WORDMASTER
14.0
You're now familiar with the basic
formatting commands.
It's time to start using WordMaster. We're going to go through
the operation of WordMaster step-by-step.
14.1 SETTING UP THE PRINTER
Be sure that your printer is physically hooked up to the
system, and that it is turned on. Be sure that the Printer Driver
knows what printer you are going to use.
(You may want to refresh
your memory on using the Printer Driver by turning back to Section
8, Printinc; an Unformatted Document--The Printer Driver.)
If you
are now lnrorming the Printer Driver which printer you are going
to use, make sure that before you do so the paper in the printer
is positioned so that the printer printing mechanism is at the top
of the page. If you've used the printer since the last time you
loaded the system software (pushing the LOAD button, or turning on
the machine), then you should use a PAGE command to advance the
paper to the top of the next page.
(After a $ prompt type: PAGE
and hit RETURN.)
The Printer Driver's description of your
printer
may
tell the Printer Driver to do a top margin after it advances
the paper to the top· of the next page.
WordMaster, however,
assumes that the printer is set to the very top of the page.
Caution: Before you use WordMaster, make sure that the
printer is at what the Printer Driver thinks is the top
of the page (either by calling up the Printer Driver, or
by using the PAGE command). Then you MUST re-adjust the
printer carriage by hand
if necessary so that the
printing mechanism is at the very top of the page
directly below the tear-off line that separates the
current page from the previous one.
If you don't do
this, the Formatter's lines per page count will be off
by whatever top margin the Printer Driver used. Now hit
the Set Top of Form button on your printer to tell the
printer that this is the new top of page.
(If your
printer does~ have some way to set top of form, you
may have to define up a special version of your Printer
Driver's description of your printer which has a top
margin value of zero.)
14.2 GETTING WORDMASTER TO TALK TO YOU
After a $ prompt type:
FORMAT document-name
page 74
System 88 Word processing
WordMaster/2.0
Hit
RETURN.
(The
document-name
is
the
name
of
the
document on the disk that you want to format.)
Now the screen
clears and you -see the Formatter version number. You may also see
a WARNING message at this time:
WARNING: I cannot print your formatted text because your
Printer Driver
is set to
'NULL'.
Do you want to
continue?
[Y or N]:
The other warning message that you might see is:
WARNING: I canot print your formatted text because there
is no Printer Driver on your System Disk. Do you want
to continue?
[Y or N]:
If you see either one of these messages it means that you didn't
set up the printer properly. Either the Printer Driver thinks
that you want to use Printer Null, or the system was not able to
find your Printer Driver on the System Disk.
In either case,
WordMaster will not be able to print anything.
The reason why
WordMaster gives you the option of continuing with the formatting,
is that on occasion it is very useful to format a document without
sending any symbols to a printer just so you can see if WordMaster
was able to
format the document without error.
(WordMaster
reports all errors on the screen as they occur.)
Once you know
that there are no errors in the document, you can set the Printer
Driver to a real printer and reformat the document.
This time
WordMaster will send the document to the printer.
If
yo u
do
not
WordMaster believes you
now asks:
see
either warning, you
to be using
a printer.
Is the printer set to the top of the page?
wi 11 do a fo rm feed fo r yo u. )
[Y or N]:
know that
WordMaster
(If not I
If you say Y, make sure that the printer is set to the very top of
the page.
If you say N, check the printer after WordMaster
advances to the top of the next page, and re-adjust the paper if
necessary so that the printing mechanism is at the very top of the
page. Then hit the Set Top of Form button.
14.3 FORMATTING OPTIONS
For your convenience WordMaster offers you a
options
which
affect
its
operation.
The next
WordMaster asks concerns these options.
We'll discuss
detail below. WordMaster asks:
set
of
que st ion
them in
Do you want Formatter options?
[Y or N]:
If
you
say
Y,
WordMaster
has
a
series
of
questions
,)
o
Section 14
How to Operate WordMaster
Page 75
it
will
ask
you.
If
you
say
N,
WordMaster
that
will ask no more questions and will begin to format your document.
When WordMaster actually begins to format your document you see
the message:
I'm formatting •••
If you tell WordMaster
that
you ' don't
want
WordMaster
options, that's the same as an answer of N to all of the questions
below.
Below are the four Formatter option questions:
14.3.1 Wait at End of Every Page Option
Do you want me to wait at the end of every page?
[Y or N):
WordMaster usually does not wait at the end of every
page, but continues directly on to the top of the next
one.
We assume that your printer feeds your paper through in
a continuous sheet with pages separated by a
tear-off
line.
It may be that you wish to use separate sheets of
paper (for example, letter head stationery).
If you
answe'r the above question with a Y, WordMaster will stop
at the end of every page, and display the message:
I'm
at the end of a page; hit the RETURN key when you are
ready to continue.
Take out the piece of paper. Then insert a new page and
adjust it so that the printer mechanism is at the top of
the page.
Now hit a RETURN, and WordMasfer will
continue formatting
until
it reaches the end of the
page. Continue this procedure until your document is
finished.
14.3.2 Exit on Error Option
Do you want to ex it when I find an error?
[Y or N):
WordMaster usually continues formatting when it finds an
error; answer Y if you want it to stop formatting when
it finds its first error.
14.3.3 Error Reporting Option
Do you want error reporting only on the screen?
also report errors in your printout.)
[Y or NJ:
(Otherwise I will
WordMaster always reports errors on the screen.
It also
usually prints an appropriate error message directly in
Page 76
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.~
your printed document so that you can see where it found
the error.
For example, if WordMaster couldn't center a
line of text because the line was too long, it will tell
you so in your document directly below the line that was
too long.
Since WordMaster always has defaul t instructions and
default command values to fall back on in case of an
error,
often
an error doesn't really affect the
formatting of your document all that much.
Therefore
you may want to answer Y to the question above.
In that
case you will still see error reports on the screen (an
error
message
and
a line of the document from
approximately where the error occurred), but no error
report will appear in your document.
14.3.4 Sentence Format Option
Do you want only one space at
(Otherwise I will put two spaces.)
(YorN]:
the
end
of
every sentence?
Whenever you type a document you usually put two spaces
at the end of every sentence. WordMaster does this
automatically for you. NOw, WordMaster is pretty smart
about deciding what constitutes an end-of-sentence, but
it doesn't have your human ability to reason.
This is
what · WordMaster thinks is an end of sentence: 1) a
terminal punctuation mark followed by a space.
(A
terminal punctuation mark is a period, exclamation mark,
question mark, or an
ellipsis);
2)
a
terminal
punctuation mark followed by a quotation mark and a
space; and, 3) a terminal punctuation mark followed by a
right-parenthesis and a space.
WordMaster will not
catch any other sentence ends.
If you don't want WordMaster to put two spaces at
end of every sentence, answer the above question Y.
the
14.4 WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WORDMASTER IS DONE?
When
WordMaster
finishes
reading
displays this message on the screen:
your
document,
it
The input file is empty. Hit the RETURN key if you are
through. Otherwise, please give the name of a new
text file to format:
You often want to print a document that is made up of several
smaller ones. WordMaster allows you to keep adding documents onto
your formatted printout.
You can imagine that in the case of
formatting this manual, for example, this ability is very useful.
When you see the message above, WordMaster has not yet
printed the last formatted
line of your document.
It
is
waiting to see if you want to continue with another document.
o
Section 14
page 77
How to Operate WordMaster
If you are not through formatting,
document you want to format next.
Hit
again see the message:
I'm formatting •••
find your document it will repeat the message
making sure that your spelling is correct.
type the name of the
RETURN.
You
will
If WordMaster cannot
above.
Try again,
When WordMaster finds your new document it will start to
read text from it and add formatted
text right onto the last
unprinted line of the old document. WordMaster cont'inues using
the formatting instructions and values you gave it in the first
document, so that when you format several documents at the same
time they all look like part of one document.
This means that
WordMaster does not reset page numbers at the start of each new
document.
If you want to format each document separately you must
exit WordMaster when it finishes each document, and summon it anew
for each one.
If you want to format them together, but want to
have each document start with a page number of 1, you can use the
reset page number command {rpgn n} to reset the page number at the
front of each document. For advice on adding documents together
using WordMaster, see Part V, Trouble shooting. After WordMaster
is done with a new document, WordMaster will again ask you for
another document.
Hit RETURN if you are through; otherwise give
it another document name.
14.5 EXITING WORDMASTER
When you see the
input file empty message,
through formatting, hit RETURN. WordMaster says:
I've finished formatting.
and
you
are
Goodbye ••••
WordMaster now goes ahead and prints the last 1 ine of your
document. Next you'll see the S prompt. You've left Wo rdMaster ,
and you can now use the Editor or WordMaster again.
REMEMBER: WordMaster will not print the last line of
your document until you hit RETURN.
If you accidently exit WordMaster by typing
a
Control-Y,
immediately type REENTER.
Hit RETURN.
You may be able to
continue.
If you intentionally interrupt WordMaster there is one
thing that you must remember: you cannot use the printer until you
call in the Printer Driver again by typing:
Printer printer-name
If
you exit WordMaster in the normal way (hitting RETURN
in response to its input file empty message) , you do not have to
use the Printer command again.
14.6 USING THE KEYBOARD TO TALK TO WORDMASTER
The usual way to use WordMaster
is to have it read a
document from the disk.
There are times, though, when you
might want to experiment a bit without going
to all of the
trouble of creating a document on the - disk.
For instance, you
page 78 .
System 88 Word Processing
Wo rdr.1aste r /2.0
might just want to see what it would look like if you double
indented a short passage of text.
Or, you might want to see what
aline of text would look I ike centered and underl ined.
You can talk to WordMaster directly from
the keyboard.
Instead of waking WordMaster wi th the' FORMAT
document-name
command,
just type FORMAT.
Then hit RETURN.
(We assume that
you've already set up the printer.)
After WordMaster asks you if
you want its options, it then asks you:
Is the
input
you'll type in
from
y~ur
a file?
(If not, I'll assume that
text from the keyboard.)
[Y or Nl:
If you say N, you next see the message:
End each line with a carriage return.
and a RETURN to exit.)
(Type a Control-E
Now you see a small arrow at the left hand of the screen. This is
your prompt, the signal that WordMaster is waiting to hear from
you.
Start typing your document.
Remember that WordMaster is
reading in your document from the keyboard in exactly the same way
that it reads your documents from the disk.
Use the same
techniques for using
formatting commands that you learned
in
earlier sections of the manual.
Type a Control-E, and hit RETURN
to leave WordMaster.
:)
o
Section 15
Summary of Basic Formatting Commands
Page 79
Section 15
FUNCTIONAL SUMMARY OF BASIC FORMATTING COMMANDS
15.0
Below we 1 ist all of the basic formatting commands that
we have talked about .in Part III.
For a
functional
summary
of the advanced formatting commands, see Section 23.
We al so have
an alphabetical list of all of the formatting commands in Appendix
A.
Type
Command
De sc r i pt ion
{1m n}
Le ft Marg in
Right Ma rg in
Top Ma rg in
Bottom Marg in
Default Val
MARGIN
{rm n}
{tm n}
{bm n}
PAGE PARAMETER
{lpp n}
eI characters
eI characters
"" lines
C!.I
lines
To tal pg e wid th
Set Line-spacing
Pr in te r Dr i v er
value
801 characters
sing Ie spac ing
PAGE NUMBERING
{npg n}
{ pgn}
{rpgn n}
No pag e numbers
Start pge numbering
Reset page number
page J1
JUST!FICATION
{rj}
{nrj}
Right justify
No r.ig ht just i fy
{wid n}
{lsp n}
To tal 1 ines/pge
FILLING
{fill}
{nfil}
BREAKING TEXT LINE
{br}
{skp n}
Fill text
No fill
Break tex t line
Break line and
print n blank lines
1 blank line
page 80
System 88 Word Processing
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o
Part IV
Advanced Formatting
Page 81
PART IV: ADVANCED FORMATTING
You've now learned all of the basic things you need to
know to use WordMaster.
If you feel comfortable with the
information we've presented in the earlier sections, you're ready
for the more advanced features of WordMaster.
We'll be talking about some interesting things that you
can have WordMaster do with your text.
For instance, you'll
notice that this manual has three part page titles (headers)
that
contain the current page number. You'll also notice that every
section of the manual begins on an odd-numbered page.
We have
formatting commands that arrange these things for us.
Besides learning about header titles you'll learn how to
begin a new page, do indents, special double indents.
We'll
also talk about centering, underlining and capitalizing lines of
text. There are also one or two special commands and special
symbols that you'll want to know about.
Page 82
System 88 Word Processing
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QI
I: )
o
WordMaster Special Symbols
Section 16
Page 83
Section In
WORDMASTER SPECIAL SYMBOLS
16.0
~
Besides the
formatting
commands there are two
special
symbols
that
WordMaster
recognizes
when
it
reads your
documents.
These symbols are: the Non expandable blank (a @)
and
the Current page number symbol (a double-i).
You will find both
of them to be very useful.
Because WordMaster recognizes these
characters as special symbols, it cannot reproduce them literally
in your document.
That means that if you type a single @ symbol
in your document, you will not see the @ in your printed document.
If yo.u type a double-i symbol you will not see that symbol in your
pr inted document.
There are ways to get around this.
If you want
a @ symbol
in your printed text, type two @s in your document.
WordMaster will
realize
that you don'~really want a
Non
expandable blank symbol there, and will put one @ symbol in your
document instead. As for the double-i symbol (two Is in a
row);
there' is no way to put one in your printed document.
From now on
when we talk about the double-t symbol we'll use this symbol: #I~.
You'll remember, though, that we mean two Is in a row, without the
I symbol.
16.1 THE NON EXPANDABLE BLANK, @
You probably remember that one of the option questions
WordMaster asks you is whether or not you want two spaces at
the end of every sentence.
Usually you do.
But, what about those
special cases where you know that you have something
in your
document that WordMaster
is going
to think is the end of a
sentence, but isn't. And, what if it's important that . WordMaster
NOT put two spaces there?
For example, suppose WordMaster sees
the fo llowing :
We use the symbol "?"
a lot.
It
is going . to
think that you want two spaces after
the
second
quotation
mark.
But,
that
isn't really the end
of the sentence.
Or, what if WordMaster
is right justifying a
line. You know that it inserts spaces wherever there is already a
space to stretch the line out fl ushto the right margin. What if
WordMaster sees:
The interest rate is 6 %.
How do
and %?
The
you
keep
purpose
it
of
from
the
putting
Non
another
space
expandable blank (NEB)
between
n
is to fool
WordMaster into thinking that there is no space where the NEB is.
Since there
is no space, the NEB is just part of the word
page 84
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.
(II
surrounding it, and WordMaster can't insert an 'extra space at that
point in your text. In the example.s above we simply substitute an
NEB for the space that was likely to cause a problem.
For
example:
in our original document we typed the characters 6 % as
6@%, and the characters "?" a lot.
as "?"@a lot.
Naturally .
WordMaster could not insert a-5pace between the second quotation
mark and the letter a, because it thought that the symbols were
all part of the same word.
When it came time to print the
examples above, WordMaster substituted a space for every Non
expandable blank that it found.
WordMasterdoesn't know that an NEB is a space until it
comes time to print the formatted
. line.
At
that
time
WordMaster converts any NEBs into spaces.
You use NEBs when you want to make sure that WordMaster
prints only one space, and you can also use it when you want to
make sure that WordMasteris going to print at least two spaces.
How? Just follow an NEB with a space.
If I type:
I demand the return of @TWO-THIRDS@ of my cleaning deposit.
I know that there will be at least two spaces before and after the
words TWO-THIRDS.
(There may be more after WordMaster finishes
right justifying the line, but there will be at least two.)
Formatted, we see:
I demand the return of
TWO-THIRDS
of my cleaning deposit.
You cannot use more than one NEB in a row. They must be separated
by spaces or other symbols.
(Remember, WordMaster sees two @s as
a request for one @ in your printed document.)
16.2 CURRENT PAGE NUMBER SYMBOL
Whenever WordMaster reads a double-#
symbol
in
your
document,
it substitutes the current page number for that
symbol.
(A double-# symbol is two #s in a row, which we represent
in this manual as: #1#.)
The reason why we have a current page number symbol
is
to allow you to decide for yourself where you want the page
number on each page of your document. Usually WordMaster centers
and prints the current page number at the top of every page. You
can use the no page number command {npgn}
to prevent WordMaster
from typing the page number. Then you can put the current page
number symbol in the document where you want the page number.
Notice the top
you see is:
Section 16
1 ine
of
each
page
in
WordMaster Special Symbols
the
manual.
Page 84
What
0
o
Section 16
WordMaster Special Symbols
Page 85
What is actually in the document is:
Section@16 WordMaster@Special@Symbols Page@ili
When it comes time to print this line (which is called a title
header, by the way), WordMaster substitutes the current page
number for the current page number symbol.
(As for why we used
the NEBs in the header title, well we'll talk about that in
Section 20, Header and Footer Titles.)
Of course you can have WordMaster print the current page
number at any point on the page
in titles at the bottom of
the page as well as at the top (a footer) , or on any I ine of text
on the page.
16.2.1 Sample Use
Just to prove that we can print the
at
any
point
on
the
page,
1 et' s
following:
current page number
give WordMaster the
Unformatted: This is page #:#1#.
Formatted: This is page #:85
Look at the top of this page.
Yes, 85 is the current page number.
Page 86
System 88 Word processing
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o
section 17
How to Center, Underline
o
and Capitalize
Page 87
Section 17
HOW TO CENTER, UNDERLINE AND CAPITALIZE
17.0,
Most of the commands we've talked about so far have had
a rather wide reaching effect on your text.
For example,
when you use the right justify command {rj}, you turn on right
justification for the entire document until you turn it off using
{nrj}.
When you change the left margin with a {1m n} command,
that left margins stays at the new value until you change it
again.
For
time we're going to talk about some
the
first
commands that affect only a certain section of text at a
time.
These are the center Ice n}, capitalize {cap n} and
underline {wu1 n,u1 n} commands. These four commands (there are
two different kinds of underlining commands) affect a piece of
your text, and not the entire document.
So the important question for now is how can you tell
what portions of text are affected by these commands when you
use them in your document?
You remember that when WordMaster
fills text it doesn't pay any attention to the car'riage return
symbols in your document when it decides at what word to start a
new formatted line.
However WordMaster does remember where the
carriage return symbols were so that it can--ffiake the following
judgements:
Whenever you use a center, capitalize, or underline
command WordMaster has to decide which text you want to
affect.
It acts upon the text that lies between that
command group and a carriage return or another command
group. We'll call this one unit of text.
Unformatted example: Chapter 25 contains {ul}numerous
typographical errors;
Formatted
errors.
example:
Chapter
25
contains
numerous typographical
Unformatted example:
Speaking {wul}statistically
and {wul}traditionally, {cap}both
concepts are valid.
Formatted example:
Speaking statistically and traditionally, BOTH concepts are valid.
You notice that in the examples above we did not supply
a command value with the commands.
If you do not supply a
command value with the center, capitalize and underline commands,
Page
aa
System
aa
Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
WordMaster assumes that you want to use their default values (1
unit of text). So, {cel is the same as {ce l}.
17.1 CENTER COMMAND {ce n}
Default value: 1 unit of text
units
of
text.
Use the center
command
to
center
Remember that a unit is the section of text following the
center command up to another command group or a carriage return.
The center command does a break before it centers your unit of
text.
Unformatted example:
{ce 3}THIRD ANNUAL
Company picnic{skp 2}Transportation:
The sample above tells WordMaster to center the next three units
of text
(THIRD ANNUAL, Company picnic, and Transportation).
Notice that we use a skip command somewhere in there {skp 2}. The
center command pays no attention to other commands except for the
fact that they mark the end of a unit of text.
Formatted example:
THIRD ANNUAL
Company Picnic
Transportation:
You can
command.
center up to 255 units of text at a time with one center
How to Use the
--- ----
Command
Place the {ce n} command in front of the units of text
that you want to center.
Be careful that the unit of text is
not longer than a formatted line. For example, if WordMaster is
printing formatted lines that are 55 characters long, and you ask
it to center a unit of text 60 characters long,
it will not be
able to do it. You'll see the error message: *This line is too
long to center.*
You can use the center
commands. For example:
command
in
combination
{ce,wul}Memo il
WordMaster centers and underlines the words Memo *1:
Memo
!.l
with
other
,'""
V
Section 17
c:>
How to Center, Underline
~ ~nd
Page 89
Capitalize
17.2 CAPITALIZE COMMAND {cap n}
Default value: 1 unit of text
The capitalize command converts
letter symbols in a unit of text.
to
upper case all of the
How to Use the Command
Use the {cap~} command in front of the units
want to capitalize:
of
text
that
you
{cap}mail room procedures
You can use
commands:
the
capitalize
command
in combination with other
Unformatted example:
{cap 2,ce 2}Stock Holders' Meeting{skp}april 21, 1979
Formatted example:
STOCK HOLDERS' MEETING
APRIL 21, 1979
You can capitalize up to 255 units of text at a time.
17.3 WORD ONLY UNDERLINE COMMAND {wul n}
Default value: 1 unit of text
The word only underline command allows you to underline
only
the words in a unit of text.
It doesn't underline
spaces, tabs or punctuation . . Most underlining in documents is of
this type.
How to Use the Command
place the {wul n}
you want to underline:
command
before
the
units of text that
Unformatted example:
{wul 2,ce}Order Desk Procedure {skp}Item #1:
Formatted example:
Order Desk Procedure
Item #1:
page 90
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.eJ
17.4 UNDERLINE COMMAND {ul n}
Default value: 1 unit of text
The {ul n} command underlines an entire unit of text.
That
means
everything
in
the section; spaces, tabs and
punctuation. You usually will want to use the word only underline
command {wul n} (see above).
How to Use the
--- ----
Command
Place the {ul n} command before
you want to underline.
There are
remember:
any
two
units of
important
text that
things to
Because the {ul n}command underlines spaces, WordMaster
cannot
break
that
unit
of text between words.
(WordMaster splits text between words when it sees a
space.)
So, never use the {ul n} command on a unit of
text that is longer than the current formatted line!
WordMaster will not be able to split the unit to form
two lines out of it. You will see the error message: *1
can't break this line between words--there are no
spaces.*
The {ul n} command underlines spaces.
So, if you say:
{ul,ce} Weekly Report
WordMaster is
going
to
spaces in the unit of text:
underline
all
,--
of
the
Weekly Report
As
you
saw
in the example above, you can use
the {ul n} command
in
combination
with
other
commands:
{ce,ul,skp 2}Accounts payable
Beginning a New Page
Section 18
o
Page 91
Section 18
BEGINNING A NEW PAGE
18.0
An important aspect of formatting is the way you divide
up large groups of text.
For example, you wouldn't want a
new chapter to begin on the same page as the end of a previous
chapter.
You have to be able to begin sections of your document
at the top of a new page.
Sometimes it's not enough to have a new section start on
a new page; occasionally it's necessary that a section of
your document only start at the top of an odd numbered page.
For
example, chapters traditionally start on an odd numbered page so
that they will lie on the right side of the book when the reader
opens it.
WordMaster has commands that enable
page and start text on an odd numbered page.
you
to
start a new
18.1 THE BEGIN PAGE COMMAND {bpg}
~
When WdrdMaster sees the {bpg} command it knows that you
want the text direct1y after the command to start on the top
of a new page. WordMaster does a break in the text.
It then
advances to the bottom of the current page, and prints the footer
title (if there is one). Next wordMaster advances the paper to
the top of the next page and does any required page set up (page
numbering, header printing, etc.). Now it's ready to start
formatting the text after the {bpg} command.
How to Use the Command
Use the begin page
where you want wo·rdMaster
one. Example:
command
to end
at any point in your document
the page and start a new
{he}Investment Analysis
{bpg,ce}Chapter 1: Your Stockbroker
Look at the example above. When WordMaster reaches the header
command, it files the header away for future reference.
(We'l
talk _ about header and footer titles in Section 20.)
Then it sees
the begin page command. It advances to the bottom of the current
page (printing a footer if necessary), and then goes to the top of
the next page. It prints the current page number, and then prints
the header, Investment Analysis. Now it centers and prints the
next line of text, Chapter 1: Your Stockbroker.
By the way, if you are going to
the
new
page,
make
sure
that
specify a new header for
you use the header command
Page 92
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
before thebcomma) nd gh~OUP ckontaininghthe {bP g } comma nd.
(Sb ee thhe
example a ove.
T 1S rna es sure t at Wor d Master 1 earns a out t e
new header before it goes to the next page.
18.2 THE BEGIN ODD PAGE COMMAND {bop}
You can also tell WordMaster that you want to start the
next section of text on an odd numbered page. This command
operates in the same way as the {bpg} command except that it
checks the page number of the new . page. If the new page is an
even number, WordMaster prints any necessary page numbers, headers
and footers, but then . advances on to the top of the next page.
This page is an odd numbered one, and WordMaster knows that it is
OK to resume printing your document now. Example:
{ohe}Oepreciation Schedule
{bop,ce,wul}HOUSEHOLD FURNISHINGS
Again, if you are going to specify a new header, make
the {he} or {ohe} command is before the {bop} command.
sure
that
i)
Section 19
Indents: Permanent, Temporary and Double
Page 93
o
section 19
INDENTS: PERMANENT, TEMPORARY AND DOUBLE
19.0
WordMaster provid~s several commands to allow you to do
indenting of one kind and another. You'll notice that within
this manual we often indent one line only, or an entire block of
text. We even indent a block of text on both sides, from both the
left and the right margins. We do all this without changing the
margins values.
When you use one of the indent commands give a command
·value.
This value is the number of spaces from the left
margin that you want WordMaster to indent. So that you don't have
to think back and try to remember the last indent value that you
used, any new indent value cancels out existing indent values.
So, if you ' say:{ind 5} (permanent indent of 5), and then later
say:
find 10}
(permanent indent of 10), WordMaster will not add
the two indent values together. Instead it uses the latest indent
value.
If it sees another indent value later in the document,
it
will begin to use that value at that point.
~ny
time you switch between the permanent indent command
find n} and the double indent command {dind n}, you cancel
the effect of the other command. That is, both the find n} and
the {dind n} command cannot be in effect at the same time.
If you should specify indent
WordMaster can't print a formatted
error message: *Your indents are too
cancels all indent commands.
values
so
large
that
line, you will see the
large.*
WordMaster then
19.1 PERMANENT INDENT COMMAND find n}
Default value: 0 characters.
When WordMaster sees a permanent indent command find n}
it knows that you want to start indenting your text.
The first
thing WordMaster does is to do a break in your text so that the
characters after the indent command begin a new,
indented
formatted line.
This allows you to know exactly what text
WordMaster is going to indent.
WordMaster remembers the command value you specified in
the find n} command.
It indents your text lines that many
character-positions from the left margin.
(It also ~emembers to
shorten the formatted lines it builds by that amount.)
page 94
System 88 Word Processing
How to Use
---- ---
WordMaster/2.0
the Command
Use the {ind n} command anywhere in your document that
you want to start a new line and start indenting.
Remember
that WordMaster will keep indenting that amount until you exit
WordMaster, you use the no indent command {nind}, you use the
double indent command {dind n}, or you change the find n} indent
value (in which case it will begin to indent with the new value).
When you change the {ind n} value WordMaster does not
add the new value onto the old indent value.
Instead
WordMaster begins indenting with the new indent value.
For example:
find 5}We will indent this line 5 spaces from
left margin.
find l0}We will indent
the left margin, not 15.
the
this line 10 spaces from
Anytime you change the indent value you reset it to the
new value.
An indent of 10 shortens the affected
formatted line by ten characters.
19.2 DOUBLE INDENT COMMAND {dind n}
Default value:
~
characters
The double indent command {dind n} works in the same
way
as the permanent indent command find n}, except that WordMaster
indents from both right and left margins. When WordMaster sees a
double indent-coffimand it does a break.
You've noticed blocks of text in the manual that are
indented from both margins.
A double indent command remains
in effect until you use a permanent indent command find n}, you
leave WordMaster, or you use the no indent command {nind}.
When
you change a double indent command value WordMaster begins to
double indent using the new value.
How
---
to Use the Command
---- ---
Use the double indent command anywhere in your document
you want to start a new line and begin double indenting. Remember
that if you specify a command value of say 5, WordMaster will
indent from the left margin five spaces and from the right margin
5 spaces.
So a {dind 5} shortens the formatted line by ten
characters.
19.3 TEMPORARY INDENT COMMAND {tin n}
Default value: 0 characters
To indent one line,
use
the
temporary
indent
command.
Whenever you use the {tin n} command WordMaster does a break.
This allows you to be exactly sure which text is, going to start
o
o
Section 19
Indents: Permanent, Temporary and Double
Page 95
the new, indented 1 ine.
How to Use the Command
---
Use the {tin n} command at any point in your document.
Unlike the other two indent commands {dind n,ind n},
the {tin n}
command does not cancel out any other indent command. This means
that if you are double indenting a paragraph, you may also use the
{tin n} command to indent a line in that block, not from the left
margin but from the temporary margin being used by the double
indent command.
You can also use the {tin n}
command
in
combination
with the permanent indent command find n}.
An
example:
Unformatted sample:
{dind 5,tin 5}We've asked WordMaster to double
indent this block of text five spaces from the
left margin and five spaces from the right margin. We also
want to indent the first line of the block 5 spaces
{wu1}in addition to
the amount we've already indented.{nind}
Formatted sample:
We've asked wordMaster to double indent
this
block of text five spaces from the left margin and
five spaces fr~m the right margin.
We also want to
indent the first line of the block 5 spaces in addition
to the amount we've already indented.
19.4 THE NO INDENT COMMAND {nind}
Use the no indent command at any point in your document
where you want WordMaster to stop indenting. WordMaster does
a break when it sees a {nind} command. You can use the no indent
command to cancel both permanent and double indenting.
For example,
let's say that you've been double indenting
a block of text.
Use the no indent command at the end of
that block to tell WordMaster that you're done indenting for now.
(See the example above.)
When you want to begin to indent again
just use an appropriate indent command at the new spot in your
document.
page 96
System 88 Word processing
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o
o
Section 20
H~ader
and Footer Titles
Page 97
Section 20
HEADER AND FOOTER TITLES
20.0
In
the
normal
course
of events when you print an
unformatted document it's difficult to set up a header for
each page.
(A header title is a line of text that is printed at
the top of every page, such as a report title or a book title.)
You never know exactly what text will appear on what page, so you
never know exactly where to put a header.
WordMaster lets you specify a header title.
WordMaster
remembers that header, and every time it starts a new page it
remembers to print that header at the top of the page.
You can
also specify a footer title (a line of text that appears at the
bottom of every page). You can even specify footer and headers to
appear only on odd or even numbered pages.
Besides discussing the
commands
that
allow
you
to
specify titles, we'll also talk about how to set up your
headers and footers so that you can center them,
right justify
them, or break them into two or three-part titles.
20.1 HEADER COMMAND {he}
First we'll talk about the basic header command {he}.
When you want WordMaster to use a particular section of text
as a header for all the pages in your document, use the header
command at the very top of the document.
WordMaster uses the unit of text just after the header
command
as the header title.
(Remember from our
discussion of the center and underline commands that one
unit of text is the text after the command up to a
carriage return or another command group.)
WordMaster sees and remembers the unit of text that you want to
use as a header, but does not print it in your document at that
time. Example:
{nrj,he}THIS IS A HEADER {skp 2}
WordMaster remembers the words THIS IS A HEADER but
does
not print them in the document until it needs to print a header
title. WordMaster prints THIS IS A HEADER at the top of every
page, just below the page number (if you have a page number).
WordMaster then prints a blank line and begins to print the rest
of the page.
You'll notice that we used the no right justify command
{nrj} along with the header command. This is because WordMaster
System 88 Word processing
Page 98
WordMaster/2.eJ
would otherwise right justify the header.
(You'll have the word
THIS at the left margin, the word HEADER at the right margin, and
the words IS A distributed evenly somewhere in between.) Why, you
may ask, would we want to right justify a header or a footer
title?
As it turns out right justifying a header is often very
useful.
The fact that you can right justify a header allows
you to set up multi-part headers, as we've done in this manual.
To set up multi-part headers:
Use the header command and type your header title:
{he}Report A6eJ7 Chapter 12 Page #1#
If you do nothing else WordMaster will stretch the line
out so that every word is evenly distributed across the
line.
Suppose that you want to divide it up into three
groups: Report A6eJ7, Chapter 12, and Page #1#.
To
ensure
that
WordMaster keeps the words in those
groupings, use the Non expandable blank symbol to keep
WordMaster from inserting spaces between certain words
when it right justifies.
{he}Report@A6eJ7 Chapter@12 Page@#I#
Now when it prints the header it will come out something
like this:
Report A607
Chapter 12
Page 98
Using this same technique you can specify four-part
headers, two-part headers, etc. You'll notice that we
used the Current page number symbol in the example
above: remember that although we represent it as a #1#,
in your document you will type two #s in a row.
If you don't want WordMaster to right justify your headers you can
always use the {nrj} command.
(Just remember to turn right
justification back on afterwards with an {rj} command if you want
the rest of your document right justified.)
If you don't want
wordMaster to right justify your headers you can center them using
the Ice} command:
'
{ce,he}Monthly Accounts Receivable Report
2~.l.l
Other Page Header Commands {ohe} and {ehe}.
Instead of printing one header title
on
every
page
WordMaster allows you to specify a separate header for odd
and even numbered pages. To do this use the odd numbered page
header command {ohe} and the even numbered page header command
{ehe} in the same way that you use the regular header command
{he}.
(See above.)
The text that follows the {ohe} command is
the header for odd numbered pages, and the text that follows the
{ehel
command is the header for even numbered pages. You can use
.:)
section 20
Header and Footer Titles
Page 99
(That is, you can have a header
one or the other of the commands.
on just the odd numbered pages, or a header on just the even
numbered pages.)
20.1.2 More about Headers
To
change
headers,
just
use the appropriate header
command at another place in
your
document.
However
be
careful to position the header command in your document so that
WordMaster will have a chance to remember that header before it
has to use it. For example, it does no good to tell WordMaster to
go to a new page (begin page command {bpg}) and then specify the
header it is to use on that page. In·s tead, remember to specify
headers before you start the page you want to use them on:
{he,ce}Chapter 1: Business Systems
{bpg,skp 2,ce}CHAPTER 1
When you change headers WordMaster immediately "forgets"
about any previous headers.
If you specify an odd numbered
page header {ohe}, WordMaster no longer uses or remembers the
header you specified earlier with the {he} command.
If you ask
for only an odd numbered page header WordMaster prints a blank
line as a header on even numbered pages, and vice versa.
There is one thing that you must be wary of when you
specify headers and footers.
If you try to specify a title
which is longer than the formatted line width, you will get an
error: *1 can't right justify this line--it's too big.* The
formatted line width is the total page width (the {wid n} value)
minus the left and right margin values. That is, it is the number
of characters that WordMaster expects to actually print on each
line. If you have told WordMaster that you don't want error
reporting in your document (via the option questions), you'll be
fine.
~ll that will happen is that you will see the
above error
message on the screen, and inside your document WordMaster will
print your too-long title as it is without trying to right justify
it.
(If you permit error reporting in your document, WordMaster
will also print the above error message in your document.)
20.2 FOOTER COMMANDS {fo}, {efo}, AND {ofo}
Just as you can specify a line of text to be printed at
the top of every page, WordMaster also allows you to specify
a line of text to be printed at the bottom of every page. This is
called a footer title.
Set up a footer title in the same way that you set up
header s.
(See above. )
l\s
is the case wi th header titles,
you can specify odd numbered page footers {ofo} and even numbered
page footers {efo}, as well as regular footers {fo}. You can also
use Non expandable blanks and current page number symbols in
footers.
l\s
footers
you
did with headers, be careful to specify new
before the place in your document where WordMaster
Page 100
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0 .
will actually have to print that footer. We usually specify
footers at the same time as we specify headers, at the very top of
the document:
{npgn,lpp 61,wid 75,ohe,ce}Financial Report: 1976-1978
{ehe}Chapter@l Dividends Page@i'i {fo,cap,ce,wul}Manassa
corporation
You'll notice, by the way, that we included the {ce} and {wul}
commands in the same command group as the footer command.
WordMaster will center, capitalize and underline the footer:
MAN~SSA
CORPORATION
The Paragraph and Need Commands
section 21
Page 101
Section 21
THE
P~R~GR~PH
~ND
NEED
COMM~NDS
21.0
don't
There are two advanced formatting commands that
seem to fit into any of the categories ~e've discussed up
until now. So, here they are in the last chapter of Part IV:
the
paragraph command {par} and the need command {ne n}.
P~R~GR~PH COMM~ND
21.1 THE
{par}
The reason for a paragraph command is simply to save you
time when you type.
When WordMaster sees {par} it does a
skip and a temporary indent of 5 spaces. In other words {par}
tells WordMaster to do a paragraph break.
Typing {par} is exactly the same as typing {skp,tin 5}.
There is one thing that you should keep in mind when you use
the {par} command. Suppose that you have something like this in
your document:
We hope that this plan meets with your approval.{skp}
{par}Now, for the next item.
When WordMaster sees the {par}
it really sees a {skp,tin 5},
right? So you might expect that WordMaster would do two skips
after the word approval. It doesn't. You may remember-from our
discussion in Section 9, ~ First Look at Formatting Commands, that
if you have two command groups separated by only a carriage
return, and each group has a command in common, the latest
occurrence of that command takes precedence. The example above is
equivalent to:
We hope that this plan meets with your approval.
{skp,tin 5}Now, for the next item.
{skp}
So, in the case above WordMaster does only one skip. If you want
more than one blank line between paragraphs, do not use the {par}
command: instead use something like this: {skp 2,tin 5}.
21.2 THE NEED
COMM~ND
{ne n}
Default value: 1 line
When you produce reports and
other
documents
you've
probably had the frustrating experience of finding a section
title at the bottom of the page, while its accompanying section
appeared on the next page. This kind of thing is hard to deal
with, because no sooner do you add a blank line in
offending
front
of
the
title (to move it to the next page), than you find that
page 102
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
you have now shifted another title to the bottom of another
page.
The need command was designed to combat this problem.
When you think that there is a possibility that a certain
section may not fit on a page, use the need command. The need
command tells WordMaster "I need at least n lines on the page to
print this section of text. If you don't have that many lines
left on the page start formatting this text on the next page."
So, suppose you have a paragraph title. You want the title and at
least two lines of the text below it to appear on a page together.
Let's say that you want a blank line between the title and the
text. That means that you want to reserve four lines on the page.
Put the {ne n} command in front of the title:
{ne 4}PAYROLL SCHEDULES
When WordMaster reaches the point in your
document
where
this title occurs it checks to see if it has four lines left on
the current page. If it does, it simply formats and prints the
next four lines of text. If it does not have room, it advances to
the bottom of the page and prints the footer (if needed). Then it
goes to the top of the next page and continues on with your four
lines of text.
If you say that you need more lines on the page than
there
are
on
the
page;
WordMaster displays this error
message: *You asked to reserve more lines than the total lines per
page.* Then it ignores your {ne n} command.
,J
o
section 22
WordMaster Strategies
Page 103
Section 22
WORDMASTER STRATEGIES
22.0
There are a couple of formatting tricks and strategies
we'd like to talk about before we end the manual.
You might
call this the philosophy section. ~s you become expert, you'll
think of a lot of shortcuts and efficient ways to do things:
you'll come up with your own favorite combinations of commands for
all situations.
We've come up with a few observations, and we'd
like to pass these odds and ends onto you.
We've mentioned in passing the idea of adding documents
together.
~s
a matter of fact, we'd like to urge you to
split your documents up into manageable chunks. It's much easier
to edit a small file than a big one. If you are writing large
documents, it's often a help to your organization process to force
yourself to break them up into smaller sections. We try not to
. have anyone document more than 50-60 sectors in length. This
manual was written with each section as a separate document. Then
we created a "command file"
to help us format them as one
document.
You might want to read up on command files in the
System 88 User's Manual if you are going to be creating documents
of any length. Briefly, a command file is a document itself that
we create using the Editor.
However this document contains
directions to the system. Instead of sitting at the machine and
typing a new document name every time WordMaster is ready for a
new document, the command file supplies the names of the documents
to WordMaster for us. If you have 27 documents, as we did, that's
a blessing.
Remember
to
be careful when you add documents.
~ny
formatting
conditions
prevailing
during
the
previous
formatting remain in force for the next document. If you were
double indenting, that double indent remains effective unless you
turn it off with the no indent command {nind} . .
You may remember that we've emphasized the fact that you'
can center up to 255 units of text at a time with the center,
capitalize and underline commands. You might wonder why we think
that might be useful. Well, you might not want to center 255
units, but you might want to center about 25. This is how you do
it without having to count:
You have a lot of lines to center.
(Let's say for some
flashy add---copy.)
You don't want to count how many
units of text there are. Fine. Put a center command
right before the first unit of text you want to center.
Give the center command a ridiculously large command
value (say, 10~). You know you don't want to center l~~
lines. Move the cursor down the document till you reach
Page 104
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0_
the end of the text you want centered. ~t the end of
that section, use another center command.
But, this
time use a command value of zero. {ce 0}. That cancels
the current center command. When WordMaster reaches the
{ce 0}, it stops centering.
One last thought. EXPeriment with the page width command and the
margin commands to vary the formatted line width. Sometimes right
justifying a line causes awkward spacings on the line. You may be
surprised at how much difference it can make just increasing or
decreasing the line width by one character. Sometimes a page
width of 83 looks just right, even though 82 looked terrible.
Section 23
Summary of Advanced Formatting Commands
o
Page 1135
Section 23
FUNCTIONAL SUMMARY OF ADVANCED FORMATTING COMMANDS
23.13
Below
we list all of the commands that we've talked
about in Part IV.
For a complete alphabetical list of all of
the formatting commands see Appendix A.
SPECIAL SYMBOLS: @ = Non-expandable blank. Type two of them
to get one @ in text.
double-#
Type
Command
=
Current page number symbol.
Description
Default value
HEADER
{he}
{ohe}
{ehe}
Header title
Odd-# pg Header
Even-# pg Header
{fo}
{ofo}
{efo}
Footer title
Odd-it pg Footer
Even-# pg Footer
find n}
{dind n}
{tin n}
Permanent indent
Double indent
Temporary indent
(Indent one line)
{bpg}
{bop}
Begin new page
Begin odd-# page
(start text only
on odd-# page)
FOOTER
INDENT
13 characters
13 characters
13 characters
BEGIN PAGE
LOCAL COMMANDS
ice n}
{cap n}
{ul n}
{wul n}
SPECIAL COMMANDS
{ne n}
{par}
unit
unit
unit
unit
Center unit of text
Capitalize unit
Underline unit
Underline words only
1
1
1
1
Need n lines on page
Do paragraph break
(same as {skp,tin 5})
1 line
Page 106
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
,)
Part V
Trouble Shooting
Page 107
PART V: TROUBLE SHOOTING
Well, now you
are
an
experienced
WordMaster
user.
Still,
once
in a while you wind up with something that
doesn't look quite righ~. What now?
Part V is where you turn to when you're not exactly sure
what
is
going on.
We list all of the WordMaster error
messages (and tell you the errors that can cause them).
Section
25 consists of some helpful hints on what the problem might be if
your formatted text isn't exactly as you would have it.
Finally,
we give you long examples of unformatted text that contain
formatting commands: some original pages from this manual.
~
By all means experiment.
You'd be surprised at how a
very small change in your formatting commands can drastically
change the look of your formatted document.
If you don't like the
way something looks, edit that document again, and try changing
things a bit.
That's th~ fun of a formatter: making little
changes result in big ones.
Page UI8
System 88 Word processing
WordMaster/2.0
,)
o
Section 24
WordMaster Error Messages
Page 109
Section 24
WORDMASTER ERROR MESSAGES
24.0
There
are two types of
errors and Formatting errors.
WordMaster
errors:
Input
line
Input line errors are those which occur while WordMaster
is trying to read your document.
For example, if you mean to
use the center command {ce n}, but instead say:
{ex}, WordMaster
will be confused. You'll see this error message on the screen:
**** Input Line Error ****
{cx}
- .~
*1 don't recognize this command.*
Other 'kinds of errors that can cause an Input line ~rror might be
a confusing command value (e.g., {skp X}), or an illegal command
value.
WordMaster prints an arrow that points to the particular
trouble spot (the unrecognizable command, the illegal command
value, whatever.)
Formatting
errors
are
errors
which
occur
while
WordMaster is trying to format your text.
In other words
they are the kinds of errors that WordMaster can't spot right off
while it is reading your document. Only when it starts to format
does it realize that your instructions just won't work.
For
example, you've told it to center a line of text, but that line is
longer than the current formatted line width
(total page width
minus left and right margins). You'll see:
**** Formatting Error ****
the line of text that is too long to center.
*This line is too long to center.*
you'll notice that WordMaster doesn't put out an arrow for
Formatting errors. That is because it's the whole line that is
causing problems, not a particular part of it.
The purpose behind printing the line of your document is
so that you can get some idea of where the problem is.
The
Input line errors always point to the exact line that is giving
problems. This is because WordMaster finds these errors right at
the moment that it is reading from your document.
Formatting
error messages point to a line from your document that is very
close to where the problem is, but not necessarily the problem
spot. This is because WordMaster may run into a formatting error
Page 110
System 88 Word processing
WordMaster/2.0
at any time while it is formatting your document, and may actually
be working on the line before or after the error. It can only
give you an approximate idea (plus or minus a document line)
of
where the problem is, because it may no longer be sure itself
exactly where it ran into the problem.
24.1 ERROR REPORTING
Usually WordMaster reports your errors in your printed
document as well as on the screen.
You may (via one of the
option questions) ask for screen reporting only.
If WordMaster
does report errors in your formatted document, you will have a
written record of where the errors occurred.
When WordMaster
reports input line error messages in your printed document it uses
a question mark to point to the problem instead of an arrow
symbol.
Because
of
the
comprehensive
default
formatting
instructions
and
command
values
belonging to WordMaster,
often an error causes very little damage to your
printed
document.
(For example,
in response to {ce xkkd}, WordMaster
centers one unit of text.)
So, once you get familiar with
WordMaster you may want to prevent it from reporting errors in
your printed document, and rely on its error messages on the
screen to warn you about problems.
24.2 THE ERROR MESSAGES
Every error report consists of the error warning message (****
Input Line Error ****, or **** Formatting Error ****), the line
from your document causing the problem, and the appropriate error
message.
Input line errors also point to the problem in your line
with an arrow.
If there are several input line errors in one
document line
(e.g.,
{ce ds} text {cap Ieee}), WordMaster will
display a separate error message for each error, pointing to the
appropriate error in each message.
Input Line Errors
*1 don't understand this value--I'll use the default.*
WordMaster tried to read a command value but wasn't able
to understand it.
(e.g.,
{skp ++}).
WordMaster will
use whatever the default command value is for that
command.
(For a list of the commands and
their
defaults,
see
Appendix
A.)
WordMaster
doesn't
understand + or in front of numbers.
*Illegal command value--I'll use the default.*
You tried to use a command value that was greater than
255.
(e.g.,
{lpp 1000}.
The only command which will
accept a command value of greater than 255 is the reset
Section 24
WordMaster Error Messages
Page III
page command, which will take a command value of from 1
to 65535. WordMaster will use the default value for
that particular command.
*I don't recognize this command.*
You gave WordMaster something that confused it very
much.
(e.g., {dkdk dkkdkd Ildls}). Check you spelling.
Did you say {nofil}
instead of {nfil}? Did you say
{SKP} instead of {skp}? .
*Illegal line spacing value--I'll reset line spacing to 1.*
You may only set line spacing (the {lsp n} command)
1, 2 or 3 for single, double, or triple spacing.
to
*You asked to reserve more lines than the total lines per page.*
You used the need command {ne n}, · but the value you
supplied is too big--WordMaster thinks that it is bigger
than the total lines per page {lpp n} value. Is your
lines per page big enough?
*Your input line was too long--I had to split it.*
You forgot a RETURN at the end of a screen line!
WordMaster tried to go ahead and split your one line
into two lines of more manageable length.
still, you
could have trouble if WordMaster had to split the line
in the middle of a command group. You'd better re-edit
your document and check your RETURNs.
Formatting Errors
*I can't right justify this line--it's too big.*
You somehow got WordMaster to try to keep a document
line unbroken that is too long for the formatted line.
This could happen if you specified a header or footer
containing a lot of non expandable blanks (@), or simply
a header or footer that is too long. WordMaster will
try to fit it on a line the width of the current
formatted line.
It won't work. Except for header and
footer titles, this error is rare because WordMaster can
usually break a line between words so that it will fit
on a line and can be right justified.
Make t~line
smaller~ make sure it has spaces in it.
Page 112
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
*1 can't right justify this line--there are no spaces.*
You tried to present WordMaster with a document line
that it wants to right justify, but can't because there
are no spaces on the line. You might get this if you
specified a large indent, and then had a portion of a
document line with no spaces that is larger than the
indented formatted line. It won't fit! Or, you might
have used the {ul n} command on a unit of text. This
unit might be so long that another word from your
document cannot fit on the formatted line with it.
When WordMaster tries to right justify it, it can't find
any spaces
(since they're all underlined) so it thinks
the line is all one long word.
*This line is too long to center.*
You gave WordMaster a unit of text to center
longer than the legal formatted line width.
make the line shorter.
that is
You must
*Your indents are too large.*
You tried to specify indent values so large that
WordMaster cannot print a line of text.
For example, if
you say that page width is 50 {wid 50}, but set a
permanent indent of 60 {ind 60}, WordMaster knows that a
line of negative width isn't possible. It ignores your
indent values when this error occurs.
*Lines per page value too small--I'll use the default values.*
WordMaster keeps track of how many lines per page it
needs to take care of page set up.
For instance, it
needs a certain amount of lines on a page to print a
page number line, to print a header, to print a footer,
etc.
If it decides that you have not allowed it enough
lines per page, it will issue this error. Then it uses
the default lines per page value and resets the bottom
and top margins to zero. The default lines per page
value is whatever value the Printer Driver is currently
using for your printer.
*Page width too small--I'll use defauLt values.*
WordMaster tried to print a formatted line, but decided
that it didn't have enough room. This could happen
because your combined left and right margins were larger
than the total page width. WordMaster uses the default
width value {wid n} of 80 characters, and resets left
and right margins to zero.
Section 24
c:>
WordMaster Error Messages
Page 113
*1 can't break this line between words--there are no spaces.*
WordMaster is trying to fit a line from your document
onto more than one formatted lines, but it can't find
anyplace to split the line between words. If you have
no spaces on a line, and that line is longer than the
formatted line, WordMaster will be confused. It will go
ahead and print the line as it is, but will complain
with this error message while it does so. You might see
this error message if you had a line of 100 asterisks,
for example. Go back to your document and take a look.
Make the line shorter ot add spaces to it.
*1 have no message for this error*
You should never see this message: if you do,
it means
that WordMaster is extremely confused, probably fatally.
Your best bet is to reload the System Disk and start
over.
page 114
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
C)
section 25
What Made it Do That?
Page 115
o
section 25
WHAT MADE IT DO THAT?
25.0
When you get an error message that you don't understand,
your first move should be to look at Section 24, WordMaster
Error Messages. But, sometimes even if you haven't caused an
error you may just be displeased with a particular part of your
document, or you may not quite understand why WordMaster did
something the way that it did. This section presents some common
problems and gives you some advice and sympathy.
Remember, if you don't like the
look
of
something,
experiment!
You may be surprised at how big a change just
inserting an extra carriage return, or changing a lines per page
value can make. If something doesn't seem to be working right, do
a little fine tuning, by just moving things around a bit in your
document.
25.1 SOME PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
I wanted WordMaster to right justify my header (or footer), but it
came out too small~ the right-most word isn't at the right margin!
You had some indentation values in effect when you
specified your header. If you are formatting more than
one document at a time to make one big document, make
sure that you use a {nind} command at the front of each
document. Otherwise, if you had an indent command in
effect at the end of the last document, those indent
values are still being used, even' while WordMaster is
right justifying your new header!
My footer (or header) title is spread allover the formatted line.
I didn't want all those spaces in there.
If you don't want your h~aders evenly distributed across
the formatted line, be sure and use the no right justify
command when you specify the header.
(Remember to turn
justification back on with the {rj} command.)
My header didn't print on the first page.
Or, the page number
printed on the first page even though I used the {npgn} command.
You didn't have the header command
(or the no page
number command) at the very top of your document. There
was some text in front of the command group (even if
just a lot of spaces). Remember that if you use a {bpg}
or {bop} command, you must use the header command
Page 116
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.0
specifying the header for that page before the
group containing the begin new page commands-.--
command
I have a blank page after the first page of my document.
after the blank page is numbered correctly as page #2.
The page
Somehow WordMaster is getting confused about the number
of lines on your page. It is likely that your Printer
Driver did a top margin, and although you may have reset
the paper so that the printer was set at the top of the
. page, the printer didn't figure out that that was the
top of the page. Then when WordMaster did a form feed
to advance you to the next page, it did so after the end
of the paper, and so took us to the next page.
Make
sure that your printer knows about the top of the page.
You may have to redo your printer description so that
the Printer Driver does not do a top margin.
~n
alternative explanation of what is going on is that
your lines per page value is too large.
Try running
your document again with two or three less lines per
page.
I got some very odd looking lines in my formatted document.
Check your original document to make sure that you have
hit RETURN at the end of every screen line. WordMaster
does its best when it gets an input line from four
document that is too long, but the place that it might
split that line could result in a very odd formatting.
(Suppose, for instance, that it split a document line in
the middle of a command group.)
I have many, many underlined (or centered, or capitalized) lines!
Perhaps
~ccidents
you said {wu150} when you meant {wu15}.
will happen. Check your original document and
see.
~ll
of a sudden my whole document is much narrower.
Somewhere you forgot a no indent command
{nind}.
Remember that if you are formatting more than one
document at a time, the formatting values used from the
previous document carryover to the next one. If you
were indenting in an earlier document and didn't say
{nind} at the end of it, your next document will also be
indented.
WordMaster didn't center the whole piece
center.
(or underline, or capitalize).
of
text
I
wanted
to
o
Section 25
What Made it Do That?
Page 117
Did you remember that these commands only affect one
unit of text at a time, not one line? If you say:
{ce}good morning{skp 2}
The center command will center only the
text; the words up to the skip command.
first
unit
of
Page 118
System 88 Word processing
WordMaster/2.1?J
/)
..
o
section 26
Formatting Samples
Page 119
Section 26
FORMATTING SAMPLES
26.0
Welve shown you lots of small examples throughout this
manual, but if you have any questions it may help you to see
what larger documents look like in unformatted form.
So, welre
going to show you actual pages from this manual. You can turn
back to the appropriate page in the manual and see what the
formatted text looks like. You see these samples exactly as they
were in their unformatted form. The only difference is that welve
substituted two @s for the Non expandable blanks, and #1# symbols
for the Current page number symbols so that you can see them.
** SAMPLE #1 -- The first part of Section 17. **
{ohe}Section 17 WordMaster@Special@Symbols Page@#I#
{bop,skp 2,ce}Section 17
{skp,ce}WORDMASTER SPECIAL SYMBOLS
{skp 2}
l7.1'J
{par}Besides the formatting commands there are two
special symbols that WordMaster recognizes when it reads
your documents~ These symbols are: the Non expandable blank
(a @) and the Current page number symbol (a double-#).
You will find both of them to be very useful. Because
WordMaster recognizes these characters
as special symbols, it cannot reproduce them literally in
your document. That means that if you type a single @
symbol in your document, you will not see the @ in your
printed document. If you type a double-# symbol you
will not see that symbol in your printed document. There
are ways to get around this. If you wanta @ symbol in
your printed text, type {wul}two
@s in your document. WordMaster will realize that you
don't really want a Non expandable blank symbol there,
and will put {wul}one
@ symbol in your document instead. As for the double-#
symbol (two #s in a row); there is no way to put one
in your printed document. From now on when we talk about
the doub1e-# symbol weill use this symbol: #1#. you ' 1l
remember, though, that we mean two #s in a row, without
the I symbol.
{skp}
17.1 THE NON EXPANDABLE BLANK, @
{par}You probably remember that one of the option questions
WordMaster asks you is whether or not you want two
Page 120
System 88 Word processing
WordMaster/2.0
spaces at the end of every sentence. Usually you do. But,
what about
those special cases where you know that you have something
in your document that WordMaster is going to think is the
end of a sentence, but isn't. And, what if it's important
that WordMaster NOT put two spaces there? For example,
suppose WordMaster sees the following:
{skp,tin 10} We use the symbol "1" a lot.
{skp}It is going to think that you want two spaces after the second
quotation mark. But, . that isn't really the end of the sentence.
Or, what if WordMaster is right justifying a line. You know
that it inserts spaces wherever there is already a space
to stretch the line out flush to the right margin.
What if WordMaster sees:{skp,tin 10} The interest rate is 6@%.
{skp}
How do you keep it from putting another space between 6 and
%?
{par}The purpose of the Non expandable blank (NEB) is to fool
WordMaster into thinking that there is no space where the
NEB is. Since there is no space, the NEB is just part of
the word surrounding it, and WordMaster can't insert an
extra space at that point in your text. In the examples above
we simply
substitute an NEB for the space that was likely
to cause a problem. For example: in our original document
we typed the characters {wul}6@%
as {wul}6@%,
and the
characters {wul}"?"@a lot.
as {wul}"?"@a lot.
Naturally WordMaster could not insert a space between the
second quotation mark and the letter {wul}a,
because it thought that the symbols were all part of the
same word. When it came time to print
the examples above, WordMaster substituted a space for
every Non expandable blank that it found.
{par}WordMaster doesn't know that an NEB is a space until
it comes time to print the formatted line. At that time
WordMaster converts any NEBs into spaces.
{par}You use NEBs when you want to make sure that WordMaster
prints only {wul}one
space, and you can also use it when you want to make sure
that WordMaster is going to print {wul}at least two
spaces. How? Just follow an NEB with a space • .
{skp}
If I type:{skp}
I demand the return of @TWO-THIRDS@ of my cleaning deposit.
{skp}
I know that there will be {wul}at least
two spaces before and after the words TWO-THIRDS. (There may
be more after WordMaster finishes right justifying the
line, but there will be at least two.) {skp}
')
-
~
Section 26
o
**
Formatting Samples
SAMPLE #2 -- The first part of Section 7.
Page 121
**
{ohe}Section@7 Functional@Summary@of@Editor@Commands Page@#I#
{bop,skp 2,ce}Section 7
{skp,ce}FUNCTIONAL SUMMARY OF EDITOR COMMANDS{skp}
7.~
{par}Below is a quick summary of all of the Editor commands
and features that we've discussed in this manual. If you
would like more information about the Editor see the System
88 User's Manual, Section 10, {wul}The Editor.{skp 2,wul}
Waking the Editor{skp,dind 3}
.
After a $ prompt type:{skp,tin 5}
EDIT document-name{br}
or:{br,tin 5}
EDIT@document-namel document-name2{skp,nind,wul}
Erasing Text in Your Document{skp,dind 3}
To delete one character: DELETE key.{skp}
To delete one word: Control-W.{skp}
To delete one line of text: Control-X{skp}
To delete first marked block of text: Escape-SHIFT-DELETE.
{skp,nind,wul}
Moving the Cursor Throughout Your Document
{skp,dind 3}
One character to the right: Right-arrow key. (Cursor jumps
to the front of the next line after you reach end of current
line.){skp}
One character to the left: Left-arrow key. (Cursor jumps
to the end of the previous line after you reach the front
of current line.) {skp}
One line up: Up-arrow key. (Cursor moves to position directly
above current cursor position.) {skp}
One line down: Down-arrow key. (Cursor moves to position
directly below current cursor position.) {skp}
Beginning of previous line: Escape-up-arrow key.{skp}
Beginning of next line: Escape-down-arrow key.{skp}
Beginning of Previous fifteen lines: Control-P.{skp}
End o£ Next fifteen lines: Control-N.{skp}
Beginning of document: Control-B.{skp}
End of document: Control-E.
{skp,wul,nind}Fitting a Large Document into Memory
{skp,dind 3}
To transfer half of your document from memory to the disk: Control-O.{skp}
To transfer enough of your document from the disk to fill
half of memory: Control-A.
{skp,wul,nind}Marking a block of text
{skp,dind 3}
Mark front of block: Escape-right-arrow.{skp}
Mark end of block: Escape-left-arrow.{skp}
Erase markers: Escape-DELETE.
Page 122
**
WordMaster/2.0
System 88 Word Processing
SAMPLE #3 -- The first part of Section 11.
**
{nind,ohe}Section@ll Filled@and@Unfilled@Text Page@#I#
{bop,skp 2,ce}Section 11
{skp,ce}FILLED AND UNFILLED TEXT
{skp 2}
11.0
{par}A major advantage of a formatter is that it can impose a
format on your text which may look very different from the
form in which you originally typed the document. This is an
advantage
because it allows you to create your text without really
worrying about what it is going to look like when it's
printed. The way your document looks when you edit it
really has very little relationship to how it will look
when it is formatted. It's important to remember that your
original document line (input line) is different than
the final formatted line.
{par}On the other hand, you sometimes
want a formatter to print a portion of your document
exactly as you have typed it in, ending lines where you
have ended them, printing tabs and blank lines where you
have placed them, etc. You might, for example, want to
print a chart or a series of columns of numbers.
{par}These two different modes of formatting are called ·
"fill" and "no fill."
Let's take a look at a small piece
of a document both in its original and formatted forms.
{skp}Original, unformatted text: {skp,nfil,ind 5}{skp,nfil}
{skp}We've
mentioned
"filling" text
several times.
Understanding what
is meant by filled text
is crucial to
understanding how WordMaster operates on your document.
{skp,fill,nind}
Formatted text: {skp,ind 5}
{skp}We've
mentioned
"filling" text
several times.
Understanding what
is meant by filled text
is crucial to
understanding how WordMaster operates on your document.
{par}You can see the difference between the two samples of
text above. The top sample is
what the formatted paragraph looks like in its original
form as we edited it. The bottom sample is
what that same text looks like filled.{skp,nind}
11.1
FILLING TEXT {fill}
Section 26
o
Formatting Samples
{par}How did the sample above get transformed into the
sample below it? WordMaster knows how many characters you
want it to print on a formatted line of text (page width
minus right and left margins). Its default formatting
instructions say to fill lines of that width with
characters from your document. What does that mean?
When WordMaster fills a line it does the following:
{skp,dind 5}
WordMaster reads a line of text from your document.
(A line is the group of symbols between two carriage
returns.) It replaces any tabs in that line with single
spaces. If there is more than one space between words
WordMaster removes the extra spaces. WordMaster then
starts building a formatted line by placing one word
after another from your input line onto a line of the
proper width until it cannot fit another word.
If it runs out of words before it finishes the
formatted line WordMaster reads another input line
from your document and continues putting words on the
formatted line. WordMaster ignores the blank lines
in your document when it is working in fill mode.
To print blank lines you must use the skip command.
(See Section l2,{wul} Breaking and Skipping.)
{skp}In summary, when WordMaster fills a
line it writes as many whole words from your input line
onto a final formatted line as can fit regardless of
the length of the line in the original document. When
it comes time to decide what words should go on each
formatted line WordMaster ignores the carriage returns
in your original document. That is, it doesn't end a
formatted line just because it found a carriage return
in the input line at that point in the text. Instead it
converts carriage return symbols into spaces.
{skp,nind}Now you can see what WordMaster did with the
sample above. It got rid of the extra spaces, and
placed one word after another from the input lines onto
final formatted 1ines.{skp}
Page 123
Page 124
System 88 Word Processing
WordMaster/2.eI
Appendix A
o
WordMaster Command Summary
Page 125
APPENDIX A: WORDMASTER COMMAND SUMMARY
This is an alphabetical list of all of the WordMaster commands,
both basic and advanced. If you are interested in a functional
listing, see Section 15, Functional Summary of Basic Formatting
Commands,
and
Section
23, Functional SUmmary of Advanced
Formatting Commands.
Command
{bm n}
{bpg}
{bop}
{br}
{cap n}
{ce n}
{dind n}
{efo}
{ehe}
{fill}
{fo}
{he}
{ind n}
{1m n}
{lpp n}
{lsp n}
{ne n}
{nfil}
{nind}
{npgn}
{nrj}
{ofo}
{ohe}
{par}
{pgn}
{rj}
{rpgn n}
{rm n}
{skp n}
{tin n}
{tm n}
{ul n}
{wid n}
{wul n}
Description
bottom margin
begin new page
begin odd-i page
do a break
capitalize
center
double indent
even-i page footer
even-i page header
fill text
footer title
header title
permanent indent
left margin
lines per page
line spacing
need
no fill
no indent
no page number
no right justify
odd-i page footer
odd-i page header
paragraph break
number pages
right justify
reset page number
right margin
skip
temporary indent
top margin
underline (total)
page width
underline (word only)
Special Symbols: @ = Non expandable blank
double-i = Current page number
Default value
o
lines
1 unit of text
1 unit of text
o characters
o
characters
characters
Printer Driver
single space
1 line
QJ
page #1
o characters
1 blank line
5 characters
o lines
1 text unit
80 characters
1 text unit
PolyMorphic Systems
WordMaster Printer Driver
Page 127
APPENDIX B
SYSTEM 88 PRINTER DRIVER
The System 88 operating software includes a printer driver-- a
program that allows you to print a disk file on a printer.
It
will run many different kinds of printers, and you use the same
driver to run a printer from Exec, BASIC, and the Assembler.
This program is automatically entered into memory when you
start up the system or hit the Load button, and so is always
available.
The printer driver has these characteristics:
1.
It supports most RS-232 printers.
2.
It interprets form feed and tab characters into simulations
for printers that do not understand these characters.
3. You can add new printers to the list of those the printer
driver can run by describing the characteristics of the printer
to the system.
4. Many types of printers can be defined on
the same system disk.
One of these may be specified as the
default printer, which the system always uses unless you tell
it to use some other printer.
5. The video display can serve as the "printer."
This is
handy for
testing BASIC programs on a system without a hard
copy printer.
The printer driver is automatically loaded into memory when you
start the system up or hit the Load button.
12.1 PRINTING FROM EXEC
When printing from Exec, use Printer, PRINT, DIRECTORY,
and
PAGE.
For information regarding these Exec commands, see
Section 5, The Executive.
Briefly:
You usually don't have to use the Printer command to print.
Assuming you've designated a printer as your default printer,
the system will assume that you want to print on the default
printer whenever you use PRINT or DIRECTORY.
If you want to
use some printer other than the default printer, you must first
give the Printer command, followed by the name of the desired
printer:
SPrinter Diablo
$PRINT filename
Of course,
the printer driver can only run printers it's been
taught to run (see below).
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WordMaster Printer Driver
PolyMorphic Systems
PRINT filename prints out the requested file.
DIRECTORY n prints out the directory of the disk in drive n.
PAGE causes the printer to execute a form feed.
12.2 PRINTING FROM BASIC
To use the printer driver from BASIC, you must use two types of
statements in BASIC.
1. The printer must be "attached" to BASIC.
the following statement:
This is done with
10 FILE:c,LIST
where c is the channel to which the printer is attached.
2.
The user must provide BASIC PRINT statements in the following fo rmat:
20 PRINT:c,'print list'
EXAMPLE:
10
FILE:2,LIST
20
FOR
1=1
TO
PRINT:2,TAB(I),"Test the Printer Driver" 40 NEXT
10
30
You can also use
LIST:2 XREF:2 DUMP:2
For more
Manual.
information,
see the System Library volume BASIC: A
12.2.1 Testing a BASIC Program on a System Without a Printer
Often it is desirable to test a BASIC program with PRINT:
statements when no printer is available. You can do this with
"Screen" to be the
the Printer Driver by simply declaring
desired printer.
Thereafter, output to the "printer" will
appear on the video screen.
12.3 ADAPTING THE PRINTER DRIVER: THE PRINTER EDITOR
As said above, the printer driver always assumes that you want
to print on the printer you have designated as the default
printer unless you tell it to use some other printer.
You can
invoke another printer that the printer driver "knows about" by
typing Printer, followed by the name of the printer.
How does
the printer driver learn how to
run various printers?
You
teach
it.
You add, delete, and change printer definitions by
using the Printer command.
Type Printer, then hit the carriage
return.
This invokes a "printer editor." Using
this editor,
you can:
PolyMorphic Systems
WordMaster Printer Driver
1.
Tell
the
printer
additional printer.
2.
driver
the
Page 129
characteristics
View the characteristics of a previously
defined
of
an
printer.
3.
Choose a previously defined printer as the printer to be
initialized at system startup (the default printer).
4.
Delete the characteristics of a previously defined printer.
5.
Rename a previously defined printer.
6.
Return to Exec.
After you type
screen:
Printer,
the
following
will
appear
Commands:
NEW VIEW DEFAULT DELETE RENAME
printers: Null Screen Terminet Qume Diablo ##
EXIT
on
the
Known
The sign ## is the prompt for the printer editor.
The "Known
printers" are all the different kinds of printers the printer
driver already knows how to run.
The ones you see above are
the ones that are pre-defined and included on the system disk
shipped by PolyMorphic Systems. As shipped, the printer driver
defaults to "Null," which means that no data will be output to
a
printer.
You can select one of the pre-defined printers to
be your default device by typing DEFAULT and the name in the
list that matches your printer, then hitting carriage return.
Or you can tell the printer driver about some new printer as
described below,
and then use the DEFAULT command to make it
. the default printer.
We'll go through the printer editor commands one by one.
PRINTER EDITOR COMMANDS
After you enter the printer editor by typing Printer and a
carriage return,
and you have the ##
prompt, enter the
appropriate command and printer name. The "printer name" need
not be the actual name of a printer; it can be a mnemonic of
your own devising.
12.3.1 NEW printername
You teach the printer driver about a new printer by using
the
NEW command,
followed
by the name of the printer (and a
carriage return), then answering a series of questions.
The
printer editor asks you the following questions, one at a time;
as you type in the answer to one, it displays the next.
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WordMaster Printer Driver
PolyMorphic Systems
Printer Setup Dialogue
Form size (in lines)?
Printer lines per form?
Lines for TOP margin?
Spaces for LEFT margin?
Speed of printer (in Baud)?
Driver type (STD,AUTOTAB,ETX/ACK)?
If you answer ETX/ACK to this last
presented with the following question:
question, you will be
Buffer limit (O-255)?
When you have provided the
following message:
buffer
limit,
you
will
see
the
Printer defined.
If you answer STD or AUTOTAB to the Driver type question you
will see the following possible questions:
Understand form feeds?
Understand TAB character?
Need Special Timing?
If you answer "yes" to the last question
asked the following:
above,
you
will
be
Padding character?
Pads after CR?
After LF?
After TAB?
Once you have responded to these last four questions or have
answered "no" to the special timing question, you will see the
following message:
Printer defined
The last four questions appear only if the user responds yes to
the previous question regarding special timing.
Let's look at these questions one at a time.
What is the form size (in lines)?
Most printers print six lines per inch, and most pages are
eleven inches long,
so usually you will
respond to this
question with:
66.
If your printer or form differs, do some
calculation to determine how many lines your printer will print
on your form.
PolyMorphic Systems
WordMaster Printer Driver
Page 131
All responses are terminated with a carriage return.
How many printed lines on each form?
Give the number of lines that you want to constitute a full
page or form.
The printer will automatically execute a form
feed after printing that number of lines.
How many blank lines at the top?
Define how much of a margin you want left blank at the top of
each page by stating a number of lines. The remaining blank
lines will be left at the bottom. For instance, if your form
is 66 lines long and you ask the printer to print 57 lines per
page, nine lines in all will be left blank on the page.
If you
then specify that four lines will be left blank at the top, the
remaining five will be left blank at the bottom.
How many spaces for the LEFT Margin?
Define how wide the left margin should be by stating a number
of blank spaces.
(Many printers can be set to print ten or
twelve characters per inch.)
Depending on how your paper is
located on the platen, you may not need any blank spaces on the
left margin at all.
What is the speed of ehe printer (in Baud)?
Reply by stating the baud rate of the printer in decimal.
(All
numeric responses are in decimal.)
Then type a carriage
return.
Does the printer understand Form Feeds?
Some printers automatically respond to form feed characters by
moving on to the top of the next page. Answer this question
yes or no.
If it does not-if you answer no-- then the
printer driver will interpret form feed characters and output
enough blank lines to move the printer on to the next page.
Does it understand TAB characters?
Some printers will respond to tab characters by tabbing over to
pre-set tab stops. Answer this question yes or no.
If you
answer n~,
the printer driver will interpret a tab character
and output enough spaces to carry the printer head to the next
tab stop.
Does the printer have special timing?
Some printers have to be sent "pad characters" or non-printing
characters that will allow time for operations like form feeds
and carriage returns.
If the printer you are defining requires
pad characters, answer this question yes. You will then be
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WordMaster Printer Driver
PolyMorphic Systems
asked the remainder of the Printer questions, defining what
character will be sent as a pad character and how many will be
sent for which operations.
What ASCII code (in Decimal)
for a pad character?
The pad character
is usually a null or a
rub-out, both
non-printing characters. The ASCII code for a null is 0, for a
rub-out 255.
How many pads after a Carriage Return?
If your printer manual is not helpful in setting this number
and the ones following, try a little experimentation. You can
time printer operations like how long it takes to execute a
"carriage return" with a stop watch. Then ~ompute the number
of character generations
(and therefore the number of pad
characters) based on the baud rate.
12.3.2 VIEW printername
VIEW causes the parameters of a previously defined
"be displayed on the video screen.
printer
to
12.3.3 DEFAULT printername
This command causes the named printer to be initialized when
the system is started or reloaded.
In other words, the system
always assumes the characteristics of this printer unless some
other printer is specified using the Printer command.
12.3.4 DELETE printername
This command deletes the specified printer
Known Devices.
from
the
list
of
12.3.5 RENAME printername
When you use this command, the system responds with a prompt
asking you to state a new name for the specified printer. This
new name will appear in place of the old one in future displays
of Known Devices.
12.3.6 EXIT
EXIT returns control of the system to Exec.
You must always
end the printer editing process by using the EXIT command;
otherwise, your changes will not take effect.
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