GENE EXPRESSION MONITORING
GeneChip
®
Expression
Analysis
Technical Manual
For Research Use Only.
Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
701021 Rev. 4
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®
®
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,
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Overview
Contents
SE CT IO N 2
1.1.3
E u k ar y oti c S am p l e a n d Ar r a y P r o c e s s ing
Chapter 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
2.1.3
Chapter 2
Controls for Eukaryotic Arrays
2.2.3
Chapter 3
Eukaryotic Target Hybridization
2.3.3
Chapter 4
Eukaryotic Arrays:
Washing, Staining, and Scanning
2.4.3
SE CT IO N 3
Eukaryotic
GeneChip® Expression Analysis Overview
Prokaryotic
Chapter 1
Overview
P ro k a ry o tic S a m ple an d A rr ay P r oc e s sin g
Chapter 1
Prokaryotic Target Preparation
3.1.3
Chapter 2
Preparation of Control Spike-In Transcripts
3.2.3
Chapter 3
Prokaryotic Target Hybridization
3.3.3
Chapter 4
Prokaryotic Arrays:
Washing, Staining, and Scanning
3.4.3
F.S. Maintenance
SE CT IO N 1
SE CT IO N 4
Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures
4.1.3
c
Appendices
Chapter 1
701021 Rev. 4
iii
C O NT EN TS
SE CT IO N 5
iv
A p pe n di c e s
Appendix A
Supplier and Reagent Reference List
5.A.3
Appendix B
FAQs & Troubleshooting
5.B.3
Appendix C
List of Controls on GeneChip Probe Arrays
5.C.3
Appendix D
Technical Bulletins
5.D.3
Appendix E
Probe Array Information
5.E.3
Section 1:
GeneChip® Expression Analysis Overview
701022 Rev. 2
Section 1
Overview
Contents
Sectio n 1
Chapter 1
701022 Rev. 2
GeneChip® Expression Analysis Overview
1.1.3
Overview
Section 1, Chapter 1
701023 Rev. 3
Section 1, Chapter 1
Overview
GeneChip® Expression Analysis Overview
Introduction and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.4
Explanation of GeneChip® Probe Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.4
GeneChip® Expression Analysis Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.5
Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.6
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.7
Interfering Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.7
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.7
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.7
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.7
This Chapter Contains:
701023 Rev. 3
■
An overview of GeneChip® Expression Analysis.
■
A summary of the procedures covered in the remainder of the manual.
1.1.3
S EC T I O N 1
GeneChip® Expression Analysis Overview
Introduction and Objectives
Welcome to the Affymetrix GeneChip® Expression Analysis Technical Manual. This manual
is a technical guide for using GeneChip expression analysis probe arrays. All protocols
included in this manual have been used successfully by scientists at Affymetrix, or have
been recommended by our collaborators during the development of particular products. The
field of mRNA gene expression monitoring is rapidly evolving and periodic technical
updates to this manual will reflect the newest protocols and information for using GeneChip
probe arrays. This manual applies to all GeneChip expression products.
As an Affymetrix GeneChip user, your feedback is welcome. Please contact our technical
support team with any input on how we can improve this resource.
Explanation of
GeneChip® Probe Arrays
GeneChip probe arrays are manufactured using technology that combines photolithography
and combinatorial chemistry.1,2 Tens to hundreds of thousands of different oligonucleotide
probes are synthesized on each array. Each oligonucleotide is located in a specific area on
the array called a probe cell. Each probe cell contains millions of copies of a given
oligonucleotide.
Probe arrays are manufactured in a series of cycles. Initially, a glass substrate is coated with
linkers containing photolabile protecting groups. Then, a mask is applied that exposes
selected portions of the probe array to ultraviolet light. Illumination removes the photolabile
protecting groups enabling selective nucleoside phosphoramidite addition only at the
previously exposed sites. Next, a different mask is applied and the cycle of illumination and
chemical coupling is performed again. By repeating this cycle, a specific set of
oligonucleotide probes is synthesized with each probe type in a known location. The
completed probe arrays are packaged into cartridges.
During the laboratory procedure described in this manual, biotin-labeled RNA or DNA
fragments referred to as the “target” are hybridized to the probe array. The hybridized probe
array is stained with streptavidin phycoerythrin conjugate and scanned by the
GeneChip® Scanner 3000, or the GeneArray® Scanner. The amount of light emitted at 570
nm is proportional to the bound target at each location on the probe array.
1.1.4
GeneChip® Expression Analysis Overview
Overview
C H A P TE R 1
GeneChip® Expression
Analysis Overview
The following major steps outline GeneChip expression analysis:
1.
Target Preparation
2.
Target Hybridization
3.
Experiment and Fluidics Station Setup
4.
Probe Array Washing and Staining
5.
Probe Array Scan
6.
Data Analysis
Due to the differences in the RNA species between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms,
different target labeling protocols have been optimized. Sections 2 and 3 provide detailed
protocols for target preparation, hybridization, array washing, and staining for eukaryotic
and prokaryotic arrays, respectively. Please refer to the sections in this manual for detailed
protocols appropriate for your arrays.
Step 1: Target Preparation
This manual describes procedures for preparing biotinylated target from purified eukaryotic
and prokaryotic RNA samples suitable for hybridization to GeneChip expression probe
arrays. These procedures are recommendations only. For more information on these
procedures, please contact Affymetrix Technical Support at 1-888-DNA-CHIP, or
+44 (0)1628 552550 in Europe.
For eukaryotic samples, using protocols in this manual Section 2, double-stranded cDNA is
synthesized from total RNA or purified poly-A messenger RNA isolated from tissue or
cells. An in vitro transcription (IVT) reaction is then done to produce biotin-labeled cRNA
from the cDNA. The cRNA is fragmented before hybridization.
For prokaryotic samples, Section 3 describes a detailed protocol to isolate total RNA
followed by reverse transcription with random hexamers to produce cDNA. After
fragmentation by DNase I, the cDNA is end-labeled with biotin by terminal transferase.
Step 2: Target Hybridization
A hybridization cocktail is prepared, including the fragmented target, probe array controls,
BSA, and herring sperm DNA. It is then hybridized to the probe array during a 16-hour
incubation. The hybridization process is described in the respective sections for the
different probe array types.
1.1.5
S EC T I O N 1
GeneChip® Expression Analysis Overview
Step 3: Experiment and Fluidics Station Setup
Specific experimental information is defined using Affymetrix® Microarray Suite on a
PC-compatible workstation with a Windows 2000 operating system. The probe array type,
sample description, and comments are entered in Microarray Suite and saved with a unique
experiment name. The fluidics station is then prepared for use by priming with the
appropriate buffers. For more information on the fluidics station, refer to the Fluidics
Station User’s Guide.
Step 4: Probe Array Washing and Staining
Immediately following hybridization, the probe array undergoes an automated washing and
staining protocol on the fluidics station.
Step 5: Probe Array Scan
Once the probe array has been hybridized, washed, and stained, it is scanned. Each
workstation running Affymetrix Microarray Suite can control one scanner. The software
defines the probe cells and computes an intensity for each cell.
Each complete probe array image is stored in a separate data file identified by the
experiment name and is saved with a data image file (.dat) extension.
Review the scanner user’s manual for safety precautions and for more information on using
the scanner.
Step 6: Data Analysis
Data is analyzed using the Microarray Suite Expression Analysis window. The .dat image is
analyzed for probe intensities; results are reported in tabular and graphical formats.
Information on data analysis is provided in the enclosed GeneChip® Expression Analysis:
Data Analysis Fundamentals booklet (P/N 701190).
Precautions
1.
FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY; NOT FOR USE IN DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES.
2.
Avoid microbial contamination, which may cause erroneous results.
All biological specimens and materials with which they come into contact should be
handled as if capable of transmitting infection and disposed of with proper
precautions in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations. This includes
adherence to the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard (29 CFR 1910.1030) for
blood-derived and other samples governed by this act. Never pipet by mouth. Avoid
specimen contact with skin and mucous membranes.
1.1.6
3.
Exercise standard precautions when obtaining, handling, and disposing of potentially
carcinogenic reagents.
4.
Exercise care to avoid cross contamination of samples during all steps of this
procedure, as this may lead to erroneous results.
5.
Use powder-free gloves whenever possible to minimize introduction of powder
particles into sample or probe array cartridges.
GeneChip® Expression Analysis Overview
Overview
C H A P TE R 1
Terminology
Probes
The oligonucleotides on the surface of the probe arrays
are called probes because they probe, or interrogate, the
sample.
Target
The target is the labeled nucleic acid that is being
interrogated. It is hybridized to the probes on the array.
Probe Cell
Specific areas on the probe array that contain
oligonucleotides of a specific sequence.
Interfering Conditions
Wear powder-free gloves throughout procedure. Take steps to minimize the
introduction of exogenous nucleases. Water used in the protocols below is molecular
biology grade (nuclease free).
Proper storage and handling of reagents and samples is essential for robust performance.
All laboratory equipment used to prepare the target during this procedure should be
calibrated and carefully maintained to ensure accuracy, as incorrect measurement of
reagents may affect the outcome of the procedure.
Instruments
The Affymetrix GeneChip Expression Analysis Technical Manual is designed for use in a
system consisting of a Fluidics Station, a Hybridization Oven 640, and a Scanner.
References
1.
Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., Maniatis, T. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, v.1
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY p 21-52 (1989).
2.
See www.affymetrix.com for current GeneChip technology references.
Limitations
■
■
The results of the assay kit are dependent upon the quality of the input RNA,
subsequent proper handling of nucleic acids and other reagents.
The results should be evaluated by a qualified individual.
Do not store enzymes in a frost-free freezer.
1.1.7
Section 2:
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
701024 Rev. 2
Section 2
Contents
701024 Rev. 2
Chapter 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
2.1.3
Chapter 2
Controls for Eukaryotic Arrays
2.2.3
Chapter 3
Eukaryotic Target Hybridization
2.3.3
Chapter 4
Eukaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
2.4.3
Eukaryotic
S ectio n 2 E u ka r y o t ic S a m p l e a n d A r r a y P r o ce s s in g
Eukaryotic
Section 2, Chapter 1
701025 Rev. 5
Section 2, Chapter 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.5
Reagents and Materials Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.7
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. 2.1.9
. 2.1.9
. 2.1.9
2.1.10
2.1.10
2.1.11
Eukaryotic
Total RNA and mRNA Isolation for One-Cycle Target Labeling Assay .
Isolation of RNA from Yeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Isolation of RNA from Arabidopsis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Isolation of RNA from Mammalian Cells or Tissues . . . . . . . . . .
Precipitation of RNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantification of RNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total RNA Isolation for Two-Cycle Target Labeling Assay . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.12
One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 1: Preparation of Poly-A RNA Controls for One-Cycle
cDNA Synthesis (Spike-in Controls) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 2: First-Strand cDNA Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 3: Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . .
Two-Cycle cDNA Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 1: Preparation of Poly-A RNA Controls for Two-Cycle
cDNA Synthesis (Spike-in Controls) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 2: First-Cycle, First-Strand cDNA Synthesis . . . . . .
Step 3: First-Cycle, Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis . . . . .
Step 4: First-Cycle, IVT Amplification of cRNA. . . . . . .
Step 5: First-Cycle, Cleanup of cRNA . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 6: Second-Cycle, First-Strand cDNA Synthesis . . . . .
Step 7: Second-Cycle, Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.13
. . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.13
. . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.16
. . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.18
. . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.19
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2.1.19
2.1.22
2.1.24
2.1.25
2.1.26
2.1.28
2.1.30
Cleanup of Double-Stranded cDNA for Both the One-Cycle and
Two-Cycle Target Labeling Assays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.32
Synthesis of Biotin-Labeled cRNA for Both the One-Cycle and
Two-Cycle Target Labeling Assays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.34
Cleanup and Quantification of Biotin-Labeled cRNA . . . . . . . .
Step 1: Cleanup of Biotin-Labeled cRNA . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 2: Quantification of the cRNA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 3: Checking Unfragmented Samples by Gel Electrophoresis .
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2.1.36
2.1.36
2.1.37
2.1.38
Fragmenting the cRNA for Target Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.39
Alternative Protocol for One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis from Total RNA . . . . . . . 2.1.41
Step 1: First-Strand cDNA Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.41
Step 2: Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.43
701025 Rev. 5
2.1.3
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Alternative Protocol for One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis from Purified Poly-A mRNA. 2.1.44
Step 1: First-Strand cDNA Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.44
Step 2: Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.45
This Chapter Contains:
■
■
2.1.4
Complete One-Cycle Target Labeling Assay with 1 to 15 µg of total RNA or 0.2 to 2 µg of
poly-A mRNA
Complete Two-Cycle Target Labeling Assay with 10 to 100 ng of total RNA
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Introduction
This chapter describes the assay procedures recommended for eukaryotic target labeling in
expression analysis using GeneChip® brand probe arrays. Following the protocols and using
high-quality starting materials, a sufficient amount of biotin-labeled cRNA target can be
obtained for hybridization to at least two arrays in parallel. The reagents and protocols have
been developed and optimized specifically for use with the GeneChip system.
Total RNA as Starting Material
1 µg – 15 µg
10 ng – 100 ng
mRNA as Starting Material
Protocol
0.2 µg – 2 µg
One-Cycle Target Labeling
N/A
Two-Cycle Target Labeling
Eukaryotic
Depending on the amount of starting material, two procedures are described in detail in this
manual. Use the following table to select the most appropriate labeling protocol for your
samples:
The One-Cycle Eukaryotic Target Labeling Assay experimental outline is represented in
Figure 2.1.1. Total RNA (1 µg to 15 µg) or mRNA (0.2 µg to 2 µg) is first reverse
transcribed using a T7-Oligo(dT) Promoter Primer in the first-strand cDNA synthesis
reaction. Following RNase H-mediated second-strand cDNA synthesis, the double-stranded
cDNA is purified and serves as a template in the subsequent in vitro transcription (IVT)
reaction. The IVT reaction is carried out in the presence of T7 RNA Polymerase and a
biotinylated nucleotide analog/ribonucleotide mix for complementary RNA (cRNA)
amplification and biotin labeling. The biotinylated cRNA targets are then cleaned up,
fragmented, and hybridized to GeneChip expression arrays.
For smaller amounts of starting total RNA, in the range of 10 ng to 100 ng, an additional
cycle of cDNA synthesis and IVT amplification is required to obtain sufficient amounts of
labeled cRNA target for analysis with arrays. The Two-Cycle Eukaryotic Target Labeling
Assay experimental outline is also represented in Figure 2.1.1. After cDNA synthesis in the
first cycle, an unlabeled ribonucleotide mix is used in the first cycle of IVT amplification.
The unlabeled cRNA is then reverse transcribed in the first-strand cDNA synthesis step of
the second cycle using random primers. Subsequently, the T7-Oligo(dT) Promoter Primer is
used in the second-strand cDNA synthesis to generate double-stranded cDNA template
containing T7 promoter sequences. The resulting double-stranded cDNA is then amplified
and labeled using a biotinylated nucleotide analog/ribonucleotide mix in the second IVT
reaction. The labeled cRNA is then cleaned up, fragmented, and hybridized to GeneChip
expression arrays.
Alternative One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis protocols are also included at the end of this
chapter for reference.
2.1.5
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Figure 2.1.1
GeneChip Eukaryotic Labeling Assays for Expression Analysis
2.1.6
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Reagents and Materials Required
The following reagents and materials are recommendations and have been tested and
evaluated by Affymetrix scientists. For supplier phone numbers in the U.S. and Europe,
please refer to the Supplier and Reagent Reference List, Appendix A, of this manual.
Information and part numbers listed are based on U.S. catalog information. Additional
reagents needed for the complete analysis are listed in the appropriate chapters.
Appendix A contains a master list of all reagents used in this manual.
Eukaryotic
Do not store enzymes in a frost-free freezer.
Total RNA Isolation
■
■
TRIzol Reagent, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 15596-018
RNeasy Mini Kit, QIAGEN, P/N 74104
Poly-A mRNA Isolation
■
■
■
■
Oligotex Direct mRNA Kit (isolation of mRNA from whole cells), QIAGEN,
P/N 72012, 72022, or 72041
Oligotex mRNA Kit (isolation of mRNA from total RNA), QIAGEN, P/N 70022, 70042, or
70061
QIAshredder, QIAGEN, P/N 79654 (Required only for use with QIAGEN Oligotex Direct
Kit)
DEPC-Treated Water, Ambion, P/N 9920
One-Cycle Target Labeling and Control Reagents
■
One-Cycle Target Labeling and Control Reagents, Affymetrix, P/N 900493
A convenient package containing all required labeling and control reagents to perform 30
one-cycle labeling reactions.
Contains 1 IVT labeling Kit, 1 One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis Kit, 1 Sample Cleanup Module,
1 Poly-A RNA Control Kit, and 1 Hybridization Controls. Each of these components may
be ordered individually (described below) as well as in this complete kit.
Two-Cycle Target Labeling and Control Reagents
■
Two-Cycle Target Labeling and Control Reagents, Affymetrix, P/N 900494
A convenient package containing all required labeling and control reagents to perform 30
two-cycle labeling reactions.
Contains 1 IVT labeling Kit, 1 Two-Cycle cDNA Synthesis Kit, 2 Sample Cleanup Modules,
1 Poly-A RNA Control Kit, and 1 Hybridization Controls. Each of these components may
be ordered individually (described below) as well as in this complete kit.
One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis
■
■
GeneChip® Expression 3’-Amplification Reagents One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis Kit,
30 reactions, Affymetrix, P/N 900431
GeneChip® Eukaryotic Poly-A RNA Control Kit, Affymetrix, P/N 900433
Two-Cycle cDNA Synthesis
■
■
■
GeneChip® Expression 3’-Amplification Reagents Two-Cycle cDNA Synthesis Kit,
30 reactions, Affymetrix, P/N 900432
GeneChip® Eukaryotic Poly-A RNA Control Kit, Affymetrix, P/N 900433
MEGAscript® High Yield Transcription Kit, Ambion Inc, P/N 1334
Cleanup of Double-Stranded cDNA
■
GeneChip® Sample Cleanup Module, 30 eukaryotic reactions, Affymetrix, P/N 900371
2.1.7
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Synthesis of Biotin-Labeled cRNA
■
GeneChip® Expression 3’-Amplification Reagents for IVT Labeling, 30 reactions,
Affymetrix, P/N 900449
IVT cRNA Cleanup and Quantification
■
■
GeneChip Sample Cleanup Module, Affymetrix, P/N 900371
10X TBE, Cambrex, P/N 50843
cRNA Fragmentation
■
GeneChip Sample Cleanup Module, Affymetrix, P/N 900371
Miscellaneous Reagents
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Absolute ethanol (stored at -20°C for RNA precipitation; store ethanol at room
temperature for use with the GeneChip Sample Cleanup Module)
80% ethanol (stored at -20°C for RNA precipitation; store ethanol at room temperature
for use with the GeneChip Sample Cleanup Module)
SYBR Green II, Cambrex, P/N 50523; or Molecular Probes, P/N S7586 (optional)
Pellet Paint, Novagen, P/N 69049-3 (optional)
Glycogen, Ambion, P/N 9510 (optional)
3M Sodium Acetate (NaOAc), Sigma-Aldrich, P/N S7899
Ethidium Bromide, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N E8751
1N NaOH
1N HCl
Miscellaneous Supplies
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Sterile, RNase-free, microcentrifuge vials, 1.5 mL, USA Scientific, P/N 1415-2600 (or
equivalent)
Micropipettors, (P-2, P-20, P-200, P-1000), Rainin Pipetman or equivalent
Sterile-barrier, RNase-free pipette tips (Tips must be pointed, not rounded, for efficient
use with the probe arrays) Beveled pipette tips may cause damage to the array septa and
cause leakage.
Mini agarose gel electrophoresis unit with appropriate buffers
UV spectrophotometer
Bioanalyzer
Non-stick RNase-free microfuge tubes, 0.5 mL and 1.5 mL, Ambion, P/N12350 and
P/N 12450, respectively
Alternative Protocol for One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis
■
■
GeneChip T7-Oligo(dT) Promoter Primer Kit,
5´ - GGCCAGTGAATTGTAATACGACTCACTATAGGGAGGCGG-(dT)24 - 3´
50 µM, HPLC purified, Affymetrix, P/N 900375
SuperScript™ II, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18064-014 or SuperScript Choice
System for cDNA Synthesis, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18090-019
SuperScript Choice System contains, in addition to SuperScript II Reverse
Transcriptase, other reagents for cDNA synthesis. However, not all components
provided in the Choice System are used in the GeneChip cDNA synthesis protocol.
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
2.1.8
E. coli DNA Ligase, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18052-019
E. coli DNA Polymerase I, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18010-025
E. coli RNaseH, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18021-071
T4 DNA Polymerase, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18005-025
5X Second-strand buffer, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 10812-014
10 mM dNTP, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18427-013
0.5M EDTA
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Total RNA and mRNA Isolation for
One-Cycle Target Labeling Assay
Protocols are provided for preparing labeled cRNA from either total RNA or purified
poly-A mRNA. It was found that results obtained from samples prepared by both of these
methods are similar, but not identical. Therefore, to get the best results, it is suggested to
only compare samples prepared using the same type of RNA material.
Please review precautions and interfering conditions in Section 1.
Eukaryotic
The quality of the RNA is essential to the overall success of the analysis. Since the
most appropriate protocol for the isolation of RNA can be source dependent, we
recommend using a protocol that has been established for the tissues or cells being
used. In the absence of an established protocol, using one of the commercially
available kits designed for RNA isolation is suggested.
When using a commercial kit, follow the manufacturer’s instructions for RNA isolation.
Isolation of RNA from Yeast
Total RNA
Good-quality total RNA has been isolated successfully from yeast cells using a hot phenol
protocol described by Schmitt, et al. Nucl Acids Res 18:3091-3092 (1990).
Poly-A mRNA
Affymetrix recommends first purifying total RNA from yeast cells before isolating poly-A
mRNA from total RNA. Good-quality mRNA has been successfully isolated from total
RNA using QIAGEN’s Oligotex mRNA Kit. A single round of poly-A mRNA selection
provides mRNA of sufficient purity and yield to use as a template for cDNA synthesis. Two
rounds of poly-A mRNA selection will result in significantly reduced yield and are not
generally recommended.
Isolation of RNA from Arabidopsis
Total RNA
TRIzol Reagent from Invitrogen Life Technologies have been used to isolate total RNA
from Arabidopsis. Follow the instructions provided by the supplier and, when necessary,
use the steps outlined specifically for samples with high starch and/or high lipid content.
Poly-A mRNA
Arabidopsis poly-A mRNA has been successfully isolated using QIAGEN’s Oligotex
products. However, other standard isolation products are likely to be adequate.
2.1.9
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Isolation of RNA from Mammalian Cells or Tissues
Total RNA
High-quality total RNA has been successfully isolated from mammalian cells (such as
cultured cells and lymphocytes) using the RNeasy Mini Kit from QIAGEN.
If mammalian tissue is used as the source of RNA, it is recommended to isolate total RNA
with a commercial reagent, such as TRIzol.
If going directly from TRIzol-isolated total RNA to cDNA synthesis, it may be beneficial to
perform a second cleanup on the total RNA before starting. After the ethanol precipitation
step in the TRIzol extraction procedure, perform a cleanup using the QIAGEN RNeasy Mini
Kit. Much better yields of labeled cRNA are obtained from the in vitro transcriptionlabeling reaction when this second cleanup is performed.
Poly-A mRNA
Good-quality mRNA has been successfully isolated from mammalian cells (such as
cultured cells and lymphocytes) using QIAGEN’s Oligotex Direct mRNA kit and from total
RNA using the Oligotex mRNA kit. If mammalian tissue is used as the source of mRNA,
total RNA should be first purified using a commercial reagent, such as TRIzol, and then
using a poly-A mRNA isolation procedure or a commercial kit.
Precipitation of RNA
Total RNA
It is not necessary to precipitate total RNA following isolation or cleanup with the RNeasy
Mini Kit. Adjust elution volumes from the RNeasy column to prepare for cDNA synthesis
based upon expected RNA yields from your experiment. Ethanol precipitation is required
following TRIzol isolation and hot phenol extraction methods; see methods on page 2.1.11
for details.
Poly-A mRNA
Most poly-A mRNA isolation procedures will result in dilution of RNA. It is necessary to
concentrate mRNA prior to the cDNA synthesis.
2.1.10
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
1.
Add 1/10 volume 3M NaOAc, pH 5.2, and 2.5 volumes ethanol.*
2.
Mix and incubate at -20°C for at least 1 hour.
3.
Centrifuge at ≥ 12,000 x g in a microcentrifuge for 20 minutes at 4°C.
4.
Wash pellet twice with 80% ethanol.
5.
Air dry pellet. Check for dryness before proceeding.
6.
Resuspend pellet in DEPC-treated H2O. The appropriate volume for resuspension
depends on the expected yield and the amount of RNA required for the cDNA
synthesis. Please read ahead to the cDNA synthesis protocol in order to determine the
appropriate resuspension volume at this step.
Eukaryotic
Precipitation Procedure
*Addition of Carrier to Ethanol Precipitations
Adding carrier material has been shown to improve the RNA yield of precipitation
reactions.
■
Pellet Paint
Addition of 0.5 µL of Pellet Paint per tube to nucleic acid precipitations makes the
nucleic acid pellet easier to visualize and helps reduce the chance of losing the pellet
during washing steps. The pellet paint does not appear to affect the outcome of
subsequent steps in this protocol; however, it can contribute to the absorbance at
260 nm when quantifying the mRNA.
■
Glycogen
Addition of 0.5 to 1 µL of glycogen (5 mg/mL) to nucleic acid precipitations aids in
visualization of the pellet and may increase recovery. The glycogen does not appear to
affect the outcome of subsequent steps in this protocol.
Quantification of RNA
Quantify RNA yield by spectrophotometric analysis using the convention that 1 absorbance
unit at 260 nm equals 40 µg/mL RNA.
■
■
■
The absorbance should be checked at 260 and 280 nm for determination of sample
concentration and purity.
The A260/A280 ratio should be close to 2.0 for pure RNA (ratios between 1.9 and 2.1 are
acceptable).
Integrity of total RNA samples can also be assessed qualitatively on an Agilent 2100
Bioanalyzer. Refer to Figure 2.1.2 for an example of good-quality total RNA sample.
2.1.11
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Figure 2.1.2
Electropherogram (from the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer) for HeLa Total RNA. For a high-quality total RNA sample,
two well-defined peaks corresponding to the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNAs should be observed, similar to a
denaturing agarose gel, with ratios approaching 2:1 for the 28S to 18S bands.
Total RNA Isolation for Two-Cycle
Target Labeling Assay
Several commercial kits and protocols are currently available for total RNA isolation from
small samples (tissues, biopsies, LCM samples, etc.). Select the one that is suitable for
processing of your samples and follow the vendor-recommended procedures closely since
high-quality and high-integrity starting material is essential for the success of the assay.
2.1.12
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis1
Step 1: Preparation of Poly-A RNA Controls for One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis (Spike-in Controls)
Eukaryotic Poly-A RNA Control Kit is used for this step.
Designed specifically to provide exogenous positive controls to monitor the entire
eukaryotic target labeling process, a set of poly-A RNA controls is supplied in the
GeneChip Eukaryotic Poly-A RNA Control Kit.
Eukaryotic
Each eukaryotic GeneChip probe array contains probe sets for several B. subtilis genes that
are absent in eukaryotic samples (lys, phe, thr, and dap). These poly-A RNA controls are
in vitro synthesized, and the polyadenylated transcripts for the B. subtilis genes are premixed at staggered concentrations. The concentrated Poly-A Control Stock can be diluted
with the Poly-A Control Dil Buffer and spiked directly into RNA samples to achieve the
final concentrations (referred to as a ratio of copy number) summarized below in
Table 2.1.1.
Table 2.1.1
Final Concentrations of Poly-A RNA Controls in Samples
Poly-A RNA Spike
Final Concentration
(ratio of copy number)
lys
1:100,000
phe
1:50,000
thr
1:25,000
dap
1:7,500
The controls are then amplified and labeled together with the samples. Examining the
hybridization intensities of these controls on GeneChip arrays helps to monitor the labeling
process independently from the quality of the starting RNA samples. Typical GeneChip
array results from these poly-A spike-in controls are shown in Figure 2.1.3.
For Drosophila Genome Arrays (P/N 900335 and 900336) and Yeast Genome S98
Arrays (P/N 900256 and 900285), the 3’ AFFX-r2-Bs probe sets are not available. Note
that the data shown here may not be representative of those obtained using the
previous generation AFFX-(Spike-in transcript name) X probe sets on the GeneChip
arrays listed above.
1. Users who do not purchase this Kit may be required to obtain a license under U.S. Patent Nos. 5,716,785, 5,891,636,
6,291,170, and 5,545,522 or to purchase another licensed kit.
2.1.13
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Figure 2.1.3
Poly-A RNA spikes amplified using a complex human Jurkat total RNA sample.
Evaluation was performed using Affymetrix® Microarray Suite (MAS) 5.0 software.
The Poly-A RNA Control Stock and Poly-A Control Dil Buffer are provided with the kit
to prepare the appropriate serial dilutions based on Table 2.1.2. This is a guideline when 1,
5, or 10 µg of total RNA or 0.2 µg of mRNA is used as starting material. For starting sample
amounts other than those listed here, calculations are needed in order to perform the
appropriate dilutions to arrive at the same proportionate final concentration of the spike-in
controls in the samples.
Use non-stick RNase-free microfuge tubes to prepare all of the dilutions.
Table 2.1.2
Serial Dilutions of Poly-A RNA Control Stock
Starting Amount
Total RNA
Spike-in Volume
First
Second
Third
1 µg
1:20
1:50
1:50
2 µL
5 µg
1:20
1:50
1:10
2 µL
1:20
1:50
1:5
2 µL
10 µg
mRNA
Serial Dilutions
0.2 µg
Avoid pipetting solutions less than 2 µL in volume to maintain precision and
consistency when preparing the dilutions.
For example, to prepare the poly-A RNA dilutions for 5 µg of total RNA:
2.1.14
1.
Add 2 µL of the Poly-A Control Stock to 38 µL of Poly-A Control Dil Buffer for the
First Dilution (1:20).
2.
Mix thoroughly and spin down to collect the liquid at the bottom of the tube.
3.
Add 2 µL of the First Dilution to 98 µL of Poly-A Control Dil Buffer to prepare the
Second Dilution (1:50).
4.
Mix thoroughly and spin down to collect the liquid at the bottom of the tube.
5.
Add 2 µL of the Second Dilution to 18 µL of Poly-A Control Dil Buffer to prepare the
Third Dilution (1:10).
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
6.
Mix thoroughly and spin down to collect the liquid at the bottom of the tube.
7.
Add 2 µL of this Third Dilution to 5 µg of sample total RNA.
Eukaryotic
The First Dilution of the poly-A RNA controls can be stored up to six weeks in a nonfrost-free freezer at -20°C and frozen-thawed up to eight times.
2.1.15
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Step 2: First-Strand cDNA Synthesis
One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis Kit is used for this step.
1. Briefly spin down all tubes in the Kit before using the reagents.
2. Perform all of the incubations in thermal cyclers. The following program can be
used as a reference to perform the first-strand cDNA synthesis reaction in a thermal
cycler; the 4°C holds are for reagent addition steps:
70°C
4°C
42°C
42°C
4°C
1.
10 minutes
hold
2 minutes
1 hour
hold
Mix RNA sample, diluted poly-A RNA controls, and T7-Oligo(dT) Primer.
Table 2.1.3
RNA/T7-Oligo(dT) Primer Mix Preparation for 1 to 8 µg of total RNA, or 0.2 to 1 µg of mRNA
Component
Sample RNA
Volume
variable
Diluted poly-A RNA controls
2 µL
T7-Oligo(dT) Primer, 50 µM
2 µL
RNase-free Water
Total Volume
variable
12 µL
Table 2.1.4
RNA/T7-Oligo(dT) Primer Mix Preparation for 8.1 to 15 µg of total RNA, or > 1 µg of mRNA
Component
Sample RNA
variable
Diluted poly-A RNA controls
2 µL
T7-Oligo(dT) Primer, 50 µM
2 µL
RNase-free Water
Total Volume
variable
11 µL
a.
Place total RNA (1 µg to 15 µg) or mRNA sample (0.2 µg to 2 µg) in a 0.2 mL PCR
tube.
b.
Add 2 µL of the appropriately diluted poly-A RNA controls (See Step 1: Preparation
of Poly-A RNA Controls for One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis (Spike-in Controls) on
page 2.1.13).
c.
2.1.16
Volume
Add 2 µL of 50 µM T7-Oligo(dT) Primer.
d.
Add RNase-free Water to a final volume of 11 or 12 µL (see Table 2.1.3 and
Table 2.1.4).
e.
Gently flick the tube a few times to mix, and then centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect the reaction at the bottom of the tube.
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
f.
Incubate the reaction for 10 minutes at 70°C.
g.
Cool the sample at 4°C for at least 2 minutes.
h.
Centrifuge the tube briefly (~5 seconds) to collect the sample at the bottom of the
tube.
In a separate tube, assemble the First-Strand Master Mix.
a.
Prepare sufficient First-Strand Master Mix for all of the RNA samples. When there
are more than 2 samples, it is prudent to include additional material to compensate
for potential pipetting inaccuracy or solution lost during the process. The following
recipe, in Table 2.1.5, is for a single reaction.
Eukaryotic
2.
Table 2.1.5
Preparation of First-Strand Master Mix
Component
5X
1st
Strand Reaction Mix
Volume
4 µL
DTT, 0.1M
2 µL
dNTP, 10 mM
1 µL
Total Volume
7 µL
b.
Mix well by flicking the tube a few times. Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to collect
the master mix at the bottom of the tube.
3.
Transfer 7 µL of First-Strand Master Mix to each RNA/T7-Oligo(dT) Primer mix for
a final volume of 18 or 19 µL. Mix thoroughly by flicking the tube a few times.
Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to collect the reaction at the bottom of the tube, and
immediately place the tubes at 42°C.
4.
Incubate for 2 minutes at 42°C.
5.
Add the appropriate amount of SuperScript II to each RNA sample for a final volume
of 20 µL.
■
For 1 to 8 µg of total RNA: 1 µL SuperScript II
■
For 8.1 to 15 µg of total RNA: 2 µL SuperScript II
■
For every µg of mRNA add 1 µL SuperScript II.
■
For mRNA quantity less than 1 µg, use 1 µL SuperScript II.
Mix thoroughly by flicking the tube a few times. Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect the reaction at the bottom of the tube, and immediately place the tubes at 42°C.
6.
Incubate for 1 hour at 42°C; then cool the sample for at least 2 minutes at 4°C.
Cooling the samples at 4°C is required before proceeding to the next step. Adding the
Second-Strand Master Mix directly to solutions that are at 42°C will compromise
enzyme activity.
After incubation at 4°C, centrifuge the tube briefly (~5 seconds) to collect the reaction
at the bottom of the tube and immediately proceed to Step 3: Second-Strand cDNA
Synthesis.
2.1.17
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Step 3: Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis
One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis Kit is used for this step.
The following program can be used as a reference to perform the second-strand
cDNA synthesis reaction in a thermal cycler.
16°C
4°C
16°C
4°C
1.
2 hours
hold
5 minutes
hold
In a separate tube, assemble Second-Strand Master Mix.
It is recommended to prepare Second-Strand Master Mix immediately before use.
a.
Prepare sufficient Second-Strand Master Mix for all of the samples. When there are
more than 2 samples, it is prudent to include additional material to compensate for
potential pipetting inaccuracy or solution lost during the process. The following
recipe, in Table 2.1.6, is for a single reaction.
Table 2.1.6
Preparation of Second-Strand Master Mix
Component
RNase-free Water
91 µL
5X 2nd Strand Reaction Mix
30 µL
dNTP, 10 mM
3 µL
E. coli DNA ligase
1 µL
E. coli DNA Polymerase I
4 µL
RNase H
1 µL
Total Volume
b.
2.1.18
Volume
130 µL
Mix well by gently flicking the tube a few times. Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect the solution at the bottom of the tube.
2.
Add 130 µL of Second-Strand Master Mix to each first-strand synthesis sample from
Step 2: First-Strand cDNA Synthesis for a total volume of 150 µL.
Gently flick the tube a few times to mix, and then centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect the reaction at the bottom of the tube.
3.
Incubate for 2 hours at 16°C.
4.
Add 2 µL of T4 DNA Polymerase to each sample and incubate for 5 minutes at 16°C.
5.
After incubation with T4 DNA Polymerase add 10 µL of EDTA, 0.5M and proceed to
Cleanup of Double-Stranded cDNA for Both the One-Cycle and Two-Cycle Target
Labeling Assays on page 2.1.32.
Do not leave the reactions at 4°C for long periods of time.
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Two-Cycle cDNA Synthesis2
Step 1: Preparation of Poly-A RNA Controls for Two-Cycle cDNA Synthesis (Spike-in Controls)
Eukaryotic Poly-A RNA Control Kit is used for this step.
Designed specifically to provide exogenous positive controls to monitor the entire
eukaryotic target labeling process, a set of poly-A RNA controls are supplied in the
GeneChip Eukaryotic Poly-A RNA Control Kit.
Eukaryotic
Each eukaryotic GeneChip probe array contains probe sets for several B. subtilis genes that
are absent in eukaryotic samples (lys, phe, thr, and dap). These poly-A RNA controls are
in vitro synthesized, and the polyadenylated transcripts for these B. subtilis genes are premixed at staggered concentrations. The concentrated Poly-A Control Stock can be diluted
with the Poly-A Control Dil Buffer and spiked directly into the RNA samples to achieve
the final concentrations (referred to as a ratio of copy number) summarized below:
Table 2.1.7
Final Concentrations of Poly-A RNA Controls in Samples
Poly-A RNA Spike
Final Concentration
(ratio of copy number)
lys
1:100,000
phe
1:50,000
thr
1:25,000
dap
1:7,500
The controls are then amplified and labeled together with the samples. Examining the
hybridization intensities of these controls on GeneChip arrays helps to monitor the labeling
process independently from the quality of the starting RNA samples. Typical GeneChip
array results from these poly-A Spike-in Controls are shown in Figure 2.1.4.
For Drosophila Genome Arrays (P/N 900335 and 900336) and Yeast Genome S98
Arrays (P/N 900256 and 900285), the 3’ AFFX-r2-Bs probe sets are not available. Note
that the data shown here may not be representative of those obtained using the
previous generation AFFX-(Spike-in transcript name) X probe sets on the GeneChip
arrays listed above.
2. Users who do not purchase this Kit may be required to obtain a license under U.S. Patent Nos. 5,716,785, 5,891,636,
6,291,170, and 5,545,522 or to purchase another licensed kit.
2.1.19
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Signal Intensity
1200
800
400
0
1:50,000
1:16,667
1:25,000
1:10,000
1:12,500
1:7,142
1:8,333
Relative Ratio
Figure 2.1.4
Poly-A RNA spikes amplified using a complex human Jurkat total RNA sample.
Evaluation was performed using MAS 5.0 software.
The Poly-A RNA Control Stock and Poly-A Control Dil Buffer are provided with the kit
to prepare the appropriate serial dilutions based on Table 2.1.8. This is a guideline when 10,
50, or 100 ng of total RNA is used as starting material. For other intermediate starting
sample amounts, calculations are needed in order to perform the appropriate dilutions to
arrive at the same proportionate final concentration of the spike-in controls in the samples.
■
■
The dilution scheme outlined below is different from the previous protocol developed
for the Small Sample Target Labeling vII. Closely adhere to the recommendation below
to obtain the desired final concentrations of the controls.
Use non-stick RNase-free microfuge tubes to prepare the dilutions.
Table 2.1.8
Serial Dilutions of Poly-A RNA Control Stock
Starting
Amount of
Total RNA
Serial Dilutions
First
Second
Third
Fourth
Volume to Add
into 50 µM T7Oligo(dT) Primer
10 ng
1:20
1:50
1:50
1:10
2 µL
50 ng
1:20
1:50
1:50
1:2
2 µL
100 ng
1:20
1:50
1:50
2 µL
Avoid pipetting solutions less than 2 µL in volume to maintain precision and
consistency when preparing the dilutions.
For example, to prepare the poly-A RNA dilutions for 10 ng of total RNA:
2.1.20
1.
Add 2 µL of the Poly-A Control Stock to 38 µL of Poly-A Control Dil Buffer to
prepare the First Dilution (1:20).
2.
Mix thoroughly and spin down to collect the liquid at the bottom of the tube.
3.
Add 2 µL of the First Dilution to 98 µL of Poly-A Control Dil Buffer to prepare the
Second Dilution (1:50).
4.
Mix thoroughly and spin down to collect the liquid at the bottom of the tube.
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
5.
Add 2 µL of the Second Dilution to 98 µL of Poly-A Control Dil Buffer to prepare the
Third Dilution (1:50).
6.
Mix thoroughly and spin down to collect the liquid at the bottom of the tube.
7.
Add 2 µL of the Third Dilution to 18 µL of Poly-A Control Dil Buffer to prepare the
Fourth Dilution (1:10).
8.
Use the Fourth Dilution to prepare the solution described next.
Eukaryotic
The first dilution of the poly-A RNA controls (1:20) can be stored in a non-frost-free
freezer at -20°C up to six weeks and frozen-thawed up to eight times.
Preparation of T7-Oligo(dT) Primer/Poly-A Controls Mix
Prepare a fresh dilution of the T7-Oligo(dT) Primer from 50 µM to 5 µM. The diluted
poly-A RNA controls should be added to the concentrated T7-Oligo(dT) Primer as
follows, using a non-stick RNase-free microfuge tube. The following recipe is sufficient for
10 samples.
Table 2.1.9
Preparation of T7-Oligo(dT) Primer/Poly-A Controls Mix
Component
Volume
T7-Oligo(dT) Primer, 50 µM
2 µL
Diluted Poly-A RNA controls (See Table 2.1.8)
2 µL
RNase-free Water
16 µL
Total Volume
20 µL
2.1.21
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Step 2: First-Cycle, First-Strand cDNA Synthesis
Two-Cycle cDNA Synthesis Kit is used for this step.
1. Briefly spin down all tubes in the Kit before using the reagents.
2. Perform all of the incubations in thermal cyclers. The following program can be
used as a reference to perform the First-Cycle, First-Strand cDNA synthesis reaction
in a thermal cycler; the 4°C holds are for reagent addition steps:
70°C
4°C
42°C
70°C
4°C
1.
6 minutes
hold
1 hour
10 minutes
hold
Mix total RNA sample and the T7-Oligo(dT) Primer/Poly-A Controls Mix.
Table 2.1.10
Preparation of Total RNA Sample/T7-Oligo(dT) Primer/Poly-A Controls Mix
Component
Total RNA sample
T7-Oligo(dT) Primer/Poly-A Controls Mix
RNase-free Water
Total Volume
2.
variable (10 – 100 ng)
2 µL
variable
5 µL
a.
Place total RNA sample (10 to 100 ng) in a 0.2 mL PCR tube.
b.
Add 2 µL of the T7-Oligo(dT) Primer/Poly-A Controls Mix (See Step 1: Preparation
of Poly-A RNA Controls for Two-Cycle cDNA Synthesis (Spike-in Controls) on
page 2.1.19).
c.
Add RNase-free Water to a final volume of 5 µL.
d.
Gently flick the tube a few times to mix, then centrifuge the tubes briefly
(~5 seconds) to collect the solution at the bottom of the tube.
e.
Incubate for 6 minutes at 70°C.
f.
Cool the sample at 4°C for at least 2 minutes. Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect the sample at the bottom of the tube.
In a separate tube, assemble the First-Cycle, First-Strand Master Mix.
a.
2.1.22
Volume
Prepare sufficient First-Cycle, First-Strand Master Mix for all of the total RNA
samples. When there are more than 2 samples, it is prudent to include additional
material to compensate for potential pipetting inaccuracy or solution lost during the
process. The following recipe, in Table 2.1.11, is for a single reaction.
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Table 2.1.11
Preparation of First-Cycle, First-Strand Master Mix
Volume
5X 1st Strand Reaction Mix
2.0 µL
DTT, 0.1M
1.0 µL
RNase Inhibitor
0.5 µL
dNTP, 10 mM
0.5 µL
SuperScript II
1.0 µL
Total Volume
5.0 µL
b.
Eukaryotic
Component
Mix well by gently flicking the tube a few times. Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect the solution at the bottom of the tube.
3.
Transfer 5 µL of First-Cycle, First-Strand Master Mix to each total RNA sample/
T7-Oligo(dT) Primer/Poly-A Controls Mix (as in Table 2.1.10) from the previous step
for a final volume of 10 µL.
Mix thoroughly by gently flicking the tube a few times. Centrifuge briefly
(~5 seconds) to collect the reaction at the bottom of the tube, and immediately
place the tubes at 42°C.
4.
Incubate for 1 hour at 42°C.
5.
Heat the sample at 70°C for 10 minutes to inactivate the RT enzyme, then cool the
sample for at least 2 minutes at 4°C.
After the 2 minute incubation at 4°C, centrifuge the tube briefly (~5 seconds) to collect
the reaction at the bottom of the tube and immediately proceed to Step 3: First-Cycle,
Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis on page 2.1.24.
Cooling the sample at 4°C is required before proceeding to the next step. Adding the
First-Cycle, Second-Strand Master Mix directly to solutions that are at 70°C will
compromise enzyme activity.
2.1.23
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Step 3: First-Cycle, Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis
Two-Cycle cDNA Synthesis Kit is used for this step.
The following program can be used as a reference to perform the First-cycle, Secondstrand cDNA synthesis reaction in a thermal cycler. For the 16°C incubation, turn the
heated lid function off. If the heated lid function cannot be turned off, leave the lid
open. Use the heated lid for the 75°C incubation.
16°C
75°C
4°C
1.
2 hours
10 minutes
hold
In a separate tube, assemble the First-Cycle, Second-Strand Master Mix.
It is recommended to prepare this First-Cycle, Second-Strand Master Mix
immediately before use. Prepare this First-Cycle, Second-Strand Master Mix for at
least 4 reactions at one time for easier and more accurate pipetting.
a.
Prepare sufficient First-Cycle, Second-Strand Master Mix for all samples. When
there are more than 2 samples, it is prudent to include additional material to
compensate for potential pipetting inaccuracy or solution lost during the process. The
following recipe, in Table 2.1.12, is for a single reaction.
Table 2.1.12
Preparation of First-Cycle, Second-Strand Master Mix
Component
Volume
RNase-free Water
4.8 µL
Freshly diluted MgCl2, 17.5 mM*
4.0 µL
dNTP, 10 mM
0.4 µL
E.coli DNA Polymerase I
0.6 µL
RNase H
0.2 µL
Total Volume
10.0 µL
* Make a fresh dilution of the MgCl2 each time. Mix 2 µL of MgCl2, 1M with
112 µL of RNase-free Water.
b.
Mix well by gently flicking the tube a few times. Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect the solution at the bottom of the tube.
2.
Add 10 µL of the First-Cycle, Second-Strand Master Mix to each sample from
Step 2: First-Cycle, First-Strand cDNA Synthesis reaction for a total volume of 20 µL.
Gently flick the tube a few times to mix, and then centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect the reaction at the bottom of the tube.
3.
Incubate for 2 hours at 16°C, then 10 minutes at 75°C and cool the sample at least
2 minutes at 4°C. Turn the heated lid function off only for the 16°C incubation.
After the 2 minute incubation at 4°C, centrifuge the tube briefly (~5 seconds) to collect
the reaction at the bottom of the tube. Proceed to Step 4: First-Cycle, IVT Amplification
of cRNA on page 2.1.25.
No cDNA cleanup is required at this step.
2.1.24
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Step 4: First-Cycle, IVT Amplification of cRNA
MEGAscript® T7 Kit (Ambion, Inc.) is used for this step.
The following program can be used as a reference to perform the First-cycle, IVT
Amplification of cRNA reaction in a thermal cycler.
37°C
4°C
In a separate tube, assemble the First-Cycle, IVT Master Mix at room temperature.
a.
Prepare sufficient First-Cycle, IVT Master Mix for all of the samples. When there
are more than 2 samples, it is prudent to include additional material to compensate
for potential pipetting inaccuracy or solution lost during the process. The following
recipe, in Table 2.1.13, is for a single reaction.
Eukaryotic
1.
16 hours
hold
Table 2.1.13
Preparation of First-Cycle, IVT Master Mix
Component
Volume
10X Reaction Buffer
5 µL
ATP Solution
5 µL
CTP Solution
5 µL
UTP Solution
5 µL
GTP Solution
5 µL
Enzyme Mix
5 µL
Total Volume
b.
30 µL
Mix well by gently flicking the tube a few times. Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect the solution at the bottom of the tube.
2.
Transfer 30 µL of First-Cycle, IVT Master Mix to each cDNA sample.
At room temperature, add 30 µL of the First-Cycle, IVT Master Mix to each 20 µL of
cDNA sample from Step 3: First-Cycle, Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis on page 2.1.24
for a final volume of 50 µL.
Gently flick the tube a few times to mix, then centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to collect
the reaction at the bottom of the tube.
3.
Incubate for 16 hours at 37°C.
After the 16 hour incubation at 37°C, centrifuge the tube briefly (~5 seconds) to collect
the reaction at the bottom of the tube.
The sample is now ready to be purified in Step 5: First-Cycle, Cleanup of cRNA on
page 2.1.26. Alternatively, samples may be stored at -20°C for later use.
2.1.25
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Step 5: First-Cycle, Cleanup of cRNA
Sample Cleanup Module is used for this step.
Reagents to be Supplied by User
■
■
Ethanol, 96-100% (v/v)
Ethanol, 80% (v/v)
All other components needed for cleanup of cRNA are supplied with the GeneChip Sample
Cleanup Module.
BEFORE STARTING please note:
■
■
■
IVT cRNA Wash Buffer is supplied as a concentrate. Before using for the first time, add
20 mL of ethanol (96-100%), as indicated on the bottle, to obtain a working solution,
and checkmark the box on the left-hand side of the bottle label to avoid confusion.
IVT cRNA Binding Buffer may form a precipitate upon storage. If necessary, redissolve
by warming in a water bath at 30°C, and then place the buffer at room temperature.
All steps of the protocol should be performed at room temperature. During the
procedure, work without interruption.
1.
Add 50 µL of RNase-free Water to the IVT reaction and mix by vortexing for
3 seconds.
2.
Add 350 µL IVT cRNA Binding Buffer to the sample and mix by vortexing for
3 seconds.
3.
Add 250 µL ethanol (96-100%) to the lysate, and mix well by pipetting.
Do not centrifuge.
4.
Apply sample (700 µL) to the IVT cRNA Cleanup Spin Column sitting in a 2 mL
Collection Tube. Centrifuge for 15 seconds at ≥ 8,000 x g (≥ 10,000 rpm). Discard
flow-through and Collection Tube.
5.
Transfer the spin column into a new 2 mL Collection Tube (supplied).
Pipet 500 µL IVT cRNA Wash Buffer onto the spin column. Centrifuge for
15 seconds at ≥ 8,000 x g (≥ 10,000 rpm) to wash. Discard flow-through.
IVT cRNA Wash Buffer is supplied as a concentrate. Ensure that ethanol is added to
the IVT cRNA Wash Buffer before use (see IMPORTANT note above before starting).
6.
Pipet 500 µL 80% (v/v) ethanol onto the spin column and centrifuge for 15 seconds at
≥ 8,000 x g (≥ 10,000 rpm). Discard flow-through.
7.
Open the cap of the spin column and centrifuge for 5 minutes at maximum speed
(≤ 25,000 x g). Discard flow-through and Collection Tube.
Place columns into the centrifuge using every second bucket. Position caps over the
adjoining bucket so that they are oriented in the opposite direction to the rotation
(i.e., if the microcentrifuge rotates in a clockwise direction, orient the caps in a
counterclockwise direction). This avoids damage of the caps.
Label the collection tubes with the sample name. During centrifugation some column
caps may break, resulting in loss of sample information.
Centrifugation with open caps allows complete drying of the membrane.
2.1.26
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
8.
Transfer spin column into a new 1.5 mL Collection Tube (supplied), and pipet
13 µL of RNase-free Water directly onto the spin column membrane. Ensure that
the water is dispensed directly onto the membrane. Centrifuge 1 minute at maximum
speed (≤ 25,000 x g) to elute. The average volume of eluate is 11 µL from 13 µL
RNase-free Water.
9.
To determine cRNA yield for samples starting with 50 ng or higher, remove 2 µL of the
cRNA, and add 78 µL of water to measure the absorbance at 260 nm. Use 600 ng of
cRNA in the following Step 6: Second-Cycle, First-Strand cDNA Synthesis Reaction.
For starting material less than 50 ng, or if the yield is less than 600 ng, use the entire
eluate for the Second-Cycle, First-Strand cDNA Synthesis Reaction.
Samples can be stored at -20°C for later use, or proceed to Step 6: Second-Cycle, FirstStrand cDNA Synthesis described next.
Eukaryotic
CH A PT E R 1
2.1.27
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Step 6: Second-Cycle, First-Strand cDNA Synthesis
Two-Cycle cDNA Synthesis Kit is used for this step.
The following program can be used as a reference to perform the Second-Cycle,
First-Strand cDNA synthesis reaction in a thermal cycler; the 4°C holds are for
reagent addition steps:
70°C
4°C
42°C
4°C
37°C
95°C
4°C
1.
2.
10 minutes
hold
1 hour
hold
20 minutes
5 minutes
hold
Mix cRNA and diluted random primers.
a.
Make a fresh dilution of the Random Primers (final concentration 0.2 µg/µL).
Mix 2 µL of Random Primers, 3 µg/µL, with 28 µL RNase-free Water.
b.
Add 2 µL of diluted random primers to purified cRNA from Step 5: First-Cycle,
Cleanup of cRNA, substep 9 on page 2.1.27 and add RNase-free Water for a final
volume of 11 µL.
c.
Incubate for 10 minutes at 70°C.
d.
Cool the sample at 4°C for at least 2 minutes. Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect the sample at the bottom of the tube.
In a separate tube, assemble the Second-Cycle, First-Strand Master Mix.
a.
Prepare sufficient Second-Cycle, First-Strand Master Mix for all of the samples.
When there are more than two samples, it is prudent to include additional material to
compensate for potential pipetting inaccuracy or solution lost during the process. The
following recipe, in Table 2.1.14, is for a single reaction.
Table 2.1.14
Preparation of Second-Cycle, First-Strand Master Mix
Component
5X 1st Strand Reaction Mix
4 µL
DTT, 0.1M
2 µL
RNase Inhibitor
1 µL
dNTP, 10 mM
1 µL
SuperScript II
1 µL
Total Volume
9 µL
b.
2.1.28
Volume
Mix well by gently flicking the tube a few times. Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect the solution at the bottom of the tube.
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
3.
Transfer 9 µL of Second-Cycle, First-Strand Master Mix to each cRNA/random
primer sample from Step 6: Second-Cycle, First-Strand cDNA Synthesis on
page 2.1.28, substep 1, for a final volume of 20 µL.
Mix thoroughly by gently flicking the tube a few times. Centrifuge briefly
(~5 seconds) to collect the reaction at the bottom of the tube and place the tubes at
42°C immediately.
4.
Incubate for 1 hour at 42°C, then cool the sample for at least 2 minutes at 4°C.
After the incubation at 4°C, centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to collect the reaction at the
bottom of the tube.
5.
Add 1 µL of RNase H to each sample for a final volume of 21 µL.
Mix thoroughly by gently flicking the tube a few times. Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds)
to collect the reaction at the bottom of the tube and incubate for 20 minutes at 37°C.
6.
Heat the sample at 95°C for 5 minutes. Cool the sample for at least 2 minutes at 4°C;
then, proceed directly to Step 7: Second-Cycle, Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis on
page 2.1.30.
Eukaryotic
CH A PT E R 1
2.1.29
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Step 7: Second-Cycle, Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis
Two-Cycle cDNA Synthesis Kit is used for this step.
The following program can be used as a reference to perform the Second-Cycle,
Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis reaction in a thermal cycler. For the 16°C incubations
turn the heated lid function off. If the heated lid function cannot be turned off, leave
the lid open. The 4°C holds are for reagent addition steps:
70°C
4°C
16°C
4°C
16°C
4°C
1.
6 minutes
hold
2 hours
hold
10 minutes
hold
Add 4 µL of diluted T7-Oligo(dT) Primer to each sample.
a.
Make a fresh dilution of the T7-Oligo(dT) Primer (final concentration 5 µM).
Mix 2 µL of T7-Oligo(dT) Primer, 50 µM, with 18 µL of RNase-free Water.
b.
Add 4 µL of diluted T7-Oligo(dT) Primer to the sample from Step 6: Second-Cycle,
First-Strand cDNA Synthesis, substep 6 on page 2.1.29 for a final volume of 25 µL.
c.
Gently flick the tube a few times to mix, and then centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect the reaction at the bottom of the tube.
d.
Incubate for 6 minutes at 70°C.
e.
Cool the sample at 4°C for at least 2 minutes. Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect sample at the bottom of the tube.
Cooling the samples at 4°C is required before proceeding to the next step. Adding the
Second-Strand Master Mix directly to solutions that are at 70°C will compromise
enzyme activity.
It is recommended to prepare the Second-Cycle, Second-Strand Master Mix
immediately before use.
2.
In a separate tube, assemble the Second-Cycle, Second-Strand Master Mix.
a.
2.1.30
Prepare sufficient Second-Cycle, Second-Strand Master Mix for all of the samples.
When there are more than two samples, it is prudent to include additional material to
compensate for potential pipetting inaccuracy or solution lost during the process. The
following recipe, in Table 2.1.15, is for a single reaction.
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Table 2.1.15
Preparation of Second-Cycle, Second-Strand Master Mix
Volume
RNase-free Water
88 µL
5X 2nd Strand Reaction Mix
30 µL
dNTP, 10 mM
3 µL
E.coli DNA Polymerase I
4 µL
Total Volume
b.
125 µL
Eukaryotic
Component
Mix well by gently flicking the tube a few times. Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to
collect the master mix at the bottom of the tube.
3.
Add 125 µL of the Second-Cycle, Second-Strand Master Mix to each sample from
Step 7: Second-Cycle, Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis, substep 1, for a total volume of
150 µL.
Gently flick the tube a few times to mix, then centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to collect
the reaction at the bottom of tube.
4.
Incubate for 2 hours at 16°C.
5.
Add 2 µL of T4 DNA Polymerase to the samples for a final volume of 152 µL. Gently
flick the tube a few times to mix, and then centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to collect the
reaction at the bottom of the tube.
6.
Incubate for 10 minutes at 16°C, then cool the sample at 4°C for at least 2 minutes.
Centrifuge briefly (~5 seconds) to collect sample at the bottom of the tube.
After the incubation at 4°C, centrifuge the tube briefly (~5 seconds) to collect the
reaction at the bottom of the tube. Proceed to Cleanup of Double-Stranded cDNA for
Both the One-Cycle and Two-Cycle Target Labeling Assays on page 2.1.32.
Alternatively, immediately freeze the sample at –20°C for later use. Do not leave the
reaction at 4°C for long periods of time.
2.1.31
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Cleanup of Double-Stranded cDNA for
Both the One-Cycle and Two-Cycle
Target Labeling Assays
Sample Cleanup Module is used for cleaning up the double-stranded cDNA.
Reagents to be Supplied by User
■
Ethanol, 96-100% (v/v)
All other components needed for cleanup of double-stranded cDNA are supplied with the
GeneChip Sample Cleanup Module.
BEFORE STARTING, please note:
■
■
■
cDNA Wash Buffer is supplied as a concentrate. Before using for the first time, add
24 mL of ethanol (96-100%), as indicated on the bottle, to obtain a working solution,
and checkmark the box on the left-hand side of the bottle label to avoid confusion.
All steps of the protocol should be performed at room temperature. During the
procedure, work without interruption.
If cDNA synthesis was performed in a reaction tube smaller than 1.5 mL, transfer the
reaction mixture into a 1.5 or 2 mL microfuge tube (not supplied) prior to addition of
cDNA Binding Buffer.
1.
Add 600 µL of cDNA Binding Buffer to the double-stranded cDNA synthesis
preparation. Mix by vortexing for 3 seconds.
2.
Check that the color of the mixture is yellow (similar to cDNA Binding Buffer without
the cDNA synthesis reaction).
If the color of the mixture is orange or violet, add 10 µL of 3M sodium acetate, pH 5.0,
and mix. The color of the mixture will turn to yellow.
3.
Apply 500 µL of the sample to the cDNA Cleanup Spin Column sitting in a 2 mL
Collection Tube (supplied), and centrifuge for 1 minute at ≥ 8,000 x g (≥ 10,000 rpm).
Discard flow-through.
4.
Reload the spin column with the remaining mixture and centrifuge as above.
Discard flow-through and Collection Tube.
5.
Transfer spin column into a new 2 mL Collection Tube (supplied).
Pipet 750 µL of the cDNA Wash Buffer onto the spin column. Centrifuge
for 1 minute at ≥ 8,000 x g (≥ 10,000 rpm). Discard flow-through.
cDNA Wash Buffer is supplied as a concentrate. Ensure that ethanol is added to the
cDNA Wash Buffer before use (see IMPORTANT note above before starting).
6.
Open the cap of the spin column and centrifuge for 5 minutes at maximum speed
(≤ 25,000 x g). Discard flow-through and Collection Tube.
Label the collection tubes with the sample name. During centrifugation some column
caps may break, resulting in loss of sample information.
Place columns into the centrifuge using every second bucket. Position caps over the
adjoining bucket so that they are oriented in the opposite direction to the rotation
2.1.32
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
(i.e., if the microcentrifuge rotates in a clockwise direction, orient the caps in a
counterclockwise direction). This avoids damage of the caps.
Centrifugation with open caps allows complete drying of the membrane.
7.
Transfer spin column into a 1.5 mL Collection Tube, and pipet 14 µL of cDNA Elution
Buffer directly onto the spin column membrane. Incubate for 1 minute at room
temperature and centrifuge 1 minute at maximum speed (≤ 25,000 x g) to elute.
Ensure that the cDNA Elution Buffer is dispensed directly onto the membrane. The
average volume of eluate is 12 µL from 14 µL Elution Buffer.
Eukaryotic
We do not recommend RNase treatment of the cDNA prior to the in vitro
transcription and labeling reaction; the carry-over ribosomal RNA does not seem to
inhibit the reaction.
We do not recommend gel analysis for cDNA prepared from total RNA.
Quantifying the amount of double-stranded cDNA by absorbance at 260 nm is not
recommended. The primer can contribute significantly to the absorbance, and
subtracting the theoretical contribution of the primer based on the amount added is
not practical.
8.
After cleanup, please proceed to Synthesis of Biotin-Labeled cRNA for Both the OneCycle and Two-Cycle Target Labeling Assays on page 2.1.34.
2.1.33
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Synthesis of Biotin-Labeled cRNA for
Both the One-Cycle and Two-Cycle
Target Labeling Assays
GeneChip IVT Labeling Kit is used.
This kit is only used for the IVT labeling step for generating biotin-labeled cRNA. For
the IVT amplification step using unlabeled ribonucleotides in the First Cycle of the
Two-Cycle cDNA Synthesis Procedure, a separate kit is recommended (MEGAscript®
T7 Kit, Ambion, Inc.). Use only nuclease-free water, buffers, and pipette tips.
Store all reagents in a -20°C freezer that is not self-defrosting. Prior to use, centrifuge
all reagents briefly to ensure that the solution is collected at the bottom of the tube.
The Target Hybridizations and Array Washing protocols have been optimized
specifically for this IVT Labeling Protocol. Closely follow the recommendations
described below for maximum array performance.
1.
Use the following table to determine the amount of cDNA used for each IVT reaction
following the cDNA cleanup step.
Table 2.1.16
IVT Reaction Set Up
Starting Material
Volume of cDNA to use in IVT
Total RNA
10 to 100 ng
all (~12 µL)
1.0 to 8.0 µg
all (~12 µL)
8.1 to 15 µg
6 µL
mRNA
0.2 to 0.5 µg
all (~12 µL)
0.6 to 1.0 µg
9 µL
1 to 2.0 µg
6 µL
2.
2.1.34
Transfer the needed amount of template cDNA to RNase-free microfuge tubes and add
the following reaction components in the order indicated in the table below. If more
than one IVT reaction is to be performed, a master mix can be prepared by multiplying
the reagent volumes by the number of reactions. Do not assemble the reaction on ice,
since spermidine in the 10X IVT Labeling Buffer can lead to precipitation of the
template cDNA.
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Table 2.1.17
IVT Reaction
Volume
Template cDNA*
variable (see table above)
RNase-free Water
variable
(to give a final reaction volume of 40 µL)
10X IVT Labeling Buffer
4 µL
IVT Labeling NTP Mix
12 µL
IVT Labeling Enzyme Mix
4 µL
Total Volume
Eukaryotic
Reagent
40 µL
*0.5 to 1 µg of the 3’-Labeling Control can be used in place of the
template cDNA sample in this reaction as a positive control for the
IVT components in the kit.
3.
Carefully mix the reagents and collect the mixture at the bottom of the tube by brief
(~5 seconds) microcentrifugation.
4.
Incubate at 37°C for 16 hours. To prevent condensation that may result from water
bath-style incubators, incubations are best performed in oven incubators for even
temperature distribution, or in a thermal cycler.
Overnight IVT reaction time has been shown to maximize the labeled cRNA yield
with high-quality array results. Alternatively, if a shorter incubation time (4 hours) is
desired, 1 µL (200 units) of cloned T7 RNA polymerase (can be purchased directly
from Ambion, P/N 2085) can be added to each reaction and has been shown to
produce adequate labeled cRNA yield within 4 hours. The two different incubation
protocols generate comparable array results, and users are encouraged to choose
the procedure that best fits their experimental schedule and process flow.
5.
Store labeled cRNA at -20°C, or -70°C if not purifying immediately. Alternatively,
proceed to Cleanup and Quantification of Biotin-Labeled cRNA on page 2.1.36.
2.1.35
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Cleanup and Quantification of
Biotin-Labeled cRNA
Sample Cleanup Module is used for cleaning up the Biotin Labeled cRNA.
Reagents to be Supplied by User
■
■
Ethanol, 96-100% (v/v)
Ethanol, 80% (v/v)
All other components needed for cleanup of biotin-labeled cRNA are supplied with the
GeneChip Sample Cleanup Module.
Step 1: Cleanup of Biotin-Labeled cRNA
BEFORE STARTING please note:
■
■
■
■
■
■
It is essential to remove unincorporated NTPs, so that the concentration and purity of
cRNA can be accurately determined by 260 nm absorbance.
DO NOT extract biotin-labeled RNA with phenol-chloroform. The biotin will cause some
of the RNA to partition into the organic phase. This will result in low yields.
Save an aliquot of the unpurified IVT product for analysis by gel electrophoresis.
IVT cRNA Wash Buffer is supplied as a concentrate. Before using for the first time, add
20 mL of ethanol (96-100%), as indicated on the bottle, to obtain a working solution,
and checkmark the box on the left-hand side of the bottle label to avoid confusion.
IVT cRNA Binding Buffer may form a precipitate upon storage. If necessary, redissolve
by warming in a water bath at 30°C, and then place the buffer at room temperature.
All steps of the protocol should be performed at room temperature. During the
procedure, work without interruption.
1.
Add 60 µL of RNase-free Water to the IVT reaction and mix by vortexing for
3 seconds.
2.
Add 350 µL IVT cRNA Binding Buffer to the sample and mix by vortexing for
3 seconds.
3.
Add 250 µL ethanol (96-100%) to the lysate, and mix well by pipetting.
Do not centrifuge.
4.
Apply sample (700 µL) to the IVT cRNA Cleanup Spin Column sitting in a 2 mL
Collection Tube. Centrifuge for 15 seconds at ≥ 8,000 x g (≥ 10,000 rpm). Discard
flow-through and Collection Tube.
5.
Transfer the spin column into a new 2 mL Collection Tube (supplied).
Pipet 500 µL IVT cRNA Wash Buffer onto the spin column. Centrifuge for
15 seconds at ≥ 8,000 x g (≥ 10,000 rpm) to wash. Discard flow-through.
IVT cRNA Wash Buffer is supplied as a concentrate. Ensure that ethanol is added to
the IVT cRNA Wash Buffer before use (see IMPORTANT note above before starting).
2.1.36
6.
Pipet 500 µL 80% (v/v) ethanol onto the spin column and centrifuge for 15 seconds
at ≥ 8,000 x g (≥ 10,000 rpm). Discard flow-through.
7.
Open the cap of the spin column and centrifuge for 5 minutes at maximum speed
(≤ 25,000 x g). Discard flow-through and Collection Tube.
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Place columns into the centrifuge using every second bucket. Position caps over the
adjoining bucket so that they are oriented in the opposite direction to the rotation
(i.e., if the microcentrifuge rotates in a clockwise direction, orient the caps in a
counterclockwise direction). This avoids damage of the caps.
Label the collection tubes with the sample name. During centrifugation some column
caps may break, resulting in loss of sample information.
8.
Transfer spin column into a new 1.5 mL Collection Tube (supplied), and pipet
11 µL of RNase-free Water directly onto the spin column membrane. Ensure that
the water is dispensed directly onto the membrane. Centrifuge 1 minute at maximum
speed (≤ 25,000 x g) to elute.
9.
Pipet 10 µL of RNase-free Water directly onto the spin column membrane. Ensure
that the water is dispensed directly onto the membrane. Centrifuge 1 minute at
maximum speed (≤ 25,000 x g) to elute.
For subsequent photometric quantification of the purified cRNA, we recommend
dilution of the eluate between 1:100 fold and 1:200 fold.
Eukaryotic
Centrifugation with open caps allows complete drying of the membrane.
Step 2: Quantification of the cRNA
Use spectrophotometric analysis to determine the cRNA yield. Apply the convention that
1 absorbance unit at 260 nm equals 40 µg/mL RNA.
■
■
Check the absorbance at 260 nm and 280 nm to determine sample concentration and
purity.
Maintain the A260/A280 ratio close to 2.0 for pure RNA (ratios between 1.9 and 2.1 are
acceptable).
For quantification of cRNA when using total RNA as starting material, an adjusted cRNA
yield must be calculated to reflect carryover of unlabeled total RNA. Using an estimate of
100% carryover, use the formula below to determine adjusted cRNA yield:
adjusted cRNA yield = RNAm - (total RNAi) (y)
RNAm = amount of cRNA measured after IVT (µg)
total RNAi = starting amount of total RNA (µg)
y = fraction of cDNA reaction used in IVT
Example: Starting with 10 µg total RNA, 50% of the cDNA reaction is added to the IVT,
giving a yield of 50 µg cRNA. Therefore, adjusted cRNA yield = 50 µg cRNA - (10 µg total
RNA) (0.5 cDNA reaction) = 45.0 µg.
Use adjusted yield in Fragmenting the cRNA for Target Preparation on page 2.1.39.
Please refer to the ‘Eukaryotic Target Hybridization’ chapter in Section 2 for the
amount of cRNA required for one array hybridization experiment. The amount varies
depending on the array format. Please refer to the specific probe array package insert
for information on the array format.
2.1.37
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Step 3: Checking Unfragmented Samples by Gel Electrophoresis
Gel electrophoresis of the IVT product is done to estimate the yield and size distribution of
labeled transcripts. The following are examples of typical cRNA products examined on an
Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer.
Figure 2.1.5
Biotin-labeled cRNA from One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis Kit. Bioanalyzer electropherogram for labeled cRNA from
HeLa total RNA using the One-Cycle Kit. This electropherogram displays the nucleotide size distribution for 400 ng
of labeled cRNA resulting from one round of amplification. The average size is approximately 1580 nt.
Figure 2.1.6
Biotin-labeled cRNA from Two-Cycle cDNA Synthesis Kit. Bioanalyzer electropherogram for labeled cRNA from
HeLa total RNA using the Two-Cycle Kit. This electropherogram displays the nucleotide size distribution for 400 ng
of labeled cRNA resulting from two rounds of amplification. The average size is approximately 850 nt.
2.1.38
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Fragmenting the cRNA
for Target Preparation
Sample Cleanup Module is used for this step.
Fragmentation of cRNA target before hybridization onto GeneChip probe arrays has been
shown to be critical in obtaining optimal assay sensitivity.
1.
Eukaryotic
Affymetrix recommends that the cRNA used in the fragmentation procedure be sufficiently
concentrated to maintain a small volume during the procedure. This will minimize the
amount of magnesium in the final hybridization cocktail. Fragment an appropriate amount
of cRNA for hybridization cocktail and gel analysis (refer to the Eukaryotic Target
Hybridization chapter in Section 2).
The Fragmentation Buffer has been optimized to break down full-length cRNA to 35 to
200 base fragments by metal-induced hydrolysis.
The following table shows suggested fragmentation reaction mix for cRNA samples at
a final concentration of 0.5 µg/µL. Use adjusted cRNA concentration, as described in
Step 2: Quantification of the cRNA on page 2.1.37. The total volume of the reaction
may be scaled up or down dependent on the amount of cRNA to be fragmented.
Table 2.1.18
Sample Fragmentation Reaction by Array Format*
Component
cRNA
5X Fragmentation Buffer
RNase-free Water (variable)
Total Volume
49/64 Format
100 Format
20 µg (1 to 21 µL)
15 µg (1 to 21 µL)
8 µL
6 µL
to 40 µL final volume
to 30 µL final volume
40 µL
30 µL
*Please refer to specific probe array package insert for information on array format.
2.
Incubate at 94°C for 35 minutes. Put on ice following the incubation.
3.
Save an aliquot for analysis on the Bioanalyzer. A typical fragmented target is shown in
Figure 2.1.7.
The standard fragmentation procedure should produce a distribution of RNA fragment
sizes from approximately 35 to 200 bases.
4.
Store undiluted, fragmented sample RNA at -20°C until ready to perform the
hybridization, as described in the Eukaryotic Target Hybridization chapter in Section 2.
2.1.39
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Figure 2.1.7
Fragmented cRNA. Bioanalyzer electropherogram for fragmented labeled cRNA from HeLa total RNA. This
electropherogram displays the nucleotide size distribution for 150 ng of fragmented labeled cRNA resulting from
one round of amplification. The average size is approximately 100 nt.
2.1.40
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Alternative Protocol for One-Cycle
cDNA Synthesis from Total RNA
This protocol is a supplement to instructions provided in the Invitrogen Life Technologies
SuperScript Choice system. Please note the following before proceeding:
■
Read all information and instructions that come with reagents and kits.
Use the GeneChip T7-Oligo(dT) Promoter Primer Kit3 for priming first-strand cDNA
synthesis in place of the oligo(dT) or random primers provided with the SuperScript
Choice kit. The GeneChip T7-Oligo(dT) Promoter Primer Kit provides high-quality HPLCpurified T7-Oligo(dT) Primer, which is essential for this reaction.
Eukaryotic
■
T7-Oligo(dT) Primer
5´ - GGCCAGTGAATTGTAATACGACTCACTATAGGGAGGCGG-(dT)24 - 3´
Step 1: First-Strand cDNA Synthesis
Starting material: High-quality total RNA (5.0 µg - 20.0 µg)
For smaller amounts of starting material, please refer to the alternative protocol for
target labeling described in Small Sample Target Labeling Assay Version II, available
at www.affymetrix.com.
When using the GeneChip Sample Cleanup Module for the cDNA and IVT cRNA
cleanup steps, there is a potential risk of overloading the columns if greater than the
recommended amount of starting material is used.
After purification, the RNA concentration is determined by absorbance at 260 nm on a
spectrophotometer (one absorbance unit = 40 µg/mL RNA). The A260/A280 ratio should be
approximately 2.0, with ranges between 1.9 to 2.1 considered acceptable. We recommend
checking the quality of the RNA by running it on an agarose gel prior to starting the assay.
The rRNA bands should be clear without any obvious smearing patterns from degradation.
Before starting cDNA synthesis, the correct volumes of DEPC-treated H2O and Reverse
Transcriptase (RT) must be determined. These volumes will depend on both the
concentration and total volume of RNA that is being added to the reaction.
Use Table 2.1.19 and Table 2.1.20 for variable component calculations. Determine the
volumes of RNA and SuperScript II RT required in Table 2.1.19, then calculate the
amount of DEPC-treated H2O needed in Step 1 Table 2.1.20 to bring the final FirstStrand Synthesis volume to 20 µL.
3. Users who do not purchase the GeneChip T7-Oligo(dT) Promoter Primer Kit may be required to obtain a license under U.S.
Patent Nos. 5,716,785, 5,891,636, 6,291,170, and 5,545,522 or to purchase another licensed kit.
2.1.41
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
.
Table 2.1.19
Reverse Transcriptase Volumes for First-Strand cDNA Synthesis Reaction
Total RNA (µg)
SuperScript II RT (µL), 200U/µL
5.0 to 8.0
1.0
8.1 to 16.0
2.0
16.1 to 20.0
3.0
The combined volume of RNA, DEPC-treated H2O and SuperScript II RT should not
exceed 11 µL as indicated in Table 2.1.20.
Table 2.1.20
First-Strand cDNA Synthesis Components
Reagents in reaction
Volume
Final Concentration
or Amount in Reaction
1: Primer Hybridization
Incubate at 70°C for 10 minutes
Quick spin and put on ice
DEPC-treated H2O (variable)
T7-Oligo(dT) Primer, 50 µM
RNA (variable)
for final reaction volume of 20 µL
2 µL
5.0 to 20 µg
100 pmol
5.0 to 20 µg
2: Temperature Adjustment
Add to the above tube and mix well
Incubate at 42°C for 2 minutes
5X First-Strand cDNA buffer
0.1 M DTT
10 mM dNTP mix
4 µL
2 µL
1 µL
1X
10 mM DTT
500 µM each
3: First-Strand Synthesis
Add to the above tube and mix well
Incubate at 42 °C for 1 hour
SuperScript II RT (variable)
(200 U/µL)
See Table 2.1.19
200 U to 1000 U
Total Volume
20 µL
The above incubations have been changed from the SuperScript protocols and are
done at 42°C.
2.1.42
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Step 2: Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis
1.
Place First-Strand reactions on ice. Centrifuge briefly to bring down condensation on
sides of tube.
2.
Add to the First-Strand synthesis tube the reagents listed in the following SecondStrand Final Reaction Composition Table (Table 2.1.21).
Table 2.1.21
Second-Strand Final Reaction Composition
Volume
Final Concentration or
Amount in Reaction
DEPC-treated water
91 µL
5X Second-Strand Reaction Buffer
30 µL
1X
10 mM dNTP mix
3 µL
200 µM each
10 U/µL E. coli DNA Ligase
1 µL
10 U
10 U/µL E. coli DNA Polymerase I
4 µL
40 U
2 U/µL E. coli RNase H
1 µL
2U
Final Volume
Eukaryotic
Component
150 µL
3.
Gently tap tube to mix. Then, briefly spin in a microcentrifuge to remove condensation
and incubate at 16°C for 2 hours in a cooling waterbath.
4.
Add 2 µL [10 U] T4 DNA Polymerase.
5.
Return to 16°C for 5 minutes.
6.
Add 10 µL 0.5M EDTA.
7.
Proceed to cleanup procedure for cDNA, Cleanup of Double-Stranded cDNA for Both
the One-Cycle and Two-Cycle Target Labeling Assays on page 2.1.32, or store at -20°C
for later use.
2.1.43
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Alternative Protocol for
One-Cycle cDNA Synthesis
from Purified Poly-A mRNA
This protocol is a supplement to instructions provided in the Invitrogen Life Technologies
SuperScript Choice system. Please note the following before proceeding:
■
■
■
Read all information and instructions that come with reagents and kits.
Use the GeneChip T7-Oligo(dT) Promoter Primer Kit4 for priming first-strand cDNA
synthesis in place of the oligo(dT) or random primers provided with the SuperScript
Choice kit. The GeneChip T7-Oligo(dT) Promoter Primer Kit provides high-quality HPLCpurified T7-Oligo(dT) Primer, which is essential for this reaction.
It is recommended that each step of this protocol is checked by gel electrophoresis.
T7-Oligo(dT) Primer
5´ - GGCCAGTGAATTGTAATACGACTCACTATAGGGAGGCGG-(dT)24 - 3´
Step 1: First-Strand cDNA Synthesis
Starting material: High-quality poly-A mRNA (0.2 µg to 2.0 µg).
When using the GeneChip Sample Cleanup Module for the cDNA and IVT cRNA
cleanup steps, there is a potential risk of overloading the columns if greater than the
recommended amount of starting material is used.
Before starting cDNA synthesis, the correct volumes of DEPC-treated H2O and Reverse
Transcriptase (RT) must be determined. These volumes will depend on both the
concentration and total volume of mRNA that is being added to the reaction. For every µg of
mRNA, you will need to add 1 µL of SuperScript II RT (200 U/µL). For mRNA quantity
≤ 1 µg, use 1 µL of SuperScript II RT. Synthesis reactions should be done in a
polypropylene tube (RNase-free).
Use Table 2.1.22 for variable component calculations. Determine volumes of mRNA
and SuperScript II RT required, and then calculate the amount of DEPC-treated H2O
needed in the Primer Hybridization Mix step to bring the final First-Strand
Synthesis reaction volume to 20 µL.
4. Users who do not purchase the GeneChip T7-Oligo(dT) Promoter Primer Kit may be required to obtain a license under U.S.
Patent Nos. 5,716,785, 5,891,636, 6,291,170, and 5,545,522 or to purchase another licensed kit.
2.1.44
CH A PT E R 1
Eukaryotic Target Preparation
Table 2.1.22
First-Strand cDNA Synthesis Components
Final Concentration
or Amount in
Reaction
Volume
1: Primer Hybridization
Incubate at 70°C for 10 minutes
Quick spin and put on ice
DEPC-treated H2O (variable)
T7-Oligo(dT) Primer, 50 µM
mRNA (variable)
for final reaction volume of 20 µL
2 µL
0.2 to 2 µg
100 pmol
0.2 to 2 µg
2: Temperature Adjustment
Add to the above tube and mix well
Incubate at 37°C for 2 minutes
5X First-Strand cDNA buffer
0.1 M DTT
10 mM dNTP mix
4 µL
2 µL
1 µL
1X
10 mM
500 µM each
3: First-Strand Synthesis
Add to the above tube and mix well
Incubate at 37°C for 1 hour
SuperScript II RT
(variable) (200 U/µL)
1 µL per µg mRNA
200 U to 1000 U
Total Volume
Eukaryotic
Reagents in Reaction
20 µL
Step 2: Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis
1.
Place First-Strand reactions on ice. Centrifuge briefly to bring down condensation on
sides of tube.
2.
Add to the First-Strand synthesis tube the reagents listed in the following SecondStrand Final Reaction Composition Table (Table 2.1.23).
Table 2.1.23
Second-Strand Final Reaction Composition
Component
Volume
Final Concentration or
Amount in Reaction
DEPC-treated water
91 µL
5X Second-Strand Reaction Buffer
30 µL
1X
10 mM dNTP mix
3 µL
200 µM each
10 U/µL E. coli DNA Ligase
1 µL
10 U
10 U/µL E. coli DNA Polymerase I
4 µL
40 U
2 U/µL E. coli RNase H
1 µL
2U
Final Volume
150 µL
3.
Gently tap tube to mix. Then, briefly spin in a microcentrifuge to remove condensation
and incubate at 16°C for 2 hours in a cooling waterbath.
4.
Add 2 µL [10 U] T4 DNA Polymerase.
5.
Return to 16°C for 5 minutes.
6.
Add 10 µL 0.5M EDTA.
7.
Proceed to cleanup procedure for cDNA, Cleanup of Double-Stranded cDNA for Both
the One-Cycle and Two-Cycle Target Labeling Assays on page 2.1.32, or store at -20°C
for later use.
2.1.45
SECTION 2
2.1.46
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Eukaryotic
Section 2, Chapter 2
701027 Rev. 4
Section 2, Chapter 2
Eukaryotic Target Hybridization
Reagents and Materials Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5
Reagent Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.6
Eukaryotic
Eukaryotic Target Hybridization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.7
This Chapter Contains:
■
Detailed steps for preparing the eukaryotic hybridization mix containing labeled target
and control cRNA.
■
Instructions for hybridizing the target mix to a eukaryotic GeneChip® probe array.
After completing the procedures described in this chapter, the hybridized probe array is
ready for washing, staining, and scanning, as detailed in Section 2, Chapter 3.
701027 Rev. 4
2.2.3
SECTION 2
2.2.4
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
CHAPTER 2
Eukaryotic Target Hybridization
Reagents and Materials Required
■
Water, Molecular Biology Grade, BioWhittaker Molecular Applications / Cambrex,
P/N 51200
■
Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) solution (50 mg/mL), Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N
15561-020
■
Herring Sperm DNA, Promega Corporation, P/N D1811
■
GeneChip Eukaryotic Hybridization Control Kit, Affymetrix, P/N 900454 (30 reactions) or
P/N 900457 (150 reactions), contains Control cRNA and Control Oligo B2
■
Control Oligo B2, 3 nM, Affymetrix, P/N 900301 (can be ordered separately)
■
5M NaCl, RNase-free, DNase-free, Ambion, P/N 9760G
■
MES hydrate SigmaUltra, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N M5287
■
MES Sodium Salt, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N M5057
■
EDTA Disodium Salt, 0.5M solution (100 mL), Sigma-Aldrich, P/N E7889
■
DMSO, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N D5879
■
Surfact-Amps 20 (Tween-20), 10%, Pierce Chemical, P/N 28320
Eukaryotic
The following reagents and materials are recommendations and have been tested and
evaluated by Affymetrix scientists. For supplier information in the U.S. and Europe, please
refer to the Supplier and Reagent Reference List, Appendix A, of this manual. Information
and part numbers listed are based on U.S. catalog information. Additional reagents needed
for the complete analysis are listed in the appropriate chapters. Appendix A contains a
master list of all reagents used in this manual.
Miscellaneous Supplies
■
Hybridization Oven 640, Affymetrix, P/N 800138 (110V) or 800139 (220V)
■
Sterile, RNase-free, microcentrifuge vials, 1.5 mL, USA Scientific,
P/N 1415-2600 (or equivalent)
■
Micropipettors, (P-2, P-20, P-200, P-1000), Rainin Pipetman (or equivalent)
■
Sterile-barrier pipette tips and non-barrier pipette tips
■
Heatblock
2.2.5
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Reagent Preparation
12X MES Stock Buffer
(1.22M MES, 0.89M [Na+])
For 1,000 mL:
64.61g of MES hydrate
193.3g of MES Sodium Salt
800 mL of Molecular Biology Grade water
Mix and adjust volume to 1,000 mL.
The pH should be between 6.5 and 6.7. Filter through a 0.2 µm filter.
Do not autoclave. Store at 2°C to 8°C, and shield from light.
Discard solution if yellow.
2X Hybridization Buffer
(Final 1X concentration is 100 mM MES, 1M [Na+], 20 mM EDTA, 0.01% Tween-20)
For 50 mL:
8.3 mL of 12X MES Stock Buffer
17.7 mL of 5M NaCl
4.0 mL of 0.5M EDTA
0.1 mL of 10% Tween-20
19.9 mL of water
Store at 2°C to 8°C, and shield from light
2.2.6
CHAPTER 2
Eukaryotic Target Hybridization
Eukaryotic Target Hybridization
Please refer to the table below for the necessary amount of cRNA required for appropriate
probe array format. These recipes take into account that it is necessary to make extra
hybridization cocktail due to a small loss of volume (10-20 µL) during each hybridization.
Mix the following for each target, scaling up volumes for hybridization to multiple
probe arrays.
1.
Eukaryotic
If using the GeneChip IVT Labeling Kit to prepare the target, a final concentration of
10% DMSO needs to be added in the hybridization cocktail for optimal results.
Table 2.2.1
Hybridization Cocktail for Single Probe Array*
49 Format (Standard) /
64 Format Array
Component
100 Format
(Midi) Array
169 Format (Mini) Array /
400 Format (Micro) Array
Final
Concentration
Fragmented cRNA **
15 µg
10 µg
5 µg
0.05 µg/µL
Control Oligonucleotide B2
(3 nM)
5 µL
3.3 µL
1.7 µL
50 pM
20X Eukaryotic Hybridization
Controls (bioB, bioC, bioD, cre)
15 µL
10 µL
5 µL
1.5, 5, 25, and
100 pM respectively
Herring Sperm DNA
(10 mg/mL)
3 µL
2 µL
1 µL
0.1 mg/mL
BSA
(50 mg/mL)
3 µL
2 µL
1 µL
0.5 mg/mL
150 µL
100 µL
50 µL
1X
10%
2X Hybridization Buffer
DMSO***
H2O
Final volume
30 µL
20 µL
10 µL
to final volume of 300 µL
to final volume
of 200 µL
to final volume of 100 µL
300 µL
200 µL
100 µL
*Please refer to specific probe array package insert for information on array format.
**Please see Section 2, Chapter 1, for amount of adjusted fragmented cRNA to use when starting from total RNA.
*** Note that the addition of DMSO is different from previous recommendations. Follow this protocol for best results on arrays when
using the GeneChip IVT Labeling Kit.
It is imperative that frozen stocks of 20X GeneChip Eukaryotic Hybridization Controls
are heated to 65°C for 5 minutes to completely resuspend the cRNA before
aliquotting.
2.
Equilibrate probe array to room temperature immediately before use.
It is important to allow the arrays to equilibrate to room temperature completely.
Specifically, if the rubber septa are not equilibrated to room temperature, they may
be prone to cracking, which can lead to leaks.
3.
Heat the hybridization cocktail to 99°C for 5 minutes in a heat block.
2.2.7
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Meanwhile, wet the array by filling it through one of the septa (see Figure 2.2.1 for
location of the probe array septa) with appropriate volume of 1X Hybridization Buffer
using a micropipettor and appropriate tips (Table 2.2.2).
4.
It is necessary to use two pipette tips when filling the probe array cartridge: one for
filling and the second to allow venting of air from the hybridization chamber.
5.
Incubate the probe array filled with 1X Hybridization Buffer at 45°C for 10 minutes
with rotation.
Table 2.2.2
Probe Array Cartridge Volumes
Array
Total Fill Volume
49 Format (Standard)
200 µL
250 µL
64 Format
200 µL
250 µL
100 Format (Midi)
130 µL
160 µL
169 Format (Mini)
80 µL
100 µL
400 Format (Micro)
80 µL
100 µL
6.
Transfer the hybridization cocktail that has been heated at 99°C, in step 3, to a 45°C
heat block for 5 minutes.
7.
Spin hybridization cocktail(s) at maximum speed in a microcentrifuge for 5 minutes to
remove any insoluble material from the hybridization mixture.
8.
Remove the buffer solution from the probe array cartridge and fill with appropriate
volume (Table 2.2.2) of the clarified hybridization cocktail, avoiding any insoluble
matter at the bottom of the tube.
9.
Place probe array into the Hybridization Oven, set to 45°C.
Avoid stress to the motor; load probe arrays in a balanced configuration around the
axis. Rotate at 60 rpm.
10.
Hybridize for 16 hours.
During the latter part of the 16-hour hybridization, proceed to Section 2, Chapter 3 to
prepare reagents required immediately after completion of hybridization.
Figure 2.2.1
GeneChip® Probe Array
2.2.8
Hybridization Volume
Eukaryotic
Section 2, Chapter 3
701028 Rev. 4
Section 2, Chapter 3
Eukaryotic Arrays:
Washing, Staining, and Scanning
Eukaryotic
Reagents and Materials Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5
Reagent Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.6
Experiment and Fluidics Station Setup . . .
Step 1: Defining File Locations . . . . . .
Step 2: Entering Experiment Information.
Step 3: Preparing the Fluidics Station. . .
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2.3.7
2.3.7
2.3.7
2.3.8
Probe Array Wash and Stain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.9
Probe Array Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.15
Handling the GeneChip® Probe Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.15
Scanning the Probe Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.16
Shutting Down the Fluidics Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.17
Customizing the Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.18
This Chapter Contains:
■
Instructions for using the Fluidics Station 400 and 450/250 to automate the washing and
staining of eukaryotic GeneChip® expression probe arrays.
■
Instructions for scanning probe arrays using the GeneArray® Scanner or the
GeneChip® Scanner 3000.
After completing the procedures described in this chapter, the scanned probe array image
(.dat file) is ready for analysis, as explained in the enclosed GeneChip Expression Analysis:
Data Analysis Fundamentals booklet (P/N 701190).
701028 Rev. 4
2.3.3
SECTION 2
2.3.4
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
CHAPTER 3
Eukaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
Reagents and Materials Required
■
Water, Molecular Biology Grade, BioWhittaker Molecular Applications / Cambrex,
P/N 51200
■
Distilled water, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 15230-147
■
Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) solution (50 mg/mL), Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N
15561-020
■
R-Phycoerythrin Streptavidin, Molecular Probes, P/N S-866
■
5M NaCl, RNase-free, DNase-free, Ambion, P/N 9760G
■
PBS, pH 7.2, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 20012-027
■
20X SSPE (3M NaCl, 0.2M NaH2PO4, 0.02M EDTA), BioWhittaker Molecular
Applications / Cambrex, P/N 51214
■
Goat IgG, Reagent Grade, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N I 5256
■
Anti-streptavidin antibody (goat), biotinylated, Vector Laboratories, P/N BA-0500
■
Surfact-Amps 20 (Tween-20), 10%, Pierce Chemical, P/N 28320
■
Bleach (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite), VWR Scientific, P/N 37001-060 (or equivalent)
Eukaryotic
The following reagents and materials are recommendations and have been tested and
evaluated by Affymetrix scientists. For supplier information in the U.S. and Europe, please
refer to the Supplier and Reagent Reference List, Appendix A, of this manual. Information
and part numbers listed are based on U.S. catalog information. Additional reagents needed
for the complete analysis are listed in the appropriate chapters. Appendix A contains a
master list of all reagents used in this manual.
Miscellaneous Supplies
■
Sterile, RNase-free, microcentrifuge vials, 1.5 mL, USA Scientific, P/N 1415-2600
(or equivalent)
■
Micropipettors, (P-2, P-20, P-200, P-1000), Rainin Pipetman (or equivalent)
■
Sterile-barrier pipette tips and non-barrier pipette tips
■
Tygon Tubing, 0.04″ inner diameter, Cole-Parmer, P/N H-06418-04
■
Tough-Spots, Label Dots, USA Scientific, P/N 9185-0000
2.3.5
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Reagent Preparation
Wash Buffer A: Non-Stringent Wash Buffer
(6X SSPE, 0.01% Tween-20)
For 1,000 mL:
300 mL of 20X SSPE
1.0 mL of 10% Tween-20
699 mL of water
Filter through a 0.2 µm filter
Wash Buffer B: Stringent Wash Buffer
(100 mM MES, 0.1M [Na+], 0.01% Tween-20)
For 1,000 mL:
83.3 mL of 12X MES Stock Buffer (see Section 2, Chapter 2 for reagent preparation)
5.2 mL of 5M NaCl
1.0 mL of 10% Tween-20
910.5 mL of water
Filter through a 0.2 µm filter
Store at 2°C to 8°C and shield from light
2X Stain Buffer
(Final 1X concentration: 100 mM MES, 1M [Na+], 0.05% Tween-20)
For 250 mL:
41.7 mL of 12X MES Stock Buffer (see Section 2, Chapter 2 for reagent preparation)
92.5 mL of 5M NaCl
2.5 mL of 10% Tween-20
113.3 mL of water
Filter through a 0.2 µm filter
Store at 2°C to 8°C and shield from light
10 mg/mL Goat IgG Stock
Resuspend 50 mg in 5 mL of 150 mM NaCl
Store at 4°C
If a larger volume of the 10 mg/mL IgG stock is prepared, aliquot and store at -20°C
until use. After the solution has been thawed it should be stored at 4°C. Avoid
additional freezing and thawing.
2.3.6
CHAPTER 3
Eukaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
Experiment and Fluidics Station Setup
Step 1: Defining File Locations
Before working with Affymetrix® Microarray Suite, it is important to define where the
program stores and looks for files.
For GeneChip® Operating Software (GCOS), this step is not necessary. Proceed
directly to Step 2: Entering Experiment Information.
2.
3.
Launch Microarray Suite from the workstation and select Tools →Defaults →File
Locations from the menu bar.
Eukaryotic
1.
The File Locations window displays the locations of the following files:
■
Probe Information (library files, mask files)
■
Fluidics Protocols (fluidics station scripts)
■
Experiment Data (.exp, .dat, .cel, and .chp files are all saved to location selected
here)
Verify that all three file locations are set correctly and click OK.
Contact Affymetrix Technical Support if you have any questions regarding this
procedure.
Step 2: Entering Experiment Information
To wash, stain, and scan a probe array, an experiment must first be registered in GCOS or
Microarray Suite. Please follow the instructions detailed in the “Setting Up an Experiment”
section of the appropriate GCOS or Microarray Suite User’s Guide.
The fields of information required for registering experiments in Microarray Suite are:
■
Experiment Name
■
Probe Array Type
In GCOS, three additional fields are required:
■
Sample Name
■
Sample Type
■
Project
Sample templates, Experiment templates, and array barcodes can also be employed in
GCOS to standardize and simplify the registration process. Please see the GCOS User’s
Guide for more information.
The Project, Sample Name, and Experiment Name fields establish a sample hierarchy that
organizes GeneChip gene expression data in GCOS. In terms of the organizational
structure, the Project is at the top of the hierarchy, followed by Sample Name, and then
Experiment Name.
PROJECT
SAMPLE
EXPERIMENT
2.3.7
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Step 3: Preparing the Fluidics Station
The Fluidics Station 400, or 450/250 is used to wash and stain the probe arrays. It is
operated using GCOS/Microarray Suite.
Setting Up the Fluidics Station
1.
2.
Turn on the Fluidics Station using the toggle switch on the lower left side of the
machine.
Select Run →Fluidics from the menu bar.
⇒ The Fluidics Station dialog box appears with a drop-down list for selecting the
experiment name for each of the fluidics station modules. A second drop-down list
is accessed for choosing the Protocol for each of the fluidics station modules.
Refer to the Fluidics Station User’s Guide for instructions on connecting and
addressing multiple fluidics stations.
Priming the Fluidics Station
Priming ensures that the lines of the fluidics station are filled with the appropriate buffers
and the fluidics station is ready for running fluidics station protocols.
Priming should be done:
2.3.8
■
when the fluidics station is first started.
■
when wash solutions are changed.
■
before washing, if a shutdown has been performed.
■
if the LCD window instructs the user to prime.
1.
To prime the fluidics station, select Protocol in the Fluidics Station dialog box.
2.
Choose Prime or Prime_450 for the respective modules in the Protocol drop-down list.
3.
Change the intake buffer reservoir A to Non-Stringent Wash Buffer, and intake buffer
reservoir B to Stringent Wash Buffer.
4.
For MAS, click Run for each module to begin priming. In GCOS, select the All
Modules check box, then click Run.
CHAPTER 3
Eukaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
Probe Array Wash and Stain
After 16 hours of hybridization, remove the hybridization cocktail from the probe array and
fill the probe array completely with the appropriate volume of Non-Stringent Wash Buffer
(Wash Buffer A), as given in Table 2.2.2 on page 2.2.8.
If necessary, at this point, the probe array can be stored at 4°C for up to 3 hours
before proceeding with washing and staining. Equilibrate the probe array to room
temperature before washing and staining.
Eukaryotic
This protocol is recommended for use with probe arrays with probe cells of 24 µm or
smaller. This procedure takes approximately 90 minutes to complete.
Preparing the Staining Reagents
Prepare the following reagents. Volumes given are sufficient for one probe array.
SAPE Stain Solution
Streptavidin Phycoerythrin (SAPE) should be stored in the dark at 4°C, either foil-wrapped
or kept in an amber tube. Remove SAPE from the refrigerator and tap the tube to mix well
before preparing stain solution. Do not freeze SAPE. Always prepare the SAPE stain
solution fresh, on the day of use.
Table 2.3.1
SAPE Solution Mix
Components
Volume
Final Concentration
2X Stain Buffer
600.0 µL
1X
50 mg/mL BSA
48.0 µL
2 mg/mL
1 mg/mL Streptavidin Phycoerythrin (SAPE)
12.0 µL
10 µg/mL
DI H20
540.0 µL
—
Total
1200 µL
Mix well and divide into two aliquots of 600 µL each to be used for stains 1 and 3.
2.3.9
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Antibody Solution
Table 2.3.2
Antibody Solution Mix
Components
Volume
Final Concentration
2X Stain Buffer
300.0 µL
1X
50 mg/mL BSA
24.0 µL
2 mg/mL
10 mg/mL Goat IgG Stock
6.0 µL
0.1 mg/mL
0.5 mg/mL biotinylated antibody
3.6 µL
3 µg/mL
266.4 µL
—
DI H20
Total
600 µL
Table 2.3.3
Fluidics Scripts for 11 µm Feature Size Eukaryotic Arrays*
Format
49
64
100
169
400
Using GeneChip® IVT Labeling Kit
EukGE-WS2v5
EukGE-WS2v5
Midi_euk2v3
Mini_euk2v3
Micro_1v1
Using all other labeling kits
EukGE-WS2v4
EukGE-WS2v4
Midi_euk2v3
Mini_euk2v3
Micro_1v1
* When using the Fluidics Station 450 or 250, add _450 at the end of the fluidics script’s name.
Table 2.3.4
Fluidics Scripts for ≥ 18 µm Feature Size Eukaryotic Arrays*
Format
49
64
100
169
400
Using GeneChip® IVT Labeling Kit
EukGE-WS2v4
EukGE-WS2v4
Midi_euk2v3
Mini_euk2v3
Micro_1v1
Using all other labeling kits
EukGE-WS2v4
EukGE-WS2v4
Midi_euk2v3
Mini_euk2v3
Micro_1v1
* When using the Fluidics Station 450 or 250, add _450 at the end of the fluidics script’s name.
2.3.10
CHAPTER 3
Eukaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
EukGE-WS2v4*
EukGE-WS2v5*
Midi_euk2*
Micro_1*
Mini_euk2*
Post Hyb
Wash #1
10 cycles of 2 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 25°C
10 cycles of 2 mixes/cycle with
Wash Buffer A at 30°C
10 cycles of 2 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 25°C
Post Hyb
Wash #2
4 cycles of 15 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer B at 50°C
6 cycles of 15 mixes/cycle with
Wash Buffer B at 50°C
8 cycles of 15 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer B at 50°C
Stain
Stain the probe array for 10 minutes in
SAPE solution at 25°C
Stain the probe array for 5 minutes
in SAPE solution at 35°C
Stain the probe array for 10 minutes in
SAPE solution at 25°C
10 cycles of 4 mixes/cycle with
Wash Buffer A at 30°C
10 cycles of 4 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 30°C
Post Stain 10 cycles of 4 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 25°C
Wash
2nd Stain
Stain the probe array for 10 minutes in
antibody solution at 25°C
Stain the probe array for 5 minutes
in antibody solution at 35°C
Stain the probe array for 10 minutes in
antibody solution at 25°C
3rd Stain
Stain the probe array for 10 minutes in
SAPE solution at 25°C
Stain the probe array for 5 minutes
in SAPE solution at 35°C
Stain the probe array for 10 minutes in
SAPE solution at 25°C
Final
Wash
15 cycles of 4 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 30°C. The holding
temperature is 25°C
15 cycles of 4 mixes/cycle with
Wash Buffer A at 35°C. The holding
temperature is 25°C
15 cycles of 4 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 35°C. The holding
temperature is 25°C
Eukaryotic
Table 2.3.5
Fluidics Protocols - Antibody Amplification for Eukaryotic Targets
(protocols for the Fluidics Station 450/250 will have _450 as a suffix).
• Wash Buffer A = non-stringent wash buffer
• Wash Buffer B = stringent wash buffer
* When using the Fluidics Station 450 or 250 add _450 at the end of the fluidics script’s name.
2.3.11
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
If you are using the Fluidics Station 450/250:
Washing and Staining the Probe Array
1.
In the Fluidics Station dialog box on the workstation, select the correct experiment
name from the drop-down Experiment list.
⇒ The Probe Array Type appears automatically.
2.
In the Protocol drop-down list, select the appropriate antibody amplification protocol
to control the washing and staining of the probe array format being used: Table 2.3.3.
3.
Choose Run in the Fluidics Station dialog box to begin the washing and staining.
Follow the instructions in the LCD window on the fluidics station.
If you are unfamiliar with inserting and removing probe arrays from the fluidics station
modules, please refer to the appropriate Fluidics Station User’s Guide, or Quick
Reference Card (P/N 08-0093 for the FS-450/250 fluidics stations).
4.
Insert the appropriate probe array into the designated module of the fluidics station
while the cartridge lever is in the down, or eject, position. When finished, verify that
the cartridge lever is returned to the up, or engaged, position.
5.
Remove any microcentrifuge vial remaining in the sample holder of the fluidics station
module(s) being used.
6.
If prompted to “Load Vials 1-2-3,” place the three experiment sample vials (the
microcentrifuge vials) into the sample holders 1, 2, and 3 on the fluidics station.
■
Place one vial containing 600 µL of streptavidin phycoerythrin (SAPE) solution in
sample holder 1.
■
Place one vial containing 600 µL of anti-streptavidin biotinylated antibody solution in
sample holder 2.
■
Place one vial containing 600 µL of streptavidin phycoerythrin (SAPE) solution in
sample holder 3.
■
Press down on the needle lever to snap needles into position and to start the run.
The run begins. The Fluidics Station dialog box at the workstation terminal and the
LCD window display the status of the washing and staining as they progress.
7.
At the end of the run, or at the appropriate prompt, remove the microcentrifuge vials
and replace with three empty microcentrifuge vials.
8.
Remove the probe arrays from the fluidics station modules by first pressing down the
cartridge lever to the eject position.
9.
Check the probe array window for large bubbles or air pockets.
■
If bubbles are present, proceed to Table 2.3.6.
■
If the probe array has no large bubbles, it is ready to scan on the GeneArray®
Scanner or the GeneChip® Scanner 3000. Pull up on the cartridge lever to engage
washblock and proceed to Probe Array Scan on page 2.3.15.
If you do not scan the arrays right away, keep the probe arrays at 4°C and in the dark
until ready for scanning.
If there are no more samples to hybridize, shut down the fluidics station following the
procedure outlined in the section, Shutting Down the Fluidics Station on page 2.3.17.
2.3.12
CHAPTER 3
Eukaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
For proper cleaning and maintenance of the fluidics station, including the bleach
protocol, refer to Section 4, Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures.
Table 2.3.6
If Bubbles are Present
Eukaryotic
Return the probe array to the probe array holder. Engage the washblock by gently pushing up
on the cartridge lever to the engaged, or closed, position.
The fluidics station will drain the probe array and then fill it with a fresh volume of the last
wash buffer used. When it is finished, the LCD window will display EJECT CARTRIDGE.
Again, remove the probe array and inspect it for bubbles. If no bubbles are present, it is
ready to scan. Proceed to Probe Array Scan on page 2.3.15.
If several attempts to fill the probe array without bubbles are unsuccessful, the array should
be filled with Wash Buffer A (non-stringent buffer) manually, using a micropipette.
Excessive washing will result in a loss of signal intensity.
If you are using the Fluidics Station 400:
Washing and Staining the Probe Array
1.
In the Fluidics Station dialog box on the workstation, select the correct experiment
name in the drop-down Experiment list. The probe array type will appear
automatically.
2.
In the Protocol drop-down list, select the appropriate antibody amplification protocol
to control the washing and staining of the probe array format being used: Table 2.3.3.
3.
Choose Run in the Fluidics Station dialog box to begin the washing and staining.
Follow the instructions on the LCD window on the fluidics station.
4.
If you are unfamiliar with inserting and removing probe arrays from the fluidics station
modules, please refer to the Fluidics Station 400 User’s Guide, Fluidics Station 400
Video In-Service CD (P/N 900374), or Quick Reference Card (P/N 08-0072).
5.
Insert the appropriate probe array into the designated module of the fluidics station
while the cartridge lever is in the EJECT position. When finished, verify that the
cartridge lever is returned to the ENGAGE position.
6.
Remove any microcentrifuge vials remaining in the sample holder of the fluidics
station module(s) being used.
7.
When the LCD window indicates, place the microcentrifuge vial containing 600 µL of
streptavidin phycoerythrin (SAPE) stain solution into the sample holder. Verify that the
metal sampling needle is in the vial with its tip near the bottom.
8.
When the LCD window indicates, replace the microcentrifuge vial containing the
streptavidin phycoerythrin (SAPE) stain solution with a microcentrifuge vial
containing antibody stain solution into the sample holder, making sure that the metal
sampling needle is in the vial with its tip near the bottom.
9.
When the LCD window indicates, replace the microcentrifuge vial containing the
antibody stain solution with a microcentrifuge vial containing 600 µL of streptavidin
2.3.13
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
phycoerythrin (SAPE) stain solution into the sample holder. Verify that the metal
sampling needle is in the vial with its tip near the bottom.
⇒ The Fluidics Station dialog box and the LCD window display the status of the
washing and staining as they progress. When the wash is complete, the LCD
window displays the message EJECT CARTRIDGE.
10.
At the end of the run, or at the appropriate prompt, remove microcentrifuge vial
containing stain and replace with an empty microcentrifuge vial.
11.
Remove the probe arrays from the fluidics station modules by first moving the probe
array holder lever to the EJECT position.
12.
Check the probe array window for large bubbles or air pockets.
■ If bubbles are present, proceed to Table 2.3.7.
®
■ If the probe array has no large bubbles, it is ready to scan on the GeneChip Scanner
®
3000 or GeneArray Scanner. ENGAGE wash block and proceed to Probe Array
Scan on page 2.3.15.
If you do not scan the arrays right away, keep the probe arrays at 4°C and in the dark
until ready for scanning.
If there are no more samples to hybridize, shut down the fluidics station following the
procedure outlined in the section, Shutting Down the Fluidics Station on page 2.3.17.
For proper cleaning and maintenance of the fluidics station including the bleach
protocol, refer to Section 4, Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures.
Table 2.3.7
If Bubbles are Present
Return the probe array to the probe array holder. Latch the probe array holder by gently
pushing it up until a light click is heard. Engage the wash block by firmly pushing up on the
cartridge lever to the ENGAGE position.
The fluidics station will drain the probe array and then fill it with a fresh volume of the last
wash buffer used. When it is finished, the LCD window displays EJECT CARTRIDGE again,
remove the probe array and inspect it again for bubbles. If no bubbles are present, it is ready
to scan. Proceed to Probe Array Scan on page 2.3.15.
If several attempts to fill the probe array without bubbles are unsuccessful, the array should
be filled with Wash Buffer A (non-stringent buffer) manually, using a micropipette.
Excessive washing will result in a loss of signal intensity.
2.3.14
CHAPTER 3
Eukaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
Probe Array Scan
The scanner is also controlled by Affymetrix® Microarray Suite or GCOS. The probe array
is scanned after the wash protocols are complete. Make sure the laser is warmed up prior to
scanning by turning it on at least 15 minutes before use if you are using the Agilent
GeneArray® Scanner, or 10 minutes if you are using the Affymetrix® GeneChip® Scanner
3000. If probe array was stored at 4°C, warm to room temperature before scanning. Refer to
the Microarray Suite or GCOS online help and the appropriate scanner user’s manual for
more information on scanning.
Eukaryotic
The scanner uses a laser and is equipped with a safety interlock system. Defeating the
interlock system may result in exposure to hazardous laser light.
You must have read, and be familiar with, the operation of the scanner before
attempting to scan a probe array. Please refer to the Microarray Suite User’s Guide
(P/N 08-0081) or to the GeneChip® Scanner 3000 quick reference card (P/N 08-0075).
Handling the GeneChip® Probe Array
Before you scan the probe array, follow the directions in this section on handling the probe
array. If necessary, clean the glass surface of the probe array with a non-abrasive towel or
tissue before scanning. Do not use alcohol to clean glass.
Before scanning the probe array cartridge, apply Tough-Spots™ to each of the two septa on
the probe array cartridge to prevent the leaking of fluids from the cartridge during scanning.
Apply the spots just before scanning. Do not use them in the hyb process.
1.
On the back of the probe array cartridge, clean excess fluid from around septa.
2.
Carefully apply one Tough-Spots to each of the two septa. Press to ensure that the spots
remain flat. If the Tough-Spots do not apply smoothly, that is, if you observe bumps,
bubbles, tears, or curled edges, do not attempt to smooth out the spot. Remove the spot
and apply a new spot. See Figure 2.3.1.
2.3.15
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Figure 2.3.1
Applying Tough-Spots™ to the probe array cartridge
3.
Insert the cartridge into the scanner and test the autofocus to ensure that the
Tough-Spots do not interfere with the focus. If you observe a focus error message,
remove the spot and apply a new spot. Ensure that the spots lie flat.
Scanning the Probe Array
1.
Select Run →Scanner from the menu bar. Alternatively, click the Start Scan icon in
the tool bar.
⇒ The Scanner dialog box appears with a drop-down list of experiments that have not
been run.
2.
Select the experiment name that corresponds to the probe array to be scanned.
A previously run experiment can also be selected by using the Include Scanned
Experiments option box. After selecting this option, previously scanned experiments
appear in the drop-down list.
3.
By default, for the GeneArray® Scanner only, after selecting the experiment the number
[2] is displayed in the Number of Scans box to perform the recommended 2X image
scan. For the GeneChip® Scanner 3000, only one scan is required.
4.
Once the experiment has been selected, click the Start button.
⇒ A dialog box prompts you to load an array into the scanner.
5.
If you are using the GeneArray® Scanner, click the Options button to check for the
correct pixel value and wavelength of the laser beam.
■
Pixel value = 3 µm
■
Wavelength = 570 nm
If you are using the GeneChip Scanner 3000, pixel resolution and wavelength are
preset and cannot be changed.
2.3.16
CHAPTER 3
Eukaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
6.
Open the sample door on the scanner and insert the probe array into the holder. Do not
force the probe array into the holder. Close the sample door of the scanner.
7.
Click OK in the Start Scanner dialog box.
⇒ The scanner begins scanning the probe array and acquiring data. When Scan in
Progress is selected from the View menu, the probe array image appears on the
screen as the scan progresses.
1.
After removing a probe array from the probe array holder, the LCD window displays
the message ENGAGE WASHBLOCK.
2.
If you are using the FS-400, latch the probe array holder by gently pushing up until a
light click is heard. Engage the washblock by firmly pushing up on the cartridge lever
to the ENGAGE position.
If you are using the FS-450, gently lift up the cartridge lever to engage, or close, the
washblock.
⇒ The fluidics station automatically performs a Cleanout procedure. The LCD
window indicates the progress of the Cleanout procedure.
3.
When the fluidics station LCD window indicates REMOVE VIALS, the Cleanout
procedure is complete.
4.
Remove the sample microcentrifuge vial(s) from the sample holder(s).
5.
If no other hybridizations are to be performed, place wash lines into a bottle filled with
deionized water.
6.
Choose Shutdown or Shutdown_450 for all modules from the drop-down Protocol
list in the Fluidics Station dialog box. Click the Run button for all modules.
The Shutdown protocol is critical to instrument reliability. Refer to the appropriate
Fluidics Station User’s Guide for more information.
7.
After Shutdown protocol is complete, flip the ON/OFF switch of the fluidics station to
the OFF position.
Eukaryotic
Shutting Down the Fluidics Station
To maintain the cleanliness of the fluidics station and obtain the highest quality
image and data possible, a weekly bleach protocol and a monthly decontamination
protocol are highly recommended. Please refer to Section 4, Fluidics Station
Maintenance Procedures for further detail.
2.3.17
SECTION 2
Eukaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Customizing the Protocol
There may be times when the fluidics protocols need to be modified. Modification of
protocols must be done before downloading the protocol to the fluidics station. Protocol
changes will not affect runs in progress. For more specific instructions, refer to the
Microarray Suite/GCOS online help.
1.
Select Tools →Edit Protocol from the menu bar.
⇒ The Edit Protocol dialog box appears.
2.
Select the protocol to be changed from the Protocol Name drop-down list.
⇒ The name of the protocol is displayed in the Protocol Name box. The conditions
for that protocol are displayed on the right side of the Edit Protocol dialog box.
3.
Select the items to be changed and input the new parameters as needed, keeping the
parameters within the ranges shown below in Table 2.3.8.
Table 2.3.8
Valid Ranges for Wash/Stain Parameters
Parameter
Valid Range
Wash Temperature for A1, B, A2, or A3 (°C)
15 to 50
Number of Wash Cycles for A1, B, A2, or A3
0 to 99
Mixes / Wash cycle for A1, B, A2, or A3
1 to 99
Stain Time (seconds)
0 to 86399
Stain Temperature (°C)
15 to 50
Holding Temperature (°C)
15 to 50
•
•
•
•
Wash A1 corresponds to Post Hyb wash #1 in Table 2.3.5.
Wash B corresponds to Post Hyb wash #2 in Table 2.3.5.
Wash A2 corresponds to Post Stain Wash in Table 2.3.5.
Wash A3 corresponds to Final Wash in Table 2.3.5.
4.
To return to the default values for the protocol selected, click the Defaults button.
5.
After all the protocol conditions are modified as desired, change the name of the edited
protocol in the Protocol Name box.
If the protocol is saved without entering a new Protocol Name, the original protocol
parameters will be overwritten.
6.
2.3.18
Click Save, then close the dialog box.
Enter 0 (zero) for hybridization time if hybridization step is not required. Likewise,
enter 0 (zero) for the stain time if staining is not required. Enter 0 (zero) for the number
of wash cycles if a wash solution is not required.
Section 3:
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
701029 Rev. 3
Section 3
Contents
Sectio n 3 P r o ka r y o t ic S a m p l e a n d A r r a y P r o ce s s in g
701029 Rev. 3
Prokaryotic Target Preparation
3.1.3
Chapter 2
Preparation of Control Spike-In Transcripts
3.2.3
Chapter 3
Prokaryotic Target Hybridization
3.3.3
Chapter 4
Prokaryotic Arrays:
Washing, Staining, and Scanning
3.4.3
Prokaryotic
Chapter 1
Prokaryotic
Section 3, Chapter 1
701030 Rev. 3
Section 3, Chapter 1
Prokaryotic Target Preparation
Reagents and Materials Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.5
Reagent Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.6
Total RNA Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.7
cDNA Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step1: cDNA Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 2: Removal of RNA . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step 3: Purification and Quantitation of cDNA.
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3.1.8
3.1.8
3.1.9
3.1.9
cDNA Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.10
Terminal Labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.11
Prokaryotic
This Chapter Contains:
This chapter describes the assay procedures recommended for use with the GeneChip®
P. aeruginosa Genome Array and the GeneChip® E. coli Antisense Genome Array. The
assay utilizes reverse transcriptase and random hexamer primers to produce DNA
complementary to the RNA. The cDNA products are then fragmented by DNase I and
labeled with terminal transferase and biotinylated ddUTP at the 3’ termini.
This protocol is presented as a recommendation only, and has not been validated by
Affymetrix.
701030 Rev. 3
3.1.3
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Target Labeling for Prokaryotic GeneChip® Antisense Arrays
RNA
5'
1. RNA Extraction
2. Random priming
cDNA synthesis
3'
5'
3'
3. RNA degradation
with NaOH
4. cDNA column
purification
3'
cDNA
5'
U
3'
5'
5. cDNA fragmentation
(Terminal labeling
with ddUTP)
5'
Legend:
3.1.4
RNA
DNA
5'
U
3'
Biotin
U
3'
C H A PT ER 1
Prokaryotic Target Preparation
Reagents and Materials Required
The following reagents and materials are recommendations and have been tested and
evaluated by Affymetrix scientists. For supplier phone numbers in the U.S. and Europe,
please refer to the Supplier and Reagent Reference List, Appendix A, of this manual.
Information and part numbers listed are based on U.S. catalog information. Additional
reagents needed for the complete analysis are listed in the appropriate chapters.
Appendix A contains a master list of all reagents used in this manual.
Labeling
■
dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP, 100 mM, Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, P/N 27-2035-01
Prepare a mix of all 4 dNTPs at a final concentration of 10 mM each following the
instructions below.
■
Random Primers, 3 µg/µL, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 48190-011
SuperScript II Reverse Transcriptase, Invitrogen Life Technologies,
P/N 18064-071
■
SUPERase•In™, Ambion, P/N 2696
■
Nuclease-free Water, Ambion, P/N 9930
■
NaOH, 1N solution, VWR Scientific Products, P/N MK469360
■
HCl, 1N solution, VWR Scientific Products, P/N MK638860
■
QIAquick PCR Purification Kit, QIAGEN, P/N 28104
■
10X One-Phor-All Buffer, Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, P/N 27-0901-02
■
Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I), Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, P/N 27-0514-01
■
Enzo® BioArray™ Terminal Labeling Kit, Affymetrix, P/N 900181
■
EDTA, 0.5M, pH 8.0, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 15575-020
Prokaryotic
■
Gel-Shift Assay
■
Novex XCell SureLock™ Mini-Cell, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N EI0001
■
4-20% TBE Gel, 1.0 mm, 12 well, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N EC62252
■
Sucrose Gel Loading Dye, 5X, Amresco, P/N E-274
■
10X TBE Running Buffer
■
SYBR Gold, Molecular Probes, P/N S-11494
■
10 bp and 100 bp DNA ladder, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 10821-015 and
15628-019, respectively
■
ImmunoPure NeutrAvidin, Pierce Chemical, P/N 31000
■
1M Tris, pH 7.0, Ambion, P/N 9850G
■
PBS, pH 7.2, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 20012-027
3.1.5
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Reagent Preparation
10 mM dNTP mix
For 1000 µL:
100 µL 100 mM dATP
100 µL 100 mM dCTP
100 µL 100 mM dGTP
100 µL 100 mM dTTP
600 µL Nuclease-free H2O
Store at -20°C in a non-frost-free freezer.
75 ng/µL Random Primers
For 1000 µL:
25 µL 3 µg/µL Random Primers
975 µL Nuclease-free H2O
Store at -20°C in a non-frost-free freezer.
2 mg/mL NeutrAvidin
Resuspend 10 mg NeutrAvidin in 5 mL PBS solution. Store at 4°C.
3.1.6
C H A PT ER 1
Prokaryotic Target Preparation
Total RNA Isolation
As starting material for the cDNA synthesis procedure, total RNA can be isolated by using
standard procedures for bacterial RNA isolation or various commercial RNA isolation kits.
For Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli, we have successfully used the QIAGEN® RNeasy
Mini Purification Kit. Caution should be used to minimize chromosomal DNA
contamination during the isolation, due to the high sensitivity of the assay. It is suggested
that no more than 1 X 109 cells are applied to a single purification column. Also, use the
lysozyme at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, and not the recommended 400 µg/mL. Additional
DNase I treatment may be required to eliminate DNA contamination when the bacterial
culture is grown at high density.
Prokaryotic
After purification, RNA concentration is determined by absorbance at 260 nm on a
spectrophotometer (1 absorbance unit = 40 µg/mL RNA). The A260/A280 ratio should be
approximately 2.0, with ranges between 1.8 to 2.1 considered acceptable. We recommend
checking the quality of RNA by running it on an agarose gel prior to starting the assay. The
23S and 16S rRNA bands should be clear without any obvious smears. Any indication of
the presence of chromosomal DNA contamination (high molecular weight bands or smears
on the gel) would require additional DNase treatment before proceeding to cDNA synthesis.
Lane 1 Lane 2 Lane 3 Lane 4 -
1 µg Sample 1
1 µg Sample 2
1 µg Sample 3
RNA Size Markers
Figure 3.1.1
Typical RNA preparation from E. coli
3.1.7
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
cDNA Synthesis
cDNA Synthesis
The following protocol starts with 10 µg of total RNA. Incubations are performed in a
thermocycler.
The integrity of total RNA is essential for the success of the assay. Exercise
precautions and follow standard laboratory procedures when handling RNA
samples.
Step1: cDNA Synthesis
1.
Prepare the following mixture for primer annealing:
Table 3.1.1
Primer Hybridization Mix
Components
Volume
Final Concentration
Total RNA
10 µg
0.33 µg/µL
75 ng/µL Random Primers
10 µL
25 ng/µL
130 pM Spike-in-Control Transcripts
(optional)
2 µL
8 pM
Nuclease-free DI H2O
Up to 30.0 µL
—
Total Volume Added
30 µL
We strongly recommend using control transcripts to monitor the assay sensitivity
and performance.
Probe sets for control genes from yeast, Arabidopsis and B. subtilis have been tiled
on the GeneChip® P. aeruginosa Genome Array and E. coli Antisense Genome Array.
To prepare spike controls containing RNA transcripts from B. subtilis genes, please
refer to “Preparation of Control Spike-In Transcripts”, Section 3, Chapter 2.
Assuming complete recovery of control transcripts in the labeling process, the
addition of 2 µL of 130 pM controls results in a 2 pM final concentration in the
hybridization cocktail.
Detection limit of the assay is estimated to be 1 pM, or better.
To monitor the assay sensitivity, it is recommended to use concentration of the
individual spikes in a range of 0.1 to 2 pM.
The random primers supplied by Invitrogen Life Technologies are
oligodeoxynucleotides composed mainly of hexamers. Random primers of different
length or GC content have been successfully applied to the procedure.
1.
3.1.8
Incubate the RNA/Primer mix at the following temperatures:
■
70°C for 10 minutes
■
25°C for 10 minutes
■
Chill to 4°C
C H A PT ER 1
2.
Prokaryotic Target Preparation
Prepare the reaction mix for cDNA synthesis. Briefly centrifuge the reaction tube to
collect sample at the bottom and add the cDNA synthesis mix from Table 3.1.2 to the
RNA/primer hybridization mix.
Table 3.1.2
cDNA Synthesis Components
Components
Volume
Final Concentration
RNA/Primer hybridization mix
(from previous step)
30 µL
5X 1st Strand Buffer
12 µL
1X
100 mM DTT
6 µL
10 mM
10 mM dNTPs
3 µL
0.5 mM
SUPERase•In (20 U/µL)
1.5 µL
0.5 U/µL
SuperScript II (200 U/µL)
7.5 µL
25 U/µL
Total Volume
60 µL
Incubate the reaction at the following temperatures:
■
25°C for 10 minutes
■
37°C for 60 minutes
■
42°C for 60 minutes
■
Inactivate SuperScript II at 70°C for 10 minutes
■
Chill to 4°C
Prokaryotic
3.
Step 2: Removal of RNA
1.
Add 20 µL of 1N NaOH and incubate at 65°C for 30 minutes.
2.
Add 20 µL of 1N HCl to neutralize.
Step 3: Purification and Quantitation of cDNA
1.
Use QIAquick Column to clean up the cDNA synthesis product (for detailed protocol,
see QIAquick PCR Purification Kit Protocols provided by the supplier). Elute the
product with 40 µL of EB Buffer (supplied with QIAquick kit).
2.
Quantify the purified cDNA product by 260 nm absorbance
(1.0 A260 unit = 33 µg/mL of single-stranded DNA).
Typical yields of cDNA are 3 to 7 µg. A minimum of 1.5 µg of cDNA is required for
subsequent procedures to obtain sufficient material to hybridize onto the array and to
perform necessary quality control experiments.
3.1.9
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
cDNA Fragmentation
1.
Prepare the following reaction mix:
Table 3.1.3
Fragmentation Reaction
Components
Volume
Concentration
10X One-Phor-All Buffer
5 µL
1X
cDNA
40 µL
3-7 µg
DNase I (see note below)
X µL
0.6 U/µg of cDNA
Up to 50 µL
-
Nuclease-free H2O
Total Volume
50 µL
Dilute DNase I to 0.6 U/µL in 1X One-Phor-All Buffer. Prepare fresh dilution each time
immediately before use.
It is anticipated that DNase I enzyme activity may vary from lot to lot. A titration
assay is strongly recommended for each new lot of enzyme to determine the dosage
of the DNase I (unit of DNase I per µg of cDNA) to be used in the fragmentation
reaction. 0.6 U for each µg of cDNA can be used as a starting point for the titration.
2.
Incubate the reaction at 37°C for 10 minutes.
3.
Inactivate DNase I at 98°C for 10 minutes.
4.
The fragmented cDNA is applied directly to the terminal labeling reaction.
Alternatively, the material can be stored at -20°C for later use.
To examine the fragmentation result, load ~200 ng of the product on a 4% to 20%
acrylamide gel and stain with SYBR Gold. The majority of the fragmented cDNA
should be in the 50 to 200 base-pairs range.
3.1.10
C H A PT ER 1
Prokaryotic Target Preparation
Terminal Labeling
Use Enzo BioArray Terminal Labeling Kit with Biotin-ddUTP
(Affymetrix, P/N 900181) to label the 3’ termini of the fragmentation products.
Follow the volumes and amounts below rather than the package insert. The reaction
volume has been modified to be compatible with that required for the subsequent
hybridization.
1.
Prepare the following reaction mix:
Components
100 Format (Midi)
49 Format (Standard)
5X Reaction Buffer
12 µL
20 µL
10X CoCl2
6 µL
10 µL
Biotin-ddUTP
1 µL
1 µL
Terminal Deoxynucleotide
Transferase
2 µL
2 µL
Fragmentation Product
(1.5 - 6 µg)
39 µL
Up to 50 µL
Total Volume
60 µL
100 µL
Prokaryotic
Table 3.1.4
Terminal Label Reaction*
*Please refer to specific probe array package insert for information on array format.
2.
Incubate the reaction at 37°C for 20 to 60 minutes.
3.
Stop the reaction by adding 2 µL of 0.5M EDTA.
When the amount of fragmentation product exceeds 3 µg, extend the reaction time to
up to 60 minutes.
4.
The target is ready to be hybridized onto probe arrays, as described in Section 3,
Chapter 3, Prokaryotic Target Hybridization. Alternatively, it may be stored at -20°C
for later use.
To estimate the labeling efficiency, a gel-shift assay can be performed (see below). In
general, greater than 90% of the fragments should be labeled and, therefore, shifted.
Gel-Shift Assay
After purification of the target, the efficiency of the labeling procedure can be assessed
using the following procedure. This quality control protocol prevents hybridizing poorly
labeled target onto the probe array. The addition of biotin residues is monitored in a gelshift assay, where the fragments are incubated with avidin prior to electrophoresis. The
nucleic acids are then detected by staining, as shown in the gel photograph (Figure 3.1.2). The
procedure takes approximately 90 minutes to complete.
The absence of a shift pattern indicates poor biotin labeling. The problem should be
addressed before proceeding to the hybridization step.
3.1.11
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Lane 1 - 10 bp DNA Ladder
Lane 2 - Fragmented and labeled enriched E. coli RNA
Lane 3 - Fragmented and labeled enriched E. coli RNA
with avidin
Lane 4 - Fragmented and labeled total E. coli RNA
Lane 5 - Fragmented and labeled total E. coli RNA with avidin
Lane 6 - 100 bp DNA Ladder
Figure 3.1.2
Gel-shift assay for monitoring E. coli target labeling efficiency
1.
Prepare a NeutrAvidin solution of 2 mg/mL in PBS.
2.
Place a 4% to 20% TBE gel into the gel holder and load system with 1X TBE Buffer.
3.
For each sample to be tested, remove two 150 to 200 ng aliquots of fragmented and
biotinylated sample to fresh tubes.
4.
Add 5 µl of 2 mg/mL NeutrAvidin to each tube.
5.
Mix and incubate at room temperature for 5 minutes.
6.
Add loading dye to all samples to a final concentration of 1X loading dye.
Prepare 10 bp and 100 bp DNA ladders (1 µL ladder +7 µL water+2 µL loading dye for
each lane).
7.
8.
Carefully load samples and two ladders on gel. Each well can hold a maximum of
20 µL.
9.
Run the gel at 150 volts until the front dye (red) almost reaches the bottom. The
electrophoresis takes approximately 1 hour.
10.
While the gel is running, prepare at least 100 mL of a 1X solution of SYBR Gold for
staining.
SYBR Gold are light sensitive. Therefore, use caution and shield the staining solution
from light. Prepare a new batch of stain at least once a week.
3.1.12
11.
After the gel is complete, break open cartridge and stain the gel in 1X SYBR Gold for
10 minutes.
12.
Place the gel on the UV light box and produce an image following standard procedure.
Be sure to use the appropriate filter for SYBR Gold.
Prokaryotic
Section 3, Chapter 2
701031 Rev. 3
Section 3, Chapter 2
Preparation of Control Spike-In Transcripts
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.4
Reagents and Materials Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.5
Bacterial Plasmid DNA Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.7
Linearization of Plasmid DNA Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.7
Purification of Linearized Plasmid DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.7
Preparing the Control Transcript Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.9
In vitro Transcription (IVT) to Produce Control Sense Transcripts . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.8
This Chapter Contains:
Detailed steps for producing full-length control spike sense RNA.
Prokaryotic
■
After completing the procedures described in this chapter, the control sense transcripts can
be added to purified prokaryotic RNA samples prior to enrichment and labeling procedure
as described in Section 3, Chapter 1.
701031 Rev. 3
3.2.3
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Overview
This chapter describes protocols used to generate sense RNA controls from B. subtilis
genes. These control transcripts can be spiked into P. aeruginosa or E.coli total RNA used
for target preparation at a predetermined concentration to monitor labeling, hybridization,
and staining efficiency.
To be used as control for assay performance, GeneChip® P. aeruginosa and E. coli
Antisense Genome Arrays contain probe sets with sequences of dap, thr, phe, and lys genes
from B. subtilis. These genes have been cloned into Stratagene pBluescript as an Xho I to
Not I insert, 5´ to 3´ respectively (see Section 2, Chapter 2, Controls for Eukaryotic Arrays).
pGIBS-lysATCC 87482
pGIBS-pheATCC 87483
pGIBS-thrATCC 87484
pGIBS-dapATCC 87486
Xho I
T3
5’
Not I
3’
T7
These clones can be digested with the Not I restriction enzyme to produce linear template
DNA for the subsequent in vitro transcription (IVT) to produce sense RNA by T3 RNA
polymerase as control molecules.
Bacteria containing these recombinant plasmids can be obtained from the American Type
Culture Collection (ATCC).
3.2.4
CHAPTER 2
Preparation of Control Spike-In Transcripts
Reagents and Materials Required
The following reagents and materials are recommendations and have been tested and
evaluated by Affymetrix scientists. For supplier phone numbers in the U.S. and Europe,
please refer to the Supplier and Reagent Reference List, Appendix A, of this manual.
Information and part numbers listed are based on U.S. catalog information. Additional
reagents needed for the complete analysis are listed in the appropriate chapters.
Appendix A contains a master list of all reagents used in this manual.
■
Expression Control Clones, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)
■
pGIBS-lys ATCC 87482
■
pGIBS-phe ATCC 87483
■
pGIBS-thr ATCC 87484
■
pGIBS-dap ATCC 87486
■
Not I restriction Endonuclease, New England BioLabs, P/N R0189S
■
Phase Lock Gel, Brinkmann Instruments, P/N 955 15 415
■
Phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol, Ambion, P/N 9732
■
MEGAscript T3 Kit, Ambion, P/N 1338
■
NaAcetate (NaOAc), 3M
■
Absolute Ethanol
■
80% Ethanol
■
RNeasy Mini Kit, QIAGEN, P/N 74104
■
TE, 1X, BioWhittaker Molecular Applications / Cambrex, P/N 16-013B
Prokaryotic
Miscellaneous Reagents
3.2.5
CHAPTER 2
Preparation of Control Spike-In Transcripts
Bacterial Plasmid DNA Preparation
1.
Grow E. coli bacterial cultures containing recombinant plasmids according to
established protocols (a minimum 50 mL of culture volume is recommended).
2.
Prepare plasmid DNA from overnight cultures using standard procedures or
commercial kits.
We have obtained reliable results using QIAGEN Plasmid Kits for plasmid DNA
isolation.
Linearization of Plasmid
DNA Preparation
1.
In a 50 µL reaction volume, digest 10 µg of plasmid with the restriction enzyme, Not I,
according to the enzyme manufacturer’s recommendations.
2.
Analyze 50 ng of the uncut and linearized plasmid by gel electrophoresis on a 1%
agarose gel. Complete digestion of the plasmid is required for IVT. Repeat restriction
enzyme digestion, if necessary.
Prokaryotic
Purification of Linearized Plasmid
DNA
Purify the linearized plasmid from restriction enzymes and potential RNase contaminants
before proceeding to IVT using the following Phase Lock Gel (PLG)-phenol/chloroform
extraction procedure.
Phase Lock Gels form an inert sealed barrier between the aqueous and organic phases of
phenol/chloroform extractions. The solid barrier allows more complete recovery of the
sample (aqueous phase) and minimizes interface contamination of the sample. PLG’s are
sold as pre-measured aliquots in 1.5 mL tubes to which sample and phenol/chloroform are
directly added.
1.
Pellet the Phase Lock Gel (1.5 mL tube with PLG I-heavy) in a microcentrifuge at
≥ 12,000 x g for 20 seconds.
2.
Dilute the linearized plasmid to final volume of 150 µL with TE and add equal volume
of (25:24:1) Phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (saturated with 10 µM tris-HCl,
pH 8.01 / 1 mM EDTA). Vortex.
3.
Transfer the mix to the PLG tube and microcentrifuge at ≥ 12,000 x g for 2 minutes.
4.
Transfer the top aqueous phase to a new 1.5 mL tube.
5.
Add 0.1 volumes (15 µL) of 3M NaOAc and 2.5 volumes (375 µL) of absolute ethanol
to the samples. Vortex.
6.
7.
8.
Immediately centrifuge at ≥ 12,000 x g in a microcentrifuge at room temperature for
20 minutes.
Carefully remove supernatant.
Wash pellet with 0.5 mL of 80% ethanol, then centrifuge at ≥ 12,000 x g at room
temperature for 5 minutes.
3.2.7
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
9.
Remove the supernatant very carefully and air dry the pellet.
10.
Resuspend DNA pellet in 15 µL of RNase-free water.
11.
Quantify the DNA by absorbance at 260 nm (50 µg/mL of DNA for
1 absorbance unit at 260 nm).
The quality of DNA template can be monitored by the A260/A280 ratio, which should be
between 1.8 and 2.0 for pure DNA.
In vitro Transcription (IVT) to Produce
Control Sense Transcripts
Use MEGAscript T3 Kit for the IVT reaction.
1.
To make up the reaction mix, follow the procedures in the instruction manual provided
by Ambion.
No tracer is involved in this assay.
2.
Incubate the reaction for 4 hours at 37°C.
3.
Clean up the reaction product with RNeasy mini column.
4.
Quantify the transcript by absorbance at 260 nm
(40 µg/mL RNA = 1 absorbance unit at 260 nm).
It is recommended to examine the quality and integrity of the IVT product on an
agarose gel. The expected IVT product sizes are shown in Table 3.2.1.
Aliquot and freeze the IVT transcripts at -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze / thaw cycles.
3.2.8
CHAPTER 2
Preparation of Control Spike-In Transcripts
Preparing the Control Transcript Mix
Prepare stock solutions for each of the five transcripts at 650 pM for each transcript.
Use Table 3.2.1 to calculate the amount of transcript needed.
1.
Molecular Weight
pmoles / µg
1
330,000
3.03
phe
1.32
435,600
2.30
dap
1.84
607,200
1.65
thr
1.98
653,400
1.53
Control RNA
Size (kb)
lys
2.
Mix equal volumes of the 650 pM stocks for all four transcripts for a final
concentration of 130 pM for each transcript.
3.
Apply 2 µL of the transcript mix with each 5-10 µg of total RNA prior to the cDNA
synthesis procedure (as described in Section 3, Chapter 1, Prokaryotic Target
Preparation). Final concentration applied on the array for the control transcripts would
be 2 pM, assuming 100% recovery during the cDNA synthesis and labeling process.
Prokaryotic
Table 3.2.1
Conversions for Preparing Control Transcript Mix
Different concentrations of transcript stock can be prepared to generate “staggered”
concentrations for different transcripts to monitor the dynamic range of the assay.
Aliquot and freeze the IVT transcripts at -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze / thaw cycles.
3.2.9
Prokaryotic
Section 3, Chapter 3
701032 Rev. 3
Section 3, Chapter 3
Prokaryotic Target Hybridization
Reagents and Materials Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.5
Reagent Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.6
Prokaryotic Target Hybridization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.7
This Chapter Contains:
Prokaryotic
This chapter contains detailed steps for preparing the hybridization mix, and instructions for
hybridizing the target mix to the GeneChip® P. aeruginosa Genome Array and GeneChip®
E. coli Antisense Genome Array. The hybridized probe array is then ready for washing,
staining, and scanning as detailed on page 3.4.3.
701032 Rev. 3
3.3.3
C H A P T ER 3
Prokaryotic Target Hybridization
Reagents and Materials Required
The following reagents and materials are recommendations and have been tested and
evaluated by Affymetrix scientists. For supplier phone numbers in the U.S. and Europe,
please refer to the Supplier and Reagent Reference List, Appendix A, of this manual.
Information and part numbers listed are based on U.S. catalog information. Additional
reagents needed for the complete analysis are listed in the appropriate sections. Appendix A
contains a master list of all reagents used in this manual.
■
■
Water, Molecular Biology Grade, BioWhittaker Molecular Applications / Cambrex,
P/N 51200
Acetylated Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) solution, 50 mg/mL, Invitrogen Life
Technologies, P/N 15561-020
■
Herring Sperm DNA, Promega Corporation, P/N D1811
■
Micropure Separator, Millipore, P/N 42512 (optional)
■
Control Oligo B2, 3 nM, Affymetrix, P/N 900301 (can be ordered separately)
■
NaCl, 5M, RNase-free, DNase-free, Ambion, P/N 9760G
■
MES Free Acid Monohydrate SigmaUltra, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N M5287
■
MES Sodium Salt, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N M5057
■
EDTA Disodium Salt, 0.5M solution (100 mL), Sigma-Aldrich, P/N E7889
■
Tough-Spots, Label Dots, USA Scientific, P/N 9185 (optional)
■
100% DMSO, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N D2650
■
Surfact-Amps X-100 (Tween-20), 10%, Pierce Chemical, P/N 28320
Prokaryotic
Miscellaneous Reagents
Miscellaneous Supplies
■
■
Hybridization Oven 640, Affymetrix, P/N 800138 (110V) or 800139 (220V)
Sterile, RNase-free, microcentrifuge vials, 1.5 mL, USA Scientific,
P/N 1415-2600 (or equivalent)
■
Micropipettors, (P-2, P-20, P-200, P-1000), Rainin Pipetman or equivalent
■
Sterile-barrier pipette tips and non-barrier pipette tips
3.3.5
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Reagent Preparation
12X MES Stock (1.22M MES, 0.89M [Na+])
For 1,000 mL:
70.4g MES free acid monohydrate
193.3g MES Sodium Salt
800 mL of Molecular Biology Grade water
Mix and adjust volume to 1,000 mL.
The pH should be between 6.5 and 6.7. Filter through a 0.2 µm filter.
Do not autoclave, store at 2°C to 8°C, and shield from light. Discard solution if yellow.
2X Hybridization Buffer (50 mL)
(final 1X concentration is 100mM MES, 1M [Na+], 20 mM EDTA, 0.01% Tween 20)
For 50 mL:
8.3 mL of 12X MES Stock
17.7 mL of 5M NaCl
4.0 mL of 0.5M EDTA
0.1 mL of 10% Tween 20
19.9 mL of water
Store at 2°C to 8°C, and shield from light.
3.3.6
Prokaryotic Target Hybridization
C H A P T ER 3
Prokaryotic Target Hybridization
After determining that the fragmented cDNA is labeled with biotin, prepare the
hybridization solution mix. The minimum amount of cDNA product required for target
hybridization is 1 µg. The solution is stable for approximately 6 to 8 hours at 4°C. The
following protocol can be used for freshly prepared or frozen hybridization cocktail. Re-use
of prokaryotic sample has not been thoroughly tested and, therefore, is not recommended.
1.
Prepare the following hybridization solution mix.
Table 3.3.1
Hybridization Cocktail for Single Probe Array*3
100 Format (Midi)
49 Format (Standard)
Final
Concentration
2X MES Hybridization Buffer
65 µL
100.0 µL
1X
3 nM B2 Control Oligo
2.2 µL
3.3 µL
50 pM
10 mg/mL Herring Sperm DNA
1.3 µL
2.0 µL
0.1 mg/mL
50 mg/mL BSA
1.3 µL
2.0 µL
0.5 mg/mL
100% DMSO
9.2 µL
-
7%
Fragmented and Labeled cDNA
51 µL
Up to 92.7 µL
1.5 – 6.0 µg
Molecular Biology Grade Water To a final volume of 130 µL
Total Volume
130 µL
To a final volume of 200 µL
200 µL
Prokaryotic
Components
*Please refer to specific probe array package insert for information on array format.
2.
Equilibrate probe array to room temperature immediately before use.
It is important to allow the arrays to normalize to room temperature completely.
Specifically, if the rubber septa are not equilibrated to room temperature, they may
be prone to cracking, which leads to leaks.
3.
Add the indicated amount of hybridization solution mix to the probe array. Refer to
specific probe array package insert for information on array format.
It is necessary to use two pipette tips when filling the probe array cartridge: one for
filling and the second to allow venting of air from the hybridization chamber.
4.
Place probe array in the hybridization oven set at the temperatures indicated below.
■
P. aeruginosa
50°C
■
E. coli Antisense
45°C
The hybridization temperature of 50°C is higher than that used for other expression
assays. The increased hybridization temperature is required due to the high GC
content of P. aeruginosa.
5.
Avoid stress to the motor; load probe arrays in a balanced configuration around axis.
Rotate at 60 rpm.
6.
Hybridize for 16 hours.
During the latter part of the 16-hour hybridization, proceed to Section 3, Chapter 4,
Prokaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning to prepare reagents required
immediately after completion of hybridization.
3.3.7
Prokaryotic
\
Section 3, Chapter 4
701033 Rev. 3
Section 3, Chapter 4
Prokaryotic Arrays:
Washing, Staining, and Scanning
Reagents and Materials Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.5
Reagent Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.6
Experiment and Fluidics Station Setup . . .
Step 1: Defining File Locations . . . . . .
Step 2: Entering Experiment Information.
Step 3: Preparing the Fluidics Station. . .
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.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.4.7
3.4.7
3.4.7
3.4.8
Probe Array Wash and Stain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.9
Prokaryotic
Probe Array Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.15
Handling the GeneChip® Probe Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.15
Scanning the Probe Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.16
Shutting Down the Fluidics Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.17
Customizing the Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.18
This Chapter Contains:
■
■
Instructions for using the Fluidics Station 400 or 450/250 to automate the washing and
staining of GeneChip P. aeruginosa and GeneChip E. coli Antisense Genome Arrays.
Instructions for scanning probe arrays using the GeneArray® Scanner or the GeneChip®
Scanner 3000.
After completing the procedures described in this chapter, the scanned probe array image
(.dat file) is ready for analysis, as explained in the enclosed GeneChip Expression Analysis:
Data Analysis Fundamentals booklet (P/N 701190).
701033 Rev. 3
3.4.3
C H A P T ER 4
Prokaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
Reagents and Materials Required
The following reagents and materials are recommendations and have been tested and
evaluated by Affymetrix scientists. For supplier phone numbers in the U.S. and Europe,
please refer to the Supplier and Reagent Reference List, Appendix A, of this manual.
Information and part numbers listed are based on U.S. catalog information. Additional
reagents needed for the complete analysis are listed in the appropriate sections. Appendix A
contains a master list of all reagents used in this manual.
■
■
Water, Molecular Biology Grade, BioWhittaker Molecular Applications / Cambrex,
P/N 51200
Distilled water, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 15230-147
Acetylated Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) solution, 50 mg/mL, Invitrogen Life
Technologies, P/N 15561-020
■
R-Phycoerythrin Streptavidin, Molecular Probes, P/N S-866
■
NaCl, 5M, RNase-free, DNase-free, Ambion, P/N 9760G
■
PBS, pH 7.2, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 20012-027
■
20X SSPE (3 M NaCl, 0.2M NaH2PO4, 0.02M EDTA), BioWhittaker Molecular
Applications / Cambrex, P/N 51214
■
Goat IgG, Reagent Grade, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N I 5256
■
Anti-streptavidin antibody (goat), biotinylated, Vector Laboratories, P/N BA-0500
■
10% surfact-Amps20 (Tween-20), Pierce Chemical, P/N 28320
■
Bleach (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite), VWR Scientific, P/N 21899-504 (or equivalent)
■
ImmunoPure Streptavidin, Pierce Chemical, P/N 21125
Prokaryotic
■
Miscellaneous Supplies
■
Sterile, RNase-free, microcentrifuge vials, 1.5 mL, USA Scientific, P/N 1415-2600 (or
equivalent)
■
Micropipettors, (P-2, P-20, P-200, P-1000), Rainin Pipetman (or equivalent)
■
Sterile-barrier pipette tips and non-barrier pipette tips
■
Tygon Tubing, 0.04″ inner diameter, Cole-Parmer, P/N H-06418-04
■
Tough-Spots, Label Dots, USA Scientific, P/N 9185
3.4.5
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Reagent Preparation
Wash A: Non-Stringent Wash Buffer
(6X SSPE, 0.01% Tween-20)
For 1,000 mL:
300 mL of 20X SSPE
1.0 mL of 10% Tween-20
699 mL of water
Filter through a 0.2 µm filter.
Store at room temperature.
Wash B: Stringent Wash Buffer
(100 mM MES, 0.1M [Na+], 0.01% Tween 20)
For 1,000 mL:
83.3 mL of 12 X MES Stock Buffer (see Section 3, Chapter 3 for reagent preparation)
5.2 mL of 5M NaCl
1.0 mL of 10% Tween 20
910.5 mL of water
Filter through a 0.2 µm filter
Store at 2°C to 8°C and shield from light.
2X Stain Buffer
(final 1X concentration: 100 mM MES, 1M [Na+], 0.05% Tween 20)
For 250 mL:
41.7 mL 12X MES Stock Buffer (see Section 3, Chapter 3)
92.5 mL 5M NaCl
2.5 mL 10% Tween 20
113.3 mL water
Filter through a 0.2 µm filter.
Store at 2°C to 8°C and shield from light.
10 mg/mL Goat IgG Stock
Resuspend 50 mg in 5 mL 150 mM NaCl.
Store at 4°C.
1 mg/mL Streptavidin Stock
Resuspend 5 mg in 5 mL of PBS.
Store at 4°C.
3.4.6
C H A P T ER 4
Prokaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
Experiment and Fluidics Station Setup
Step 1: Defining File Locations
Before working with Affymetrix® Microarray Suite it is important to define where the
program stores and looks for files.
1.
Launch Microarray Suite from the workstation and select
Tools → Defaults → File Locations from the menu bar.
The File Locations window displays the locations of the following files:
■
Probe Information (library files, mask files)
■
Fluidics Protocols (fluidics station scripts)
■
2.
Experiment Data (.exp, .dat, .cel, and .chp files are all saved to location selected
here)
Verify that all three file locations are set correctly and click OK.
Contact Affymetrix Technical Support if you have any questions regarding this
procedure.
Step 2: Entering Experiment Information
To wash, stain, and scan a probe array, an experiment must first be defined in Microarray
Suite.
Select Run → Experiment Info from the menu bar. Alternatively, click the New
Experiment icon on the tool bar.
⇒ The Experiment Information dialog box appears, allowing the experiment name to
be defined along with several other parameters, such as probe array type, sample
description, and comments.
2.
Type in the Experiment Name.
3.
In the Probe Array Type box, click the arrow and select the experiment name as
indicated below:
■
P.aeruginosa
select Pae_G1a from the drop-down list
■
E.coli
select Ecoli_Antisense from the drop-down list.
Prokaryotic
1.
Experiment name and probe array type are required. Complete as much of the other
information as desired. The protocol information at the bottom of the dialog box is
imported to the experiment information dialog box after the hybridization and scan
have been completed.
4.
Save the experiment by selecting Save.
The name of the experiment is used by Microarray Suite to access the probe array type
and data for the sample while it is being processed. Data files generated for the sample
are automatically labeled to correspond to the experiment name. Microarray Suite
automatically fills in the Protocol section of this dialog box with information on array
processing from the fluidics station.
5.
Close the Experiment Information dialog box.
3.4.7
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Step 3: Preparing the Fluidics Station
The Fluidics Station 400, 450, or 250 is used to wash and stain the probe arrays. It is
operated using Microarray Suite.
Setting Up the Fluidics Station
1.
2.
Turn on the Fluidics Station using the switch on the lower left side of the machine.
Select Run → Fluidics from the menu bar.
The Fluidics Station dialog box appears with a drop-down list for selecting the
experiment name for each of the fluidics station modules. A second list is accessed for
choosing the Protocol for each of the four fluidics station modules.
Refer to the appropriate GeneChip® Fluidics Station User’s Guide for instructions on
connecting and addressing multiple fluidics stations.
Priming the Fluidics Station
Priming ensures that the lines of the fluidics station are filled with the appropriate buffers
and the fluidics station is ready for running fluidics station protocols.
Priming should be done:
3.4.8
■
When the fluidics station is first started
■
When wash solutions are changed
■
Before washing if a shutdown has been performed
■
If the LCD window instructs the user to prime
1.
Select Protocol in the Fluidics Station dialog box.
2.
Choose Prime or Prime_450 for the respective modules in the Protocol drop-down
list.
3.
Change the intake buffer reservoir A to Non-stringent Wash Buffer and intake buffer
reservoir B to Stringent Wash Buffer.
4.
Click Run for each module to begin priming.
C H A P T ER 4
Prokaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
Probe Array Wash and Stain
Following hybridization, the wash and stain procedures are carried out by the Fluidics
Station. A modified FlexMidi_euk2v3 fluidic script (FlexMidi_euk2v3_450, if you are
using the FS-450) is used for the GeneChip P. aeruginosa Genome Array, and the ProkGEWS2 fluidic script (ProkGE-WS2_450, if you are using the FS-450) is used for the
GeneChip E. coli Antisense Genome Array. The procedures take approximately 75 and 90
minutes, respectively, to complete. The use of streptavidin in the first part of the stain
procedure enhances the overall signal.
Preparing the Staining Reagents
1.
Prepare the following stain and wash solutions the day of the procedure. The solutions
are stable for approximately 6 to 8 hours at 4°C. Volumes given are sufficient for one
probe array.
Streptavidin Phycoerythrin (SAPE) should be stored in the dark at 4° C, either foil
wrapped or kept in an amber tube. Remove SAPE from refrigerator and tap the tube to
mix well before preparing stain solution.
Do not freeze SAPE. Always prepare the SAPE stain solution immediately before use.
Components
Volume
Final Concentration
2X MES Stain Buffer
300.0 µL
1X
50 mg/mL BSA
24.0 µL
2 mg/mL
1 mg/mL Streptavidin
6.0 µL
10 µg/mL
270.0 µL
—
DI H20
Total Volume
600
Prokaryotic
Table 3.4.1
Streptavidin Solution Mix - Vial 1
µL
3.4.9
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Table 3.4.2
Antibody Solution Mix - Vial 2
Components
Volume
2X MES Stain Buffer
Final Concentration
300.0 µL
1X
50 mg/mL BSA
24.0 µL
2 mg/mL
10 mg/mL Normal Goat IgG
6.0 µL
0.1 mg/mL
0.5 mg/mL Biotin Anti-streptavidin
6.0 µL
5 µg/mL
DI H20
264.0 µL
—
Total Volume
600
µL
Table 3.4.3
SAPE Solution Mix - Vial 3
Components
Volume
2X MES Stain Buffer
Final Concentration
300.0 µL
1X
50 mg/mL BSA
24.0 µL
2 mg/mL
1 mg/mL Streptavidin
Phycoerythrin
6.0 µL
10 µg/mL
DI H20
270.0 µL
—
Total Volume
600
2.
µL
In the Fluidics Station dialog box on the workstation, select the correct experiment
name from the drop-down Experiment list. The probe array type will appear
automatically.
Array
Fluidics Protocol
■
GeneChip E. coli Antisense Genome Array
ProkGE-WS2 *
(*if using FS-450, ProkGE-WS_450)
■
GeneChip P. aeruginosa Genome Array
Modified FlexMidi_euk2v3**
(**See Table 3.4.4. If using FS-450,
FlexMidi_euk2v3_450)
Fluidics protocols are specific to array format and content. Follow procedures below
for specific arrays
3.
3.4.10
Choose Run in the Fluidics Station dialog box to begin the washing and staining.
Follow the instructions in the LCD window on the fluidics station when using the
Fluidics Station 400.
If you are unfamiliar with inserting and removing probe arrays from the fluidics station
modules, please refer to the appropriate User’s Guide for your GeneChip® Fluidics
Station 400, 450 or 250.
C H A P T ER 4
Prokaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
Table 3.4.4
Modification of FlexMidi_euk2v3 for GeneChip® P. aeruginosa Array
GeneChip P. aeurginosa Genome Array requires a modification to the
FlexMidi_euk2v3 (or the FlexMidi_euk2v3_450) protocol. See below for details.
The FlexMidi_euk2v3 (or the FlexMidi_euk2v3_450) fluidics protocol must be
modified. Please follow the instructions carefully to make the modifications.
Additionally, it is highly recommended that you save your new P. aeruginosa fluidic
protocol under a different name to avoid confusion.
1.
Modify and save the fluidic protocol for the assay:
a.
b.
Modify the fluidic protocol by using Tools → Edit Protocol drop-down list and
selecting FlexMidi_euk2v3 (or the FlexMidi_euk2v3_450) within the Protocol
Name window;
Change the following parameters: (Enter the new parameters by highlighting the
default values and typing in the new values.)
i. wash A1 temperature from 30°C to 25°C;
ii. 2nd Stain Time (seconds) from 300 to 600; and
iii. 3rd Stain Time (seconds) from 300 to 600.
2.
Save the modified fluidic protocol by highlighting FlexMidi_euk2v3 (or the
FlexMidi_euk2v3_450) within the Protocol Name window and typing over with
an assigned protocol name (e.g., Pae_cDNA). Click Save.
The new fluidics protocol should be present in the Protocol drop-down list and is
used in the subsequent steps.
Prokaryotic
c.
Select the name of the newly modified protocol (e.g., Pae_cDNA) from the Protocol
drop-down list in the Fluidics Station dialog box. Select Run in the Fluidics Station
dialog box to begin the washing and staining. Follow the instructions in the LCD
window on the fluidics station.
If you are unfamiliar with inserting and removing probe arrays from the fluidics
station modules, please refer to the appropriate User’s Guide for your GeneChip®
Fluidics Station 400, 450, or 250.
3.4.11
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Table 3.4.5
Fluidics Protocols
FlexMidi_euk2v3
a
Modified FlexMidi_euk2v3 for
P. aeruginosa Array
Standard Format for E. coli
Antisense Array
ProkGE-WS-2b
Post Hyb
Wash #1
10 cycles of 2 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 30°C
10 cycles of 2 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 25°C
10 cycles of 2 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 25°C
Post Hyb
Wash #2
4 cycles of 15 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer B at 50°C
4 cycles of 15 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer B at 50°C
4 cycles of 15 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer B at 45°C
Stain the probe array for 600 seconds
in SAPE Solution Mix at 25°C
Stain the probe array for 600 seconds in
Streptavidin Solution Mix at 25°C
Stain the probe array for 10 minutes
in Streptavidin Solution. Mix at 25°C.
10 cycles of 4 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 30°C
10 cycles of 4 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 30°C
Stain
Post Stain 10 cycles of 4 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 30°C
Wash
2nd Stain
Stain the probe array for 300 seconds
in antibody solution mix at 25°C
Stain the probe array for 600 seconds in
antibody solution mix at 25°C
Stain the probe array for 10 minutes
in antibody solution. Mix at 25°C.
3rd Stain
Stain the probe array for 300 seconds
in SAPE Solution at 25°C
Stain the probe array for 600 seconds in
SAPE Solution at 25°C
Stain the probe array for 10 minutes
in SAPE Solution at 25°C.
Final
Wash
15 cycles of 4 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 30°C. The holding
temperature is 25°C.
15 cycles of 4 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 30°C. The holding
temperature is 25°C.
15 cycles of 4 mixes/cycle with Wash
Buffer A at 30°C. The holding
temperature is 25°C.
a. FlexMidi_euk2v_450 for the FS-450/250
b. prokGE_ws2_450 for the FS-450/250
If you are using the Fluidics Station 450/250:
Washing and Staining the Probe Array
3.4.12
1.
Insert the appropriate probe array into the designated module of the fluidics station
while the cartridge lever is down, or in the eject position. When finished, verify that the
cartridge lever is returned to the up, or engaged, position.
2.
Remove any microcentrifuge vial(s) remaining in the sample holder of the fluidics
station module(s) being used.
3.
If prompted to “Load Vials 1-2-3,” place the three experiment sample vials (the
microcentrifuge vials) into the sample holders 1, 2, and 3 on the fluidics station.
a.
Place one vial containing streptavidin phycoerythrin (SAPE) solution mix in sample
holder 1.
b.
Place one vial containing the anti-streptavidin biotinylated antibody in sample
holder 2.
c.
Place one vial containing the streptavidin phycoerythrin (SAPE) solution in sample
holder 3.
d.
Press down on the needle lever to snap needles into position and to start the run.
⇒ The run begins. The Fluidics Station dialog box at the workstation terminal and
the LCD window display the status of the washing and staining as the protocol
progresses.
C H A P T ER 4
Prokaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
4.
When the protocol is complete, the LCD window displays the message EJECT
CARTRIDGE.
5.
Remove the probe arrays from the fluidics station modules by first pressing down the
cartridge lever to the eject position.
6.
Lift up on the needle lever to disengage the needles from the microcentrifuge vials.
Remove the three empty microcentrifuge vials from the needle holders.
7.
Check the probe array window for large bubbles or air pockets.
■
■
If bubbles are present, refer to Table 3.4.6.
If the probe array has no large bubbles, it is ready to scan on the GeneArray®
Scanner, or the GeneChip® Scanner 3000. Pull up on the cartridge lever to close the
washblock and proceed to Probe Array Scan on page 3.4.15.
8.
If there are no more samples to hybridize, shut down the fluidics station following the
procedure in Shutting Down the Fluidics Station on page 3.4.17.
9.
Keep the probe arrays at 4°C and in the dark until ready for scanning.
10.
Lift up on the cartridge lever to close the washblock.
Prokaryotic
For proper cleaning and maintenance of the fluidics station, including the bleach
protocol, refer to Section 4, Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures.
Table 3.4.6
If bubbles are present
Return the probe array to the probe array holder. Engage the washblock by gently pushing up
on the cartridge lever to the engage position.
The fluidics station will drain the probe array and then fill it with a fresh volume of the last
wash buffer used. When it is finished, the LCD window will display EJECT CARTRIDGE.
Again, remove the probe array and inspect it for bubbles. If no bubbles are present, it is
ready to scan. Proceed to Probe Array Scan on page 3.4.15.
If several attempts to fill the probe array without bubbles are unsuccessful, the array should
be filled with Wash A (non-stringent buffer) manually, using a micropipette. Excessive
washing will result in a loss of signal intensity.
If you are using the Fluidics Station 400:
Washing and Staining the Probe Array
1.
Insert the appropriate probe array into the designated module of the fluidics station
while the cartridge lever is in the EJECT position. When finished, verify that the
cartridge lever is returned to the ENGAGE position.
2.
Remove any microcentrifuge tube remaining in the sample holder of the fluidics station
module(s) being used.
3.
Place a microcentrifuge tube containing the streptavidin solution into the sample
holder, making sure that the metal sampling needle is in the tube with its tip near the
bottom
⇒ The Fluidics Station dialog box and the LCD window display the status of the
washing and staining as they progress.
3.4.13
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
4.
When the LCD window indicates, replace the microcentrifuge tube containing the
streptavidin stain with a microcentrifuge tube containing antibody stain solution into
the sample holder, making sure that the metal sampling needle is in the tube with its tip
near the bottom.
5.
When the LCD window indicates, replace the microcentrifuge tube containing
antibody solution with the microcentrifuge tube containing the SAPE solution.
6.
When the protocol is complete, the LCD window displays the message EJECT
CARTRIDGE.
7.
Remove microcentrifuge tube containing stain and replace with an empty
microcentrifuge tube.
8.
Remove the probe arrays from the fluidics station modules by first moving the
cartridge lever to the EJECT position.
9.
Check the probe array window for large bubbles or air pockets.
■
■
If bubbles are present, refer to Table 3.4.7.
If the probe array has no large bubbles, it is ready to scan on the GeneChip Scanner
3000 or the GeneArray® Scanner. ENGAGE washblock and proceed to Probe Array
Scan on page 3.4.15.
If you do not scan the arrays right away, keep the probe arrays at 4°C and in the dark
until ready for scanning.
If there are no more samples to hybridize, shut down the fluidics station following the
procedure outlined in the section, Shutting Down the Fluidics Station, on page 4.17.
For proper cleaning and maintenance of the fluidics station, including the bleach
protocol, refer to Section 4, Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures.
Table 3.4.7
If bubbles are present
Return the probe array to the probe array holder. Latch the probe array holder by gently
pushing it up until a light click is heard. Engage the washblock by firmly pushing up on the
cartridge lever to the ENGAGE position.
The fluidics station will drain the probe array and then fill it with a fresh volume of the last
wash buffer used. When it is finished, the LCD window displays EJECT CARTRIDGE again,
remove the probe array and inspect it again for bubbles. If no bubbles are present, it is ready
to scan. Proceed to Probe Array Scan on page 3.4.15.
If several attempts to fill the probe array without bubbles are unsuccessful, the array should
be filled with Wash A (non-stringent buffer) manually, using a micropipette. Excessive
washing will result in a loss of signal intensity.
3.4.14
C H A P T ER 4
Prokaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
Probe Array Scan
The scanner is also controlled by Affymetrix Microarray Suite. The probe array is scanned
after the wash protocols are complete. Make sure laser is warmed up prior to scanning by
turning the laser on at least 15 minutes before use (if you are using the Agilent GeneArray®
Scanner) or 10 minutes (if you are using the GeneChip® Scanner 3000). If probe array was
stored at 4°C, warm to room temperature before scanning. Refer to the Microarray Suite
online help and the appropriate scanner user’s manual for more information on scanning.
The scanner uses a laser and is equipped with a safety interlock system. Defeating
the interlock system may result in exposure to hazardous laser light.
You must have read and be familiar with the operation of the scanner before
attempting to scan a probe array. Please refer to the Microarray Suite User’s Guide
(P/N 08-0081) or to the GeneChip® Scanner 3000 quick reference card (P/N 08-0075).
Handling the GeneChip® Probe Array
Before you scan the probe array, follow the directions in this section on handling the probe
array. If necessary, clean the glass surface of probe array with a non-abrasive towel or tissue
before scanning. Do not use alcohol to clean glass.
Prokaryotic
Before scanning the probe array cartridge, follow this procedure to apply Tough-Spots™ to
the probe array cartridge to prevent the leaking of fluids from the cartridge during scanning.
Apply the spots just before scanning. Do not use them in the hyb process.
1.
On the back of the probe array cartridge, clean excess fluid from around septa.
2.
Carefully apply one Tough-Spot to each of the two septa. Press to ensure that the spots
remain flat. If the Tough-Spots do not apply smoothly; that is, if you observe bumps,
bubbles, tears or curled edges, do not attempt to smooth out the spot. Remove the spot
and apply a new spot. See Figure 3.4.1.
3.4.15
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Figure 3.4.1
Applying Tough-Spots™ to the probe array cartridge
3.
Insert the cartridge into the scanner and test the autofocus to ensure that the ToughSpots do not interfere with the focus. If you observe a focus error message, remove the
spot and apply a new spot. Ensure that the spots lie flat.
Scanning the Probe Array
1.
Select Run → Scanner from the menu bar. Alternatively, click the Start Scan icon in
the tool bar.
⇒ The Scanner dialog box appears with a drop-down list of experiments that have not
been run.
2.
Select the experiment name that corresponds to the probe array to be scanned.
A previously run experiment can also be selected by using the Include Scanned
Experiments option box. After selecting this option, previously scanned experiments
appear in the drop-down list.
3.
By default, for the Agilent® GeneArray® Scanner only, after selecting the experiment
the number [2] is displayed in the Number of Scans box to perform the recommended
2X image scan. For the GeneChip® Scanner 3000, only one scan is required.
4.
Once the experiment has been selected, click the Start button.
⇒ A dialog box prompts you to load a sample into the scanner.
5.
If you are using the GeneArray® Scanner, click the Options button to check for the
correct pixel value and wavelength of the laser beam.
■
Pixel value = 3 µm
■
Wavelength = 570 nm
If you are using the GeneChip Scanner 3000, pixel resolution and wavelength are
preset and cannot be changed.
3.4.16
C H A P T ER 4
Prokaryotic Arrays: Washing, Staining, and Scanning
6.
Open the sample door on the scanner and insert the probe array into the holder. Do not
force the probe array into the holder. Close the sample door of the scanner. If you are
using the GeneChip Scanner 3000, do not attempt to close the door by hand. The door
closes automatically through the User Interface when start scan is selected or the
scanner goes into stand-by mode.
7.
Click OK in the Start Scanner dialog box.
⇒ The scanner begins scanning the probe array and acquiring data. When Scan in
Progress is Selected from the View menu, the probe array image appears on the
screen as the scan progresses.
1.
After removing a probe array from the probe array holder, the LCD window displays
the message ENGAGE WASHBLOCK.
2.
If you are using the FS-400, engage the washblock by firmly pushing up on the
cartridge lever to the ENGAGE position.
If you are using the FS-450, gently lift up the cartridge lever to engage, or close, the
washblock.
⇒ The fluidics station automatically performs a Cleanout procedure. The LCD
window indicates the progress of the Cleanout procedure.
3.
When the fluidics station LCD window indicates REMOVE VIALS, the Cleanout
procedure is complete.
4.
Remove the sample microcentrifuge vial(s) from the sample holder(s).
5.
If no other hybridizations are to be performed, place wash lines into a bottle filled with
deionized water.
6.
Select Shutdown or Shutdown_450 for all modules from the drop-down Protocol list
in the Fluidics Station dialog box. Click the Run button for all modules.
The Shutdown protocol is critical to instrument reliability. Refer to the appropriate
Fluidics Station User’s Guide for more information.
7.
After Shutdown protocol is complete, flip the ON/OFF switch of the fluidics station to
the OFF position.
Prokaryotic
Shutting Down the Fluidics Station
To maintain the cleanliness of the fluidics station and obtain the highest quality image
and data possible, a weekly bleach protocol and a monthly decontamination protocol
are highly recommended. Please refer to Section 4, Fluidics Station Maintenance
Procedures for further detail.
3.4.17
S EC T I O N 3
Prokaryotic Sample and Array Processing
Customizing the Protocol
There may be times when the fluidic protocols need to be modified. Modification of
protocols must be done before downloading the protocol to the fluidics station. Protocol
changes will not affect runs in progress. For more specific instructions, refer to the
Microarray Suite online help.
1.
Select Tools → Edit Protocol from the menu bar.
2.
In the Edit Protocol dialog box under Protocol Name, click the arrow to open a list of
protocols. Click the protocol to be changed.
⇒ The name of the protocol is displayed in the Protocol Name text box. The
conditions for that protocol are displayed on the right side of the Edit Protocol
dialog box.
3.
Select the item to be changed and input the new parameters as needed, keeping
parameters within the ranges shown below in Table 3.4.8.
Table 3.4.8
Valid Ranges for Wash/Stain Parameters
Parameter
Valid Range
Wash Temperature for A1, B, A2, or A3 (°C)
15 to 50
Number of Wash Cycles for A1, B, A2, or A3
0 to 99
Mixes / Wash Cycle for A1, B, A2, or A3
15 to 50
Stain Time (seconds)
0 to 86,399
Stain Temperature (°C)
15 to 50
Holding Temperature (°C)
15 to 50
•
•
•
•
Wash A1 corresponds to Post Hyb Wash #1 in Table 3.4.6.
Wash B corresponds to Post Hyb Wash #2 in Table 3.4.6.
Wash A2 corresponds to Post Stain Wash in Table 3.4.6.
Wash A3 corresponds to Final Wash in Table 3.4.6.
4.
To return to the default values for the protocol selected, click the Defaults button.
5.
Once all the protocol conditions are modified as desired, change the name of the edited
protocol in the Protocol Name box.
If the protocol is saved without entering a new Protocol Name, the original protocol
parameters will be overwritten.
6.
3.4.18
Click Save, then close the dialog box.
Enter 0 (zero) for hybridization time if hybridization step is not required. Likewise,
enter 0 (zero) for the stain time if staining is not required. Enter 0 (zero) for the number
of wash cycles if a wash solution is not required.
Section 4:
Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures
701040 Rev. 2
Section 4
Contents
Sectio n 4
Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures
4.1.3
F.S. Maintenance
Chapter 1
701040 Rev. 2
F.S. Maintenance
Section 4, Chapter 1
701041 Rev. 3
Section 4, Chapter 1
Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures
Weekly Fluidics Station Cleanout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4
Bleach Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4
Monthly Fluidics Station Decontamination Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.10
This Section Contains:
A weekly fluidics station bleach protocol.
■
A monthly fluidics station decontamination protocol.
F.S. Maintenance
■
701041 Rev. 3
4.1.3
S EC T I O N 4
Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures
Weekly Fluidics Station Cleanout
A cleaning protocol is recommended for fluidics station maintenance if the antibody
staining procedure is used. Choose Bleach or Bleach_450 for all modules from the dropdown list in the Fluidics Station dialog box. Click the Run button for all modules and
follow LCD instructions.
Bleach Protocol
This protocol is designed to eliminate any residual SAPE-antibody complex that may be
present in the fluidics station tubing and needles. We recommend running this protocol at
least once a week.
1.
Prepare 1 liter of 0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution using distilled water. Shake
well.
Each fluidics station with four modules requires at least 500 mL of the 0.525%
sodium hypochlorite solution.
2.
Cut tubing.
If you are using the Fluidics Station 450/250:
If you are using the FS-450 or FS-250, cut three pieces of tubing with each piece at
least 2.5-3 feet in length (Tygon tubing, 0.04”) for each module of each fluidics station,
for a total of 6 tubes (for the FS-250) or 12 tubes (for the FS-450). These can be reused
for subsequent BLEACH runs.
If you are using the Fluidics Station 400:
If you are using the FS-400, cut four pieces of tubing at least 2.5-3 feet in length.
3.
Place all three wash lines (these are not the tubing on the needles but the supply lines
from the reagent bottles on the side of the station) of each fluidics station in 1 liter of
distilled water.
The BLEACH protocol requires at least 550 mL of distilled water.
4.1.4
4.
Choose Fluidics from the Run menu. Alternatively, click the down arrow Protocol list
on the toolbar.
5.
Choose Bleach or Bleach_450 for the respective modules in the Protocol drop-down
list.
6.
Disengage the washblock for each module by pressing down on the cartridge lever.
C H AP TE R 1
Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures
Wash blocks disengaged
with cartridge levers down
Figure 4.1.1
Disengaged washblocks showing cartridge levers in the down position.
Temperature will ramp up to 50°C.
7.
Connect tubing to needles.
If you are using the Fluidics Station 450/250:
F.S. Maintenance
If you are using the FS-450/250, connect one end of the plastic tubing to each of the
three needles. The proper technique is to press down on the cartridge lever until the
needles extend a convenient distance from the module, then slip the tube on as you hold
the cartridge lever down with the free hand as shown in Figure 4.1.2. Take care not to
bend or break the needles.
If you are using the Fluidics Station 400:
If you are using the FS-400, connect one end of the plastic tubing to each needle at the
bottom of each module.
4.1.5
S EC T I O N 4
Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures
Figure 4.1.2
Inserting tubes on the needles. Take care not to break or bend the needles.
8.
Insert the other ends into 0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution (at least 500 mL for all
four modules) as shown in Figure 4.1.3.
Remove cartridges before you start the bleach protocol.
4.1.6
C H AP TE R 1
Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures
Figure 4.1.3
The tubes extending from the modules to the bleach bottle. Note that the probe array cartridges must be removed
before the protocol can begin.
F.S. Maintenance
Ensure that all the tube ends remain immersed in the bleach solution by tamping down
on the tubes using a dowel or similar object as shown in Figure 4.1.4.
4.1.7
S EC T I O N 4
Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures
Figure 4.1.4
Tamp down on the tubes to ensure that the ends remain immersed in the solution.
For ease of handling, band the tubes together using a rubber band.
9.
4.1.8
Remove any probe array cartridges and engage the washblock as shown in Figure 4.1.5.
The fluidics station will begin the protocol, begin to empty the lines, and perform
three cleaning cycles of 10 rinses each using bleach solution.
C H AP TE R 1
Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures
Figure 4.1.5
Remove probe array cartridges and pull up on the cartridge lever to engage the washblock and begin the protocol.
10.
When the fluidics station LCD window displays Remove Tube from Needles,
carefully remove tubing from each module needle by pushing the tubing down with
your fingers while holding the needle with the other.
11.
Load empty microcentrifuge vials onto each module.
The fluidics station will empty the lines and run three cycles with three rinses each. In
addition, the fluidics station will rinse the needle 20 times, twice using distilled water,
then bring the temperature back to 25°C and drain the lines with air.
12.
The LCD display will read CLEANING DONE.
F.S. Maintenance
Do not pull the tube out, as this may damage the needle in the process.
4.1.9
S EC T I O N 4
Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures
Monthly Fluidics Station
Decontamination Protocol
To maintain your Fluidics Station in the best possible working condition, we recommend
that the following decontamination protocol be performed on your fluidics station at least
once a month, in addition to the weekly cleaning described above. The protocol requires
approximately 2 hours to run.
This protocol ensures that all of the tubing associated with the station is kept thoroughly
clean. Keeping this tubing as clean as possible ensures that array images will be optimized
and high-quality results will be obtained.
1.
Prepare 2 liters of 0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution using distilled water. Mix
well.
2.
Place all three wash lines of the fluidics station in 1 liter of 0.525% sodium
hypochlorite solution.
3.
Run the Prime protocol (page 2.4.8) on all four modules with wash lines in 0.525%
sodium hypochlorite solution (instead of wash buffers A and B).
4.
Run the Shutdown protocol (page 2.4.20) on all four modules with wash lines in
0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution (instead of distilled water).
5.
Follow Bleach Protocol (as described on page 4.1.4) with the following change in
Step 3: place the three wash lines of the fluidics station in 1 liter of 0.525% sodium
hypochlorite solution instead of distilled water.
6.
Change intake tubing and peristaltic tubing, if required (as described in the Fluidics
Station 400 User’s Guide or the Fluidics Station 450/250 User’s Guide).
7.
Run the Bleach protocol (Fluidics Station 400) or the Bleach_450 protocol (Fluidics
Station 450) with three wash lines of the fluidics station in distilled water.
8.
Run the Prime protocol (Fluidics Station 400) or the Prime_450 protocol (Fluidics
Station 450) with wash lines in distilled water (instead of wash buffers A and B).
9.
Run the Shutdown protocol (Fluidics Station 400) or the Shutdown_450 protocol
(Fluidics Station 450) with wash lines in distilled water.
10.
Run the Prime protocol (Fluidics Station 400) or the Prime_450 protocol (Fluidics
Station 450) with wash lines in distilled water (instead of wash buffers A and B).
11.
Run the Shutdown protocol (Fluidics Station 400) or the Shutdown_450 protocol
(Fluidics Station 450) with distilled water.
At the end of each step, the fluidics station will indicate a ‘ready’ status. The fluidics
station should not be used until this entire procedure (steps 1-11) is complete.
4.1.10
Section 5:
Appendices
701042 Rev. 2
Section 5
Contents
Sectio n 5 A p p e n di c es
Supplier and Reagent Reference List
5.A.3
Appendix B
FAQs & Troubleshooting
5.B.3
Appendix C
List of Controls on GeneChip Probe Arrays
5.C.3
Appendices
Appendix A
701042 Rev. 2
701043 Rev. 3
Appendices
Section 5, Appendix A
Section 5, Appendix A
Supplier and Reagent Reference List
Affymetrix Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.A.4
Supplier Contact Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.A.5
Reagents and Materials Quick List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.A.7
Appendices
Reagent List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.A.9
701043 Rev. 3
5.A.3
S EC T I O N 5
Appendices
Affymetrix Technical Support
Affymetrix provides technical support via phone or e-mail. To contact Affymetrix Technical
Support:
Affymetrix Inc.
3380 Central Expressway
Santa Clara, CA 95051
USA
Tel: 1-888-362-2447 (1-888-DNA-CHIP)
Fax: 1-408-731-5441
E-mail: support@affymetrix.com
Affymetrix UK Ltd
Voyager, Mercury Park,
Wycombe Lane, Wooburn Green,
High Wycombe HP10 0HH
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)1628 552550
Fax: +44 (0)1628 552585
E-mail: supporteurope@affymetrix.com
Affymetrix Japan, K.K.
Mita NN Bldg
16 Floor, 4-1-23 Shiba,
Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014
Japan
Tel: +81-(0)3-5730-8200
Fax: +81-(0)3-5730-8201
E-mail: supportjapan@affymetrix.com
www.affymetrix.com
5.A.4
A P P EN D I X A
Supplier and Reagent Reference List
Supplier Contact Information
Supplier
U.S.
United Kingdom
France
Germany
Ambion
www.ambion.com
(800) 888-8804
+44 (0)1993 706 500
+33 (0)1 42 53 14 53
+49 (0)692 88082
Amersham/Pharmacia
Biotech
www.apbiotech.com
(800) 323-9750
+44 (0)800 515 313
+33 (0)1 69 35 67 00
+49 (0)761 49030
Amresco
www.amresco-inc.com
(800) 448-4442
+44 (0)1582 745 000
+33 (0)4 70 03 88 55
+49 (0) 551 506860
ATCC
www.atcc.org
(800) 638-6597
BioWhittaker Molecular
Applications / Cambrex
www.cambrex.com
(800) 341-1574
Brinkmann Instruments
www.brinkmann.com
(800) 421-9988
see web site for nearest distributor
Cambrex
www.cambrex.com
(800) 341-1574
see web site for nearest distributor
Cole-Parmer
www.coleparmer.com
(800) 323-4340
+44 (0)1815 747 556
+33 (0)3 88 67 14 14
+49 (0)785 17069
CLONTECH
www.clontech.com
(800) 662-CLON
+44 (0)1256 476 500
+33 (0)1 34 60 24 24
+49 (0)622 134170
Epicentre Technologies
www.epicentre.com
(800) 284-8474
+44 (0)1223 366 500
+33 (0)1 30 46 39 00
+49 (0)515 29020
Eppendorf - 5 Prime
www.5prime.com
(800) 533-5703
(303) 440-3705
Invitrogen Life
Technologies
www.invitrogen.com
(800) 955-6288
Millipore Corp
www.millipore.com
(800) 645-5476
+44 (0)1923 816 375
+33 (0)1 30 12 70 00
+49 (0)619 64940
Molecular Probes
www.probes.com
(541) 465-8300
+44 (0)1223 316 855
+33 (0)4 70 03 88 55
+49 (0)551 371062
New England Biolabs
www.neb.com
(800) 632-5227
+44 (0)800 318 846
+33 (0)1 34 60 24 24
+49 (0)800 2465 227
Novagen
www.novagen.com
(800) 207-0144
+44 (0)800 622 935
+33 (0)1 30 46 39 00
+49 (0)800 6931 000
Operon Technologies
oligos.qiagen.com
(800) 688-2248
Pierce Chemical
www.piercenet.com
(800) 874-3723
+44 (0)1244 382 525
+33 (0)4 70 03 88 55
+49 2241 96850
Promega Corporation
www.promega.com
(800) 356-9526
+44 (0)800 378 994
+33 (0)8 00 48 79 99
+49 (0)621 85010
Proligo
www.gensetoligos.com
(800) 995-0308
QIAGEN
www.qiagen.com
(800) 426-8157
U.S. (703) 365-2700
+44 (0)1189 795 234
(Belgium) +32 8-732-1611
00 800 5345 5345 (Toll-free for Europe)
00800-67 673377
+44 (0)1293 422 911
+33 (0)1 60 92 09 20
Appendices
+33 (0)1 43 56 59 00
+49 (0)210 3892 230
5.A.5
S EC T I O N 5
5.A.6
Appendices
Supplier
U.S.
United Kingdom
France
Germany
Rainin
www.rainin.com
(800) 472-4646
+44 (0)1582 456 666
Roche Molecular
Biochemical
biochem.roche.com
(800) 262-1640
+44 (0)1273 480 444
+33 (0)4 76 76 30 87
+49 (0)621 75985 68
Sigma-Aldrich
www.sigma-aldrich.com
(800) 325-3010
+44 (0)1202 733 114
+33 (0)4 74 82 28 88
+49 (0)896 5131130
USA Scientific
www.usascientific.com
(800) 522-8477
U.S. (352)-237-6288
Vector Laboratories
www.vectorlabs.com
(800) 227-6666
+44 (0)1733 237 999
44 86 22 75
+49 (0)9342 39499 or
0800 253 9472
VWR Scientific Products
www.vwrsp.com
(800) 932-5000
(908) 757-4045
see web site for nearest distributor
A P P EN D I X A
Supplier and Reagent Reference List
Reagents and Materials Quick List
Vendor
P/N
Volume per
Rxn
Volume in Kit
Rxns per Kit
T7-Oligo(dT) Primer, 50 µM
Affymetrix
900375
2 µL
300 uL
150
DEPC-Water
Ambion
9920
Variable
500 µL
---
5x First-Strand cDNA Buffer
Invitrogen
Supplied with SS II RT
4 µL
1 mL
250
0.1M DTT
Invitrogen
Supplied with SS II RT
2 µL
250 µL
125
10 mM dNTP Mix1
Invitrogen
18427-013
1 µL
100 µL
100
SuperScript II RT
Invitrogen
18064-014
1, 2, or 3 µL
50 µL (10,000 U)
50, 25, or 16
Ambion
9920
91 µL
500 mL
5,494
Invitrogen
10812-014
30 µL
500 µL
16
Invitrogen
18427-013
3 µL
100 µL
33
E. coli DNA Ligase
Invitrogen
18052-019
1 µL
10 µL (100 U)
10
E. coli DNA Polymerase I
Invitrogen
18010-025
4 µL
100 µL (1,000 U)
25
E. coli RNase H
Invitrogen
18021-071
1 µL
60 µL (120 U)
60
T4 DNA Polymerase
Invitrogen
18005-025
2 µL
50 µL (250 U)
25
0.5M EDTA
Invitrogen
15575-020
10 µL
400 mL (4 X 100)
40,000
Affymetrix
900371
---
---
30
Enzo® BioArrayô RNA Labeling Kit
Affymetrix
900182
---
---
10
Distilled or Deionized Water
---
---
---
---
---
Affymetrix
900371
---
---
30
Affymetrix
900371
---
---
>30
Reagent
First-Strand cDNA Synthesis
Second-Strand cDNA Synthesis
DEPC-Water
5x Second-Strand cDNA Buffer
10 mM dNTP Mix
1
cDNA Cleanup
GeneChip® Sample Cleanup Module2
IVT Reaction
cRNA Cleanup
GeneChip Sample Cleanup Module2
cRNA Fragmentation
GeneChip Sample Cleanup Module3
10 mM dNTP Mix used for both 1st and 2nd Strand reactions, for a total of 4 µL per reaction. Each tube of dNTP Mix contains 100 µL, so each tube is sufficient
for 25 reactions.
2
Note: The GeneChip Sample Cleanup Module contains reagents and columns for both the cDNA and the IVT cRNA cleanup.
3
Note: 5x Fragmentation Buffer is included in the GeneChip Sample Cleanup Module.
Appendices
1
5.A.7
S EC T I O N 5
Appendices
Reagent
Vendor
P/N
Volume per
Rxn
Volume in Kit
Rxns per Kit
Hybridization Cocktail (Following quantities are for 49 Format (Standard) Arrays (see Table 2.3.1 for details on other array formats).)
GeneChip® Eukaryotic Hybridization
Control Kit4
Affymetrix
900299 or
900362
---
---
30
150
Herring Sperm DNA
Promega
D1811
3 µL
1 mL
333
Invitrogen
15561-020
3 µL
3 mL (3 X 1)
1,000
---
---
150 µL
50 mL
333
---
---
---
---
---
Acetylated BSA
5
2x MES Hybridization
Buffer6
Mol. Bio. or DEPC-Water
Stain Reagents (Following quantities are for the Antibody Amplification Staining Protocol)
5.A.8
2x MES Stain Buffer7
---
---
900 µL
250 mL
277
DI water
---
---
806.4 µL
---
---
Acetylated BSA5
Invitrogen
15561-020
72 µL
3 mL (3 X 1)
41
Streptavidin Phycoerythrin (SAPE)
Molecular
Probes
S-866
12 µL
1 mL
83
Normal Goat IgG
Sigma
I5256
6 µL
1 mL
166
Biotinylated Antibody
Vector
Labs
BA-0500
3.6 µL
1 mL
277
4
The GeneChip Eukaryotic Hybridization Control Kit contains 20x Eukaryotic Hybridization Controls and Oligo B2.
5
Total Acetylated BSA used for hybridization and stain reagents is 75 µL. Each order of BSA contains 3 mL, so each order is sufficient for 40 samples.
6
See page 2.3.6, for 50 mL. preparation.
7
See page 2.3.6, for 250 mL. preparation.
A P P EN D I X A
Supplier and Reagent Reference List
Reagent List
A
Acetic Acid, Glacial, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N A6283
Acetylated Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) solution, 50 mg/mL, Invitrogen Life Technologies,
P/N 15561020
Ammonium Acetate, 7.5 M, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N A2706
Anti-streptavidin antibody (goat), biotinylated, Vector Laboratories, P/N BA-0500
Antibody (goat), Anti-streptavidin, biotinylated, 0.5 mg, Vector Laboratories, P/N BA-0500
Antibody, IgG, Goat, Reagent Grade, 50 mg, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N I5256
γ-S-ATP, 20 µmoles, Roche Molecular Biochemical, P/N 1162306
B
Bleach (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite), VWR Scientific Products, P/N 21899-504
Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) solution, 50 mg/mL, Acetylated, Invitrogen Life Technologies,
P/N 15561020
C
CHROMA SPIN-100 Columns in Swing Bucket Format, CLONTECH, P/N K1302-1
Control Oligo B2, 30 nM, Affymetrix, P/N 900301
D
dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP, Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, P/N 27-2035-01
Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I), Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, P/N 27-0514-01
DMSO, Hybrid-Max®, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N D2650
DNA, Herring Sperm, Promega Corporation, P/N D1811
DNA Ligase, E. coli, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18052-019
DNA Polymerase, E. coli, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18010-025
DNA Polymerase, T4, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18005-025
dNTP, 10 mM, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18427-013
DTT, 100 mM, Epicentre Technologies, P/N M4410K (supplied with MMLV Reverse Transcriptase)
E
Appendices
EDTA Disodium Salt, 0.5 M solution, 100 mL, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N E7889
EDTA, 0.5 M, pH 8.0, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 15575-020
Enzo® BioArray™ HighYield™ RNA Transcript Labeling Kit, Affymetrix, P/N 900182
Ethidium Bromide, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N E8751
Expression Control Clones, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)
pGIKS-bioB
ATCC 87487
pGIKS-bioC
ATCC 87488
pGIKS-bioD
ATCC 87489
pGIKS-cre
ATCC 87490
pGIBS-lys
ATCC 87482
pGIBS-phe
ATCC 87483
5.A.9
S EC T I O N 5
Appendices
pGIBS-thr
pGIBS-trp
pGIBS-dap
ATCC 87484
ATCC 87485
ATCC 87486
G
GeneChip® Eukaryotic Hybridization Control Kit, Affymetrix, P/N 900299
Glycogen, Ambion, P/N 9510
Glycogen, 20 mg/mL, Roche Molecular Biochemical, P/N 901393
Goat IgG, Reagent Grade, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N I5256
H
HCl, 1N solution, VWR Scientific Products, P/N MK638860
Herring Sperm DNA, Promega Corporation, P/N D1811
Hybridization Oven 640, Affymetrix, P/N 800139
I
ImmunoPure® NeutrAvidin, Pierce Chemical, P/N 31000
ImmunoPure® Streptavidin, Pierce Chemical, P/N 21125
L
10 bp and 100 bp ladder, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 10821-015 and15628-019, respectively
M
Magnesium acetate (MgOAc), Sigma-Aldrich, P/N M2545
MasterPure™ RNA Purification Kit, Epicentre Technologies, P/N MCR85102
MEGAscript T3 Kit, Ambion, P/N 1338
MEGAscript T7 Kit, Ambion, P/N 1334
MES Free Acid Monohydrate SigmaUltra, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N M5287
MES Sodium Salt, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N 5057
MMLV Reverse Transcriptase, New England BioLabs, P/N M0253L
MMLV Reverse Transcriptase Buffer, 10X, New England BioLabs, P/N M0253L
MOPS, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N M3183
N
NaCl, 5 M, RNase-free, DNase-free, Ambion, P/N 9760G
NaOH, 1N Solution, VWR Scientific Products, P/N MK469360
Novex XCell SureLock™ Mini-Cell, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N EI0001
Nuclease-free Water, Ambion, P/N 9930
Nucleotides, labeled, Biotin-11-CTP and Biotin-16-UTP, Enzo, P/N 42818 (CTP) and
P/N 42814 (UTP)
Nucleotides, Biotin-11-CTP, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N B7048
Nucleotides, Biotin-16-UTP, Roche Molecular Biochemicals, P/N 1388908
Nucleotides, Biotin-16-UTP, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N B6923
5.A.10
A P P EN D I X A
Supplier and Reagent Reference List
O
Oligo B2, Control, Control Oligo for the antisense probe array, HPLC purified
5´ -bio GTCGTCAAGATGCTACCGTTCAGGA- 3 ´
Oligotex Direct mRNA Kit, QIAGEN, P/N 72012, 72022, or 72041
Oligotex mRNA Kit, QIAGEN, P/N 70022, 70042, or 70061
P
PBS, pH 7.2, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 20012-027
Pellet Paint, Novagen, P/N 69049-3
PEO-Iodoacetyl-Biotin, 50 mg, Pierce Chemical, P/N 21334ZZ
Phase Lock Gel, Brinkmann Instruments, P/N 955 15 415
Phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol, Ambion, P/N 9732
Phycoerythrin-Streptavidin, Molecular Probes, P/N S-866
Polynucleotide Kinase, T4, New England BioLabs, P/N 201L
Potassium acetate (KOAc), Sigma-Aldrich, P/N P5708
Primer, T7– (dT)24, (Genset Corp), HPLC purified
5´ - GGCCAGTGAATTGTAATACGACTCACTATAGGGAGGCGG-(T)24 - 3´
Q
Qiashredder, QIAGEN, P/N 79654
R
R-Phycoerythrin Streptavidin, Molecular Probes, P/N S-866
Ribonuclease H (RNase H), E. coli, Epicentre Technologies, P/N R0601K
RNA/DNA Mini Column Kit, QIAGEN, P/N 14123
RNase H, E. coli, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18021-021, or Epicentre Technologies,
P/N R0601K
RNeasy Mini Kit, QIAGEN, P/N 74104, 74106
S
Appendices
Second-strand buffer, 5X, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 10812-014
Sodium Acetate, 3 M, pH 5.2, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N S7899
Sodium Hypochlorite, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N 7681-52-9
SSPE, 20X, BioWhittaker Molecular Applications / Cambrex, P/N 51214
Streptavidin, ImmunoPure®, Pierce Chemical, P/N 21125
Sucrose Gel Loading Dye, 5X, Amresco, P/N E-274
SUPERase•In™, Ambion, P/N 2696
SuperScript II RT, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18064-071
SuperScript Choice system, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 18090-019
SYBR Gold, Molecular Probes, P/N S-11494
SYBR Green II, Cambrex, P/N 50523, or Molecular Probes, P/N S7586
5.A.11
S EC T I O N 5
Appendices
T
TBE, 10X, Cambrex, P/N 50843
TBE Gel (4-20%), 1.0 mm, 12 well, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N EC62252
TE, 1X, BioWhittaker Molecular Applications / Cambrex, P/N 51235
Tough-Spots, Label Dots, USA Scientific, P/N 9185
Tris pH 7.0, 1M, Ambion, P/N 9850G
Trizma Base, Sigma-Aldrich, P/N T1503
TRIzol Reagent, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 15596-018
Tubes, Sterile, RNase-free, microcentrifuge, 1.5 mL, USA Scientific, P/N 1415-2600
Tubing, Tygon, 0.04” inner diameter, Cole Parmer, P/N H-06418-04
Tween-20, 10%, Pierce Chemical, P/N 28320
V
Vacuum filter units 1 liter capacity, 0.20 µm or 0.45 µm, Corning, P/N 25988-1L
W
Water, DEPC-Treated, Ambion, P/N 9902
Water, Distilled, Invitrogen Life Technologies, P/N 15230147
Water, Molecular Biology Grade, BioWhittaker Molecular Applications / Cambrex, P/N 51200
5.A.12
701044 Rev. 3
Appendices
Section 5, Appendix B
Section 5, Appendix B
FAQs & Troubleshooting
FAQs
This section contains frequently asked questions related to GeneChip® expression analysis.
Sample Preparation
What is the minimum amount of total RNA I can use for each microarray
experiment?
We currently recommend 5 µg of total RNA for our standard eukaryotic expression arrays.
Reducing the amount of starting material used in the standard assay may result in a
subsequent decrease in sensitivity. Additionally, a Technical Note: GeneChip Eukaryotic
Small Sample Target Labeling Assay Version II is available on www.affymetrix.com
describing a small-sample target-labeling protocol and reporting results from Affymetrix
using this protocol on reduced starting material. Contact Affymetrix Technical Support for
any questions concerning this alternative protocol.
What is the least amount of labeled eukaryotic cRNA target I can put on an array?
You should always use the recommended quantity of cRNA described in this manual.
Please refer to Table 2.3.1 for detailed instructions on the amount of cRNA needed for
different array formats. Although there is a tolerance for some variation in quantity, we have
found that hybridization of significantly less cRNA results in reduced sensitivity,
particularly for low-copy transcripts.
How long can I store my eukaryotic cRNA target after its first hybridization?
Assuming no RNase contamination, cRNA targets can be stored for at least one year at
-80°C without significant loss of signal intensity. The fact that the cRNA is fragmented
prior to hybridization reduces the effects of any subsequent degradation.
What parameters should I use to QC my GeneChip® probe array data?
701044 Rev. 3
1.
RNA sample quality: As described in this manual, the quality of starting RNA is very
important. Ratio of 260/280 absorbance values, as well as appearance of samples by gel
electrophoresis, are suggested methods to detect any degradation of your RNA
samples.
2.
Target labeling: Various QC protocols described in this manual can be employed at
different stopping points of the assay. For example, gel electrophoresis after cDNA
synthesis (if using poly-A mRNA as starting material), after cRNA synthesis, and after
fragmentation is helpful in estimating quantity and size distribution.
Spectrophotometric measurements are also important after cRNA synthesis. Low
Appendices
Quality assessments are critical in obtaining highly reproducible GeneChip probe array
results. QC procedures should be performed at various key checkpoints:
5.B.3
S EC T I O N 5
Appendices
cRNA yield can be a sensitive indicator of problematic labeling procedures and/or
starting material. You may also want to experiment with using real-time PCR analysis
on house-keeping genes after each of these reactions to monitor the efficiency of each
step.
3.
GeneChip array image and basic data analysis. Routine QC parameters to monitor
include visual array inspection, background, scaling factor, noise, 3’/5’ GAPDH and
Actin ratios, and % Present calls.
Can I hybridize samples to an array from a species other than the organism for which
the array was designed?
Affymetrix has not validated the use of GeneChip expression arrays with alternate species.
Although there may be high homology between different species, the sequence differences
may be sufficient to interfere with hybridization, and more importantly, data interpretation.
However, some customers have explored this approach. The following publication is an
example of this type of study. Please note that this reference is listed for the convenience of
our customers and is not endorsed or supported by Affymetrix.
Kayo, T., Allison, D.B., Weindruch, R., Prolla, T.A. Influences of aging and caloric
restriction on the transcriptional profile of skeletal muscles from rhesus monkeys.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 98:5093-5098 (2001).
When I follow your recommended protocol of isolating total RNA from mammalian
tissues, first using TRIzol reagents, then with RNeasy columns, I sometimes see a
reduced recovery off the RNeasy columns.
TRIzol reagents and RNeasy columns are based on very different principles for nucleic
acids purification. RNeasy columns exclude certain contaminants that may give rise to a
falsely higher spectrophotometric reading, including carried-over phenol and transcripts
shorter than 200 nucleotides in length. These shorter transcripts include the 5S rRNA and
tRNA molecules that may account for 10% or more of the total RNA isolated.
To verify that the RNA of interest has been cleaned up efficiently during column
purification, it may be helpful to run aliquots of your samples on a gel or perform some
gene-specific real-time PCR quantitation. In addition, you can estimate how much total
RNA you anticipate to recover since the yield is highly dependent on tissue type. These
reference numbers can be obtained through your own experience or can be found in
published literature, for example, the RNeasy Mini HandBook (www.qiagen.com/literature/
handbooks/rna/rnamini/1016272HBRNY_062001WW.pdf).
If you continue to observe significant loss of material on RNeasy columns, please contact
QIAGEN Technical Support directly.
5.B.4
A P P EN D I X B
FAQs & Troubleshooting
Does the GeneChip® Sample Cleanup Module generate comparable results relative to
the previously recommended phenol/chloroform extraction for cDNA purification?
Highly concordant results have been obtained during our product development process by
comparing global array hybridization results obtained from samples cleaned up with both
protocols. The concordance was determined based on the overall signal intensity, as well as
the qualitative calls. However, due to the different mechanisms associated with each
cleanup procedure, there will be minor differences in the data obtained. For example, cDNA
cleanup column reduces the recovery of fragments of 100 nucleotides or less, whereas these
fragments are retained in the phenol/chloroform method. However, we do believe these
differences are minor in magnitude. Customers are encouraged to perform their own
comparisons and analysis to determine when to adopt the Sample Cleanup Module into
their laboratories.
Hybridization, Washing, and Staining
What happens if the hybridization time is extended beyond 16 hours?
The standard gene expression hybridization time is 14-16 hours at 45°C. At high
temperatures or with longer incubation times, the sample will evaporate. Loss of sample is
undesirable for several reasons:
1.
Low volume of hybridization solution in the probe array can lead to dry spots that will
show up as uneven hybridization and, thus, compromise data.
2.
Sample loss compromises the possibility of repeating the experiment with the identical
sample.
3.
Sample evaporation can lead to changes in the salt concentration of the solution, which
can affect the stringency conditions for hybridization.
How many times can I scan an array before the data is affected?
It is always best to capture the data on the initial scan. Scanning bleaches the fluorophore
and will result in reduction in signal intensity of 10-20% with each scan of the GeneArray®
Scanner and 3-5% with each scan of the GeneChip® Scanner 3000. Therefore, subsequent
scans will not give signals equivalent to the initial scan.
How often do I need to do maintenance on the fluidics station?
Appendices
With normal use (e.g., 20 arrays/module/week), we recommend the following schedule:
Every week, the needle bleaching protocol (i.e., “Bleach” fluidic protocol) should be
performed; on a monthly basis, the full-fluidics bleaching protocol (i.e., “Monthly
Decontamination” protocol) should be performed and the peristaltic-pump tubing replaced.
Please refer to Section 4, Fluidics Station Maintenance Procedures, for more detail.
5.B.5
S EC T I O N 5
Appendices
What fluidic script do I use?
The appropriate fluidic script is specific to the array format and the organism (eukaryotic or
prokaryotic)), and the model of Fluidics Station being used. Scripts for FS-450 and FS-250
are identified by a ‘_450’ suffix. Information on the array format and appropriate script is
contained in the package insert that comes with each array package. Please refer to the
hybridization protocols in the respective sections of this manual for more detail.
Is there a possibility of contaminating the fluidics station with RNase when gene
expression, genotyping, and health management applications are being performed on
a shared station?
It is extremely important to change the vials each time a sample is removed or loaded onto a
probe array. This prevents cross-contamination, as well as sample loss. RNase
contamination is not an issue with gene expression applications due to the fact that the
cRNA sample is fragmented prior to hybridization and is removed prior to array processing
on the fluidics station.
I have a bubble in the array. How do I get rid of it?
After the final wash on the fluidics station, if the door is still open, place the array in the
probe array holder and close the door. The fluidics module will automatically run a drain
and fill protocol with buffer A. If one cycle does not remove the bubble, repeat the process
and try again. If this doesn’t work or the door has already been closed, manually drain the
array and refill with buffer A.
What are the safe stopping points in the assay?
It is safe to stop work after each of the major steps in the sample preparation process:
first-strand cDNA synthesis, second-strand synthesis, IVT, fragmentation, or after preparing
the hybridization cocktail. If possible, work with extracted RNA samples immediately
rather than freezing them. Although it is common practice to use stored, frozen RNA
samples in the process, eliminating freeze-thaws will most likely yield higher quality
cRNA.
5.B.6
A P P EN D I X B
FAQs & Troubleshooting
Data Analysis
I have observed on occasion that multiple _at probe sets are mapped to the same gene
but give different expression results. How do I reconcile the difference?
There are various reasons why this happens. With increasing knowledge of the genome, the
unique probe sets (_at probe sets) that were initially designed may turn out to represent
subclusters that have collapsed into a single cluster in a later design. Therefore, it may seem
that multiple “unique” _at probe sets now correspond to a single gene.
Different results from the probe sets could be observed due to the following reasons:
1.
They represent splice variants or may cross-hybridize to different members that belong
to a highly similar gene family or transcripts with different poly-A sites
2.
One probe set is more 5’ than the other
3.
One probe set is better designed than the other
In these cases, it is important to use the resources available on the NetAffx™ Analysis
Center (www.affymetrix.com) to understand if any of the above scenarios apply. Other
expression analysis techniques may also be used to confirm which probe set reflects the
transcript level more accurately.
What 3’/5’ ratio for control genes, for example GAPDH and Actin, should I anticipate
to obtain on GeneChip probe arrays?
In addition to the conventional probe sets designed to be within the most 3’ 600 bases of a
transcript, additional probe sets in the 5’ region and middle portion (M) of the transcript
have also been selected for certain housekeeping genes, including GAPDH and Actin.
Signal intensity ratio of the 3’ probe set over the 5’ probe set is often referred to as the 3’/5’
ratio. This ratio gives an indication of the integrity of your starting RNA, efficiency of firststrand cDNA synthesis, and/or in vitro transcription of cRNA. The signal of each probe set
reflects the sequence of the probes and their hybridization properties. A 1:1 molar ratio of
the 3’ to 5’ transcript regions will not necessarily give a signal ratio of 1.
Appendices
There is no single threshold cutoff to assess sample quality for all of the diverse organisms
and tissues. This is due to the presence of different isoforms of these house-keeping genes
and their different expression patterns in various tissues and organisms. Although we
routinely refer to a threshold ratio of less than 3 for the most common tissues, such as
mammalian liver and brain, this may not be applicable to all situations. It may be more
appropriate to document the 3’/5’ ratios within a particular study and flag the results that
deviate, therefore representing an unusual sample that deserves further investigation.
5.B.7
S EC T I O N 5
Appendices
Can results from different laboratories and different times be compared with each
other directly, and how do you control the variables in this type of experiment?
Array results can potentially be compared directly. However, it is important to check the
following important elements before doing so:
1.
Experimental design strategy should be the same at various sites.
2.
Identical target labeling protocols should be followed, and yields from cDNA and IVT
reactions should be within the same range as specified for that study.
3.
Scanners are adjusted to the same PMT setting.
4.
Same algorithm parameters are used.
5.
Similar results from 3’/5’ ratios, background, noise, and scaling factors. Check arrays
for scratches and even hybridization/staining.
6.
Comparability of results obtained from different operators should be evaluated before
including their results in the same study.
Affymetrix® Microarray Suite (MAS) is on the C: drive, which is low on space. How
can I create more room on the hard drive?
The library and data files can be moved to another drive, then deleted from the C: drive.
After moving the files, remember to change your library file default settings in MAS to the
appropriate directory by clicking on the Tools tab, and then select Defaults in the dropdown menu, then File locations tab in the Defaults window.
What is the difference between scaling and normalization when I scale or normalize
my data to all genes on the array?
With scaling, you select an arbitrary target intensity and scale the average intensity of all
genes (minus the highest 2% and lowest 2% Signal values) on each array within a data set to
that number. This enables you to compare multiple arrays within a data set. The scaling
factor remains the same for a particular array as long as you use the same arbitrary target
intensity for scaling. Scaling can be performed independent of the comparison analysis.
On the other hand, normalization can only be done when performing a comparison analysis.
It compares an experimental array with a baseline array and normalizes the average
intensity of all genes (minus the highest 2% and lowest 2% Signal values) of the
experimental array to the corresponding average intensity of the baseline array when
running a comparison analysis in MAS. The normalization factor for a particular array
changes when you change the comparison baseline array.
How important is it to evaluate the value of the Scaling Factor between different
arrays?
Scaling Factor is the multiplication factor applied to each Signal value on an array. A
Scaling Factor of 1.0 indicates that the average array intensity is equal to the Target
Intensity. Scaling Factors will vary across different samples and there are no set guidelines
for any particular sample type. However, if they differ by too much within a set of
experiments, approximately 3-fold or more, this indicates wide variation in the .dat files.
Therefore, the analyzed data (in the .chp file) should be treated with caution.
5.B.8
A P P EN D I X B
FAQs & Troubleshooting
Should I always anticipate the hybridization controls, bioB, bioC, bioD, and cre, to be
called as Present?
The four transcripts are added to the hybridization cocktail at staggered concentrations. At
1.5 pM, bioB is at the detection limit for most expression arrays and is anticipated to be
called Present at least 70% of the time. In contrast, the other controls should be called
Present all of the time, with increasing Signal values (bioC, bioD, and cre, respectively).
Absent calls, or relatively low Signal values, indicate a potential problem with the
hybridization reaction or subsequent washing and staining steps. Check to see if the
hybridization cocktail was prepared correctly, if the recommended hybridization
temperature and Fluidic Protocol were used, and make sure the SAPE staining solution did
not deteriorate.
Other than qualitative calls and Signal values, the 3’/5’ ratio data for these controls are not
as informative since they do not relate to the quality of the samples and data.
What does high background mean?
A high background implies that impurities, such as cell debris and salts, are binding to the
probe array in a nonspecific manner, and that these substances are fluorescing at 570 nm
(the scanning wavelength). This nonspecific binding causes a low signal-to-noise ratio
(SNR), meaning that genes for transcripts present at very low levels in the sample may be
incorrectly called as Absent. High background creates an overall loss of sensitivity in the
experiment.
What are masks?
Masks are rarely used features in MAS. There are three types of mask files:
Image mask files: You may want to use an image mask if there is a large visible aberration
on an image. You define the image mask based on the physical location of the image. Probe
pairs included in the mask are excluded from the analysis. Image masks are associated with
a given .dat/.cel file and cannot be used on other images.
Probe mask files: Probe masks are defined by the probe set and probe pair number. Probe
pairs included in this type of probe mask are excluded from the analysis when the probe
mask is used. Probe masks can be applied across a data set. For a detailed description,
please refer to Affymetrix Microarray Suite User’s Guide (P/N 701099).
A second type of probe mask defines a select group of probe sets that can be used in
normalization or scaling. Please refer to Affymetrix Microarray Suite User’s Guide where
this type of probe set mask file is described.
If I realign the grid, how do I create a new .cel file?
Appendices
If manual adjustment of the grid is necessary, the corresponding .cel file present at the time
of adjustment will no longer be a valid representation of the realigned image data.
Microarray Suite automatically detects this situation either on initial reopening of the
readjusted .dat file or during the analysis process. Once the readjusted .dat file is opened,
the .cel file is automatically created. The user does not need to carry out any overt steps to
accomplish this.
5.B.9
S EC T I O N 5
Appendices
How do I add additional probe sets in the .rpt file?
Use the Report Settings dialog on the short cut menu in Microarray Suite to open the
Expression Report. You may add any probe sets desired by simply typing in the probe set
name(s) you wish to add (this can also be accomplished by cutting and pasting from a text
file). Keep in mind that the probe set name must be entered exactly as it appears in the
analysis file, including the suffixes, such as “12345_s_at”.
Why can I not analyze data files stored on a CD?
Files in CD-ROM format are copied to the hard drive in read-only mode. MAS requires that
this attribute be removed. To do this, open NT Explorer and select the file(s) you copied
from the CD. Click the right mouse button and select Properties. Clear the Read-only
check box near the bottom of the Properties screen and click OK.
How can the mismatch probe cell have a higher intensity than its corresponding
perfect match probe cell?
There could be a number of causes for this. It is possible that this probe sequence has high
homology with another unknown sequence, resulting in a high mismatch-to-perfect match
ratio. Another possibility is a mutation or set of mutations in the sequence of the target
transcript, which causes specific binding to the Mismatch. Regardless of the cause, the
built-in redundancy using multiple probe pairs to represent a single sequence on the probe
array mitigates any significant impact on the final interpretation of the data.
There are too many files showing in the file window in Microarray Suite. What can I
do?
By placing files for projects in their own directories and changing the default settings for
data in Microarray Suite appropriately, you can manage large numbers of files.
In addition, with the Windows 2000 operating system, users can specify their own directory
defaults in Microarray Suite while logging on and create their own directories for data. To
do so, each user should have a unique logon name and organize files in subdirectories, for
example, by project, user, date, or lab. Each user can then set the data default to a
subdirectory of choice.
Experimental Design
Which is greater, sample or assay variability?
Sample variability, which arises mainly from biological heterogeneity, is certainly higher
than assay variability, and has been estimated to be at least 10-fold greater. We recommend
that researchers run multiple samples per data point to account for sample-to-sample
variability. In addition, carefully design the experiment in order to minimize potential
variation associated with the samples.
5.B.10
A P P EN D I X B
FAQs & Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
Problem
Likely Cause
Solution
High 3’/5’ ratio
Most often caused by degradation of the RNA
during the isolation process.
Start with a fresh sample and minimize the
possibility of RNase activity. Look for the presence
of Ribosomal RNA bands on a non-denaturing
agarose gel.
Low cRNA yield
Low RNA quality, which interferes with reverse
transcription and subsequent labeling.
It sometimes helps to do a Trizol-based isolation
followed by cleanup with an RNeasy column. For
samples with a high lipid content, such as brain, use
procedures to reduce the lipid content prior to the
reverse transcription reaction.
Sample Quality
Enzo® BioArray™ HighYield™ RNA Transcript Labeling Kit
Apparent insufficient volume in
reagent tubes
The reagent tubes are opened before
centrifugation.
The small volume may be expelled by opening. The
tubes should be centrifuged briefly before use to
ensure that reagents remain at the bottom of the
tube.
Precipitation in the reaction
buffer
After many freeze-thaw cycles, a precipitate
may form.
Centrifuge briefly to remove precipitate before use.
The precipitate formation does not interfere with the
reaction.
Low yield
Poor quality template.
Check starting material quality.
Loss in enzyme activity.
Repeat IVT.
Incorrect DTT concentration due to DTT
precipitation prior to addition to the IVT
reaction.
Repeat IVT.
Reaction temperature is not set appropriately.
Repeat IVT.
Low or absent Oligo B2
hybridization
Addition of control Oligo B2 and hybridization,
washing or staining.
Make sure that the Control Oligo B2 has been added
to the hybridization cocktail at the correct
concentration. Also, check the makeup of the
hybridization buffer, the stain solution, and
hybridization temperature.
Dim Corners
In need of fluidics maintenance.
Bleach the fluidics as recommended and change the
peristaltic pump tubing. If the problem persists, call
Affymetrix Technical Support.
Dim Arrays
Hybridization problems.
Check the signal from control Oligo B2 to see if the
signals are also weak. If it appears to be a
hybridization issue, check all hybridization reagents
and equipment settings before running another
assay. Test arrays can be useful for troubleshooting
this issue.
Sample preparation problems.
Re-check each of the quality control procedures
recommended in the manual, such as absorbance
measurement and running an aliquot on gel, to
ensure that there is no significant loss of sample
during target preparation due to manipulation of the
sample or RNase contamination.
Also see above for “low cRNA yield”.
Leaking septa are most often created during
the array filling with a pipette.
Be sure to use pipette tips without a beveled end.
When filling the arrays, be careful to push the
pipette tip straight through the septum and maintain
a constant perpendicular angle during filling and
draining of the array.
Leaking septa
Appendices
Image / Array Quality
5.B.11
S EC T I O N 5
Appendices
Problem
Likely Cause
Solution
In Microarray Suite (MAS), I
received the error message,
“Could not find the .cif file.”
The default path for the library files in MAS is
incorrect.
Set the correct path for the library files.
The library files for those specific arrays are not
installed on the computer.
Install the library files for that array, making sure to
check the box appropriate for that array during the
installation process.
The probe array type is missing
from the pull-down menu when
creating an .exp file.
The default path for the library files in MAS is
incorrect.
Set the correct path for the library files.
The library files for those specific arrays are not
installed on the computer.
Install the library files for that array, making sure to
check the box appropriate for that array during the
installation process.
The fluidics protocols are
missing from the pull-down
menu in the Fluidics control
window.
The default path for the protocol files in MAS is
incorrect.
Check that the location of the fluidics files on the
hard drive corresponds to the default protocol path
in MAS.
The library files are not installed on the
computer.
Install the library files, making sure the protocols are
in the same directory as the default path set in
MAS.
After putting the computer on
the network, the probe array
descriptions are not available
and a SQL error message
appears.
When networking computers, the name of the
computer is often changed to correspond to an
organization’s standard conventions. This
results in a breakdown of the connection
between MAS and the Microsoft Data Engine
(MSDE).
After the computer is renamed, uninstall MAS and
MSDE and reinstall MAS.
Software Problems
Microarray Suite is on the
C: drive and it’s filling up.
The gene descriptions show up
for some users and not for
others.
5.B.12
The library and protocol files can be moved (or
dragged) to another, larger drive. Remember to
change the default path for the library and protocol
files in MAS, and modify this path for each log in
name. In addition, GeneChip data should always be
stored locally on the largest available drive on the
workstation.
This is a result of different security settings
between users and administrators of the
workstation.
Call Affymetrix Technical Support for information on
how to change the registry to correct this.
701045 Rev. 3
Appendices
Section 5, Appendix C
Section 5, Appendix C
List of Controls on GeneChip Probe Arrays
Table 5.C.1
Control Genes on GeneChip® probe arrays
Array Type
Eukaryotic
Arrays
Origin of
Organism
Control Gene
Name
Utility for GeneChip® Experiments
synthetic
B2 Oligo
Grid alignment.
Associated
Affymetrix
Products
Control Oligo B2, P/N
900301
Section 2, Chapter 2
and Chapter 3
E. coli
bioB
bioC
bioD
P1 Bacteriophage
cre
Antisense biotinylated cRNA are used as
hybridization controls.
GeneChip Eukaryotic
Hybridization Control
Kit,
P/N 900299
Section 2, Chapter 3
B. subtilis
Prokaryotic
Arrays
synthetic
dap
thr
trp
phe
lys
Poly-A-tailed sense RNA can be produced by IVT
and spiked into isolated RNA samples as controls
for the labeling and hybridization process. The
spikes can also be used to estimate assay
sensitivity.
N/A
B2 Oligo
Grid alignment.
Control Oligo B2, P/N
900301
Section 2, Chapter 2
Section 3, Chapter 3
dap
thr
trp
phe
lys
Sense RNA can be produced by IVT and spiked
into purified sample RNA as control for the
labeling and hybridization process. The spikes can
also be used to estimate assay sensitivity.
N/A
Section 3, Chapter 2
and Chapter 3
Appendices
B. subtilis
701045 Rev. 3
5.C.3
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