User Manual Version 3.71

N E T I N T E G R AT I O N T E C H N O L O G I E S I N C .
N E T
I N T E G R A T O R
User Manual
Version 3.71
This device complies with CAN/CSA-C22.2 No.950-95, UL 1950 Third Edition,
and IEC 950 (1991).
This device also complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to
the following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference
and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference
that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with
the limits for a Class B digital devices, pursuant to Part 15 of the
FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a residential installation.
This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency
energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the
instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference
will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does
cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which
can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the interference by one of more of the
following measures:
•
•
•
•
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to
which the receiver is connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by Net
Integration Technologies Inc. could void the user's authority to
operate the equipment.
Publication Date: December, 2002
Chapter 1
First-time Setup
11
Net Integrator Technical Support 11
Net Integrator Components 11
Meet Your Net Integrator 13
Connecting the Power 15
Ethernet Connections 15
Connecting Ethernet Port 0 16
Connecting Ethernet Ports 1 and 2 17
Connecting an Internal Dial-up Modem 18
Connecting an External Dial-up Modem 18
Power-up Sequence 19
Manually Setting the IP Address 20
Chapter 2
Connecting to WebConfig
What is WebConfig? 21
Configuring TCP/IP 21
Creating an Administrator Account
System Status Screen 36
Chapter 3
21
32
Configuring your Net
Integrator 41
Proceeding with Configuration 41
Configuring General Network Settings 41
Configuring Advanced Network Settings 43
Network Devices 44
Network Routes 46
Network Configuration Scenarios 48
Configuring your Internet Connection 51
Chapter 4
DoubleVision
55
What is DoubleVision? 55
Modem Connections 56
Chapter 5
User & Team Management
Service Integration 57
User Accounts 58
Modifying User Email Settings
Team Accounts 63
Chapter 6
File Services
57
61
67
File Sharing Services 67
Configuring File Services 67
Chapter 7
Domain Controller
69
What is a Domain Controller? 69
Configuring the Domain Controller 69
Joining Windows Systems to a Domain 70
File Mounting 76
Import Users from Windows 77
Logon Scripts 81
Automated Drive Mapping 81
Chapter 8
Print Services
83
Net Integrator Print Services 83
Configuring Print Services 83
Configuring your Workstation 84
Chapter 9
Email Services
87
Components of the Email System
Configuring Email Service 88
Configuring DNS Records 91
Configuring Email Clients 92
Advanced Email Settings 94
LDAP Server 95
Chapter 10
WebMail
87
99
WebMail Server 99
Accessing WebMail 99
Configuring WebMail 103
Composing an Email Message 104
Opening a Received Message 105
Replying to a Message 106
Search Function 106
Address Book 107
Calendar 109
Tasks 111
Memos 112
Mail Filters 112
Chapter 11
Web Services
115
Web Server 115
Master Web Server 115
Virtual Web Servers 119
Hosting Multiple Web Sites
Secure Web Services 122
Web Caching 123
121
Chapter 12
Web Filtering
125
Positive Web Filtering 125
Enabling the Web Filter 125
Providing Full Internet Access 126
Adding Permitted Websites 127
Accepting Access Requests 127
Denying Access Requests 128
Entering Access Requests 129
Chapter 13
FTP Services
131
FTP Server 131
Anonymous FTP Server 131
Enabling the FTP Server 132
Enabling FTP Access 133
Chapter 14
Backup & Restore
135
Intelligent Disk Backup (idb) 135
Configuring idb 136
Initiating an idb Backup 137
idb Restore 139
Initiating an idb Restore 139
Tape Backup 141
Initiating a Tape Backup 142
Tape Restore 146
Initiating a Tape Restore 146
Chapter 15
Software Update
149
Software Updates 149
Upgrading your Net Integrator
149
Chapter 16
TunnelVision
153
Private Networks 153
Virtual Private Networks 153
How TunnelVision Works 155
Creating a VPN (server-to-server) 156
Configuring a TunnelVision Master Server 157
Configuring a TunnelVision Client 158
TunnelVision Status 159
The Idle Time-out 159
IPsec: An alternative to TunnelVision 159
Adding an IPsec route 160
Editing an IPsec route 161
Chapter 17
Remote Access Services
What is RAS? 163
Client-to-Server VPN Service
Dial-in Service 168
Chapter 18
Firewall Services
163
163
173
ICSA Firewall Security Certification
Traffic Denied Inbound 173
Traffic Permitted Inbound 174
Traffic Permitted Outbound 174
Firewall Log 175
Chapter 19
Domain Name Services
What is DNS? 177
DNS Services 177
Configuring Public DNS
178
173
177
How the DNS System Works 179
Dynamic DNS 180
Manually Creating DNS Entries 180
Chapter 20
Workstation Viewer
185
What is the Workstation Viewer? 185
Accessing the Workstation Viewer 185
Virtual Network Computing (VNC) 186
Configuring VNC 186
Chapter 21
FastForward
189
What is FastForward? 189
Introduction to TCP/IP 189
Proxy Servers 191
Configuring FastForward 193
Forwarding Scenarios 195
Multiple Static IP Addresses 196
Common Port Numbers 196
Troubleshooting FastForward 197
Chapter 22
Disk Management
199
Disk Configuration (idb and RAID) 199
Reconfiguring your Disks 200
Disk Status Messages 202
Recovering from Disk Failure 203
Disk Recovery (SystemER) 205
Hard Disk Failure 205
Installing a New Hard Drive 206
Chapter 23
MySQL Server
209
What is the MySQL Server? 209
What is phpMyAdmin? 209
Managing Databases in phpMyAdmin 210
Setting up Windows for MySQL Access 214
What is a Dynamic Web Site? 218
Chapter 24
Log Messages
219
Accessing Log Messages 219
Customizing Message Display 220
Firewall Log 220
Network File System 223
What is NFS? 223
Installing and Configuring ugidd 223
Mounting an NFS directory 224
Unmounting an NFS Directory 224
Glossary 225
First-time Setup
Chapter 1
Net Integrator Technical Support
Net Integration Technologies’ toll-free technical support line:
1-86-NET-ITECH (1-866-384-8324)
Outside of North America call 905-946-1777, ext. 400
Hours of operation: 8:30 am to 5:30 pm EST, Monday to Friday
Email support questions to support@net-itech.com.
Net Integrator Components
You should have received the following components in your Net Integrator package (photos
are not to scale):
1.
Net Integrator Server (1)
2.
Net Integrator User Manual (1)
3.
Quick Start Guide (1)
4.
Hard Disk Keys (2)
5.
Power supply cord (1)
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6.
10baseT cables (3)
7.
Modem cable (1) (Optional)
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Meet Your Net Integrator
Front View
The following image is of a Net Integrator idb model. Net Integrator ‘tape’ models are similar to idb models but are equipped with a tape backup drive instead of an Intelligent Disk
Backup (idb) system.
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
1.
Power button – used to turn the box on and off.
2.
Internet Status light – lights up when you are connected to the Internet.
3.
Removable hard disk tray(s) – houses the hard disk(s).
4.
Hard disk key lock – locks the hard disk in place.
5.
Control panel – contains the display panel and all control buttons.
6.
Display panel – displays the status of the Net Integrator.
7.
Direction arrows – used to execute commands from the control panel.
8.
Enter and Cancel buttons – used to execute commands from the control panel.
9.
Backup and Restore buttons – used to initiate backup and restore procedures.
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First-time Setup
Back View
1
2
3
10
11
4
12
5
6
7
8
9
1.
Main power switch – used to turn the box off. The main power switch must be turned
on for the power button on the front panel to work.
2.
AC power selector – indicates the voltage used in your country.
3.
Power socket – where the power cord is connected.
4.
Serial port – for an external dial-up modem.
5.
Extra ports – ports reserved for future use.
6.
Ethernet Port 0 – used to connect to the local area network (LAN).
7.
Ethernet Port 1 – used to connect to a LAN segment or to the Internet.
8.
Ethernet Port 2 – used to connect to a LAN segment or to the Internet.
9.
Dial-up modem port – used to connect to the Internet using a dial-up modem. (Optional)
10.
Power supply fan – provides cooling for internal components.
11.
Primary and secondary cooling fans – provides additional cooling for internal components.
12.
Parallel printer port – used for a shared printer.
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Connecting the Power
1.
Ensure that the Net Integrator has adequate ventilation. Place the back of the unit at least
one to two feet (12"-24") away from the wall. Make sure the front of the unit is easily
accessible.
2.
Connect one end of the power cord into the power socket on the back of the Net
Integrator:
3.
Connect the other end of the cord into a standard power outlet.
4.
Turn on the main power switch (located above the power cord).
Ethernet Connections
What is Ethernet?
Ethernet connects computers in a local area network (LAN). An Ethernet connection is very
fast, and unlike modem and ISDN connections, one Ethernet network can have many computers attached to it. There are two different kinds of Ethernet cables: 10base2 and
10baseT/100baseT. Networks generally use one or the other, although it is possible to combine them in certain situations.
Net Integrator can connect with either10baseT cables (which transmit data at 10 Mbps) or
with 100baseT cables (which transmit data at 100 Mbps). Because 10baseT and 100baseT
cables are faster and more reliable than 10base2 cables, we suggest that you use either of
these to set up your local area network (LAN). 10baseT and 100baseT Hubs
10base T and 100baseT hubs have a number of ports that you connect to a workstation,
router, server, printer, or other device using an ethernet cable (which is similar to a phone
cable). Connect your Net Integrator to a free port using one of the 10baseT cables that came
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First-time Setup
with your Net Integrator. If the port lights up after you connect and then turn on your Net
Integrator, you have a proper connection.
You can attach another hub to one of the ports, thereby increasing the total number of ports
(although we recommend that you consult the manual that comes with your hub before trying
this).
Connecting Ethernet Port 0
1.
Connect one end of a 10BaseT ethernet cable into Ethernet Port 0 (located on the back of
your Net Integrator).
2.
Connect the other end of the cable into your LAN hub or switch.
Please Note: Ethernet Port 0 should not be connected to a router providing Internet access. Ethernet
Port 0 is typically used/reserved for internal/Local Network access. Please consult with your IT specialists
for maximum security/configurability.
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Connecting Ethernet Ports 1 and 2
Ethernet ports 1 and 2 are used to connect to the Internet or to other segments of your LAN.
Use a 10baseT ethernet cable if you are connecting to a high-speed Internet connection with
a router, cable modem, or DSL modem. Some DSL and cable modems require standard
cables. In this case, use the cable provided to you by your ISP.
If you are using your Net Integrator as a workgroup server without a direct connection to the
Internet, it is possible to use Ethernet ports 1 and 2 to connect to other segments of the LAN.
This is typically done to improve network throughputs when large numbers of users are connected to Net Integrator.
Please Note: Secondary segments must be physically separate from the primary network segment connected to the ethernet 0 port. You cannot connect all ethernet ports to the same segment in order to
improve network throughput.
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First-time Setup
Connecting an Internal Dial-up Modem
(Optional)
1.
Connect one end of a standard telephone cable into the Analog Modem (Line) port on the
back of your Net Integrator.
2.
Connect the other end of the cable to your telephone wall jack.
Please Note: Make sure that your telephone jack provides a standard analog telephone line. Net
Integrator cannot connect to digital lines provided by some PBX telephone systems.
Connecting an External Dial-up Modem
(Optional)
1.
Connect the cable included with your own external dial-up modem to the Serial port on
the back of your Net Integrator.
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2.
Connect one end of the standard telephone cable to the external modem, and connect the
other end to your telephone wall jack.
Please Note: The external modem will be auto-detected when the server goes through a power-up
sequence.
Power-up Sequence
1.
Turn on the main power switch (on the back of your Net Integrator).
2.
Press the Power button.
3.
Net Integrator needs a few moments to start up. During the start-up you will observe the
following sequence of events:
a.
The hard drive and fans start up.
b.
Net Integrator beeps several times.
c.
HELLO appears on the display panel.
d.
Let your Net Integrator sit undisturbed while it discovers its surroundings and autoconfigures its network parameters. Messages indicating what kind of network discovery is being performed appear on the display panel. After about 10-30 seconds, the IP
address that Net Integrator has chosen for itself displays. The number will look something like this: 192.168.0.1 (based on the LAN to which it’s connected).
e.
When the start-up sequence is over, the display panel shows the status of various Net
Integrator systems. The first line on the display panel shows Net Integrator's IP
address; the second line cycles messages displaying the current date, time, and operat-
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ing system version. You are ready to proceed with the setup when an IP address
appears on the display panel. In the event that the Net Integrator Server is unable to
detect an appropriate IP address for your LAN, you will have to manually set the IP
address for the server. Refer to Manually Setting the IP Address for more information.
Manually Setting the IP Address
Follow these steps if your Net Integrator is unable to automatically select an IP address (the
display continues to read Choosing Address) or if you want to change the chosen address:
1.
Press the Enter button on control panel. The following menu displays:
MENU [Net] Info
Dialer System
2.
[Net] is already selected. Press the Enter button. The following menu displays:
NETWORK [IPAddr]
Netmask DHCP
3.
[IPAddr] is already selected. Press the Enter button. The current IP address
(192.168.0.1, for example) displays. If Net Integrator was unable to select an IP
address, 0.0.0.0 displays.
4.
Use the Left and Right direction arrows to move the cursor from digit to digit. Use the Up
and Down direction arrows to increase or decrease a digit’s value.
5.
Press the Enter button. The new IP address is saved.
6.
Navigate to Netmask using the direction arrows. Press Enter. The default Netmask displays.
7.
Use the Left and Right direction arrows to move the cursor from digit to digit. Use the Up
and Down direction arrows to increase or decrease a digit’s value.
8.
Press the Enter button. The new Netmask is saved.
9.
You may also turn on or off the DHCP server (which automatically assigns IP addresses
to the workstations connected to your local network). Unless you have some other server
providing DHCP services, it is recommended that you turn DHCP on. To do so, navigate
to DHCP using the direction arrows. Press the Enter button.
10.
Navigate to On using the direction arrows. Press Enter. The DHCP server is now on.
11.
Press the Cancel button twice to return back to the standard status display.
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WebConfig
Chapter 2
What is WebConfig?
Although some basic system configuration can be done through the front control panel, the
web-based configuration system (WebConfig) is where you will set most Net Integrator
options.
Configuring TCP/IP
Before you can access WebConfig, you have to configure your workstation to use TCP/IP. If
TCP/IP is already configured, proceed to Creating an Administrator Account (later in this
chapter). If TCP/IP is not configured, follow the appropriate steps for your operating system.
For Windows 95/98/ME:
1.
In Windows, select Start > Settings > Control Panel. The Control Panel window displays:
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2.
Select Network from the list. The Network window displays:
Click on the Add button if TCP/IP does not display in the installed components list.
3.
The Select Network Component window displays:
Select Protocol from the window. Click Add.
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4.
The Select Network Protocol window displays:
Select Microsoft in the Manufacturers section of the window. Select TCP/IP in the Network Protocols section of the window. Click on the OK button. TCP/IP should now display on the Network window.
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5.
Select TCP/IP from the installed components list on the Network window. Click on the
Properties button. The TCP/IP Properties window displays:
6.
Click on the IP Address tab. Select Obtain an IP address automatically.
7.
Click on the DNS tab. Select Enable DNS.
8.
Select all entries in the DNS Server Search Order section of the window and click on the
Remove button.
9.
Select all entries in the Domain Suffix Search Order section of the window and click on
the Remove button.
10.
Select Obtain an IP address automatically.
11.
Click on the Gateway tab. Select any entries in the Installed gateways section of the window and click on the Remove button.
12.
Click on the WINS Configuration tab. Select all entries in the WINS Server Search Order
section of the screen and click on the Remove button. Select Use DHCP for WINS Resolution.
13.
Click on the OK button. The Network window displays. Click on the OK button again.
14.
Reboot your computer.
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For Windows 2000/XP:
1.
In Windows, select Start > Settings > Control Panel (or in Windows XP, Start > Control
Panel).
2.
Select Network and Dial-up Connections from the list. The Network Connections screen
displays:
3.
Click on Local Area Connection. The Local Area Connection window displays:
Click on Properties.
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4.
The Local Area Connection Properties window displays:
If Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is not in the This connection uses the following items list,
click on Install.
5.
The Select Network Component Type displays:
Select Protocol from the window. Click on Add.
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6.
The Select Protocol window displays:
Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) from the list. Click OK. TCP/IP should now display
on the Local Area Connection Properties window.
7.
Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) from the list, and click on the Properties button.
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8.
The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties screen displays:
Select Obtain IP Address automatically. Select Obtain DNS server address automatically.
9.
Click on the Advanced button. The Advanced TCP/IP Settings window displays:
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Select any entries in the Default gateways section of the window, and click on the
Remove button.
10.
Click on the DNS tab. Select any entries in the DNS server addresses section of the window, and click on Remove. Select Append primary and connection specific DNS suffixes.
Select Append parent suffixes and primary DNS suffixes.
11.
Click on the WINS tab. Select any entries in the WINS addresses section of the window,
and click on Remove. Select the Default NetBios setting.
12.
Click on OK. Click on the OK button on the TCP/IP Properties screen.
13.
Reboot your computer.
For Mac OS 9:
1.
Click on the Apple icon in the top menu bar. Select Control Panel > TCP/IP.
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The TCP/IP window displays:
2.
Select Connect via Ethernet. Select Connect via DHCP. Leave the other fields blank.
3.
Click on the Close Window button. The Save screen displays:
Click on Save.
4.
If the Internet connection doesn’t function immediately, reboot your computer.
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For Mac OS X:
1.
Click on the Apple icon in the top menu bar. Select Control Panel > System Preferences.
The System Preferences window displays:
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2.
Click on the Network icon. The Network screen displays:
3.
Select Automatic for location. Select Built-in Ethernet for connection. In the TCP/IP
tab, select the DHCP configuration.
4.
Click on the Apply Now button.
5.
If the Internet connection doesn’t function immediately, reboot your computer.
Creating an Administrator Account
At this point, your Net Integrator should have an IP address, your workstation should have
TCP/IP configured, and both your Net Integrator and your workstation should be connected
to the LAN. You now need to create an Administrator account:
1.
Open an Internet browser on your workstation. Newer versions of Netscape or
Microsoft browsers are recommended.
2.
Read the IP address on the display panel. For demonstration purposes, we will use the
following address: 192.168.0.1
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3.
Enter http://192.168.0.1:8042 into the browser’s address bar. Press Enter on your
keyboard. The Create Administrator Account page displays:
4.
Enter a User ID. The default User ID is root – you can use that name or you can create a
new ID by typing over the existing text.
5.
Enter the administrator’s full name.
6.
Enter a password.
7.
Re-enter your password to ensure it was entered correctly.
8.
Enter your organization’s registered Internet domain name. Leave the default name if
you do not have one, or if you are unsure about whether or not you have one.
9.
Indicate whether or not you want to reserve your last disk for idb backup. Refer to Chapter 22: Disk Management for more information.
•
Select Yes if you want reserve your last disk for idb (while using the other disks
for a RAID array).
•
Select No if you want to use all available disks for a RAID array.
IMPORTANT:If your Net Integrator has one disk, then you cannot take advantage of idb or RAID. If
your Net Integrator has exactly two disks, you can have idb backup or a two-disk RAID array (but not
both). If your Net Integrator has three or more disks, you can have a two (or more) disk RAID array
and idb backup or a RAID array with all available disks and no idb backup.
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10.
Click on the Save Changes button. It may take up to a minute for the Administrator
Account Created page to display:
11.
Click on the Log in button. Enter your username and password in the window that displays, and click on the OK button. WebConfig’s System Status screen displays:
Please Note: If you created a RAID array in step 8, the array will now build. The display panel and
the Disk Status section of the System Status screen display the progress of the RAID array. Click on
your browser’s Refresh button to view an updated status of the RAID array.
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System Status Screen
WebConfig’s System Status screen displays the status of the services running on your Net
Integrator. The WebConfig menu (on the left side of the screen) allows you to access and
configure various Net Integrator subsystems.
Features of the System Status screen
CPU
Utilization
Displays the utilization of the system’s central processing unit (CPU) in numerical
form and as a bar graph. During intensive operations (such as backups or very heavy
file transfers), the CPU utilization bar might rise above 100%. This is normal. One
huundred per cent utilization simply means that the CPU is being fully utilized. Utilization above 100% (ie. 130%) means that if your CPU was 30% faster, it would be
fully utilized at this point. Percentages above 100% do not mean that your Net Integrator is being overloaded or that performance will suffer, but if the CPU utilization
exceeds 500%, service slow-downs may occur. You might want to upgrade your Net
Integrator if this happens often.
Ethernet 0
Displays the speed of data transfer through Ethernet Port 0 (measured in kbps or
Mbps). The bar graph displays the speed as a percentage of the highest speed
recorded since the last power-up.
Ethernet 1
and 2
Displays the speed of data transfer through the Ethernet Ports 1 and 2 (measured in
kbps or Mbps). The bar graph displays the speed as a percentage of the highest speed
recorded since the last power-up.
PPP link
Displays the speed of data transfer through the DSL PPPoE or dial-up Internet connection (measured in kbps). The bar graph displays the speed as a percentage of the
maximum 56 kbps.
Disk Load
Displays the amount of data being transferred to and from the hard disk (measured in
kbps or Mbps). The bar graph displays the amount as a percentage of the highest
amount recorded since the last power-up.
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Disk Space Used
Shows how full your Net Integrator hard disk is, as a percentage.
Internet
Status
Displays the status of your Internet connection(s). The status light is bright green
when an Internet connection is configured properly. The default route used to transfer data to destinations on the Internet also displays. If a modem is configured, clicking on dial modem initiates a connection to the Internet. The administrator can
choose to terminate the connection through this screen.
Firewall
Displays the status of the firewall (enabled/disabled).
VPN Tunnels
Displays the status of every active Virtual Private Network (VPN) tunnel (server-toserver/network-to-network).
SoftUpdate
Displays the status of the subsystem that automatically checks for available software
updates. When the subsystem is active and retrieving a list of available software
updates, the status light is bright green. When the subsystem is operational but idle,
the status light is grey. A red status light indicates a problem with the subsystem
(usually an inability to access the distribution server). Refer to Chapter 24: Log Messages for more information on download errors.
Disk Status
Displays the status of your disk configuration, provides disk reconfiguration options,
and displays the status of a rebuilding RAID array.
WebMail
Displays the status of the WebMail server, and the address for webmail access.
Virus Definition
Updates
Displays whether or not there is a valid virus scanner liscence, and the last reported
updates.
DNS Server
Displays the status of the DNS server, and the last reported updates.
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FastForward
Displays the status of the port forwarding engine and the number of forwarded sessions. The status light is grey if service is disabled, bright green if service is operational, yellow if service is utilized heavily, and red if there is a problem with the
service. The CPU utilization bar graph indicates how much processor time is being
used by this service.
PPTP Server
Displays the status of the PPTP server (which enables secure client-to-server VPN
connections). The number of sessions shows how many users are connected. The status light is grey if service is disabled, bright green if service is operational, yellow if
service is utilized heavily, and red if there is a problem with the service. The CPU utilization bar graph indicates how much processor time is being used by this service.
WWW Server
Displays the status of web publishing services. The number of sessions displayed
represents the number of active web sessions currently open. The CPU utilization bar
graph indicates how much processor time is being used by this service. The status
light is grey if service is disabled, bright green if service is operational, yellow if service is utilized heavily, and red if there is a problem with the service.
Secure WWW
Server
Displays the status of the secure web server. The number of sessions displayed represents the number of active secure web sessions currently open. The CPU utilization
bar graph indicates how much processor time is being used by this service. The status light is grey if service is disabled, bright green if service is operational, yellow if
service is utilized heavily, and red if there is a problem with the service.
Windows File
Server
Displays the status of file services for Windows and NT clients. The number of sessions displayed represents the number of active users currently connected to Net Integrator and utilizing file services. The CPU utilization bar graph indicates how much
processor time is being used by this service. The status light is grey if service is disabled, bright green if service is operational, yellow if service is utilized heavily, and
red if there is a problem with the service.
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Apple File
Server
Displays the status of file services for Apple Macintosh clients. The number of sessions displayed represents the number of users currently connected to Net Integrator
and utilizing file services. The CPU utilization bar graph indicates how much
processor time is being used by this service. The status light is grey if service is disabled, bright green if service is operational, yellow if service is utilized heavily, and
red if there is a problem with the service.
NFS File Server
Displays the status of the NFS file server for UNIX and similar systems. The number
of sessions displayed represents the number of active users currently connected to
Net Integrator and utilizing file services. The CPU utilization bar graph indicates
how much processor time is being used by this service. The status light is grey if service is disabled, bright green if service is operational, yellow if service is utilized
heavily, and red if there is a problem with the service.
FTP Server
Displays the status of FTP services. The number of sessions displayed represents the
number of active FTP downloads currently in progress. The CPU utilization bar
graph indicates how much processor time is being used by this service. The status
light is grey if service is disabled, bright green if service is operational, yellow if service is utilized heavily, and red if there is a problem with the service.
MySQL Server
Displays the status of MySQL services. The number of sessions displayed represents
the number of active users currently connected to NetIntegrator and utilizing MySQL
database services. The CPU utilization bar graph indicates how much processor time
is being used by this service. The status light is grey if service is disabled, bright
green if service is operational, yellow if service is utilized heavily, and red if there is
a problem with the service.
SMTP Server
Displays the status of SMTP services. The number of sessions displayed represents
the number of emails being transferred by this server (normally none). The CPU utilization bar graph indicates how much processor time is being used by this service.
The status light is grey if service is disabled, bright green if service is operational,
yellow if service is utilized heavily, and red if there is a problem with the service.
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IMAP and
POP3 Server
Displays the status of servers responsible for delivery of email messages from IMAP
and POP3 mailboxes. The number of sessions displayed represents the number of
users currently downloading email messages from their IMAP or POP3 mailboxes.
The status light is grey if service is disabled, bright green if service is operational,
yellow if service is utilized heavily, and red if there is a problem with the service.
LDAP Server
Displays the status of the LDAP server (which is used to publish user names and
email addresses into the internal directory). The number of sessions shows how
many users are connected. The status light is grey if service is disabled, bright green
if service is operational, yellow if service is utilized heavily, and red if there is a problem with the service. The CPU utilization bar graph indicates how much processor
time is being used by this service.
Reboot
Button
Click on this button to reboot your Net Integrator.
Shutdown
Button
Click on this button to properly shut-down your Net Integrator. Failure to click on
the Shutdown button means that your RAID array has to rebuild. See Disk Status
Messages in Chapter 22: Disk Management for more information.
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Integrator
Chapter 3
Proceeding with Configuration
You are ready to proceed with the system configuration once you have:
•
configured your workstation to use TCP/IP
•
created an Administrator account
•
logged in and connected to WebConfig
Configuring General Network Settings
1.
Select Local from the Network Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The
Local Network Options screen displays:
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2.
Net Intelligence automatically assigns a random Host Name to the Net Integrator during
the first boot-up. If appropriate, enter a new host name by typing over the existing text.
The new host name should be unique, it should use only numbers and letters, and it
should contain no spaces.
Please Note: Host Names should be unique because they are used to distinguish your box from
others on the local network and are used by local users to identify a Net Integrator’s file and printsharing resources. In addition, the host name (in conjunction with the domain name) forms a unique
Internet name under which the Net Integrator and its web, FTP, and email services are addressed on
the Internet.
3.
If appropriate, enter a new domain name by typing over the existing text.
Please Note: Domain Names are part of the Internet naming standard (which applies to every
device connected to the Internet). Each host has a unique name, which consists of a host name and
domain name. In general, all Internet hosts owned by your company will belong under the same
domain.
4.
Indicate whether or not you want the rsync server to be enabled. This options is for
Unix-style clients only. We recommend that you leave the default setting.
5.
Select the appropriate public DNS resolution option.
•
Select Yes if you want Net Integrator to perform DNS resolution for Internet hosts.
•
Select No if you do not want Net Integrator to perform DNS resolution.
•
Select Dynamic if you want Net Integrator to perform Dynamic DNS resolution.
Please Note: If the public DNS server is enabled, Internet hosts can resolve name-to-IP number
queries for Internet services provided by Net Integrator. Dynamic DNS resolution allows you to host
email, web, and FTP services using an Internet connection with a dynamic IP address.
6.
Although the DHCP server is disabled by default, we recommend that you select Yes to
enable it. Enabling the DHCP server means that IP addresses are automatically assigned
to every workstation on the local network (as opposed to assigning them manually).
Please Note: If there is more than one DHCP server on the local network, your Net Integrator will
not activate its own DHCP server and will instead request automatic address assignment from the
existing one. If Net Intelligence detects that DHCP requests are not being answered by any other
DHCP servers, then the DHCP server is automatically enabled.
7.
Indicate whether or not you want to enable the SNMP (Simple Network Management
Protocol) server.
Please Note: SNMP is used to collect statistical information from the host about parameters such as
network throughput and CPU utilization. It is also used for network monitoring.
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8.
If you enable the SNMP server, enter an appropriate SNMP community name.
9.
Choose whether or not to enable Active Queue Management. Active Queue Management,
also known as traffic shaping, allows smoother division of network traffic between highbandwidth connections (like large file downloads) and low-latency connections (like telnet). It also works better with some ISPs that download slowly when you are uploading
data.
10.
Indicate whether or not you want to enable the NIS Server. Leave NIS disabled if you are
using Windows. If you are using Unix or a similar system, leave it disabled unless you
need NIS Service.
Please Note: Net Integrator’s built-in Network Information Server (NIS) is used to share usernames
and groups across a network to simplify user access. Unix and similar systems can be configured to
use NIS. Net Integrator uses NIS version 2.
11.
Choose whether or not to Restrict Outgoing Connections. As part of Net Integrator's
ICSA certification, Net Integrator can restrict outgoing connections to a few protocols.
Enabling this option allows outgoing traffic based on the server’s configuration. All other
traffic will be blocked. See Chapter 18: Firewall Services for more information.
12.
The Net Integrator synchronizes its clock from a source on the Internet. To set the proper
time, select your Time Zone from the drop-down list.
13.
Click on the Save Changes button.
Configuring Advanced Network Settings
The Advanced Network Settings screen allows you to configure some of Net Integrator’s
more advanced features. Changing advanced network settings can cause odd behavior on
your network; for example, if you change Net Integrator’s IP address or Netmask to an incorrect value, you may not be able to reach it from your web browser to change it back. If something goes wrong with these settings, you have to use the control panel on the front of the
server to change them back.
Please Note: If you intend to use TunnelVision (discussed in Chapter 16), every network in each office
location that will be connected through a VPN must have a separate network address. If Net Integrator
boxes in various locations auto-configure their local network interfaces to the same network, you will have
to change your subnet number and IP address to a different value. Refer to Reconfiguring Network
Devices in this chapter for information on how to do that.
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Advanced Network Settings screen
To access the Advanced Network Settings screen:
1.
Select Local from the Network Status menu found on the left side of any WebConfig
screen. The Local Network Options screen displays.
2.
Select the Advanced... option at the bottom of the screen. The Advanced Network Settings
screen displays:
Network Devices
The following list describes the Network Devices section of the screen:
•
Device – lists the network interfaces installed on Net Integrator. Eth 0 should be
connected to your LAN. Eth 1, Eth 2, and PPP 0 should be connected to the Internet.
•
IP Address – lists the IP addresses to the interfaces.
•
Netmask – lists the IP network mask assigned to a particular interface.
•
Mode – describes how an IP address was assigned to an interface. Forced means
that a permanent IP address was assigned by an administrator. Eth0 should
always have a forced IP address. DHCP means that a temporary IP address was
assigned by the DHCP server. DHCP addresses change each time you turn-on
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your Net Integrator. NetMap indicates that the IP address was automatically
assigned by your Net Integrator.
•
Trust – a very important parameter. Yes signifies a trusting relationship with all
hosts attached to that interface (meaning that no firewall protection is applied to
that interface). Eth0 should always be configured as trusted. No means that any
traffic arriving at that interface is considered non-trusted; as such, appropriate firewall protection is applied. All Internet connections should be configured as nontrusted.
•
Action Button – Clicking this button displays a screen where interface settings
can be changed.
Reconfiguring Network Devices
1.
Click on an interface’s Action button.
2.
The Network Settings screen for that interface displays:
3.
Optional: Enter a new IP address (in the format 192.168.12.10).
4.
Optional: Enter a new network mask (in the format 255.255.255.0).
5.
Optional: Indicate whether or not you want the Net Integrator to automatically choose
an IP address and network mask.
•
The default setting is Yes, meaning that the Net Integrator automatically selects an
IP addess and network mask.
•
The default setting is changed to No (and autoconfiguration is disabled) if you
entered a new IP address or a new network mask and clicked on the Save Changes
button.
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Please Note: Eth0 should never be set to choose automatically. Once an IP has been chosen, the interface should have its option forced (not automatic).
6.
Optional: If your DHCP server (i.e. your cable modem provider) specified that you need
a DHCP Client ID when setting up your network, enter it here.
7.
Optional: Indicate whether or not you want the Net Integrator to use this link as the
default gateway.
8.
•
If this is set to Yes, Net Integrator will create a default route to the network
through this interface at the highest priority level, so this link will be used by
default for incoming and outgoing traffic.
•
If this is set to Only as last resort, Net Integrator will create a default route to the
network through this interface with a lower priority level, so it will be used only if
your higher-priority ("Yes") links stop working.
Click on the Save Changes button.
Network Routes
The Network Routes section of the screen displays the IP routes known to the Net Integrator.
Because Net Integrator automatically discovers its network surroundings and sets up routing
tables, you generally do not need to edit them. However, depending on your Internet connection, your ISP may assign you a new route (in which case you have to edit the default route).
Please Note: Whether or not you have to change any route settings depends on your network setup and
Net Integrator’s connection to the LAN and to the Internet.
Deleting Network Routes
1.
Click on the appropriate route’s Delete button.
2.
In the window that displays, click on the Ok button.
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Editing Network Routes
1.
Click on the appropriate route’s Action button. The following screen displays:
2.
Optional: Enter a new destination IP address and netmask (in the format
192.168.12.0/24).
3.
Optional: Click on the Interface drop-down arrow and select the interface over which
this network can be accessed.
4.
Optional: If this is not a local network route entry (i.e. eth1 or eth2), enter the network’s
gateway address:
5.
Click on the Save Changes button.
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Network Configuration Scenarios
1.
Net Integrator as a Workgroup Server without a direct connection to the Internet
Hub/Switch
Net Integrator
In this scenario, you would go to the Advanced Network Settings screen to change the IP
address or the network mask of the local network interface or Net Integrator’s default
route. Although you generally do not need to change these settings, you can still do so:
f.
In the Network Devices or Network Routes section of the Advanced Network Settings
screen, click on the appropriate Action button.
g.
Depending on your choice, the Modify Route or the Network Settings screen displays:
Please Note: Refer to Reconfiguring Network Devices and Reconfiguring Network Routes earlier
in this chapter for a full descriptions of these two screens.
h.
Change the appropriate settings and click on the Save Changes button.
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2.
Net Integrator as a Workgroup Server and Dial-up Gateway to the Internet
Dial-up line
Hub/Switch
Internet
Net Integrator
If the Net Integrator has automatically chosen the proper IP addresses, there is nothing
else for you to change. If you want to change the Net Integrator local IP addresses, you
can do so by clicking the Edit button on the line describing the parameters for the Ethernet 0 interface.
The default route is automatically determined when Net Integrator dials in to the Internet.
In this case, there should be no default route entry in the Routes Table.
3.
Net Integrator as a Workgroup Server and High-speed Gateway to the Internet
Hub/Switch
Router
Internet
Net Integrator
Net Integrator autoconfigures its parameters if the ISP uses DHCP as a means of automatic network configuration. In this case, there should be nothing for you to do on the
Advanced Network Setup screen (although you can change the address of your local network interface if you wish to do so).
If your ISP assigns a unique static IP address, network mask, and default route, Net Integrator will likely discover the proper default route but will not know which IP address to
select. Although Net Integrator will find the available address and establish a proper con-
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nection to the Internet, you should change the IP address of your Internet interface to the
address assigned by your ISP. You should do the same with the default route setting. If
you run into problems configuring advanced network settings, contact technical support.
To change these settings:
4.
i.
In the Network Devices section of the Advanced Network Settings screen, click on the
eth1 Action button.
j.
The Network Settings screen displays. Enter the new IP address and click on the Save
Changes button.
k.
In the Network Routes section of the Advanced Network Settings screen, click on the
Default Action button (the last entry in the list).
l.
The Modify Route screen displays. Change the default route and click on the Save
Changes button.
Net Integrator as a Domain Controller and High-speed Gateway to the Internet
Hub/Switch
Internet
Router/Cable
Modem/DSL Modem
Net Integrator
Net Integrator can serve as a Windows domain controller for all the compurters running
Windows on the network. As the domain controller, Net Integrator will provide authentication services to the rest of the computers on the network. When this function is enabled,
the Windows file server is set up as a domain controller, and a domain will replace the
Windows workgroup. For specific information on configuring domain controllers, please
see Chapter 7: Domain Controller.
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Configuring your Internet Connection
Configuring a Dial-up Modem
1.
Select Dial-up from the Network Status menu found on the left side of any WebConfig
screen. The Dial-up Networking Setup screen displays:
2.
Optional: If you have an external modem connected, you may need to do this to activate
it: Click on the Detect Modems button to initiate the Modem Detection Cycle. Refer to
Chapter 4: DoubleVision for information on using multiple dial-up modems.
3.
Click on the Modem #1 Action button. The following screen displays:
4.
Enter the phone number provided by your ISP. If you have to dial 9 to get an outside line,
enter this number as well. For example, enter: 9, 123-123-1234.
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5.
Enter the Internet account username provided by your ISP.
6.
Enter the account password provided by your ISP.
7.
Re-enter your password to ensure it was entered correctly. If the passwords do not match,
you will be asked to re-enter your password in both fields.
8.
Indicate the number of idle seconds before automatic disconnection.
Please Note: If you enter zero, the connection will never automatically disconnect. Be careful with
this setting, especially if do not have unlimited Internet access.
9.
10.
Select the appropriate dialing mode:
•
Select Yes if you want the Net Integrator to dial automatically to the Internet when
someone tries to reach it.
•
Select No if you want to manually initiate a connection by clicking Dial Modem
on the System Status page.
•
Select Only as a last resort if you want to use a dial-up connection when one or
more of your high-speed connections fail. The dial-up connection will stay active
until one of the high-speed connections becomes functional. Although all traffic is
forwarded to the high-speed connection when it returns to normal, the dial-up
connection remains active for a few minutes in case the high-speed connection
fails again. In that case, the system re-routes traffic back to the dial-up connection
immediately without having to wait for a dial-up connection to be re-established.
Indicate whether or not you want your Net Integrator to emulate Windows Dial-up
Networking.
Please Note: Some Internet providers are setup to work only with Windows dial-up clients. If you
have problems establishing dial-up connection, try enabling this option.
11.
Indicate whether or not users will be able to establish a remote dial-in modem connection
to the internal network.
Please Note: A user’s VPN (PPTP) and Dial-In access has to be enabled before they can establish
a remote connection. See Creating Users in Chapter 5: User & Team Management for more information.
12.
Click on the Save Changes button.
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Configuring a DSL Connection (PPPoE)
1.
Select Dial-up from the Network Status menu found on the left side of any WebConfig
screen. The Dial-up Networking Setup screen displays.
2.
Click on the Action button in the appropriate ADSL row. The ADSL Dialer Options
screen displays:
3.
Enter the Internet account username provided by your ISP.
4.
Enter the account password provided by your ISP.
5.
Re-enter your password to ensure it was entered correctly. If the passwords do not match,
you will be asked to re-enter your password in both fields.
6.
Optional: Enter your gateway IP address. Leave this blank if you don’t know the address.
7.
Indicate whether or not you want to enable the connection.
8.
•
Select Yes if you want to establish a permanent connection.
•
Select No if you do not want to establish a connection.
•
Select Only as a last resort if you want to use this connection only if the primary
connection fails.
Click on the Save Changes button.
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Configuring a Leased Line Connection
1.
Select Dial-up from the Network Status menu found on the left side of any WebConfig
screen. The Dial-up Networking Setup screen displays.
2.
Click on the Leased Line Action button. The following screen displays:
3.
Enter the account username provided by your ISP.
4.
Enter the account password provided by your ISP.
5.
Re-enter your password to ensure it was entered correctly. If the passwords do not match,
you will be asked to re-enter your password in both fields.
6.
Indicate whether or not you want to enable this connection.
7.
•
Select Yes if you want to establish a permanent connection using the leased line.
This is the recommended setting.
•
Select No if you do not want to establish a connection using the leased line.
•
Select Only as a last resort if you want to use the leased line connection only if
the primary connection fails.
Click on the Save Changes button.
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DoubleVision
Chapter 4
What is DoubleVision?
DoubleVision is a Net Integrator feature that allows you to configure two or more Internet
connections. For example, you can combine a cable modem and an ADSL link, two ADSL
links, multiple dial-up modems (to the same or different ISPs), or any combination of Internet connections supported by Net Integrator.
There is no single place to configure DoubleVision. Instead, it is automatically configured
when more than one Internet connection is used at the same time.
Please Note: In order for DoubleVision to activate, you must have at least two gateway connections. You
can choose a default connection.
Advantages to DoubleVision
•
Increased performance
Web browsers can share Internet links to improve browsing speed. For example, you could
download an image using one Internet connection and download another image using
another.
Please Note: You cannot specify which connection is used. It is automatically chosen by NetIntelligence.
•
Increased reliability
If one ISP’s Internet connections fails, the remaining ISP’s connection stays functional. This
means that your downtime is limited (it’s also known as failover, or redundant connectivity).
•
Last Resort dial-up mode
If one or more of your high-speed Internet connections fail, Net Integrator can dial your
modem automatically and use dial-up access instead. When your high-speed links are
restored, the modem automatically disconnects after it verifies that the high-speed connections are stable and active
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DoubleVision
.
•
Dynamic DNS Integration
If you’re using Dynamic DNS, Net Integrator automatically publishes appropriate DNS
names so that people can always find your web site, even if your high speed links are down
and you need to use a dial-up connection. See Chapter 19: Domain Name Services for more
information.
•
Net Intelligence
No human intervention is required to activate and deactivate Internet services when they fail
or are restored. Net Intelligence automatically takes care of these situations.
•
Full automation
You do not have to reconfigure any client workstations on your local network in order to take
advantage of DoubleVision. DoubleVision is fully automated and managed by the server.
Modem Connections
Since modems are normally much slower than other Internet connections, you probably do
not want to use a modem as your primary connection. Instead, you can configure your
modem as a ‘last resort’ option, meaning that your modem will only connect if one or more
of the high-speed connections fails.
If a modem is configured as the primary connection, it will connect to the Internet even if
high-speed connections are available. This is useful if you want to test the modem connection.
You can take advantage of DoubleVision even if you do not have access to a high-speed
Internet connection. Simply configure more than one modem by indicating that you want
both of them to dial automatically when someone tries to reach the Internet. In addition, you
can configure one or more modems as a ‘last resort’ option (in case the primary modems
fail). For more information on configuring a modem, refer to Chapter 3: Configuring your
Net Integrator.
Please Note: When a user dials into the Net INtegrator, their username will appear in the Internet Status
section of WebConfig’s System Status screen for the duration of the connection. The administrator can
choose to terminate the user’s connection from this screen.
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User & Team
Management
Chapter 5
Service Integration
User and team management is tightly integrated with a number of other Net Integrator services. It is very important that you understand how user and team management relates to
these other functions before we start talking about creating, editing, and deleting users and
teams. Please read the following section carefully.
Net Integrator’s email, file, web, and FTP services are tightly integrated. Every user and
team account that is created has instant and automatic access to all of these services. When a
user is created, a number of things happen in the background:
•
a login account is created and the password defined by the administrator is
assigned to that account.
•
a personal user directory is created on the server. This directory is
accessible in Windows’ Network Neighborhood or on Macintosh’s AppleShare
drive. If NFS is enabled, UNIX and similar systems can use the path
/export/home/username to access this directory. For example, the path for
someone with the username janedoe would be /export/home/janedoe.
•
a WWW directory is created within the user’s personal directory. Any file stored
in this directory is automatically published on the user’s personal web page.
•
an FTP account (which points directly to the user’s personal directory) is created
for the user. If the user logs in to the FTP server using the proper user name and
password, they can access the files in their personal directory.
•
an email account is created for the user. Email is available through either POP3 or
IMAP mailboxes.
Similarly, when a team is created, a number of things happen in the background:
•
a team login account is created and the password defined by the administrator is
assigned to that account.
•
a team directory is created. This directory is accessible to all team members in
Window’s Network Neighborhood or on Macintosh’s AppleShare drive. If NFS is
enabled, UNIX and similar systems can use the path /export/home/teamname
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to access this directory. For example, the path for a team named sales would be
/export/home/sales.
•
a WWW directory is created within the team directory. Any file stored in this
directory is automatically published on the team's web page.
•
an FTP account (which points directly to the team directory) is created for the
team. If a team member logs into the FTP server using the proper team name and
password, they can access the files in the team directory.
•
an email distribution account is created for members of the team. Team email can
be accessed through either POP3 or IMAP mailboxes. Emails received by the
team email account are automatically forwarded to all members of the team.
User Accounts
Creating Users
1.
Select User Setup from the menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The Main
Setup screen displays:
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2.
Click on the Add New User button. The Create New User screen displays:
3.
Enter the User ID that will serve as the user’s login and personal directory name. User
IDs cannot contain spaces or any punctuation other than the hyphen, the dot, or the underscore (e.g. jane-doe, jane.doe, jane_doe).
Please Note: If Net Integrator's email server is used to receive email, this user ID will become part of
the user’s email address. For example, if the username janedoe is created on a Net Integrator that
resides in the example.com domain, Jane's email address will be janedoe@example.com.
4.
Enter the user’s full name.
5.
Enter a password for the user. User passwords should be unique.
6.
Re-enter the password to ensure it was entered correctly. If the passwords do not match,
you will be asked to re-enter the password in both fields.
7.
Indicate whether or not this user will have administrative privileges. Administration
privileges means that this user will have unrestricted access to all configuration functions
of Net Integrator.
8.
Indicate whether or not this user will have FTP access to his or her private directory.
Please Note: FTP has to be enabled before the user has FTP access. If FTP is enabled in Trusted
Hosts Only mode, the user can access files from a trusted, internal network or from a VPN. If FTP is
enabled in open mode, the user can access files using FTP from anywhere on the Internet.
9.
Indicate whether or not the user is allowed to establish a remote VPN (PPTP) or dial-in
modem connection to the internal network. For security reasons, most users should not
be able to establish a remote connection.
Please Note: VPN services have to be enabled before a user can establish a VPN connection. Similarly, dial-in for a specific modem has to be enabled before a user can establish a dial-in connection
on that modem. See Chapter 17: Remote Access Services for more information.
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10.
If the domain controller is enabled, choose a drive that the user’s files can be automatically mounted to when logged into a domain workstation. The default drive is X:.
Please Note: Be sure to choose a drive that is not already in use. For more information, see Chapter 7: Domain Controller.
11.
Select the teams this user will be a part of. Team membership gives users full access to
the team’s shared directory.
12.
Click on the Save Changes button. The Main User Setup page redisplays, and the user
displays in the list of previously created users.
1.
On the Main User Setup screen, click on the appropriate user’s Edit Action button. The
Modify User screen displays:
2.
Change the user’s information as appropriate. Refer to Creating Users (in this chapter)
for a description of the fields on this screen.
3.
Click on Send to send this user a test email.
4.
Click on the Saves Changes button.
Editing Users
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Deleting Users
IMPORTANT:Deleting a user means that all of the user’s personal files, email settings, mailbox,
and any undelivered email in the mailbox will be deleted. Once this is done, none of the above can
be recovered (unless you restore the data from a previous backup).
1.
On the Main User Setup screen, click on the appropriate user’s Delete button.
2.
In the window that displays, click on the OK button.
Modifying User Email Settings
1.
Select User Setup from the menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The Main
User Setup screen displays.
2.
Click on the appropriate user’s Action button. The Modify Users screen displays.
3.
Click on the the E-mail... button on the bottom of the screen. The E-mail Setup screen
displays:
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4.
Optional:
m.In
the Retrieve Mail from POP Server field, enter the server on which the user’s
POP account it is located.
n.Enter
the user’s remote POP password. This field has to be filled in the following
format: username@mailserver. For example, if the user’s POP username is
johndoe and his email is stored in the mail.example.com or 192.168.0.1
server, you would enter johndoe@mail.example.com or johndoe@192.168.0.1.
Please Note:Enter information into these fields only if Net Integrator is not your primary mail
server or if you have another mail account that you want to have retrieved along with your Net
Integrator mail. This should only be used if you are retrieving mail from an alternative, secondary
source (ie. above and beyond Net Integrator’s mail services)
5.
Enter a remote POP password.
6.
Re-enter the password to ensure it was entered correctly. If the passwords do not match,
you will be asked to re-enter your password in both fields.
7.
Optional: Enter an email address to which the user’s emails should be forwarded.
8.
Indicate whether or not you want emails to be kept on the server after they have been forwarded. This is typically done if a user has emails forwarded to them while they are on
vacation or out of the office.
9.
Optional: Enter a text message to be sent automatically to any received emails. This is
typically done to inform people that the user will be out of the office or to notify the
sender that their message was received.
10.
Click on the Save Changes button.
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Team Accounts
Creating Teams
1.
Select User Setup from the menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The Main
User Setup screen displays.
2.
Click on the Add New Team button. The Create New Team screen displays:
3.
Enter a team ID. This ID serves as the name of the team’s shared directory and as the
team’s FTP login name (which gives team members FTP access to the shared directory
and the WWW directory). Team IDs cannot contain spaces or any punctuation other than
the hyphen, the dot, or the underscore (e.g. sales-team, sales.team, sales_team).
4.
Enter a descriptive name for the team in the Full Name field.
5.
Enter a login password for the team. Team passwords should be unique.
6.
Re-enter the password to ensure it was entered correctly. If the passwords do not match,
you will be asked to re-enter the password in both fields.
7.
Indicate whether or not the team will have FTP access to the team directory.
Please Note: FTP has to be enabled before the team has FTP access. If FTP is enabled in Trusted
Hosts Only mode, the team can access files from the internal network or from a VPN. If FTP is
enabled in open mode, the team can access files using FTP from anywhere on the Internet.
8.
Indicate whether or not team members are allowed to establish a remote VPN (PPTP) or
dial-in modem connection to the internal network. For security reasons, most teams
should not be able to establish a remote connection.
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Please Note: VPN services and dial-in services have to be enabled before a team member can establish a VPN or dial-in connection. See Chapter 17: Remote Access Services for more information.
9.
Select the appropriate group email setting:
•
Select Send to members to send team emails to all team members.
•
Select Use shared folder to store all team emails in an automatically created folder
that is accessible to all team members through an IMAP client.
•
Select Act as mailing list to make the group email address act as a mailing list
where others (even non-group members) can subscribe.
The backend for the mailing list is a program called ezmlm. For example, mail
sent to group@example.com is handled by .qmail and is forwarded out to all subscribed people by ezmlm.
Mail sent to group-owner@example.com is fastforwarded to all members of the
team (the members act as administrators on a mailing list team) by .qmail-owner.
Mail sent to group-(anything else)@example.com is handled by .qmail-default.
When a mailing list is first set up, no one is subscribed to it. People who want to
subscribe (including group members) must do it themselves. To subscribe/unsubscribe, mail is sent to group-subscribe@example.com or groupunsubscribe@example.com.
The mail list files are maintained in the group’s home directory under Maildir/listmail/.
The default value for a group email is to forward mail to all members. See
WvAuth::sync_user() for specifics on how this is set up and maintained.
10.
If the domain controller is enabled, choose a drive that the team’s shared files can be
automatically mounted to when one of its members logs into a domain workstation. The
default, None, does not mount the files to ensure that there are no conflicts with drive
space.
Please Note: For more information, see Chapter 7: Domain Controller.
11.
Select the members of the team. Team membership gives full access to the team’s shared
directory.
12.
Click on the Save Changes button. The Main User Setup page redisplays. The team displays in the list of previously created teams.
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Editing Teams
1.
On the Main User Setup screen, click on the appropriate team’s Action button.
2.
The Modify Team screen displays:
3.
Change team information as appropriate. Refer to Creating Teams (in this chapter for a
description of the fields on this screen.
4.
Click on Send to send this team a test email.
5.
Click on the Save Changes button.
Deleting Teams
IMPORTANT:Deleting a team means that the team’s shared network directory and all of the files
contained within the directory are deleted. Once this is done, none of the above can be recovered
(unless you restore the data from a previous backup).
1.
On the Main User Setup screen, click on the appropriate team’s Delete button.
2.
In the window that displays, click on the OK button.
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File Services
Chapter 6
File Sharing Services
Net Integrator is designed to provide high performance file sharing services for Windows,
Macintosh, and UNIX-style clients. Files created by Windows users can transparently be
seen by Macintosh users and vice versa.
The management and administration of file services is tightly integrated with user management and administration. Please refer to Service Integration in Chapter 5: User & Team
Management for a detailed explanation of how file sharing services are automatically setup
during user and team creation.
Configuring File Services
1.
Select the File from the Server Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The
File Server Setup screen displays:
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2.
If appropriate, enable the Macintosh File Server. If Macintosh file services are not
enabled, users will not have access to their personal network directories or shared team
directories from Macintosh workstations.
3.
If appropriate, enable the Windows File Server. If Windows file services are not
enabled, users will not have access to their personal network directories or shared team
directories from Windows workstations.
4.
If you enable the Windows File Server, enter a Windows workgroup name. This name
indicates the workgroup under which Net Integrator will be listed as a resource in Windows Network Neighbourhood.
Please Note: It is recommended that you enter the Windows workgroup name being used by other
workstations in the office. If you are setting up a new network, you can use any workgroup name you
wish – just make sure that you configure your Windows workstations so they belong to the same
workgroup.
5.
If appropriate, enable the domain controller. The Windows File Server will then act as
the Windows domain controller. The Windows workgroup name is the domain name.
Please Note: The Windows File Server must be enabled for the domain controller to function. See
Chapter 7: Domain Controller for more information.
6.
Enter an administrative password for the domain controller. This will be used to add
workstations to the domain. Re-enter the password to ensure it was entered correctly.
7.
If appropriate, enable the NFS File Server. If NFS file services are not enabled, UNIX
users will not have access to their personal network directories or shared team directories
from UNIX workstations.
8.
Click on the Save Changes button.
9.
To ensure that the status of the file server has changed, select System Status from the
menu on the left hand side of the screen. The Windows, Apple, and NFS File Server sections of the System Status screen display the updated status.
Please Note: It may take up to 15 seconds for file services to start, and during that time the status
may read Error starting service.
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Chapter 7
What is a Domain Controller?
A domain controller provides authentication services to the rest of the computers on the network. It stores user account and security information in a central database for one domain.
When a user logs on to a computer that is part of the domain, the domain controller authenticates the username and password against the information in the directory database.
Net Integrator can serve as a Windows domain controller for all the computers running Windows on the network. When this function is enabled, the Windows file server is set up as a
domain controller, and a domain will replace the Windows workgroup.
Please Note: The Windows file server must be enabled for the domain controller to function.
Configuring the Domain Controller
To enable Net Integrator’s domain controller function:
1.
Select File under Server Setup from the menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen.
The File Server Setup screen displays:
2.
Ensure that the Windows file server is enabled.
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3.
Enter a name in the Windows workgroup name field. This will be the domain name once
the domain controller is enabled. Avoid using the default name of “Workgroup”, as it
could be very confusing.
Please Note: You will need to set each Windows workstation’s domain name to match this, in order
for Windows file and printer sharing to work properly.
4.
Enable the domain controller for Windows.
5.
Enter the administrative password for joining computers to the domain. Re-enter the
password to ensure it was entered correctly.
6.
Click on the Save Changes button.
Joining Windows Systems to a Domain
All Windows workstations will have to be added to the domain once the domain controller is enabled. The predefined administrative username needed to add a system to
the domain is always _root.
For Windows 95/98/ME:
A Windows 95/98/ME workstation does not actually join the domain. However, it is able to
log onto the domain with the following steps:
1.
In Windows, select Start > Settings > Control Panel. The Control Panel window displays:
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2.
Select Network from the list. The Network window displays. Click on the Configuration
tab.
3.
From The following network components are installed list, select Client for Microsoft
Networks. Click on the Properties button. The Client for Microsoft Networks Properties
window displays:
4.
Check the box for Log onto Windows NT domain and enter the name of the domain (as
entered in the Windows workgroup name field on the File Server Setup WebConfig
screen).
5.
Click on the OK button. The Network window displays. Click on the OK button again.
6.
Reboot the workstation. The next time you log on, the login window will have an additional Domain field.
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For Windows NT:
1.
In Windows, select Start > Settings > Control Panel. The Control Panel displays:
2.
Select Network from the list. The Network window displays. Click on the Identification
tab.
3.
Click on the Change button. The Identification Changes window displays:
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4.
In the Member of section of the window, select Domain. Enter the name of the domain
(as entered in the Windows workgroup name field on the File Server Setup WebConfig
screen).
5.
Check the box for Create a Computer Account in the Domain. Enter the administrative
username, _root, and the password (as entered in the Domain Controller Password field
on the File Server Setup WebConfig screen).
6.
Click on the OK button. The Network window displays. Click on the OK button again.
7.
Reboot the workstation. The next time you log on, the login window will have an additional Domain field.
For Windows 2000:
1.
In Windows, select Start > Settings > Control Panel. The Control Panel displays:
2.
Select System from the list. The System Properties window displays. Click on the Network Identification tab.
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3.
Click on the Properties button. The Identification Changes window displays:
4.
In the Member of section of the window, select Domain. Enter the name of the domain
(as entered in the Windows workgroup name field on the File Server Setup WebConfig
screen).
5.
Click on the OK button. The next time you log on, the login window will have an additional Domain field.
For Windows XP:
1.
Install the registry patch: http://www.net-itech.com/america/support/registry_patch/
samba_xp_domain_member.reg
For information on the latest features available in Samba as a domain controller, download this PDF: http://www.net-itech.com/america/support/docs/csamba6.pdf
2.
In Windows, select Start > Control Panel. The Control Panel window displays. On the
left menu bar under Control Panel, select Classic View if you are currently in Category
View.
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3.
Select System from the list. The System Properties window displays. Click on the Computer Name tab.
4.
Click on the Change... button. The Computer Name Changes window displays:
5.
In the Member of section of the window, select Domain. Enter the name of the domain
(as entered in the Windows workgroup name field on the File Server Setup WebConfig
screen).
6.
Click on the OK button. The next time you log on, the login window will have an additional Domain field.
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File Mounting
Once the domain controller is enabled, a user’s files can be mounted directly onto any
domain workstation upon login. The shared files of any team that the user belongs to can
also be mounted.
For Users:
1.
Select User Setup from the menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. Click on the
Edit Action button for the appropriate user. The Modify User screen displays:
2.
From the drop-down menu in the Automatically mount files as field, select the drive that
the user’s files should be mounted as on the workstation. The default drive is X:.
Please Note: Be sure to choose a drive that will not conflict with drives already in use.
3.
Click on the Save Changes button.
This can also be done when the user is created.
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For Teams:
1.
Select User Setup from the menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. Click on the
Edit Action button for the appropriate user. The Modify Team screen displays:
2.
From the drop-down menu in the Automatically mount files as field, select the drive that
the team’s shared files should be mounted as on the workstation. The default, None, is to
not mount the files at all. This ensures that there will be no conflict between use of drive
space.
3.
Click on the Save Changes button.
This can also be done when the team is created.
Import Users from Windows
To upload user information from a Windows 2000 or NT server:
1.
You will need to download an executable file called “pwdump2”. The program is freely
available online and can be found at various locations on the Internet. Here is one:
http://razor.bindview.com/tools/desc/pwdump2_readme.html
2.
Download the file called “pwdump2.zip” and unzip the contents to their own folder. For
example, extract the contents to a folder called “pwdump2” on your C drive.
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3.
Click on the Start menu, and choose Run.
4.
Enter “cmd” and click OK.
5.
Type “cd pwdump2” and hit Enter. This will change the directory to the folder you created on your C drive that contains the contents to the file “pwdump2.zip”.
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6.
Type “pwdump2 > list.txt” and hit Enter. This will run the file called “pwdump2.exe” and
generate a text file called “list.txt” in the same folder.
7.
Open the file called “list.txt”. This contains a list of Windows users. Highlight the users
you wish to import, right-click with your mouse and choose Copy.
8.
In WebConfig, click on User Setup in the left-side menu.
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9.
Click on Import Users. This screen will display.
10.
Right-click on your mouse in the field called “Import Users Info”. Choose Paste. This
will copy the contents of the file called “list.txt” into this space.
11.
Click on Save Changes. This screen will display.
12.
Click on Save Changes.
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13.
For each of the imported users, an Administrator will have to create passwords. To do
this, click on the left button in the Action column, in the row containing a user’s information. This screen will display.
14.
Enter the new password into the appropriate fields. Click Save Changes.
Logon Scripts
Logon scripts are supported through DOS batch files found at \\Servername\netlogon. All
scripts are called "username.bat". These batch files will call upon "logon.bat". If manual
modifications are required - create the file called "logon.bat" All manual modifications
should be made to "logon.bat" as "username.bat" is automatically generated, and modifications will be lost!
Automated Drive Mapping
User folders and team folders can be automatically mounted through the selection of a drive
mount in the User/Team setup. These drive mappings are done through the Logon scripts.
Note that any drives previously mounted will not be automatically disconnected as Windows
caches these drive connections.
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Print Services
Chapter 8
Net Integrator Print Services
Net Integrator’s parallel printer port can be connected to any type of printer that users are
sharing on the internal network. You can also use ethernet printer sharing devices to connect
printers directly to your LAN. Net Integrator does not support the bidirectional mode of
parallel devices; it can send output to printers but cannot read detailed status information.
This means that any special print manager and status monitor software on your PC should be
disabled. Net Integrator’s print services are setup automatically during the first system boot
(providing all Net Integrator users with unrestricted access to the shared printer).
Configuring Print Services
Before you can print on a printer connected to your Net Integrator, you have to configure
your Net Integrator for printing.
1.
Click on the Printers button on the WebConfig screen. Net Integrator will list all the
available printers.
2.
Choose to enable Print Services or not. Without this option being set you will not be able
to print using the printers attached to this server.
3.
Click the Save Changes button.
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Configuring your Workstation
1.
In Windows, open your Network Neighbourhood and double-click on the server icon
with the name of your Net Integrator (e.g. Paintball). The following window shows the
network file and print services to which you have access:
2.
Double click on the printer icon. The following window displays:
3.
Select Yes to configure your workstation. The Add Printer Wizard displays:
4.
Select No to indicate that you are not printing from MS-DOS programs. Click on Next.
5.
Select the brand and type of printer that is connected to your Net Integrator. Click Next.
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Please Note: If your printer is not listed, click on the Have Disk button and provide the printer driver
from the disk provided by your printer’s manufacturer.
6.
Enter a name for the printer. Indicate whether or not you want this printer to be used as
the default printer. Click on the Next button.
7.
On the screen that displays, indicate whether or not you want to print a test page.
8.
Select Finish. You will be prompted to insert your Win95/98 install disk. Some files will
be copied to your system, and your shared printer will be setup and ready for printing.
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Email Services
Chapter 9
Components of the Email System
The main components of Net Integrator’s email delivery subsystem are the:
•
SMTP Server – a mail delivery system. When you send an email, the SMTP server takes
this message from your email client and delivers the message to the recipient’s POP3
server. If your ISP forces you to use a specific SMTP server, the Net Integrator can
deliver to that server rather than directly to the destination servers. This is known as a
“smarthost”.
•
POP3 Server – a system that receives a user’s email messages and stores them in the
user’s mailbox. When a user’s email client checks for new mail, it communicates with
the POP3 server, which ensures proper user authentication and delivery of email to the
user’s email client. POP3 is the most commonly used mail delivery protocol.
•
POP3/SSL Server – this is the secure POP3 server. The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a
commonly-used protocol for managing the security of a message transmission on the
Internet.
•
IMAP Server – an advanced system that is similar to POP3. Because IMAP is relatively
new, not all mail clients support it. IMAP offers superior user authentication and allows
users to store their email on a server instead of downloading messages to a workstation
(as is the case with POP3). This allows users to check their email from various workstations and lets them see a complete list of the emails kept in their folders.
•
IMAP/SSL Server – this is the secure IMAP server. The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a
commonly-used protocol for managing the security of a message transmission on the
Internet.
•
WebMail Server – a system that allows users to securely access their email from any
workstation on the Internet using a standard web browser. The web mail server uses SSL
encryption to secure online transactions. Refer to Chapter 10: WebMail for more information.
•
LDAP Server – a directory system that holds the names and email addresses of all users
on the Net Integrator server. This directory can be searched with any standard email
client. The LDAP server does not store names and email addresses of users not connected
to the Net Integrator.
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•
Realtime Blackhole List (RBL) – a ‘spam’ blocker that has different levels of spam protection (such as Strong and Medium).
•
Mail Virus Scanner – scans all outgoing and incoming mail for viruses. If a virus is
found, it is immediately removed from the email. A warning is then sent to the sender
and all recipients along with the original (but virus-free) message. You must buy the
license for your Net Integrator for this feature to be enabled.
Configuring Email Service
1.
Select E-Mail from the Server Setup menu found on the left side of any WebConfig
screen. The E-Mail Setup screen displays:
2.
Select the appropriate SMTP server setting:
•
Selecting Yes enables the SMTP server and allows any computer on the internal
network or on the Internet to send email using the Net Integrator as a mail server.
Messages from computers on the Internet are accepted only if their destination is
the local domain hosted by your Net Integrator. This prevents your server and
Internet bandwidth from being used to send unsolicited emails).
•
Selecting Only Trusted Hosts enables the SMTP server and allows internal users
and users connected to the internal network through a VPN to send email using
the Net Integrator as their mail server.
•
Selecting No disables the SMTP server completely.
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Select the appropriate POP3 server setting:
•
Selecting Yes enables the POP3 server and allows any computer on the internal
network or on the Internet to access the POP3 mailbox. Select Yes only if you
have users who will be accessing their email from outside of the office.
•
Selecting Only Trusted Hosts enables the POP3 server and allows internal users to
access the POP3 mailbox.
•
Selecting No disables the POP3 server completely.
Select the appropriate POP3/SSL server setting
•
Selecting Yes will allow incoming secure POP-3 connections from anywhere. This
means that your users could download their E-Mail from anywhere on the Internet.
•
Select Only Trusted Hosts to allow incoming secure POP-3 connections only from
the local network, and not from the Internet.
•
Select No to disable the secure POP-3 server.
Select the appropriate IMAP/SSL server setting
•
Selecting Yes will allow incoming secure IMAP connections from anywhere. This
means that your users could read their E-Mail from anywhere on the Internet.
•
Select Only Trusted Hosts to allow incoming secure IMAP connections only from
the local network, and not from the Internet.
•
Select No to disable the secure IMAP server.
Select the appropriate IMAP server setting:
•
Selecting Yes enables the IMAP server and allows any computer on the internal
network or on the Internet to access the IMAP mailbox. Select Yes only if you
have users who will be accessing their email from outside of the office.
•
Selecting Only Trusted Hosts enables the IMAP server and allows internal users to
access the IMAP mailbox.
•
Selecting No disables the IMAP server completely.
Select the appropriate WebMail server setting:
•
Selecting Yes enables the WebMail server. Enabling the WebMail server automatically enables the IMAP and WWW servers. If you disable IMAP or the WWW
servers, the WebMail server will not be functional.
•
Selecting No disables the WebMail server completely.
Select the appropriate LDAP directory server setting:
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9.
•
Selecting Yes enables the LDAP server (which answers directory queries). The
LDAP directory is automatically populated with the names and email addresses of
all users configured on the Net Integrator server.
•
Selecting No disables the LDAP server completely.
Select the appropriate RBL setting:
•
Select Strong RBL if you want to block known spam servers and spam relay servers. Strong RBL blocks all spam mail, but may also block other mail. Senders
receive a message if their mail is blocked.
•
Select Medium RBL if you want to block known spam servers. Medium RBLblocks most spam mail.
•
Select No RBL if you do not want spam protection.
10.
Indicate whether or not you want to enable the Mail Virus Scanner. By default, the virus
scanner is enabled.
11.
Enter the number of minutes between remote POP mailbox checks. The number in this
field specifies how often (in minutes) the remote mailbox is checked for new emails.
12.
Enter the name of your mail domain (e.g. example.com).
13.
In the field for ISP's SMTP Server enter the server name if your ISP forces you to use a
specific SMTP server. This will make the Net Integrator deliver to that server rather than
directly to the destination servers. This is known as a “smarthost”. You should leave this
blank whenever possible.
14.
Click on the Save Changes button.
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Configuring DNS Records
Although email services are fully functional after the administrator enables the appropriate
mail servers, the mail delivery DNS records have to be configured before users can send mail
to and receive mail from outside users.
How do DNS Mail Records work?
When you send an email to johndoe@example.com, the message is downloaded to your
SMTP server (which needs to know the IP address of example.com in order to deliver the
message). The SMTP server consults the root DNS server on the Internet and through a
series of queries is eventually pointed to the DNS server that stores the names and IP numbers of the hosts in example.com.
DNS Resolution
It is vital that your DNS server (which maintains information about your domain) is set up
correctly. DNS resolution service can be provided by Net Integrator, or it can be provided by
another DNS server maintained by you or by your ISP. If DNS resolution is provided by
your ISP and you want Net Integrator to receive all emails for your domain, then make sure
that you request the following from your ISP:
MX records for your domain should be pointed to your Net Integrator’s outside IP address
(the address assigned to the eth1 interface).
If DNS resolution is provided by Net Integrator, make sure that the outside IP address is registered with Network Solutions as your domain DNS host.
Please Note: In order for your Net Integrator to function properly as a mail server for global
email delivery, you must have a static IP address or use Dynamic DNS.
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Configuring Net Integrator as a DNS Server
1.
2.
3.
Selecting Local from the Network Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen.
The Local Network Options screen displays:
In the Act as public DNS server field, select Yes.
Click on the Save Changes button.
Configuring Email Clients
Although there are a number of different email clients available today, the configuration of
most email clients is very similar. The exact configuration of your email client depends on
how you want your mail delivery to be configured. The two most common configurations
are listed below. Configure your mail client according to the configuration that resembles
your email setup.
1.
If your mail is hosted on your ISP’s mail server...
All users in your office have their own mail address and mailbox hosted on the ISP’s
server. Your ISP supplies you with the name of the POP3 or IMAP server where your
mail has to be retrieved and with the address for the SMTP mail delivery server. Enter
this address into the appropriate field during the configuration of your mail client.
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Using your Net Integrator as an SMTP server (even if your mail is hosted by an ISP) has
its advantages, especially if you often send large messages or if you have a slow Internet
connection. Your email client may be tied up for minutes or even hours if you attempt to
send a large email message to an ISP’s SMTP server. If you use your Net Integrator as an
SMTP server, large files are quickly transferred over the high-speed LAN. Although a file
is then slowly transferred over your Internet connection, your email client is free to perform other tasks.
Enter the following information when configuring your email client:
2.
•
In the SMTP server field, enter the IP address or host name provided to you by
your ISP. Alternatively, use your Net Integrator as the SMTP server and enter the
IP address or host name of your Net Integrator.
•
In the POP3 or IMAP server field, enter the IP address or host name provided to
you by your ISP.
•
In the POP3 or IMAP mailbox name field, enter the first part of your email
address. For example, if your email address is johndoe@example.com, enter
johndoe into this field.
•
In the POP3 or IMAP password field, enter the password provided to you by your
ISP.
If your mail is hosted on Net Integrator...
Enter the following information when configuring your email client:
•
In the SMTP server field, enter the IP address or host name of your Net Integrator.
You do not need to enter the domain name.
•
In the POP3 or IMAP server field, enter the IP address or host name of your Net
Integrator.
•
In the POP3 or IMAP mailbox name field, enter your Net Integrator username.
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•
In the POP3 or IMAP password field, enter your Net Integrator password.
Advanced Email Settings
The following are advanced features of Net Integrator’s email system:
•
POP Retriever – Net Integrator can automatically retreive emails from a remote mail
account and store them in a user’s local mailbox. This means that instead of checking
two accounts for new email, users can simply check their local Net Integrator account.
This has some advantages for the user, particularly for emails with large attachments.
Normally, users have to configure their mail clients to receive mail from a local account
and a remote account. With this dual-mail box approach, receiving emails with large file
attachments from remote email accounts can be quite slow (depending on the available
Internet bandwidth). The POP Retriever improves the speed considerably because it
‘pre-retrieves’ emails.
•
Mail Forwarding – Net Integrator can automatically forward mail that has been received
from a remote mail account to a user’s local mailbox.
•
Auto Reply – Net Integrator can automatically send a reply message to every email
received by a user.
Please Note: To modify user’s advanced email settings, refer to Modifying User Email Settings in
Chapter 5: User & Team Management.
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LDAP Server
Net Integrator has a built-in Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server, which
provides a directory of user names and email addresses. It is automatically populated with
names and email addresses of all Net Integrator users. Most email clients support access to
read-only LDAP servers.
Configuring LDAP in Microsoft Outlook
1.
Open Microsoft Outlook. From the main menu, select Tools > Accounts. The Internet
Accounts screen displays:
2.
Select Add > Directory Service. The Internet Connection Wizard displays:
3.
In the Internet directory (LDAP) server field, enter the name or IP address of your Net
Integrator.
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4.
Click on the Next button. The following screen displays:
5.
Indicate whether or not you want your email client to check addresses using the LDAP
directory.
Please Note: If this option is selected, you can enter partial email addresses when sending emails.
Outlook will automatically find the closest match in the LDAP directory and enter the correct email
address.
6.
Click on the Next button. The following screen displays:
7.
Click on the Finish button. The Internet Accounts screen redisplays. Click on the Properties button. Select the Advanced tab on the screen that displays.
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8.
The Advanced screen displays:
9.
In the Search Base field, enter o=example.com.
Please Note: Replace example.com with the Internet domain hosted by your Net Integrator.
10.
Click on the OK button. The Internet Accounts screen redisplays. Click on the Close button. The LDAP server is now set-up, and users can search through the LDAP data directory for the names and email addresses of Net Integrator users.
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Chapter 10
WebMail Server
Net Integrator’s WebMail server allows you to access your email using a standard web
browser from any workstation connected to the Internet. Your communications are kept
secure with SSL encryption.
Accessing WebMail
1.
Open a web browser from any workstation that is connected to the Internet.
2.
Enter the address of your Net Integrator into the browser’s address bar.
3.
•
If your Net Integrator provides DNS resolution for your domain, enter information
in the following format:
http://server.domain/email. For example, if your server name is alpha
and your domain name is example.com, enter
http://alpha.example.com/email. You can also enter information in the
following format: http://www.example.com/email.
•
If your Net Integrator does not provide DNS resolution, enter your Net Integrator’s external IP address. To find the external IP address, select Local from the
Network Setup menu. On the screen that displays, click on the Advanced... button.
In the Network Devices section of the screen that displays, look at the IP address
of the eth1 interface. If the address is 192.138.0.1, enter
http://192.168.0.1/email.
What happens next depends on how your web security certificate was generated. If your
security certificate was generated by Net Integrator (and not assigned to you by a certificate authority), the following security alert may display when you login to WebMail:
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Please Note: This alerts the user that the security certificate presented by Net Integrator cannot be
verified for authenticity. If you want a certificate that is authenticated by a certificate authority, you will
have to purchase one. Please refer to Chapter 11: Web Services for more information.
4.
Click on the Yes button to continue. The following screen displays:
5.
Enter the username and password that you use to login to Net Integrator. Click on the
Login button. The WebMail screen displays.
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Using the WebMail Screen
1
9
1
8
2
9
7
6
3
5
4
1.
10
From the Main Webmail Menu, click on the:
•
Inbox button to view the contents of your inbox.
•
Compose button to compose a new email message. See Composing an Email
Message for more information.
•
Folders button to view a screen that lists your folders. On this screen, you can create, edit, and delete folders.
•
Options button to view a screen that lists various configuration options. See Configuring WebMail for more information.
•
Search button to search for a specific message. Refer to Search Function for more
information.
•
Addressbook to view your address book. On this screen you can add, edit, and
delete address entries. See AddressBook for more information.
•
Calendar to view your personal calendar. See Calendar for more information.
•
Tasks to view your list of tasks. See Tasks for more information.
•
Memos to view your memos. See Memos for more information.
•
Home to return to the Main Webmail Menu.
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•
Logout button to log out of WebMail.
2.
To give a message a specific status (such as seen or unseen), select an option from the
Select list or place a check in a message’s checkbox and select an option from the Mark
as list.
3.
Place a check in the Message Checkbox to select one or more messages.
4.
To delete or undelete a message, place a check in its message checkbox and then click on
the Delete or Undelete button.
5.
To block messages from a specific person, place a check in the message’s checkbox and
click on the Blacklist button. See Mail Filters for more information.
6.
The Message List displays information pertaining to received messages. Click on a link
in the From or Subject section of the screen to open a message.
7.
To sort the messages in your inbox, click on the Date, From, Subject, or Size message
headings.
8.
To open a folder, select it from the list and click on the Open Folder button.
9.
To move or copy a message to another folder, place a check in its message checkbox and
then click on the Move or Copy button.
10.
To move a message to your trash folder, place a check in its message checkbox and then
click on the Hide Deleted button. You can show them again by clicking on the Show
Deleted button. To empty the contents of the trash folder, click on the Purge Deleted button.
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Configuring WebMail
1.
From the Main WebMail Menu, click on the Options button. The Options screen displays:
2.
Click on any of the headings (such as Personal Information, Filters, and Display
Options) to change your WebMail settings.
3.
Follow the instructions on the screen that displays.
4.
Click on the Save Options button to save your changes and return to the Options screen.
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Composing an Email Message
1.
From the Main WebMail Menu, click on the Compose button. The Compose screen
displays:
2.
Enter the email address of the recipient(s) in the To field. If the recipient is in your
address book, you can enter a partial name (e.g. john instead of johndoe@example.com).
3.
Enter the email address(es) of those you wish to receive a copy of this email in the Cc
(Carbon Copy) field.
4.
If you want to send someone a copy of this email without the knowledge of the other
recipients, enter their email address in the Bcc (Blind Carbon Copy) field.
5.
Enter the subject of the email in the Subject field.
6.
If you entered a partial name in the To field, you can click on the Expand Names button to
view the recipient’s full name and email address.
7.
To insert any special characters into your message, click on the Special Characters button. On the screen that displays, select a character from the appropriate list and paste it
into your message.
8.
If you do not want a copy of this email saved in your Sent-Mail folder, remove the check
from the box.
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9.
Place a check in the Request a Return Receipt box if you want the recipient to notify you
when they receive your message.
Please Note: The recipient can choose not to send a return receipt to you.
10.
To attach a document to your message:
•
Click on the Browse... button.
•
Select the file from the window that displays and click on the OK button. The file
displays in the Attachments field.
•
Click on the Attach button.
Please Note: To remove an attachment, place a check in the attachment’s checkbox and click on
Remove Selected.
11.
Enter the message content in the empty section of the screen.
12.
Click on the Save Draft button if you want to save this message in your Drafts folder.
Click on the Send button to send the message to the recipient(s).
Please Note: Clicking on the Cancel button prior to sending the email aborts the message.
Opening a Received Message
1.
From your inbox, click on a link in the From or Subject section of the screen. The message opens:
2.
You have many options after reading the message. Click on:
•
Delete to send this message to your trash folder.
•
Reply to send a reply to the person that sent you the message.
•
Reply to all to send a reply to everyone who received the message.
•
Forward to forward this message to another recipient.
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•
Redirect to send this message directly to another recipient (without the opportunity to add comments).
•
Blacklist to create a rule that sends mail from this person to your trash folder
instead of your inbox. See Mail Filters for more information.
•
Message Source to open a window that displays information about this email.
•
Print to print this message. The message displays in another window and and a
Print window appears. Click on OK to print your message.
3.
To move or copy this message to another folder, select the appropriate folder from the
drop-down list and click on the Move or Copy button.
4.
Click on Back to Inbox to return to your inbox.
Replying to a Message
1.
After opening and reading a message, click on Reply or Reply to all. Your choice depends
on the intended recipient(s).
2.
The Reply screen displays.
Please Note: The Reply screen is the same as the Message Composition screen, except that the
previous correspondance displays. Refer to Composing an Email Message (in this chapter) for information about this screen.
3.
Enter your reply.
4.
Click on the Save Draft button if you want to save this message in your Drafts folder.
Click on the Send button to send the message to the recipient.
Please Note: Clicking on the Cancel button prior to sending the email aborts the message.
Search Function
WebMail’s Search funtion allows you to search for a message or set of messages using specific criteria:
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1.
From the Main WebMail Menu, click on the Search button. The Search screen displays:
2.
Enter information into the appropriate Message fields.
3.
Select the appropriate Message flags.
4.
Select the appropriate Message folders.
5.
Click on the Search button to begin the search.
Please Note: Click on the Reset button prior to clicking on the Search button to clear your search
criteria.
6.
The Search Results screen displays, showing all of the messages that match your search
criteria. If no messages display, you can perform another search using different criteria.
Address Book
Adding an Entry
1.
From the Main WebMail Menu, click on Addressbook. The following screen displays:
2.
Click on the Add button. The Add New Contact screen displays.
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3.
Enter all appropriate information and click on the Save button.
Performing a Directory Search
1.
Click on the Search button. The Directory Search screen displays.
2.
Select Name or Email from the Find drop-down list.
3.
Enter the search criteria and click on the Search button. The results display in the Search
Results section of the screen.
Please Note: Clicking on the Search button without search criteria returns all of the addresses in
your address book.
4.
5.
To perform an advanced search:
•
Click on the Advanced Search button. The Advanced Directory Search screen displays.
•
Enter appropriate search criteria and click on the Search button.
•
The results display in the Search Results section of the screen.
To send a message to this person, place a check in the checkbox beside their name and
click on the Send Message button. To clear the Search Results section of the screen, click
on the Clear Search button.
Importing and Exporting Addresses
1.
2.
To import addresses from another source:
•
Click on the Import/Export button. The Import/Export screen displays.
•
In the Import Addressbook section of the screen, select the format to export from
(your options are CSV, Outlook CSV, and vCard).
•
Select the destination (should be My Addressbook).
•
Select the file to import. Either enter the file name directly into the empty field or
select it by clicking in the Browse... button.
•
Click on the Import button.
To export addresses to another source:
•
Click on the Import/Export button. The Import/Export screen displays.
•
In the Export Addressbook section of the screen, select the format to export to.
•
Select the source to export from (should be My Addressbook).
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•
Click on the Export button.
•
Select a location for the file and click on the OK button.
Calendar
1.
From the Main WebMail Menu, click on the Calendar button. The WebMail calendar displays:
2.
To configure your calendar:
•
Click on the Options button. The Options screen displays.
•
Click on any of the headings (such as Language and Date and Time Options).
•
Follow the instructions on the screen that displays.
•
Click on the Save Options button to save your changes and return to the Options
screen.
3.
To change the calendar display, click on one of the date buttons (your options are Today,
Day, Work Week, Week, and Month).
4.
To schedule an event, click on the New Event button. Enter all appropriate information
on the screen that displays and click on the Save Event button.
5.
To import a calendar from another source:
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6.
•
Click on the Import/Export button. The Import/Export screen displays:
•
In the Import Calendar section of the screen, select the format to export from
(your options are CSV and Outlook).
•
Select the file to import. Either enter the file name directly into the empty field or
select it by clicking in the Browse... button.
•
Click on the Import button.
To export a calendar to another source:
•
Click on the Import/Export button. The Import/Export screen displays.
•
In the Export Calendar section of the screen, select the format to export to.
•
Select the exporting time span.
•
Click on the Export button.
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Tasks
1.
From the Main WebMail Menu, click on the Tasks button. Any tasks that you have will
display:
2.
To add a new task, click on the New Task button. The following screen displays:
3.
Select the appropriate field.
4.
Enter the appropriate text.
5.
Click on the Save Changes button. Your list of tasks will appear.
6.
To edit your tasks, click on the List Tasks button. Place a check next to any tasks that you
want to edit, then select an action from the pull-down menu (Complete Tasks, Delete
Tasks, Set Task Priority).
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Memos
1.
From the Main WebMail Menu, click on the Memos button. Any memos that you have
will display:
2.
To add a new memo, click on the New Memo button. The following screen displays:
3.
Enter the appropriate text.
4.
Click on the Save Memo button. Your list of memos will appear.
5.
To delete your memos, click on the List Memos button. Place a check next to any memo
that you want to delete, then select Delete Memos from the pull-down menu.
Mail Filters
By applying rules based on message headers or content, mail filters allow you to automatically move messages to certain folders or delete messages from your inbox.
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Creating a Rule
1.
From the Main WebMail Menu, click on the Options button. Then click on the Filters
button. The Filters screen displays:
2.
Click on Edit your filter rules. The following screen displays:
3.
Select the appropriate field.
4.
Enter the appropriate text.
5.
Select an action. Place a check in the delete message box if you want mail that fits the
rule to be deleted. Place a check in the move message box and select a folder if you want
mail that fits the rule to be moved to a specific folder.
6.
Click on the Create button.
7.
The new rule displays in the Filter Rules section of the screen.
8.
Click on the Apply All Rules button. Your inbox displays. As an example, if you selected
From, entered the text johndoe, and selected delete message, all messages from johndoe
will be sent directly to your trash folder.
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Blacklisting a Sender
The Blacklist function allows you to block messages from a specific person. When you
blacklist someone, you are essentially creating a rule that sends their mail to your trash folder
instead of your inbox.
1.
From your inbox, place a check in the message’s checkbox and click on the Blacklist button.
2.
The Filters screen displays, showing the new rule in the Filter Rules section of the
screen. Click the button next to the new rule, and the Rule Definition window will adjust
to the new rule:
3.
Click on the Apply All Rules button. Your inbox redisplays.
Deleting a Rule
1.
From the Main WebMail Menu, click on the Options button. Then click on the Filters button. The Filters screen displays.
2.
Select the rule you want to delete and click on the Delete button.
Moving Rules
Although you can apply more than one rule to a message, rules are applied in the order that
they appear on the Filter Rules section of the screen. To move a rule up or down the list, follow these steps:
1.
From the Main WebMail Menu, click on the Options button. Then click on the Filters button. The Filters screen displays.
2.
Select the rule you want to delete and click on the Move Down or Move Up button.
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Chapter 11
Web Server
Net Integrator’s high-performance web server is based on the industry standard Apache web
server and it supports CGI scripts. Perl and PHP are also integral parts of Net Integrator’s
web services. For more information on Perl, go to http://www.perl.com. For more
information about PHP, go to http://www.php.net.
The Net Integrator provides web services on a Master Web Server and on a Virtual Web
Server.
Master Web Server
What is the Master Web Server?
The master web server is designed to serve your Intranet site and the personal web pages of
your Net Integrator users. Although it is possible to make these sites available to outside
users, you may choose to keep them private for security reasons.
Master web services are provided from IP addresses assigned to Net Integrator’s internal and
external network interfaces. If the web server is enabled and access is granted to outside
users, anyone accessing Net Integrator’s internal or external IP address from a web browser
can access information on the master server.
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Webmaster Directory
A Webmaster team is created and configured as the master web server administrator. When
the Webmaster team is created, a shared network directory called Webmaster is made available to all members of the Webmaster team, and the subdirectory WWW is created in the
Webmaster network drive. This is the directory from which Intranet files are served. Any
files saved in this directory are automatically accessible through the master web site.
The Webmaster directory also contains a log subdirectory (where server access and error logs
are maintained) and a cgi-bin directory (where all CGI scripts are stored).
Configuring your Master Web Server
1.
Select WWW from the Server Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The
WWW Setup screen displays:
2.
Indicate whether or not you want to enable the WWW server.
•
Selecting Yes enables the server and allows users on the internal network and
users on the Internet to access web pages on this server. If enabled, the WWW
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server will serve pages out of the webmaster's WWW directory. In addition,
WWW server logs are written in the webmaster's directory.
3.
4.
•
Selecting Only Trusted Hosts enables the server and allows users on the internal
network to access web pages on this server. If enabled, the WWW server will
serve pages out of the webmaster's WWW directory. In addition, WWW server
logs are written in the webmaster's directory.
•
Selecting No disables the server. No-one can access web pages on this server.
•
Selecting Dynamic Redirect enables the redirection of web connections. Dynamic
redirection can be employed to circumvent blocked HTTP (WWW) ports. If this
option is chosen, all WWW requests directed at the Net Integrator will be handled
by a dynamic DNS server, which will automatically redirect them to a different
port on the Net Integrator. This will be almost transparent for clients, who will
only notice that the hostname and port have changed slightly. For Dynamic Redirect to work, you must enable Dynamic DNS (see Chapter 19: Domain Name Services).
Indicate whether or not you want to enable the secure WWW server.
•
Selecting Yes enables the secure web server and allows users on the internal network and users on the Internet to access secure web pages on this server. If
enabled, the WWW server will serve pages out of the webmaster's WWW directory. In addition, WWW server logs are written in the webmaster's directory.
•
Selecting Only Trusted Hosts enables the secure web server and allows users on
the internal network to access secure web pages on this server. If enabled, the
WWW server will serve pages out of the webmaster's WWW directory. In addition, WWW server logs are written in the webmaster's directory.
•
Selecting No disables the secure web server. No-one can access secure web pages
on this server. Selecting No also means that you cannot access WebMail.
Optional: Click on the [Now] button to generate a security certificate. Although a certificate is automatically generated the first time you power-up Net Integrator, you can
generate a new certificate to overwrite the old one at any time.
IMPORTANT:DO NOT generate a new certificate if you have purchased a security certificate from a
certificate authority and placed in the Webmaster directory. Doing so overwrites the purchased certificate with the one generated by your Net Integrator. To protect your purchased security certificate,
you may want store a copy of it in a different directory.
5.
Indicate whether or not you want to enable the MySQL database server. MySQL is an
advanced feature for users that are familiar with SQL (Structured Query Language).
Refer to Chapter 23: MySQL Server for more information.
•
Selecting Yes enables the MySQL server and allows users on the internal network
to access personal databases and the databases of any teams that they belong to.
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WebMail uses the MySQL database server to store user preferences; as such, the
server has to be turned on forWebMail to work.
•
Selecting No disables the MySQL server. Users will not have access to personal
or team databases. This is the default setting.
Please Note: User and team databases are automatically created when user and team accounts
are set up. MySQL databases can be used to store dynamic web page data for services such as online catalogues and stores.
6.
Indicate whether or not you want to serve personal home pages from the WWW subdirectory (located in each user’s personal network directory). You can choose to serve web
pages to users on your network or to the entire Internet.
•
Select Yes to allow personal pages to be viewed from anywhere. For this to work,
the master web server also has to be enabled
•
Select Only Trusted Hosts to allow personal pages to be viewed only from the
local network, and not from the Internet. For this to work, the master web server
also has to be enabled.
•
Select No to disable personal webpages.
Please Note: The address for personal home pages is in the following format:
http://server.domain/~username.
7.
Although the default Webmaster team is created as the administrator of the master web
server, any team can perform server maintenance tasks. If appropriate, select another
team to maintain the server from the drop-down list.
8.
Enter the email address of the Webmaster (the person who is in charge of this web site).
9.
Enter the appropriate number in the Megabytes of WWW cache field. Refer to Web Caching (in this chapter) for more details.
10.
Click on the Save Changes button.
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Virtual Web Servers
Although virtual web servers allow you to host a number of web sites from the same server,
these sites appear to outside users as though they are all hosted by different servers. In order
to configure virtual web servers on the outside interface, your ISP has to assign you multiple
IP addresses or you have to use name-based virtual web sites (which use names to distinguish
between websites that share a single IP address).
Every virtual web site has to be associated with a maintenance team (which can maintain
only one virtual web site). This means that for every virtual web site that you create, you also
have to create a team that will maintain it. If this site is maintained by users on the local network, they can be made members of the maintenance team. If the site is maintained by outside users, they will have to use FTP to access to the web site directory. If they have an
account on the server, they can use their own login name and password. If they do not have
an account on the network, they have to use the team name and password.
Creating a New Virtual Web Server
1.
Select WWW from the Server Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The
WWW Setup screen displays:
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2.
Click on the Virtual Domains button. The Virtual Domains screen displays (showing all
existing virtual domains):
3.
Click on the Add Server button. The New Virtual Domain screen displays:
4.
Enter your internet domain name (e.g. example.com) as the virtual domain’s host name.
This host name is used as a DNS entry for domain name resolution.
5.
The name of your Net Integrator automatically populates the IP Address of Virtual WWW
Server field. If you want to use a different IP address, enter it in this field.
Please Note: Your ISP has to provide you with an extra IP address if you are configuring a virtual
web server on an outside, untrusted interface.
6.
Select a team to perform Webmaster duties from the drop-down list.
7.
Choose whether or not to make the Virtual WWW site accessible only by trusted hosts
(ie. the local network). This way, you can easily host both an intranet and a public web
site from the same server.
8.
Click on the Save Changes button.
Deleting a Virtual Web Server
1.
Click on the Virtual Domains button on the WWW Setup screen. The Virtual Domains
screen displays (showing all existing virtual domains).
2.
Click on the appropriate server’s Delete Action button.
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3.
Click OK to confirm the deletion in the window that displays.
Please Note: All web files for that server reside in the team's directory and will not be deleted unless
the team maintaining the site is deleted as well.
Editing a Virtual Web Server
1.
Click on the Virtual Domains button on the WWW Setup screen. The Virtual Domains
screen displays (showing all existing virtual domains).
2.
Click on the appropriate server’s Edit Action button. The Modify Virtual WWW Server
screen displays:
3.
Change the appropriate server settings.
4.
Click on the Save Changes button.
Hosting Multiple Web Sites
If your Net Integrator will be used as a web hosting platform for a number of web sites
owned by various customers, you should use the following strategy. For example, if your
Net Integrator will be used to serve a web site for ‘AcmeWidgets’:
1.
Create a team called AcmeWidgets. Assign a team ID and password to this team.
2.
Create a virtual web server. Assign a specific IP address to the virtual web server and
choose the AcmeWidgets team as the Webmaster team. Anyone from AcmeWidgets with
the proper team ID and password can access these files using FTP.
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Secure Web Services
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Encryption
Net Integrator’s web server can serve secure web pages, which are transmitted over the Internet using Secure Socket Layer (SSL) encryption technology. All browsers on the market
support SSL encryption. For SSL to work, the web server must have a file with a security
certificate. This file is unique to every web server and, in order for encryption to properly
work, the certificate has to be issued by a proper certificate authority. When the user loads a
secure page, its certificate is compared to the certificate held by the certificate authority; if
they match, the site is considered trusted, and encrypted communication can commence.
You can purchase SSL security certificates from a number of internet security companies like
Entrust (http://www.entrust.com) and VeriSign (http://www.verisign.com).
Net Integrator’s Security Certificates
The security certificates that Net Integrator generates can be checked for authenticity by all
web browsers. The security certificate generated by Net Integrator is placed in the Webmaster directory and named certificate.pem.
A user loading the first secure web page from the server is warned that this security certificate is valid but that the company issuing it cannot be considered trusted. The user has to
manually approve the continuation of the transaction. Despite this warning, information
exchanged between the web browser and the web server cannot be viewed by others.
Please Note: If you purchase a security certificate from a certificate authority, delete the file automatically
created by Net Integrator and replace it with the one you purchased. You may also want to store a copy
of the purchased certificate in a different directory.
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Web Caching
In order to save bandwidth, the Net Integrator temporarily stores web files accessed by internal users in a cache. If a user requests any of these stored files, Net Integrator serves them
from the cache instead of from the original web site. Internet bandwidth is used only to
retrieve web pages that have not previously been viewed, resulting in much faster access to
the Internet.
Configuring Web Caching
1.
Select WWW from the Server Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The
WWW Setup screen displays:
2.
Enter the amount of data to be cached in the Megabytes of WWW cache field. We recommend that you allow 5-10 MB for every active user on the internal network.
Please Note: Once the cache is full, the oldest files are deleted to make space for new ones. Configuring the cache size to zero disables the web cache server.
3.
Click on the Save Changes button.
4.
For web caching to run transparently, ensure that your web browser is not configured to
use a proxy server.
Please Note: Previous versions of Net Integrator required you to configure your browser to use a
proxy server. Although you no longer need do do this, web caching still functions if your browser is
configured this way. However, it you plan use web filtering in conjunction with web caching, all proxy
server settings must be removed.
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Chapter 12
Positive Web Filtering
Positive Web Filtering is a service provided by Net Integrator that allows the system administrator to allow access to specific Internet sites while blocking access to all others.
Enabling the Web Filter
1.
Select WWW from the Server Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The
WWW Setup screen displays:
2.
In the Enable content filtering field, select Yes.
3.
Click on the Save Changes button.
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4.
Click on Configure. The Web Filtering screen displays:
Providing Full Internet Access
To provide a specific user with access to all Internet sites:
1.
Enter their host name or IP address in the Workstations Exempt from Filtering section of
the screen.
2.
Click on the Accept Action button. The user displays in the list of workstations with full
access.
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Adding Permitted Websites
In order for users to access a specific website, the administrator has to add it to the Permitted
Web Sites list. To do so, follow these steps:
1.
Enter the site’s name in the empty Web Site field.
2.
Click on the Accept Action button. The site displays in the Permitted Web Sites list.
Please Note: The administrator can include any subsection of the domain. If "www.red.blue.org" is
requested, the admin can add "www.red.blue.org", "red.blue.org", or "blue.org". Any sites ending with
that domain are permitted (for example, if the administrator added "red.blue.org", then
"green.red.blue.org" would be allowed, but "violet.blue.org" would not be allowed).
Accepting Access Requests
If a user has requested access to a specific website, a notice displays in the Content Filtering
Requests section of the screen. To accept this request:
1.
2.
Click on the Choose Now button. The following screen displays:
To accept a request, click on the Accept Action button. The Web Filtering screen redisplays, and the site displays in the Permitted Web Sites list. :
Please Note: The administrator can include any subsection of the domain. If "www.red.blue.org" is
requested, the admin can add "www.red.blue.org", "red.blue.org", or "blue.org". Any sites ending with
that domain are permitted (for example, if the administrator added "red.blue.org", then
"green.red.blue.org" would be allowed, but "violet.blue.org" would not be allowed).
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Denying Access Requests
If a user has requested access to a specific website, a notice displays in the Content Filtering
Requests section of the screen. To deny this request:
1.
2.
Click on the Choose Now button. The following screen displays:
To deny a request, click on the Delete Action button. The Web Filtering screen redisplays,
and the site no longer displays in the Requests section of the screen.
Please Note: Once a website has been denied access by the administrator, users will no longer be
able to request access to it. The administrator can include any subsection of the domain. If
"www.red.blue.org" is requested, the admin can add "www.red.blue.org", "red.blue.org", or "blue.org".
Any sites ending with that domain are permitted (for example, if the administrator added
"red.blue.org", then "green.red.blue.org" would be allowed, but "violet.blue.org" would not be
allowed).
3.
To see the list of denied websites, click on the Show Denial List link. The following
screen displays:
4.
Click on the Edit Action button to modify the website address or the reason for denial.
5.
Click on the Accept Action button to move the site to the permitted site list
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Entering Access Requests
1.
Enter the website into your browser’s address bar. Hit Enter on your keyboard.If the site
you are attempting to access has not been added to the Permitted Web Sites list by the system administrator, the following screen displays:
2.
Click on the Request Access button. The following screen displays:
Please Note: Once a website has been denied access by the administrator, users will no longer be
able to request access to it. The administrator can include any subsection of the domain. If
"www.red.blue.org" is requested, the admin can add "www.red.blue.org", "red.blue.org", or "blue.org".
Any sites ending with that domain are permitted (for example, if the administrator added
"red.blue.org", then "green.red.blue.org" would be allowed, but "violet.blue.org" would not be
allowed).
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Chapter 13
FTP Server
The Net Integrator uses a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server that allows users and teams to
access network and web files. FTP services are automatically enabled for users on the internal network.
Anonymous FTP Server
The FTP server can be used in anonymous mode to allow uploads and downloads of files to a
specific directory without authentication from the remote user. This anonymous mode of
operation is commonly used for public file distribution on the Internet. For example, if your
company wants to offer a brochure in electronic format, visitors to your web site should be
advised to click on the FTP link to download the file from your FTP server.
Although the file can be downloaded from your web server, FTP is the preferred method
becasue it offers superior performance for high volume and large file transfers.
When Anonymous FTP is enabled, Net Integrator automatically creates a team called FTP.
Members of this team have access to the FTP directory. All files placed in this directory by
team members are accessible to anyone on the Internet. Similarly, when Anonymous Upload
is enabled, anyone on the Internet can upload their own files to the subdirectory in the FTP
directory.
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Enabling the FTP Server
1.
Select FTP from the Server Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The
FTP Server Setup screen displays:
2.
Indicate whether or not you want to enable the FTP file server.
3.
Indicate whether or not you want to enable anonymous FTP.
Please Note: If this option is enabled, anyone can download files from the FTP directory by using
anonymous as the FTP login name and their email address as the password.
4.
Indicate whether or not you want to enable anonymous uploads.
Please Note: If this option is enabled, anonymous users can upload files to the FTP directory. Be
very careful with this option.
5.
Enter the number of anonymous users that can be simultaneously connected to the FTP
server. This option is used to prevent the overutilization of Internet bandwidth. We recommend that you leave the default setting but increase the number of anonymous users if
the server is often busy.
6.
Click on the Save Changes button.
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Enabling FTP Access
1.
Select User Setup from the menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The Main
Setup screen displays:
2.
Click on the appropriate user or team’s Edit Action button.
3.
The Modify Users or Modify Teams screen displays.
4.
Indicate whether or not you want this user or team to have FTP access in the Allow FTP
access field.
5.
Click on the Save Changes button.
6.
Repeat steps 2-5 for any additional users or teams.
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Chapter 14
Intelligent Disk Backup (idb)
Net Integrator takes a different approach to backup with idb technology, which is both
cheaper and easier to use than conventional tape backup systems. The capacity of the idb
backup unit varies with each Net Integrator model.
Although the idb system automatically performs backup procedures (without input from a
system administrator), you can turn off idb and manually initiate backup procedures. Refer
to Initiating an idb Backup (in this chapter) for more information.
Features of idb
Instead of conventional backup tapes, idb utilizes a removeable high-capacity hard disk,
which provides the following advantages:
•
Value – one hard disk costs less than the five backup tapes needed to maintain a
tape backup system.
•
High Capacity – the idb backup cartridge can (in most cases) store a month or
more of backup history .
•
Speed – idb backup matches and often supercedes the backup speeds achieved by
the most expensive tape systems on the market.
•
Instant Access – regular backup tapes (like cassette tapes) are a linear medium,
meaning that you have to fast-forward or rewind in order to find information. idb
technology (like a compact disc) provides almost instant access to data.
•
Backup Intelligence – you do not need a network administrator to figure out
which tapes need to be loaded and when. Net Intelligence determines when a
backup needs to be made, and whether the backup should be full or incremental.
This decision is based on the amount of data on the main hard disk, the amount of
utilized space on the idb system, the compressibility of your data, and the rate at
which new data is added and current data is changed or updated. As a result, your
idb system maximizes the amount of historical data that is backed up.
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•
Durability – you can backup data on the hard drive continuously without worrying that the drive will wear out.
•
Continuous Backup – you can backup data in any sequence, and as often as
every 15 minutes.
Configuring idb
Your Net Integrator idb model automatically backs up your data throughout the entire day,
takes care of all backup tasks for you, and notifies you via email about its progress.
Although most of the idb process is automated, you can adjust several parameters that determine how and when your backups are completed.
1.
Select Backup from the Server Setup menu found on the left side of any WebConfig
screen. The following screen displays:
Please Note: This screen also has a Restore section not shown in the following image.
2.
Enter the name of the administrator to whom backup reports should be emailed.
Please Note: If you have the SMTP server enabled, you can enter any email address in this field.
3.
Indicate whether or not you want to enable backup compression. As a general rule, compressed backup runs half as fast as a non-compressed backup but stores twice as much
data.
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•
If you select Yes, your backup is slower but takes up less space on the idb disk.
•
If you select No, your backup is faster but uses more space on the idb disk.
4.
Select how often you want the system to perform a backup from the drop-down list. The
default setting is 15 minutes.
5.
Select when you want the system to perform a final back-up from the drop-down list. It is
recommended that you select a time when nobody is using the system (i.e. late at night or
early in the morning).
6.
The Backup Files section of the screen displays all of the directories that can be backed
up. Indicate which directories you want to back up by selecting the Yes button.
7.
Click on the Save Changes button to save your selections. The idb system automatically
performs the backup procedure.
Initiating an idb Backup
Although the idb system automatically performs backup procedures (without input from a
system administrator) you can turn off idb and manually initiate a backup from the control
panel (found on the front of the Net Integrator) or from the Backup menu (located under the
Server Setup menu).
A procedure initiated from the Backup menu allows you configure certain settings on the
Main Backup screen. A backup initiated from the control panel begins a procedre with the
settings that were last configured. To change the settings, you have to go to the Main Backup
screen. If you initiate a manual backup from the control panel, there is a Delay setting. The
setting you enter remains until you change it again.
IMPORTANT:A copy of your server configuration is made each time a backup is performed. This configuration file can be used to restore your settings in the event of a catastrophic system failure.
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Initiating a Backup from the Net Integrator Menu
1.
Select Backup from the Server Setup menu found on the left side of any WebConfig
screen. The Main Backup screen displays:
Please Note: This screen also has a Restore section not shown in the following image.
2.
In the Backup Setup section of the screen, enter the appropriate backup parameters.
Please Note: Refer to Configuring idb (in this chapter) for more information on these fields.
3.
The Backup Files section of the screen displays all of the directories that can be backed
up. Indicate which directories you want to back up by selecting the Yes button.
Please Note: Click on the Save Changes button to save your selections. This does not initiate the
backup procedure.
4.
Click on the Perform Backup button to initiate the backup procedure. When the backup is
finished, your Net Integrator automatically emails a backup report to the administrator.
Initiating a Backup from the Control Panel
1.
Press the Backup button. The display panel shows a 10-second countdown, during which
you can stop the backup process by pressing the Cancel button. After 10 seconds, the
backup procedure commences and the display panel shows a progress bar.
Please Note: You can delay backup for up to 24 hours by pressing the Up and Down arrows during
the countdown.
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idb Restore
There are two restore scenarios:
1.
Complete System Restore – Upon total hard disk failure, perform a complete system
restore to restore your system to the state of your most recent backup. After a complete
system restore, all existing files are overwritten with older copies from the backup tape.
However, new files saved to the hard drive after the backup are left untouched. A complete system restore should generally be initiated only when recovering from complete
hard disk failure.
2.
Specific Directory Restore – It is possible to restore a specific user or team network
directory if these files have been lost or mistakenly deleted. A specific directory restore
can only be initiated from the Backup menu. There are two types of specific directory
restore procedures:
•
Normal Restore – The contents of a user or team directory gets overwritten (like
with a complete system restore).
•
Safe Mode Restore – The contents of a user or team directory gets restored into a
new subdirectory called Restore (which is created in the useror team directory).
Users can browse through the content of the directory from the tape, copy any
needed files, and then delete the Restore sub-directory.
IMPORTANT:Restore procedures can only restore user- and team-level directories. You cannot
restore selected files within a directory.
Initiating an idb Restore
A copy of your server configuration is made each time a backup is performed. This configuration file can be used to restore your settings in the event of a catastrophic system failure.
Initiating a Restore from the Net Integrator Menu
1.
Select Backup from the Server Setup menu found on the left side of any Net Integrator
screen. The Main Backup screen displays.
2.
Scroll to the Restore Files section of the screen (which displays a list of backups and the
date that the backup was performed):
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3.
To view the contents of a backup file, click on the Open button. The following screen
(showing the date and time the backup was performed, and the directories that can be
restored) displays:
Please Note: The first entry in the Restore Files section of the screen is for System Configuration,
which is automatically backed up every time any backup is performed. Restoring system configuration files will overwrite the current system configuration, so be very careful with this setting. It is
recommended that you leave the default setting (No).
4.
Indicate which directories you want included in the restore procedure:
•
Select Yes if you want this directory restored in normal mode (where the contents
of the directory gets overwritten)
•
Select No if you do not want this directory restored.
•
Select Safe if you want the directory restored in safe mode (where the contents of
the directory are saved in the Restore file).
Please Note: Selecting all directories is the equivalent of performing a full system restore.
5.
Click on the Perform Restore button to begin the restore procedure.
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Initiating a Restore from the Control Panel
IMPORTANT:Inititate a restore procedure from the control panel only if you want to do a complete system
restore. See idb Restore Scenarios (in this chapter for more information).
Press the Restore button. The display panel shows a 10-second countdown, during which you
can stop the restore process by pressing the Cancel button. After 10 seconds, the restore procedure commences and the display panel shows a progress bar.
Tape Backup
Some Net Integrator models are equipped with an integrated or optional external tape backup
unit. Although the capacity of the tape backup unit varies with each model, you should be
able to backup an entire hard disk on one backup tape.
Recommended Backup Procedure
While it is possible to backup individual user or team directories, it is highly recommended
that you do a daily backup of your entire system. Make sure that you do not always perform
your backup on the same tape – if the tape fails during the backup process, you are without a
valid backup until you acquire a new tape. If a hard disk failure occurs during this period,
you may lose all of the information that is stored on your Net Integrator. To guard against
such a situation, we recommend that you follow this backup routine:
•
Have a minimum of five tapes (one for each work day) on-hand for daily backups.
Assign one tape for each day of the week, and label accordingly.
•
At the end of each month, add a new tape to your tape collection. This new tape
should replace one of the weekly backup tapes (which should then be stored offsite as a historical monthly reference). This systems allows you to have both a
monthly and a weekly backup of your system.
•
Follow daily backup procedures. Net Integrator’s integrated tape backup unit is
useless if you do not perform proper and frequent tape backups.
•
Appoint someone in your office as the designated Backup Operator. Choose
someone who will remember to initiate the backup at the end of each workday.
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Initiating a Tape Backup
Users can initiate a backup procedure from the control panel (found on the front of the Net
Integrator) or from the Backup menu (located under the Server Setup menu).
A procedure initiated from the Backup menu allows you configure certain settings on the
Main Backup screen. A backup initiated from the control panel begins a procedure with the
settings that were last configured. To change the settings, you have to go to the Main Backup
screen. If you initiate a backup from the control panel, there is a Delay setting. The setting
you enter remains until you change it again.
IMPORTANT:A copy of your server configuration is made each time a backup is performed. This configuration file can be used to restore your settings in the event of a catastrophic system failure.
Initiating a Backup from the Net Integrator Menu
1.
Press the Tape Eject button. The tape containing the previous backup is ejected. Remove
the tape and store it in a safe place.
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2.
Insert a new tape into the tape drive and push slightly. The tape is pulled into the tape
drive. The door closes.
3.
Select Backup form the Server Setup menu found on the left side of any WebConfig
screen. The Main Backup screen displays:
Please Note: This screen also has a Restore section not shown in the following image.
4.
By default, a backup report is sent to the administrator account that was created during
initial Net Integrator setup. To have the report sent to someone else, enter a different user
name in the E-Mail backup reports to field.
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5.
Begin a count-down to the backup procedure by entering a time frame in the Start Backup
in field.
6.
The Backup Files section of the screen displays all of the directories that can be backed
up. Indicate which directories you want to back up by selecting the Yes button.
Please Note: Click on the Save Changes button to save your selections. This does not initiate the
backup procedure.
7.
Click on the Perform Backup button to initiate the backup procedure. When the backup is
finished, the Net Integrator automatically emails a backup report to the administrator.
Initiating a Backup from the Control Panel
1.
Press the Tape Eject button. The tape containing the previous backup is ejected. Remove
the tape and store it in a safe place.
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2.
Insert a new tape into the tape drive and push slightly. The tape is pulled into the tape
drive. The door closes.
3.
Press the Backup button on the control panel. The display panel shows a 10-second
countdown, during which you can stop the backup process by pressing the Cancel button.
After 10 seconds, the backup procedure commences and the display panel shows a
progress bar.
Please Note: You can delay backup for up to 24 hours by pressing the Up and Down directional
arrows during the countdown.
If a Backup does not fit on a single tape...
A backup may not fit on a single tape if the tape is almost full or if you are backing up files
that do not compress well (such as digital multimedia files). If this happens, your Net Integrator will span the backup across multiple tapes. When the first tape is filled up with data,
Net Integrator closes the tape, writes a tape index, and sends an email to the backup administrator outlining which directories have been backed up and which have not.
In order to complete the backup job, the backup administrator has to put a new tape into the
tape drive and press the Backup button (on the control panel). Your Net Integrator then continues the backup on the second tape.
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Tape Restore
There are two restore scenarios:
1.
Complete System Restore – Upon total hard disk failure, perform a complete system
restore to restore your system to the state of your most recent backup tape. After a complete system restore, all existing files are overwritten with copies from the backup tape.
However, new files saved to the hard drive after the backup are left untouched. A complete system restore should generally be initiated only when recovering from complete
hard disk failure.
2.
Specific Directory Restore – It is possible to restore a specific user or team directory if
these files have been lost or mistakenly deleted. A specific directory restore can only be
initiated from the Backup menu. There are two types of specific directory restore procedures:
•
Normal Restore – The contents of a user or team directory gets overwritten (like
with a complete system restore).
•
Safe Mode Restore – The contents of a user or team directory gets restored into a
new subdirectory called Restore (which is created in the user or team directory).
Users can browse through the content of the directory from the tape, copy any
needed files, and then delete the Restore sub-directory.
IMPORTANT:Restore procedures can only restore user- and team-level directories. You cannot
restore selected files within a directory.
Initiating a Tape Restore
A copy of your server configuration is made each time a backup is performed. This configuration file can be used to restore your settings in the event of a catastrophic system failure.
Initiating a Restore from the Net Integrator Menu
1.
Select Backup form the Server Setup menu found on the left side of any WebConfig
screen. The Main Backup screen displays. Scroll to the Restore Files section of the
screen:
Please Note: If there is no backup tape in the tape drive, this section is empty. If the last backup
tape is still in the tape drive, this section displays the directories backed up on that tape.
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2.
Click on the Load Tape Index button to refresh the list of directories that can be restored.
In approximately 1 to 2 minutes, an updated list (showing when the backup on this tape
was performed, and the directories that are stored on this tape) displays.
IMPORTANT:The first entry in the Restore Files section of the screen is for System Configuration,
which is automatically backed up every time any backup is performed. Restoring system configuration files will overwrite the current system configuration, so be very careful with this setting. It is recommended that you leave the default setting (No).
3.
4.
Indicate whether or not you want a directory included in the restore procedure. Selecting
all directories for a restore is the equivalent of performing a full system restore.
•
Select Yes if you want this directory restored in normal mode (where the contents
of the directory gets overwritten)
•
Select No if you do not want this directory restored.
•
Select Safe if you want the directory restored in safe mode (where the contents of
the directory are saved in the Restore subdirectory).
Click on the Perform Restore button to begin the restore procedure.
Initiating a Restore from the Control Panel
IMPORTANT:Inititate a restore procedure from the control panel only if you want to do a complete system
restore. See Restore Scenarios (in this chapter for more information).
1.
Press the Restore button. The display panel shows a 10-second countdown, during which
you can stop the restore process by pressing the Cancel button. After 10 seconds, the
restore procedure commences and the display panel shows a progress bar.
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Chapter 15
Software Updates
Periodically, Net Integrator contacts our distribution servers through its Internet connection
and requests an updated list of available software releases. A list of available software
releases is found on the Software Update screen.
Upgrading your Net Integrator
It is best to upgrade your software after-hours because rebooting disconnects all users and
causes all services to stop functioning until the server has restarted.
1.
Select Software Update from the menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The
Software Update screen displays, showing the software version currently running on your
Net Integrator and all versions available for download:
2.
Click on the Check Versions button to update the list of available versions.
3.
Click on a version’s Release Notes link to access its release notes.
Please Note: The release notes outline the version’s new features and provide important information that you need to know before upgrading your software. Please read the release notes carefully.
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4.
The new software has to be downloaded to your Net Integrator. To do so, click on the
approriate version’s Download link. The System Status screen displays. The SoftUpdate
line displays the progress of the download:
5.
When the download is complete, the SoftUpdate line reads: A software update has been
installed. To activate it, you must Reboot the Net Integrator.
6.
Click on the Reboot the Net Integrator link. The following screen displays:
7.
Click on the Return button when an IP address appears on your Net Integrator’s display
panel. The System Status screen displays. The SoftUpdate line asks if you want to keep
the new software release:
•
Selecting Yes permanently installs the new operating system.
•
Selecting No reboots your Net Integrator and reverts to the previous operating system.
Please Note: If the newer version of the operating system is not installed properly, the server uses
the old version when it reboots. If the server encounters any difficulty starting the new operating system, the previous version will start instead. If you choose not to confirm your download, and a power
loss or reboot occurs, the server will revert back to the last-used operating system.
8.
To revert back to the old version, select Software Update from the WebConfig menu.
Click on the Activate link in the Versions already installed section of the screen:
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TunnelVision
Private Networks
In the past, private networks were created by using routers to connect different office locations through dedicated phone lines. This procedure is often called a wide area network
(WAN). Conventional private networks can be illustrated like this:
Branch
Office
Branch
Office
Et
he
rn
et
Head Office
Phone Line
Branch
Office
Branch
Office
Branch
Office
Virtual Private Networks
TunnelVision allows you to create a virtual private network (VPN) using the Internet instead
of a WAN and dedicated phone lines for server-to-server or network-to-network connections.
A VPN can be illustrated this way:
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Branch
Office
Et
h
er
n
Branch
Office
et
Head Office
Branch
Office
The Internet
Branch
Office
Branch
Office
Making a Virtual Network Private
In a conventional private network, your company owns all the routers, all the computers, and
all the phone lines involved. Because the only people using the network are employees, the
network is secure (at least in theory).
The Internet, on the other hand, is connected to any number of businesses and organizations.
As your private data passes through the Internet, it is possible that people may intercept what
you are sending. In order to prevent this from happening, all of the data that passes through
a VPN is encrypted with the strongest encryption technology available: 1024-bit RSA and
128-bit Blowfish algorithms. Such encryption makes it very difficult to intercept your transmissions.
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How TunnelVision Works
A VPN allows all of the computers on two networks to communicate with each other. For
this to happen, you have to first configure their subnet addresses.
When you install a Net Integrator, the IP addresses used on your local network don’t really
matter. Internet standards recommend that all IP addresses that are owned by internal business networks (and not used on the Internet itself) begin with 192.168. The third part of the
IP address specifies which private subnet number you are using, and the fourth part identifies
an individual computer on the network. In special circumstances, however, you can use any
subnet number at all (the first three parts of the IP address).
The important thing is that the Net Integrator and the computers on the local network have
the same subnet number and unique IP addresses.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
When you communicate with other computers on the Internet, Net Integrator uses network
address translation (NAT) to give each connection a valid, unique IP address that doesn’t
conflict with other networks.
But for a VPN, we don’t want Net Integrator to use NAT, because then only two addresses
will be visible: Net Integrator #1 and Net Integrator #2. Instead, Net Integrator should pass
addresses on each network through to the other network unchanged.
For this to happen. you need to assign different subnet numbers to each Ethernet network
involved in the VPN. For example, use 192.168.1 for Network #1 and 192.168.2 for
Network #2. That means each computer on Network #1 has an address starting with
192.168.1, and each computer on Network #2 has an address starting with 192.168.2.
The Steel Pipe
To summarize, Network #1 is connected to the Internet through Net Integrator #1 and has the
subnet number 192.168.1. Network #2 is connected to the Internet through Net Integrator
#2 and has the subnet number 192.168.2.
Gateway settings work like this: a computer on your Ethernet send packets directly to another
computer if its subnet number is the same. That means that 192.168.1.15 will transmit
directly to 192.168.1.46, since they are both on the same subnet. However,
192.168.1.15 cannot send packets directly to 192.168.2.20 – the subnet numbers are
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similar, but they are not the same. The station then sends the data through its default gateway: Net Integrator #1.
Now TunnelVision can work its magic, as long as you’ve configured the Net Integrators to
create a VPN (you'll do that later in this chapter). When Tunnel Vision starts, it creates an
encrypted connection between the two Net Integrators through the Internet. This connection
is sometimes called a steel pipe (because, like a true steel pipe, it’s hard to see what’s inside
or to break through it). More often it is known as a tunnel.
Net Integrator #1 treats data addressed to Network #2 from its local Ethernet in a special
way. Rather than just passing the data to your ISP, Net Integrator encrypts it and sends it
through the tunnel. When Net Integrator #2 receives the encrypted data, it decrypts the
information and forwards it on to Network #2 as if it had arrived directly from Network #1.
That way, Network #1 can communicate securely with Network #2 without any need for special changes to individual workstations.
Creating a VPN (server-to-server)
Because your Net Integrator does most of the work for you, creating a VPN is much easier
than it sounds. All you have to do is create the encrypted tunnel.
Using Unique Subnet Numbers
We’ve already mentioned it once in this chapter, but it’s so important that we’ll say it again:
each Ethernet network in your VPN must use a different subnet number. We recommend
using any of the networks from 192.168.1 to 192.168.255, since these numbers are specifically reserved for private use.
The Master Server needs a Static IP Address
Here’s the other catch. The only way to find someone on the Internet is to know their IP
address (actually, if their host name is registered in the DNS system, you can use that - but
DNS simply converts the host name to an IP address, so the result is the same.)
To create a connection between two Net Integrators, someone needs to act as the Client and
someone as the Master server. Think of it like a phone call to your ISP: you (the client) need
to know their phone number, but they (the server) don’t need to know yours. With
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TunnelVision, you have a similar situation: the server side (accepting a connection) needs a
static IP address, while the client side can have either a static or a dynamic IP address.
Only one Net Integrator (usually the computer with the fastest Internet connection at your
head office) needs to act as the server and have a static IP address. All the others can simply
act as clients.
Please Note: A static IP address is guaranteed never to change, so people on the Internet can always
find you. To obtain a static IP address, talk to your ISP. DDNS can be used in place of a static IP
address. Refer to Dynamic DNS in Chapter 19: Domain Name Services for more information.
Configuring a TunnelVision Master Server
Ensure that the Net Integrator you are configuring as the master server has a static IP address.
1.
Select VPN from the Network Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The
VPN Setup screen displays:
2.
Leave the default Enable PPTP Server setting.
3.
Select Yes in the Enable Tunnel Vision section of the screen.
4.
Leave the Address of Master Server field empty (since the Master server does not initiate
connections).
5.
Enter a password that the server and client will use to prove to each other that they are
trusted.
6.
Re-enter the password to ensure it was entered correctly.
7.
Click on the Save Changes button.
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Configuring a TunnelVision Client
A Net Integrator doesn’t need a static IP address to act as a TunnelVision client, but it needs
to know the static IP address of the master server. To find this infomation, select Local from
the Network Settings menu on the master server. On the screen that displays, click on the
Advanced... button. Then look at the address assigned to eth1.
1.
Select VPN from the Network Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The
VPN Setup screen displays:
2.
Leave the default Enable PPTP Server setting.
3.
Select Yes in the Enable Tunnel Vision section of the screen.
4.
Enter the Master server’s static IP address.
5.
Enter the password that was used in step 5 of Configuring a Master Server.
6.
Re-enter the password to ensure it was entered correctly.
7.
Click on the Save Changes button. TunnelVision immediately begins to create the tunnel
between the client and the master server. If the client and the server are connected to the
Internet and everything is configured correctly, this process should only take a few seconds.
Please Note: To configure another Net Integrator as a client, simply repeat this process.
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TunnelVision Status
The System Status screen always displays the status of active VPNs:
Please Note: You may need to click your browser’s Refresh button to see the latest information.
The Idle Time-out
If either end of the tunnel does not receive any data for approximately 20 minutes, it assumes
that one end has disconnected from the Internet or that the tunnel is no longer needed.
If one end of the tunnel is still on-line, it will try to rebuild the connection automatically.
Since this only takes a few seconds and happens only when the tunnel has been idle for a
long time, this should not affect you. However, this behaviour can often cause the
VPN Tunnels status light to turn yellow or red. This is not a sign of malfunction.
IPsec: An alternative to TunnelVision
As an alternative to TunnelVision, your Net Integrator can create an IPsec tunnel to a remote
server. TunnelVision’s more advanced features, such as automatic hostname and route sharing, are not provided by IPsec. We generally recommend using TunnelVision, however, for
strict standards compliance, or for connecting to a server that isn’t another Net Integrator,
IPsec may be your only option.
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Adding an IPsec route
1.
Select IPsec Setup... from the VPN Setup screen. The IPsec Setup screen displays:
2.
Select Add New Route. The Create IPsec Route screen displays:
3.
Enter the IP address (or proper hostname) of the remote server you wish to connect to.
4.
To include a private subnet behind the remote server’s firewall, enter the subnet here (eg.
192.168.42.0/24). To tunnel only to the remote server, and not to a subnet behind it,
leave the IPsec: Remote Server field blank, or enter the remote server’s IP address from
the first field.
5.
Obtain the remote server’s RSA public key from its administrator and paste it here.
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Please Note: It must begin with “0s” for Base-64 formatted keys, or with “0x” for hex formatted keys.
6.
Choose to enable or disable Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS). It must be set the same way
on both ends of the connection. The IPsec protocols do not provide a method for the two
ends to negotiate this, so you must ensure to set it correctly.
With PFS, an attacker who finds out your long-term IKE key still probably cannot read
future or past information that you send using the short-term encryption keys that are generated.
Each IPsec route has a PFS option.
7.
Click on the Save Changes button.
Editing an IPsec route
1.
Select the appropriate IPsec route’s Edit Action button on the IPsec Setup screen . The
Modify IPsec Route screen displays.
2.
Enter the IP address (or proper hostname) of the remote server you wish to connect to.
3.
To include a private subnet behind the remote server’s firewall, enter the subnet here (eg.
192.168.42.0/24). To tunnel only to the remote server, and not to a subnet behind it,
leave the IPsec: Remote Server field blank, or enter the remote server’s IP address from
the first field.
4.
Obtain the remote server’s RSA public key from its administrator and paste it here.
5.
It must begin with “0s” for Base-64 formatted keys, or with “0x” for hex formatted keys.
6.
Click on the Save Changes button.
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Generating an IPsec RSA Key
This generates an IPsec RSA public key you can provide to remote servers you wish connect
to. Exchange this key with the remote server’s key to create the encrypted tunnel.
Please Note: Net Integrator will automatically generate one when an IPsec route is created.
1.
Select IPsec Setup... from the VPN Setup screen. The IPsec Setup screen displays.
2.
Generate a new RSA public key by selecting New RSA Key.
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Services
Chapter 17
What is RAS?
Remote Access Services (RAS) is a Net Integrator subsystem that allows you to access the
internal network while at home or on the road. You can take advantage of RAS with:
•
a VPN (which requires the Internet and a PPTP client)
OR
•
a dial-in connection (which requires a dial-up modem and a phone line).
Please Note: Windows has a Point to Point Tunneling (PPTP) client built-in. You have to buy a separate
software package if you are using a Macintosh.
In order to establish a remote connection, users have to have PPTP or dial-in access. Refer to
Creating Users in Chapter 5: User & Team Management for more information.
Client-to-Server VPN Service
Configuring VPN Service on Net Integrator
1.
Select VPN from the Network Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The
VPN Setup screen displays:
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2.
Enable the PPTP server by selecting Yes.
3.
Click on the Save Changes button.
Configuring VPN Service in Windows
Before you can establish a VPN connection, you have to install VPN service on your Windows 95/98/Me workstation. Windows 2000 and Windows XP workstations already have
VPN services installed.
1.
From the Start menu, select Settings > Control Panel. Double-click on the Add/Remove
programs icon.
2.
The Add/Remove Programs Properties screen displays. Select the Windows Setup tab.
3.
Select Communications from the Components list and click on the Details... button. A
second Components list displays, showing the communications components that are
already installed and those that can be installed.
4.
Scroll to Virtual Private Networking in the Components list.
• If it already has a check, then VPN software has already been installed. Proceed to
Establishing a VPN Connection.
• If it doesn’t have a check, you have to install the VPN software. Proceed to step 5.
5.
Place a check in the Virtual Private Networking box and click on the OK button.
6.
The Windows Setup screen redisplays. Click on the Apply button. The software is
installed automatically. Reboot your computer when the software is finished installing.
Please Note: You may be asked to insert your Windows 95/98/Me disk for additional software components to be loaded. Simply follow the instructions provided, and refer to Microsoft Support for more
information.
Establishing a VPN Connection
In order to establish a VPN connection to your network, you need to know your username
and password and the IP address of your Net Integrator’s external network interface.
Follow these steps to establish a VPN connection in Windows 95/98/Me systems:
1.
From the Start menu, select Programs > Accessories > Communications > Dial-up
Networking.
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2.
Double-click on the Make New Connection icon. The following screen displays:
3.
Enter a name for the VPN connection. You leave the default or use any name that makes
sense to you. Click on the Next button. The following screen displays:
4.
Enter your Net Integrator’s host name or external IP address:
•
Enter a host name (such as www.example.com) if your Net Integrator provides
DNS resolution for your domain.
•
Enter an IP address (such as 192.168.0.1) if your Net Integrator does not provide DNS resolution. To find the external IP address, select Local from the Network Setup menu. On the screen that displays, click on the Advanced... button. In
the Network Devices section of the screen that displays, look at the IP address of
the untrusted Ethernet interface (usually eth1).
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5.
Click on the Next button. The following screen displays:
6.
Click on the Finish button. You have created an icon that activates a VPN connection to
your home network through your Net Integrator.
7.
Right-click on the icon that you just created and select Properties. In the window that
displays, click on the Server Types tab.
8.
In the Advanced options section of the screen, ensure that only the following are checked:
•
Enable software compression
•
Require encrypted password
•
Require data encryption.
9.
In the Allowed network protocol section of the screen, ensure that only TCP/IP is
checked. Click on the OK button.
10.
Once you are connected to the Internet, establish a VPN connection to the internal network by double-clicking the icon that you created in step 6.
11.
The following window displays. Enter your Net Integrator login name and password.
Click on the Connect button:
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12.
The following window (showing you the progress of the connection) displays:
13.
The following window displays when a VPN connection is successfully established:
14.
Click on the Close button to minimize this window.
15.
You are now connected to your local network through a secure VPN. Depending on your
Internet connection, it may take longer than normal to complete network requests. The
following icon (showing traffic between your workstation and the Net Integrator you are
connected to) displays in the bottom right corner of your screen:
16.
To terminate the VPN connection, double-click on the icon. Select Disconnect in the
window that displays.
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Dial-in Service
Configuring Dial-in Service on Net Integrator
1.
Select Dial-up from the Networking Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig
screen. The Dial-up Networking Setup screen displays:
2.
Click on the appropriate modem’s Action button.
3.
A second Dial-up Networking Setup screen displays:
4.
In the Allow Dial in connections section, select Yes.
5.
Click on the Save Changes button.
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Configuring Dial-in Service in Windows
1.
From the Start menu, select Settings > Control Panel. Double-click on the Add/Remove
programs icon.
2.
The Add/Remove Programs Properties screen displays. Select the Windows Setup tab.
3.
Select Communications from the Components list and click on the Details... button. A
second Components list displays, showing the communications components that are
already installed and those that can be installed.
4.
Select Dial-Up Networking from the Components list.
•
If it already has a check, then dial-in software has already been installed. Proceed
to Establishing a Dial-in Connection.
•
If it does not have a check, you have to install the dial-in software. Proceed to
step 5.
5.
Place a check in the Dial-Up Networking box and click on the OK button.
6.
The Windows Setup screen redisplays. Click on the Apply button. The software is
installed automatically. Reboot your computer when the software is finished installing.
Please Note: You may be asked to insert your Windows 95/98/Me disk for additional software components to be loaded. Simply follow the instructions given to you.
Establishing a Dial-in Connection
When a user dial into a Net Integrator, the username will appear in the Internet Status field of
the System Status screen for the duration of the connection. The administrator can terminate
the connection from this screen.
In order to establish a dial-in connection to your network, you need to know your Net Integrator username and password and the phone number of a modem that is connected to an
external phone line. Depending on your Internet connection, it may take longer than normal
to complete network requests.
Follow these steps to establish a dial-in connection on Windows 95/98/Me systems:
1.
From the Start menu, select Programs > Accessories > Communications > Dial-up Networking.
2.
Double-click on the Make New Connection icon. The following screen displays:
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3.
Enter a name for the dial-in connection. You can leave the default or use any name that
makes sense to you. Click on the Next button. The following screen displays:
4.
Enter your area code, phone number, and country code.
5.
Click on the Next button. The following screen displays:
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6.
Click on the Finish button. You have created an icon that activates a dial-in connection to
the internal network.
7.
Establish a dial-in connection by double-clicking on the icon that you created in the previous step.
8.
The following window displays. Enter your Net Integrator login name and password.
Click on the Connect button.
9.
A window showing you the progress of the connection displays.
10.
The following icon (showing traffic between your workstation and the Net Integrator you
are connected to) displays in the bottom right corner of your screen when you are connected to the local network:
11.
To terminate the connection, double-click on the icon. Select Disconnect in the window
that displays.
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Firewall Services
Chapter 18
Net Integrator’s firewall subsystem is entirely auto-configuring and automatically reconfigures its parameters to adapt to any Net Integrator settings. It’s so sophisticated, there are no
user controls needed. However, you can choose to restrict outgoing traffic and view a log of
all requests to traverse the firewall.
To learn more about just how sophisticated the firewall is, you can read a technical paper
about it at: http://www.net-itech.com/america/products/
pd_features_connectivity_firewall.htm.
Click on the firewall-whitepaper.pdf link at the bottom of the page. The paper will launch in
Adobe Acrobat Reader.
ICSA Firewall Security Certification
Version 3.71 of Net Integrator’s operating system is our first candidate for ICSA firewall
security certification. The ICSA Labs test firewall products against a standard and evolving
set of criteria. Their Firewall Certification Criteria are composed of both functional and
assurance requirements, and the criteria requirements define an industry-accepted standard
that all products claiming to have firewalling capabilities must attain.
Traffic Denied Inbound
The firewall denies non-Remote Administration related access requests from public network
clients directed to the following:
•
Private network hosts
•
Service network hosts
•
The firewall itself
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Traffic Permitted Inbound
The firewall supports access requests for the following services, if enabled (see Chapter 23:
Log Messages for which firewall request information is logged):
•
FTP (Active and Passive Mode)
•
HTTP
•
HTTPS
•
SMTP
Traffic Permitted Outbound
Net Integrator permits the following protocols through the firewall:
•
Telnet (TCP/23) – To access resources on a Unix/Linux computer.
•
FTP (TCP/20-21) – To copy files between computers.
•
HTTP (TCP/80) – To make web pages available over the Internet.
•
HTTPS (TCP/443) – To make secure web pages available over the Internet.
•
SMTP (TCP/25) – To transfer or send email messages between servers.
•
DNS (TCP and UDP/53) – To navigate the Internet using domain names instead of IP
addresses.
•
POP3 (TCP/110) – To read email from a single Inbox.
•
IMAP (TCP/143) – To read email from a remote location.
All other non-Remote Administration traffic from both private, service and public network
clients directed to or through the Net Integrator firewall will be dropped or denied.
This feature is disabled as the default setting for the Net Integrator. Once the feature is
enabled, users within your network will not be able to use programs that do not adhere to the
above protocols, such as ICQ.
To enable the Restrict Outgoing Traffic option:
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1.
Select Local under Network Setup from the menu on the left side of any WebConfig
screen. The Local Network Options screen displays.
2.
Enable the Restricts Outgoing Connections to configure your Net Integrator to only allow
the above outbound ports. Disable to allow all outgoing traffic.
Firewall Log
Please see Chapter 24: Log Messages for information on Firewall logs.
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Domain Name Services
Chapter 19
What is DNS?
DNS is the protocol used to convert Internet domain names into IP addresses. If DNS is
configured, users can access information on the local network and the Internet using domain
names instead of specific IP addresses.
Please Note: Configuring DNS services can be complicated because it often requires dealing with outside organizations called Domain Registrars. If you are uncertain about issues related to DNS, ask your
ISP to help you.
DNS Services
Net Integrator runs two different kinds of DNS services:
•
DNS Lookup and Caching Server – This server converts domain names (such
www.yahoo.com) into IP addresses and then sends the IP addresses to your
browser. Net Integrator runs the DNS lookup and caching server on your local
network and blocks connections to the lookup server from the Internet. There are
no special options to configure the DNS lookup and caching server.
•
DNS Publishing Server – This server adds names for your own network (such as
www.example.com) into the global DNS system so that people can find your IP
address to access your web site or to send you email. The DNS Publishing Server
is quite complicated. The rest of this chapter explains how it can be configured.
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Configuring Public DNS
1.
Select Local from the Network Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The
Local Network Options screen displays:
2.
The default DNS server setting is No, meaning that you are not publishing any DNS
entries.
3.
•
This option only controls the DNS publishing server and how people outside your
local network communicate with it. The DNS publishing server is always active
for computers on your local network.
•
If you want to provides services (such as email) to the outside world, you need to
enable the DNS server. To do so, select Yes or Dynamic. Your choice depends on
some relatively complex issues involved in domain name registration. We will try
to explain some of these issues in the following sections.
Click on the Save Changes button when you have selected the appropriate DNS setting.
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How the DNS System Works
DNS Hierarchy
The Internet DNS server network is arranged as a hierarchy, in which a single ‘root’ domain,
sometimes called dot (‘.’), links to the set of top-level domains (such as .com and .org). In
turn, each of the top-level domains contains a link to each of the second-level domains (such
as net-itech.com and mydomain.org). Third- and fourth-level domains are less common and are used in large organizations like universities.
You will most likely publish a second-level domain name such as example.com. When you
do that, your DNS server (if enabled) automatically publishes the names inside example.com, such as www.example.com and mail.example.com.
Domain Registrars
However, there is still a part that must be done manually: in this example, you have to create
a link on the .com server to ask your second-level domain to be referred to your Net Integrator’s IP address. To do this, you need to visit a Domain Registrar (such as
www.easydns.com or www.opensrs.org) to make sure your domain name isn’t already
being used by someone else, and give them the outside IP address of your Net Integrator.
Please Note: In order to register a domain name, your Net Integrator must have a static IP address.
Most ISPs provide this service for an additional fee. DDNS can be used in place of a static IP address.
Refer to Dynamic DNS in this chapter for more information.
After you enable your Public DNS Server and register with a Domain Registrar, people
should be able to look up the IP address associated with your domain name. To test this,
select WWW from the Server Setup menu, and select Yes in the Enable WWW Server field.
Then ask a friend outside the local network if they can view your domain.
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Dynamic DNS
Dynamic DNS is a Net Integrator feature that allows you to publish DNS entries and provide
Internet services even if you have a dynamic IP address (as opposed to a static IP address).
When you register your domain with a registrar, you give them the address of the primary
server and backup server owned by Net Integration Technologies (which already have static
IP addresses). When your Net Integrator connects to the Internet, it automatically informs
the Net Integration Technologies servers about your current IP address and asks them to publish your up-to-date DNS information.
You need to provide a Domain Registrar with the following DNS server addresses:
1. dyndns1.ivivanet.com 209.5.34.82
2. dyndns2.ivivanet.com 207.176.197.14
All you need to do then is set your Public DNS Server to Dynamic. Net Integrator does the
rest.
Manually Creating DNS Entries
Based on the servers you have enabled, your Net Integrator automatically decides which
DNS names to publish. For example, if your domain name is example.com, and the
Enable WWW Server option is set to Yes (not Trusted Hosts Only), then your Net Integrator
automatically publishes the DNS name www.example.com as a pointer to your web server.
Similarly, if you enable the SMTP email delivery server, it publishes the name mail.example.com.
Although your Net Integrator publishes names automatically, you may want to occasionally
add extra names to your DNS server. You may also want to add an entry that allows people
to access your site without typing www. before the address.
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Types of DNS Entries
You can create four kinds of DNS entries:
•
A (address) – Creates an entry for converting a name (such as www.example.com) to an IP address (such as 111.22.33.44). This is the most common
type of entry.
•
NS (copy from nameserver) – Allows you to mirror someone else’s DNS server.
Every DNS server should have a backup server with an additional copy of the
data. When you register a domain name, the registrar generally asks for a primary
and a secondary server. If someone asks you to act as their secondary DNS server,
you can add their domain name and primary server's IP address as an NS entry.
•
MX (mail exchanger) – Occasionally, you may want to publish a web server and
a mail server with the same name but different IP addresses. For example, you
might want people to reach you by email when they send to user@example.com, but you might want the example.com web server to point to a different
address. To do that, you would add Address records for example.com and
www.example.com pointing to your web server, and then you would add an MX
entry for example.com pointing to your mail server. You do not need to create a
separate MX entry if it will point to the same address as the Address record.
•
DR (Dynamic Redirect) – Dynamic redirection can be used to circumvent
blocked HTTP (WWW) ports. Any WWW requests directed to the address
entered as "Name" will be automatically redirected by a Dynamic DNS server to
port 4201 on the site entered as "Value". This will be almost transparent for clients, who will only notice that the hostname and port have changed slightly.
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Creating a DNS Entry
1.
Select DNS from the Server Setup menu. The DNS List screen displays:
Please Note: To list, create or edit your private DNS entries, click the Private Entries button.
Private DNS entries are available only to the internal network and include hostnames of all the computers the Net Integrator can find on the local network.
Public DNS entries include the mail exchange (MX) record and entries for the untrusted (external)
network interface. Virtual WWW server DNS records will also go on the public DNS list. Most of the
listings, both public and private, are automatically set up by the Net Integrator.
2.
Click the Add DNS button. The DNS Add screen displays:
3.
Enter a name for the entry.
4.
Select the entry type.
5.
Enter the target IP address in the Value field.
6.
Click on the Save Changes button.
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Editing an Existing DNS Entry
1.
Select DNS from the Server Setup menu. The DNS List screen displays.
Please Note: To edit your private DNS entries, click the Private Entries button.
2.
Click on the entry’s Edit Action button. The DNS Edit screen displays:
3.
Make the appropriate changes and click on the Save Changes button.
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Workstation Viewer
Chapter 20
What is the Workstation Viewer?
The Workstation Viewer is a Net Integrator subsystem that can list the workstations and servers that are connected through the local network or a VPN. The Workstations screen tells you
which computers are on the network, what their names and IP addresses are, and who is
logged on.
If a workstation can be administered remotely using Virtual Network Computing (described
in the next section), the remote administration program can be accessed from WebConfig.
Accessing the Workstation Viewer
1.
Select Workstations from the Network Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig
screen. The Workstations screen displays:
2.
Because scanning for workstations can waste bandwidth (especially across a VPN) no
workstations display in the list. Click on the Network Scan button to view an updated list
of workstations. The following screen displays:
3.
Click Refresh (on the bottom of the screen) after a few seconds to view the updated list.
Workstations will only be shown in the list if they are connected to the network.
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Virtual Network Computing (VNC)
Using free Windows software called Virtual Network Computing (VNC), you can configure
Windows, Mac, and Unix workstations so they can be controlled remotely from a central
workstation. If users need help or settings need to be changed, an administrator does not
have to physically go and sit in front of the workstation in question.
Because this remote administration software is also compatible with VPNs, the administrator
does not have to be on the same network or even in the same city. Computers with a VNC
remote administration server installed appear with the words Remote Admin next to them on
the Workstations screen:
Configuring VNC
There are two parts to configuring remote administration:
1.
VNC Server (which should be installed on every user’s workstation).
2.
VNC Viewer (which should be installed on the administrator’s workstation).
Once the servers and viewers are configured, clicking the Remote Admin link on the Workstations screen connects you to the remote VNC server and displays the remote desktop.
Configuring the VNC server
1.
Download VNC from the Internet. Go to:
•
http://www.uk.research.att.com/vnc/download.html
OR
•
http://download.cnet.com/ (and search for VNC)
Please Note: For the MAC version, go to http://www.chromatix.uklinux.net/vnc/
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2.
The file comes in a zipped format. Unzip the file in a temporary location for installation.
Run the Setup program and follow the screens. Accept all defaults during the installation
process.
3.
When installation is finished, reboot the workstation.
4.
From the Start menu, select Applications > VNC and start VNC (App mode).
5.
The first time you start VNC you will have to set up a password, which is needed in order
to connect to your workstation.
6.
When VNC is active, a small VNC icon displays in the bottom right corner of your
screen.
Configuring the VNC viewer (for the Administrator’s Workstation)
1.
Download VNC from the Intenet and configure the VNC server.
2.
Look for vncviewer.exe, and copy it somewhere obvious (such as c:\windows\).
3.
From the Start Menu, select Programs > Windows Explorer.
4.
From the Tools menu, select Folder Options. Click on the File Types tab. The File Types
screen displays.
5.
Click on the New Type... button. The Add New File Type screen displays:
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6.
Enter a description of the file type (such as VNC Viewer Admin) in the Description of
Type field.
7.
Enter vnc in the Associated extension field.
8.
Enter application/x-vnc in the Content Type (MIME) field.
9.
Click on the New button. The New Action window displays:
10.
Enter Open in the Action field.
11.
Enter c:\windows\vncviewer.exe /config"%1" in the Application used... field.
Please Note: c:\windows\ refers to the location where VNC has been installed. The quotations
around "%1" are required.
12.
Click on the OK button. VNC Viewer Admin displays in the Registered file types list of
the File Types screen.
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Chapter 21
FastForward
What is FastForward?
Net Integrator's FastForward technology allows you to forward Internet traffic from a specific address and interface to another address and interface. A subsystem that performs this
function is usually called a Proxy Server.
When computers on the Internet access services on your internal, protected network, they
“talk through” your Net Integrator. FastForward makes sure that these untrusted computers
can only access the information and services that you want them to.
If FastForward is disabled, no-one can see anything on your local network because the Net
Integrator acts as a firewall. If you enable FastForward, you are making a protected “hole” in
your firewall that allows computers on the outside to access your network. To decide
whether you want to use FastForward, you need to decide whether it is worth the added security risk.
Because you are affecting the firewall security of your network, it is very important that
you understand what you are doing while configuring FastForward. You might want to
seek qualified advice.
Introduction to TCP/IP
Entire books have been written on this subject. To save you some time, we'll try to explain
everything you need in a page or two. Earlier in this guide, we talked about how each computer on the Internet must have a unique IP address. But that's not the whole story. Network
protocols come in layers - IP is just one of those layers. The job of IP is to get data, split it
into small chunks called packets, and then transport those packets from one computer to
another on the Internet.
How does a computer know what to do when it receives an IP packet? Somehow, it needs to
figure out what service it belongs to, and which open connection it's involved in. For that, it
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uses two higher-level protocols known as TCP (Transport Control Protocol) and UDP (User
Datagram Protocol). TCP and UDP introduce port numbers which specify where the data is
supposed to go and how the computer is supposed to handle it.
FastForward can handle both TCP and UDP. It processes them differently from each other,
but you don't need to worry about this for configuration purposes.
User Datagram Protocol
Using UDP is very much like sending a telegram. You receive a message, and you may send
a reply. The DNS (Domain Name Service) mentioned earlier uses UDP. One computer sends
a message asking to translate a name (say www.example.com) into a number. The answering DNS server sends a message saying that the IP address of www.example.com is
192.168.1.1.
Query
Response
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Transport Control Protocol
Using TCP is very much like making a telephone call. A person calls you, and you answer.
You go through a introductory sequence, you have a conversation, and then you finish the
call (or as we say with TCP, you close the connection). TCP is used for more complicated
network tasks, like web browsing.
Two-Way Connection
Proxy Servers
Net Integrator acts as a firewall, meaning that it blocks computers on the Internet from having access to your private servers.
If you want to make a service available to the outside world, FastForward controls the connection for you. When someone outside wants to access the service, they send the request to
a port on your Net Integrator. FastForward then connects them to the service. This process
has two connections: one from the client to the Net Integrator, and another from the Net Integrator to the server. When either the client or the server transmits information, the Net Integrator forwards it to the opposite end of the connection.
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As a result, you need to know the addresses and port numbers of both the source of information and the destination of the information. Net Integrator receives connection requests from
the source address and forwards them to the destination.
If you want to use FastForward, you probably already have a clear idea of what your destination address will be. The source, however, may be more difficult to determine and ultimately
depends on how your IP address is configured.
Static and Dynamic IP Addresses
A person trying to access FastForward services through your Net Integrator must know your
assigned IP address in order to locate you on the Internet. Each time you connect to the
Internet, your ISP assigns you a IP address. Dynamic IP addresses are inconvenient for use
with FastForward because your address changes each time you connect (making it difficult
for your clients to find you).
If you specifically ask for one, your ISP can give you a static IP address (which never
changes). Once you have a working static IP address, you can add it to a DNS server (which
will convert your domain’s readable name into its IP address).
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Configuring FastForward
You can configure FastForward once you know your source and destination addresses. If
you still aren't sure where the addresses come from, keep reading - we have a few examples a
bit later on.
IMPORTANT:Remember that you decrease firewall security when you enable FastForward.
1.
Login to Net Integrator with your administrator username and password. WebConfig’s
System Status page displays.
2.
Select Fast Forward from the Network Setup menu. The Fast Forward screen displays,
showing the list of addresses being forwarded
Please Note: This list may be empty if no addresses are being forwarded.
Creating a New Forward
1.
Click on the Add New Forward. The Add Forward screen displays:
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2.
Enter the source address and port number in the From Address and From Port fields.
Please Note: If you enter NetIntegrator (with no space) as the source address, Net Integrator automatically uses your assigned address (whether it is static or dynamic). You can only attach one forward connection to any given source address and port.
3.
Enter the destination address and port number in the To Address and To Port fields.
Please Note: Ensure that you have entered the destination information correctly. If you forward connections to a server that isn't answering, Fast Forward drops the connection.
4.
Click on the Save Changes button.
Editing a Forward
1.
On the Fast Forward screen, click on the appropriate forward’s Edit Action button. The
Modify Forward screen displays.
2.
Change the appropriate source or destination information.
3.
Click on the Save Changes button.
Deleting a Forward
1.
On the Fast Forward screen, click on the appropriate forward’s Delete Action button.
2.
To confirm the deletion, click on the OK button on the window that displays.
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Forwarding Scenarios
All this might still sound abstract and confusing. Here are a few common examples:
1.
Your internal network has an email server called Fred running Windows NT. The address
of the server is 192.168.1.5.
Set the source to Net Integrator/port 25 (which is the SMTP port) and the destination to 192.168.1.5/port 25. Now people can send email to your Net Integrator's
static IP address, and it will get forwarded to your mail server.
2.
If Fred has a DNS server on port 53, you can forward Net Integrator/port 53 to
192.168.1.5/port 53. That way, people on the Internet can look up hostnames that
belong to your local network.
3.
You can make WebConfig accessible from the outside world so that Net Integration Technologies Inc. technical support can get into your Net Integrator and help you with problems.
Net Integrator's port 80 is already in use for the company web server, so we'll use port 81
as the source. WebConfig uses Port 8042 and if the destination IP is 192.168.1.1, the
complete destination address is 192.168.1.1/port 8042. To access WebConfig from
the outside, we would need to use a special address: http://www.yournetwork.com:81/
Here's what FastForward looks like if you choose all three of these settings:
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Multiple Static IP Addresses
In certain cases, you will want FastForward to treat connections differently depending on
their target. For example, you might want email from mail1.yournetwork.com to be sent
to Fred (your NT server) and email from mail2.yournetwork.com to be sent to Barney
(your Unix server). To do this, your ISP needs to assign you multiple static IP addresses.
Some ISPs may not offer this service.
If you have two static IP addresses (207.6.60.1 and 207.6.60.2), and you want the setup
we just described, you can:
•
create one forwarding entry with source 207.6.60.1 / port 25 and destination
192.168.1.5 / port 25.
•
create another forwarding entry with the source 207.6.60.2 / port 25 and destination 192.168.1.6 / port 25.
Common Port Numbers
Here are a few common port numbers that you can use with FastForward.
•
22 – SSH (Secure Shell)
•
23 – Telnet
•
25 – SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
•
79 – Finger
•
80 – HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) - Web server
•
110 – POP (Post Office Protocol)
•
5631 – PCAnywhere
•
443 – Web server secure port (HTTPS)
Please Note: Some ports cannot be used with FastForward. For example, port 21 (FTP) does not work
because it uses multiple connections that include both ports 20 and 21.
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Troubleshooting FastForward
Your Net Integrator may display the following message: An error occurred while Fast Forward tried to bind to one or more of the addresses specified.
This message may display if:
•
you are trying to forward to ports that are already being used by your Net Integrator (port 80, for example).
•
FastForward has more than one entry trying to use the same source port and
address. You cannot have more than one FastForward entry attached to the same
source.
If you see this message, turn off the server that is already using the port. For example, to forward port 80 (the port used for web services) to another address, you would first have to shut
off the web server on your Net Integrator.
The log message viewer (explained in Chapter 24: Log Messages) shows which Fast Forward entries did and did not work.
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Chapter 22
Disk Management
Disk Configuration (idb and RAID)
RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) is a system of backing up information that
reduces risk by saving data on two or more drives. If one drive fails, your data is still safely
stored on another drive. Although you do not need to know much about RAID in order to
configure it on your Net Integrator, it may be helpful to know that a RAID array consisting of
exactly 2 disks is called RAID1. A RAID array consisting of 3 or more disks is called
RAID5.
Intelligent Disk Backup (idb) is a system that automatically performs backup procedures as
often as every fifteen minutes without input from a system administrator. See Intelligent
Disk Backup (idb) in Chapter 14: Backup & Restore for more information.
You configure your disks when you create your administrator account:
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Selecting Yes means that you reserve your last disk for Intelligent Disk Backup (idb) while
using all other available disks for a RAID array. Selecting No means that you use all available disks for a RAID array. Refer to Creating an Administrator Account in
Chapter 2: Connecting to WebConfig for more information.
Please Note: If your Net Integrator has one disk, then you cannot take advantage of idb or RAID. If your
Net Integrator has exactly two disks, you can have idb backup or a two-disk RAID array (but not both). If
you have three or more disks, you can have a two (or more) disk RAID array and idb backup or a RAID
array with all available disks and no idb backup.
Reconfiguring your Disks
Although you configure your disks when you first setup your administrator account, it is possible to reconfigure them at a later time. The Disk Status section of WebConfig’s System Status screen displays your disk status and provides you with disk reconfiguration options.
Converting an idb disk to RAID
You can only convert an idb disk to part of a RAID array if your Net Integrator has exactly
two disks. If you have 3 or more disks, you cannot convert an idb disk to RAID.
IMPORTANT:Converting your idb disk to part of a RAID array means that you lose idb backup capabilities. In addition, the backup information that is stored on the idb disk is permanently deleted.
1.
The Disk Status section of the System Status screen has a link telling you that you can
configure your last disk to your RAID array to improve redundancy. Click on this link.
2.
The RAID array then begins to rebuild. This process (which can take up to two hours)
does not noticeably affect the performance of your Net Integrator. Click on your
browser’s Refresh button to view an updated status of your RAID array:
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3.
When the array has finished building, the following displays in the Disk Status section of
the screen:
Converting a RAID disk to idb
If your RAID array is working correctly, you can convert a RAID disk to idb.
IMPORTANT:Converting your last RAID disk to idb eliminates disk redundancy (regardless of how many
disks your Net Integrator has).
1.
The Disk Status section of the System Status screen has a link telling you that you can
configure your last disk as idb. Click on this link.
2.
The following displays in the Disk Status section of the screen:
3.
Click on the Reboot the Net Integrator link. The following screen displays:
4.
When an IP address appears on your Net Integrator’s display panel, click on the Return
button. The System Status screen displays. The Disk Status section of the screen displays
your new disk configuration:
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Disk Status Messages
Depending on your disk configuration, one or more of the following messages will display in
the Disk Status section of WebConfig’s System Status screen:
1.
The RAID array is rebuilding. Please do not add or remove any disks until this process is
finished. (% complete)
A RAID array needs to build itself the first time it is used, and rebuild when a new disk is
added or when the power is turned off suddenly. This message also displays on the display panel. Always click on the Shutdown button (on the bottom of the System
Status screen) before turning off your Net Integrator; failure to do so means that your
RAID array will need to rebuild when you turn the box back on. Although this process
does not noticeably affect the performance of your Net Integrator, it can take up to two
hours to complete.
2.
Your disk array is working correctly.
This message displays after a RAID array is finished building.
3.
No disks detected! Are your drives inserted or locked?
This message displays when your drives are not fully inserted and properly locked or
when all available drives have crashed. If your drives are not locked, insert the hard disk
key into the lock and turn it clockwise until it snaps back into the locked position. If your
disks have crashed, refer to Recovering from Disk Failure (in this chapter) for information on how to replace failed disks.
4.
The RAID array is in degraded mode. If you remove a disk, you will lose access to
your files.
This message displays if you have only one of the available drives configured in a RAID
array. You can create a proper RAID array by configuring a second disk.
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5.
The primary disk is in standalone mode. If you remove the disk, you will lose access to
your files.
This message displays if have a single disk drive, if you are not using RAID, or if your
two-disk RAID array is in degraded mode.
6.
There is no disk available for idb backup.
This message displays when all available disks are configured in a RAID array.
7.
Disk #_ is being used for Intelligent Disk Backup (idb).
This message displays when the last disk is used for idb instead of as part of a RAID
array.
8.
You can add disk #_ to your RAID array to improve redundancy.
This message displays when you have at least one unconfigured disk or if your last disk is
being used for idb. Click on the link to add the disk to the RAID array.
Please Note: This message appears in addition to messages 1-7.
9.
You can configure disk #_ for use in idb backups.
This message displays if the last disk drive is unconfigured. The previous message also
displays, but you can only choose one of the options.
Please Note: This message appears in addition to messages 1-7.
Recovering from Disk Failure
If one of the disks in your RAID array fails:
1.
Turn off the main power switch (on the back of the Net Integrator).
2.
Remove the hard disk and replace it with a new one as soon as possible. See Installing a
New Hard Drive (in this chapter) for more information.
Please Note: Net Integration Technologies Inc. will send you a new hard disk by overnight courier.
See your Net Integrator warranty for full details.
3.
Turn the main power switch back on.
4.
Press the power button (on the front of your Net Integrator).
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5.
6.
7.
Connect to WebConfig:
o.
Read the IP address on display panel. For demonstration purposes, we will use the
following address: 192.168.0.1
p.
Enter http://192.168.0.1:8042 into a web browser’s address bar. Press Enter
on your keyboard. WebConfig’s System Status page displays.
The Disk Status section of the screen presents you with two options:
•
To configure the new disk as part of the existing RAID array, click on add disk #_
to your RAID array.
•
To configure the new disk as idb, click on configure disk #_ for use in idb
backups.
Depending on your choice, your Net Integrator will configure the new disk as idb or as
part of your RAID array.
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Disk Recovery (SystemER)
SystemER (Emergency Recovery) is an advanced set of features and procedures that:
•
allows rapid data recovery in case of complete hard disk failure.
•
enables Net Integrator to run in emergency mode after a hard disk failure.
Most Net Integrator units are equipped with SystemER (which is a unique Net Integrator feature that is not available from any other manufacturer).
Because hard disks are more prone to failure than solid-state devices, Net Integrator is
designed in such a way that the operating system and system configuration files do not reside
on the hard disk. Instead, the operating system is stored on nonvolatile solid-state memory
(which provides superior reliability). A tape backup unit or idb backup along with simple
backup and restore procedures allow for quick recovery in case of system failure.
If you suspect that your Net Integrator has suffered hard disk failure, contact the Net
Integration technical support team immediately.
Hard Disk Failure
If technical support diagnoses your problem as hard disk failure, you will need the following
in order to restore your Net Integrator:
•
Last Backup Tape – from which you can recover data from your last backup. If
you have an idb model, you do not need a backup tape.
Please Note:All changes to system configuration, user files, and new files created by users
since the last backup are not recoverable
•
New Hard Disk – because your hard disk has failed, a new one will be sent to you
by Net Integration Technologies. The disk will be sent by overnight courier and
should arrive the next morning. See your Net Integrator warranty for more information.
•
Hard Disk Key – your Net Integrator has been delivered with a pair of small
keys. These are used to unlock the removable hard disk tray.
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Installing a New Hard Drive
1.
Turn off the power switch (located on the back of the Net Integrator).
2.
Insert the hard disk key into the lock and turn it counter-clockwise.
3.
Gently take the handle and pull the disk out (keeping the handle horizontal).
Please Note: The tray should slide out easily. Do not use excessive force.
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4.
Remove the disk from the unit.
5.
Slide the new hard disk into the drive as far as you can (keeping the handle horizontal).
6.
When the disk has been pushed into the drive as far as it can go, gently push the handle
downward. Doing so locks the disk into position.
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7.
Insert the hard disk key into the lock and turn it clockwise until it snaps back into the
locked position.
8.
Turn the main power switch back on
9.
Press the power button (on the front of your Net Integrator).
10.
When an IP address appears on the the display panel, insert the last backup tape into the
tape backup drive.
Please Note: Skip this step if your last backup tape iss already in the tape backup unit or if you have
an idb model.
11.
Press the Restore button on the control panel. After a 10 second countdown, the restore
procedure begins and a bar graph (showing the progress of the restore procedure) appears
on the display panel.
12.
The length of the restore process depends on the size of your hard disk and the amount of
data that has to be restored. The entire process can take up to several hours.
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Chapter 23
What is the MySQL Server?
MySQL is an advanced database administration tool that can be used to store dynamic web
page data (for services such as on-line catalogues and stores), create accounting databases,
and create address books. MySQL is an advanced feature for users that are familiar with
databases and SQL (Structured Query Language). For more information, go to
http://www.mysql.com.
If the MySQL server is enabled, users on the internal network can access personal databases
and the databases of any teams that they belong to. Because WebMail uses the MySQL
server to store user preference information, the MySQL server has to be enabled for WebMail
to work properly.
Please Note: User and team databases are automatically created when user and team accounts are
set up.
What is phpMyAdmin?
phpMyAdmin is a program that is used to administer MySQL databases. phpMyAdmin
provides a user interface for MySQL, meaning that users can take advantage of MySQL databases even if they are not familiar with SQL.
Users can set-up a database in phpMyAdmin and use:
•
Microsoft Access to access and manage the database. This is most often done for simple
databases such as address books.
•
PHP or Perl scripts to access and manage the database. This is most often done for
dynamic web pages (which will be discussed later on in this chapter.)
OR
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Managing Databases in phpMyAdmin
Creating Database Tables
As an example, we are going to show you how to create a simple address book in
phpMyAdmin. Later, we will show you how to manage the database in Microsoft Access.
1.
Open an Internet browser on your workstation. Newer versions of Netscape or Microsoft
browsers are recommended.
2.
Read the IP address on your Net Integrator’s display panel. For demonstration purposes,
we will use the following address: 192.168.0.1
3.
Enter https://192.168.0.1/mysql into the browser’s address bar. Press Enter on
your keyboard. Enter your user name and password on the screen that displays.s
4.
The following screen displays:
5.
Select your user name from the menu on the left-hand side of the screen. The following
screen displays:
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6.
To create a new database table, enter the name of the table and the number of fields in the
Create new table... section of the screen.
Please Note: The table name cannot contain any spaces.
7.
The following screen displays:
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8.
Enter basic field information.
Please Note: VARCHAR (in the Type column) simply means that the entry contains numerous characters. In the Length/Values column, specify the maximum number of characters allowed in the
entry.
9.
If appropriate, select one field as Primary by clicking on the check-box. This prevents
duplication in the address book (i.e. prevents two entries from having the same name,
email address, or phone number).
Please Note: All other options (such as Attributes, Null, and Default) are advanced features that you
are not required to fill in.
10.
Click on the Save button. The following screen displays:
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11.
On this screen, you can insert values, edit entries, and delete entries.
•
To insert values for an entry, click on the Insert button (at the top of the screen).
Enter the appropriate information into the Value field.
•
To edit an entry, click on the Change button (in the Action section of the screen).
•
To delete an entry, click on the Drop button (in the Action section of the screen).
Editing Database Tables
1.
To edit a database table, log-in to phpMyAdmin and select the appropriate table from the
menu on the left-hand side of the screen. The following screen displays:
Please Note: This screen has other options not shown in this image.
2.
Click on the Change button (in the Action section of the screen).
3.
On the screen that displays, you can edit the following: Field, Type, Length/Values,
Attributes, Null, Default, and Extra. Change the entry as appropriate.
4.
Click on the Save button.
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MySQL Server
Deleting Database Tables
1.
To delete a database table, log-in to phpMyAdmin and select the appropriate table from
the menu on the left-hand side of the screen. The following screen displays:
Please Note: This screen has other options not shown in this image.
2.
Click on the Drop button (at the top of the screen).
3.
In the window that displays, click on the OK button.
Setting up Windows for MySQL Access
Instead of using phpMyAdmin, you can use Microsoft Access to access and manage database
tables. We are still using the example of an address book.
1.
You first have to download MySQL ODBC (Open Database Connectivity). Go to
http://www.mysql.com/downloads/api-myodbc.html.
2.
On the screen that displays, click on the link for the most recent stable release.
Please Note: Always download the most recent stable release. For this example, we downloaded
MyODBC 2.50.
3.
From the Windows Downloads section of the screen that displays, click on the Download
link for Windows 95/98/Me systems.
4.
On the screen that displays, select the nearest server to download from.
5.
In the window that displays, select Save (to save MyODBC to your desktop).
6.
Double-click the icon on your desktop. Extract the zip file to a directory called myodbc.
7.
Double-click on the myodbc folder that you created in the previous step. Double-click on
Setup.exe.
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MySQL Server
8.
The Microsoft ODBC Setup screen displays. Click on the Continue button.
9.
Select MySQL from the Available ODBC Drivers list. Click on the OK button.
10.
From the Windows Start menu, select Settings > Control Panel > ODBC Data Source.
The ODBC Data Source Administrator screen displays:
11.
Click on the Add... button. The Create New Data Source screen displays.
12.
Select MySQL from the list. Click on the Finish button. The following screen displays:
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MySQL Server
13.
On this screen, enter:
•
a Windows DSN Name (such as MySQL Address Book)
•
your Net Integrator’s host name or IP address
•
your MySQL database name, user name, and password.
Please Note: You do not have to worry about the other fields on this screen.
14.
Click OK on this screen and then on the ODBC Data Source Administrator screen.
15.
Open Microsoft Access.
16.
Create a database named address book. The following screen displays:
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MySQL Server
17.
Anywhere in this window, right-click your mouse. Select Link Tables.
18.
In the Files of Type section of the screen that displays, select ODBC Databases. The
Select Data Source screen displays.
19.
Select the Machine Data Source tab and select MySQL Address Book. The Link Tables
screen displays.
20.
Select the appropriate table and click on the OK button. The following screen displays:
21.
Make sure the appropriate table is highlighted and click on the OK button. The table
opens in Microsoft Access.
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MySQL Server
What is a Dynamic Web Site?
Dynamic web sites, such as online stores or catalogues, use databases to store information
and PHP or Perl script to produce the web page based on the data stored in the database. This
allows the changing information to be reflected on the site as it changes.
Please Note: Dynamic web sites require advanced knowledge of PHP or Perl script, and it is advisable
that you seek the help of a qualified programmer to create your own.
Generating Dynamic Web Sites
The following PHP script is used to render the example address book into a dynamic web
site.
1.
Enter the following script into a text file and save it as addressbook.php:
<table>
<?php
mysql_connect("localhost", "john", "password");
mysql_select_db("john");
$result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM AddressBook");
while ($line = mysql_fetch_array($result))
list ($name[],$phone[]) = $line;
for ($i = 0; $i < sizeof($name); $i++)
echo "<tr><td>$name[$i]</td><td>$phone[$i]</td></tr>\n";
?>
</table>
2.
In the Windows Network Neighbourhood, copy the script in John’s WWW folder (on the
local server).
3.
Open an Internet browser on your workstation. In the address bar of the browser, enter:
http://servername/~john/addressbook.php.
4.
The address book opens in the browser.
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Log Messages
Chapter 24
Accessing Log Messages
Net Integrator keeps a log that displays the messages from all of Net Integrator’s subsystems.
To view the log from the firewall subsystem, please refer to the Firewall Log section below.
To access this log:
1.
Select Logs/Reports from the menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The Log
Messages screen displays:
Please Note: Information messages display on a black background. Error messages display on a
red background.
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Log Messages
Customizing Message Display
The Highlight drop-down menu allows you to highlight messages coming from a specific
Net Integrator subsystem (such as Disk Manager and Fast Forward), making them much
easier to see. To customize your message log display:
1.
Select a subsystem from the Highlight drop-down menu.
2.
Select an option from the Priority drop-down list.
Please Note: The Priority list customizes what kind of message is highlighted. By default, only messages that show a change in the system display. However, you can make error messages and debug
messages display.
3.
Click on the Apply button. The appropriate messages are highlighted.
Firewall Log
With ICSA firewall certification, Net Integrator logs requests to send traffic through the firewall. Please see Chapter 18: Firewall Services for more information on Net Integrator’s firewall. The following firewall information is logged:
•
All permitted inbound access requests from public network clients that use a service identified in the security policy hosted on the Net Integrator itself or on a private or service
network server;
•
All permitted outbound access requests from private and service network clients that use
a service identified in the security policy on a public network server;
•
All access requests from private, service and public network clients to traverse the Net
Integrator firewall that violate the security policy;
•
All access requests from private, service and public network clients to send traffic to the
Net Integrator itself that violate the security policy;
•
All attempts to authenticate at an Administrative Interface on the Net Integrator itself;
•
All access requests from private, service and public network clients to send traffic to the
Net Integrator itself on the port or ports used for Remote Administration;
•
Each Startup
The logs contain the following information:
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Log Messages
•
Date and Time - when the event occurred with an accurate Date/Timestamp;
•
Protocol - TCP, UDP, ICMP, other;Source IP Address;
•
Destination IP Address;
•
Destination Port (TCP and UDP) or Message Type (ICMP);
•
Disposition of the event. (Blocked, allowed, etc.)
To view the firewall log, you must be a member of the Logs team. The firewall log file will
then appear in your IMAP folder of your email reader as an incoming message. This team is
automatically created by the Net Integrator.
To add a user to the Logs team:
1.
Select User Setup from the menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The Main
User Setup screen displays:
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Log Messages
2.
Click on the appropriate user’s Edit Action button. The Modify Users screen displays:
3.
Choose the Logs team in the Join Teams field.
4.
Click on the Save Changes button.
5.
Access your IMAP folder, and the firewall log for the Net Integrator will be one of the
incoming emails.
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Network File System
Appendix A
What is NFS?
NFS (Network File System) is a protocol invented by Sun Microsystems that allows clients
using UNIX and similar operating systems to mount file systems from remote servers. This
chapter is for advanced users that are familiar with UNIX and similar operating systems.
Please Note: Refer to http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/NFS-HOWTO/ for more information
on NFS.
Installing and Configuring ugidd
If your user ID on the local system is different than your user ID on the Net Integrator, you
will not be able to access mounted directories. To avoid this problem:
1.
Install ugidd (an application that provides user name and ID information to NFS) on your
local system.
2.
Select File from the Server Setup menu on the left side of any WebConfig screen. The
File Server Setup screen displays. In the Mapping scheme for NFS field, select ugidd.
Click on the Save Changes button.
Please Note: If you are using NIS (Network Information Server) or a similar application that provides
usernames and IDs to the network, you generally do not need ugidd.
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Mounting an NFS directory
Mounting an NFS directory
In order to mount a directory, you must have super-user privileges. Follow these steps to
mount an NFS directory:
1.
If necessary, install ugidd on your workstation.
2.
From a shell prompt, enter showmount -e weaver.
Please Note: This step is optional. If you already know what directories you are able to mount, proceed to step 3.
3.
At the prompt, enter (for example) mount (NFSdir) (localdir).
Please Note: localdir is the path to an existing directory on the local network. NFSdir is specified as
hostname:/path/directory. For example, to mount the home directory of the user josefk under the
local directory /mnt/josefk, enter the following information:
mount weaver:/export/home/josefk /mnt/josefk
Unmounting an NFS Directory
You should unmount when you are done with a mounted directory or when you are going to
logout. From a shell prompt, enter (for example) umount /mnt/josefk.
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Glossary
ADSL
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
ADSL uses standard phone lines to deliver high-speed data communications. ADSL uses the portion of a phone line’s bandwidth not utilized by voice, allowing for simultaneous voice and data
transmission.
Bandwidth
This term describes information-carrying capacity of telephone or network wiring. Bandwidth is
usually measured in bits per second.
Bit
Binary Digit
The smallest unit of computerized data. A bit is represented as either 1 or 0.
Cable Modem
Cable modems provide Internet access over cable TV networks (which use fiber-optic or coaxial
cables). They are generally much faster than modems that use phone lines.
Cache
A copy of a program or data that is used for faster access.
See also Web Cache.
Certificate
Authority
An issuer of Security Certificates used in SSL connections.
Client
A computer system or process that requests a service from another computer system or process.
Data Encryption
Encrypting data is accomplished by applying a scrambling code that makes the data unreadable to
anyone who does not have a decryption key. Authorized personnel with access to this key can
unscramble it.
See also SSL.
Data encryption is a useful tool against malicious users.
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DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
This is an industry-standard protocol that assigns IP information to computers.
DNS
Domain Name System
A set of guidelines and rules that allows you to navigate the Internet using domain names instead
of IP addresses.
DDNS
Dynamic Domain Name System
A system that automatically updates DNS information when a new IP address is assigned to a
network.
DNS Server
A computer or server that matches an IP addresses to a domain name. Some ISPs provide a specific DNS address.
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line
Ethernet
A LAN that connects devices like computers, printers, and terminals. Ethernet transmits data
over twisted-pair or coaxial cables at 10 or 100 Mbps.
EtherTalk
Networking protocol used by Apple equipment connected directly to Ethernet.
FastForward
The ability to create a passage (or open a port) through your firewall to a service or a server hosting a service.
See also Port Number.
Firewall
A device that provides secure Internet access and protects internal networks from intruders.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
An Internet based protocol used to copy files between computers (usually a client and a server)
using Unix-based command parameters. You can download shareware or freeware applications
that remove all the complexities of Unix and allow you to connect to FTP sites using a web
browser.
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Gateway
A computer or server that is connected to multiple networks and is capable of routing or delivering packets between them.
HTML
Hypertext Markup Language
A set of tags and instructions used to create web pages. HTML tags create page layouts, format
text, insert graphics and multimedia, and more.
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
A protocol that makes hypertext information such as web pages available over the Internet.
Hub
A a piece of hardware that connects computers together in a LAN, allowing information to travel
between them.
Internet Gateway
A gateway for accessing the Internet, which is loosely defined as points of entrance to and exit
from a communications network. A gateway is the node that translates between two otherwise
incompatible networks or network segments. Gateways perform code and protocol conversion to
facilitate traffic between data highways of differing architecture.
A gateway can be thought of as a function within a system that enables communications with the
outside world.
IMAP
Internet Message Access Protocol
A popular protocol that allows a client to access email without downloading it to a local computer. Used mainly to read email from a remote location.
IMAP Server
A server that uses IMAP to provide access to multiple server-side folders.
IP Address
Internet Protocol Address
The numeric address used to identify and locate a server, computer, or website on the Internet.
IP Address
(Dynamic)
A temporary IP address that is assigned to a computer by a DHCP server each time it goes online.
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IP Address
(Static)
A permanent IP address that is assigned to a computer in a TCP/IP network. Network devices that
serve multiple users (such as servers, routers, and printers) are usually assigned static IP
addresses.
IPSec
Internet Protocol Secure
A type of secure connection between computers at different locations, creating Virtual Private
Networks.
See also VPN (Virtual Private Network).
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Networking
A digital-communication networking system used for high-speed communication with the Internet. ISDN is available through most telephone companies.
ISP
Internet Service Provider
An organization that maintains a server directly connected to the Internet. Users who are not
directly connected to the Internet typically connect through an ISP.
Java
Designed by Sun Microsystems, Java is a programming language for adding animation and other
action to web sites. In order to view web sites created with Java, your browser has to have Java
enabled.
JavaScript
Designed by Sun Microsystems and Netscape as an easy-to-use supplement to Java, JavaScript
code can be added to standard HTML pages to create interactive documents. Most modern
browsers JavaScript support.
kbps
Kilobits per Second (thousands of bits per second)
This is a measure of bandwidth (the amount of data that can flow in a given time) on a data transmission medium.
LDAP
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
The LDAP server provides a directory of users' names and email addresses.
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LAN
Local Area Network
A LAN links together computers that are in the same building. 10BaseT Ethernet is the most
common LAN.
See also Hub.
Mbps
Megabits per Second (millions of bits per second)
This is a measure of bandwidth (the amount of data that can flow in a given time) on a data transmission medium.
MX Record
Mail Exchange Record
A DNS resource record type that indicates which host can handle mail for a particular domain.
NetBIOS
Network Basic Input Output System.
A protocol for networking on IBM PC and compatible systems.
NAT
Network Address Translation
NAT allows one publicly visible IP address to refer to many IP addresses internally on a LAN,
making it look like all traffic was generated by a single external IP address.
NFS
Network File System
A protocol developed by Sun Microsystems which allows a computer to access files over a network as if they were on its local drive.
NIC
Network Interface Card
An adapter card that physically connects a computer to a network cable.
Packet
A unit of data transmitted over a network. Large chunks of information are broken up into packets before they are sent across the Internet.
Packet Filter
A filter that blocks traffic based on a specific IP address or type of application (email, FTP, web,
etc.), which is specified by port number.
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Peer-to-Peer
Network
A network where there is no dedicated server. Computers with access privileges can share files
and peripherals with all other computers on the network.
PhpMyAdmin
PHP MySQL Administration
A program used to administer MySQL databases, and provides a user interface.
PING
Packet InterNet Groper
A program used to determine if a server is functional. It sends small packets to the server, which
replies with similar packets.
POP3
Post Office Protocol 3
A popular protocol used most often by ISPs for receiving email messages. POP3 servers allow
access to a single Inbox (as opposed to IMAP servers, which provide access to multiple serverside folders.
Port Number
A number assigned to an application program running on a computer in a TCP/IP-based network
such as the Internet. The number is used to link the incoming data to the correct service. There are
several standard port numbers. For example, port 80 is used for web traffic.
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol
A method of transmitting protocols (such as IP) over a serial link. PPP is most often used in dialup modem connections from a home computer to an ISP.
PPPoE
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
PPPoE is often used to connect DSL providers. Because it is based on two common standards
(PPP and Ethernet), it is easy to integrate into existing networks.
PPTP
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
PPTP ensures secure communications over Virtual Private Networks that use public phone lines.
Protocol
A set of rules that govern network exchanges.
Proxy Server
A server that acts as a barrier between an internal network and the Internet. Proxy servers can
work with firewalls, which help keep outside users from gaining access to confidential information. A proxy server also allows the caching of web pages for quicker retrieval.
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RBL
Realtime Blackhole List
A ‘spam’ blocker that has different levels of spam protection (such as Strong or Medium).
Router
A device that handles the connection between two or more networks.
Routing
The act of directing packets between networks.
Routing Table
A list of destinations known to the router (server) that allows user traffic to get to and from its
destinations.
RSA
Rivest Shamir Adleman
An Internet encryption and authentication system that uses an algorithim developed by Rivest,
Shamir, and Adleman.
Security
Certificate
Information used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection. Contains information
about who a certificate belongs to, who issued it, its unique serial number, its valid dates, and its
encrypted ‘fingerprint’ that is used to verify the contents of the certificate.
See also SSL.
Server
A computer or software package that provides specific services to a client. The term can refer to
a particular piece of software (such as a web server) or to the machine on which the software is
running.
A single server can run several different server software packages.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol
A protocol used to collect statistical information from a host about parameters such as central
processing unit (CPU) utilization
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
A protocol used for transferring or sending email messages between servers. Another protocol
(such as POP3) is used to retrieve the messages.
SQL
Structured Query Language
A language used to create advanced databases.
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SSL
Secure Sockets Layer
A protocol that allows encrypted, authenticated communications to travel across the Internet.
SSL is used mostly in communications between web browsers and web servers. URLs that begin
with "https" indicate that an SSL connection is being used. Each side of an SSL connection must
send a valid Security Certificate to the other. Each side then encrypts what it sends using both
certificates, thereby ensuring that only the intended recipient can de-crypt it, that the other side
can be sure of the the data’s origin, and that the message has not been tampered with.
Subnet
A portion of a network (which may be a physically independent network segment) that shares a
network address with other portions of a network. A subnet is distinguished by its own subnet
number.
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
A popular suite of protocols that allow computers to communicate on the Internet.
Telnet
An application that lets you access resources on a Unix or Linux computer. In order to use Telnet,
you need to be familiar with Unix-based programs.
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
A protocol used throughout the Internet for services such as DNS.
URL
Uniform Resource Locator
The standard method to give an address of any resource on the Internet. A URL looks like this:
http://www.net-itech.com.
VPN
Virtual Private Network
VPNs allow communication between users in different offices. To prevent people on
the Internet from intercepting transmissions, all information that passes through a VPN
is protected with 128-bit encryption, the strongest encryption technology available.
WAN
Wide Area Network
A network that connects different LANs using routers.
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Web Browser
An interface that lets you view material on the Internet. The most popular web browsers are from
Microsoft and Netscape.
Web Cache
An area on your hard disk that is reserved for storing images, text, and other files that have been
viewed on the Internet.
WebConfig
Net Integrator has a web-based configuration system. To connect to WebConfig, enter
http://hostname:8042 in the address bar of a web browser. For example, if your Net Integrator’s host name is thunder, enter http://thunder:8042 in the address bar.
See Chapter 2: Connecting to WebConfig for more information.
WebMail Server
A system that allows users to access their email account using any standard web browser.
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A
address book, WebMail 107
administrator account
creating 32
anonymous FTP server 133
Automated Drive Mapping 81
C
calendar, WebMail 109
components of, Net Integrator 11
configuration of, Net Integrator 41
D
data backup
idb (intelligent disk backup) 135
tape 135
data restore
idb (intelligent disk backup) 139
tape 146
DHCP server 20
configuration of 42
dial-up modem 18
disk management 199
disk configuration 199
disk recovery 205
hard disk failure 205
idb 199
installing a new hard drive 206
RAID 199
reconfiguration of disks 200
status messages 202
SystemER 205
DNS 177
domain registrars 179
dynamic DNS 180
entries, manual creation of 180
entries, types of 181
hierarchy 179
lookup and caching server 177
mail records 91
publishing server 177
working with SMTP server 91
domain names 42, 179, 181
domain registrars, DNS 179
DoubleVision 55
DSL connection 53
configuration of 53
dynamic IP addresses 192
dynamic web site 218
E
email services 87
advanced email settings 94
DNS mail records 91
IMAP server 89
LDAP server 90, 95
mail virus scanner 88
POP3 server 89
realtime blackhole list 88
SMTP server 88
WebMail server 89
ethernet 15
cables 15
hubs 15
port connections 16
F
FastForward 189
common port numbers 196
configuration of 193
creating a new forward 193
editing a forward 194
firewall security 189
proxy servers 191
static and dynamic IP addresses 192
TCP 191
TCP/IP 189
UDP 190
file sharing services 67
configuration of 67
Macintosh file server 68
NFS file server 68
Windows file server 68
file transfer protocol (FTP) 42
port 21 196
firewall services 173
log 175
restrict outgoing traffic 173
white paper 173
First 11
FTP services 131
anonymous FTP server 133
enabling FTP access 133
enabling FTP server 133
H
hard disk failure 205
installing a new hard drive 206
host names 42
hosting multiple web sites 121
I
idb (intelligent disk backup)
configuring idb 136
initiating a backup 138
idb (intelligent disk backup) restore 139
initiating a restore 139
restore scenarios 139
IMAP server 87, 92, 93
installing new hard drive 206
internet connections
configuring a dial-up modem 51
configuring a DSL connection 53
configuring a leased line connection 54
dial-up modem 18
IP address
manually setting 20
static and dynamic IP addresses 192
IPsec 159
adding a route 160
editing a route 161
RSA key 162
L
LDAP server 95
configuration of 95
leased line connection
configuration of 54
log messages 219
customizing message display 220
firewall log 175
Logon Scripts 81
M
Macintosh file server 68
mail virus scanner 88
main status screen 36
master web server 115
MySQL server 209
Microsoft Access 214
phpMyAdmin 209
N
network address translation (NAT) 155
network devices 44
reconfiguration of 45
network file system (NFS) 223
mounting an NFS directory 224
ugidd 223
unmounting an NFS Directory 224
network routes 46
reconfiguration of 46
network settings (advanced) 43
network settings (general) 41
DHCP server 42
domain names 42
host names 42
public DNS server 42
Rsync server 42
SNMP 42
time setting 43
NFS file server 68
P
Perl script 115
PHP script 115
phpMyAdmin 209
managing databases 210
POP3
configuration of 89
mailboxes 57, 58
server 87, 92, 93
port numbers (common) 196
positive web filtering 125
power connection 15
power-up sequence 19
supply cord 11
print services 83
configuring your workstation 83
proxy servers 191
public DNS server 42
R
RAID 199
creating a RAID array 33
realtime blackhole list (RBL) 88
remote access services 163
dial-in connection 169
dial-in service 169
VPN connection 164
VPN service 163
restrict outgoing traffic 173
RSA key 162
Rsync server 42
S
secure web services 122
setup, first-time 11
shutdown button 202
simple network management protocol
SNMP 42
Smarthost 87, 90
SMTP server 87, 93, 180
configuration of 88
software update 149
SSL encryption 122
static IP addresses 192
SystemER 205
hard disk failure 205
installing a new hard drive 206
T
tape backup 135
backup procedure 141
initiating a backup 142
tape restore 146
initiating a restore 146
restore scenarios 146
TCP/IP workstation configuration 21
for Mac OS 9 29
for Mac OS X 31
for Windows 2000/XP 25
for Windows 95/98/ME 21
team accounts 57, 62
creation of 63
deletion of 65
editing 65
service integration 57
time setting 43
transport control protocol (TCP) 191
TunnelVision 153
configuring a client 158
configuring a master server 157
creating a VPN 156
encryption 154
idle time-out 159
network address translation 155
private networks 153
status 159
steel pipe 155
subnet numbers 156
VPNs 153
U
user accounts 57
creating 58
deleting 61
editing 60
service integration 57
user datagram protocol (UDP) 190
V
views of, Net Integrator
back 14
front 13
virtual network computing (VNC) 186
configuration of 186
virtual private networks (VPNs) 153
virtual web servers 119
virus scanner
mail 88
W
web caching 123
web filtering 125
accepting access requests 127
adding permitted web sites 127
enabling 125
full Internet access 126
positive web filtering 125
web services 115
hosting multiple web sites 121
master web server 115
secure web services 122
SSL encryption 122
virtual web servers 119
web server 115
webmaster directory 116
WebConfig 21
configuring TCP/IP 21
creating an administrator account 32
main status screen 36
WebMail 99
access to 99
address book 107
calendar 109
configuration of 103
email composition 104
opening email 105
replying to email 106
screen 101
server 87
webmaster directory 116
Windows file server 68
workstation viewer 185
virtual network computing 186
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