310.2 Philips V60 NIV
BiPAP therapy is only appropriate in the ED, Critical Care and Transitional Care
Units. The decision to administer BiPAP in any other general care area must be
approved by the RCS Medical Director
The BiPAP device is not designed for continuous long term mechanical ventilation
and, should not be used on intubated or trached patients that are entirely
ventilator dependent.
Use of BiPAP is appropriate for intermittent ventilatory assistance in patients
that are capable of spontaneous ventilation.
Goals of NIV:
Alleviate respiratory distress by:
• Improving gas exchange
• Reducing WOB
• Decrease rapid shallow breathing
• Augmenting alveolar ventilation
• Achieve patient-to-ventilator synchrony
• Reverse atelectasis
• Minimize risks and avoid complications associated with endotracheal intubation
Indications for Instituting NIV by Disease State
COPD exacerbations
Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema
Respiratory failure associated with immunosuppression
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
• Hypercapnia associated with neuromuscular disease/chest wall deformity
• Respiratory distress in patients classified as DNR/DNI (palliative care consult)
Not Appropriate (except as a temporizing measure in the period immediately prior to
transfer to
ICU). These being situations when respiratory distress is associated with:
Asthma exacerbation
Chest trauma
Adopted: 4/2015
2 310.2 Philips V60
Post-operative period
Obtunded, airway protect issues
Contraindications for NIV in all care areas
Head or facial fractures
Obtunded/ unable to protect airway (or remove mask)
Basilar skull fracture
Cardiac/Respiratory Arrest
Untreated Pneumothorax
Tracheal or bronchial fractures
High Risk for Aspiration
Systolic BP < 90 mm Hg (resistant to fluids)
Bullous lung disease
Sinus or middle ear infections
Uncontrolled Arrhythmias
Unable to Cooperate
Unable to Fit Mask
Severe Upper GI Bleed
Patient inability to remove mask (i.e. in case of vomiting)
Multi-Organ System Failure
Physiologic Indices for NIV
Gas Exchange Criteria
• Hypercapnic Failure: pH < 7.35 with PaCO2 > 45 mm Hg
• Hypoxemic Failure: PaO2/FiO2 < 200 mm Hg
Breathing Pattern: Evidence of Moderate to Severe Respiratory Distress
Tachypnea (due to COPD / hypercapnic failure): RR > 25
Tachypnea (due to Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure): RR > 30
Dyspnea (subjective)
Pronounced accessory muscle use
Paradoxical breathing
Physician's Order
The administration of BiPAP (NIV) therapy (face mask pressure support) must be
approved by a physician. A written order must be present in the patients chart before
therapy is instituted. The order must state the IPAP and EPAP level used, the mode of
operation, the frequency and duration of treatments, and acceptable pulse oximetry
310.2 Philips V60 NIV
Philips Respironics V60
The BiPAP V60 ventilator is a microprocessor controlled, bilevel positive airway
pressure ventilatory assist system providing noninvasive PPV and may be used as
invasive ventilator support for spontaneously breathing adults and pediatric patient’s
≥ 20kg. The V60 system incorporates a user interface, real time graphic displays and
integral patient and system alarms.
This system operates in the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) and
Pressure Support, Spontaneous Timed (S/T), Pressure Control Ventilation (PCV),
Average Volume Assured Pressure Support (AVAPS) & Proportional Pressure
Ventilation (PPV) modes. Pressure regulation is achieved by monitoring proximal
airway pressure and adjusting flows to ensure that the set pressure equals the
proximal pressure.
The V60 ventilator is an assist ventilator intended to augment
ventilation of a spontaneously breathing patient.
It is not intended to provide the total ventilatory requirements of the patient.
The V60 is FDA approved for noninvasive and invasive ventilation.
The exhalation port test is no longer required unless the PEV or an unknown exhalation
valve is used.
The V60 circuit/interface requires an intentional leak port instead of an actively
controlled exhalation valve to remove exhaled gases from circuit. The pressurized air
from the V60 causes a continuous flow of air to exhaust from the leak port, flushing
exhaled gas from the circuit. The Respironics mask and/or exhalation port must contain
a CO2 removal port to decrease an occurrence of CO2 rebreathing.
Principles of Operation
Oxygen Module regulates and proportions O2 into the air from the blower
according to the oxygen concentrator level set on the parameters screen. O2 range
from .21%-100%. The higher the oxygen concentration settings, the higher the
oxygen flow rates required from the oxygen module and the lower the air flow rate
from the blower. In the event there is no access to a 50 psi source, O2 can be bled
into the circuit using oxygen connection tubing connected to an oxygen
flowmeter and a pressure line adapter connected at the patient interface port.
Adopted: 4/2015
4 310.2 Philips V60
V60 Performance Capabilities:
Auto Trak Sensitivity description:
• An algorithm that adjusts to changing leak conditions to achieve optimal
patient-to-ventilator synchrony
• Auto adaption leak compensation
• Auto-adaptive I-trigger adjustment
• Auto-adaptive E-cycle adjustment
For a more in depth understanding of Auto Trak Sensitivity algorithm, see description
at the end of this document or refer to the user’s manual.
• Pressure, flow, Volume waveforms
• Visible and audible alarms
• Breath type (spontaneous, timed) and breath phase (inhalation, exhalation)
• Total breath rate
• Tidal volume and minute volume
• Leak: patient or total
• Percent patient triggered breaths
• Ti/Ttot
Pressure Ulcer: A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying
tissue, usually over a bony prominence as a result of pressure, or pressure in
combination of shear and/or friction. Pressure ulcers are areas of tissue destruction due
to ischemia.
California Department of Public Health (CDPH) requires that the following hospital
acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU’s) are reported within five days of discovery:
A. Stage III
B. Stage IV
C. Unstageable
D. Deep Tissue Injury is reported if it converts to a Stage III, IV or
Patients requiring NIV therapy are at high risk for Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcers:
RCS is responsible for the monitoring, prevention, documentation and reporting HAPU’s.
Refer to the SFGH Nursing Department Policy No: 20.9 for an in depth description
of the Braden Score Assessment Tool and how pressure ulcers are staged.
310.2 Philips V60 NIV
o The % Patient Leak or % Total Leak must be documented in the
patients EMR or Cardiopulmonary Flow sheet
o Any redness, blisters, broken skin or rashes, notify RN immediately.
o To improve pt. comfort and or reduce HAPU’s, insure leak is in the
7-25 lpm range.
o Consider alternate mask or alternating masks if possible.
The V60 is intended for patients (>20kg)
In the event NIV is required for patients weighing < 20 kg (44lbs):
• Covidien 980 – NIV Pediatric Mode
• Carefusion Infant SiPAP: Infant or neonatal application, refer to the Infant
SiPAP Policy and Procedure No. 312
Transport: The Battery
The internal lithium battery, when fully charged, is capable of sustaining ventilation for
at least 6 hours.
Transport: The Tanks
The V60 comes ready to equip two auxiliary gas tanks for use during patient transport.
No gas source is required due to the V60’s internal blower. Grab and go tanks are capable
of flow delivery up to 100L/min. Bench testing the ventilator with a VE of 12L/min,
FiO2 of 1.0 and two full E-cylinders of O2 yielded roughly 40 minutes of usage per tank.
Your results may vary but regardless of the distance to be traveled or the FiO2 in use,
always bring an extra tank just in case! (See calculation below.)
(Tank pressure in PSI - 200) x 0.28 cylinder factor
Time until empty
Flow rate L/minute
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6 310.2 Philips V60
Theory of Operation:
For patient safety, the ventilator starts up in the same modes and settings including mask
type and leak port as when last powered down.
In the event the wrong mask and or port setting are selected,
Total Leak rather than Pt. Leak will be displayed in the patient data window
In the event the wrong mask/port are selected:
Vt and leak monitoring accuracy will likely be affected
Breath synchrony and breath delivery may be adversely affected
After Self-Test is complete, if necessary, the Start-up screen allows
clinician to perform the Exhalation Port Test” which analyzes the
leak rate of the exhalation port. During the test the system measures
the intentional exhalation port leak over the complete pressure range.
Respironics masks have their leak number imprinted on the mask making it
easy to make the proper selection. If you are not using a Respironics mask,
you need to choose “other” when setting the interface preference.
If an exhalation port is not compatible with the selected interface, V60 will not
allow that choice and will be displayed on the screen.
ET/trach tubes and most Respironics masks require use of an exhalation port.
You may not select “None” as a port choice.
When selecting an exhalation port, a picture of the port will appear by the
name of the port selection. If you choose DEP or the Whisper Swivel, no
exhalation port test is needed. If you choose PEV or other, an exhalation port
test will be required (PEV no longer supplied at SFGH)
At no time should V60 be used without an expiratory port!
o This is not to be confused with the anti-suffocation feature found on the
AF531 BiPAP masks/elbows!
Bacteria filter
– Protects patient and ventilator from contamination
– Attach low resistance filter to the gas outlet port
– Must be in place prior to exhalation port test
Humidifier Chamber
310.2 Philips V60 NIV
o (Insure Humidifier is in Non-Invasive mode)
o HME’s are never to be used with NIV as they increase resistance.
• Sterile H2O bag
• Temperature probe
• Disposable Exhalation Port adapter (DEP)
• Heated wire circuit:
o The F&P R219 BiPAP circuit is the device of choice.
o RT219 package includes the DEP, heated wire circuit, dry inspiratory
limb, MR290 chamber and the pressure line tubing.
• Mask Interface:
o Fitting the mask to the patient’s face is key to ensuring successful NIV
therapy with appropriate leaks that will allow the mask to “float” on the
patient’s face to provide positive pressure and at the same time, eliminate
any possibilities of device related pressure ulcers.
o The patient and the RN will be instructed on intentional leaks and the
risks of a mask that does not allow for a patient leak of at least 7L/min.
The Auto-Trak algorithm will easily compensate for leaks possibly up to 60 lpm.
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8 310.2 Philips V60
Mask Interface options:
SFGH RCS uses the Philips AF531 and PerforMAX NIV mask collection only. When
integrated with the Philips V60, this mask platform allows for the real-time calculation of
patient leak based on a known constant leak of the mask elbow you’ve selected.
310.2 Philips V60 NIV
Mask Elbow Options:
The Philips AF531 platform features removable elbows which allow for quick
customization of the mask to fit the needs of the therapist at the bedside. SFGH will
supply 4 different elbows for use with these masks:
Clear #1 Leak Elbow
• Included with the oro-nasal mask.
• Integrated anti-suffocation valve
Amber #2 Leak Elbow
• Included with the PerforMAX mask.
• Integrated anti-suffocation valve
Green Bronchoscopy Elbow
• Specialty elbow designed to improve ease of bronchoscopy
procedures while on BiPAP
• Replace with clear or amber elbow upon completion of
Blue Solid Elbow
o This elbow is for double limb ventilators like the PB980
• No leak present
Why use a total Face Mask?
• Mouth breather, claustrophobic,
• Level of consciousness
• Patient cooperation
• Sizing is effortless.
Air Leak Recommendations: Minimal air-leaks are highly recommended
If the leak is < 7 lpm, the mask may be too tight resulting in skin breakdown or necrosis.
0-6 L/min = May be too tight
7-25 L/min = Just right
26- 60 L/min = Caution and Monitor
> 60 L/min = Adjust
These are Philips recommendations, the clinician needs to assess and reassess to
determine proper mask size, fit and appropriate leak based on the patient’s needs and
Adopted: 4/2015
10 310.2 Philips V60
Strategies for NIV success:
Patients in Acute respiratory failure are usually short of breath, frightened,
claustrophobic and may feel like they are suffocating. Applying the mask at
therapeutic pressures may exacerbate that feeling. Anxiety will make it difficult
for the patient to synchronize with the ventilator.
NIV guidelines recommend starting with low pressure of 5 cm H2O, and slowly
increase the pressure to therapeutic levels. If feasible, permit the patient to hold
the mask to their face until he or she becomes accustomed to the mask and
pressures. Coach the patient to relax and let the ventilator assist their breathing.
This may take several minutes. The goal during this initial application period is to
gain the patient’s confidence and acceptance to NIV therapy.
When the patient is ready, apply the headgear and adjust the mask for maximum
comfort. Two fingers should easily fit between the mask and the patient’s face.
This will help prevent over-tightening of the headgear straps. Small leak around
the mask is acceptable but should be directed away from the eyes. If the patient
starts batting their eyelashes at you, it is probably due to air blowing in their eyes.
This discomfort may result in the patient removing the mask. Failure to tolerate
noninvasive ventilation is often due to inability to tolerate the mask.
Interface related complications:
Discomfort, air leaks, and nasal bridge ulceration can be minimized or avoided by
readjusting the interface, minimizing strap tension, adjusting the forehead bridge,
or changing to a total face mask.
Total Face Mask helps eliminate leaks in pts w/out a full set of teeth, Facial skin
necrosis may still occur even if the mask is not exerting high pressure on skin.
Consult with the patients RN to treat or prevent any pressure ulcerations or
potential breakdown.
Clean patients mask regularly.
Make every effort to fit the mask to avoid air leaks into the patient’s eyes.
SFGH RCS supplies a selection of PerforMax or Oro-nasal masks in all available
sizes for both adult and pediatric patient populations.
310.2 Philips V60 NIV
Standby suspends current ventilation and retains current settings when the clinician wants
to temporarily disconnect the patient from the ventilator.
Select Standby. The Entering Standby window opens
Remove the patient’s mask.
During Standby, changes may be made to alarms, parameters or modes.
Standby mode does disable alarms
The ventilator will not enter standby if a patient breath or resistance is detected.
The monitor screen can be cleaned while patient is receiving therapy by activating
the Screen Lock.
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12 310.2 Philips V60
Mode Selection:
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)
• CPAP: 4- 25 cmH20
Ramp time: 5-45 min (allows for gradual increase of pressure for
improved patient tolerance as patient relaxes into sleep breathing pattern.
Cflex: Adaptive pressure relief for user comfort. CPAP pressure
decreases at the very beginning of exhalation, returning to set pressure
before inhalation. The higher the setting option (1, 2 or 3), the greater the
expiratory flow, and the greater the pressure relief. Setting 3 being the
most comfortable decreasing CPAP to the lowest level. Pressure relief
varies based on flow and C-flex setting. (Cflex is only available in CPAP
NOTE: Cflex is not intended as a rescue strategy. It is intended for
OSA patients.
S/T (spontaneous timed)
• Most commonly used:
• Standard Bi-level settings
o Delivers pressure supported breaths
o Patient determines I-time
o User defined apnea backup rate (based on respiratory rate and Itime for ventilator breaths only)
o Mandatory breaths are only delivered if patients respiratory rate is
< set respiratory rate
• Rise time
o Settings: 1 – 5, “1” being the fastest.
o Rise time determines how quickly the pressure will rise from
EPAP to IPAP. Adjust to patient comfort (for patients with
increased inspiratory flow demands, consider a faster rise time,
however, careful assessment and communication with the patient is
the optimal method for determining comfort).
Ramp time
o Adjusts IPAP and EPAP pressures gradually to allow patient to
ease into pressure support. Ramp time allows the clinician to set a
specific time for set pressures to be delivered to the patient.
o Ramp time range: 5 – 45 minutes
310.2 Philips V60 NIV
Pressure Control Ventilation (PCV)
Very careful assessment of patient’s respiratory status is to be considered when selecting
modes. PCV is not intended for tachypneic or irregular breathing patterns.
Set IPAP and set I-time is delivered
Every breath has the same I-time regardless of patient triggered or
time cycled breaths
PEEP is not compensated: Any changes in EPAP without changing IPAP
will change the driving pressure and effect the Vt.
IPAP is the PIP
• Patients who have difficulty sustaining a breath
• Neuromuscular disorders
• Patients with a normal breathing pattern and respiratory rate with muscle
• Patients with tachypnea or irregular breathing patterns – may become
dysynchronous with the limitation of a set I-time
• Patients with fast respiratory rates
• PCV breaths are patient triggered and time cycled. Patient-to-ventilator
synchrony may suffer.
• Patients with respiratory distress
• Setting the appropriate inspiratory time becomes imperative
• The patient may fatigue due to increased WOB and decreased patient-to-ventilator
• Potential for Auto-PEEP
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14 310.2 Philips V60
Average Volume-assured Pressure Support (AVAPS)
AVAPS (average volume-assured pressure support) is a mode that targets a specific tidal
volume. It achieves the target volume by regulating the pressure applied following an
initial pressure ramp-up. Pressure will ramp up by 1 cmH20 to possible 2.5 cmH20 per
minute. This is a very slow ramp up. It is designed to be that way.
During AVAPS setup, there may be a period of time before the target tidal volume is
AVAPS should not be used when rapid and frequent IPAP adjustments are needed to
achieve the desired Vt.
• Algorithm assumes a lung compliance of 60 ml/cm H2O
• Vent automatically modifies IPAP pressure to maintain an average targeted Vt
• Up to 2.5 cmH2O per minute
• AVAPS may underestimate the best starting IPAP
• Increase Min P to get there immediately
• If target Vt is not achieved, increase Min P until target Vt is achieved. As the Vt
reaches the desired level, titrate the Min P
• IPAP cannot be < 8 cmH20 (this is the starting pressure)
• If P Min is greater than calculated starting IPAP value or 8 cmH20, AVAPS starts
IPAP at Min P value.
When changing from S/T to AVAPS
o Set Min P the same as the IPAP setting in ST or PCV
Allows for quick-start to achieve the target VT
o Once target VT is reached, lower Min P slightly (2 to 3 cmH2O) to allow
AVAPS to adjust
o Set Max P to limit delivered pressure
A Max P above 20-25 cmH20 may not be tolerated by the patient and should be
In AVAPS, the EPAP value is limited to less than Min P-1 cmH20. In other words, the
Min P has to be above EPAP in order for the V60 to help achieve the target Vt. A
message displayed on the screen will alert clinician to the required change. If the EPAP
is increased without an increase in the Min P, the screen will display the corrective
310.2 Philips V60 NIV
What patients could benefit from AVAPS?
Patients with neuromuscular disorders. A patient’s Vt declines as the disease
process worsens in standard bi-level therapy.
Restrictive Thoracic Disorders, chest wall deformities, slow progress diseases:
AVAPS will gradually assist in achieving the tidal volume.
Obesity Hypo-ventilation syndrome. These patients typically change their body
position when they are sleeping. Change in body position can increase airway
resistance. Without an increase in pressure support, Vt will likely decrease.
In short, any chronic disease process that is past the acute phase, such as COPD or
• Patients in any type of acute respiratory distress,
• Increased RAW,
• Decreased Cl.
• Do not use with nasal mask
Proportional Pressure Ventilation (PPV): Not to be used until future training, TBD.
• Patient effort determines the pressure, flow, and tidal volume delivered by the
ventilator. The ventilator responds to patient effort, allowing the patient to
determine when to start and end a breath and how flow and pressure change as the
patient inspires
• Resistance and Elastance are set and titrated based on the patient’s disease process
whether it is of a restrictive, obstructive or mixed disease nature.
Note: Alarm Silence Turns off audible alarm for 2 minutes. If a new alarm
condition occurs during this silent moment, a visual alert will appear in
Mode/Message Area
The alarm settings on the V60 are as follows:
Hi Rate-this ranges from 5 to 90 bpm.
Lo Rate-this ranges from 1 to 89 bpm.
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16 310.2 Philips V60
Important note when setting the low respiratory rate alarm:
This low rate needs to be set above the Rate Control for mandatory breaths. This is
set to notify you when you’re spontaneously breathing patient slows to a RR that
would indicate fatigue or stress. There is no said Apnea Alarm, this setting alerts
clinician to a potential apnea event
If the patient Respiratory Rate is the same or less than the set rate, the mandatory
rate will cycle on.
Hi Vt-range - 200 to 2500ml.
Low Vt-range - Off to 1500ml.
HIP (High Inspiratory Pressure) Alarm-ranges is from 5 - 50cmH20. Set this 5 to
10cmH20 above IPAP
LIP (Low Inspiratory Pressure) Alarm-ranges from Off to 40cmH20. Set this 3 to
5cmH20 below IPAP.
LIP T (Low Inspiratory Pressure Delay Time) – ranges from 5 to 60 seconds.
A delay is selected that will alert clinician that the pressure is not achieved.
Low VE (Low Minute Ventilation) Alarm – ranges from Off to 99.0L/min.
310.2 Philips V60 NIV
Nebulizer Options and circuit placement:
To optimize medication delivery, position nebulizer at patient interface as close to the
elbow of the mask as possible. To increase delivery of drug and reduce loss of
medication, always place nebulizer , regardless of type, between mask and exhalation
valve (See picture below.)
If patient is agitated to the point of spilling medication, transition to mini-heart – T in
between mask and exhalation valve.
Adopted: 4/2015
18 310.2 Philips V60
Pneumocephalus has been reported in patients receiving mask CPAP. Patients with a
history of head or facial trauma should be carefully evaluated prior to instituting BiPAP
therapy. Patients must be ruled out for basilar skull fractures; sinus and facial
fractures; and CSF leaks. The presence of any of these conditions is a direct
contraindication for the use of nasal or face mask BiPAP therapy.
Barotrauma. Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema are
potential complications that may result from BiPAP therapy. If the development of
any of these conditions is suspected, discontinue BiPAP therapy and notify the ICU
Hypotension. Cardiovascular compromise as a result of positive pressure
ventilation is a potential complication that may be associated with BiPAP
therapy. If a patient develops hypotension secondary to BiPAP, discontinue
therapy and notify the ICU resident.
Aspiration is a potential complication especially when administering BiPAP via full
face mask. Nausea and gastric distension secondary to aerophagia may be the
precipitating factors. Placement of a nasogastric tube may be necessary. If a patient
vomits, immediately discontinue therapy, clear the airway, and notify the ICU resident.
Pressure Necrosis and Dermatitis. Patients receiving continuous BiPAP therapy by
nasal mask or full face mask must be monitored for the development of pressure sores
or dermatitis.
Patients must be checked for skin reactions secondary to mask pressure at least every
four hours.
If a patient develops an adverse skin reaction, discontinue therapy and notify the
ICU resident and nurse.
Patient Accommodation. Patient comfort and cooperation are important
considerations for the successful use of BiPAP. To improve patient accommodation
the procedure should be thoroughly explained to the patient when possible. If the
patient shows signs of poor tolerance (decreased SpO2, increased RR, increased
PaCO2), notify primary physician caring for the patient to discuss a more appropriate
care decision.
Documentation entries must be made in the patient’s EMR or the Cardiopulmonary
Flow Sheet for every BiPAP treatment given, or at least every four hours if BiPAP is
administered continuously. Charted parameters should include BiPAP for the mode,
FIO2, breaths per minute, set breaths per minute (Timed Modes only), estimated tidal
volume, and pulse oximetry values, Pt. Leak. (Pt. Leak will be added to the
Cardiopulmonary Flowsheet soon . Please document the patient leak in the (EIP) cell
until this document reflects this change)
310.2 Philips V60 NIV
• Charge for BiPAP Setup for the initial set up, and BiPAP Daily for
every day of continuous use.
• Charge for each BiPAP circuit change
• Hyperinflation Tx should be charged for each intermittent BiPAP
treatment used to reverse atelectasis
BiPAP should be discontinued per physician's order. For standard disinfection, the
body of the BiPAP unit is to be disinfected with hospital supplied 3% Hydrogen
Peroxide disinfection wipes. The touchscreen should be cleansed with provided
Asepti-HB disinfectant spray and wiped clean with paper towels. Should the device be
removed from a C-DIFF isolation room, please use bleach wipes instead.
If the black rubber mask strap was used, place in the RCS dirty equipment bin in the
4E utility room. SPD will sterilize. Dispose of all single patient use equipment in the
appropriate trash receptacle.
Assemble a new circuit. Ensure the device is ready for the next patient and return unit
to 4F9 or ED BiPAP storage area.
Auto Trak Sensitivity
How does the V60 Ventilator recognize and compensate for intentional and unintentional
leaks in the system, and automatically adjust its triggering and cycling algorithms
performance in the presence of leaks. This is called Auto- Trak Sensitivity?
Breaths are patient (flow) triggered in all modes, typically when patient effort causes a
certain volume of gas to accumulate above baseline flow (volume method). An
inspiration is also triggered when the patient inspiratory effort distorts the expiratory flow
waveform sufficiently (shape signal method; see figure 4-4).
Cycling to exhalation occurs in these cases:
• Patient expiratory effort distorts the inspiratory flow waveform sufficiently (shape
signal method). See “Shape signal method of cycling and triggering.” on page 4-4.
• Patient flow reaches the spontaneous exhalation threshold (SET). See “SET method of
cycling.” figure 4-4.
• After 3 seconds at the IPAP level (timed backup safety mechanism) •
Adopted: 4/2015
20 310.2 Philips V60
When a flow reversal occurs, typically due to a mask or mouth leak
Shape signal method of cycling and triggering. The shape signal or “shadow trigger”
method uses a mathematical model derived from the flow signal. A new flow signal
(shape signal) is generated by offsetting the signal from the actual flow and delaying it
(Figure 4-2). This intentional delay causes the flow shape signal to be slightly behind the
patient’s flow signal. If there is a sudden change in patient flow, the patient’s flow signal
crosses the shape signal; this results in a trigger or a cycle. As a result, a sudden decrease
in expiratory flow from an inspiratory effort will cross the shape signal and create a
signal for ventilator triggering.
SET method of cycling. Patient flow reaches the spontaneous exhalation threshold (SET); see Figure 4-3. The
SET represents the intersection of the flow waveform and a line of a given slope. SET is updated each breath.
Leak adaptation
Noninvasive ventilation in particular may involve considerable leakage around the mask
or through the mouth. Some leakage is known or intentional: it is a characteristic of the
mask/patient interface design. So that it can accurately adjust its baseline flow, the
310.2 Philips V60 NIV
ventilator has you enter the intentional leakage value specific to the mask/patient
interface. Other leakage is unpredictable or unintentional, and it changes as the patient’s
breathing pattern changes.
To maintain prescribed pressures in the presence of leakage, the ventilator adjusts its
baseline flow. Because the unintentional part of the leakage may constantly change, the
ventilator recalculates the baseline flow each breath at the end of exhalation. The
ventilator uses two main mechanisms to update its baseline flow: expiratory flow
adjustment and tidal volume adjustment.
Expiratory flow adjustment. Every breath, at end-exhalation, the ventilator updates its
flow baseline. At end-exhalation patient flow is assumed to be zero, so any difference
between actual patient flow and the original baseline flow indicates a change in leakage.
Figure 4-4 shows how the ventilator adjusts the baseline.
Adopted: 4/2015
22 310.2 Philips V60
Epstein SK, Durbin CG, Should a patient be extubated and placed on noninvasive
ventilation after failing spontaneous breathing trial. Respiratory Care. 2010;55(2)
Hess D. Aerosol Therapy During Noninvasive Ventilation or High Flow Nasal Cannula.
Respiratory Care. 2015;60(6)
Kallet R, Diaz J. The physiologic effects of non-invasive ventilation. Respiratory Care.
2009; 54(1) 102-115
Keenan SP, Sangeeta M, Noninvasive ventilation for patients presenting with acute
respiratory failure: The randomized controlled trials. Respiratory Care. 2009;
Nava S, Hill N, Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Lancet 2009;
Nava S, Navalesl P, Interfaces and humidification for non-invasive mechanical
ventilation.Respiratory Care. 2009; 54(1) 71-84
Pierson D, History and epidemiology of non-invasive ventilation in acute care setting.
Respiratory Care. 2009; 54(1) 40-52
Philips V60 Users Manual
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