V2101-LX SW User`s Manual v1 - Express Systems & Peripherals

V2401/2402 Series
Linux User’s Manual
First Edition, March 2010
www.moxa.com/product
© 2010 Moxa Inc. All rights reserved.
Reproduction without permission is prohibited.
V2401/2402 Series
Linux User’s Manual
The Moxa software described in this manual is furnished under a license agreement and may be used only in
accordance with the terms of that agreement.
Copyright Notice
Copyright © 2010 Moxa Inc.
All rights reserved.
Reproduction without permission is prohibited.
Trademarks
MOXA is a registered trademark of Moxa Inc.
All other trademarks or registered marks in this manual belong to their respective manufacturers.
Disclaimer
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the
part of Moxa.
Moxa provides this document “as is,” without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including, but
not limited to, its particular purpose. Moxa reserves the right to make improvements and/or changes to this
manual, or to the products and/or the programs described in this manual, at any time.
Information provided in this manual is intended to be accurate and reliable. However, Moxa assumes no
responsibility for its use, or for any infringements on the rights of third parties that may result from its use.
This product might include unintentional technical or typographical errors. Changes are periodically made to the
information herein to correct such errors, and these changes are incorporated into new editions of the publication.
Technical Support Contact Information
www.moxa.com/support
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Toll-free: 1-888-669-2872
Tel: +1-714-528-6777
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction ..................................................................................................1-1
Overview.................................................................................................................................. 1-2
Software Specifications ........................................................................................................... 1-2
Software Components.............................................................................................................. 1-3
Chapter 2
Software Configuration ...............................................................................2-1
Starting from a VGA Console .................................................................................................. 2-2
Desktop Display Configuration ............................................................................................... 2-3
Connecting from a Telnet Console........................................................................................... 2-7
Connecting from an SSH Console ........................................................................................... 2-8
Windows Users............................................................................................................. 2-8
Linux Users .................................................................................................................. 2-9
Adjusting the System Time ...................................................................................................... 2-9
Setting the Time Manually ........................................................................................... 2-9
NTP Client.................................................................................................................. 2-10
Updating the Time Automatically .............................................................................. 2-10
Enabling and Disabling Daemons...........................................................................................2-11
Setting the Run-Level ............................................................................................................ 2-15
Cron—Daemon for Executing Scheduled Commands........................................................... 2-16
Inserting a USB Storage Device into the Computer............................................................... 2-17
Checking the Linux Version................................................................................................... 2-18
APT—Installing and Removing Packages............................................................................. 2-18
Device Suspend...................................................................................................................... 2-20
Chapter 3
Managing Communications ........................................................................3-1
Changing the Network Settings ............................................................................................... 3-3
Changing the “interfaces” Configuration File .............................................................. 3-3
Adjusting IP Addresses with “ifconfig” ....................................................................... 3-4
Serial Port Operation Mode ..................................................................................................... 3-4
Telnet/FTP Server .................................................................................................................... 3-5
DNS Client............................................................................................................................... 3-6
Apache Web Server.................................................................................................................. 3-8
Default Homepage........................................................................................................ 3-8
Disabling the CGI Function.......................................................................................... 3-8
Saving Web Pages to a USB Storage Device ............................................................... 3-9
IPTABLES ..............................................................................................................................3-11
IPTABLES Hierarchy................................................................................................. 3-13
IPTABLES Modules................................................................................................... 3-14
Observe and Erase Chain Rules.................................................................................. 3-15
Define Policy for Chain Rules .................................................................................... 3-15
Append or Delete Rules.............................................................................................. 3-16
NAT (Network Address Translation) ..................................................................................... 3-17
NAT Example............................................................................................................. 3-17
Enabling NAT at Bootup ............................................................................................ 3-18
PPP (Point to Point Protocol)................................................................................................. 3-19
Connecting to a PPP Server over a Simple Dial-up Connection ................................ 3-19
Connecting to a PPP Server over a Hard-wired Link ................................................. 3-20
Checking the Connection............................................................................................ 3-20
Setting up a Machine for Incoming PPP Connections................................................ 3-22
PPPoE .................................................................................................................................... 3-23
NFS (Network File System) Client........................................................................................ 3-27
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)................................................................... 3-28
OpenVPN............................................................................................................................... 3-29
Ethernet Bridging for Private Networks on Different Subnets ................................... 3-29
Ethernet Bridging for Private Networks on the Same Subnet..................................... 3-34
Routed IP .................................................................................................................... 3-35
Chapter 4
Programmer Guide.......................................................................................4-1
Device API............................................................................................................................... 4-2
RTC (Real Time Clock) ........................................................................................................... 4-2
UART....................................................................................................................................... 4-2
Digital I/O................................................................................................................................ 4-4
Chapter 5
System Recovery .........................................................................................5-1
Recovery Environment ............................................................................................................ 5-2
Recovery Procedure ................................................................................................................. 5-2
Appendix A Software Component List........................................................................... A-1
1
Chapter 1
Introduction
Thank you for purchasing the Moxa V2401/2402 Series of x86 ready-to-run embedded computers.
This manual introduces the software configuration and management of the V2401/2402, which
runs the Linux operating system. For hardware installation, connector interfaces, setup, and
upgrading the BIOS, please refer to the “V2401/2402 Series Hardware User’s Manual.”
Linux is an open, scalable operating system that allows you to build a wide range of innovative,
small footprint devices. Software written for desktop PCs can be easily ported to the embedded
computer with a GNU cross compiler and a minimum of source code modifications. A typical
Linux-based device is designed for a specific use, and is often not connected to other computers,
or a number of such devices connect to a centralized, front-end host. Examples include enterprise
tools such as industrial controllers, communications hubs, point-of-sale terminals, and display
devices, which include HMIs, advertisement appliances, and interactive panels.
This chapter covers the following topics:
‰ Overview
‰ Software Specifications
‰ Software Components
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Introduction
Overview
V2401/2402 embedded computers are based on the Intel Atom N270 x86 processor and feature 4
RS-232/422/485 serial ports, 8 RS-232 serial ports, dual Gigabit LAN ports, six USB 2.0 hosts,
and a CompactFlash socket. The V2401/2402 series offers both VGA and LVDS outputs, making
it exceptionally well suited for industrial applications such as SCADA and factory automation.
The V2401/2402’s two serial ports make it ideal for connecting a wide range of serial devices, and
the dual 10/100/1000 Mbps Ethernet ports offer a reliable solution for network redundancy, which
taken together promise continuous data communication and management operations. For added
convenience, the V2401/2402 has four DIs and four DOs for connecting digital input/output
devices. In addition, the CompactFlash and USB ports provide V2401/2402 computers with data
buffering and storage expansion, which provide the necessary reliability for industrial applications.
Pre-installed with Linux, the V2401/2402 series provides programmers with a friendly
environment for developing sophisticated, bug-free application software at a lower cost.
All V2401/2402 models support a wide operating temperature range of -40 to 85°C for use in
harsh industrial environments.
Software Specifications
The Linux operating system pre-installed on the V2401/2402 embedded computer is the Debian
Lenny 5.02 distribution. The Debian project is a worldwide group of volunteers who endeavor to
produce an operating system distribution that composed entirely of free software. The Debian
GNU/Linux follows the standard Linux architecture, making it easy to use programs that meet the
POSIX standard. Program porting can be done with the GNU Tool Chain provided by Moxa. In
addition to Standard POSIX APIs, device drivers for Moxa UART and other special peripherals
are also included. An example software architecture is shown below:
AP
API
Linux
Kernel
User Applications
Daemon (Apache, Telnet, FTPD)
Application Interface (POSIX, Socket, Secure Socket)
Protocol Stack
TCP, IP, UDP, CMP, ARP, HTTP, SNMP, SMTP
Device Driver
PCMCIA, CF, WLAN, USB, UART, RTC, VGA
Micro Kernel
Hardware
File
System
Memory Control, Schedule, Process
RS-232/422/485, Ethernet, CompactFlash, SATA, USB
ATTENTION
Refer to http://www.debian.org/ and http://www.gnu.org/ for information and documentation of
the Debian GNU/Linux and free software concept.
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V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Introduction
ATTENTION
The above software architecture is only an example. Different models or different build revisions
of the Linux operating system may include components not shown in the above graphic.
Software Components
The V2401/2402-LX has been pre-installed with the Debian Lenny 5.02 Linux distribution. For
detailed software components, please refer to Appendix A: Software Component List.
1-3
2
Chapter 2
Software Configuration
In this chapter, we explain how to operate a V2401/2402-LX computer directly or through your
desktop. There are three ways to connect to the V2401/2402-LX computer: through a VGA
monitor, by using Telnet over the network, or by using an SSH console from a Windows or Linux
machine. This chapter describes basic Linux operating system configurations. The advanced
network management and configuration will be described in the next chapter “Managing
Communications.”
This chapter covers the following topics:
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
Starting from a VGA Console
Desktop Display Configuration
Connecting from a Telnet Console
Connecting from an SSH Console
¾ Windows Users
¾ Linux Users
Adjusting the System Time
¾ Setting the Time Manually
¾ NTP Client
¾ Updating the Time Automatically
Enabling and Disabling Daemons
Setting the Run-Level
Cron—Daemon for Executing Scheduled Commands
Inserting a USB Storage Device into the Computer
Checking the Linux Version
APT—Installing and Removing Packages
Device Suspend
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
Starting from a VGA Console
Connect the display monitor to the V2401/2402-LX VGA connector, and then power it up by
connecting it to the power adaptor. It takes about 30 to 60 seconds for the system to boot up. Once
the system is ready, a login screen will appear on your monitor.
To log in, type the login name and password as requested. The default values are both root.
Login: root
Password: root
Moxa login: root
Password:
Last login: Fri Jan 22 19:02:16 2010 from 192.168.3.120
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For further information check:
http://www.moxa.com/
Mount user file system.
Moxa:~#
2-2
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
Desktop Display Configuration
This section introduces the display configuration settings for V2401/2402-LX computers.
As only the V2401 only provides a LVDS connector, you may need to change the configuration for
a V2401-LX computer.
1 Display at BIOS start-up
You can configure which display will display BIOS message via BIOS settings; by default the text
console will display through the CRT monitor. Enter Advanced > Advanced Chipset Features in
BIOS for this option.
2 Dual display on desktop environment
2.1 Configure /etc/X11/xorg.conf for dual display.
Parameter
ConfigID
This option identifies the configuration, default value is 2
System will read “All/<ConfigID>/Name” strings as setting.
If your device is equipped with LVDS, you need set up a specific ConfigID
for your LVDS panel.
Configuration ID list:
ID
Panel resolution
1
640*480
2
800*600
3
1024*768
4
1280*1024
5
1400*1050
6
1600*1200
7
1280*780
8
1680*1050
9
1280*800
10
1280*600
PortOrder
Search Order to detect attached displays for the display detection feature.
When DisplayDetect is enabled (set to 1), the port order determines which
display is primary and which display is secondary (refer to the BIOS manual)
Check if your device is equipped with a LVDS connector:
1. Device with LVDS connector:
In the numbering scheme, CRT is 5, DVI is 2, and LVDS is 4.
For example, the following numbers correspond to the following settings:
52400: CRT+DVI
45200: LVDS+CRT*
42500: LVDS+DVI
*Note: if you set 4 (LVDS) before 5 (CRT), configure the IEGD read build-in
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V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
LVDS setting to create a clone mode.
2. Device without LVDS connector:
In the numbering scheme, CRT is 5 and DVI is 2.
See the example below:
52000: CRT+DVI
DisplayConfig
DisplayDetect
1: Single mode
2: Clone mode
3: Twin head mode
0: Disable
1: Enable
Here are partial settings of xorg.conf:
Section "Device"
Identifier "Intel_IEGD-0"
Driver
"iegd"
VendorName "Intel(R) DEG"
BoardName "Embedded Graphics"
BusID
"0:2:0"
Screen
0
Option
"PcfVersion"
"1792"
Option
"ConfigId"
"2"
...
Option
"ALL/2/name"
"8x6"
Option
"ALL/2/General/PortOrder"
"52400"
Option
"ALL/2/General/DisplayConfig" "2"
Option
"ALL/2/General/DisplayDetect" "1"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/5/General/name"
"CRT"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/5/General/EdidAvail"
"3"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/5/General/EdidNotAvail"
"1"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/5/General/Rotation"
"0"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/5/General/Edid"
"1"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/2/General/name"
"DVI"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/2/General/EdidAvail"
"3"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/2/General/EdidNotAvail"
"1"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/2/General/Rotation"
"0"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/2/General/Edid"
"1"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/General/name"
"LVDS8x6"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/General/EdidAvail"
"3"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/General/EdidNotAvail"
"5"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/General/Rotation"
"0"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/General/Edid"
"1"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/FpInfo/BkltMethod"
"0"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/Dtd/10/PixelClock"
"40000"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/Dtd/10/HorzActive"
"800"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/Dtd/10/HorzSync"
"40"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/Dtd/10/HorzSyncPulse"
"128"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/Dtd/10/HorzBlank"
"256"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/Dtd/10/VertActive"
"600"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/Dtd/10/VertSync"
"1"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/Dtd/10/VertSyncPulse"
"4"
Option
"ALL/2/Port/4/Dtd/10/VertBlank"
"28"
2-4
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Option
Option
Option
Option
Option
Software Configuration
"ALL/2/Port/4/Dtd/10/Flags"
"0xc020000"
"ALL/2/Port/4/Attr/27"
"0"
"ALL/2/Port/4/Attr/26"
"18"
"ALL/2/Port/4/Attr/60"
"1"
"PortDrivers"
"analog sdvo lvds"
2.2 After setting up xorg.conf, enter /etc/init.d/gdm restart to load the new configuration
In addition, you can start the gnome desktop environment in the text console:
MOXA:~# /etc/init.d/gdm start
Or you can set gnome-display-manager as a startup daemon:
MOXA:~# mv /etc/rc2.d/N30gdm /etc/rc2.d/S30gdm
Then, you will see the login window illustrated below:
2-5
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
Please note that after you log in to the gnome desktop environment, you can change the resolution
and display mode with the IEGD utility, found in Applications -> System Tools -> IEGD GUI
Utility. However, the configuration values will only be valid for the session.
2-6
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
Connecting from a Telnet Console
The V2401/2402-LX computer comes with four basic Gigabit Ethernet ports named LAN1 and
LAN2. The default IP addresses and netmasks of the network interfaces are as follows:
LAN 1
LAN 2
Default IP Address
192.168.3.127
192.168.4.127
Netmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
Before using the Telnet client, you should change the IP address of your development workstation
so that the network ports are on the same subnet as the IP address for the LAN port that you
connect to. For example, if you connect to LAN 1, you could set your PC’s IP address to
192.168.3.126, and the netmask to 255.255.255.0. If you connect to LAN 2, you can set your PC’s
IP address to 192.168.4.126, and the netmask to 255.255.255.0.
Use a cross-over Ethernet cable to connect your development workstation directly to the target
computer, or use a straight-through Ethernet cable to connect the computer to a LAN hub or
switch. Next, use a Telnet client on your development workstation to connect to the target
computer. After a connection has been established, type the login name and password as requested
to log on to the computer. The default values are both root.
Login: root
Password: root
2-7
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
Connecting from an SSH Console
The V2401/2402-LX computer supports an SSH Console to offer users with better security over
the network compared to Telnet.
Windows Users
Click on the link http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html to download
PuTTY (free software) to set up an SSH console for the V2401/2402-LX in a Windows
environment. The following screen shows an example of the configuration that is required.
2-8
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
Linux Users
From a Linux machine, use the ssh command to access the V2401/2402-LX’s console utility via
SSH.
#ssh 192.168.3.127
Select yes to open the connection.
[root@ root]# ssh 192.168.3.127
The authenticity of host ‘192.168.3.127 (192.168.3.127)’
can’t be established.
RSA key fingerprint is
8b:ee:ff:84:41:25:fc:cd:2a:f2:92:8f:cb:1f:6b:2f.
Are you sure you want to continue connection (yes/no)? yes_
Adjusting the System Time
The V2401/2402-LX has two time settings. One is the system time, and the other is provided by an
RTC (Real Time Clock) built into the V2401/2402- LX’s hardware.
Setting the Time Manually
Use the date command to query the current system time or set a new system time. Use hwclock to
query the current RTC time or set a new RTC time.
Use the following command to set the system time.
# date MMDDhhmmYYYY
MM:
DD:
hhmm:
YYYY:
Month
Date
Hour and Minute
Year
Use the following command to write the current system time to the RTC.
# hwclock –w
MOXA:~# date
Wed Dec 16 03:34:46 CST 2009
MOXA:~# hwclock
Wed 16 Dec 2009 03:35:16 AM CST -0.017600 seconds
MOXA:~# date 121616352009
Wed Dec 16 16:35:00 CST 2009
MOXA:~# hwclock –w
MOXA:~# date ; hwclock
Wed Dec 16 16:36:12 CST 2009
Wed 16 Dec 2009 03:38:13 AM CST -0.016751 seconds
MOXA:~#
2-9
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
NTP Client
The V2401/2402-LX has a built-in NTP (Network Time Protocol) client that is used to initialize a
time request to a remote NTP server. Use ntpdate to update the system time.
#ntpdate time.stdtime.gov.tw
#hwclock –w
Visit http://www.ntp.org for more information about NTP and NTP server addresses.
MOXA:~# date ; hwclock
Wed Dec 16 16:36:12 CST 2009
Wed 16 Dec 2009 03:38:13 AM CST -0.016751 seconds
MOXA:~#
MOXA:~# ntpdate time.stdtime.gov.tw
16 Dec 03:49:48 ntpdate[2510]: step time server 220.130.158.52
offset 155905087.9
84256 sec
MOXA:~#
MOXA:~# hwclock -w
MOXA:~# date ; hwclock
Wed Dec 16 03:51:07 CST 2009
Wed 16 Dec 2009 03:51:07 AM CST
-0.016771 seconds
MOXA:~#
ATTENTION
Before using the NTP client utility, check your IP address and network settings (gateway and
DNS) to make sure an Internet connection is available.
Updating the Time Automatically
This section describes how to use a shell script to update the time automatically.
Example shell script for updating the system time periodically
#!/bin/sh
ntpdate time.stdtime.gov.tw
# You can use the time server’s ip address or domain
# name directly. If you use domain name, you must
# enable the domain client on the system by updating
# /etc/resolv.conf file.
hwclock –w
sleep 100
# Updates every 100 seconds. The min. time is 100 seconds.
# Change 100 to a larger number to update RTC less often.
Save the shell script using any file name. For example, fixtime.
2-10
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
How to run the shell script automatically when the kernel boots up
Because the root file system is mounted in Read-only mode, we need to re-mount it using writable
permission.
# mount -o remount,rw /dev/sda1/
Copy the example shell script fixtime to directory /etc/init.d, and then use chmod 755 fixtime to
change the shell script mode.
# chmod 755 fixtime
Next, use vi editor to edit the file /etc/inittab.
# vi /etc/inittab
Add the following line to the bottom of the file:
ntp : 2345 : respawn : /etc/init.d/fixtime
After you finish writing or modifying the code, remember to execute “umount /” to change the
root directory back to Read-only mode.
# umount /
Use the command #init q to re-initialize the kernel.
# init q
Enabling and Disabling Daemons
The following daemons are enabled when the V2401/2402-LX boots up for the first time.
y
snmpd
SNMP Agent Daemon
y
telnetd
Telnet Server/Client Daemon
y
inetd
Internet Daemons
y
ftpd
FTP Server/Client Daemon
y
sshd
Secure Shell Server Daemon
y
httpd
Apache WWW Server Daemon
2-11
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
Type the command ps –ef to list all processes currently running.
MOXA:~#
UID
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
ps -ef
PID
PPID
1
0
2
0
3
2
4
2
5
2
6
2
7
2
8
2
9
2
10
2
11
2
44
2
45
2
47
2
48
2
118
2
159
2
160
2
161
2
162
2
163
2
632
2
633
2
C
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STIME
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
2-12
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CMD
Init [2]
[kthreadd]
[migration/0]
[ksoftirqd/0]
[watchdog/0]
[migration/1]
[ksoftirqd/1]
[watchdog/1]
[events/0]
[events/1]
[khelper]
[kblockd/0]
[kblockd/1]
[kacpid]
[kacpi_notify]
[kseriod]
[pdflush]
[pdflush]
[kswapd0]
[aio/0]
[aio/1]
[ksuspend_usbd]
[khubd]
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
To run a private daemon, you can edit the file rc.local as follows:
1. Because the root file system is mounted in Read-only mode, you need to re-mount it with
write permission.
MOXA:~# mount -o remount,rw /dev/sda1/
2. Type cd /etc/ to change directories.
MOXA:~# cd /etc/
3. Type vi rc.local to edit the configuration file with vi editor.
MOXA:/etc/# vi rc.local
4. Next, add the application daemon that you want to run. We use the example program tcps2release which you can find in the CD to illustrate, and configure it to run in the background.
# !/bin/sh
# Add you want to run daemon
/root/tcps2-release &~
5. After you finish writing or modifying the code, remember to execute “umount /” to change the
root directory back to Read-only mode.
MOXA:~# umount /
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Software Configuration
6. You should be able to find the enabled daemon after you reboot the system.
MOXA:~# ps -ef
UID
PID
PPID
root
1
0
root
2
0
root
3
2
root
4
2
root
5
2
root
6
2
root
7
2
root
8
2
root
9
2
root
10
2
root
11
2
root
44
2
root
45
2
root
47
2
root
48
2
root
118
2
root
159
2
root
160
2
root
161
2
root
162
2
root
163
2
root
632
2
root
633
2
root
655
2
C
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STIME
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
2-14
TTY
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
TIME
00:00:02
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
CMD
Init [2]
[kthreadd]
[migration/0]
[ksoftirqd/0]
[watchdog/0]
[migration/1]
[ksoftirqd/1]
[watchdog/1]
[events/0]
[events/1]
[khelper]
[kblockd/0]
[kblockd/1]
[kacpid]
[kacpi_notify]
[kseriod]
[pdflush]
[pdflush]
[kswapd0]
[aio/0]
[aio/1]
[ksuspend_usbd]
[khubd]
tcps2-release
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
Setting the Run-Level
To set the Linux run-level and execution priority of a program, use the following command
(because the root file system is mounted in Read-only mode, we need to re-mount it with write
permission).
MOXA:~# mount -o remount,rw /dev/sda1/
Edit a shell script to execute /root/tcps2-release and save to tcps2 as an example.
#cd /etc/rc2.d
#ln –s /etc/root/tcps2 S60tcps2
or
#ln –s /etc/root/tcps2 k30tcps2
MOXA:~# cd /etc/rc2.d
MOXA:/etc/rc2.d#
MOXA:/etc/rc2.d# ls
S19nfs-common
S25nfs-user-server S99showreadyled
S20snmpd
S55ssh
S24pcmcia
S99rmnologin
MOXA:/etc/rc2.d#
MOXA:/etc/rc2.d# ln –s /root/tcps2-release S60tcps2
MOXA:/etc/rc2.d# ls
S19nfs-common
S25nfs-user-server S99rmnologin
S20snmpd
S55ssh
S99showreadyled
S24pcmcia
S60tcps2
MOXA:/etc/rc2.d#
The command SxxRUNFILE has the following meaning:
S:
xx:
RUNFILE:
Start the run file while Linux boots up.
A number between 00-99. The smaller number has a higher priority.
The script file name
The command KxxRUNFILE has the following meaning:
K:
xx:
RUNFILE:
Start the run file while Linux shuts down or halts.
A number between 00-99. The smaller number has a higher priority.
The script file name
To remove the daemon, remove the run file from /etc/rc2.d by using the following command:
MOXA:~# rm –f /etc/rc2.d/S60tcps2
After you finish writing or modifying the code, remember to execute “umount /” to change the
root directory back to Read-only mode.
MOXA:~# umount /
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Software Configuration
Cron—Daemon for Executing Scheduled Commands
The Cron daemon will search /etc/crontab for crontab files.
Cron wakes up every minute and checks each command to see if it should be run in that minute.
When executing commands, output is mailed to the owner of the crontab (or to the user named in
the MAILTO environment variable in the crontab, if such a user exists).
Modify the file /etc/crontab to set up your scheduled applications. Crontab files have the
following format:
mm
minute
h
hour
dom
date
mon
month
dow
week
0-59
0-23
1-31
1-12
0-6 (0 is Sunday)
user
user
command
command
For example, if you want to launch a program at 8:00 every day
#minute hour date month week user
*
8
*
*
*
root
command
/path/to/your/program
The following example demonstrates how to use Cron to update the system time and RTC time
every day at 8:00.
1. Write a shell script named fixtime.sh and save it to /home/.
#!/bin/sh
ntpdate time.stdtime.gov.tw
hwclock –w
exit 0
2. Change mode of fixtime.sh
# chmod 755 fixtime.sh
3. Modify /etc/crontab file to run fixtime.sh at 8:00 every day.
Add the following line to the end of crontab:
*8***
root /home/fixtime.sh
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Software Configuration
Inserting a USB Storage Device into the Computer
Since mounting USB storage devices manually can be difficult, a Debian package named
usbmount to mount the USB drivers automatically. usbmount relies on udev to mount USB
storage devices automatically at certain mount points. The USB storage devices will be mounted
on /media/usb0, /media/usb1, etc.
MOXA:~# mount
/dev/sda1 on / type ext2 (rw,errors=remount-ro)
tmpfs on /lib/init/rw type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,mode=0755)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
procbususb on /proc/bus/usb type usbfs (rw)
udev on /dev type tmpfs (rw,mode=0755)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts
(rw,noexec,nosuid,gid=5,mode=620)
/dev/hdb2 on /home type ext2 (rw)
nfsd on /proc/fs/nfsd type nfsd (rw)
rpc_pipefs on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw)
/dev/sda1 on /media/usb0 type vfat
(rw,noexec,nodev,sync,noatime,gid=25,dmask=0007,fmask=0117)
/dev/sdb1 on /media/usb1 type vfat
(rw,noexec,nodev,sync,noatime,gid=25,dmask=0007,fmask=0117)
MOXA:~#
Note that usbmount is a lightweight text mode solution and does not fully support the gnome
desktop environment. For improved support, you can install gnome-volume-manager instead of
usbmount:
MOXA:~#
MOXA:~#
MOXA:~#
MOXA:~#
mount -o,remount rw /
apt-get remove usbmount
apt-get install gnome-volume-manager
umount /
ATTENTION
Remember to type the command # sync before you disconnect the USB storage device. If you do
not issue the command, you may lose data.
ATTENTION
Remember to exit the /media/usb0 or /media/usb1 directory when you disconnect the USB
storage device. If you stay in /media/usb0 or /media/usb1, the automatic un-mount process will
fail. If that happens, type # umount /media/usb0 to un-mount the USB device manually.
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V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
Checking the Linux Version
The program uname, which stands for “Unix Name” and is part of the Unix operating system,
prints the name, version, and other details about the operating system running on the computer.
Use the -a option to generate a response similar to the one shown below:
MOXA:~# uname -a
Linux Moxa 2.6.26-2-686 #1 SMP Wed Aug 19 06:06:52 UTC 2009
i686 GNU/Linux
MOXA:~#
APT—Installing and Removing Packages
APT is the Debian tool used to install and remove packages. Before installing a package, you need
to configure the apt source file, /etc/apt/sources.list, which is located in the read-only partition.
1. Mount the root file system with write permission.
MOXA:~# mount -o remount,rw /dev/sda1/
2. Next, configure the /etc/apt/sources.list using vi editor.
MOXA:~# vi /etc/apt/sources.list
#
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 5.0.2a _Lenny_ - Official i386
NETINST Binary-1 20
090817-16:43]/ lenny main
#deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 5.0.2a _Lenny_ - Official i386
NETINST Binary-1 200
90817-16:43]/ lenny main
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ lenny main
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ lenny main
deb http://security.debian.org/ lenny/updates main contrib
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ lenny/updates main contrib
deb http://volatile.debian.org/debian-volatile lenny/volatile
main
deb-src http://volatile.debian.org/debian-volatile
lenny/volatile main
3. Update the source list after you configure it.
MOXA:~# apt-get update
MOXA:~#
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V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
4. Once you indicate which package you want to install (openswan, for example), type:
MOXA:~# apt-get install openswan
MOXA:~#
5. Use one of the following commands to remove a package:
(a) For a simple package removal:
MOXA:~# apt-get remove openswan
MOXA:~#
(b) For a complete package removal:
MOXA:~# apt-get remove openswan --purge
MOXA:~#
6. If the installation is complete, remember to umount the root directory back to read-only mode.
MOXA:~# umount /
MOXA:~#
ATTENTION
The APT cache space /var/cache/apt is located in tmpfs. If you need to install a huge package,
link /var/cache/apt to USB mass storage or mount it to an NFS space to generate more free
space. Use df –h to check how much free space is available on tmpfs.
MOXA:~# df -h
Filesystem
rootfs
udev
/dev/sda1
tmpfs
tmpfs
none
/dev/sda2
MOXA:~#
Size
1.6G
10M
1.6G
502M
502M
502M
199M
Used
972M
700K
972M
0
0
19M
125M
Avail
560M
9.4M
560M
502M
502M
483M
63M
Use%
64%
7%
64%
0%
0%
4%
67%
ATTENTION
You can free up the cache space with the command # apt-get clean
MOXA:~# apt-get clean
MOXA:~#
2-19
Mounted on
/
/dev
/
/lib/init/rw
/dev/shm
/tmp
/home
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Configuration
Device Suspend
The V2401/2402-LX supports ACPI S3 (suspend to RAM). You can activate the S3 option in the
BIOS and then use the pm-suspend --qurik-s3-bios command.
The power button wakes up a suspended V2401/2402-LX.
MOXA:~# pm-suspend --quirk-s3-bios
If
you login in as the administrator (root) in X windows, you can use System -> Shutdown>
Suspend to suspend your device. Note that this function does not work for non-root users.
Some components on Moxa’s device may need to be reset after a resume. You can include a simple
script in /usr/lib/pm-utils/sleep.d/ to automate this procedure. For example, create a script
99serial for your application:
#!/bin/sh
case "$1" in
hibernate|suspend)
ehco "operations before serial ports suspend"
;;
thaw|resume)
echo "operations after serial ports resume"
;;
*) exit $NA
;;
esac
2-20
3
Chapter 3
Managing Communications
The V2401/2402-LX ready-to-run embedded computer is a network-centric platform designed to
serve as a front-end for data acquisition and industrial control applications. This chapter describes
how to configure the various communication functions supported by the Linux operating system.
This chapter covers the following topics:
‰ Changing the Network Settings
¾ Changing the “interfaces” Configuration File
¾ Adjusting IP Addresses with “ifconfig”
‰ Serial Port Operation Mode
‰ Telnet/FTP Server
‰ DNS Client
‰ Apache Web Server
¾ Default Homepage
¾ Disabling the CGI Function
‰ IPTABLES
¾
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
Managing Communications
IPTABLES Hierarchy
¾ IPTABLES Modules
¾ Observe and Erase Chain Rules
¾ Define Policy for Chain Rules
¾ Append or Delete Rules
NAT (Network Address Translation)
¾ NAT Example
¾ Enabling NAT at Bootup
PPP (Point to Point Protocol)
¾ Connecting to a PPP Server over a Simple Dial-up Connection
¾ Connecting to a PPP Server over a Hard-wired Link
¾ Checking the Connection
¾ Setting up a Machine for Incoming PPP Connections
PPPoE
NFS (Network File System) Client
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
OpenVPN
¾ Ethernet Bridging for Private Networks on Different Subnets
¾ Ethernet Bridging for Private Networks on the Same Subnet
¾ Routed IP
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V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
Changing the Network Settings
The V2401/2402-LX computer has four basic Gigabit Ethernet ports named LAN1 to LAN2. The
default IP addresses and netmasks of the network interfaces are as follows:
LAN 1
LAN 2
Default IP Address
192.168.3.127
192.168.4.127
Netmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
These network settings can be modified by changing the interfaces configuration file, or they can
be adjusted temporarily with the ifconfig command.
Changing the “interfaces” Configuration File
1. Type cd /etc/network to change directory.
MOXA:~# cd /etc/network
2. Type vi interfaces to edit the network configuration file with vi editor. You can configure the
V2401/2402-LX’s Ethernet ports for static or dynamic (DHCP) IP addresses.
MOXA:/etc/network# vi interfaces
Static IP Address
As shown in the example shown below, the default static IP addresses can be modified.
# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.3.127
netmask 255.255.255.0
broadcast 192.168.3.255
auto eth1
iface eth1 inet static
address 192.168.4.127
netmask 255.255.255.0
broadcast 192.168.4.255
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Managing Communications
Dynamic IP Address using DHCP
To configure one or both LAN ports to request an IP address dynamically, replace static with
dhcp and then delete the rest of the lines.
# The primary network interface
allow-hotplug eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
After modifying the boot settings of the LAN interface, issue the following command to activate
the LAN settings immediately.
# /etc/init.d/networking restart
MOXA:~# /etc/init.d/networking restart
Adjusting IP Addresses with “ifconfig”
IP settings can be adjusted during run-time, but the new settings will not be saved to the flash
ROM without modifying the file /etc/network/interfaces. For example, type the command
# ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.1 to change the IP address of LAN1 to 192.168.1.1.
MOXA:~# ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.1
MOXA:~#
Serial Port Operation Mode
The V2401/2402 computer has four serial ports named COM1, COM2, COM3, and COM4. The
ports support RS-232, RS-422, 2-wire RS-485, and 4-wire RS-485 operation modes with baudrate
settings up to 921600 bps.
By default, the serial interface is set to RS-232. You can use the setinterface command to change
the serial port operation mode, as indicated below:
setinterface device-node [interface-no]
device-node:
interface-no:
interface-no
None
0
1
2
3
/dev/ttyMn; n = 0,1,2,...
[see following table]:
Operation Mode
Display current setting
RS-232
2-wire RS-485
RS-422
4-wire RS-485
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V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
For example, use the following commands to set /dev/ttyM0 to RS-422:
MOXA:/ dev# setinterface /dev/ttyM0
Usage: setinterface device-node [interface-no]
device-node
- /dev/ttyM0 ~ /dev/ttyM3
interface-no
- following:
0 - set to RS232 interface
1 - set to RS485-2 WIRES interface
2 - set to RS422 interface
3 - set to RS885-4 WIRES interface
MOXA:/ dev# setinterface /dev/ttyM0 0
MOXA:/ dev# setinterface /dev/ttyM0 2
The V2401-LX contains an additional RS-232 connector to connect eight RS-232 devices. The
corresponding device nodes in Linux are ttyM8 to ttyM15.
Telnet/FTP Server
In addition to supporting Telnet client/server and FTP client/server, the V2401/2402-LX also
supports SSH and sftp client/server. To enable or disable the Telnet/ftp server, you need to edit the
file /etc/inetd.conf.
1. Mount the root file system with write permission.
MOXA:~# mount -o remount,rw /dev/sda1 /
2. Type # cd /etc to change the directory.
MOXA:~# cd /etc
3. Type # vi inetd.conf to edit the configuration file.
MOXA:/etc# vi inetd.conf
Enabling the Telnet/FTP Server
The following example shows the default content of the file /etc/inetd.conf. The default is to
“enable the Telnet/ftp server:”
discard dgram udp wait root /bin/discard
discard stream tcp nowait root /bin/discard
telnet stream tcp nowait root /bin/telnetd
ftp stream tcp nowait root /bin/ftpd -l
Disabling the Telnet/FTP Server
Disable the daemon by typing “#” in front of the first character of the row to comment out the line.
For example, to disable the FTP server, use the following commands:
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V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
discard dgram udp wait root /bin/discard
discard stream tcp nowait root /bin/discard
telnet stream tcp nowait root /bin/telnetd
#ftp stream tcp nowait root /bin/ftpd -l
After you finish writing or modifying the code, remember to execute “umount /” to change the
root directory back to Read-only mode.
MOXA:~# umount /
DNS Client
The V2401/2402-LX supports DNS client (but not DNS server). To set up DNS client, you need to
edit three configuration files: /etc/hostname, /etc/resolv.conf, and /etc/nsswitch.conf.
/etc/hostname
1. Mount the root file system with write permission.
MOXA:~# mount -o remount,rw /dev/sda1/
2. Edit /etc/hostname:
MOXA:~# vi /etc/hostname
MOXA
3. After you finish writing or modifying the code, remember to execute “umount /” to change the
root directory back to Read-only mode.
MOXA:~# umount /
4. Re-configure the hostname.
MOXA:~# /etc/init.d/hostname.sh start
5. Check the new hostname.
MOXA:~# hostname
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Managing Communications
/etc/resolv.conf
This is the most important file that you need to edit when using DNS. For example, before you
using # ntpdate time.stdtime.gov.tw to update the system time, you will need to add the DNS
server address to the file. Ask your network administrator which DNS server address you should
use. The DNS server’s IP address is specified with the nameserver command. For example, add
the following line to /etc/resolv.conf (assuming the DNS server’s IP address is 168.95.1.1):
nameserver 168.95.1.1
MOXA:/etc# cat resolv.conf
#
# resolv.conf This file is the resolver configuration file
# See resolver(5).
#
#nameserver 192.168.1.16
nameserver 168.95.1.1
nameserver 140.115.1.31
nameserver 140.115.236.10
MOXA:/etc#
/etc/nsswitch.conf
This file defines the sequence of files, /etc/hosts or /etc/resolv.conf, to be read to resolve the IP
address.
The hosts line in /etc/nsswitch.conf means use /etc/host first and DNS service to resolve the
address.
# /etc/nsswitch.conf
#
# Example configuration of GNU Name Service Switch
functionality.
# If you have the `glibc-doc-reference' and `info' packages
installed, try:
# `info libc "Name Service Switch"' for information about this
file.
passwd:
group:
shadow:
hosts:
UID
PID
root
1
root
2
root
3
root
4
root
5
root
6
root
7
compat
compat
compat
files
PPID C
0 0
0 0
2 0
2 0
2 0
2 0
2 0
dns
STIME
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
18:00
3-7
TTY
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
TIME
00:00:02
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
CMD
Init [2]
[kthreadd]
[migration/0]
[ksoftirqd/0]
[watchdog/0]
[migration/1]
[ksoftirqd/1]
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
Apache Web Server
Default Homepage
The Apache web server’s main configuration file is /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default, with
the default homepage located at /var/www/apache2-default/index.html.
Save your own homepage to the following directory:
/var/www/apache2-default
Save your CGI page to the following directory:
/var/www/apache2-default/cgi-bin/
Before you modify the homepage, use a browser (such as Microsoft Internet Explore or Mozilla
Firefox) from your PC to test if the Apache web server is working. Type the LAN1 IP address in
the browser’s address box to open the homepage. For example, if the default IP address
192.168.3.127 is still active, type:
http://192.168.3.127/
To test the default CGI page, type:
http://192.168.3.127/cgi-bin/w3mmail.cgi
Disabling the CGI Function
The CGI function is enabled by default. If you want to disable the function, modify the file
/etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.
1. Mount the root file system with write permission.
MOXA:~# mount -o remount,rw /dev/sda1/
2. Type # vi/etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default to edit the configuration file.
Comment on the following lines:
#ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/www/apache2-default/cgi-bin/
#<Directory "/var/www/apache2 default/cgi-bin/">
# AllowOverride None
# Options ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
# #Order allow,deny
# Order deny,allow
# Allow from all
#</Directory>
MOXA:/etc# vi /etc/apache2/sites-available/default
#ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/www/apache2-default/cgi-bin/
#<Directory "/var/www/apache2 default/cgi-bin/">
#
AllowOverride None
#
Options ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIFOwnerMatch
#
#Order allow,deny
#
Order deny,allow
#
Allow from all
#</Directory>
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Managing Communications
3. After you finish writing or modifying the code, remember to execute “umount /” to change the
root directory back to Read-only mode.
MOXA:~# umount /
4. Re-start the apache server.
MOXA:~# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
ATTENTION
When you develop your own CGI application, make sure your CGI file is executable.
Saving Web Pages to a USB Storage Device
Some applications may have web pages that take up a lot of memory space. This section describes
how to save web pages to the USB mass storage device, and then configure the Apache web
server’s DocumentRoot to open these pages. The files used in this example can be downloaded
from Moxa’s website.
1. Prepare the web pages and then save the pages to the USB storage device. Click on the
following link to download the web page test suite:
http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/Test/HTML401.zip.
2. Uncompress the zip file to your desktop PC, and then use FTP to transfer it to the
V2401/2402-LX’s /media/usb0 directory.
3. Mount the root file system with write permission.
MOXA:~# mount -o remount,rw /dev/sda1/
4. Type # vi/etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default to edit the configuration file.
MOXA:/etc# vi /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default
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V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
5. Change the DocumentRoot directory to the USB storage directory /media/usb0/www.
...
<VirtualHost *:80>
...
...
DocumentRoot /media/usb0/www
<Directory />
Options FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None
</Directory>
...
...
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /media/usb0/www/cgi-bin/
<Directory "/media/usb0/www/cgi-bin/">
AllowOverride None
Options ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
</Directory>
...
</VirtualHost>
...
<VirtualHost *:443>
...
...
DocumentRoot /media/usb0/www
<Directory />
Options FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None
</Directory>
...
...
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /media/usb0/www/cgi-bin/
<Directory "/media/usb0/wwwz/cgi-bin/">
AllowOverride None
Options ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
</Directory>
...
</VirtualHost>
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6. Use the following commands to restart the Apache web server:
#cd /etc/init.d
#./apache2 restart
7. Open your browser and connect to the V2401/2402-LX by typing the current LAN1 IP
address in the browser’s address box.
8. After finishing modification or writing, remember to execute “umount /” to change the root
directory back to Read-only mode.
MOXA:~# umount /
9. Re-start the apache server.
MOXA:~# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
ATTENTION
Visit the Apache website at http://httpd.apache.org/docs/ for more information about setting up
Apache servers.
IPTABLES
IPTABLES is an administrative tool for setting up, maintaining, and inspecting the Linux kernel’s
IP packet filter rule tables. Several different tables are defined, with each table containing built-in
chains and user-defined chains.
Each chain is a list of rules that apply to a certain type of packet. Each rule specifies what to do
with a matching packet. A rule (such as a jump to a user-defined chain in the same table) is called
a target.
The V2401/2402-LX supports three types of IPTABLES: Filter tables, NAT tables, and Mangle
tables.
Filter Table—includes three chains:
INPUT chain
OUTPUT chain
FORWARD chain
NAT Table—includes three chains:
PREROUTING chain—transfers the destination IP address (DNAT).
POSTROUTING chain—works after the routing process and before the Ethernet device process
to transfer the source IP address (SNAT).
OUTPUT chain—produces local packets.
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Sub-tables
Source NAT (SNAT)—changes the first source IP address of the packet.
Destination NAT (DNAT)—changes the first destination IP address of the packet.
MASQUERADE—a special form for SNAT. If one host can connect to the Internet, then the other
computers that connect to this host can connect to the Internet when the computer does not have an
actual IP address.
REDIRECT—a special form of DNAT that re-sends packets to a local host independent of the
destination IP address.
Mangle Table—includes two chains
PREROUTING chain—pre-processes packets before the routing process.
OUTPUT chain—processes packets after the routing process.
Mangle tables can have one of three extensions—TTL, MARK, TOS.
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IPTABLES Hierarchy
The following figure shows the IPTABLES hierarchy.
Incoming
Packets
Mangle Table
PREROUTING Chain
NAT Table
PREROUTING Chain
Local Host
Packets
Other Host
Packets
Mangle Table
INPUT Chain
Mangle Table
FORWARD Chain
Filter Table
INPUT Chain
Filter Table
FORWARD Chain
Local
Process
Mangle Table
POSTROUTING Chain
Mangle Table
OUTPUT Chain
NAT Table
OUTPUT Chain
Filter Table
OUTPUT Chain
NAT Table
POSTROUTING Chain
Outgoing
Packets
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IPTABLES Modules
The V2401/2402-LX supports the following sub-modules. Be sure to use the module that matches
your application.
arptable_filter.ko
arp_tables.ko
arpt_mangle.ko
ip_conntrack_ftp.ko
ip_conntrack_h323.ko
ip_conntrack_netbios_ns
ip_conntrack_netlink.ko
.ko
ip_conntrack_sip.ko
ip_conntrack_tftp.ko
ip_nat_h323.ko
ip_nat_irc.ko
ip_nat_sip.ko
ip_nat_snmp_basic.ko
iptable_filter.ko
iptable_mangle.ko
ip_tables.ko
ipt_addrtype.ko
ipt_dscp.ko
ipt_DSCP.ko
ipt_hashlimit.ko
ipt_iprange.ko
ipt_NETMAP.ko
ipt_owner.ko
ipt_REJECT.ko
ipt_SAME.ko
ipt_TOS.ko
ipt_ttl.ko
ip_conntrack_irc.ko
ip_conntrack_pptp.ko
ip_nat_amanda.ko
ip_nat.ko
ip_nat_tftp.ko
iptable_nat.ko
ipt_ah.ko
ipt_ecn.ko
ipt_LOG.ko
ipt_recent.ko
ipt_TCPMSS.ko
ipt_TTL.ko
ip_conntrack_amanda.
ko
ip_conntrack.ko
ip_conntrack_proto_sctp
.ko
ip_nat_ftp.ko
ip_nat_pptp.ko
ip_queue.ko
iptable_raw.ko
ipt_CLUSTERIP.ko
ipt_ECN.ko
ipt_MASQUERADE.ko
ipt_REDIRECT.ko
ipt_tos.ko
ipt_ULOG.ko
The basic syntax to enable and load an IPTABLES module is as follows:
# lsmod
# modprobe ip_tables
# modprobe iptable_filter
#modprobe iptable_mangle
#modprobe iptable_nat
Use lsmod to check if the ip_tables module has already been loaded in the V2401/2402-LX. Use
modprobe to insert and enable the module.
Use iptables, iptables-restore, iptables-save to maintain the database.
ATTENTION
IPTABLES plays the role of packet filtering or NAT. Be careful when setting up the IPTABLES
rules. If the rules are not correct, remote hosts that connect via a LAN or PPP may be denied. We
recommend using the VGA console to set up the IPTABLES. Click on the following links for
more information about IPTABLES.
http://www.linuxguruz.com/iptables/
http://www.netfilter.org/documentation/HOWTO//packet-filtering-HOWTO.html
Since the IPTABLES command is very complex, to illustrate the IPTABLES syntax we have
divided our discussion of the various rules into three categories: Observe and erase chain rules,
Define policy rules, and Append or delete rules.
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Observe and Erase Chain Rules
Usage:
# iptables [-t tables] [-L] [-n]
-t tables: Table to manipulate (default: ‘filter’); example: nat or filter.
-L [chain]: List List all rules in selected chains. If no chain is selected, all chains are listed.
-n: Numeric output of addresses and ports.
# iptables [-t tables] [-FXZ]
-F: Flush the selected chain (all the chains in the table if none is listed).
-X: Delete the specified user-defined chain.
-Z: Set the packet and byte counters in all chains to zero.
Examples:
# iptables -L -n
In this example, since we do not use the -t parameter, the system uses the default “filter” table.
Three chains are included: INPUT, OUTPUT, and FORWARD. INPUT chains are accepted
automatically, and all connections are accepted without being filtered.
# iptables –F
# iptables –X
# iptables -Z
Define Policy for Chain Rules
Usage:
# iptables [-t tables] [-P] [INPUT, OUTPUT, FORWARD, PREROUTING, OUTPUT,
POSTROUTING] [ACCEPT, DROP]
-P: Set the policy for the chain to the given target.
INPUT: For packets coming into the V2401/2402-I-LX.
OUTPUT: For locally-generated packets.
FORWARD: For packets routed out through the V2401/2402-I-LX.
PREROUTING: To alter packets as soon as they come in.
POSTROUTING: To alter packets as they are about to be sent out.
Examples:
#iptables –P INPUT DROP
#iptables –P OUTPUT ACCEPT
#iptables –P FORWARD ACCEPT
#iptables –t nat –P PREROUTING ACCEPT
#iptables –t nat –P OUTPUT ACCEPT
#iptables -t nat –P POSTROUTING ACCEPT
In this example, the policy accepts outgoing packets and denies incoming packets.
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Append or Delete Rules
Usage:
# iptables [-t table] [-AI] [INPUT, OUTPUT, FORWARD] [-io interface] [-p tcp, udp, icmp,
all] [-s IP/network] [--sport ports] [-d IP/network] [--dport ports] –j [ACCEPT. DROP]
-A: Append one or more rules to the end of the selected chain.
-I: Insert one or more rules in the selected chain as the given rule number.
-i: Name of an interface via which a packet is going to be received.
-o: Name of an interface via which a packet is going to be sent.
-p: The protocol of the rule or of the packet to check.
-s: Source address (network name, host name, network IP address, or plain IP address).
--sport: Source port number.
-d: Destination address.
--dport: Destination port number.
-j: Jump target. Specifies the target of the rules; i.e., how to handle matched packets.
For example, ACCEPT the packet, DROP the packet, or LOG the packet.
Examples:
Example 1: Accept all packets from the lo interface.
# iptables –A INPUT –i lo –j ACCEPT
Example 2: Accept TCP packets from 192.168.0.1.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp –s 192.168.0.1 –j ACCEPT
Example 3: Accept TCP packets from Class C network 192.168.1.0/24.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp –s 192.168.1.0/24 –j ACCEPT
Example 4: Drop TCP packets from 192.168.1.25.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp –s 192.168.1.25 –j DROP
Example 5: Drop TCP packets addressed for port 21.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp --dport 21 –j DROP
Example 6: Accept TCP packets from 192.168.0.24 to V2401/2402-I-LX’s port 137, 138, 139
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp –s 192.168.0.24 --dport 137:139 –j ACCEPT
Example 7: Log TCP packets that visit V2401/2402-I-LX’s port 25.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp --dport 25 –j LOG
Example 8: Drop all packets from MAC address 01:02:03:04:05:06.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p all –m mac --mac-source 01:02:03:04:05:06 –j DROP
ATTENTION
In Example 8, remember to issue the command # modprobe ipt_mac first to load the module
ipt_mac.
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NAT (Network Address Translation)
The NAT (Network Address Translation) protocol translates IP addresses used on one network
into IP addresses used on a connecting network. One network is designated the inside network and
the other is the outside network. Typically, the V2401/2402-LX connects several devices on a
network and maps local inside network addresses to one or more global outside IP addresses, and
un-maps the global IP addresses on incoming packets back into local IP addresses.
ATTENTION
Click on the following links for more information about NAT.
http://www.netfilter.org/documentation/HOWTO//packet-filtering-HOWTO.html
NAT Example
The IP address of all packets leaving LAN1 are changed to 192.168.3.127 (you will need to load
the module ipt_MASQUERADE):
#ehco 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
#modprobe ipt_MASQUERADE
#iptables –t nat –A POSTROUTING –o eth0 –j MASQUERADE
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Enabling NAT at Bootup
In most real world situations, you will want to use a simple shell script to enable NAT when the
V2401/2402-LX boots up. The following script is an example.
#!/bin/bash
# If you put this shell script in the /home/nat.sh
# Remember to chmod 744 /home/nat.sh
# Edit the rc.local file to make this shell startup automatically.
# vi /etc/rc.local
# Add a line in the end of rc.local /home/nat.sh
EXIF= “eth0” #This is an external interface for setting up a valid IP address.
EXNET= “192.168.4.0/24” #This is an internal network address.
# Step 1. Insert modules.
# Here 2> /dev/null means the standard error messages will be dump to null device.
modprobe ip_tables 2> /dev/null
modprobe ip_nat_ftp 2> /dev/null
modprobe ip_nat_irc 2> /dev/null
modprobe ip_conntrack 2> /dev/null
modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp 2> /dev/null
modprobe ip_conntrack_irc 2> /dev/null
# Step 2. Define variables, enable routing and erase default rules.
PATH=/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin
export PATH
echo “1” > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
/sbin/iptables -F
/sbin/iptables -X
/sbin/iptables -Z
/sbin/iptables -F -t nat
/sbin/iptables -X -t nat
/sbin/iptables -Z -t nat
/sbin/iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -t nat -P PREROUTING ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -t nat -P POSTROUTING ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -t nat -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
# Step 3. Enable IP masquerade.
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PPP (Point to Point Protocol)
PPP (Point to Point Protocol) is used to run IP (Internet Protocol) and other network protocols over
a serial link. PPP can be used for direct serial connections (using a null-modem cable) over a
Telnet link, and links established using a modem over a telephone line.
Modem/PPP access is almost identical to connecting directly to a network through the
V2401/2402-LX’s Ethernet port. Since PPP is a peer-to-peer system, the V2401/2402-LX can also
use PPP to link two networks (or a local network to the Internet) to create a Wide Area Network
(WAN).
ATTENTION
Click on the following links for more information about PPP.
http://tldp.org/HOWTO/PPP-HOWTO/index.html
http://axion.physics.ubc.ca/ppp-linux.html
Connecting to a PPP Server over a Simple Dial-up Connection
The following command is used to connect to a PPP server by modem. Use this command for old
ppp servers that prompt for a login name (replace “username” with the correct name) and
password (replace “password” with the correct password). Note that “debug crtscts” and
“defaultroute 192.1.1.17” are optional.
#pppd connect ‘chat -v ““ ATDT5551212 CONNECT ““’ ogin: username word: password’
/dev/ttyS0 115200 debug crtscts modem defaultroute 192.1.1.17
If the PPP server does not prompt for the username and password, the command should be entered
as follows. Replace “username” with the correct username and replace “password” with the correct
password.
#pppd connect ‘chat -v ““ ATDT5551212 CONNECT ““’ user username password password
/dev/ttyS0 115200 crtscts modem
The pppd options are described below:
connect ‘chat etc...’ This option gives the command to contact the PPP server. The chat
program is used to dial a remote computer. The entire command is
enclosed in single quotes because pppd expects a one-word argument
for the connect option. The options for chat are given below:
-v
verbose mode; log what we do to syslog
““
Double quotes—don’t wait for a prompt, but instead do ... (Note that you
must include a space after the second quotation mark)
ATDT5551212
Dial the modem, and then ...
CONNECT
Wait for an answer.
““
Send a return (null text followed by the usual return)
ogin: username word: password
Log in with username and password.
Refer to the chat man page, chat.8, for more information about the chat utility.
/dev/
Specify the callout serial port.
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115200
The baud rate.
debug
Log status in syslog.
crtscts
Use hardware flow control between computer and modem
(at 115200 this is a must).
modem
Indicates that this is a modem device; pppd will hang up the phone before
and after making the call.
defaultroute
Once the PPP link is established, make it the default route; if you have a PPP
link to the Internet, this is probably what you want.
192.1.1.17
This is a degenerate case of a general option of the form x.x.x.x:y.y.y.y. Here
x.x.x.x is the local IP address and y.y.y.y is the IP address of the remote end
of the PPP connection. If this option is not specified, or if just one side is
specified, then x.x.x.x defaults to the IP address associated with the local
machine’s hostname (located in /etc/hosts), and y.y.y.y is determined by the
remote machine.
Connecting to a PPP Server over a Hard-wired Link
If a username and password are not required, use the following command (note that noipdefault is
optional):
#pppd connect ‘chat –v“ “ “ “ ’ noipdefault /dev/tty 19200 crtscts
If a username and password is required, use the following command (note that noipdefault is
optional, and root is both the username and password):
#pppd connect ‘chat –v“ “ “ “ ’ user root password root noipdefault /dev/ttyS0 19200 crtscts
Checking the Connection
Once you have set up a PPP connection, there are some steps you can take to test the connection.
First, type:
#/sbin/ifconfig
Depending on your distribution, the command might be located elsewhere. After executing the
command, you should be able to see all of the network interfaces that are UP.
ppp0 should be one of them, and you should recognize the first IP address as your own and the
P-t-P address (point-to-point address, the address of your server). The output is similar to the
following:
lo
Link encap Local Loopback
inet addr 127.0.0.1 Bcast 127.255.255.255 Mask
255.0.0.0
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU 2000 Metric 1
RX packets 0 errors 0 dropped 0 overrun 0
ppp0
Link encap Point-to-Point Protocol
inet addr 192.76.32.3 P-t-P 129.67.1.165 Mask
255.255.255.0
UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING MTU 1500 Metric 1
RX packets 33 errors 0 dropped 0 overrun 0
TX packets 42 errors 0 dropped 0 overrun 0
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Now, type:
#ping z.z.z.z
where z.z.z.z is the address of your name server. The output is similar to the following:
MOXA:~# ping 129.67.1.165
PING 129.67.1.165 (129.67.1.165): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 129.67.1.165: icmp_seq=0 ttl=225 time=268 ms
64 bytes from 129.67.1.165: icmp_seq=1 ttl=225 time=247 ms
64 bytes from 129.67.1.165: icmp_seq=2 ttl=225 time=266 ms
^C
--- 129.67.1.165 ping statistics --3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 247/260/268 ms
MOXA:~#
Try typing:
#netstat -nr
This should show three routes similar to the following:
Kernel routing table
Destination
Gateway
Genmask
iface
129.67.1.165 0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255
ppp0
127.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
255.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
129.67.1.165 0.0.0.0
ppp0
Flags
Metric
Ref Use
UH
0
0
6
U
UG
0
0
0
0
0 lo
6298
If your output looks similar but does not have the “destination 0.0.0.0” line (which refers to the
default route used for connections), you may have run pppd without the defaultroute option. At
this point, you can try using Telnet, ftp, or finger, bearing in mind that you will have to use
numeric IP addresses unless you have configured /etc/resolv.conf correctly.
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Setting up a Machine for Incoming PPP Connections
Method 1: pppd dial-in with pppd commands
This first example applies to using a modem, and requiring authorization with a username and
password.
#pppd /dev/ttyS0 115200 crtscts modem 192.168.16.1:192.168.16.2 login auth
You should also add the following line to the file /etc/ppp/pap-secrets:
*
*
“”
*
The first star (*) lets everyone login. The second star (*) lets every host connect. The pair of
double quotation marks (“”) indicates that the file /etc/passwd can be used to check the password.
The last star (*) is to let any IP connect.
The following example does not check the username and password:
# pppd/dev/ttyS0 115200 crtscts modem 192.168.16.1:192.168.16.2
Method 2: pppd dial-in with pppd script
Configure a dial-in script /etc/ppp/peer/dialin
# You usually need this if there is no PAP authentication
noauth
#auth
#login
# The chat script (be sure to edit that file, too!)
init "/usr/sbin/chat -v -f /etc/ppp/ppp-ttyM0.chat"
# Set up routing to go through this PPP link
defaultroute
# Default modem (you better replace this with /dev/ttySx!)
/dev/ttyM0
# Speed
115200
# Keep modem up even if connection fails
persist
crtscts
modem
192.168.16.1:192.168.16.2
debug
-detach
Configure the chat script /etc/ppp/ppp-ttyM0.chat
SAY
''
'Auto Answer ON\n'
ATS0=1
Start the pppd dial-in service.
# pppd call dialin
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ATTENTION
If you hope to have auto dial-in service, you can respawn the dial-in service in /etc/inittab.
MOXA:~# mount –o remount,rw /dev/sda1/
MOXA:~# echo “p0:2345:respawn:pppd call dialin” >>
/etc/inittab
MOXA:~# umount /
PPPoE
The following procedure is for setting up PPPoE:
1. Connect the V2401/2402-LX’s LAN port to an ADSL modem with a cross-over cable, HUB,
or switch.
2. Log in to the V2401/2402-LX as the root user.
3. Edit the file /etc/ppp/chap-secrets and add the following:
“username@hinet.net”
*
“password”
*
# Secrets for authentication using CHAP
# client
server secret
IP addresses
# PPPOE example, if you want to use it, you need to unmark it
and modify it
"username@hinet.net" *
"password"
*
username@hinet.net is the username obtained from the ISP to log in to the ISP account.
password is the corresponding password for the account.
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4. Edit the file /etc/ppp/pap-secrets and add the following:
“username@hinet.net”
*
“password”
*
# ATTENTION: The definitions here can allow users to login
without a
# password if you don't use the login option of pppd! The
mgetty Debian
# package already provides this option; make sure you don't
change that.
# INBOUND connections
# Every regular user can use PPP and has to use passwords
from /etc/passwd
*
hostname
""
*
"username@hinet.net"
*
"password"
*
# UserIDs that cannot
and add any
# other accounts that
guest hostname
master hostname
root
hostname
support hostname
stats hostname
use PPP at all. Check your /etc/passwd
should
"*"
"*"
"*"
"*"
"*"
not be able to use pppd!
-
# OUTBOUND connections
username@hinet.net is the username obtained from the ISP to log in to the ISP account.
password is the corresponding password for the account.
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5. Edit the file /etc/ppp/options and add the following line:
plugin rp-pppoe
# received. Note: it is not advisable to use this option
with the persist
# option without the demand option. If the active-filter
option is given,
# data packets which are rejected by the specified activity
filter also
# count as the link being idle.
#idle <n>
# Specifies how many seconds to wait before re-initiating the
link after
# it terminates. This option only has any effect if the
persist or demand
# option is used. The holdoff period is not applied if the
link was
# terminated because it was idle.
#holdoff <n>
# Wait for up n milliseconds after the connect script
finishes for a valid
# PPP packet from the peer. At the end of this time, or when
a valid PPP
# packet is received from the peer, pppd will commence
negotiation by
# sending its first LCP packet. The default value is 1000 (1
second).
# This wait period only applies if the connect or pty option
is used.
#connect-delay <n>
# Load the pppoe plugin
plugin rp-pppoe.so
# ---<End of File>--6. If you use LAN1 to connect to the ADSL modem, add file /etc/ppp/options.eth0. If you use
LAN2 to connect to the ADSL modem, then add /etc/ppp/options.eth1, etc.
name username@hinet.net
mtu 1492
mru 1492
defaultroute
noipdefault
~
~
"/etc/ppp/options.eth0" 5 lines, 67 characters
Type your username (the one you set in the /etc/ppp/pap-secrets and /etc/ppp/chap-secrets files)
after the name option. You may add other options as desired.
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7. Set up DNS.
If you are using DNS servers supplied by your ISP, edit the file /etc/resolv.conf by adding the
following lines of code:
nameserver ip_addr_of_first_dns_server
nameserver ip_addr_of_second_dns_server
For example:
nameserver 168.95.1.1
nameserver 139.175.10.20
MOXA:/etc# cat resolv.conf
#
# resolv.conf This file is the resolver configuration file
# See resolver(5).
#
#nameserver 192.168.1.16
nameserver 168.95.1.1
nameserver 139.175.10.20
nameserver 140.115.1.31
nameserver 140.115.236.10
MOXA:/etc#
8. Use the following command to create a pppoe connection:
#pppd eth0
The ADSL modem is connected to the LAN1 port, which is named eth0. If the ADSL modem is
connected to LAN2, use eth1, etc.
9. Type #ifconfig ppp0 to check if the connection is OK. If the connection is OK, you should see
the IP address of ppp0. Use #ping to test the IP address.
ppp0
Link encap Point-to-Point Protocol
inet addr 192.76.32.3
P-t-P 129.67.1.165
255.255.255.0
UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING MTU 1500 Metric 1
RX packets 33 errors 0 dropped 0 overrun 0
TX packets 42 errors 0 dropped 0 overrun 0
10. If you want to disconnect it, use the kill command to kill the pppd process.
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NFS (Network File System) Client
The Network File System (NFS) is used to mount a disk partition on a remote machine (as if it
were on a local hard drive), allowing fast, seamless sharing of files across a network. NFS allows
users to develop applications for the V2401/2402-LX without worrying about the amount of disk
space that will be available. The V2401/2402-LX supports only NFS client protocol.
ATTENTION
Click on the following links for more information about NFS.
http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1213.txt
http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1317.html
The following procedures illustrate how to mount a remote NFS Server.
1. Scan the NFS Server’s shared directory.
#showmount –e HOST
showmount:
Show the mount information of an NFS Server
-e:
Show the NFS Server’s export list.
HOST:
IP address or DNS address
2. Establish a mount point on the NFS Client site.
#mkdir –p /home/nfs/public
3. Mount the remote directory to a local directory.
# mount -t nfs -o nolock 192.168.3.100:/home/public /home/nfs/public
This is where 192.168.3.100 is the example IP address of the NFS server.
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SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
The V2401/2402-LX comes with the SNMP V1 (Simple Network Management Protocol) agent
software pre-installed. It supports RFC 1213 MIB-II. The following example shows an SNMP
agent responding to a query from the SNMP browser on the host site:
***** SNMP QUERY STARTED *****
[root@jaredRH90 root]# snmpwalk -v 1 -c public
192.168.30.128|more
SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0 = STRING: Linux Moxa 2.6.18-5-686 #1
SMP Mon Dec 24 16:41
:07 UTC 2007 i686
SNMPv2-MIB::sysObjectID.0 = OID: SNMPv2SMI::enterprises.8691.12.680
SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (134544) 0:22:25.44
SNMPv2-MIB::sysContact.0 = STRING: "Moxa Inc."
SNMPv2-MIB::sysName.0 = STRING: Moxa
SNMPv2-MIB::sysLocation.0 = STRING: "Fl.8, No.6, Alley 6,
Lane 235, Pao-Chiao Rd
. Shing Tien City, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C."
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORLastChange.0 = Timeticks: (12) 0:00:00.12
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.1 = OID: IF-MIB::ifMIB
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.2 = OID: SNMPv2-MIB::snmpMIB
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.3 = OID: TCP-MIB::tcpMIB
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.4 = OID: IP-MIB::ip
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.5 = OID: UDP-MIB::udpMIB
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.6 = OID: SNMP-VIEW-BASED-ACMMIB::vacmBasicGroup
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.7 = OID: SNMP-FRAMEWORKMIB::snmpFrameworkMIBCompliance
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.8 = OID: SNMP-MPD-MIB::snmpMPDCompliance
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.9 = OID: SNMP-USER-BASED-SMMIB::usmMIBCompliance
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORDescr.1 = STRING: The MIB module to describe
generic objects fo
r network interface sub-layers
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORDescr.2 = STRING: The MIB module for SNMPv2
entities
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORDescr.3 = STRING: The MIB module for
managing TCP implementatio
...
SNMPv2-MIB::snmpOutBadValues.0 = Counter32: 0
SNMPv2-MIB::snmpOutGenErrs.0 = Counter32: 0
SNMPv2-MIB::snmpOutGetRequests.0 = Counter32: 0
SNMPv2-MIB::snmpOutGetNexts.0 = Counter32: 0
SNMPv2-MIB::snmpOutSetRequests.0 = Counter32: 0
SNMPv2-MIB::snmpOutGetResponses.0 = Counter32: 540
SNMPv2-MIB::snmpOutTraps.0 = Counter32: 0
SNMPv2-MIB::snmpEnableAuthenTraps.0 = INTEGER: disabled(2)
SNMPv2-MIB::snmpSilentDrops.0 = Counter32: 0
SNMPv2-MIB::snmpProxyDrops.0 = Counter32: 0
[root@jaredRH90 root]#
***** SNMP QUERY FINISHED *****
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ATTENTION
Visit the following links for more information about RFC 1213 MIB-II.
http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1213.txt
OpenVPN
OpenVPN provides two types of tunnels for users to implement VPNS: Routed IP Tunnels and
Bridged Ethernet Tunnels.
An Ethernet bridge is used to connect different Ethernet networks together. The Ethernets are
bundled into one bigger, “logical” Ethernet. Each Ethernet corresponds to one physical interface
(or port) that is connected to the bridge.
On each OpenVPN machine, you should carry out configurations in the /etc/openvpn directory,
where script files and key files reside. Once established, all operations will be performed in that
directory.
Ethernet Bridging for Private Networks on Different Subnets
1. Set up four machines, as shown in the following diagram.
Host A represents the machine that belongs to OpenVPN A, and Host B represents the
machine that belongs to OpenVPN B. The two remote subnets are configured for a different
range of IP addresses. When this configuration is moved to a public network, the external
interfaces of the OpenVPN machines should be configured for static IPs, or connected to
another device (such as a firewall or DSL box) first.
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2. Generate a preset shared key by typing the command:
# openvpn --genkey --secret secrouter.key
3. Copy the file that is generated to the OpenVPN machine:
# scp /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key 192.168.8.174:/etc/openvpn
ATTENTION
A preshared key is located at /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key. You can use it for testing purposes.
We suggest creating a new key for non-testing purpose.
4. On machine OpenVPN A, modify the remote address in the configuration file
/etc/openvpn/tap0-br.conf.
# point to the peer
remote 192.168.8.174
dev tap0
port 1194
secret /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
auth MD5
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 64
ping 40
up /etc/openvpn/tap0-br.sh
#comp lzo
5. Next, modify the routing table in the /etc/openvpn/tap0-br.sh script file.
#--------------------------Start--------------------------#!/bin/sh
# value after “-net” is the subnet behind the remote peer
route add -net 192.168.4.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev br0
#----------------------------end---------------------------
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And then configure the bridge interface in /etc/openvpn/bridge.
#!/bin/bash
# Create global variables
# Define Bridge Interface
br="br0"
# Define list of TAP interfaces to be bridged,
# for example tap="tap0 tap1 tap2".
tap="tap0"
# Define physical ethernet interface to be bridged
# with TAP interface(s) above.
eth="eth1"
eth_ip="192.168.8.173"
eth_netmask="255.255.255.0"
eth_broadcast="192.168.8.255"
#gw="192.168.8.174"
...
Start the bridge script file to configure the bridge interface.
# /etc/openvpn/bridge restart
6. On machine OpenVPN B, modify the remote address in configuration file
/etc/openvpn/tap0-br.conf.
# point to the peer
remote 192.168.8.173
dev tap0
secret /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
auth MD5
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 64
ping 40
up /etc/openvpn/tap0-br.sh
#comp-lzo
7. Next modify the routing table in /etc/openvpn/tap0-br.sh script file.
#----------------------------------Start---------------------------#!/bin/sh
# value after “-net” is the subnet behind the remote peer
route add -net 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev br0
#---------------------------------- end ----------------------------
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And then configure the bridge interface in /etc/openvpn/bridge.
#!/bin/bash
# Create global variables
# Define Bridge Interface
br="br0"
# Define list of TAP interfaces to be bridged,
# for example tap="tap0 tap1 tap2".
tap="tap0"
# Define physical ethernet interface to be bridged
# with TAP interface(s) above.
eth="eth1"
eth_ip="192.168.8.174"
eth_netmask="255.255.255.0"
eth_broadcast="192.168.8.255"
#gw="192.168.8.173"
...
Start the bridge script file to configure the bridge interface.
# /etc/openvpn/bridge restart
ATTENTION
Select cipher and authentication algorithms by specifying cipher and auth. To see which
algorithms are available, type:
# openvpn --show-ciphers
# openvpn --show-auths
8. Start both OpenVPN peers on machine OpenVPN A and OpenVPN B.
# openvpn --config /etc/openvpn/tap0-br.conf&
If you see the line Peer Connection Initiated with 192.168.8.173:5000on each machine, the
connection between OpenVPN machines has been established successfully on UDP port 5000.
ATTENTION
You can create link symbols to start the OpenVPN service at boot time:
# ln -sf /etc/init.d/openvpn /etc/rc2.d/S16openvpn
To stop the service, you should create these links:
# ln -sf /etc/init.d/openvpn /etc/rc0.d/K80openvpn
# ln -sf /etc/init.d/openvpn /etc/rc6.d/K80openvpn
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9. On each OpenVPN machine, check the routing table by typing the command # route
Destination
Use Iface
192.168.5.0
eth2
192.168.4.0
br0
192.168.3.0
eth0
192.168.30.0
eth3
192.168.8.0
br0
Gateway Genmsk
Flags
Metric
Ref
0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0
U
0
0
0
0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0
U
0
0
0
0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0
U
0
0
0
0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0
U
0
0
0
0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0
U
0
0
0
Interface eth1 and device tap0 both connect to the bridging interface, and the virtual device
tun sits on top of tap0. This ensures that all traffic coming to this bridge from internal
networks connected to interface eth1 write to the TAP/TUN device that the OpenVPN
program monitors. Once the OpenVPN program detects traffic on the virtual device, it sends
the traffic to its peer.
10. To create an indirect connection to Host B from Host A, you need to add the following routing
item:
# route add –net 192.168.4.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0
To create an indirect connection to Host A from Host B, you need to add the following routing
item:
# route add –net 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0
Now ping Host B from Host A by typing:
# ping 192.168.4.174
A successful ping indicates that you have created a VPN system that only allows authorized
users from one internal network to access users at the remote site. For this system, all data is
transmitted by UDP packets on port 5000 between OpenVPN peers.
11. To shut down OpenVPN programs, type the command:
# killall -TERM openvpn
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Ethernet Bridging for Private Networks on the Same Subnet
1. Set up four machines, as shown in the following diagram.
2. The configuration procedure is almost the same as for the previous example. The only
difference is that you will need to comment out the parameter up in /etc/openvpn/tap0br.conf of OpenVPN A and /etc/openvpn/tap0-br.conf of OpenVPN B.
# point to the peer
remote 192.168.8.174
dev tap0
secret /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
auth MD5
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 64
ping 40
#up /etc/openvpn/tap0-br.sh
#comp-lzo
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Routed IP
1. Set up four machines, as shown in the following diagram.
2. On machine OpenVPN A, modify the remote address in configuration file
/etc/openvpn/tun.conf.
# point to the peer
remote 192.168.8.174
dev tun
secret /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
auth MD5
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 64
ping 40
ifconfig 192.168.2.173 192.168.4.174
up /etc/openvpn/tun.sh
3. Next, modify the routing table in script file /etc/openvpn/tun.sh.
#---------------------------Start---------------------------#!/bin/sh
# value after “-net” is the subnet behind the remote peer
route add -net 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw $5
#----------------------------end-----------------------------
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4. On machine OpenVPN B, modify the remote address in configuration file
/etc/openvpn/tun.conf.
# point to the peer
remote 192.168.8.173
dev tun
secret /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
auth MD5
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 64
ping 40
ifconfig 192.168.4.174 192.168.2.173
up /etc/openvpn/tun.sh
And then modify the routing table in script file /etc/openvpn/tun.sh.
#--------------------------Start---------------------------#!/bin/sh
# value after “-net” is the subnet behind the remote peer
route add -net 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw $5
#---------------------------end----------------------------The first argument of parameter ifconfig is the local internal interface and the second argument is
the internal interface at the remote peer.
$5 is the argument that the OpenVPN program passes to the script file. Its value is the second
argument of ifconfig in the configuration file.
5. Check the routing table after you run the OpenVPN programs, by typing the command # route.
Destination
Gateway
Ref Use Iface
192.168.4.174
*
0
0
tun0
192.168.4.0
192.168.4.174
0
0
tun0
192.168.2.0
*
0
0
eth1
192.168.8.0
*
0
0
eth0
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Genmsk
Flags
Metric
255.255.255.255 UH
0
255.255.255.0
UG
0
255.255.255.0
U
0
255.255.255.0
U
0
4
Chapter 4
This chapter covers the following topics:
‰
‰
‰
‰
Device API
RTC (Real Time Clock)
UART
Digital I/O
Programmer Guide
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Programmer Guide
Device API
The V2401/2402 supports control devices with the ioctl system API. The interface is shown as
below.
int ioctl(int d, int request,…);
Input:
<d> open device node return file handle
<request> argument in or out
RTC (Real Time Clock)
The device node is located at /dev/rtc. The V2401/2402 supports standard Linux simple RTC
control. You must include <linux/rtc.h>.
1. Function: RTC_RD_TIME
int ioctl(fd, RTC_RD_TIME, struct rtc_time *time);
Description: read time information from RTC. It will return the value on argument 3.
2. Function: RTC_SET_TIME
int ioctl(fd, RTC_SET_TIME, struct rtc_time *time);
Description: set RTC time. Argument 3 will be passed to RTC.
UART
The normal tty device node is /dev/ttyS0 and /det/ttyS1.
The V2401/2402 supports standard Linux termios control with RS-232/422/485 serial ports.
To configure the serial ports, follow these steps.
1. You must include “moxadevice.h”, which you can find in the folder \example\moxalib in CD.
#define RS232_MODE 0
#define RS485_2WIRE_MODE 1
#define RS422_MODE 2
#define RS485_4WIRE_MODE 3
2. Function: MOXA_SET_OP_MODE
int ioctl(fd, MOXA_SET_OP_MODE, &mode)
Description Set the interface mode. Argument 3 mode will pass to the UART device driver and
change it.
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3. Function: MOXA_GET_OP_MODE
int ioctl(fd, MOXA_GET_OP_MODE, &mode)
Description Get the interface mode. Argument 3 mode will return the interface mode.
There are two Moxa private ioctl control definitions for setting up special baudrates.
MOXA_SET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE
MOXA_GET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE
If you use this ioctl to set a special baudrate, the termios cflag will be B4000000, in which case
the B4000000 define will be different. If the baudrate you get from termios (or from calling
tcgetattr()) is B4000000, you must call ioctl with MOXA_GET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE to
get the actual baudrate.
Example to set the baudrate
#include “moxadevice.h”
#include <termios.h>
struct termios term;
int fd, speed;
fd = open(“/dev/ttyS0”, O_RDWR);
tcgetattr(fd, &term);
term.c_cflag &= ~(CBAUD | CBAUDEX);
term.c_cflag |= B4000000;
tcsetattr(fd, TCSANOW, &term);
speed = 500000;
ioctl(fd, MOXA_SET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE, &speed);
Example to get the baudrate
#include “moxadevice.h”
#include <termios.h>
struct termios term;
int fd, speed;
fd = open(“/dev/ttyS0”, O_RDWR);
tcgetattr(fd, &term);
if ( (term.c_cflag & (CBAUD|CBAUDEX)) != B4000000 ) {
// follow the standard termios baud rate define
} else {
ioctl(fd, MOXA_GET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE, &speed);
}
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Baudrate inaccuracy
Divisor = 921600/Target Baud Rate. (Only Integer part)
ENUM = 8 * (921600/Target - Divisor) (Round up or down)
Inaccuracy =( (Target Baud Rate – 921600/(Divisor + (ENUM/8))) / Target Baud Rate )* 100%
E.g.,
To calculate 500000 bps
Divisor = 1, ENUM = 7,
Inaccuracy = 1.7%
* To work reliably, you should set inaccuracy under 2%.
Special Note
1. If the target baudrate is not a special baudrate (e.g. 50, 75, 110, 134, 150, 200, 300, 600, 1200,
1800, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200, 230400, 460800, 921600), the termios
cflag will be set to the same flag.
2. If you use stty to get the serial information, you will get speed equal to 0 for the special
baudrate.
Digital I/O
Digital Output channels can be set to high or low. The channels are controlled by the function call
set_dout_state( ). Use the digital input channels to detect the state change of the digital input
signal. The DI channels can also be used to detect whether or not the state of a digital signal
changes during a fixed period of time. This can be done by the function call, set_din_event( ).
Return error code definitions:
#define DIO_ERROR_PORT -1 // no such port
#define DIO_ERROR_MODE -2 // no such mode or state
#define DIO_ERROR_CONTROL -3 // open or ioctl fail
#define DIO_ERROR_DURATION -4 // The value of duration is not 0
or not in the range, 40 <= duration <= 3600000 milliseconds (1
hour)
#define DIO_ERROR_DURATION_20MS -5 // The value of duration must
be a multiple of 20 ms
#define DIO_OK 0
DIN and DOUT definitions:
#define DIO_HIGH 1
#define DIO_LOW 0
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Moxa functions for DI/DO
Function
Description
Input
Output
Return
Function
Description
Input
Output
Return
Function
Description
Input
Output
Return
Function
Description
Input
int set_dout_state(int doport, int state)
Set the DOUT port to high or low state.
<doport> The DOUT port you want to set. Port starts from 0 to 3
<state> Set high or low state; DIO_HIGH (1) for high, DIO_LOW (0) for low.
none
refer to the error code
int get_din_state(int diport, int *state)
Get the DIN port state
<diport> The DIN port to get the state of. Port numbering is from 0 to 3
<state> Save the current state
<state> DIO_HIGH (1) for high, DIO_LOW (0) for low
Refer to the error code
int get_dout_state(int doport, int *state)
Get the DOUT port state
<doport> The DOUT port to get the state of.
<state> Save the current state.
<state> DIO_HIGH (1) for high, DIO_LOW (0) for low
Refer to the error code
int set_din_event(int diport, void (*func)(int diport), int mode, long int
duration)
Set the DIN event when the state is changed from high to low or from low to
high
<diport> The port that will be used to detect the DIN event.
Port numbering is from 0 to 3. This value depends on your device.
<(*func) (int diport)>
Not NULL: Returns the call back function. When the event occurs, the call back
function will be invoked.
NULL: Clear this event
<mode>
DIN_EVENT_HIGH_TO_LOW (1): From high to low
DIN_EVENT_LOW_TO_HIGH (0): From low to high
DIN_EVENT_CLEAR (-1): Clear this event
<duration>
0: Detect the din event DIN_EVENT_HIGH_TO_LOW or
DIN_EVENT_LOW_TO_HIGH without duration
Not 0: Detect the din event DIN_EVENT_HIGH_TO_LOW or
DIN_EVENT_LOW_TO_HIGH with duration.
Note:
The value of “duration” must be a multiple of 20 milliseconds.
The range of “duration” is 0, or 40 <= duration <= 3600000 milliseconds.
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The error of the measurement is 24 ms. For example, if the DIN duration is 200
ms, this event will be generated when the DIN pin stays in the same state for a
time between 176 ms and 200 ms.
None
Refer to the error code
Output
Return
int get_din_event(int diport, int *mode, long int *duration)
To retrieve the DIN event configuration, including mode
(DIN_EVENT_HIGH_TO_LOW or DIN_EVENT_LOW_TO_HIGH), and the
value of “duration.”
<diport> Which DIN port you want to retrieve
<mode> Save the set event.
<duration> The duration the DIN port is kept in high or low state. - return to the
current duration value of diport
<mode>
DIN_EVENT_HIGH_TO_LOW (1): From high to low
DIN_EVENT_LOW_TO_HIGH(0): From low to high
DIN_EVENT_CLEAR(-1): Clear this event
<duration>
The value of duration should be 0 or 40 <= duration <= 3600000 milliseconds.
Refer to the error code
Function
Description
Input
Output
Return
Special Note
1. You have to build the moxalib in advance for DI/DO. The moxalib is included in the folder
\example\moxalib in CD.
2. Make sure to link the library libmoxalib for DI/DO programming, and include the header file
moxadevice.h. Only one program at a time can use the DI/DO library.
3. Due to hardware limitation, you need to modify MIN_DURATION as 60 for V2401/2402.
Examples
DIO Program Source Code File Example
File Name: tdio.c
Description: This program connects DO1 to DI1, changes the digital output state to high or low by
manual input, then detects and counts the state changed events from DI1.
#include
<stdio.h>
#include
<stdlib.h>
#ifdef NO_MOXADEVICE_HEADER
#include
"moxadevice.h"
#else
#include
<moxadevice.h>
#endif
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#include
Programmer Guide
<fcntl.h>
/* Due to hardware limitation, MIN_DURATION should be 60 for DA710
*/
#define MIN_DURATION 40
static char *DataString[2]={"Low ", "High "};
static void hightolowevent(int diport)
{
printf("\nDIN port %d high to low.\n", diport);
}
static void lowtohighevent(int diport)
{
printf("\nDIN port %d low to high.\n", diport);
}
int main(int argc, char * argv[])
{
int
i, j, state, retval;
unsigned long duration;
while( 1 ) {
printf("\nSelect a number of menu, other key to exit.
1.set high to low event
\n\
2.get now data.
\n\
3.set low to high event
\n\
4.clear event
\n\
5.set high data.
\n\
6.set low data.
\n\
7. quit
\n\
8. show event and duration
\n\
Choose : ");
retval =0;
scanf("%d", &i);
if ( i == 1 ) { // set high to low event
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printf("Please keyin the DIN number : ");
scanf("%d", &i);
printf("Please input the DIN duration, this minimun
value must be over %d : ",MIN_DURATION);
scanf("%lu", &duration);
retval=set_din_event(i, hightolowevent,
DIN_EVENT_HIGH_TO_LOW, duration);
} else if ( i == 2 ) { // get now data
printf("DIN data : ");
for ( j=0; j<MAX_DIN_PORT; j++ ) {
get_din_state(j, &state);
printf("%s", DataString[state]);
}
printf("\n");
printf("DOUT data : ");
for ( j=0; j<MAX_DOUT_PORT; j++ ) {
get_dout_state(j, &state);
printf("%s", DataString[state]);
}
printf("\n");
} else if ( i == 3 ) { // set low to high event
printf("Please keyin the DIN number : ");
scanf("%d", &i);
printf("Please input the DIN duration, this minimun
value must be over %d : ",MIN_DURATION);
scanf("%lu", &duration);
retval = set_din_event(i, lowtohighevent,
DIN_EVENT_LOW_TO_HIGH, duration);
} else if ( i == 4 ) { // clear event
printf("Please keyin the DIN number : ");
scanf("%d", &i);
retval=set_din_event(i, NULL, DIN_EVENT_CLEAR, 0);
} else if ( i == 5 ) { // set high data
printf("Please keyin the DOUT number : ");
scanf("%d", &i);
retval=set_dout_state(i, 1);
} else if ( i == 6 ) { // set low data
4-8
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Programmer Guide
printf("Please keyin the DOUT number : ");
scanf("%d", &i);
retval=set_dout_state(i, 0);
} else if ( i == 7 ) { // quit
break;
} else if ( i == 8 ) { // show event and duration
printf("Event:\n");
for ( j=0; j<MAX_DOUT_PORT; j++ ) {
retval=get_din_event(j, &i, &duration);
switch ( i ) {
case DIN_EVENT_HIGH_TO_LOW :
printf("(htl,%lu)", duration);
break;
case DIN_EVENT_LOW_TO_HIGH :
printf("(lth,%lu)", duration);
break;
case DIN_EVENT_CLEAR :
printf("(clr,%lu)", duration);
break;
default :
printf("err " );
break;
}
}
printf("\n");
} else {
printf("Select error, please select again !\n");
}
switch(retval) {
case DIO_ERROR_PORT:
printf("DIO error port\n");
break;
case DIO_ERROR_MODE:
printf("DIO error mode\n");
break;
case DIO_ERROR_CONTROL:
4-9
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Programmer Guide
printf("DIO error control\n");
break;
case DIO_ERROR_DURATION:
printf("DIO error duratoin\n");
case DIO_ERROR_DURATION_20MS:
printf("DIO error! The duratoin is not a multiple
of 20 ms\n");
break;
}
}
return 0;
}
DIO Program Make File Example
include ../compile.mk
CC=$(PREFIX)gcc
STRIP=$(PREFIX)strip
AR=$(PREFIX)ar
LNAME=moxalib
all:
release
release: $(MOXALIB_OBJ)
$(AR) rcs lib$(LNAME).a $(MOXALIB_OBJ)
%.o:%.c
$(CC) -c $<
install:
lib$(LNAME).a
cp -a lib$(LNAME).a $(MOXALIB_INSTALL_DIR)
cp -a moxadevice.h /usr/local/arm-linux/include
cp -a moxadevice.h /usr/local/arm-linux/arm-linux/include
clean:
/bin/rm -f *.o *.a
4-10
5
Chapter 5
System Recovery
The V2401/2402-LX is installed with the Embedded Linux operating system, which is located in
the Flash DOM (CompactFlash card) shipped with the V2401/2402-LX computer. Although it
rarely happens, you may find on occasion that operating system files and/or the disk file system
are damaged. This chapter describes how to recover the Linux operating system.
This chapter covers the following topics:
‰ Recovery Environment
‰ Recovery Procedure
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
System Recovery
Recovery Environment
The recovery environment includes the V2401/2402-LX embedded computer and a bootable USB
disk with the recovery programs and system image file.
V2401/2402-LX
Bootable USB DISK
(recovery programs and
system image file
included)
USB Port
Recovery Procedure
Step 1: Format an Empty USB Disk.
a.
Prepare a USB disk that has at least a 256 MB capacity.
b. Format your USB disk with the HP USB Disk Format Tool. Open the utility and select the
device and FAT file system. You need empty disk only. DO NOT check the option Create a
DOS startup disk.
c.
Click Start.
5-2
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
System Recovery
ATTENTION
The HP USB Disk Storage Format Tool can be downloaded from many web sites. Do a search
on HP USB Disk Storage Format Tool from any search engine to locate the tool.
Step 2: Create a Linux Bootable USB Disk.
a.
You can find the utility_tools\Recovery directory in the Recovery CD shipped with the
V2401/2402-LX computer.
b. Configure Windows Explorer to show hidden files (including protected operating system files).
c.
Copy all files in the utility_tools\Recovery directory to the root directory of your USB disk.
d. Open a DOS prompt and type M:\syslinux.exe M: to create a bootable Linux disk.
In this example, M: is the USB Disk drive number.
5-3
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
System Recovery
Step 3: Set up the BIOS to Boot from a USB Disk.
a.
Insert the USB disk.
b. Power on and press DEL to enter the bios setup menu.
c.
Select Advanced Æ Hard Disk Boot Priority and then press Enter.
d. From the setup menu, use “↑” or “↓” to select the USB device
e.
Press “+” to move the selection up to the first priority, and press Esc to exit the setup menu.
f.
Make sure the first boot device is Hard Disk. If not, press Enter to change it.
g. Select Exit Æ Save & Exit Setup and then press Enter.
h. Choose Y to save to the CMOS and then exit.
5-4
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
System Recovery
ATTENTION
Please note that some USB disks will be regarded as the Removable Device. If it happens, see
the following steps.
a.
Select Removable Device Priority.
b. Make sure that the USB disk has been detected. Press Esc to exit.
5-5
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
c.
System Recovery
Make sure that the First Boot Device is Removable. If not, select First Boot Device, press
Enter and select it from the list.
d. Select Exit Æ Save & Exit Setup and then press Enter.
e.
Choose Y to save to the CMOS and then exit.
Step 4: Recover the Linux system from a USB Disk.
a.
If the BIOS setup is correct, it will boot from the USB disk. Follow the steps below to set up
recovery parameters.
Welcome to PING (Partition Image Is Not Ghost)!
This tool can be used to both backup a Ghost-like image of your hard
disk and to restore your hard disk from such an image. Please, be
aware that if you choose to restore your hard disk. All the data
contained on this computer might be lost during the restoration. You
man choose to abort now, by stopping the computer now.
<OK>
5-6
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
System Recovery
b. Choose OK to go to the next step.
c.
Choose shut down the V2401/2402-LX when the restoration is finished.
PING (Partition Image Is Not Ghost)!
When the job is completed, do you want to
Get a shell (root)
Reboot the system
Shutdown
<OK>
<Cancel>
d. Choose restore image from Local disk partition.
PING (Partition Image Is Not Ghost)!
Where do you want to save/restore your
image to/from?
Network share
Local disk partition
<OK>
5-7
<Cancel>
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
e.
System Recovery
Choose ### Choose THIS if you want a restoration ###
Choose the partition to backup
Note that you cannot restore a partition to itself. So every partition
but one (the destination) can be checked. Use SPACE to SELECT an
entry.
[*] ###Choose THIS if you want a restoration ###
[ ] hda1 Linux (lost+found,home,etc,media,cdrom,usr…)
[ ] hda2 Linux
[ ] sda1
<OK>
f.
<Cancel>
Choose the restoration source device sda1.
Choose the partition where to store the back/ where to the backup is
stored?
[ ] hda1 Linux (lost+found,home,etc,media,cdrom,usr…)
[ ] hda2 Linux
[*] sda1 (W95 FAT32 (LBA)) (V2400_V1.0_Build_09121120)
<OK>
5-8
<Cancel>
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
System Recovery
g. Enter “\” to choose the root directory of the restoration image.
Enter root directory containing your data
(eg. \mydir\PartImage)
\
<OK>
<Cancel>
h. Choose V2401/2402_V1.0_Build_09121120 for the restoration image.
Action and Available images for restoration …
Choose Create_New_Image if you want a ghost-like images of
your partitions. Choose Backup_Local_Hard_Driver if prefer a
zip archive.
V2400_V1.0_Build_09121120
Create_New_Image
Backup_Local_Hard_Driver
<OK>
<Cancel>
When operation is finished, turn off the computer and remove the USB disk.
ATTENTION
DO NOT turn off the power during system recovery, as the system may crash.
5-9
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
System Recovery
Step 5: Set up the BIOS back to boot from DOM Disk.
a.
Power on and press DEL to enter the bios setup menu.
b. Select Advanced Æ Hard Disk Boot Priority and then press Enter.
c.
From the setup menu, use “↑” or “↓” to select the DOM or CompactFlash device.
d. Press “+” to move the selection up to the first priority, and press Esc to exit the setup menu.
e.
Select Exit Æ Save & Exit Setup and then press Enter.
f.
Choose Y to save to the CMOS and then exit.
g. Wait a few minutes for the system to boot. When the recovery process is finished, you will
again be able to see the Linux desktop.
5-10
A
Software Component List
Appendix A
acpi-support-base
0.109-11
acpid
1.0.8-1lenny2
adduser
3.110
alacarte
0.11.5-1
alsa-base
alsa-utils
apache2
1.0.17.dfsg-4
1.0.16-2
2.2.9-10+lenny6
apache2-mpm-prefork
2.2.9-10+lenny6
apache2-utils
apache2.2-common
2.2.9-10+lenny6
2.2.9-10+lenny6
app-install-data
apt
apt-utils
aptitude
2008.11.27
0.7.20.2+lenny1
0.7.20.2+lenny1
0.4.11.11-1~lenny1
aspell
aspell-en
0.60.6-1
6.0-0-5.1
autoconf
2.61-8
autoconf2.13
2.13-59
automake
1:1.10.1-3
automake1.4
1:1.4-p6-13
autotools-dev
20080123.1
base-files
5lenny4
base-passwd
3.5.20
scripts for handling base ACPI
events such as the power button
Utilities for using ACPI power
management
add and remove users and
groups
easy GNOME menu editing
tool
ALSA driver configuration files
ALSA utilities
Apache HTTP Server
metapackage
Apache HTTP Server traditional non-threaded model
utility programs for webservers
Apache HTTP Server common
files
Application Installer Data Files
Advanced front-end for dpkg
APT utility programs
terminal-based package
manager
GNU Aspell spell-checker
English dictionary for GNU
Aspell
automatic configure script
builder
automatic configure script
builder (obsolete version)
A tool for generating GNU
Standards-compliant Makefiles
A tool for generating GNU
Standards-compliant Makefiles
Update infrastructure for
config.{guess,sub} files
Debian base system
miscellaneous files
Debian base system master
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
bash
bash-completion
3.2-4
20080705
bc
1.06.94-3
bind9-host
1:9.5.1.dfsg.P3-1+lenny1
binutils
2.18.1~cvs20080103-7
bridge-utils
1.4-5
bsdmainutils
6.1.10
bsdutils
1:2.13.1.1-1
busybox
1:1.10.2-2
bzip2
1.0.5-1
capplets-data
1:2.22.2.1-2
cdrdao
1:1.2.2-16
console-common
0.7.80
console-data
2:1.07-11
console-tools
coreutils
cpio
1:0.2.3dbs-65.1
6.10-6
2.9-13
cpp
cpp-4.3
cron
4:4.3.2-2
4.3.2-1.1
3.0pl1-105
dbus
1.2.1-5+lenny1
dbus-x11
1.2.1-5+lenny1
debconf
1.5.24
debconf-i18n
1.5.24
debian-archive-keyring
2009.01.31
debian-faq
debianutils
4.0.4
2.30
deborphan
1.7.27
defoma
0.11.10-0.2
A-2
password and group files
The GNU Bourne Again SHell
programmable completion for
the bash shell
The GNU bc arbitrary precision
calculator language
Version of 'host' bundled with
BIND 9.X
The GNU assembler, linker and
binary utilities
Utilities for configuring the
Linux Ethernet bridge
collection of more utilities from
FreeBSD
Basic utilities from 4.4BSDLite
Tiny utilities for small and
embedded systems
high-quality block-sorting file
compressor - utilities
configuration applets for
GNOME 2 - data files
records CDs in Disk-At-Once
(DAO) mode
basic infrastructure for text
console configuration
keymaps, fonts, charset maps,
fallback tables for console-tool
Linux console and font utilities
The GNU core utilities
GNU cpio -- a program to
manage archives of files
The GNU C preprocessor (cpp)
The GNU C preprocessor
management of regular
background processing
simple interprocess messaging
system
simple interprocess messaging
system (X11 deps)
Debian configuration
management system
full internationalization support
for debconf
GnuPG archive keys of the
Debian archive
The Debian FAQ
Miscellaneous utilities specific
to Debian
program that can find unused
packages, e.g. libraries
Debian Font Manager --
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
deskbar-applet
2.22.3.1-1
desktop-base
5.0.3
desktop-file-utils
dhcp3-client
dhcp3-common
0.15-1
3.1.1-6+lenny3
3.1.1-6+lenny3
dialog
1.1-20080316-1
dictionaries-common
0.98.12
diff
dmidecode
2.8.1-12
2.9-1
dnsutils
doc-base
1:9.5.1.dfsg.P3-1+lenny1
0.8.20
docbook-xml
4.5-6
dpkg
1.14.25
dvd+rw-tools
e2fslibs
e2fsprogs
7.1-3
1.41.3-1
1.41.3-1
eject
2.1.5+deb1-4
eog
2.22.3-2
esound-clients
0.2.36-3
esound-common
0.2.36-3
ethtool
6+20080913-1
evolution-data-server
2.22.3-1.1+lenny2
evolution-data-server-common
2.22.3-1.1+lenny2
fam
file
2.7.0-13.3
4.26-1
findutils
4.4.0-2
fontconfig
2.6.0-3
fontconfig-config
2.6.0-3
A-3
automatic font configuration
framework
universal search and navigation
bar for GNOME
common files for the Debian
Desktop
Utilities for .desktop files
DHCP client
common files used by all the
dhcp3* packages
Displays user-friendly dialog
boxes from shell scripts
Common utilities for spelling
dictionary tools
File comparison utilities
Dump Desktop Management
Interface data
Clients provided with BIND
utilities to manage online
documentation
standard XML documentation
system, for software and
systems
Debian package management
system
DVD+-RW/R tools
ext2 filesystem libraries
ext2/ext3/ext4 file system
utilities
ejects CDs and operates CDChangers under Linux
Eye of GNOME graphics
viewer program
Enlightened Sound Daemon clients
Enlightened Sound Daemon Common files
display or change Ethernet
device settings
evolution database backend
server
architecture independent files
for Evolution Data Server
File Alteration Monitor
Determines file type using
"magic" numbers
utilities for finding files--find,
xargs
generic font configuration
library - support binaries
generic font configuration
library - configuration
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
ftp
g++
g++-4.3
gcc
gcc-4.2-base
0.17-18
4:4.3.2-2
4.3.2-1.1
4:4.3.2-2
4.2.4-6
gcc-4.3
gcc-4.3-base
4.3.2-1.1
4.3.2-1.1
gconf2
2.22.0-1
gconf2-common
2.22.0-1
gdb
gdm
gdm-themes
6.8-3
2.20.7-4lenny1
0.6.1
gedit
2.22.3-1+lenny1
gedit-common
2.22.3-1+lenny1
genisoimage
9:1.1.9-1
gettext-base
0.17-4
gksu
gnome-about
gnome-applets
2.0.0-8
2.22.3-2
2.22.3-3
gnome-applets-data
2.22.3-3
gnome-control-center
1:2.22.2.1-2
gnome-core
1:2.22.2~5
gnome-desktop-data
2.22.3-2
gnome-doc-utils
0.12.2-1
gnome-icon-theme
gnome-keyring
2.22.0-1
2.22.3-2
gnome-media
gnome-media-common
2.22.0-3
2.22.0-3
gnome-menus
2.22.2-4
gnome-mime-data
2.18.0-1
A-4
The FTP client
The GNU C++ compiler
The GNU C++ compiler
The GNU C compiler
The GNU Compiler Collection
(base package)
The GNU C compiler
The GNU Compiler Collection
(base package)
GNOME configuration
database system (support tools)
GNOME configuration
database system (common files)
The GNU Debugger
GNOME Display Manager
Themes for the GNOME
Display Manager
official text editor of the
GNOME desktop environment
official text editor of the
GNOME desktop environment
(support
Creates ISO-9660 CD-ROM
filesystem images
GNU Internationalization
utilities for the base system
graphical frontend to su
The GNOME about box
Various applets for GNOME 2
panel - binary files
Various applets for GNOME 2
panel - data files
utilities to configure the
GNOME desktop
The GNOME Desktop
Environment -- essential
components
Common files for GNOME 2
desktop apps
a collection of documentation
utilities for the Gnome project
GNOME Desktop icon theme
GNOME keyring services
(daemon and tools)
GNOME media utilities
GNOME media utilities common files
an implementation of the
freedesktop menu specification
for GN
base MIME and Application
database for GNOME.
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
gnome-mount
0.7-2
gnome-netstatus-applet
2.12.1-2
gnome-panel
2.20.3-5
gnome-panel-data
2.20.3-5
gnome-power-manager
2.22.1-4
gnome-session
2.22.3-2
gnome-settings-daemon
gnome-system-monitor
2.22.2.1-2
2.22.3-1
gnome-terminal
2.22.3-3
gnome-terminal-data
2.22.3-3
gnome-user-guide
gnome-utils
gnupg
2.22.1-1
2.20.0.1-3
1.4.9-3+lenny1
gpgv
1.4.9-3+lenny1
grep
groff-base
2.5.3~dfsg-6
1.18.1.1-21
grub
0.97-47lenny2
grub-common
1.96+20080724-16
gstreamer0.10-alsa
gstreamer0.10-plugins-base
0.10.19-2
0.10.19-2
gstreamer0.10-plugins-good
0.10.8-4.1~lenny2
gstreamer0.10-x
0.10.19-2
gzip
hal
hal-info
1.3.12-6
0.5.11-8
20080508+git20080601-1
hicolor-icon-theme
0.10-1
hostname
2.95
ifenslave
2
ifenslave-2.6
1.1.0-10
A-5
wrapper for (un)mounting and
ejecting storage devices
Network status applet for
GNOME 2
launcher and docking facility
for GNOME
common files for the GNOME
Panel
power management tool for the
GNOME desktop
The GNOME 2 Session
Manager
GNOME settings daemon
Process viewer and system
resource monitor for GNOME
2
The GNOME 2 terminal
emulator application
Data files for the GNOME
terminal emulator
GNOME user's guide
GNOME desktop utilities
GNU privacy guard - a free
PGP replacement
GNU privacy guard - signature
verification tool
GNU grep, egrep and fgrep
GNU troff text-formatting
system (base system
components)
GRand Unified Bootloader
(Legacy version)
GRand Unified Bootloader,
version 2 (common files)
GStreamer plugin for ALSA
GStreamer plugins from the
"base" set
GStreamer plugins from the
"good" set
GStreamer plugins for X11 and
Pango
The GNU compression utility
Hardware Abstraction Layer
Hardware Abstraction Layer fdi files
default fallback theme for
FreeDesktop.org icon themes
utility to set/show the host
name or domain name
Attach and detach slave
interfaces to a bonding device
Attach and detach slave
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
ifupdown
0.6.8+nmu1
initramfs-tools
0.92o
initscripts
2.86.ds1-61
iproute
20080725-2
iptables
1.4.2-6
iputils-ping
3:20071127-1
iso-codes
3.5.1-1
klibc-utils
1.5.12-2
libaa1
libacl1
1.4p5-37+b1
2.2.47-2
libao2
0.8.8-4
libapache2-mod-php5
5.2.6.dfsg.1-1+lenny4
libapm1
3.2.2-12
libapr1
1.2.12-5+lenny1
libaprutil1
1.2.12+dfsg-8+lenny4
libart-2.0-2
2.3.20-2
libasound2
libaspell15
1.0.16-2
0.60.6-1
libatk1.0-0
libatk1.0-data
1.22.0-1
1.22.0-1
libattr1
1:2.4.43-2
libaudiofile0
0.2.6-7+lenny1
libavahi-client3
libavahi-common-data
libavahi-common3
libavahi-glib1
libavc1394-0
0.6.23-3lenny1
0.6.23-3lenny1
0.6.23-3lenny1
0.6.23-3lenny1
0.5.3-1+b1
libbeagle1
0.3.5-1+b1
A-6
interfaces to a bonding device
high level tools to configure
network interfaces
tools for generating an
initramfs
Scripts for initializing and
shutting down the system
networking and traffic control
tools
administration tools for packet
filtering and NAT
Tools to test the reachability of
network hosts
ISO language, territory,
currency, script codes and their
tran
small utilities built with klibc
for early boot
ascii art library
Access control list shared
library
Cross Platform Audio Output
Library
server-side, HTML-embedded
scripting language (Apache 2
module
Library for interacting with
APM driver in kernel
The Apache Portable Runtime
Library
The Apache Portable Runtime
Utility Library
Library of functions for 2D
graphics - runtime files
ALSA library
GNU Aspell spell-checker
runtime library
The ATK accessibility toolkit
Common files for the ATK
accessibility toolkit
Extended attribute shared
library
Open-source version of SGI's
audiofile library
Avahi client library
Avahi common data files
Avahi common library
Avahi glib integration library
control IEEE 1394 audio/video
devices
library for accessing beagle
using C
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
libbind9-40
1:9.5.1.dfsg.P3-1+lenny1
libblkid1
libbonobo2-0
1.41.3-1
2.22.0-1
libbonobo2-common
2.22.0-1
libbonoboui2-0
libbonoboui2-common
2.22.0-1
2.22.0-1
libbz2-1.0
1.0.5-1
libc6
2.7-18lenny2
libc6-dev
2.7-18lenny2
libc6-i686
2.7-18lenny2
libcaca0
libcairo-perl
0.99.beta14-1
1.060-1
libcairo2
1.6.4-7
libcairomm-1.0-1
1.6.0-1
libcamel1.2-11
2.22.3-1.1+lenny2
libcap1
1:1.10-14
libcap2
2.11-2
libcdio7
0.78.2+dfsg1-3
libcdparanoia0
3.10.2+debian-5
libcomerr2
1.41.3-1
libcompress-raw-zlib-perl
2.012-1lenny1
libcompress-zlib-perl
2.012-1
libconsole
1:0.2.3dbs-65.1
libcpufreq0
004-2
libcroco3
0.6.1-2
libcucul0
0.99.beta14-1
libcups2
1.3.8-1+lenny7
libcwidget3
0.5.12-4
A-7
BIND9 Shared Library used by
BIND
block device id library
Bonobo CORBA interfaces
library
Bonobo CORBA interfaces
library -- support files
The Bonobo UI library
The Bonobo UI library -common files
high-quality block-sorting file
compressor library - runtime
GNU C Library: Shared
libraries
GNU C Library: Development
Libraries and Header Files
GNU C Library: Shared
libraries [i686 optimized]
colour ASCII art library
Perl interface to the Cairo
graphics library
The Cairo 2D vector graphics
library
C++ wrappers for Cairo (shared
libraries)
The Evolution MIME message
handling library
support for getting/setting
POSIX.1e capabilities
support for getting/setting
POSIX.1e capabilities
library to read and control CDROM
audio extraction tool for
sampling CDs (library)
common error description
library
low-level interface to zlib
compression library
Perl module for creation and
manipulation of gzip files
Shared libraries for Linux
console and font manipulation
shared library to deal with the
cpufreq Linux kernel feature
a generic Cascading Style Sheet
(CSS) parsing and
manipulation
low-level Unicode character
drawing library
Common UNIX Printing
System(tm) - libs
high-level terminal interface
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
libdatrie0
libdb4.5
0.1.3-2
4.5.20-13
libdb4.6
4.6.21-11
libdbus-1-3
1.2.1-5+lenny1
libdbus-glib-1-2
0.76-1
libdevmapper1.02.1
2:1.02.27-4
libdirectfb-1.0-0
1.0.1-11
libdirectfb-extra
1.0.1-11
libdmx1
1:1.0.2-3
libdns45
1:9.5.1.dfsg.P3-1+lenny1
libdrm2
2.3.1-2
libdv4
1.0.0-1+b1
libebook1.2-9
2.22.3-1.1+lenny2
libecal1.2-7
2.22.3-1.1+lenny2
libedata-book1.2-2
2.22.3-1.1+lenny2
libedata-cal1.2-6
2.22.3-1.1+lenny2
libedataserver1.2-9
2.22.3-1.1+lenny2
libedataserverui1.2-8
2.22.3-1.1+lenny2
libedit2
2.11~20080614-1
libeel2-2.20
2.20.0-7
libeel2-data
2.20.0-7
libegroupwise1.2-13
2.22.3-1.1+lenny2
libenchant1c2a
1.4.2-3.3
libept0
0.5.22
libesd0
0.2.36-3
libevent1
1.3e-3
A-8
library for C++ (runtime files)
Double-array trie library
Berkeley v4.5 Database
Libraries [runtime]
Berkeley v4.6 Database
Libraries [runtime]
simple interprocess messaging
system
simple interprocess messaging
system (GLib-based shared
librar
The Linux Kernel Device
Mapper userspace library
direct frame buffer graphics shared libraries
direct frame buffer graphics extra providers
X11 Distributed Multihead
extension library
DNS Shared Library used by
BIND
Userspace interface to kernel
DRM services -- runtime
software library for DV format
digital video (runtime lib)
Client library for evolution
address books
Client library for evolution
calendars
Backend library for evolution
address books
Backend library for evolution
calendars
Utility library for evolution
data servers
GUI utility library for evolution
data servers
BSD editline and history
libraries
Eazel Extensions Library (for
GNOME2)
Eazel Extensions Library - data
files (for GNOME2)
Client library for accessing
groupwise POA through SOAP
interf
a wrapper library for various
spell checker engines
High-level library for managing
Debian package information
Enlightened Sound Daemon Shared libraries
An asynchronous event
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
libexempi3
2.0.1-1
libexif12
libexpat1
0.6.16-2.1
2.0.1-4+lenny3
libfam0
2.7.0-13.3
libffi5
3.0.7-1
libflac8
1.2.1-1.2
libfont-afm-perl
1.20-1
libfontconfig1
2.6.0-3
libfontenc1
libfreetype6
1:1.0.4-3
2.3.7-2+lenny1
libfreezethaw-perl
0.43-4
libfs6
libgail-common
2:1.0.1-1
1.22.3-1
libgail18
1.22.3-1
libgc1c2
1:6.8-1.1
libgcc1
libgconf2-4
1:4.3.2-1.1
2.22.0-1
libgcrypt11
1.4.1-1
libgdata-google1.2-1
2.22.3-1.1+lenny2
libgdata1.2-1
2.22.3-1.1+lenny2
libgdbm3
1.8.3-3
libgksu2-0
2.0.7-1
libgl1-mesa-dri
7.0.3-7
libgl1-mesa-glx
7.0.3-7
libglade2-0
1:2.6.2-1
libglib-perl
1:1.190-2
A-9
notification library
library to parse XMP metadata
(Library)
library to parse EXIF files
XML parsing C library runtime library
Client library to control the
FAM daemon
Foreign Function Interface
library runtime
Free Lossless Audio Codec runtime C library
Font::AFM - Interface to Adobe
Font Metrics files
generic font configuration
library - runtime
X11 font encoding library
FreeType 2 font engine, shared
library files
converting Perl structures to
strings and back
X11 Font Services library
GNOME Accessibility
Implementation Library -common modules
GNOME Accessibility
Implementation Library -shared libraries
conservative garbage collector
for C and C++
GCC support library
GNOME configuration
database system (shared
libraries)
LGPL Crypto library - runtime
library
Client library for accessing
Google POA through SOAP
interface
Client library for accessing
Google POA through SOAP
interface
GNU dbm database routines
(runtime version)
library providing su and sudo
functionality
A free implementation of the
OpenGL API -- DRI modules
A free implementation of the
OpenGL API -- GLX runtime
library to load .glade files at
runtime
Perl interface to the GLib and
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
libglib2.0-0
libglib2.0-data
libglibmm-2.4-1c2a
2.16.6-2
2.16.6-2
2.16.4-1
libglu1-mesa
7.0.3-7
libgmp3c2
2:4.2.2+dfsg-3
libgnome-desktop-2
2.22.3-2
libgnome-keyring0
2.22.3-2
libgnome-media0
2.22.0-3
libgnome-menu2
2.22.2-4
libgnome-window-settings1
1:2.22.2.1-2
libgnome2-0
2.20.1.1-1
libgnome2-canvas-perl
1.002-1+b2
libgnome2-common
2.20.1.1-1
libgnome2-perl
1.042-1+b1
libgnome2-vfs-perl
1.080-1+b1
libgnomecanvas2-0
2.20.1.1-1
libgnomecanvas2-common
2.20.1.1-1
libgnomecups1.0-1
0.2.3-3
libgnomekbd-common
2.22.0-1
libgnomekbd2
2.22.0-1
libgnomekbdui2
2.22.0-1
libgnomeprint2.2-0
2.18.5-1
libgnomeprint2.2-data
2.18.5-1
libgnomeprintui2.2-0
2.18.3-1
libgnomeprintui2.2-common
2.18.3-1
A-10
GObject libraries
The GLib library of C routines
Common files for GLib library
C++ wrapper for the GLib
toolkit (shared libraries)
The OpenGL utility library
(GLU)
Multiprecision arithmetic
library
Utility library for
loading .desktop files - runtime
files
GNOME keyring services
library
runtime libraries for the
GNOME media utilities
an implementation of the
freedesktop menu specification
for GN
Utility library for getting
window manager settings
The GNOME 2 library runtime files
Perl interface to the GNOME
canvas library
The GNOME 2 library common files
Perl interface to the GNOME
libraries
Perl interface to the 2.x series
of the GNOME VFS library
A powerful object-oriented
display - runtime files
A powerful object-oriented
display - common files
GNOME library for CUPS
interaction
GNOME library to manage
keyboard configuration common files
GNOME library to manage
keyboard configuration - shared
librar
User interface library for
libgnomekbd - shared library
The GNOME 2.2 print
architecture - runtime files
The GNOME 2.2 print
architecture - data files
GNOME 2.2 print architecture
User Interface - runtime files
GNOME 2.2 print architecture
User Interface - common files
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
libgnomeui-0
2.20.1.1-2
libgnomeui-common
2.20.1.1-2
libgnomevfs2-0
1:2.22.0-5
libgnomevfs2-bin
1:2.22.0-5
libgnomevfs2-common
1:2.22.0-5
libgnomevfs2-extra
1:2.22.0-5
libgnutls26
2.4.2-6+lenny2
libgomp1
4.3.2-1.1
libgpg-error0
1.4-2
libgpm2
1.20.4-3.1
libgsf-1-114
1.14.8-1lenny2
libgsf-1-common
1.14.8-1lenny2
libgssglue1
0.1-2
libgstreamer-plugins-base0.100
libgstreamer0.10-0
0.10.19-2
libgtk2-perl
1:1.190-1
libgtk2.0-0
2.12.12-1~lenny1
libgtk2.0-bin
2.12.12-1~lenny1
libgtk2.0-common
2.12.12-1~lenny1
libgtkmm-2.4-1c2a
1:2.12.7-1
libgtksourceview-common
1.8.5-1
libgtksourceview1.0-0
1.8.5-1
libgtksourceview2.0-0
2.2.2-1
libgtksourceview2.0-common
2.2.2-1
libgtop2-7
libgtop2-common
2.22.3-1
2.22.3-1
libgucharmap6
1:2.22.3-2
0.10.19-3
A-11
The GNOME 2 libraries (User
Interface) - runtime files
The GNOME 2 libraries (User
Interface) - common files
GNOME Virtual File System
(runtime libraries)
GNOME Virtual File System
(support binaries)
GNOME Virtual File System
(common files)
GNOME Virtual File System
(extra modules)
the GNU TLS library - runtime
library
GCC OpenMP (GOMP)
support library
library for common error values
and messages in GnuPG
componen
General Purpose Mouse shared library
Structured File Library runtime version
Structured File Library common files
mechanism-switch gssapi
library
GStreamer libraries from the
"base" set
Core GStreamer libraries and
elements
Perl interface to the 2.x series
of the Gimp Toolkit library
The GTK+ graphical user
interface library
The programs for the GTK+
graphical user interface library
Common files for the GTK+
graphical user interface library
C++ wrappers for GTK+ 2.4
(shared libraries)
common files for the GTK+
syntax highlighting widget
shared libraries for the GTK+
syntax highlighting widget
shared libraries for the GTK+
syntax highlighting widget
common files for the GTK+
syntax highlighting widget
gtop system monitoring library
common files for the gtop
system monitoring library
Unicode browser widget library
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
libgweather-common
libgweather1
libhal-storage1
2.22.3-1
2.22.3-1
0.5.11-8
libhal1
0.5.11-8
libhtml-format-perl
2.04-2
libhtml-parser-perl
3.56-1+lenny1
libhtml-tagset-perl
3.20-2
libhtml-tree-perl
3.23-1
libhunspell-1.2-0
1.2.6-1
libice6
2:1.0.4-1
libidl0
0.8.10-0.1
libidn11
1.8+20080606-1
libiec61883-0
1.1.0-2
libio-compress-base-perl
2.012-1
libio-compress-zlib-perl
libisc45
2.012-1
1:9.5.1.dfsg.P3-1+lenny1
libisccc40
1:9.5.1.dfsg.P3-1+lenny1
libisccfg40
1:9.5.1.dfsg.P3-1+lenny1
libjpeg62
6b-14
libkeyutils1
1.2-9
libklibc
1.5.12-2
libkrb53
liblcms1
libldap-2.4-2
liblocale-gettext-perl
1.6.dfsg.4~beta1-5lenny1
1.17.dfsg-1+lenny2
2.4.11-1+lenny1
1.05-4
liblockfile1
1.08-3
liblwres40
1:9.5.1.dfsg.P3-1+lenny1
A-12
(shared library)
GWeather common files
GWeather shared library
Hardware Abstraction Layer shared library for storage
device
Hardware Abstraction Layer shared library
format HTML syntax trees into
text, PostScript or RTF
A collection of modules that
parse HTML text documents
Data tables pertaining to
HTML
represent and create HTML
syntax trees
spell checker and
morphological analyzer (shared
library)
X11 Inter-Client Exchange
library
library for parsing CORBA IDL
files
GNU libidn library,
implementation of IETF IDN
specifications
an partial implementation of
IEC 61883
Base Class for IO::Compress
modules
Perl interface to zlib
ISC Shared Library used by
BIND
Command Channel Library
used by BIND
Config File Handling Library
used by BIND
The Independent JPEG Group's
JPEG runtime library
Linux Key Management
Utilities (library)
minimal libc subset for use
with initramfs
MIT Kerberos runtime libraries
Color management library
OpenLDAP libraries
Using libc functions for
internationalization in Perl
NFS-safe locking library,
includes dotlockfile program
Lightweight Resolver Library
used by BIND
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
liblzo2-2
libmagic1
2.03-1
4.26-1
libmailtools-perl
2.03-1
libmalaga7
7.12-1
libmetacity0
1:2.22.0-2
libmldbm-perl
2.01-2
libmozjs1d
1.9.0.16-1
libmpfr1ldbl
2.3.1.dfsg.1-2
libmysqlclient15off
libnautilus-burn4
5.0.51a-24+lenny2
2.20.0-1
libnautilus-extension1
2.20.0-7
libncurses5
5.7+20081213-1
libncursesw5
5.7+20081213-1
libnet-dbus-perl
0.33.6-1+b1
libnet-lite-ftp-perl
0.54-2
libnet-ssleay-perl
1.35-1
libnet-telnet-perl
libnewt0.52
3.03-3
0.52.2-11.3+lenny1
libnfsidmap2
libnotify1
0.20-1
0.4.4-3
libnspr4-0d
4.7.1-5
libnss3-1d
3.12.3.1-0lenny1
libogg0
liboil0.3
1.1.3-4
0.3.15-1
liboobs-1-4
2.22.0-2
liborbit2
1:2.14.13-0.1
libpam-gnome-keyring
2.22.3-2
libpam-modules
1.0.1-5+lenny1
A-13
data compression library
File type determination library
using "magic" numbers
Manipulate email in perl
programs
An automatic language analysis
library
library of lightweight GTK2
based Window Manager
Store multidimensional hash
structures in perl tied hashes
The Mozilla SpiderMonkey
JavaScript library
multiple precision floatingpoint computation
MySQL database client library
Nautilus Burn Library - runtime
version
libraries for nautilus
components - runtime version
shared libraries for terminal
handling
shared libraries for terminal
handling (wide character
support
Extension for the DBus
bindings
Perl FTP client with support for
TLS
Perl module for Secure Sockets
Layer (SSL)
Script telnetable connections
Not Erik's Windowing Toolkit text mode windowing with
slang
An nfs idmapping library
sends desktop notifications to a
notification daemon
NetScape Portable Runtime
Library
Network Security Service
libraries
Ogg Bitstream Library
Library of Optimized Inner
Loops
GObject based interface to
system-tools-backends - shared
libr
libraries for ORBit2 - a
CORBA ORB
PAM module to unlock the
GNOME keyring upon login
Pluggable Authentication
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
libpam-runtime
1.0.1-5+lenny1
libpam0g
1.0.1-5+lenny1
libpanel-applet2-0
2.20.3-5
libpango1.0-0
1.20.5-5
libpango1.0-common
1.20.5-5
libpcap0.8
0.9.8-5
libpci3
1:3.0.0-6
libpcre3
7.6-2.1
libperl5.10
libpixman-1-0
5.10.0-19lenny2
0.10.0-2
libpkcs11-helper1
1.05-1
libpng12-0
libpopt0
1.2.27-2+lenny2
1.14-4
libpq5
librarian0
8.3.9-0lenny1
0.8.1-1
libraw1394-8
1.3.0-4
libreadline5
5.2-3.1
librpcsecgss3
0.18-1
librsvg2-2
2.22.2-2lenny1
librsvg2-common
2.22.2-2lenny1
libsasl2-2
2.1.22.dfsg1-23+lenny1
libscrollkeeper0
0.3.14-16
libselinux1
libsensors3
2.0.65-5
1:2.10.7-1
libsepol1
2.0.30-2
libsexy2
0.1.11-2+b1
A-14
Modules for PAM
Runtime support for the PAM
library
Pluggable Authentication
Modules library
library for GNOME Panel
applets
Layout and rendering of
internationalized text
Modules and configuration files
for the Pango
system interface for user-level
packet capture
Linux PCI Utilities (shared
library)
Perl 5 Compatible Regular
Expression Library - runtime
files
Shared Perl library
pixel-manipulation library for
X and cairo
library that simplifies the
interaction with PKCS#11
PNG library - runtime
lib for parsing cmdline
parameters
PostgreSQL C client library
Rarian is a documentation
meta-data library (library
package)
library for direct access to IEEE
1394 bus (aka FireWire)
GNU readline and history
libraries, run-time libraries
allows secure rpc
communication using the
rpcsec_gss protocol
SAX-based renderer library for
SVG files (runtime)
SAX-based renderer library for
SVG files (extra runtime)
Cyrus SASL - authentication
abstraction library
Library to load .omf files
(runtime files)
SELinux shared libraries
library to read
temperature/voltage/fan sensors
Security Enhanced Linux
policy library for changing
policy bin
collection of additional GTK+
widgets - library
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
libshout3
2.2.2-5
libsigc++-2.0-0c2a
2.0.18-2
libslab0
libslang2
0.9.8.svn.20070430-1.1
2.1.3-3
libsm6
2:1.0.3-2
libsmbclient
2:3.2.5-4lenny7
libsmbios-bin
2.0.3.dfsg-1
libsmbios2
2.0.3.dfsg-1
libsnmp-base
5.4.1~dfsg-12
libsnmp15
5.4.1~dfsg-12
libsoup2.4-1
2.4.1-2
libspeex1
1.2~rc1-1
libsplashy1
0.3.13-3
libsqlite3-0
libss2
3.5.9-6
1.41.3-1
libssl0.9.8
libstartup-notification0
0.9.8g-15+lenny5
0.9-1
libstdc++6
4.3.2-1.1
libstdc++6-4.3-dev
4.3.2-1.1
libsysfs2
libtag1c2a
2.1.0-5
1.5-3
libtalloc1
1.2.0~git20080616-1
libtasn1-3
1.4-1
libtext-charwidth-perl
0.04-5+b1
libtext-iconv-perl
1.7-1+b1
libtext-wrapi18n-perl
0.06-6
libthai-data
0.1.9-4+lenny1
A-15
MP3/Ogg Vorbis broadcast
streaming library
type-safe Signal Framework for
C++ - runtime
beautification app library file
The S-Lang programming
library - runtime version
X11 Session Management
library
shared library that allows
applications to talk to
SMB/CIFS se
Provide access to (SM)BIOS
information -- utility binaries
Provide access to (SM)BIOS
information -- dynamic library
SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol) MIBs
and documentati
SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol) library
an HTTP library
implementation in C -- Shared
library
The Speex codec runtime
library
Library to draw splash screen
on boot, shutdown, resume or
sus
SQLite 3 shared library
command-line interface parsing
library
SSL shared libraries
library for program launch
feedback (shared library)
The GNU Standard C++
Library v3
The GNU Standard C++
Library v3 (development files)
interface library to sysfs
TagLib Audio Meta-Data
Library
hierarchical pool based memory
allocator
Manage ASN.1 structures
(runtime)
get display widths of characters
on the terminal
converts between character sets
in Perl
internationalized substitute of
Text::Wrap
Data files for Thai language
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
libthai0
libtheora0
0.1.9-4+lenny1
1.0~beta3-1
libtie-ixhash-perl
1.21-2
libtiff4
3.8.2-11.2
libtimedate-perl
1.1600-9
libtotem-plparser10
2.22.3-1
libtrackerclient0
0.6.6-2
libts-0.0-0
liburi-perl
1.0-4
1.35.dfsg.1-1
libusb-0.1-4
2:0.1.12-13
libuuid-perl
0.02-3+b1
libuuid1
libvisual-0.4-0
libvisual-0.4-plugins
1.41.3-1
0.4.0-2.1
0.4.0.dfsg.1-2
libvoikko1
1.7-2
libvolume-id0
libvorbis0a
0.125-7+lenny3
1.2.0.dfsg-3.1+lenny1
libvorbisenc2
1.2.0.dfsg-3.1+lenny1
libvorbisfile3
1.2.0.dfsg-3.1+lenny1
libvte-common
1:0.16.14-4
libvte9
1:0.16.14-4
libwavpack1
4.50.1-1
libwbclient0
2:3.2.5-4lenny7
libwnck-common
2.22.3-1
libwnck22
2.22.3-1
libwrap0
7.6.q-16
libwww-perl
5.813-1
libx11-6
2:1.1.5-2
A-16
support library
Thai language support library
The Theora Video Compression
Codec
ordered associative arrays for
Perl
Tag Image File Format (TIFF)
library
Time and date functions for
Perl
Totem Playlist Parser library runtime version
metadata database, indexer and
search tool - library
touch screen library
Manipulates and accesses URI
strings
userspace USB programming
library
Perl extension for using UUID
interfaces as defined in e2fspro
universally unique id library
Audio visualization framework
Audio visualization framework
plugins
Finnish spell-checker and
hyphenator library
libvolume_id shared library
The Vorbis General Audio
Compression Codec
The Vorbis General Audio
Compression Codec
The Vorbis General Audio
Compression Codec
Terminal emulator widget for
GTK+ 2.0 - common files
Terminal emulator widget for
GTK+ 2.0 - runtime files
an audio codec (lossy and
lossless) - library
client library for interfacing
with winbind service
Window Navigator
Construction Kit - common
files
Window Navigator
Construction Kit - runtime files
Wietse Venema's TCP wrappers
library
WWW client/server library for
Perl (aka LWP)
X11 client-side library
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
libx11-data
libx86-1
libxapian15
libxau6
libxaw7
libxcb-render-util0
2:1.1.5-2
1.1+ds1-2
1.0.7-4
1:1.0.3-3
2:1.0.4-2
0.2.1+git1-1
libxcb-render0
libxcb-xlib0
1.1-1.2
1.1-1.2
libxcb1
libxcomposite1
1.1-1.2
1:0.4.0-3
libxcursor1
libxdamage1
1:1.1.9-1
1:1.1.1-4
libxdmcp6
1:1.0.2-3
libxext6
2:1.0.4-1
libxfixes3
1:4.0.3-2
libxfont1
libxft2
1:1.3.3-1
2.1.12-3
libxi6
libxinerama1
2:1.1.4-1
2:1.0.3-2
libxkbfile1
1:1.0.5-1
libxklavier12
3.5-2
libxml-parser-perl
2.36-1.1+b1
libxml-twig-perl
1:3.32-1
libxml-xpath-perl
1.13-6
libxml2
libxml2-utils
libxmu6
2.6.32.dfsg-5+lenny1
2.6.32.dfsg-5+lenny1
2:1.0.4-1
libxmuu1
2:1.0.4-1
libxpm4
libxrandr2
libxrender1
1:3.5.7-1
2:1.2.3-1
1:0.9.4-2
libxres1
libxslt1.1
2:1.0.3-1
1.1.24-2
A-17
X11 client-side library
x86 real-mode library
Search engine library
X11 authorisation library
X11 Athena Widget library
utility libraries for X C Binding
-- render-util
X C Binding, render extension
X C Binding, Xlib/XCB
interface library
X C Binding
X11 Composite extension
library
X cursor management library
X11 damaged region extension
library
X11 Display Manager Control
Protocol library
X11 miscellaneous extension
library
X11 miscellaneous 'fixes'
extension library
X11 font rasterisation library
FreeType-based font drawing
library for X
X11 Input extension library
X11 Xinerama extension
library
X11 keyboard file manipulation
library
X Keyboard Extension highlevel API
Perl module for parsing XML
files
Perl module for processing
huge XML documents in tree
mode
Perl module for processing
XPath
GNOME XML library
XML utilities
X11 miscellaneous utility
library
X11 miscellaneous microutility library
X11 pixmap library
X11 RandR extension library
X Rendering Extension client
library
X11 Resource extension library
XSLT processing library runtime library
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
libxss1
1:1.1.3-1
libxt6
libxtrap6
1:1.0.5-3
2:1.0.0-5
libxtst6
2:1.0.3-1
libxv1
libxxf86dga1
2:1.0.4-1
2:1.0.2-1
libxxf86misc1
1:1.0.1-3
libxxf86vm1
1:1.0.2-1
linux-image-2.6-686
2.6.26+17+lenny1
linux-image-2.6.26-2-686
2.6.26-19lenny2
linux-libc-dev
2.6.26-19lenny2
linux-sound-base
1.0.17.dfsg-4
locales
2.7-18
lockfile-progs
0.1.11-0.1
login
logrotate
lrzsz
1:4.1.1-6
3.7.1-5
0.12.21-4.1
lsb-base
3.2-20
lsof
lzma
4.78.dfsg.1-4
4.43-14
m4
make
1.4.11-1
3.81-5
makedev
man-db
manpages
2.3.1-88
2.5.2-4
3.05-1
mawk
1.3.3-11.1
menu
2.1.41
menu-xdg
0.3
metacity
1:2.22.0-2
A-18
X11 Screen Saver extension
library
X11 toolkit intrinsics library
X11 event trapping extension
library
X11 Testing -- Resource
extension library
X11 Video extension library
X11 Direct Graphics Access
extension library
X11 XFree86 miscellaneous
extension library
X11 XFree86 video mode
extension library
Linux 2.6 image on
PPro/Celeron/PII/PIII/P4
Linux 2.6.26 image on
PPro/Celeron/PII/PIII/P4
Linux support headers for
userspace development
base package for ALSA and
OSS sound systems
GNU C Library: National
Language (locale) data
[support]
Programs for locking and
unlocking files and mailboxes
system login tools
Log rotation utility
Tools for
zmodem/xmodem/ymodem file
transfer
Linux Standard Base 3.2 init
script functionality
List open files
Compression method of 7z
format in 7-Zip program
a macro processing language
The GNU version of the
"make" utility.
creates device files in /dev
on-line manual pager
Manual pages about using a
GNU/Linux system
a pattern scanning and text
processing language
generates programs menu for
all menu-aware applications
freedesktop.org menu
compliant window manager
scripts
A lightweight GTK2 based
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
metacity-common
1:2.22.0-2
mime-support
3.44-1
minicom
2.3-1
mktemp
mlocate
1.5-9
0.21.1-1
modconf
module-init-tools
0.3.9
3.4-1
mount
2.13.1.1-1
mutt
1.5.18-6
myspell-en-us
1:2.4.0-3
mysql-common
nautilus
5.0.51a-24+lenny2
2.20.0-7
nautilus-cd-burner
2.20.0-1
nautilus-data
ncurses-base
ncurses-bin
2.20.0-7
5.7+20081213-1
5.7+20081213-1
ncurses-term
5.7+20081213-1
net-tools
netbase
1.60-22
4.34
netcat-traditional
nfs-common
1.10-38
1:1.1.2-6lenny1
notification-daemon
0.3.7-1+b1
ntpdate
1:4.2.4p4+dfsg-8lenny3
openbsd-inetd
0.20080125-2
openssh-blacklist
0.4.1
openssh-blacklist-extra
0.4.1
openssh-client
1:5.1p1-5
openssh-server
1:5.1p1-5
openssl
0.9.8g-15+lenny6
A-19
Window Manager
Shared files of lightweight
GTK2 based Window Manager
MIME files 'mime.types' &
'mailcap', and support programs
friendly menu driven serial
communication program
tool for creating temporary files
quickly find files on the
filesystem based on their name
Device Driver Configuration
tools for managing Linux
kernel modules
Tools for mounting and
manipulating filesystems
text-based mailreader
supporting MIME, GPG, PGP
and threading
English_american dictionary
for myspell
MySQL database common files
file manager and graphical shell
for GNOME
CD Burning front-end for
Nautilus
data files for nautilus
basic terminal type definitions
terminal-related programs and
man pages
additional terminal type
definitions
The NET-3 networking toolkit
Basic TCP/IP networking
system
TCP/IP swiss army knife
NFS support files common to
client and server
a daemon that displays passive
pop-up notifications
client for setting system time
from NTP servers
The OpenBSD Internet
Superserver
list of default blacklisted
OpenSSH RSA and DSA keys
list of non-default blacklisted
OpenSSH RSA and DSA keys
secure shell client, an
rlogin/rsh/rcp replacement
secure shell server, an rshd
replacement
Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
openssl-blacklist
0.4.2
openvpn
openvpn-blacklist
2.1~rc11-1
0.3
oss-compat
passwd
0.0.4+nmu2
1:4.1.1-6
pciutils
perl
1:3.0.0-6
5.10.0-19lenny2
perl-base
perl-modules
php5-common
5.10.0-19lenny2
5.10.0-19lenny2
5.2.6.dfsg.1-1+lenny4
pm-utils
1.1.2.4-1
portmap
powermgmt-base
6.0-9
1.30+nmu1
ppp
2.4.4rel-10.1
pppconfig
2.3.18
pppoe
pppoeconf
3.8-3
1.18
procps
proftpd
1:3.2.7-11
1.3.1-17lenny4
proftpd-basic
1.3.1-17lenny4
proftpd-mod-ldap
1.3.1-17lenny4
proftpd-mod-mysql
1.3.1-17lenny4
proftpd-mod-pgsql
1.3.1-17lenny4
psmisc
22.6-1
python
2.5.2-3
python-beagle
python-cairo
0.3.5-1+b1
1.4.12-1.2
python-central
0.6.8
python-dbus
0.82.4-2
A-20
binary and related
cryptographic too
list of blacklisted OpenSSL
RSA keys
virtual private network daemon
list of blacklisted OpenVPN
RSA shared keys
OSS compatibility package
change and administer
password and group data
Linux PCI Utilities
Larry Wall's Practical
Extraction and Report
Language
minimal Perl system
Core Perl modules
Common files for packages
built from the php5 source
utilities and scripts for power
management
RPC port mapper
Common utils and configs for
power management
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) daemon
A text menu based utility for
configuring ppp
PPP over Ethernet driver
configures PPPoE/ADSL
connections
/proc file system utilities
versatile, virtual-hosting FTP
daemon
versatile, virtual-hosting FTP
daemon - binaries
versatile, virtual-hosting FTP
daemon - LDAP module
versatile, virtual-hosting FTP
daemon - MySQL module
versatile, virtual-hosting FTP
daemon - PostgreSQL module
Utilities that use the proc
filesystem
An interactive high-level
object-oriented language
(default ve
Python bindings for beagle
Python bindings for the Cairo
vector graphics library
register and build utility for
Python packages
simple interprocess messaging
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
python-fpconst
0.7.2-4
python-glade2
python-gmenu
2.12.1-6
2.22.2-4
python-gnome2
2.22.0-1
python-gnome2-desktop
2.22.0-2
python-gobject
2.14.2-2
python-gtk2
2.12.1-6
python-gtksourceview2
2.2.0-1+b1
python-libxml2
2.6.32.dfsg-5+lenny1
python-minimal
2.5.2-3
python-numeric
24.2-9
python-pyorbit
2.14.3-2
python-soappy
python-support
0.12.0-4
0.8.4lenny1
python2.5
2.5.2-15
python2.5-minimal
2.5.2-15
radeontool
1.5-5
readline-common
5.2-3.1
rsyslog
3.18.6-4
scrollkeeper
0.3.14-16
sed
sgml-base
4.1.5-6
1.26
sgml-data
shared-mime-info
2.0.3
0.30-2
snmp
5.4.1~dfsg-12
snmpd
5.4.1~dfsg-12
A-21
system (Python interface)
Utilities for handling IEEE 754
floating point special values
GTK+ bindings: Glade support
an implementation of the
freedesktop menu specification
for GN
Python bindings for the
GNOME desktop environment
Python bindings for the
GNOME desktop environment
Python bindings for the
GObject library
Python bindings for the GTK+
widget set
Python bindings for the
GtkSourceView widget
Python bindings for the
GNOME XML library
A minimal subset of the Python
language (default version)
Numerical (matrix-oriented)
Mathematics for Python
A Python language binding for
the ORBit2 CORBA
implementation
SOAP Support for Python
automated rebuilding support
for Python modules
An interactive high-level
object-oriented language
(version 2.
A minimal subset of the Python
language (version 2.5)
utility to control ATI Radeon
backlight functions on laptops
GNU readline and history
libraries, common files
enhanced multi-threaded
syslogd
A free electronic cataloging
system for documentation
The GNU sed stream editor
SGML infrastructure and
SGML catalog file support
common SGML and XML data
FreeDesktop.org shared MIME
database and spec
SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol)
applications
SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol) agents
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
ssh
1:5.1p1-5
ssl-cert
1.0.23
sudo
1.6.9p17-2
synaptic
system-tools-backends
0.62.1+nmu1
2.6.0-2lenny3
sysv-rc
2.86.ds1-61
sysvinit
sysvinit-utils
tar
2.86.ds1-61
2.86.ds1-61
1.20-1
tasksel
2.78
tasksel-data
2.78
tcpd
7.6.q-16
tcpdump
3.9.8-4
telnet
telnetd
tftpd
0.17-36
0.17-36
0.17-16
time
1.7-23
traceroute
2.0.11-2
ttf-dejavu
2.25-3
ttf-dejavu-core
2.25-3
ttf-dejavu-extra
2.25-3
tzdata
2009l-0lenny1.1
ucf
3.0016
udev
0.125-7+lenny3
update-inetd
usbmount
4.31
0.0.14.1
usbutils
uswsusp
0.73-10
0.7-1.2
A-22
secure shell client and server
(metapackage)
simple debconf wrapper for
OpenSSL
Provide limited super user
privileges to specific users
Graphical package manager
System Tools to manage
computer configuration -scripts
System-V-like runlevel change
mechanism
System-V-like init utilities
System-V-like utilities
GNU version of the tar
archiving utility
Tool for selecting tasks for
installation on Debian systems
Official tasks used for
installation of Debian systems
Wietse Venema's TCP wrapper
utilities
A powerful tool for network
monitoring and data acquisition
The telnet client
The telnet server
Trivial file transfer protocol
server
The GNU time program for
measuring cpu resource usage
Traces the route taken by
packets over an IPv4/IPv6
network
Metapackage to pull in ttfdejavu-core and ttf-dejavuextra
Vera font family derivate with
additional characters
Vera font family derivate with
additional characters
time zone and daylight-saving
time data
Update Configuration File:
preserve user changes to config
fil
/dev/ and hotplug management
daemon
inetd configuration file updater
automatically mount and
unmount USB mass storage
devices
Linux USB utilities
tools to use userspace software
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
util-linux
vbetool
2.13.1.1-1
1.0-3
vim
1:7.1.314-3+lenny2
vim-common
vim-runtime
vim-tiny
1:7.1.314-3+lenny2
1:7.1.314-3+lenny2
1:7.1.314-3+lenny2
w3m
0.5.2-2+b1
watchdog
wget
whiptail
5.4-10
1.11.4-2+lenny1
0.52.2-11.3+lenny1
whois
wodim
4.7.30
9:1.1.9-1
x-ttcidfont-conf
31
x11-apps
x11-common
7.3+4
1:7.3+20
x11-session-utils
x11-utils
x11-xfs-utils
x11-xkb-utils
x11-xserver-utils
xauth
xbase-clients
7.3+1
7.3+2+nmu1
7.3+1
7.4+1
7.3+5
1:1.0.3-2
1:7.3+20
xfonts-100dpi
xfonts-75dpi
xfonts-base
xfonts-encodings
xfonts-scalable
xfonts-utils
1:1.0.0-4
1:1.0.0-4
1:1.0.0-5
1:1.0.2-3
1:1.0.0-6
1:7.4+1
xinit
xkb-data
1.0.9-2
1.3-2
xml-core
0.12
xorg
xorg-docs
1:7.3+20
1:1.4-4
xserver-xephyr
xserver-xorg
xserver-xorg-core
xserver-xorg-input-all
2:1.4.2-10.lenny2
1:7.3+20
2:1.4.2-10.lenny2
1:7.3+20
A-23
suspend provided by Linux
Miscellaneous system utilities
run real-mode video BIOS code
to alter hardware state
Vi IMproved - enhanced vi
editor
Vi IMproved - Common files
Vi IMproved - Runtime files
Vi IMproved - enhanced vi
editor - compact version
WWW browsable pager with
excellent tables/frames support
A software watchdog
retrieves files from the web
Displays user-friendly dialog
boxes from shell scripts
an intelligent whois client
command line CD/DVD
writing tool
TrueType and CID fonts
configuration for X
X applications
X Window System (X.Org)
infrastructure
X session utilities
X11 utilities
X font server utilities
X11 XKB utilities
X server utilities
X authentication utility
miscellaneous X clients metapackage
100 dpi fonts for X
75 dpi fonts for X
standard fonts for X
Encodings for X.Org fonts
scalable fonts for X
X Window System font utility
programs
X server initialisation tool
X Keyboard Extension (XKB)
configuration data
XML infrastructure and XML
catalog file support
X.Org X Window System
Miscellaneous documentation
for the X.Org software suite
nested X server
the X.Org X server
Xorg X server - core server
the X.Org X server -- input
driver metapackage
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
xserver-xorg-input-evdev
1:2.0.8-1
xserver-xorg-input-kbd
1:1.3.1-1
xserver-xorg-input-mouse
1:1.3.0-1
xserver-xorg-input-synaptics
0.14.7~git20070706-3
xserver-xorg-input-wacom
0.7.9.3-2
xserver-xorg-video-all
1:7.3+20
xserver-xorg-video-apm
1:1.2.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-ark
1:0.7.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-ati
1:6.9.0-1+lenny4
xserver-xorg-video-chips
1:1.2.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-cirrus
1:1.2.1-1.lenny1
xserver-xorg-video-cyrix
1:1.1.0-8
xserver-xorg-video-dummy
1:0.3.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-fbdev
1:0.4.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-glint
1:1.2.1-1
xserver-xorg-video-i128
1:1.3.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-i740
1:1.2.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-imstt
1:1.1.0-7
xserver-xorg-video-intel
2:2.3.2-2+lenny6
xserver-xorg-video-mach64
6.8.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-mga
1:1.4.9.dfsg-1
xserver-xorg-video-neomagic
1:1.2.1-1
xserver-xorg-video-nsc
1:2.8.3-4
xserver-xorg-video-nv
1:2.1.10-1
xserver-xorg-videoopenchrome
xserver-xorg-video-r128
1:0.2.902+svn579-4
xserver-xorg-video-radeon
1:6.9.0-1+lenny4
6.8.0-1
A-24
X.Org X server -- evdev input
driver
X.Org X server -- keyboard
input driver
X.Org X server -- mouse input
driver
Synaptics TouchPad driver for
X.Org/XFree86 server
X.Org X server -- Wacom input
driver
the X.Org X server -- output
driver metapackage
X.Org X server -- APM display
driver
X.Org X server -- ark display
driver
X.Org X server -- ATI display
driver wrapper
X.Org X server -- Chips display
driver
X.Org X server -- Cirrus
display driver
X.Org X server -- Cyrix display
driver
X.Org X server -- dummy
display driver
X.Org X server -- fbdev display
driver
X.Org X server -- Glint display
driver
X.Org X server -- i128 display
driver
X.Org X server -- i740 display
driver
X.Org X server -- IMSTT
display driver
X.Org X server -- Intel i8xx,
i9xx display driver
X.Org X server -- ATI Mach64
display driver
X.Org X server -- MGA display
driver
X.Org X server -- Neomagic
display driver
X.Org X server -- NSC Geode
GX1 display driver
X.Org X server -- NV display
driver
X.Org X server -- VIA display
driver
X.Org X server -- ATI r128
display driver
X.Org X server -- ATI Radeon
V2401/2402 Series Linux User’s Manual
Software Component List
xserver-xorg-video-radeonhd
1.2.1-2
xserver-xorg-video-rendition
1:4.2.0.dfsg.1-2
xserver-xorg-video-s3
1:0.6.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-s3virge
1:1.10.1-1
xserver-xorg-video-savage
1:2.2.1-2.lenny1
xserver-xorg-videosiliconmotion
xserver-xorg-video-sis
1:1.6.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-sisusb
1:0.9.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-tdfx
1:1.4.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-tga
1:1.1.0-9
xserver-xorg-video-trident
1:1.3.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-tseng
1:1.2.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-v4l
0.2.0-1
xserver-xorg-video-vesa
1:1.3.0-4
xserver-xorg-video-vga
1:4.1.0-8
xserver-xorg-video-vmware
1:10.16.2-1
xserver-xorg-video-voodoo
1:1.2.0-1
xsltproc
xulrunner-1.9
1.1.24-2
1.9.0.16-1
yelp
zenity
2.22.1-8+b1
2.22.1-2
zlib1g
1:1.2.3.3.dfsg-12
1:0.10.0-1
A-25
display driver
X.Org X server -- AMD/ATI
r5xx, r6xx display driver
X.Org X server -- Rendition
display driver
X.Org X server -- legacy S3
display driver
X.Org X server -- S3 ViRGE
display driver
X.Org X server -- Savage
display driver
X.Org X server -SiliconMotion display driver
X.Org X server -- SiS display
driver
X.Org X server -- SiS USB
display driver
X.Org X server -- tdfx display
driver
X.Org X server -- TGA display
driver
X.Org X server -- Trident
display driver
X.Org X server -- Tseng display
driver
X.Org X server -- Video 4
Linux display driver
X.Org X server -- VESA
display driver
X.Org X server -- VGA display
driver
X.Org X server -- VMware
display driver
X.Org X server -- Voodoo
display driver
XSLT command line processor
XUL + XPCOM application
runner
Help browser for GNOME 2
Display graphical dialog boxes
from shell scripts
compression library - runtime
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