User’s Manual
For
M415B
Micro Microstepping Driver
Version 2.0
©2000 All Rights Reserved
The content in this manual has been carefully prepared and is believed to be accurate, but no
responsibility is assumed for inaccuracies.
Leadshine reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any products herein to
improve reliability, function or design. Leadshine does not assume any liability arising out of the
application or use of any product or circuit described herein; neither does it convey any license
under its patent rights of others.
Leadshine’s general policy does not recommend the use of its products in life support or aircraft
applications wherein a failure or malfunction of the product may directly threaten life or injury.
According to Leadshine’s terms and conditions of sales, the user of Leadshine’s products in life
support or aircraft applications assumes all risks of such use and indemnifies Leadshine against all
damages.
Attention: Please read this manual carefully before using the driver!
3/F, Block 2, Nanyou Tianan Industrial Park, Nanshan Dist, Shenzhen, China
T: (86)755-26434369
F: (86)755-26402718
Web site: www.leadshine.com E-Mail: sales@leadshine.com
©2000 by Leadshine Technology Company Limited.
All Rights Reserved
Contents
Contents
Table of Contents
1. Introduction, Features and Applications.................................................................... 1
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 1
Features ................................................................................................................. 1
Applications .......................................................................................................... 1
2. Specifications ............................................................................................................ 1
Electrical Specifications........................................................................................ 1
Operating Environment and Other Specifications................................................. 2
Mechanical Specifications..................................................................................... 2
Elimination of Heat ............................................................................................... 2
3. Pin Assignment and Description ............................................................................... 3
Connector P1 Configurations ................................................................................ 3
Connector P2 Configurations ................................................................................ 3
4. Control Signal Connector (P1) Interface................................................................... 3
5. Connecting the Motor................................................................................................ 4
Connections to 4-lead Motors ............................................................................... 4
Connections to 6-lead Motors ............................................................................... 5
Half Coil Configurations............................................................................... 5
Full Coil Configurations................................................................................ 5
Connections to 8-lead Motors ............................................................................... 5
Series Connections ........................................................................................ 5
Parallel Connections...................................................................................... 6
6. Power Supply Selection ............................................................................................ 6
Regulated or Unregulated Power Supply .............................................................. 6
Multiple Drivers .................................................................................................... 7
Selecting Supply Voltage: ..................................................................................... 7
7. Selecting Microstep Resolution and Driver Output Current ..................................... 7
Microstep Resolution Selection ............................................................................ 7
Current Settings..................................................................................................... 8
Dynamic current setting ................................................................................ 8
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Standstill Current........................................................................................... 8
8. Wiring Notes ............................................................................................................. 8
9. Typical Connections.................................................................................................. 9
10. Sequence Chart of Control Signals ......................................................................... 9
11. Protection Function ............................................................................................... 10
12. Frequently Asked Questions.................................................................................. 10
Problem Symptoms and Possible Causes............................................................ 11
APPENDIX ................................................................................................................. 12
Twelve Month Limited Warranty ........................................................................ 12
Exclusions ........................................................................................................... 12
Obtaining Warranty Service ................................................................................ 12
Warranty Limitations........................................................................................... 12
Shipping Failed Product ...................................................................................... 12
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M415B Micro Microstepping Driver Manual V2.0
M415B Micro Microstepping Driver Manual V2.0
Operating Environment and Other Specifications
1. Introduction, Features and Applications
Cooling
Introduction
The M415B is a very small size high performance microstepping driver based on one of the most
advanced technologies in the world today. It’s suitable for driving any 2-phase and 4-phase hybrid
stepping motors. By using advanced bipolar constant-current chopping technique, it can output
more speed and power from the same motor, compared with traditional drivers such as L/R
drivers.
Operating
Environment
Features
l Mixed-decay current control for less motor
heating
l 7 selectable microstep resolutions: 1, 2, 4, 8,
16, 32, 64
l Suitable for 2-phase and 4-phase motors
l Protection against power leads(+, -)reversal
l Small size: 86*55*20mm
l High performance, low cost
l Supply voltage up to +40VDC
l Output current up to 1.5A
l Inaudible 20 KHz chopping frequency
l TTL compatible and optically isolated input
signals
l Automatic idle-current reduction
Natural Cooling or forced cooling
Avoid dust, oil fog and corrosive gases
0℃ - 50℃
Environment
Ambient Temperature
Humidity
Operating Temperature
40%RH - 90%RH
70℃ Max
Vibration
5.9m/s2 Max
Storage Temperature
-20℃ - 65℃
Weight
Approx. 150 gram (5.3 oz)
Mechanical Specifications (unit=mm, 1 inch=25.4 mm)
Applications
Suitable for a wide range of stepping motors from NEMA size 14 to 23, which used in various kinds
of machines, such as X-Y tables, labeling machines, laser cutters, engraving machines, pick-place
devices, and etc. It’s specially adapted to the applications desired with low vibration, high speed and
high precision.
2. Specifications
Figure 1: Mechanical dimensions
Electrical Specifications (Tj = 25℃)
*Recommend use side mounting for better heat dissipation
Parameters
M415B
Supply voltage
+15 to 40 VDC
Typical supply voltage
+24-+36 VDC
Output current (Peak)
0.21 to 1.5 A
Microstep resolutions
1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64.
Elimination of Heat
l
l
l
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Driver’s reliable working temperature should be <65℃, motor working temperature should be
<80℃;
Recommend use automatic half-current mode, namely current automatically be reduced to 60%
when motor stops, so as to decrease driver heating and motor heating;
Recommend use side mounting to maximize heatsink area.
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M415B Micro Microstepping Driver Manual V2.0
M415B Micro Microstepping Driver Manual V2.0
3. Pin Assignment and Description
The M415B has two connectors, connector P1 for control signals connections, and connector P2 for
power and motor connections. The following tables are brief descriptions of the two connectors of the
M415B. More detailed descriptions of the pins and related issues are presented in section 4, 5, 9.
Connector P1 Configurations
Pin Function
PUL
DIR
OPTO
ENA
Details
Pulse signal: This input represents pulse signal, effective for each rising edge;
4-5V when PUL-HIGH, 0-0.5V when PUL-LOW. For reliable response, pulse
width should be longer than 1.5ms. Series connect resistors for current-limiting
when +12V or +24V used.
Direction signal: HIGH/LOW level signal, correlative to motor rotation
direction. For reliable response, DIR must be ahead of PUL by 5ms at least.
4-5V when DIR- HIGH, 0-0.5V when DIR-LOW. Motor rotation direction also
depends upon the connection of the motor windings, exchange any motor
phase can reverse motor rotation direction.
Opto-coupler power supply, and the typical voltage is +5V.
Enable signal: This signal is used for enabling/disabling driver. High level for
enabling driver and low level for disabling driver. Usually left unconnected
(enabled).
Connector P2 Configurations
Pin Function
Gnd
+V
A+, AB+, B-
Figure 2: Connections to open-collector signal (common-anode)
Figure 3: Connections to difference control signal
5. Connecting the Motor
Details
The M415B driver can drive any 2-pahse and 4-pahse hybrid stepping motors.
DC power ground
DC power supply, 15~40VDC, Including voltage fluctuation and EMF
voltage.
Motor Phase A
Motor Phase B
Connections to 4-lead Motors
4 lead motors are the least flexible but easiest to wire. Speed and torque will depend on winding
inductance. In setting the driver output current, multiply the specified phase current by 1.4 to
determine the peak output current.
4. Control Signal Connector (P1) Interface
The M415B uses opto-couplers to increase noise immunity and interface flexibility. If the
opto-couplers’ supply voltage is higher than +5V, a current-limiting resistor needs to be connected
at each input signal to prevent overheating the opto-couplers. In the following figure, connections
to open-collector and difference controller are illustrated.
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Figure 4: 4-lead Motor Connections
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M415B Micro Microstepping Driver Manual V2.0
M415B Micro Microstepping Driver Manual V2.0
degrade at higher speeds. In series mode, the motors should also be run at only 70% of their rated
current to prevent over heating.
Connections to 6-lead Motors
Like 8 lead stepping motors, 6 lead motors have two configurations available for high speed or high
torque operation. The higher speed configuration, or half coil, is so described because it uses one half
of the motor’s inductor windings. The higher torque configuration, or full coil, uses the full windings
of the phases.
Half Coil Configurations
Figure 7: 8-lead motor series connections
As previously stated, the half coil configuration uses 50% of the motor phase windings. This gives
lower inductance, hence, lower torque output. Like the parallel connection of 8 lead motor, the torque
output will be more stable at higher speeds. This configuration is also referred to as half chopper. In
setting the driver output current multiply the specified per phase (or unipolar) current rating by 1.4 to
determine the peak output current.
Parallel Connections
An 8 lead motor in a parallel configuration offers a more stable, but lower torque at lower speeds. But
because of the lower inductance, there will be higher torque at higher speeds. Multiply the per phase
(or unipolar) current rating by 1.96, or the bipolar current rating by 1.4, to determine the peak output
current.
Figure 5: 6-lead motor half coil (higher speed) connections
Figure 8: 8-lead motor parallel connections
Full Coil Configurations
The full coil configuration on a six lead motor should be used in applications where higher torque at
lower speeds is desired. This configuration is also referred to as full copper. In full coil mode, the
motors should be run at only 70% of their rated current to prevent over heating.
Figure 6: 6-lead motor full coil (higher torque) connections
The M415B can match medium and small size stepping motors (from NEMA size 14 to 23) made by
Leadshine or other motor manufactures around the world. To achieve good driving performances, it is
important to select supply voltage and output current properly. Generally speaking, supply voltage
determines the high speed performance of the motor, while output current determines the output
torque of the driven motor (particularly at lower speed). Higher supply voltage will allow higher
motor speed to be achieved, at the price of more noise and heating. If the motion speed requirement is
low, it’s better to use lower supply voltage to decrease noise, heating and improve reliability.
Regulated or Unregulated Power Supply
Connections to 8-lead Motors
8 lead motors offer a high degree of flexibility to the system designer in that they may be connected
in series or parallel, thus satisfying a wide range of applications.
Series Connections
A series motor configuration would typically be used in applications where a higher torque at lower
speeds is required. Because this configuration has the most inductance, the performance will start to
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6. Power Supply Selection
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Both regulated and unregulated power supplies can be used to supply the driver. However,
unregulated power supplies are preferred due to their ability to withstand current surge. If regulated
power supplies (such as most switching supplies.) are indeed used, it is important to have large
current output rating to avoid problems like current clamp, for example using 4A supply for 3A
motor-driver operation. On the other hand, if unregulated supply is used, one may use a power supply
of lower current rating than that of motor (typically 50%~70% of motor current). The reason is that
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M415B Micro Microstepping Driver Manual V2.0
the driver draws current from the power supply capacitor of the unregulated supply only during the
ON duration of the PWM cycle, but not during the OFF duration. Therefore, the average current
withdrawn from power supply is considerably less than motor current. For example, two 3A motors
can be well supplied by one power supply of 4A rating.
Multiple Drivers
It is recommended to have multiple drivers to share one power supply to reduce cost, if the supply
has enough capacity. To avoid cross interference, DO NOT daisy-chain the power supply input pins
of the drivers. (Instead, please connect them to power supply separately.)
M415B Micro Microstepping Driver Manual V2.0
Current Settings
For a given motor, higher driver current will make the motor to output more torque, but at the same
time causes more heating in the motor and driver. Therefore, output current is generally set to be such
that the motor will not overheat for long time operation. Since parallel and serial connections of
motor coils will significantly change resulting inductance and resistance, it is therefore important to
set driver output current depending on motor phase current, motor leads and connection methods.
Phase current rating supplied by motor manufacturer is important in selecting driver current, however
the selection also depends on leads and connections.
The first three bits (SW1, 2, 3) of the DIP switch are used to set the dynamic current. Select a setting
closest to your motor’s required current.
Selecting Supply Voltage:
The power MOSFETS inside the M415B can actually operate within +15V~+40VDC, including
power input fluctuation and back EMF voltage generated by motor coils during motor shaft
deceleration. Higher supply voltage can increase motor torque at higher speeds, thus helpful for
avoiding losing steps. However, higher voltage may cause bigger motor vibration at lower speed, and
it may also cause over-voltage protection or even driver damage. Therefore, it is suggested to choose
only sufficiently high supply voltage for intended applications, and it is suggested to use power
supplies with theoretical output voltage of +24~+ 36V, leaving room for power fluctuation and
back-EMF.
Dynamic current setting
Peak current (A)
0.21A
0.42A
0.63A
0.84A
1.05A
1.26A
1.50A
7. Selecting Microstep Resolution and Driver Output Current
This driver uses a 6-bit DIP switch to set microstep resolution, and motor operating current, as shown
below:
SW1
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
SW2
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
SW3
ON
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Notes: Due to motor inductance, the actual current in the coil may be smaller than the dynamic
current settings, particularly under high speed condition.
Standstill Current
The standstill current of the M415B will automatically be reduced to 60% of the selected dynamic
current setting one second after the last pulse. Theoretically, this will reduce motor heating to 36%
(due to P=I2*R) of the original value. If the application needs a different standstill current, please
contact Leadshine.
Microstep Resolution Selection
Microstep resolution is set by SW4, SW 5, SW 6 of the DIP switch as shown in the following table:
Microstep
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
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Steps/rev.(for 1.8°motor)
200
400
800
1600
3200
6400
12800
7
SW4
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
SW5
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
SW6
ON
ON
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
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8. Wiring Notes
l
In order to improve anti-interference performance of the driver, it is recommended to use
twisted pair shield cable.
l
To prevent noise incurred in pulse/dir signal, pulse/direction signal wires and motor wires
should not be tied up together. It is better to separate them by at least 10 cm, otherwise the
disturbing signals generated by motor will easily disturb pulse direction signals, causing motor
position error, system instability and other failures.
l
If a power supply serves several drivers, separately connecting the drivers is recommended
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M415B Micro Microstepping Driver Manual V2.0
M415B Micro Microstepping Driver Manual V2.0
instead of daisy-chaining.
l
It is prohibited to pull and plug connector P2 while the driver is powered ON, because there is
high current flowing through motor coils (even when motor is at standstill). Pulling or plugging
connector P2 with power on will cause extremely high back-EMF voltage surge, which may
damage the driver.
9. Typical Connections
A complete stepping system should include stepping motor, stepping driver, power supply and
controller (pulse generator). The following figures are two typical connections of the M415B.
Figure11: Sequence chart of control signals
Notes:
(1) t1: ENA must be ahead of DIR by at least 5ms. Usually, ENA+ and ENA- are NC (not
connected). See “Connector P1 Configurations” for more information.
(2) t2: DIR must be ahead of PUL effective edge by at least 5ms to ensure correct direction;
(3) t3: Pulse width not less than 1.5ms;
(4) t4: low level width not less than 1.5ms.
11. Protection Function
Figure 9: Typical connection with open-collector controller
The M415B incorporates power leads (+, -) reversal protection function to protect the M415B
damaged by power leads (+, -) reversal.
12. Frequently Asked Questions
In the event that your M415B doesn’t operate properly, the first step is to identify whether the
problem is electrical or mechanical in nature. The next step is to isolate the system component that is
causing the problem. As part of this process you may have to disconnect the individual components
that make up your system and verify that they operate independently. It is important to document
each step in the troubleshooting process. You may need this documentation to refer back to at a later
date, and these details will greatly assist our Technical Support staff in determining the problem
should you need assistance.
Figure 10: Typical connection with difference controller
10. Sequence Chart of Control Signals
Many of the problems that affect motion control systems can be traced to electrical noise, controller
software errors, or mistake in wiring.
In order to avoid some fault operations and deviations, PUL, DIR and ENA should abide by some
rules, shown as following diagram:
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M415B Micro Microstepping Driver Manual V2.0
M415B Micro Microstepping Driver Manual V2.0
Problem Symptoms and Possible Causes
Symptoms
Motor is not rotating
Motor rotates in the wrong direction
The driver in fault
Erratic motor motion
Motor stalls during acceleration
Excessive motor and driver heating
Possible Problems
No power
Microstep resolution setting is wrong
DIP switch current setting is wrong
Fault condition exists
The driver is disabled
Motor phases may be connected in reverse
DIP switch current setting is wrong
Something wrong with motor coil
Control signal is too weak
Control signal is interfered
Wrong motor connection
Something wrong with motor coil
Current setting is too small, losing steps
Current setting is too small
Motor is undersized for the application
Acceleration is set too high
Power supply voltage too low
Inadequate heat sinking / cooling
Automatic current reduction function not being utilized
Current is set too high
APPENDIX
Twelve Month Limited Warranty
Leadshine Technology Co., Ltd. warrants its products against defects in materials and
workmanship for a period of 12 months from shipment out of factory. During the warranty period,
Leadshine will either, at its option, repair or replace products which proved to be defective.
Exclusions
The above warranty does not extend to any product damaged by reasons of improper or inadequate
handlings by customer, improper or inadequate customer wirings, unauthorized modification or
misuse, or operation beyond the electrical specifications of the product and/or operation beyond
environmental specifications for the product.
Obtaining Warranty Service
To obtain warranty service, a returned material authorization number (RMA) must be obtained
from customer service at e-mail: tech@leadshine.com before returning product for service.
Customer shall prepay shipping charges for products returned to Leadshine for warranty service,
and Leadshine shall pay for return of products to customer.
Warranty Limitations
Leadshine makes no other warranty, either expressed or implied, with respect to the product.
Leadshine specifically disclaims the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose. Some jurisdictions do not allow limitations on how long and implied warranty
lasts, so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you. However, any implied warranty of
merchantability or fitness is limited to the 12-month duration of this written warranty.
Shipping Failed Product
If your product fail during the warranty period, e-mail customer service at tech@leadshine.com to
obtain a returned material authorization number (RMA) before returning product for service.
Please include a written description of the problem along with contact name and address. Send
failed product to distributor in your area or: Leadshine Technology Co., Ltd. Floor 3, Block 2,
Nanyou Tianan Industrial Park, Nanshan Dist, Shenzhen, China. Also enclose information
regarding the circumstances prior to product failure.
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