EnergyCell RE
Front Terminal Battery
Owner’s Manual
YOUR Khd<WKtZ DISTRIBUTOR
SOLIGENT
800-967-6917
www.soligent.net
About OutBack Power Technologies
OutBack Power Technologies is a leader in advanced energy conversion technology. Our products include true
sine wave inverter/chargers, maximum power point tracking charge controllers, and system communication
components, as well as circuit breakers, batteries, accessories, and assembled systems.
Contact Information
Telephone:
+1.360.435.6030
+1.360.618.4363 (Technical Support)
+1.360.435.6019 (Fax)
Mailing Address:
(North America)
OutBack Power Technologies
5917 – 195th Street N.E., #7
Arlington, WA 98223 USA
E-mail:
Support@outbackpower.com
Web Site:
www.outbackpower.com
Address:
Sales, Marketing, & Warranty
6115 – 192nd Street NE
Arlington, WA 98223 USA
Disclaimer
UNLESS SPECIFICALLY AGREED TO IN WRITING, OUTBACK POWER TECHNOLOGIES:
(a) MAKES NO WARRANTY AS TO THE ACCURACY, SUFFICIENCY OR SUITABILITY OF ANY TECHNICAL OR OTHER
INFORMATION PROVIDED IN ITS MANUALS OR OTHER DOCUMENTATION.
(b) ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY OR LIABILITY FOR LOSS OR DAMAGE, WHETHER DIRECT, INDIRECT,
CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL, WHICH MIGHT ARISE OUT OF THE USE OF SUCH INFORMATION. THE USE OF
ANY SUCH INFORMATION WILL BE ENTIRELY AT THE USER’S RISK.
Warranty Summary
OutBack Power Technologies Inc. warrants that the products it manufactures will be free from defects in
materials and workmanship for a period of two (2) years subject to the conditions set forth in the warranty detail,
found at the end of this manual.
OutBack Power Technologies cannot be responsible for system failure, damages, or injury resulting from
improper installation of their products.
Notice of Copyright
EnergyCell RE Front Terminal Battery Owner’s Manual © November 2011 by OutBack Power Technologies.
All Rights Reserved.
Trademarks
OutBack Power is a registered trademark of OutBack Power Technologies.
Date and Revision
November 2011, Revision A
Part Number
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
Important Safety Instructions
Important Safety Instructions
READ AND SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS!
This manual contains important safety instructions for the EnergyCell RE battery. Read all instructions and
cautionary markings on the EnergyCell RE battery and on any accessories or additional equipment included in
the installation. Failure to follow these instructions could result in severe shock or possible electrocution. Use
extreme caution at all times to prevent accidents.
WARNING: Hazard to Human Life
This type of notation indicates that the hazard could be harmful to human life.
CAUTION: Hazard to Equipment
This type of notation indicates that the hazard may cause damage to the equipment.
IMPORTANT:
This type of notation indicates that the information provided is important to
the installation, operation and/or maintenance of the equipment. Failure to
follow the recommendations in such a notation could result in voiding the
equipment warranty.
Audience
This manual is intended for use by anyone required to install and operate this battery. Be sure to review this
manual carefully to identify any potential safety risks before proceeding. The owner must be familiar with all the
features and functions of this battery before proceeding. Failure to install or use this battery as instructed in this
manual can result in damage to the battery that may not be covered under the limited warranty.
General Safety
WARNING: Limitations on Use
This equipment is NOT intended for use with life support equipment or other medical
equipment or devices.
CAUTION: Equipment Damage
Only use battery components or accessories recommended or sold by OutBack Power
Technologies or its authorized agents.
IMPORTANT:
Do not attempt to install this battery if it appears to be damaged in any way. Contact
the vendor if the battery was received in a damaged condition. If the battery was
damaged during use, see the Warranty section for instructions.
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
1
Important Safety Instructions
Personal Safety
WARNING: Personal Injury

This battery weighs in excess of 115 lbs (52 kg). Use safe lifting techniques when
lifting this equipment as prescribed by the Occupational Safety and Health
Association (OSHA) or other local codes. Lifting machinery may be recommended
as necessary.

Wear appropriate protective equipment when working with batteries, including
eye or face protection, acid-resistant gloves, an apron, and other items.

Use safety equipment as prescribed by the Occupational Safety and Health
Association (or other local codes) when working on this or related equipment.
Examples include steel-toed safety boots, safety hard hats, and other items.

Use appropriate safety practices when working with electrical equipment (remove
all jewelry, use insulated tools, wear cotton clothing, etc.)

Never work alone when installing or servicing this equipment. Have someone
nearby that can assist if necessary.

Wash hands after any contact with the lead terminals or battery electrolyte.
Battery Safety
WARNING: Explosion, Electrocution, or Fire Hazard
2

Ensure the cables are properly sized based on the requirements of devices which
use these batteries. Failure to size the cables properly can result in a fire hazard.




Ensure clearance requirements are strictly enforced around the batteries.

Keep plenty of fresh water and soap nearby in case battery acid contacts skin,
clothing, or eyes.

Wear complete eye and clothing protection when working with batteries. Avoid
touching bare skin or eyes while working near batteries.

If battery acid contacts skin or clothing, wash immediately with soap and water. If
acid enters the eye, immediately flood it with running cold water for at least
20 minutes and get medical attention as soon as possible.


Never charge a frozen battery.

If a battery must be removed, always remove the grounded terminal from the
battery first. Make sure all devices are de-energized or disconnected to avoid
causing a spark.

Do not perform any servicing other than that specified in the installation
instructions unless qualified to do so and have been instructed to do so by OutBack
Technical Support personnel.

When connecting cables from the inverter to the battery terminals, ensure the
proper polarity is observed. Connecting the cables incorrectly can damage or
destroy the equipment and void the warranty.

Use only the recommended cable sizes (or greater) for AC and DC conductors in
compliance with local codes. Ensure all conductors are in good condition. Do not
operate the system with damaged or substandard cabling.
Ensure the area around the batteries is well ventilated and clean of debris.
Never smoke, or allow a spark or flame near, the batteries.
Always use insulated tools. Avoid dropping tools onto batteries or other
electrical parts.
Insulate batteries as appropriate against freezing temperatures. A discharged
battery will freeze more easily than a charged one.
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
Important Safety Instructions
Required Resources
This product is required to be installed according to pertinent safety codes and standards. If installed in the
United States, wiring practices must meet the requirements of the National Electrical Code (NEC). If installed in
Canada, wiring practices must meet the requirements of the Canadian Electrical Code.



National Electrical Code (NEC)/NFPA 70, Current Edition
Canadian Electrical Code, C22.1, Current Edition
EnergyCell RE Material Safety Data Sheet
Additional Resources
These references may be used when installing this equipment. Depending on the nature of the installation, it
may be highly recommended to consult these resources.




National Electrical Code (NEC)/NFPA 70 Handbook, Current Edition
International Building Code (IBC), Current Edition
Photovoltaic Power Systems and the 2005 National Electrical Code: Suggested Practices
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) guidelines: IEEE 450, IEEE 484, IEEE 1184, IEEE 1187,
IEEE 1188, IEEE 1189, IEEE 1491, IEEE 1578, IEEE 1635, and IEEE 1657 (various guidelines for design,
installation, maintenance, monitoring, and safety of battery systems)
Recycling Information
IMPORTANT: Recycle Electronics and Batteries
Batteries are considered hazardous waste and must be recycled according to local
jurisdiction. OutBack EnergyCell batteries are 100% recyclable. The following web sites
and phone numbers provide additional information for recycling batteries.
Earth 911, USA
Web site:
Address:
Phone:
http://www.Earth911.com
14646 N. Kierland Blvd., Suite 100
Scottsdale, AZ 85254
+1.480.337.3025 (direct)
Keep America Beautiful, USA
Web site:
Email:
Address:
Phone:
Fax:
http://www.kab.org/
4Hinfo@kab.org
1010 Washington Boulevard
Stamford, CT 06901
+1.203.659.3000 (Main number)
+1.203.659.3001
National Institute of Recyclers, Mexico
Web site:
Email:
Phone:
Fax:
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
http://www.inare.org.mx/
a57841279@prodigy.net.mx, 6Hmargarita@inare.org.mx
+1.55.57.85.9160
+1.55.57.84.1279
3
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Important Safety Instructions ........................................................................1
Audience .................................................................................................................................................................................1
Required Resources .............................................................................................................................................................3
Additional Resources ..........................................................................................................................................................3
Recycling Information ........................................................................................................................................................3
EnergyCell RE Battery ....................................................................................5
Welcome to OutBack Power Systems ...........................................................................................................................5
Materials Required ...............................................................................................................................................................5
Tools (use only insulated tools)...................................................................................................................................................5
Accessories.........................................................................................................................................................................................5
Storage and Environment Requirements....................................................................................................................6
Temperatures ....................................................................................................................................................................................6
Self-Discharge and Freshening ...................................................................................................................................................6
Capacity ...................................................................................................................................................................................6
State of Charge......................................................................................................................................................................7
System Layout .......................................................................................................................................................................7
Battery Configurations ...................................................................................................................................................................7
DC Wiring ................................................................................................................................................................................9
Charging ............................................................................................................................................................................... 10
Bulk Stage.........................................................................................................................................................................................10
Absorption Stage ...........................................................................................................................................................................10
Float Stage........................................................................................................................................................................................11
Notes on Charging.........................................................................................................................................................................11
Temperature Compensation......................................................................................................................................................12
Periodic Evaluation and Maintenance....................................................................................................................... 12
24-Hour Open-Circuit Test..........................................................................................................................................................12
25-Amp Capacity Test...................................................................................................................................................................12
Troubleshooting................................................................................................................................................................ 13
Specifications...................................................................................................................................................................... 14
Ampere-Hour Capacity Based On Discharge Rate..............................................................................................................14
Product Registration ...................................................................................15
Warranty....................................................................................................17
2-Year Limited Warranty for EnergyCell RE Products........................................................................................... 17
How to Arrange for Warranty Service ........................................................................................................................ 17
Troubleshooting.............................................................................................................................................................................17
4
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
EnergyCell RE Battery
Welcome to OutBack Power Systems
Thank you for purchasing the EnergyCell RE battery. This product is a valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery.
This type of battery incorporates an absorbent glass mat and pasted lead-calcium-tin plates. It is intended for
use in backup, off-grid, and renewable energy (RE) applications. The EnergyCell RE is designed to provide long,
reliable service with minimal maintenance.

Intended for use with all OutBack inverters, charge
controllers, and other devices that require the use of
deep-cycle batteries.

High-density pasted plates for high cycle life

Lead-calcium-tin alloy plates for long life in both cycling
and float applications

High recharge efficiency

Compact footprint for higher energy density

Thermally welded case-to-cover bond to eliminate leakage

100% recyclable

UL-recognized component
Figure 1 EnergyCell RE Battery
Materials Required
Tools (use insulated tools only)


Torque wrenches
Voltmeter
Accessories



Interconnect bar
Hardware
Terminal cover
22.1” (55.9 cm)
4.9” (12.6 cm)
11.1” (28.3 cm)
EnergyCell 200RE
dimensions are listed on
page 14.
Figure 2 EnergyCell 170RE Battery Dimensions
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
5
Configurations
Storage and Environment Requirements
Temperatures

The battery should not be operated in an environment where the average ambient temperature exceeds
85°F (27°C). The peak temperature of the operating environment should not exceed 110°F (43°C) for a
period of more than 24 hours. High operating temperatures will shorten a battery’s life (see page 7).
 The battery should never be allowed to freeze, as this will damage it and could result in leakage.
 The battery should not be subjected to temperature variations of more than 5°F (3°C). This will lead to
unbalanced voltages between multiple batteries (or between cells in one battery, if it is subjected to a
temperature differential).
 These batteries should be stored in a cool, dry location. They should be placed in service as soon as possible
after receiving them. The recommended temperature for storage is 77°F (25°C). However, a range of 60°F
(16°C) to 80°F (27°C) is acceptable.
Self-Discharge and Freshening
The EnergyCell RE battery comes fully charged, but will discharge itself over time. Higher storage
temperatures increase the rate of self-discharge. Figure 3 compares self-discharge with temperatures.

When fully charged, the battery’s natural or “rest” voltage is
25%
approximately 12.8 Vdc. It should be given a “freshening”
20%
charge (see page 11) if its rest voltage drops below 12.5 Vdc
per battery (2.08 Vdc per cell). A battery should not be used
15%
if its rest voltage is 12.0 volts or lower upon delivery.
10%
Contact the vendor upon receiving a battery in this state.
5%
If left in storage, a battery must be given a freshening
charge every six months when stored at 77°F (25°C).
0%
The charge should be every three months if stored at
60°F 70°F 80°F 90°F 100°F 110°F 120°F 130°F
21°C 21°C 27°C 32°C 38°C 43°C 49°C 54°C
temperatures of up to 92°F (33°C). If stored in higher
Temperature
temperatures, the charge should be every month.
The EnergyCell RE battery should never be permitted to
Figure 3 Self-Discharge Effects
self-discharge below 75% of its capacity. This is highly
detrimental and will shorten battery life. (This is not the same as discharging under load. See page 7.)


Monthly Self-Discharge

Capacity
% of Capacity
The EnergyCell RE capacity is given in ampere-hours (amp-hours). This is a current draw which is multiplied by
the duration of current flow. A draw of X amperes for Y hours equals an accumulation of XY amp-hours.
Because the battery’s chemical reaction constantly releases energy, it tends to replenish its own charge to a
minor degree. Smaller loads will deplete the batteries less than
larger loads because of this constant replenishment. This means
100
that effectively the battery has more capacity under lighter loads.
95
90
For example, if the EnergyCell 170RE is discharged at the 48-hour
85
rate (a load expected to drain 100% of its capacity in 48 hours), it
80
will be measured to have 163.9 amp-hours. However, at the 4-hour
75
70
rate, a heavier load, only 120.6 amp-hours will be measured. (See
65
Table 3 on page 14 for discharge rates and amp-hours.)
60
The EnergyCell RE models are named after their capacity at the
55
100-hour rate: 170 and 200 amp-hours respectively.
The capacity also varies with temperature. Figure 4 shows changes
in capacity at various temperatures. Two curves are graphed for
different current rates: one indicating an amperage measurement
equal to 1/100 of overall battery capacity (C/100), the other
showing an amperage of 1/20 of capacity (C/20).
6
-22°F -4°F 14°F
-30°C -20°C -10°C
32°F
0°C
50°F
10°C
68°F 86°F 104°F
20°C 30°C 40°C
Temperature
Figure 4 Capacity Effects
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
State of Charge
State of Charge
100
90
% of Expected Life
The battery state of charge (SOC) can be determined by two methods.
One is to measure its voltage. This is accurate only if the batteries are left
at rest (no charging or loads) for 24 hours at room temperature (77°F or
25°C). If these conditions are not met, then voltage checks may not
yield usable results. If they are met, then on average, a battery at
12.84 Vdc will be at 100% SOC (12.24 Vdc represents roughly 50% SOC).
The more accurate method is to use a battery monitor such as the
OutBack FLEXnet DC. Using a sensor known as a shunt, the monitor
observes the current through the battery. It keeps a total of amp-hours
lost or gained by the battery and can give accurate SOC readings.
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
70°F 80°F 90°F 100°F 110°F 120°F 130°F
21°C 27°C 32°C 38°C 43°C 49°C 54°C
Temperature
The EnergyCell RE battery is designed for a life of many discharge/charge
Figure 5 Battery Life
cycles. For optimal battery life, it is recommended not to discharge below
70% SOC (30% depth of discharge) on a regular basis. The battery should never be discharged below 50% of its
capacity, as this will significantly shorten its life. If operated in the recommended range, the battery will typically
have a life of hundreds of cycles. With consistently lighter discharge, the battery may have thousands of cycles.
(This can be affected by temperature. Figure 5 shows the effect of ambient temperature on battery life.)
System Layout
CAUTION: Fire Hazard
Failure to ventilate the battery compartment can potentially result in the
buildup of hydrogen gas, which is explosive.




The battery enclosure or room must be well-ventilated. This will protect against the accidental buildup of
hydrogen gas. The EnergyCell RE battery is sealed and does not normally emit noticeable amounts of gas.
However, in the event of accidental leakage, the enclosure must not allow gas to become concentrated.
The battery enclosure or room must have adequate lighting. This is necessarity to read terminal polarity,
identify cable color, and view the physical state of the battery as required.
The battery should be installed with a minimum 36” (91.4 cm) clearance in front. This allows access for
testing, maintenance, or any other reasons.
If multiple batteries are installed, they should have a minimum of ½” (12.7 mm) clearance on either side.
Battery Configurations
Load –
Load +
Series string (24 Vdc)
Load –
Load +
Series string (48 Vdc)
Batteries are placed in series (negative to positive) for additive voltages. Batteries in series are known as a “string”. A
string of two EnergyCell RE batteries has a nominal voltage of 24 Vdc and can be used for 24-volt loads. A string of four
has a nominal voltage of 48 Vdc. Other voltages are possible. However, batteries in series do not have additive
amp-hours. A single string of any voltage (as shown above) has the same amp-hours as a single battery.
When replacing batteries, a new battery should not be placed in series with a string of old batteries, as this will cause
severe stress and shorten the life of all batteries. All batteries in a string should be replaced at the same time.
Figure 6 Series String Configurations
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
7
Configurations
Batteries are placed in parallel (positive to positive, negative to negative) for
additive amp-hour capacity. Three batteries in parallel have three times the
amp-hours of a single battery. However, batteries in parallel do not have
additive voltages. A single set of batteries in parallel (as shown below) have
the same voltage as a single battery.
Series/parallel strings
Load Bus –
Load Bus +
It is not recommended to place more than three batteries or three strings in
parallel. Imbalances between batteries will reduce the efficiency and shorten
the life of all batteries.
Load Bus –
Parallel batteries
Load Bus +
Figure 7 Parallel and Series/Parallel String Configurations
Batteries are placed in both series and parallel for both
additive voltage and amp-hour capacity. Series strings
placed in parallel have the same nominal voltage as each
string. They have the same amp-hour capacity of each
string added together. Two parallel strings of two
EnergyCell RE batteries in series have a nominal voltage
of 24 Vdc, twice the nominal voltage. (See the illustration
on the right side of Figure 7.) They also have double the
amp-hour capacity of a single battery. Two parallel
strings of four batteries in series (see Figure 8) have a
nominal voltage of 48 Vdc at double the amp-hour
capacity of a single battery.
In a series-parallel bank, it is not recommended to
connect the load to the positive and negative terminals
of a single string. Due to cable resistance, this will tend to
put more wear on that string. Instead, it is recommended
to use “reverse-return” or “cross-corner” wiring, where
the positive cable is connected to the first string and the
negative to the last. This will allow current to flow evenly
among all strings. This method is shown in both figures.
Figure 8 Series/Parallel String Configuration
8
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
State of Charge
DC Wiring
CAUTION: Equipment Damage
Never reverse the polarity of the battery cables. Always ensure correct polarity.
CAUTION: Fire Hazard
Always install a circuit breaker or overcurrent device on the DC positive
conductor for each device connected to the batteries.
CAUTION: Fire Hazard
Never install extra washers or hardware between the mounting surface and the
battery cable lug or interconnect. The decreased surface area can build up heat.
4.9” (12.6
1.2” (3.0 cm)
NOTE: To avoid corrosion, use plated lugs on cable
terminations. When multiple cables are being
terminated, use plated terminal bus bars.
¼”-20
UNC Bolt
Lock Washer
2.6” (6.6 cm)
1.0”
(2.6 cm)
Install cable lug (or interconnect), nuts, and washers
in the order illustrated. The lug or interconnect
Flat Washer
should be the first item installed. It should make
solid contact with the mounting surface. Do not
install hardware in a different
Cable Lug (or Interconnect)
order than shown.
Battery Terminal Surface
Figure 9 DC Terminals
To make the DC connections:
1.
If installing batteries in the OutBack EnergyCell RE battery rack or a
similar cabinet, always begin with the lowest shelf for stability. Four
EnergyCell RE batteries can be placed on one shelf. All batteries should
be placed with terminals facing to the front. Remove and save the
terminal protectors.
2.
Clean and lightly brush all terminals and contact surfaces.
3.
In normal configurations, the battery on the far
right will be the positive (+) output for that
.
string. This battery should be designated
Proceeding to the left, adjacent batteries in that
,
, and so on.
string should be designated
4.
If more than one string is present, designate the first string as A, the second as B, and so on. This should be done
regardless of whether the strings are on the same shelf or higher shelves. Number the batteries in subsequent
strings just as was done in step 3.
Install series connections using the interconnect and hardware that was supplied with each battery. The
interconnect should connect from the negative (left) side of battery 1 to the positive (right) side of battery 2 as
shown above. Tighten interconnect hardware “hand tight” only.
Continued on the next page...
5.
Figure 10 Connecting Batteries
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
9
Charging
(continued)
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Repeat the process as appropriate for batteries 2, 3, and any others in the string. Connect the proper number of
batteries in series for the nominal voltage of the load.
If multiple series strings will be used, repeat this process for strings B, C, and so on.
Install parallel connections. Parallel connections are made from the positive terminal of one battery or string to the
positive of the next; negative connections are made similarly. (See Figure 7.) External cables or bus bars must be
provided. The interconnect included with the battery cannot make parallel connections.
Use a digital voltmeter (DVM) to confirm the nominal system voltage and polarity. Confirm that no batteries or strings
are installed in reverse polarity.
Install cables or bus bars for DC loads. Size all conductors as appropriate for the total loads. See the manual for the
EnergyCell RE Battery Rack if necessary.
Before making the final battery connection, ensure the main DC disconnect is turned off. If this is not possible, then do
not make the final connection within the battery enclosure. Instead, make it at the load or elsewhere in the cable
system so that any resulting spark does not occur in the battery enclosure.
Once hardware is installed and batteries are properly aligned, torque all connections to 110 in-lb (12.4 Nm). Lightly coat
the surfaces with battery terminal grease and reinstall the terminal covers.
Make the final DC connections. Commission (“freshen”) the batteries with a full recharge. (See below; also see page 11.)
Charging
Batteries in renewable applications are usually charged using a “three-stage” charging cycle: bulk stage,
absorption stage, and float stage. Most OutBack chargers follow this algorithm. However, not all chargers are
designed or programmed the same way. The settings should be checked and changed to match the
recommendations below if necessary. Contact OutBack Technical Support before using other charger types.
Bulk Stage
The bulk stage is a constant-current stage. The
charger’s current is maintained at a constant
high level. The battery voltage will rise as long as
the current continues to flow. Each battery
model has a recommended maximum current
limit (see Table 2 on page 14). It is
recommended not to exceed this limit. At
excessive current rates, the battery’s efficiency of
conversion becomes less and it may not become
completely charged. Over the long term, the
battery may permanently lose capacity.
The purpose of the bulk stage is to raise the
battery to a high voltage (usually referred to as
either bulk voltage or absorption voltage). The
acceptable range for this voltage is 14.4 to 14.8
Vdc per battery in a string (2.40 to 2.47 volts per
cell). If batteries are in series, this number is
multiplied by the number of batteries in the
string. This stage typically restores the battery
to 85% to 90% of capacity, if the charge rate does
not exceed the maximum shown on page 14.
Absorption Stage
DC Volts
Absorption
Float
Bulk
Hours (typical)
Amperes (typical)
Bulk
Absorption
Float
Hours (typical)
Figure 11
Three-Stage Charging
The absorption stage is a constant-voltage stage. It is established upon reaching the desired voltage in the bulk
stage. This causes the charger to begin limiting the current flow to only what is necessary to maintain this
voltage. A large amount of current is required to raise the voltage to the absorption level, but less current is
required to maintain it there. This requirement will tend to decrease as long as the absorption level is
maintained, resulting in a tapering current flow. The amount of absorption current will vary with conditions, but
will typically decrease to a very low number. This “tops off the tank”, leaving the battery at 100% of capacity.
10
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
Charging
The battery is considered to be completely full when the following conditions are met: The charge current must
taper down to an amperage equal to between 1% and 2% of the total battery amp-hours — while still
maintaining the absorption voltage. At this point the charger is allowed to exit absorption to the next stage.
Not all chargers measure their absorption stage in amperes. Many chargers maintain absorption for a timed
period (often two hours), under the assumption that the current will taper to the desired level during this time.
However, if the charger exits absorption and ends the charge before the current has tapered down to the
desired level, the battery may not be 100% charged. Repeated failure to perform a complete charge will result in
decreased battery life. If possible, it is recommended to use a DC ammeter to observe and time the current as it
tapers to the proper amperage. The user can then manually set the charger’s absorption timer accordingly.
Float Stage
The float stage is a maintenance stage which ensures the battery remains fully charged. Left with no
maintenance, the battery will tend to slowly lose its charge. The float stage provides current to counter this
self-discharge. As with the absorption stage, float is a constant-voltage stage which supplies only enough
current to maintain the designated voltage.
The voltage requirements for float stage are much lower than for bulk and absorption. The float stage should
provide enough current to maintain the battery at 13.6 to 13.8 Vdc per battery in a string (2.27 to 2.30 volts
per cell). If batteries are in series, this number should be multiplied by the number of batteries in the string.
Notes on Charging
The current requirements for the absorption and float stages are usually minimal; however, this will vary with
conditions, with battery age, and with battery bank size. (Larger banks tend to have higher exit current values
for the absorption stage, but they also have higher float current.) Any loads operated by the battery while
charging will also impact the requirements for the charger, as the charger must sustain everything.
Not all chargers exit directly to the float stage. Many will enter a quiescent or “silent” period during which the
charger is inactive. These chargers will turn on and off to provide periodic maintenance at the float level, rather
than continuous maintenance.
Some chargers are the “constant-float” variety. These are used in backup power applications where the battery
is rarely discharged. When a discharge occurs, it is critical that the battery is recharged as soon as possible
afterward. When charged with a constant-float charger, the charger should be set to maintain the battery at
13.65 Vdc per battery in a string (2.30 volts per cell) at room temperature. The battery is considered to be fully
charged when the cell voltage is maintained at this level and the charge current has dropped to a low level over
a long period of time. In constant-float charging, it is critical that the settings are compensated for temperature.
Incorrect Charging
If the battery is not charged completely (or if the settings are too low), its total capacity will not be available
during the next discharge cycle. This capacity will become progressively less and less over subsequent cycles.
Long-term undercharging will result in decreased battery life. This is also true for battery charging that is not
compensated for low temperatures.
If the charger settings are too high, this will cause premature aging of the battery, including loss of electrolyte
due to gassing. The result will be permanent loss of some battery capacity and decreased battery life. This is
also true for battery charging that is not compensated for high temperatures.
“Thermal runaway” can result from charging at higher voltages over extended time, high ambient temperatures,
incorrect temperature compensation (see page 12), or shorted cells. When the buildup of internal heat exceeds
the rate of cooling, the heat speeds up the internal chemical reaction. The reaction releases even more heat,
which in turn continues to speed up the reaction. Thermal runaway causes severe heat, gassing, lost electrolyte,
and cell damage. It usually requires battery replacement. The process can be halted by turning off the charger.
However, if cell damage has occurred, shorted cells may continue to generate heat and gas for some time.
Freshening Charge
A maintenance or “freshening” charge is given to batteries that have been in storage or newly received. With a
three-stage charger, the charge should proceed as described on page 10. If a specialized VRLA charger is
available, it should charge the batteries at 14.4 to 14.8 Vdc continuously for 16 hours.
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
11
Charging
CAUTION: Equipment Damage
Do not perform equalization on these batteries. Equalization is a controlled
overcharge used for battery maintenance. As it uses high DC voltages, it could
result in battery damage which is not covered under the EnergyCell RE warranty.
Temperature Compensation
Battery performance will change when the temperature varies above or below room temperature (77°F or 25°C).
Temperature compensation is a process that adjusts battery charging to correct for these changes.
When a battery is cooler, its internal resistance goes up and the voltage changes more quickly. This makes it
easier for the charger to reach its voltage set points. However, while accomplishing this process, it will not
deliver all the current that the battery requires. As a result, the battery will tend to be undercharged. (See
Incorrect Charging on page 11.) Conversely, when a battery is warmer, its internal resistance goes down and the
voltage changes more slowly. This makes it harder for the charger to reach its voltage set points. It will continue
to deliver energy over time until the charging set points are reached. However, this tends to be far more than
the battery requires, meaning it will tend to be overcharged. (See Incorrect Charging on page 11.)
To compensate for these changes, a charger that is used with the EnergyCell RE battery must have its voltage
settings raised by a specified amount for every degree below 77°F (25°C). It must be lowered by a similar
amount for every degree above this temperature. The temperature compensation factor is 0.03 Vdc (30 mV) per
battery, or 5 mV per battery cell, for every degree C above or below this temperature. This factor also is
multiplied if additional batteries are in series. Failure to compensate for significant temperature changes will
result in undercharging or overcharging which will shorten battery life.
OutBack inverter/chargers and charge controllers are equipped with the Remote Temperature Sensor (RTS)
which attaches to the battery and automatically adjusts the charger settings by this amount. If the RTS is in use,
no further action needs to be taken. If an RTS is not present (or a different charger is in use), it may be necessary
to adjust the charger settings manually. When the RTS is used, it should be placed on the sidewall of the battery,
as close to the center of the battery (or to the center of the bank) as possible. The RTS should be checked
periodically. Failure to compensate correctly may result in wrong voltages. (See Incorrect Charging on page 11.)
Periodic Evaluation and Maintenance
Upon replacement of a battery (or string), all interconnect hardware should be replaced at the same time.
To keep track of battery performance and identify batteries that may be approaching the end of their life, it is
recommended to perform the following tests upon initial installation, and then on a quarterly basis afterward.
The battery must be fully charged. Tests must be made with a high-quality digital meter. Voltages must be
measured directly on battery terminals, not on other conductors. All connections must be cleaned, re-tightened,
and re-torqued before testing . If a battery fails any test, it may be defective. If this occurs under the conditions
of the warranty (see page 17), the battery will be replaced according to the terms of the warranty.
24-Hour Open-Circuit Test
Ensure that the battery is brought to a full state of charge, then remove all connections from the battery. Allow
the battery to rest in this state for 24 hours and test its voltage. A fully-charged battery should measure
12.84 Vdc (temperature-compensated). A battery below 12.6 Vdc has lost capacity and may need to be replaced.
25-Amp Capacity Test
Install a DC load which draws a constant 25 Adc. The load may be used on either a single battery or a full string.
With this load, discharge the batteries until they reach 10.5 Vdc per battery (1.75 Vdc per cell) and monitor the
elapsed time. At the same time, monitor the battery temperature and record the temperature at the end of the
test. The elapsed time should be adjusted for temperature by the following formula:
Mc = Mr(1 – 0.009 [T – 26.7])
where Mr = actual elapsed minutes, T = temperature at end of run time, and
Mc = minutes corrected for temperature with a baseline of 80°F (26.7°C).
For the EnergyCell 170RE, Mc should be 300 minutes. For the EnergyCell 200RE, Mc should be 347 minutes. If the
result is less than 70% of this number, the battery (or string) may need to be replaced.
12
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
Table 1
Category
Symptom
Troubleshooting
Possible Cause
Remedy
Normal life cycle
Replace battery bank when (or before) capacity
drops to unacceptable levels.
Defective cells
Test and replace battery as necessary.
Excessively cold battery
Carefully warm up the battery.
Undersized cabling
Increase cable ampacity to match loads.
Loose or dirty cable
connections
Check and clean all connections. Physical
damage on terminals may require the battery
to be replaced. Replace hardware as needed.
Undersized battery bank
Add additional batteries to match loads.
Defective cells
Test and replace battery as necessary.
Thermal runaway
NOTE: Thermal runaway is a hazardous
condition. Treat the battery with caution.
Allow the battery to cool before approaching.
Reduced operating time
Performance
Excessive voltage drop upon
applying load
Swollen or deformed battery
casing; “rotten-egg” or
sulfurous odor; battery is hot
NOTE: A modest amount of
swelling (or concavity) on
the battery case is normal.
Damaged battery casing
Physical abuse
Replace battery as necessary.
Loose or dirty cable
connections
Check and clean all connections. Physical
damage on terminals may require the battery
to be replaced. Replace hardware as needed.
Fully-charged battery
displays low voltage
High temperature
Carefully cool the battery. An overheated
battery may contribute to thermal runaway.
Fully-charged battery
displays high voltage
Low temperature
Carefully warm up the battery.
Individual battery charging
voltage will not exceed
13.3 Vdc; high float current;
failure to support load
Shorted cell
Test and replace battery as necessary. A
shorted cell may contribute to thermal
runaway.
Individual battery float
voltage exceeds 14.5 Vdc;
failure to support load
Open cell
Test and replace battery as necessary.
Charging current to series
string is zero; failure to
support load
Open connection or open
battery cell in string
Check and clean all connections. If battery
appears to have an open cell, test and replace
as needed. Replace hardware as needed.
External
Inspection
Heat damage or melted
grease at terminals
Voltage
testing
Current
testing
Disconnect and replace battery as necessary.
Address the conditions that may have led to
thermal runaway (see page 11).
Charging current to series
Batteries require additional
string remains high over time time to charge
Normal behavior; no action necessary.
Charging current to series
string remains high with no
corresponding rise in voltage
Test and replace battery as necessary.
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
Shorted cell; may contribute
to thermal runaway
13
Specifications
Specifications
Table 2
EnergyCell RE Front Terminal Battery Specifications
EnergyCell 170RE
Battery Category
Battery Technology
Cells Per Unit
Voltage Per Unit (nominal)
Operating Temperature Range
(with temperature compensation)
Optimal Operating
Temperature Range
Recommended Maximum Charging
Current Limit Per String
Float Charging Voltage
Absorb Charging Voltage
Self Discharge
Temperature Compensation Factor
(charging)
Terminal
Terminal Hardware Initial Torque
Weight
Dimensions (H x D x W)
EnergyCell 200RE
Valve-regulated, lead-acid (VRLA)
Absorbed glass-mat (AGM)
6
12 Vdc
Discharge: -40°F (-40°C) to 160°F (71°C)
Charge: -10°F (-23°C) to 140°F (60°C)
74°F (23°C) to 80°F (27°C)
25 Adc
30 Adc
13.62 to 13.8 Vdc at 77°F (25°C)
14.4 to 14.8 Vdc at 77°F (25°C)
Battery can be stored at up to 6 months at 77°F (25°C) before a freshening charge is required.
Batteries stored at temperatures greater than 77°F (25°C) will require recharge sooner than
batteries stored at lower temperatures.
0.03 Vdc per battery in series (5 mV per cell) per degree C
Threaded copper alloy insert terminal to accept ¼”-20 UNC bolt
110 in-lb (12.4 Nm)
115.0 lb (52.2 kg)
131.0 lb (59.4 kg)
11.1” x 22.0” x 4.9” (28.3 cm x 55.9 cm x 12.6 cm) 12.6” x 22.0” x 4.9” (32.0 cm x 55.9 cm x 12.6 cm)
Ampere-Hour Capacity Based On Discharge Rate
Table 3
Amp-Hour Capacity @ 77°F (25°C)
Discharge in Hours
EnergyCell 170RE Amp-Hours
EnergyCell 200RE Amp-Hours
1
3
4
5
8
12
20
24
48
100
89.1
114.2
120.6
125.9
137.0
145.3
153.8
157.0
163.9
170.0
103.0
132.0
139.6
145.5
158.4
168.0
178.0
181.4
189.6
200.0
The EnergyCell RE battery capacity is measured in amp-hours. The battery capacity is not a fixed number, but
will vary with conditions. (See page 6.) The figures in this table are used to measure the capacity of the
EnergyCell battery based on load size.
Battery capacity is judged by the number of amp-hours measured when a battery is discharged to a standard
voltage under load. This is known in the industry as “terminal voltage”. (Standard terminal voltage is 10.5 volts
per 12-volt battery, or 1.75 volts per cell.)
The amp-hours measured upon reaching terminal voltage also depend on the size of the load. A load capable of
discharging the battery in one hour is far larger than a load which takes 3, 4, or 5 hours. (8-hour loads, 12-hour
loads, etc. are progressively smaller in size.) As described on page 6, the battery has less capacity under larger
loads and more capacity under smaller loads. Under a 1-hour load, the EnergyCell 170RE has only
89.1 amp-hours. Under a much lighter 100-hour load, the same battery has 170 amp-hours, almost twice that
amount. The EnergyCell 200RE is measured similarly.
14
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
Product Registration
The purchase of an OutBack Power Technologies product is an important investment. Registering the products
will help us maintain the standard of excellence expected in terms of performance, quality and reliability.
Please take a moment to register and provide us with some important information.
Registration can be done as follows:

Go to the following website.
10Hhttp://www.outbackpower.com/resources/warranty/
or

Fill out the information on this form (pages15 and 16) and return a paper copy using a postal service to the
following address:
OutBack Power Technologies
Attn: Warranty Registration
5917 – 195th Street N.E., #7
Arlington, WA 98223 USA
Be sure to keep a copy for your records.
SYSTEM OWNER
Name
Address
City, State, Postal Code or
Zip Code
Country
Telephone Number
E-mail
SYSTEM PURCHASE
Product Model Number
Product Serial Number
Sold by
Purchase Date
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
15
Product Registration
INSTALLATION INFORMATION
System Install/Commission Date
System Array Size
System Array Nominal Voltage
Type of PV Modules
Other Renewable Energy (Type and Size)
System Battery Bank Size (Amp-Hours)
Does this system include an auxiliary AC generator?
If yes, please specify brand and model of generator
INSTALLER INFORMATION
Contractor Number
Installer Name
Installer Address
Installer City, State, Postal or Zip Code, Country
Installer Telephone/E-mail
Please check ALL factors affecting purchase decision:






16
Product Reputation
Back-up Capability
Reputation of OutBack Power Technologies
Value
Looks
Other
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
Warranty
2-Year Limited Warranty for EnergyCell RE Products
OutBack Power Technologies, Inc. (“OutBack”) provides a two-year (2) limited warranty (“Warranty”) against defects in
materials and workmanship for its EnergyCell RE products (“Product”).
The term of this Warranty begins on the Product(s) initial purchase date, or initial ship date, whichever is later. This must be
indicated on the invoice, bill of sale, and/or registration submitted to OutBack. This Warranty applies to the original Product
purchaser, and is transferable only if the Product remains installed in the original use location. This Warranty applies solely to
Products installed and operated in the United States, Canada or other country which is approved by Outback in writing. The
Warranty does not apply to any Product or Product part that has been modified or damaged by the following:






Installation or removal
Normal wear and tear
Accident, abuse, or neglect
Shipping or transportation
Lightning, fire, floods or acts of God
Incidents not foreseeable by OutBack






Operation with temperature variation more than 5°F (2.78°C) between cells
Routine or daily discharge of more than 40% of capacity
Charging, discharging, or commissioning contrary to instructions
Incidental or consequential damage caused by other system components
Alteration, disassembly, or service provided by an unauthorized facility
Any other battery make/model in the same battery bank as the Product
If the Product delivers at least 60% of its rated capacity during the Warranty period and is not judged defective by OutBack in
any other way, no breach of this Warranty will be deemed to have occurred. OutBack’s liability for any defective Product, or
any Product part, shall be limited to the repair or replacement of the Product, at OutBack’s discretion. OutBack does not
warrant or guarantee workmanship performed by any person or firm installing its Products. This Warranty does not cover the
costs of installation, removal, shipping, or reinstallation of Products or parts of Products. Warranty support will not be
provided for a Product for which the Warranty period has expired.
THIS LIMITED WARRANTY IS THE EXCLUSIVE WARRANTY APPLICABLE TO OUTBACK PRODUCTS. OUTBACK EXPRESSLY
DISCLAIMS ANY OTHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF ITS PRODUCTS, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. OUTBACK ALSO EXPRESSLY LIMITS ITS
LIABILITY IN THE EVENT OF A PRODUCT DEFECT TO REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TERMS OF THIS
LIMITED WARRANTY AND EXCLUDES ALL LIABILITY FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING WITHOUT
LIMITATION ANY LIABILITY FOR PRODUCTS NOT BEING AVAILABLE FOR USE OR LOST REVENUES OR PROFITS, EVEN IF IT IS
MADE AWARE OF SUCH POTENTIAL DAMAGES. IF YOU ARE A CONSUMER THAT PURCHASED THIS PRODUCT IN A MEMBER
STATE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, YOU MAY HAVE ADDITIONAL STATUTORY RIGHTS UNDER DIRECTIVE 1999/44/EC. THESE
RIGHTS MAY VARY FROM EU MEMBER STATE TO EU MEMBER STATE. SOME STATES (OR JURISDICTIONS) MAY NOT ALLOW
THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF WARRANTIES OR DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE EXCLUSIONS OR LIMITATIONS MAY NOT
APPLY TO YOU.
How to Arrange for Warranty Service
In the event of a failure, Warranty service is provided by the installer, dealer, or distributor. Defective Product will be replaced
under Warranty. In the event that the installer, dealer, or distributor cannot provide support or needs more information,
contact OutBack Technical Support at +1.360.435.6030 or direct at +1.360.618.4363 or support@outbackpower.com.
To ensure Warranty coverage, this contact must be within the Warranty period beginning on the invoice date. During this
period, OutBack Power Technologies will repair or replace a Product covered under this Warranty that is confirmed defective.
Troubleshooting
One party will need to work with an OutBack Technical Support representative to perform troubleshooting. This is a required
step and requires a qualified technician to be present at the site of the Product with a quality DC voltmeter. The OutBack
representative will request voltmeter readings and other information. Because Product performance is dependent on
temperature, in order to validate the Warranty OutBack may request documentation verifying that the Product was operated
in a temperature-controlled environment.
If OutBack determines the Product or Product part is defective and that the defect is covered under this Warranty, OutBack
will then and only then ship a repaired or replacement Product or Product part to the purchaser freight prepaid,
non-expedited, using a carrier of OutBack’s choice, where applicable. The warranty period of any repaired or replacement
Product or Product part is ninety (90) days from the date of shipment from OutBack, or the remainder of the initial warranty
term, whichever is greater. OutBack reserves the right to request Products to be returned to OutBack for analysis.
This Warranty is void for any Product that has been modified by the customer without authorization by OutBack. A Product
with a voided warranty will be treated the same as one with an expired warranty.
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
17
North America:
5917 – 195th St NE, #7
Arlington, WA 98223 USA
+1.360.435.6030
900-0127-01-00 Rev A
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