Software Version: 2.X
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Nemesis 2.17 User Manual
31st Dec 2005
For Racing and Off-Road Use Only
Not Legal on Public Highways and or Emission Controlled Vehicles unless
Appropriately Certified
The information in this document is subjected to change without notice.
As every effort is taken to ensure the correctness of the manual, no
responsibilities will be taken for the consequences of any omissions and or
inaccuracies in this manual.
The manufacturer and its agents accept no responsibility for personal injury and
or property damage from the use of the products.
Hydra EMS systems offer extreme amount of user adjustability, installation and
tuning must be performed by a qualified professional
If you install the unit yourself, be aware of the following points:
o Fuel Injection systems use a high-pressure Fuel Supply. Extreme Care
should be taken to avoid fire when work on the fuel system is performed.
o High-energy ignition systems produce dangerous voltages. Never touch or
remove any ignition system component when the battery is connected,
even if the car is not running.
o The driver should never attempt to tune the vehicle while it is in motion.
We recommend that the vehicle be tuned on a dynamometer.
o Severe engine damage can result from lean out (too high an air fuel ratio)
or over advanced ignition timing. Have the vehicle tuned by a professional
if you are not sure of what values to use for high load air fuel ratio and
ignition angle specific to your car.
All Hydra EMS products are covered by a 12 month warranty period as detailed
below:
o Warranty extends only to the repair or replacement of the product and only
within the warranty period.
o The product is only warranted against defective materials and or
workmanship and only on condition that a qualified mechanic and or an
engine management professional installed the product in accordance with
the manufacturer’s instructions.
o Warranty period starts from the date of installation or thirty days from the
date of purchase; whichever is sooner
o Warranty is void if the product is in any way dismantled, tapered with,
improperly installed and or modified to fit an application not listed in the
manufacturer applications list.
o Warranty does not cover, but is not limited to, the following:
ƒ Injury to person or persons
ƒ Towing cost
ƒ Lost of use
ƒ Accommodation and lost of income
ƒ Labor charges
ƒ Consequential damage
ƒ Engine backfire/misfire damage
ƒ Engine detonation damage
ƒ Damage from accidents
ƒ Floods, earthquakes, or any acts of god
ƒ Physical shock
ƒ Misuse
ƒ Negligent handling of product
ƒ Water damage
ƒ Operation outside product specifications, tampering or modifications
Parts List
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Nemesis 2.1ECU
Adaptor Harness
Vacuum Line
Serial Cable
Installation CD
Contents
Introduction
-Overview
-Options
-Tuning
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Nemesis Software
-Software installation
-Starting the software
-Connecting the PC to the ECU
-Main Screen
-Downloading to ECU
-Uploading to ECU
-Maps
-File Menu
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Getting Started
-Nemesis tuning screen
-Display items
-‘Maps’ pull down menu
-‘Select’ pull down menu
-‘Communications’ pull down menu
-‘View’ pull down menu
-‘Tools’ pull down menu
- Graphing Data-logs
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-Off-line mode
-General overview
-Modifying maps
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-Miscellaneous
-Check Engine light
-PID Explanation
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Conclusion
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Appendix A
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Appendix B
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Appendix C
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Introduction
Overview
Thank you for purchasing a Hydra Engine Management System. This manual will assist
you in understanding the windows platform that Hydra uses for calibration and setup of
their engine management systems. All the information and steps in this manual is based
on Microsoft Windows Operating System, Windows 98 and later.
The Hydra Nemesis operates as a speed-density system. Engine speed is determined by the
Crank trigger (speed) and load (intake air density) by a onboard (3 BAR MAP) manifold
absolute pressure sensor, or throttle position sensor (TPS). The system uses coolant
temperature and air temperature (CTS and ATS) sensors to deliver the desired air fuel
ratio (AFR) under different temperature conditions. The system uses the factory narrowband
oxygen sensor to further correct the air fuel ratio close to stoichiometric AFR. The system
also provides fuel and timing control based on load and engine speed, with corrections
based primarily on temperature, throttle position and knock sensor.
If you have any questions, suggestions, or comments, please feel free to contact us with
feedback via our forum at www.hydraems.com
The pictures in this manual are used as a guideline only. As updates and improvements
are constantly being done in realm of performance engine management systems, Hydra
EMS cannot be held liable for any inaccuracies due to updates in our engine management
systems. Always check software version and use corresponding manual for accurate
cross-referencing.
Options
Hydra EMS Nemesis 2.1 has only one option: The UEGO option. The UEGO wideband
lambda option is used not only for auto-tune fuel mapping but can also be used for
accurate closed loop fuel management for today’s demanding emissions requirements.
Please check with your dealer for additional information.
Tuning
As with any Engine Management System (EMS), the end result will only be as good as
the steps one has taken to ensure that it has been properly programmed. In tuning one has
to be prepared to put in the time on the dyno-meter in order to get the right setup. It might
sound simple enough but it is anything from that. At Hydra EMS we believe in selecting
dealers who are able to offer a package that includes suitable hardware and software, plus
one who understands and get the most out of the hardware and software.
Nemesis Software
Software installation
The Nemesis 2.1 software can be found either on the supplied installation CD or a copy
can be downloaded from the Hydraems website at www.hydraems.com. If you are
installing from the installation CD, first load CD into drive and select open
The following screen should appear after opening the installation CD:
First open, read and understand
completely Nemesis 2.1 Instruction
Manual before proceeding. Then
install Nemesis 2.1 software onto
computer. Please ensure that the
software is installed in the
directory c:\program files\nemesis.
Failure to do this will prevent
software from working. Desktop
icon should automatically appear
after installation.
If desktop icon does not appear,
please go to C:\Program
Files\Nemesis. There you will see
nemesis2.X.exe. To execute double
click on file.
Starting the Software
Double click on the Hydra desktop icon
. This will open the main interface window.
Connecting the PC to ECU
At this point, one would want to connect the ECU to the laptop. Using the enclosed serial
cable, connect serial output of PC to serial input of ECU. Note: Do not use USB to serial
interface on laptop computers as this may cause PC to ECU connection problems. Also make
sure that the key is only in the on position after serial connector is made. Make sure
diagnostic plug is connected (pin B10 on middle blue connector) or maps will not be
downloaded into the Nemesis.
When the diagnostic plug is connected the Spark Backup Map is disabled.
Main Screen
At the bottom right hand corner of the
screen, there should be three selection tabs;
Upload from ECU, Download to ECU,
Maps.
Download to ECU: This function is used
when the PC is connected to the ECU and a
permanent writing of a tuned file into flash
memory is needed. Example is a download
of a base map or a pre-prepared map from a
dealer. First to enable a download, a map
file has to be opened. Select ‘file’ from the
top left hand corner of the Hydra EMS
main page and then the menu option ‘open’
as shown below:
Select the required file and hit ‘open’
Once on the Hydra EMS main screen,
Upload from ECU: This function is used
when the PC is connected to the ECU and a select ‘download to ECU’, the following
screen will appear:
download of information from the ECU is
needed. When requested, the following
screen is shown:
The default com port selection is 1. Make
sure there are no conflicts with other
software platforms that automatically open.
Example: Palm Hot Sync Icon in Task
Manager.
When selecting ‘download’, make sure
there are no conflicts with other software
platforms that automatically open.
Example: Palm Hot Sync Icon in Task
Manager.
In the ‘file’ pull down menu, there are
several options.
1:‘Open’ has been covered above. It is used
to select a tuned map for download into
ECU. It may also be used for off-line
opening of a tuned file for modification or
reference.
2:‘Open’ can also be used for selecting a
map to enable off-line changes.
3:‘Save’ is used when one needs to save a
current map that has been changed in the
course of tuning, whether on-line or offline.
4:“New’, ‘Print’, are currently options that
are not used and will be enabled in future
software updates.
Now that we have the ECU connected to the PC with serial cable, the process of tuning is
as follows:
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Turn the key on to power up the ecu
Click on the upload button to transfer all maps and settings from the ECU to your
PC. This action guarantees that the maps and settings in the PC are the same as
those in the ECU.
Start the car and click on Maps button to view the engine maps of the ecu.
The engine speed is held close to nearest rpm load site and tuning is started. Every
time a change is made at the laptop, the map held in the ECU ram is also changed
real-time. This process is continued until the desired AFR and Timing is achieved.
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At this stage, the maps held in the ram of the ECU needs to be permanently saved.
By clicking the download button, the maps are ‘burned’ into non-volatile
memory. The next time the ECU is powered up these maps will be copied into the
ram.
Offline editing is simpler than the above process. Just open or upload the file, edit the
file, save then download.
Getting Started
Nemesis Tuning Screen
This is the main Nemesis 2.1 tuning screen console. In the pull down menus, there are the
following selections: ‘Maps’, ‘Select’, ‘Communications’, ‘View’, and ‘Tools’.
Display Items
1: Boost Gauge – Shows the pressure input going to the 3 Bar MAP sensor in the
Nemesis 2.1, at the bottom of the boost gauge, you will see the numerical amount. This is
the ONLY feedback element that responds to the current metric/imperial user option.
2: Bar Graph – Bar graph shows important engine parameters when ECU is on-line. In
the event when there is knock/detonation, the ‘ADV’ flashes red. The values, which
appear on the bar graph, are the corrected values. It might not be the same as the value in
the fuel and spark maps.
3: Bar Graph Control – There are three buttons. ‘Hold’ saves the highest value since the
panel was reset, ‘Reset’ releases the ‘Hold’, and ‘Mode’ changes the display from
numbers to graphics, and vice versa.
4: Data Panel – Shows the following important data stream of engine parameters:
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ADV: Ignition advance(degrees)
FUEL: Pulse-width (milliseconds)
Duty : Fuel duty cycle (percent)
VSS: Vehicle speed(km/hr or miles/hr)
O2: Narrowband EGO Status(left and right, volts)
AFR: Air Fuel Ratio(wideband UEGO only when equipped)
PSI: Boost Pressure (lb/inch2)
BATT: Battery voltage (ECU supply, volts)
AIR: Air temperature (Celsius)
STT: Short term trim(left and right, percent)
TPS: Throttle position(percent)
Note that all data is feedback from the ECU. The fuel pulse-width value is likely
to be different from the map value as it is modified by other maps such as airtemp trim.
5: Grid Map Resolution – This box gives the user the ability to use two different
resolutions while making changes on the grid map.
Resolution 1: ‘0.005ms’ and Resolution 2: ‘0.05ms’
6: Copy – This ‘Copy’ function is illustrated below:
For example, the user in x-axis 650 to 500mmHg and y
axis 0rpm and executed the ‘Copy’ function as shown in
the left, the value in the grid location will be copied across
the RPM sites. See before and after screen shots of the
‘Copy’ function executed.
Before ‘Copy’ function execution
After ‘Copy’ function has been executed.
Black highlighted area shows the changes
made.
7 & 8: Grid Map, RPM Track Bar, Load Track Bar, Load Center, Arrow Center, Roam
Map, Roam Grid –
Grid Map: The variables in this map are in ms. The box highlighted in yellow is the cell
the ECU is using to taking information from.
Navigation: The navigation has changed substantially from the previous versions of the
interface. Now the arrow keys are for roaming only. The PgUp and PgDn keys are used
for increasing and decreasing the values in the cells. To input a value offline, one will use
the space bar to bring up a window for direct input. The user can also select a group of
cells to change; the user must press and hold the Ctrl key while roaming the map with the
arrow keys. This will select a group of cells. The selected group of cells will be
highlighted.
RPM Track/Hold & Load Track/Hold: If you want to free roam about the grid map or 3D
map, the user must select RPM Hold and Load Hold and Arrow Center. This will enable
the user to free roam around the grid map. If RPM Track and Load Track and Load
Center is selected, the roaming is only limited to the area around where the engine is
reading information from.
Grid shows both yellow
highlight and blue. In
‘RPM track’ mode the
changes made by the
vertical arrow keys will
only affect the yellow
highlighted box and if
‘RPM hold’ is enabled
the changes will be in the
blue highlighted box
9: 3D Graphical Display – This enables the tuner to spot any holes or dips in the fuel or
spark maps. When tuning in this mode, the user can select Roam Map and the arrows
keys will automatically follow how the 3D map is setup.
10: This is also one of the new additions to the interface. This gives the user quick keys
to go between the spark, fuel maps and also manual entry. There is also an interpolate
load and also rpm. This function smoothens the graph. Be extra careful when using this
function, because of injector response and also the engines thermodynamics needs the 3D
graph need not be a gradually increasing one.
For More detailed explanations on Map editing see Appendix B
Maps pull down menu
Submenu ‘Exit’ and ‘Save’ – This closes the tuning screen and
enables the user to download changes into Nemesis 2.1 flash
memory. The ‘Save’ feature is to enable the user to save the
current file without going into the main screen.
Select pull down menu
Submenu ‘Fuel’ – This menu opens the main 32 x32 fuel map
for tuning. The axes are always rpm and load and the ‘spread’
(distance between load sites) can be user defined in both axes.
One can also enlarge the fuel map by going to pull down menu
‘View’ and selecting submenu ‘Floating grid’. Once enabled,
the grid map will maximize to full screen. To move back to the
main tuning window, the user must either close or minimize
the ‘Floating grid’ window.
Submenu ‘Fuel anti-lag trim’ – This menu opens an additional
fuel map that works off the original. It gives the user the
ability to add or subtract fuel in ms values from the original
fuel map. This map can be used for race fuel or anti-lag fuel
strategies and has to be activated by grounding a specified
input to the ECU.
Submenu ‘Fuel Auxiliary trim’ – This menu opens an
additional fuel map that works off the original. It gives the
user the ability to add or subtract fuel in ms values from the
original fuel map. This map can be used for race fuel or antilag fuel strategies and has to be activated by grounding a
specified input to the ECU.
Submenu ‘Spark’ – This menu opens the main ignition table
for tuning. There is no offset required for Spark map values.
One can also enlarge the fuel map by going to pull down
menu ‘View’ and selecting submenu ‘Floating grid’. Once
enabled, the grid map will maximize to full screen. To move
back to the main tuning window, the user must either close or
minimize the ‘Floating grid’ window.
Submenu ‘Spark anti-lag trim’ – This menu opens an
additional ignition map. This ignition map adds or subtracts
from the original and is enabled once ‘Fuel anti-lag trim’ is
enabled via grounding a specified input to the ECU. Note: This
map allows you to have negative total timing which will lead to
extremely high EGTs which can cause engine damage.
Submenu ‘Spark auxiliary trim’ - This menu opens an
additional ignition map. This ignition map adds or subtracts
from the original and is enabled once ‘Fuel auxiliary trim’ is
enabled via grounding a specified input to the ECU.
Submenu ‘Spark Backup’ – This menu opens a totally
independent ignition map. This map is enabled when knock
events happen exceed pre-determined values. This is a fail
safe map for times when bad fuel or wrong fuel is placed in
the car. This map runs totally independent of the closed loop
knock control of the main ‘Spark’ map. To disable this
function, one must set Backup Spark Knock Threshold value
in Settings menu under ignition to 5V. This will disable this
function.
Submenu ‘Control 1’ – ‘Coolant temp trim’
This map enables the original fuel map to be
trimmed via coolant temperature. The values
are percentage increase of the main fuel map.
This enables the tuner to adjust cold and hot
engine startup/operating fuel requirements
Submenu ‘Control 1’ – ‘Injector response’
This map enables the original fuel map to be
trimmed with respect to battery voltage. This
is necessary when there is a degradation of
the charging system of the car and changes
the fuel map output. In order to stabilize the
AFR at all normal battery voltages, this map
must be set correctly.
Submenu ‘Control 1’ – ‘Air temp trim’
This map enables the original fuel map to be
trimmed with respect to intake air
temperature. This functions as a percentage
of the original fuel map.
Submenu ‘Control 1’ – ‘Zero TPS vacuum’
This map enables the tuner to stabilize the
fluctuating map readings (lumpy idle) in a car
with a big cam. This actually tells the ECU to
use a specific vacuum load setting versus
RPM in place of the unreliable measured
vacuum so as to give the engine a consistent
fuel flow. Note that these vacuums should be
obtained by experimenting with the ISC valve
completely closed, blocked off if necessary.
Submenu ‘Control 1’ – ‘Injector phasing’
This map controls injection timing or when
the injectors fire with reference to the TDC
position. 180 degrees in the map signifies the
firing of the injector right at TDC of intake
valve opening. Degrees represented in
crankshaft rotation.
Submenu ‘Control 1’ – ‘ Throttle pump’
This is also known as TPS tip in enrichment.
This allows for added enrichment during
sudden TPS angle changes when MAP is
unable to pickup. A richer FR during a
throttle movement will generally improve
drivability.
Submenu ‘Control 1’ – ‘Post start
enrichment’
This is enrichment of the main fuel map with
respect to coolant temperature in the short
period after starting. It is a percentage
increment in pulse width. This will improve
the post start idle quality and reliability.
Submenu ‘Control 1’ – ‘Knock
threshold’
This map determines the knock raw
voltage amplitude before ECU goes
into knock correction. These will be
set for the specific engines in base
map calibrations. There is an x in the
lower left hand corner of the 2D
graph. It shows the actual noise
coming from the knock sensor. If the
user has an engine, which is nosier,
then the average, the user can then
log the knock raw voltage of the
engine in no knock condition and
modify the map accordingly.
Warning: severe engine damage can
result from detonation, do not alter this
knock threshold map if you are
inexperienced in listening for Knock
Submenu ‘Control 2’ – ‘Boost target’
This map defines the desired boost level at
different engine speeds. The sensitivity and
also the duty cycle of the wastegate is
controlled in the ‘Settings’ menu under
‘Boost Control.’ In addition to this, there is
an over boost limit of 3psi hard coded into
the program for safety purposes. When boost
is over by 3psi, fuel cut is enabled. Therefore
even if the boost control system is not
controlled by the ECU, this map must be still
set correctly.
Submenu ‘Control 2’ – ‘Air temp spark trim’
This menu is especially useful in tuning
turbocharged or supercharged applications.
When there is intercooler heat soak, the ECU
can compromise ignition timing accordingly
to prevent detonation by reducing ignition
advance at high inlet temperatures. At low
temperatures, it may be possible to increase
the total ignition advance in order to improve
performance.
Submenu ‘Control 2’ – ‘Coolant temp spark
map’
This enables the tuner to set safety margins
into the ignition map strategy when tuning a
racecar. The reason is that as coolant
temperature rises above normally the engine
is more prone to detonation. At very low
temperatures, it may be desirable to increase
the total ignition advance to improve idle
stability.
Submenu ‘Control 2’ – ‘Idle speed target’
This map is used to set idle speed control.
This map tells the ECU where the user wants
the idle speed at with respect to temperature
when the throttle is closed and the vehicle is
stationary. There are many settings related to
the ISC system that can be found in ‘Settings’
menu under ‘ISC’. Idle targets may not be
reached if the settings are not correct.
Submenu ‘Control 2’ – ‘Dwell’
This map enables the user to set different
dwell controls versus Battery voltage.
Ignition Coils reach the desired current flow
faster as battery voltage increases. The dwell
is the time the coil is ‘turned on’ to charge for
each ignition event. The necessary dwell
reduces at high battery voltages. Warning: coil
damage will quickly result from excessive dwell.
Submenu ‘Control 2’ – ‘Cranking
enrichment’
When cranking at low temperatures, little of
the fuel injected into the engine is in a
combustible state. Most of the fuel doesn’t
combust and an excess of fuel is required.
This map is used for enrichment under
300rpm before engine is started. It rapidly
decays to zero after the engine is started.
Submenu ‘Control 2’ – ‘Start primer’
This map enables an injector pulse when the
ignition key is turned on soon after the fuel
pump
Starts to prime. This enables an engine a
quicker start when it is cranked for the above
reasons.
This function is most useful for throttle body
fuel injected applications.
Submenu ‘Control 2’ – ‘ISC open gain’
Works in conjunction with the Zero TPS
vacuum map. Where the Zero TPS vacuum
map is used in conjunction with an ISC valve,
the ISC open gain map predicts the drop in
vacuum with respect to the ISC valve
opening. For example, at idle, an engine
might create a vacuum of 400mmhg with the
ISC valve closed, and a vacuum of 300mmhg
with the ISC valve open to 50% and
additional load such as AC switched on. The
ISC open gain at 50% ISC would therefore be
100mmhg.
Submenu ‘Control 3’ – ‘Fuel cut limit’
Defines the rpm at which deceleration fuel
cut is cancelled in order to give a stable
transition from fuel cut to idle. It is indexed
to coolant temperature. At lower coolant
temperature it is desirable for fuel cut to
cancel at least 500 rpm higher than the target
idle speed to avoid stalling.
Submenu ‘Control 3’ – ‘Trim by Gear’
Trim by Gear: This function is used to trim
fuel with respect to gear. This function is
enabled when Enable Gear Boost Enrichment
is selected in the Settings menu.
Submenu ‘Control 3’ – ‘Dwell trim’
This map enables the user to adjust dwell
time with respect to RPM. It is possible to
provide a small increase in the dwell trim at
higher engine speeds where a higher energy
spark is desirable.
This is especially useful on CDI cars so as
not to burn out the ignition coil.
Submenu ‘Control 3’ – ‘Knock fuel add’
This map enables the user to add fuel in areas
where knock/detonation is present providing
a cooling effect that will make further
knocking less likely. This enables the user to
remove less timing and still be able to stop
detonation after it has started.
Submenu ‘Control 3’ – ‘Closed loop limit’
This map enables the user to select which
load portion of the fuel map will be under
closed loop control. Typically, a
stoichiometric AFR can be used up to
reasonably high engine loads at low engine
speeds. At higher engine speeds, it is
desirable to cancel the narrow band
(stoichimetry seeking) closed loop earlier as
engine load increases. This function is only
enable when HEGO sensor is used. In
wideband UEGO mode, AFR follows AFR
target table, and also RPM upper and lower
limits.
Submenu ‘Control 3’ – ‘Autotune rate’
This represents rate of change of fuel map
during autotune. If the value is set too high it
might cause afr to oscillate and cause severe
hunting and jerkiness. Use factory default
settings if unsure.
Submenu ‘Control 3’ – ‘Max ISC Intergrator’
Max ISC Integrator: Setup of this should be
done without AC being turned on. The max
integrator should be set as high as possible
without idle rising too high, especially during
start and also gear changes. This puts a false
top to the ISC value used. A good value to
start with is about 60 to 70.
Submenu ‘Control 3’ – ‘Min AC ISC
Intergrator’
Min AC ISC Integrator: Setup of this should
be done with the AC turned on. This should
be set as high as possible without the idle
flaring up too high when the AC comes on.
This sets a false bottom where the ISC will
always sit when the AC is turned on. A good
value to start with is about 40. A function
connected to this function is the AC STEPS
UP. AC STEPS UP provides an instantaneous
flare to the idle before the AC switches on.
Submenu ‘2D PWM’ – All the 2D PWMs will be set by
Hydra EMS. It is not necessary to adjust, change or set the
2D PWMs.
Submenu ‘3D PWM’ – ‘PWM Map 9’
This is a 3D PWM map used for intake cam phasing in:
DC5 Integra/RSX, Subaru STI, Toyota VVTiL, Mazda
VTC and Nissan VTC. This map is set by Hydra EMS and
normally needs no alteration from the user. At the moment,
cam phasing maps are not user programmable.
Submenu ‘3D PWM’ – ‘PWM Map 10’
This is a 3D PWM map used for exhaust cam phasing in:
Dual Vanos cars as well as the Altezza. This map is set by
Hydra EMS and normally needs no alteration from the user
Submenu ‘3D PWM’ – ‘PWM Map 11’
This 3D PWM is currently not used.
Submenu ‘AFR target’ – This is the AFR target map used
in both the autotune and also wideband closed loop control.
As there is lag time between readings and map correction, the
user must never use closed loop operation in high load sections
of the map. The Auto-tune feature only works when a
Laptop is connected to the ECU. After driving the car, the
tuner must upload from the ECU in order to view the
changes made to the fuel map. If not downloaded these new
fuel numbers will not be in the Nemesis
Submenu ‘Settings’ – ‘Sensor’
1: External map sensor confirm:
This is to enable external map
sensor, ie. 5 bar map sensor or
Honda map at AUX 1, 2 or 3.
2. Knock 1 &2 amplifier enable:
check this box when the output of
the left or right bank knock sensor is
weak.
3.Uego zero cal: default setting of
126, do not change
4. Uego grad cal: adjust this value so
that the free air calibration for the
NTK L2H2 sensor is 20.7:1 AFR.
5: The rest of the options in
‘Settings’ are pre-set by Hydra and
do not need to be changed.
6: ‘AC Steps Up’ – This increases idle when
compressor is engaged to prevent rough idle or
stalling. Typical value 15-40.
7: ‘Into Drive Steps’ – This is currently no used
in Nemesis 2.0
Submenu ‘Settings’ – ‘ISC’
1: PWM ISC valve and Stepper ISC
valve sub-menus need not be adjusted
or changed. They are pre-set from
Hydra for the application.
8: ‘Vehicle Moving Steps Up’ – This function is
used to prevent the stalling of the engine during
deceleration. It is the minimum ISC valve
opening whenever the vehicle is moving. Can
be used to mask a ‘stalling in traffic’ condition.
Typical value 5-20.
9: ‘Anti-Lag Position’ - For mild anti-lag, one
can use the stock idle control valve to introduce
2: ‘Proportional’ – This adjustment is
for immediate effect and controls the
short term responsiveness of the ISC
system. Decrease this value where
rapid idle speed oscillations occur. A
typical value is 100-200.
3: ‘Integral’ – This should be viewed
as a long term off-set. Decrease this
value where slow idle-speed
oscillations occur, or where post start
idle flare is excessive. Typical value
80-150.
4: ‘Derivative’ – This should be used
in stabilization of the idle. This help to
stabilize a hunting idle situation. Too
large a value will prevent the idle
speed from settling quickly to the
correct speed. Typical value 50-150.
5: ‘Max Vacuum’ – This is used to
enable ISC function. when the ECU
measures a vacuum that exceeds this
value, the ISC valve will be opened
regardless of other considerations.
Setting this value too low will result in
excessive idle speed all the time.
Typical value is normal idle vacuum
plus 80-100mmHg.
the air into the engine. This function controls
the valve activity on anti-lag. Anti-lag is
destructive to your engine if used incorrectly;
no responsibility is taken for the use of Antilag.
10: ‘Min PWM duty’ - is the duty cycle at
which the PWM ISC valve starts to open. Most
PWM ISC valves are preloaded and require at
least 15% duty cycle before opening. Typical
value is 10-30%. Factory preset from Hydra,
should not need to modify.
11: ‘Max PWM duty’ – is the duty at which the
PWM ISC valve is fully open. Typical value is
60-90%. Factory preset from Hydra, should not
need to modify.
12: ‘Stepper valve steps’ – working range of
steps for a stepper-motor ISC valve. You should
use the minimum steps that give a reasonable
variation in airflow. Typical value 15-30.
Factory preset from Hydra, should not need to
be modified.
6. ‘Launch fuel cut cycles’ – is the
maximum percentage of sequential
fuel injection events that will be cut
when a launch request is active, and
the launch rpm is exceeded.
7: ‘Launch spark cut cycles’ –
operates similar to launch fuel cut
cycles but cuts ignition events
instead.
Submenu ‘Settings’ – ‘Ignition’
User must be careful of settings,
extreme exhaust heat can cause engine
and component damage.
1: ‘Knock Retard Step’ – This is the number of
6: ‘Backup Knock Count’ – This is a
degrees of retards per knock event encountered.
Setting this value too low could prevent a rapid
reduction of timing in a ‘runaway detonation’
Scenario. Typical values are 3-5 degrees
2: ‘Knock Retard Max’ – This is the total number
of degrees of retard irregardless of knock events
encountered. A typical value is 8-12 degrees. If a
higher value is required, the main spark ignition
angles are set too high. You should not rely on the
protective spark retard feature to ‘bounce off’ the
knocking threshold.
parameter for switching spark map
to ‘Backup Spark Map.’ This is the
number of knock events that must
occur in rapid succession in order to
trigger an excessive knock
condition. In ‘run mode’ (the
diagnostic request pin B10 is not
connected) the ECU will revert to
the back up spark map and the check
engine light will illuminate.
3: ‘RPM Limit Soft’ – This is to set position of
soft-cut rev-limit. Timing is retarded and 60% of
sequential fuel injection events are cancelled.
7: ‘Backup Knock Spark Threshold’
– This is used to determine when a
knock event is considered a knock
count for ‘Backup Spark Map’
strategy.
4: ‘RPM Limit Hard’ – This is to set position of
hard-cut rev-limit.
Fuel injection is completely cancelled to reduce
engine speed.
8: ‘Direct Fire’ – check this box for
a distributor-less ignition system.
This is pre-selected by Hydra EMS
and does not need to be changed
5: ‘Launch RPM Soft’ – Defines the launch rpm,
above which sequential fuel injection events and
ignition events are cut.
9: ‘Wasted Spark’ – check this box
for distributor-less ignition systems
that uses the ‘wasted spark’ delivery
method. This is pre-selected by
Hydra EMS and does not need to be
changed.
4: ‘Upper and lower rpm limits’ –
define the range in which the
closed loop system will function.
Outside this range, the narrow
band or wide band closed loop
system will not make any changes
to the delivered fuel amount. Also
the auto-tune will not function.
Any LTT entries that lie outside
this range will still apply.
Therefore when altering these
limits, it is good practice to clear
the LTT Table.
Submenu ‘Settings’ – ‘Closed Loop’
1: ‘Enable Closed Loop’ – This is to enable the
closed loop feature in the software
5:‘Left module Sensor Source’ –
defines the feedback source and set
2: ‘Enable Long term Learning’ – this option
allows the ECU to make entries in the ‘long term
trim (LTT) table, and apply these values to the
actual fuel delivered amount even when not in
closed loop. The LTT table is incremented or
decremented by 0.5% every time the short-term
trim (STT) stays greater than plus or minus 5% for
a short period of time. We do not recommend using
the LTT option when using the wide band closed
loop option.
3: ‘Enable Auto-tune’ – This is to turn on the autotune feature which enables the ECU to
independently alter the fuel map when running in
closed loop wide band mode. The programming
software must be connected and diagnostic pin B10
connected. Because the fuel map is volatile in this
condition, the altered fuel map will be lost at key
off. You must upload the fuel map after an autotune
session, save the map and download for a
permanent save. This function should only be used in
a load-based dynometer under controlled situations.
Serious engine damage can occur if improperly used.
Always calibrate wideband sensor before auto-tune
is used.
point source for the left-bank
closed loop system. The first three
options allow for a 14.7 AFR set
point system only, with two narrow
band feedback sources and the
NTK L2H2 feedback source. The
fourth option causes the AFR set
point to be controlled by the AFR
target map. The feedback source is
the NTK L2H2 UEGO.
6:‘Right module Sensor Source’ –
operates similar to the left module
sensor source setting. If wide band
target table is selected for one or both
banks, then the wide band closed
loop system will be applied to both
banks, regardless of the sensor
source of the opposite bank.
7: ‘Left / right module cylinder
setup’ – the ECU fires injectors in
order injector 1, injector 2, injector
3, etc. For twin bank engines, you
must determine which bank (left or
right) for that cylinder. For inline
engines with a single bank of
injectors, simply use left bank
only. Pre-selected from Hydra.
2: ‘Proportional’ – This adjustment
is for immediate effect . Decrease
this value where rapid boost
oscillations occur. A typical value
is 100-200.
3: ‘Integral’ – This adjustment
should be viewed as long term offset. Decrease this value where slow
boost oscillations occur, or where a
boost overshoot induces a boost
fuel cut. A typical value is 80-150.
Submenu ‘Settings’-‘PID Control’
1: ‘Boost Control Start RPM’ – This determines the
4: ‘Derivative’ – This should be
used in the stabilization of boost
pressure. This is used when there
are fluctuations in the boost
pressure. A typical value is 50-150.
RPM at which a reasonable level of boost can be
achieved by the engine hardware. Below this point
the boost control output is zero, and the boost
control valve should be programmed shut. If the
boost control start rpm is set too low, the boost
control valve will open excessively in an attempt to
increase the boost, and a boost overshoot is likely
to occur as the engine speed rises.
3: ‘WOT’ – Also know as wide
open throttle, when throttle pedal is
floor, read ‘TPS Cal’ number and
input it into this window
4: ‘TPS Threshold’ – This is used
to turn on TPS enrichment. A
typical value is 40. Setting this value
too low (<20) could cause ‘false
alarm’ throttle events, and bad fuel
economy.
Submenu ‘Settings’ – ‘Throttle’
1: ‘Clear Flood TPS’ – This is used to set the TPS
angle at which the ECU cuts off all fuel during
startup. This is to enable easier starting for a
flooded engine. A typical value is 90.
2: ‘Idle’ – Used to calibrate zero TPS. Set this
value two numbers higher than the value shown in
the ‘TPS cal’ display at closed throttle. This will
prevent a ‘false alarm’ throttle opening event.
5: ‘Map Threshold’ – This is used
to turn on MAP enrichment
6: ‘Range Multiplier’ – This is
used for TPS scaling. Normally not
used. Follow factory default of 100
in base map.
7: ‘TPS cal’ – can be used to
automate the zero-throttle and
wide-open throttle calibration
process.
Turn off the deceleration fuel cut,
and set this value so that the AFR
stays close to14.7 during a backoff of the throttle. A typical value
is 50. Setting this value too high
can result in idle instability, as fuel
is reduced each time the engine
speed slows slightly.
Submenu ‘Settings’ – ‘Injection’
1: ‘Injection Trim’ – This is individual injection
trim for all eight cylinders in terms of percentage.
Useful for engines where there is a known
difference in the volumetric efficiency for
particular cylinders. Typically set these values to
zero. There is only cylinder trim for 6cylinders.
2: ‘Sequential Injection’ or ‘Throttle body
Injection’ – This will be selected normally for
sequential injection unless throttle bodies or slides
valves are used.
6: ‘Dynamic Enrichment
Coefficient’ – controls how much
fuel is increased when the rpm
rises, and vacuum is low, or in
boost. The actual percentage
increases in injected amount
proportional to this value
multiplied by the rate of rpm
increase. Typical value is 50.
Setting this value too high will
result in excessive AFR richness
when accelerating rapidly in lower
gears.
7: ‘Manifold Wetting Coefficient’
– controls how much the fuel flow
is compensated for losses to ( or
gains from) changes in the
thickness of the fuel film at the
3: ‘lean under load backup spark’ – This is used to
enable the backup spark map. If a lean condition is ports of a port fuel injected engine,
or the entire wetted area of a
detected at either narrow band oxygen sensor at
high load for an excessive period, the check engine throttle body fuel injected engine.
light will illuminate and the ECU will enter backup Fuel is usually lost to this fuel film
spark mode(depending on the run/tune mode status) (entrained) when the throttle is
opened at low rpm, and the effect
is worse at low engine
4: ‘Batched Min Pulse’ – determines minimum
temperatures. Set this value so that
twice per cycle injection pulse width. When the
the AFR does not lean out when
ECU determines that the programmed pulse width
is less than this value, once per cycle injection will opening the throttle at low engine
temperatures. Setting this value too
result.
high will result in stalling and idle
speed oscillations. A typical value
5: ‘Dynamic Enleanment Coefficient’ – controls
how much fuel is reduced when the rpm drops, and for a port fuel injected engine is 5vacuum is high (between gear changes or after free- 20 ( there is little wetted area)
revving). The actual percentage reduction in
injected amount is proportional to this value
multiplied by the rate of rpm drop.
4: ‘Enable TPS mode’ – allows the
ECU to substitute TPS for engine
load. The TPS range 0-100% will
be correlated to 0-100kPA absolute
pressure. Never use this mode for
turbocharged engine.
5: ‘Password enter’ – causes the
password inputted at the textbox to
be written to the ECU (if online),
and to the file currently open.
Submenu ‘Settings’ – ‘Setup’
1: This menu is normally setup by Hydra EMS.
Nothing should be changed except for entering
passwords to enable software changes.
2: ‘Enable zero TPS vacuum map’ – allows the
ECU to substitute the zero TPS vacuum map for
measured vacuum whenever the throttle is closed.
3: ‘Enable decel cut’ – allows the ECU to cut fuel
completely when the throttle is closed and other
criteria are met.
6: The ‘Check Status’ in the
‘Encryption’ window lets the user
check whether or not the interface
software is in sync with the ECU
so as to enable changes.
7: Please look into a appendixes
for new software functions.
1: This is used to calibrate the way
the ECU interpret the VSS signal it
gets from the car so as to obtain
accurate data-logs. Set this value
so that the vehicle speed sensor
(VSS) value shown in the left data
panel is correct for the chosen
units.
2: Please look into appendixes for
gear trim information.
Submenu ‘Settings’ – ‘Speedometer’
1: This is used to setup the X-axis
or rpm that defines the rpm spread
between rpm points for the Fuel,
Fuel anti-lag trim, Fuel auxiliary
trim, Spark, Spark anti-lag trim,
Spark auxiliary trim, Spark backup and AFR target maps.
The values in the boxes range from
0 to 255. After selecting the
number, the user has to ‘recalc’ to
determine the correct RPM value.
Submenu ‘Settings’ – ‘GridX Setup’
This is set at Hydra EMS and should
not be changed. If changed, fuel and
spark maps have to be compensated
correctly as base maps will not be
accurate anymore.
1: This is used to setup the Y-axis
or load that defines the rpm spread
between rpm points for the Fuel,
Fuel anti-lag trim, Fuel auxiliary
trim, Spark, Spark anti-lag trim,
Spark auxiliary trim, Spark backup and AFR target maps.
The values in the boxes range from
0 to 255. After selecting the
number, the user has to ‘recalc’ to
determine the correct RPM value.
Submenu ‘Settings’ – ‘GridY Setup’
This is set at Hydra EMS and should
not be changed. If changed, fuel and
spark maps have to be compensated
correctly as base maps will not be
accurate anymore.
Submenu ‘Settings’ – ‘I/O’
1. This menu option is setup by Hydra EMS. It should only be modified by
authorized Hydra dealers. Nothing should be changed in this menu; correct
operation of the car will be affected if this menu is modified in anyway.
2. AUX input configuration: defines how the ECU should respond when a digital or
analog voltage is applied to the auxiliary input. Most options are polarity
adjustable, meaning a low voltage (<2 V), or a high voltage (>3 V) will mean a
‘request’ is active. For example, an AC on switch makes a connection with 12 V
when the AC switch is on. This would be inputted as an ‘AC high request’. Note:
AUX 1, 2 and 3 tend to ‘float high’ when disconnected, and AUX 4, 5 and 6 tend to
‘float low’. You should carefully consider which type of input you need to use when a
non-request condition means an open-circuit at the AUX input.
3.
Input request options are:
• AC switch, where in order for the AC to operate, a switch sends a voltage
request to the ECU so that the ECU switches on the AC compressor clutch
if appropriate.
• Launch switch, where an active request causes the ECU to limit engine
speed to the ‘launch rpm’ setting.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Anti-lag switch, where an active request causes the ECU to add the antilag fuel map tables to the delivered fuel flow, and the anti-lag spark map
tables to the delivered ignition angle.
Auxiliary trim switch, which operates similar to the anti-lag system.
Barometer sensor, which inputted at AUX 1, 2 or 3 only, allows the ECU
to compensate delivered fuel for changes in altitude.
Map sensor, which inputted at AUX 1, 2 or 3 only, and in conjunction
with the ‘external map sensor confirm’ setting, triggers the ECU to
substitute the MAP reading from the external MAP sensor for the main
load reference.
Valet, where an active request triggers to ECU to severely limit engine
power
No request, where the ECU disregards any inputted signal
2. PWM frequency: these checkboxes should be unchecked, except where the output
is used for boost control.
1: This menu option is setup by
Hydra EMS. Nothing should be
changed in this menu; correct
operation of the car will be affected
if this menu is modified in anyway.
Explanation and description of
outputs in Appendix A.
Submenu ‘Outputs’
1: This menu option is setup by
Hydra EMS. Nothing should be
changed in this menu; correct
operation of the car will be affected
if this menu is modified in anyway.
Submenu ‘Triggers’
Communications pull down menu
Submenu ‘Com On/Off’ – This is to enable the user to go
on-line or off-line with the ECU when it is powered up. If
the Laptop is not communicating with the ECU 9offline
mode), then the laptop will attempt to communicate with
the ECU. Should the ECU not respond, an error message
will be shown. The PC software will spend a lot of time
attempting to communicate with the ECU if it does not
respond, and will slow considerably. Therefore you should
avoid ‘forcing’ the PC software online when the ECU is not
connected, or not powered up
Submenu ‘RPM Track’ – In the software interface, this will
track or highlight the position of the map which the ECU is
reading off. This also enables the user to make changes to
the map in real-time without having to find the location of
the map the ECU is reading from.
Submenu ‘RPM Hold’ – In the software interface, this stop
the ECU track or highlight the position of the map which
the ECU is reading off. This also enables the user to roam
anywhere on the map
View pull down menu
Submenu ‘Angle’ - This enables the user to rotate the 3D
map. Viewing angle changes apply only to the Fuel, Fuel antilag trim, Fuel auxiliary trim, Spark, Spark anti-lag trim, Spark
auxiliary trim, Spark back up and AFR target maps only.
Submenu ‘Panel’ – This opens a panel as shown,
it displays outputs and functions important to the
setup of the ECU. This is normally used for the
development of new applications and do not apply
to the general user. Virtual automatic transmission
feedback is currently under development.
Submenu ‘Floating Grid’ – This enables the user
to expand the current map, whether it be fuel or
spark into a full screen grid map for easier
manipulation. The floating grid is only available
for 3D maps.
Tools pull down menu
Submenu ‘Preferences’– This is used to determine
how you want the program to startup. Defaults that
are ‘saved’ will be loaded every time the PC
software is started.
Submenu ‘Import Map’– This is only used in offline mode. This will enable the user to import a
fuel, timing or pwm maps into the current map the
user is working on. First you select the file which
to import from and then under ‘select from source’
you can select which maps you want to import.
Submenu ‘Load Injector Response’ – This is used
to determine the type of injector used. This is setup
by Hydra EMS and should never be changed
unless different injector impedance is used.
Submenu ‘Color Selection’ – This is used to
change the color on the interface screen for the
center viewing graph, and the marker cells of the
map grid. Defaults that are ‘saved’ will be loaded
every time the PC software is started.
Submenu ‘Monitor Data’ – This is a menu only
used by Hydra EMS. No user function ability.
Submenu ‘Log Data’ – This enables the datalogging facility. This only works when a computer
is connected to the Nemesis. On the top right hand
corner of the screen one can choose the speed at
which samples are taken.
Submenu ‘LTT Table’ – opens the long-term
trim (LTT) table for viewing. The LTT data
is non-volatile, but can be cleared using the
‘clear LTT table’ button.
Submenu ‘Injector change trim’ – This is
used to create a fuel map based on a change
in a specific injector size. At the bottom there
is also a multiplier which the user can use for
manual manipulation of the fuel map. This is
used as a guideline only; mapping of fuel map
must still be performed for proper and safe
running of the engine.
Submenu ‘Check version’ - allows the user to check if the PC software is compatible
with the ECU firmware.
Submenu ‘Axes switch’ - : allows the user to ‘swap’ the X and Y axes for PWM map 9,
10 or 11.
Submenu ‘Reset trace’ - allows the user to reset the current ECU position trace (bold
data), knock detected trace (red data) and knock feedback trace (‘x’s).
Submenu ‘Input diagnostic’ - : this feature is not documented and used for Hydra R&D
only
Submenu ‘Step AFR’ - this feature is not documented and used for Hydra R&D only.
Graphing Data-log in Excel
1: Initially to create a chart use the ‘Chart Wizard’ in Excel. It is denoted by the
following symbol:
2: To create a secondary axis in the chart:
When the range of values for different data series in a 2-D chart varies widely, or when
you have mixed types of data (such as price and volume), you can plot one or more data
series on a secondary value (y) axis. The scale of the secondary axis reflects the values
for the associated series.
1. Click the data series you want to plot along a secondary value axis.
2. On the Format menu, click Selected Data Series, and then click the Axis tab.
3. Click Secondary axis.
Off-line Mode
When modifying or checking maps off-line one has to first open interface software as
explained in ‘Starting the software’ on page 7.
On the main screen, the user would then select ‘file’ pull down menu and submenu
‘open.’ This would be similar to that of the procedure of uploading a saved file into the
Nemesis 2.0. The difference is that instead of downloading to the Nemesis 2.0, the user
would go straight to ‘maps.’
When ‘maps’ is selected the screen on the
left will be displayed. Click ‘ok’ and it will
start the main tuning screen console.
General Overview
The difference between on-line and off-line is that some functions do not work off-line.
The list of functions that do not work off-line are as follows:
1: RPM hold and RPM track.
2: ‘Panel’ in pull down menu ‘View’ does not work.
3: ‘Monitor data’ in pull down menu ‘Tools’ does not work.
4: ‘Log Data’ in pull down menu ‘Tools’ does not work.
5: ‘Ltt table’ in pull down menu ‘Tools’ does not work.
Modifying Maps
The function of the interface other then the functions mentioned above are identical to
that when the software is on-line with the EMS. The user will experience on thing, the
graphics interface of the software is a little faster when it is off-line as there is no
communication lag time.
Check Engine Light
The factory check engine light still functions under the Nemesis. The only difference is
that the error codes are different.
1: One flash: Engine knock level is above the present threshold.
2: Two flashes: There is an input follower error.
3: Three flashes: The barometer is out of range.
4: Four flashes: The ECU senses that the car is lean under load.
PID Explanation
The PID strategies used in the Nemesis 2.0 references a proportional, integral and
derivative. We at Hydra EMS understand that this is different when compared to the
general EMS terminology used. Here is a clearer and more precise explanation of the
individual terms:
A: Proportional: Proportional is used to control immediate response of the solenoid in
question. For example, if a car is hunting, idle speed going up and down, and the afr is
correct then it is most likely the Proportional is set too high
B: Integral: Integral is used to control the delayed response of the valve. For instance, if
at startup the flare is not high enough, then the Integral is probably set too low. If the idle
speed settle quickly but is on the high side the Integral is probably set too high.
C: Derivative: Derivative is used to control minor hunting of the idle. If after adjusting
the Proportional and also the Integral, the tuner cannot get the idle to be perfectly stable,
then one should start changing the Derivative. As the Derivative gets bigger, the error is
seen as smaller and less active; in this case the error is the ISC duty cycle whether it be in
PWM or steps.
Conclusion
Hydra EMS is here to provide the consumer with a true plug and play EMS. However,
even with factory like base maps and because of manufacturing tolerances coupled with
wear and tear, all EMS must be installed and tuned by a qualified professional with the
right equipment and knowledge.
Appendix A
The following is a description of each Output option. Please advise your Dealer or tuner
what options you may want so that they can preconfigure additional outputs per your
needs. Additional outputs are not configurable by the end user and are configured by
authorized dealers only. For reference use ONLY the outputs are described below:
Injection: The output is configured for Fuel injection. The fuel injection function can only
be applied to outputs 1-8. User settings for injection are found in the ‘setting’ window.
ONLY 1 injector of resistance range of 1-30 ohms may be connected to each output.
Turbo Timer: When optional relay for this function is connected, this output connects
constant battery power to the ignition switch circuit for a period of time after the ignition
switch is turned off. The user setting is the timeout period, which commences only when
the engine speed drops back to idle. WARNING: if a vacuum leak occurs and the rpm stays
above a reasonable idle, the turbo timer will continue to activate indefinitely, and the engine
will not stop.
Thermofan: Energizes the cooling fan relay whenever the coolant temperature exceeds
the set point user setting. A small hysteresis is pre-programmed.
Staged Injection: Output is used to fire a staged injector bank or single staged injector
whenever the ECU determines that the preprogrammed fuel quantity is greater than the
main injector bank capacity. The main injector bank will ALWAYS continue to fire as
close to 100% duty cycle whenever the stage injector bank is operating. The only setting
is the staged ratio, which is 100 multiplied by the main bank flow divide by the staged
bank flow.
To assist in the priming of the staged bank, a staged bank cleaning pulse operates once
per second whenever the throttle is open.
Air Con: The output is connected to the air conditioner compressor clutch and Condenser
fan relay. Three settings control the AC operation. The AC will switch off whenever the
throttle position or rpm exceeds the respective maximum settings. When conditions are
met the Ac switches on with a small delay. This delay is set by the ‘max delay’ setting.
To stabilize the idle speed when the AC compressor clutch is engaged, several settings
are provided in the idle speed control tab of the settings window.
User 1-8: Output is used to produce a hard switch (not pulse width modulation) based on
a comparison statement such as ‘coolant temperature>100.’Such an output might be used
to switch a secondary cooling fan at high coolant temperatures or a VTEC switch at a
certain RPM.
User 9-12: Output is used to produce a ‘AND’ logical result of two comparison switches.
Consider the case of an intercooler water spray, whereas the user desires the water to be
sprayed onto the intercooler at high air temperatures. If a simple ‘air temperature>50’
switch is used, the intercooler water spray might engage even on a hot day due to heat
soak, even when the engine is idling. A better comparison statement would be ‘ air
temperature>50 AND boost>5.’ The intercooler water spray would only operate under
high temperatures and when boost is greater than 5psi. Factory Canister Purge control is
usually pinned to one of these outputs.
PWM MAP 1-8: Output can be used to define a duty cycle signal that varies in response
to a single variable, such as coolant temperature. Consider the case of a variable speed
cooling fan, which is off when the signal duty cycle is 0%, and increase in speed up to a
maximum for a signal duty cycle of 100%.
A user might wish to program a zero duty cycle at low temperatures, increase the duty
linearly from 0% to 100% between 90C to110C, then maintain 100% duty cycle above
110C. By doing so, the cooling fan would come on slowly as the coolant temperature
rose above 90C, instead of switching on hard above a set point.
PWM MAP 9-11: Output can be used to define a duty cycle signal that varies in response
to two variables, such as engine speed and load. A common use is open loop variable cam
phaser control. The cam phaser is energized by a duty cycle in order to alter the cam
timing at different engine speeds and loads.
When ‘closed loop VTC’ is enabled in the triggers settings window, PWM MAP9 and 10
are both converted to variable camshaft angle target tables. (Available for select cars
Only, check with your dealer). The duty cycles are converted linearly based on the VCT
spread inputted at the trigger settings window. For example is 60 degrees spread was
inputted, then the target angle range will be plus or minus 30 degrees.
ISCO: The output is connected to a pulsed width modulated idle speed control valve,
which allows more bypass airflow as the duty cycle is increases. Settings for ISCO are
found in the ISC tab of the settings window.
ISCC: The output is connected to a pulsed width modulated idle speed control valve,
which allows less bypass airflow as the duty cycle is increases. Some pulse width
modulated ISC valves (3pin) operate using both a close (ISCC) and open (ISCO) signal.
Fuel Pump: The output is connected to the factory fuel pump relay. The primer setting is
the period over which the fuel pump is primed at Key on. This output has a safety ‘cut
pump on stall’ feature like factory ECUs.
Check engine Lamp: This output option illuminates the check engine lamp whenever the
engine is not running or when a fault condition exists.
TCC: The torque converter clutch activates at conditions of high vacuum, moderate rpm
and slight throttle position. The TCC will only engage when the vehicle speed exceeds
the user set minimum. As a safety feature, the TCC will only operate at speeds greater
than 60km.hr, regardless of the user setting.
ATX: Still in development
VSS: Still in development
F1: Future option
F2: Future Option
Off: Any connected output is not energized.
Appendix B
Most maps in Control 1 to 3 are 2D maps. They are shown as a plot line. The height of
the line represents how large the value is.
The picture above is the coolant temperature enrichment curve. The yellow bar is the
current ECU position, in this case a cold engine with a lot of cold enrichment. The purple
bar is the keyboard trim position, which shows which cell is highlighted for alteration.
The picture above is the 3D fuel map. The yellow bar is the current ECU load position,
in this case about 75% maximum engine load. The green bar is the current ECU rpm
position, in this case about 60% maximum engine rpm. The purple bars are the current
keyboard position, which controls which cell is highlighted for alteration.
The cell highlighted for alteration is at the intersection of the two purple bars, and is
highlighted with a purple circle.
In hold mode, the current keyboard position can be held at any cell. Therefore any cell of
the fuel map can be accessed and altered.
In track mode, the current keyboard position and current load and rpm position always
coincide. The keyboard position constantly tracks the ECU position, therefore only the
current ECU position cell can be altered.
Right map grid:
Contains the map data in grid form. 3D map cells are arranged with the Y-axis (or load
for fuel and spark tables) horizontal and the X-axis vertical. For 2D maps, cells are
arranged horizontally only.
The data values shown here are of a fuel map. From the yellow current ECU position
feedback cell, it can be seen that the engine is running at 2000 rpm, and the vacuum is
around 630 mmHg. The yellow current ECU position feedback updates several times per
second. Cells visited by the current position feedback are highlighted bold in order to
trace which cells have been accessed during a tuning session.
Hold tuning mode:
In the above grid, the purple current keyboard position is different from the yellow
current ECU position. The software is therefore in hold mode.
In order to alter a cell, the purple current keyboard position must be moved to the desired
cell. In this case, pressing the right arrow a few times then the down arrow a few times
will move the purple cell to the yellow cell.
Track tuning mode:
If the tuning software was in track mode, then the purple current keyboard position cell
would not show, because it would coincide with the current ECU position cell, colored
yellow. The only cell alterable is the current ECU position cell. In track mode, it is not
possible to move to a different cell using the arrow keys.
Cell alteration methods:
Methods of altering cells differ depending on the map type, and online/offline status. The
following table describes the tuning methods.
Map
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fuel
Fuel antilag trim
Fuel
auxiliary
trim
Spark
Spark
anti-lag
trim
Spark
auxiliary
trim
Spark
backup
Map
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fuel
Fuel antilag trim
Fuel
auxiliary
trim
Spark
Spark
anti-lag
trim
Spark
auxiliary
trim
Spark
backup
Map
•
•
•
•
•
Fuel
Fuel antilag trim
Fuel
auxiliary
trim
Spark
Spark
anti-lag
trim
Offline methods
Online
methods
Increment and decrement a cell using page-up and pagedown keys.
Same as offline
method
Offline methods
Online
methods
Increment and decrement group cells using page-up and
page-down keys. First highlight cells using ctrl-left, ctrlright, ctrl-up or ctrl-down.
Offline methods
Direct entry cell using the space bar.
Same as offline
method
Online
methods
Not supported
online.
•
•
Spark
auxiliary
trim
Spark
backup
Map
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fuel
Fuel antilag trim
Fuel
auxiliary
trim
Spark
Spark
anti-lag
trim
Spark
auxiliary
trim
Spark
backup
Map
•
•
Offline methods
Online
methods
Direct entry group cells using the space bar. First
highlight cells using ctrl-left, ctrl-right, ctrl-up or ctrl-down.
Offline methods
Control Increment and decrement a cell using
page-up and page-down keys.
1
Control
2
Not supported
online.
Online methods
Increment and decrement a cell
using page-up and page-down keys.
Press enter to complete edit.
•
•
Control
3
2D
PWM
Map
•
•
Offline methods
3D
PWM
AFR
target
Increment and decrement a cell using
page-up and page-down keys.
Map
•
•
3D PWM
AFR target
Map
Offline methods
Direct entry using the space bar.
Offline methods
Online methods
Increment and decrement a cell
using page-up and page-down keys.
Press enter to complete edit.
Online methods
Direct entry using the spacebar.
Press enter to complete edit.
Online methods
•
•
3D PWM
AFR target
Direct entry group cells using the space
bar. First highlight cells using ctrl-left,
ctrl-right, ctrl-up or ctrl-down.
Direct entry group cells using the
space bar. First highlight cells using
ctrl-left, ctrl-right, ctrl-up or ctrl-down.
Press enter to complete edit.
Grid traces:
Grid traces consist of
1. Bolding of cells visited by the current ECU position (3D maps only)
2. Shading of altered cells (3D maps only)
3. Change of color (to red) where knock events occur in the Spark map
Top right navigation tools:
There are several grid and map navigation options, as well as tuning method controls.
RPM/X-axis hold:
Allows the user to select current ECU position (track) or current keyboard position
(hold) tuning mode on the rpm or X-axis. These buttons are disabled for any 2D map.
•
•
In track mode, the alterable cell (current keyboard position, purple cell)
always follows the current rpm or X-axis variable (current ECU position,
yellow cell). The cell does not show purple because it is under the yellow
cell.
In hold mode, the alterable cell (current keyboard position, purple cell) is
stationary in the rpm or X-axis direction. To alter a different cell, you must
first navigate to that cell using the left and right arrow keys.
Load/Y-axis hold:
Allows the user to select current ECU position (track) or current keyboard position
(hold) tuning mode on the load or Y-axis. These buttons are disabled for any 2D map.
The functionality for the load/Y-axis hold/track is the same as for the rpm/X-axis
hold/track.
Load center/arrow center:
In load center mode, the map grid is centered so that the current ECU position
(yellow cell) is always in view. In arrow center mode, the current keyboard position
(purple cell) is always in view.
Because the map grid is large (32 x 32 cells), not all data cells are viewable in the
displayed grid area. Therefore in both modes to alternate position marker cell may
disappear from view. The disappearance of a marker cell is not a malfunction of the
software. It is a limitation due to the large amount of data cells needing to be
displayed. If a ‘lost marker cell’ causes irritation, consider revising the mode that
you are using.
For convenience, you can save your mode preferences in the ‘Tools->Preferences’
window.
Roam map/roam grid:
Controls the navigation based on arrow key inputs.
In roam map mode, the keyboard navigation is intuitive to the center viewing graph
map display. The up or down arrow key triggers a roam ‘up’ or ‘down’ the load or Yaxis. The left or right arrow key triggers a roam ‘up’ or ‘down’ the rpm or X-axis.
The following diagram shows how the software responds to presses of the up arrow
key in roam map mode.
In roam grid mode, the keyboard navigation is intuitive to the right map grid. The left
and right arrow keys trigger an expected roam of the map grid. The following
diagram shows how the software responds to presses of the up arrow key in roam grid
mode.
Top right navigation tools:
Function keys F1-F9 have the following ‘hot-key’ functions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
F1: show/hide the function key tool-bar (pictured above)
F2: open the save dialog box
F3: jump to the Fuel map
F4: jump to the Spark map
F5: interpolate the selected cell group in the load/Y direction
F6: interpolate the selected cell group in the rpm/X direction
F7: open the direct entry dialog box for a mass entry of new values
F8: toggle between track and hold mode for both rpm/X and load/Y modes
F9: open the floating grid for the current map (3D maps only)
Appendix C
Control 2
ISC Open Gain: This is used in conjunction with the Zero TPS Vacuum. It is the
relationship between vacuum drop versus ISC position for fuel and ignition
mapping at idle.
Having he ISC open gain too shallow will lead the Hydra to think there is more
vacuum than there really is when the ISC valve opens. A lean out will occur and
the engine will stall. Having the slope too high will lead the Hydra to think there
is less vacuum than there really is when the ISC opens and the AFR will go too
rich.
First set the zero TPS vacuum map from intuition or by experimenting with a
vacuum gauge. Then set the ISC open gain so that the engine runs ok even when a
load is applied to the engine and the ISC valve opens a lot. Remember,
Lambda/AFR will not be close to stoic, as the over-lap in the cams will put unburnt mixture into the exhaust causing the lambda sensor to read rich.
“Need to put graph for display of workings of the clamped values”
Control 3
Max ISC Integrator: Setup of this should be done without AC being turned on.
The max integrator should be set as high as possible without idle rising too high,
especially during start and also gear changes. This puts a false top to the ISC
value used. A good value to start with is about 60 to 70.
Min AC ISC Integrator: Setup of this should be done with the AC turned on.
This should be set as high as possible without the idle flaring up too high when
the AC comes on. This sets a false bottom where the ISC will always sit when the
AC is turned on. A good value to start with is about 40. A function connected to
this function is the AC STEPS UP. AC STEPS UP provides an instantaneous flare
to the idle before the AC switches on.
Trim by Gear: This function is used to trim fuel with respect to gear. This
function is enabled when Enable Gear Boost Enrichment is selected in the
Settings menu.
Settings
PID Control: In the PID control section of Settings, there are two variables;
Input Follower Proportional and Input Follower Integral. These are used for
the Miata closed loop alternator control strategy. Please follow PID control
strategy with respect to the voltage map in PWM Map 1.
Boost Control: This is a more detailed explanation for the boost control strategy.
Boost target map = target boost versus rpm. Input the desired boost level at all of the
different rpm sites. If you are doing this online, don't forget to hit enter after you change
the target boost at each site.
The boost control tab allows the P, I and D terms to be altered.
‘Proportional’ – This adjustment is for immediate effect. Decrease this value where
rapid boost oscillations occur. A typical value is 100-200.
‘Integral’ – This adjustment should be viewed as long term off-set. Decrease this
value where slow boost oscillations occur, or where a boost overshoot induces a
boost fuel cut. A typical value is 80-150.
‘Derivative’ – This should be used in the stabilization of boost pressure. This is used
when there are fluctuations in the boost pressure. A typical value is 50-150.
The rpm threshold is the point at which a reasonable level of boost can be achieved.
Consider if this point was inputted as 1500 rpm. Clearly not a lot of boost would be made
at this rpm. Flooring the throttle would result in the boost control valve trying as hard as
possible to increase the boost, despite the fact that no boost would be made. As the rpm
increased and the boost started to rise, it would likely grossly overshoot because the valve
is trying so hard to 'up the boost'. Good starting point 2500 - 3000 rpm.
Another noteworthy point is that in the above 'gross overshooting' scenario, the over
boost fuel cut would probably activate, causing a huge drive-ability problem. The over
boost cut activates when the measured boost level is greater that 3 psi above the target
level.
The output of the PID algorithm is simply a number that rises to increase boost, and falls
to reduce the boost. This number could be simply outputted as a duty cycle straight to the
boost control valve for a simple boost control system.
We provide an intermediate 2D PWM map, where the output of the PID controller is the
input of this 2D PWM map. This way, we can program for a valve that does not have a
very linear response to duty cycle, or even for a 'backwards' valve.
Consider a valve that opens half way when the valve duty cycle is only 30%. With this
intermediate 2D PWM map, we can program the output of the PWM curve to be 30%
when the input value (from the PID algorithm) is 50%.
In summary, the complete system works like this:
1. The boost control program first checks that the rpm threshold has been reached and
that the engine is making at least a little boost.
2. The boost target and measured boost are inputted into the PID algorithm, which
outputs a simply number which rises to increase the boost, or falls to reduce the boost.
3. This number is inputted into the x-axis of the 2D PWM map, and the y-value of the
map (the user inputted value of duty cycle) is determined.
4. This output value is sent as a duty cycle to the boost control valve.
Settings: Setup
Enable Multi-Inject on Cranking: This enables the ECU to inject fuel four
times per revolution.
Enable -dm/dt Anticipation: This enables a function that lets the ECU anticipate
the increase in vacuum on the map and therefore reduce fuel right before the
situation happens
Enable +dm/dt Anticipation: This enables a function that lets the ECU
anticipate the decrease in vacuum on the map and therefore put in the enrichment
right before the situation happens
Enable Gear Boost Enrichment: This enables a function that lets the user trim
fuel with respect to gear.
Enable O2 Lightup Delay:
Enable AC Idle Speed Increase: When this function is enabled, the ECU
automatically increase the idle speed when the AC is engaged by 150rpm. This is
especially useful in cars with big cams as this would reduce the chance of the
engine stalling on deceleration
Enable Moving Launch: This enables the soft-cut launch control to activate
when the car is moving. This will enable the user to flat the car.
Settings: VSS and Ratios
The Hydra calculates the current measured gear ratio using the engine speed and
VSS. You can observe the current measured gear ratio at $6BAE in Monitor Data.
It is shown as DOUBLE the real ratio. Clearly you want to accurately calibrate
the VSS first!!
Drive the car in all gears and observe the current measured gear ratios. For
example you might get 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96. Halve these to get for example 8,
16, 24, 32, 40, 48 kph/1000 rpm. Input these numbers into the gear ratio table.
The Hydra can then work out what gear you are in.
You must check the enable gear boost enrichment in settings->setup to enable the
control 3->gear trim table. The trims only work at high load (boost and <200
mmHg).
Tools: Preferences
This option enables the user to select the default startup of the interface. For
example: Metric or Imperial, Auto Connect or Not….etc.
Tools: Check Version
This function check the version of the software being used with the version of
firmware in the ECU. It will let you know if there might be conflicts or the
version is totally incorrect.
Tools: Input Diagnostics
This is a function only used by Hydra EMS, it is not a consumer level function.
Tools: Crank Trigger Test
The crank trigger test is used as an evaluation tool. Consumers only will only
need to use it under the direct supervision of Hydra EMS, as the code produced
can only be read by Hydra EMS.
File: Edit Comments
Under the interface main window, under the ‘file’ menu, you will see a function
call ‘edit Comments.’ This will enable the user to log comments on the main
interface window in order to remember the specifics in which the map was
written.
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