GLE 3.3 User Manual

GLE 3.3
User Manual
C. Pugmire
1
Extended Version
St.M. Mundt
2
10 October 2000
c Physical Sciences, Information Technology Group
°
Department of Scientific and Industrial Research
Lower Hutt
New Zealand
1
2
srghcxp@grv.dsir.govt.nz
stefan@pstv.biophys.uni-duesseldorf.de
i
Trademark Acknowledgements
The following trademarks are used in this manual.
VAX
MS-DOS
MS-WIN-WORD
DJGPP
GO32
GRX
BCC2GRX
TEX
LaTEX
PKUNZIP
WordPerfect
PostScript
EPSON
HPGL
HP2XX
Digital Equipment Corporation.
Microsoft Corporation.
Microsoft Corporation.
D. J. Delorie, GNU LIBRARY GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE.
dto., see the files in the directory gle32\go32.doc
Csaba Biegl, GNU LIBRARY GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE.
Hartmut Schirmer, GNU LIBRARY GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE.
Donald E. Knuth, A Typesetting System.
Leslie Lamport, A Document Preparation System.
Data decompression software from PKWARE Inc.
WordPerfect Corporation.
Page Description Language, Adobe Systems Inc.
Seiko Epson Corporation.
Hewlett Packard.
Heinz Werntges, GNU LIBRARY GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE.
ii
Contents
Preface
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typographic Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pathways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v
v
v
vi
1 GLE Tutorial
1.1 GLE Installation on a PC .
1.2 Running GLE . . . . . . . .
1.3 Running GLE on a PC . . .
1.4 32bit DOS Version of GLE
1.5 Running GLE on a VAX . .
1.6 It didn’t work, bugs!!! . . .
1.7 Drawing a Line on a Page .
1.8 Drawing a Simple Graph . .
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1
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1
2
4
5
5
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2 GLE Primitives
2.1 Graphics Primitives (a summary)
2.2 Graphics Primitives (in detail) .
2.3 Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Functions Inside Expressions . .
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4 The KEY module
4.1 Key commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Key syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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40
5 Advanced features of GLE
5.1 Colour . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Device Drivers . . . . . .
5.2.1 PC Screen Drivers
5.2.2 GO32/GRX Screen
5.2.3 PostScript Driver .
5.2.4 TEK4010 Driver .
43
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3 The
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
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Graph Module
Graph Commands (a summary)
Graph Commands (in detail) .
Bar Graphs . . . . . . . . . . .
3D Bar Graphs . . . . . . . . .
Filling Between Lines . . . . .
Notes on Drawing Graphs . . .
3.6.1 Importance of Order . .
3.6.2 Line Width . . . . . . .
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Driver
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iv
CONTENTS
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.2.5 HPGL Driver . . . . . . . . .
5.2.6 PC Bitmap Drivers . . . . . .
5.2.7 DVIPRINT . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.8 Fonts (font mapping) . . . . .
5.2.9 Printer Fonts . . . . . . . . .
Diagrams, Joining Named Objects .
Filling, Stroking and Clipping Paths
Using Variables . . . . . . . . . . . .
Programming Loops . . . . . . . . .
Extended I/O Functions . . . . . . .
Device dependend Control . . . . . .
6 GLE Utilities
6.1 Fitls . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Manip . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1 Usage . . . . . .
6.2.2 Manip Primitives
6.2.3 Manip Primitives
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54
. . . . . . . .
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(a summary)
(in detail) . .
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7 SURFACE
7.1 Surface primitives . . . .
7.1.1 Surface Commands
7.2 LETZ . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 FITZ . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4 CONTOUR . . . . . . . .
A Tables
A.1 Markers . . .
A.2 Fonts . . . . .
A.3 Functions . .
A.4 LaTEX Macros
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. . . . . . . .
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and Symbols
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85
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. 90
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. 94
. 96
. 98
. 101
B Examples
A Single Graph . . . .
Stack of Two Graphs .
Stack of Four Graphs
Shadow Graph . . . .
Loop, Subroutines . .
Joining Objects . . . .
Clipping . . . . . . . .
Wall Reference . . . .
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C GLE32
103
D Fonttables
109
CONTENTS
v
Abstract
GLE is a high quality graphics package for scientists, combining a user friendly interface with a
full range of facilities for producing publication quality graphs, diagrams, posters and slides.
GLE provides LaTEX quality fonts together with a flexible graphics module which allows the user
to specify any feature of a graph (down to the line width of the subticks, for example)
Complex pictures can be drawn with user defined subroutines and simple looping structures.
Current device drivers support DECWINDOWS, REGIS, TEK4010, all PC graphics cards,
VT100s, HP-Plotters, PostScript Printers, EPSON Printers and LaserJet Printers.
GLE runs on both VAXes and PCs, giving an identical user interface on both platforms.
Typographic Conventions
The following conventions will be used in command descriptions:
[option]
option1 | option2
keyword
exp,x,y,x1,y1
Specifies an optional keyword or parameter,
the brackets should not be typed.
Pick one of the options listed.
Keywords are represented in a bold typewriter
font.
Represent numbers or expressions. E.g. 2.2 or
2*5. Parameters to be entered by the user are
given in italics.
vi
CONTENTS
Pathways
For those in a hurry:
1. Read chapter 1, GLE Tutorial, (beginners only).
2. Examine the examples at the end of the manual.
3. Browse through Chapter 3, The Graph Module.
4. Read the notes in Chapter 5 on your planned output device.
For those with time:
Chapter 1, GLE Tutorial: Covers installation and drawing a simple graph, highly recommended if you have never used GLE before.
Chapter 2, GLE Primitives: A detailed description of the commands used for creating slides
and annotating graphs.
Chapter 3, The Graph Module: A detailed description of the commands for drawing graphs.
Chapter 4, The Key Module: This is for producing keys for graphs. Skip this section until
you actually want to draw a key.
Chapter 5, Advanced features of GLE: Covers programming, filling and clipping. The
individual device drivers are also described in this section.
Chapter 6, GLE Utilities: Describes FITLS and MANIP.
Chapter 7, SURFACE: A detailed description of the commands drawing three-dimensional
graphs.
Examples: Have a look through these to get an idea of what GLE can do. Most of these are
included on the distribution disk and can be used as templates.
Chapter 1
GLE Tutorial
1.1
GLE Installation on a PC
To install GLE, put the distribution disk into drive a: and type:
a:install
GLE requires at least 800K of disk space for a minimal installation and 3.3M for a full installation
(including all device drivers and fonts).
GLE also requires 530K or more of free memory. Use the DOS command CHKDSK to check this
figure. If you don’t have enough then take copies of your AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS
files and then remove as much as possible from these files.
GLE may work with less memory depending on what you are drawing.
The installation disk contains a version of CGLE which will make use of epanded memory. This
version can run with 70K less memory but if you don’t have expanded memory then it has to use
your hard disk instead which is a great deal slower.
1.2
Running GLE
To get GLE running interactively you must be on a VAXstation, graphics terminal, or PC. If you
are using a PC you should make certain you have an up to date copy of GLE (ask via VAX-mail
to GRV::SRGHCXP or InterNET srghcxp@grv.dsir.govt.nz)
1.3
Running GLE on a PC
The command to run GLE is:
C:\GLE> cgle myfile.gle
1
2
CHAPTER 1. GLE TUTORIAL
Note: the command is ‘CGLE’ not ‘GLE’ but the directory is ‘GLE’, this is for historical reasons.
To print a GLE file to the laser printer you would type:
C:> psgle myfile
C:> print myfile.ps
To produce an .eps file for inclusion in WordPerfect you would type:
C:> psgle myfile /eps
This will create a file called myfile.EPS.
WordPerfect can also understand a special file format which contains both an EPS file for printing
to PostScript printers and a bitmap TIFF image for displaying on the screen. GLE can create this
sort of file with the command:
C:> wpgle myfile
This will create a file called MYFILE.EPF which you can include into WordPerfect.
If your PC is connected to a VAX computer which has a PostScript printer you may copy MYFILE.PS to the VAX using a standard file transfer program (e.g. FTP, KERMIT, VDISK)
The best way to see what GLE can do is to have a play with it, simply start it up and try out
some of the examples:
Press F3
(Load file)
Press <enter> (for a menu of GLE files)
Use arrow keys to select example, then press <enter>
Press F10 to draw the picture
Press ESC to get back to the GLE editor.
...
When you find a graph try pressing F9 and modifying
one of the fields (use F1 for an explanation of each
field).
Used symbols for PC:
GLE_NOCONTROLD TRUE (Stops ^D being added to ps files)
(this is the default for unix)
GLE_ADDBGI ...
(high resolution BGI-Driver)
(see Device Drivers)
1.4
32bit DOS Version of GLE
Axel Rohde has compiled a 32bit DOS version of GLE in 1994 ( email: rohde@physik.unikiel.d400.de)
On any 386 or better machine this version of GLE should run without problems, it’s main features
are these: 1) No 640K memory restrictions. 2) Much faster.
1.4. 32BIT DOS VERSION OF GLE
3
Properties of GLE 32:
- All programs are running in the 386-protected-mode and therefore there is
neither a limited 640kB adress-range nor a 64kB segmentation.
- 32-bit programs are running faster than their 16-bit-counterparts.
- There exists a multitude of GRX-graphics-drivers, e.g. for
TSENG ET4000(W32), S3, 8514A, Cirrus Logic GD 542x, Trident 8900,
Diamond Viper, ATI Ultra, ATI VGA and EGA. These drivers are highly
configureable and can use flicker-free high resolution modes.
Installation Quick guide:
1) FTP the binary distribution
ftp tui.marc.cri.nz
cd pub/gle/gle32
binary
mget gle32bi*.zip
2) Unzip them keeping the directory structure
cd c:\
pkunzip gle32bi1.zip -d
pkunzip gle32bi2.zip -d
pkunzip gle32bi3.zip -d
pkunzip gle32bi4.zip -d
pkunzip gle32bi5.zip -d
pkunzip gle32bi6.zip -d
3) Edit the batch file which tells gle where to find it’s fonts
and also what sort of graphics card you have.
edit setgle32.bat
(change the disk and directory as appropriate)
4) Run the batch script
setgle32
5) Try out the new version
gle_vga
6) Note most of the programs have been renamed to avoid conflicts!!!
To avoid name-conflicts between a 16-bit and a 32-bit version of GLE, all the programs and the
environment-variables were renamed. All GLE-programs have now unix-style names like gle_ps
(=’psgle’- Postscript-output), gle_vga (=’cgle’ - VGA-Preview) etc. The names of the utilities
end with ’32’ - manip32, contou32 . . .
Restrictions and Bugs:
1. The vector-fonts of the 32-bit-version are NOT compatible to their 16-bit-counterparts. They
may be compatible to fonts that were created under other 32-bit operating-systems.
2. The on-line-help of gle_vga is usable but may sometimes look different compared to the original.
3. Makefmt and fbuild are missing. DJGPP’s Library lacks ecvt(). Both programs are used to
calculate vector-fonts in the Unix-version from the source-distribution. Both programs are
NOT included in the 16-bit DOS-version, too. This package includes all (allready calculated)
fonts from the Unix-source distribution. They were calculated under Linux, a free Uniximplementation for i386-PC’s and higher.
4. The DVI-drivers are not testet!
4
CHAPTER 1. GLE TUTORIAL
5. Surface (surf_vga) hanged under unknown circumstances while loading one data-file. surf_vga
can be stopped by pressing Control-Pause. If this happens, load the data-file into an editor,
save it, and try it again.
In gle32b.txt are the more detailed instructions provided by Axel Rohde. Read these carefully
if you have any problems.
1.5
Running GLE on a VAX
The command to run GLE is:
$ cgle myfile.gle
$ cgle myfile.gle /dev=regis
$ cgle myfile.gle /dev=x
See the directory CGLE EXAMPLES: for examples and templates. To get access to these files
from the GLE menus use the commands:
$ define workarea sys$login:,cgle_examples:
$ set default workarea:
$ cgle stack4b.gle
! or any other example
If your keyboard doesn’t have the function keys F9 thru F14 you can use GOLD (PF1) followed
by the numbers 9,0,1,2,3,4 (on the top of the QWERTYUIOP keypad).
Keyboard Mappings:
VT100
GOLD 1
GOLD 2
GOLD 3
GOLD 4
GOLD 9
GOLD 0
Control+Z
VT200
F11
F12
F13
F14
F9
F10
Control+Z
Control+E
Control+F
Control+R
Control+E
Control+F
Control+R
PC
F1
F2
F3
F4
F9
F10
Control+Z
Alt+X
F5
Control+S
Meaning
Help
Save
Load
Save-as
Graph-menu
Draw-it
Exit/Escape
Exit/Escape
Calls VAX EDT
Toggle fast/slow text
Shows errors
Shells to DOS
Supported devices: VT100, REGIS (VT125, VT240), TEK4010, VWS, XWindows.
Supported output: PostScript, HPGL, Epson, Epson 24pin, HP Deskjet.
To create a PostScript output file (.PS) and automatically print it to the LASER queue you would
type:
$ cgle myfile /print
1.6. IT DIDN’T WORK, BUGS!!!
5
To produce an .eps file for inclusion in LaTEX you would type:
$ cgle myfile /dev=eps
To produce a .ps file suitable for printing to a laser writer type:
$ cgle myfile /dev=ps
The DCL symbol GLE NOCONTROLD should be set to ”TRUE” to kill the ^D on vms systems.
If you set the DCL symbol GLE EDITOR to TPU then you will get TPU instead of EDT when
you press ^E.
1.6
It didn’t work, bugs!!!
If the installation fails, or one of the example GLE files fails to work then the most likely reason
is a shortage of memory due to too many memory resident programs/drivers. To fix this remove
these utilities from your autoexec.bat and config.sys files temporarily.
There may well be a bug in your GLE file, try using the trace option to find the bug.
On a PC:
C:\GLE> psgle myfile /trace
On a VAX:
$ cgle myfile /dev=ps /trace
Another reason for a failure is a bug in GLE, Please report bugs to Chris Pugmire (Internet
srghcxp@grv.dsir.govt.nz, grv::srghcxp) so they can be fixed. If possible, try and find a way of
repeating the problem, then send relevant GLE and data files with an outline of what is wrong.
1.7
Drawing a Line on a Page
Let’s start with drawing a line on the page. GLE has to know what size piece of paper you are
working with. You can tell it by giving a size command:
size 18 27
This specifies a piece of paper 18cm wide and 27cm high. Now you must define a current point
by moving to somewhere on the page:
amove 2 4
The origin (0,0) is at the bottom left hand corner of the page. Now suppose we wish to draw a
line from this point across 1 cm and up 2 cm:
size 18 27
amove 2 4
rline 1 2
6
CHAPTER 1. GLE TUTORIAL
That was a relative movement as the x and y values were given as distances from the current
point, alternatively we could have used absolute coordinates:
size 18 27
amove 2 4
aline 3 6
! absolute.
Now if you want to draw some text on this page at the current point you would use the text
command:
text Hi there
So we have now constructed an entire GLE program as follows, with the results illustrated below:
size 12
amove 2
rline 1
text Hi
1.8
8 box
4
2
there
Hi there
Drawing a Simple Graph
This section will describe how to go about drawing a simple graph.
The following data points are contained in a file called TUT.DAT
x
y
----1
2
2
6
3
2
4
5
5
9
(These top two lines do not appear in the file)
The data is in two columns with white space separating each column of numbers. The following
commands will draw a simple line graph of the data.
size 6 3
begin graph
size 6 3
data tut.dat
yaxis min 0
d1 line marker star msize .2
end graph
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
The first size command defines the size of the piece of paper which may contain several graphs.
The second defines the size of this particular graph. The actual graph axes are by default 0.7 of
these dimensions. The ratio can be changed with the vscale and hscale commands.
1.8. DRAWING A SIMPLE GRAPH
7
Without the ”yaxis min 0” command the yaxis would start at 2.0, because that is the minimum y
value in the data. This makes the graph easier to interpret.
Changing the above d1 command to:
d1 line marker circle
will mark each data point with a circle instead of a star. See appendix A for a list of other marker
names.
A smooth line can be drawn between the data points by changing the d1 command to:
d1 line smooth
The order of the commands is not important, except that circle is a parameter for the qualifier
marker and therefore must come straight after it. E.g.,
d1 [marker circle] [line smooth] [color blue]
size 6 3
begin graph
size 6 3
title "Tut Graph Two"
data tut.dat
d1 line smooth
end graph
Tut Graph Two
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
It is simple to change to a bar graph and include last year’s measurements:
begin graph
size 6 3
xaxis min 0 max 6
yaxis min 0 max 15
data tut.dat
data tut2.dat
bar d1,d2 fill grey10,grey90
end graph
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Adding min and max values on the axis commands is highly recommended because by default GLE
won’t start from y=0 unless the data happens to be very close to zero. It is also impossible to
compare graphs unless they all have the same axis ranges.
8
CHAPTER 1. GLE TUTORIAL
Chapter 2
GLE Primitives
A GLE command is a sequence of keywords and values separated by white space (one or more
spaces or tabs). Each command must begin on a new line. Keywords may not be abbreviated, the
case is not significant. All coordinates are expressed in centimetres from the bottom left corner of
the page.
GLE uses the concept of a current point which most commands use. For example, the command
aline 2 3 will draw a line from the current point to the coordinates (2,3).
The current graphics state also includes other settings like line width, colour, font, 2d transformation matrix. All of these can be set with various GLE commands.
9
10
2.1
CHAPTER 2. GLE PRIMITIVES
Graphics Primitives (a summary)
! comment
@xxx
aline x y [arrow start] [arrow end] [arrow both]
amove x y
arc radius a1 a2
arcto x1 y1 x2 y2 rad
begin box [fill pattern] [add gap] [nobox] [name xyz]
begin clip
begin origin
begin path [stroke] [fill pattern] [clip]
begin rotate angle
begin scale x y
begin table
begin text [width exp]
begin translate x y
bezier x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3
bigfile filename.gle
box x y [justify jtype] [fill color] [name xxx] [nobox]
circle radius [fill pattern]
closepath
curve ix iy [x1 y1 x y x y ... xn yn]ex ey
define marker markername subroutine-name
for var = exp1 to exp2 [step exp3] command [...] next var
grestore
gsave
if exp then command [...] else command [...] end if
include filename
join object1.just sep object2.just
marker marker-name [scale-factor]
postscript filename.eps width-exp height-exp
rbezier x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3
return exp
reverse
rline x y [arrow end] [arrow start] [arrow both]
rmove x y
save objectname
set cap butt — round — square
set color col
set dashlen dashlen-exp
set font font-name
set fontlwidth line-width
set hei character-size
set join mitre — round — bevel
set just left — center — right — tl — etc...
set lstyle line-style
set lwidth line-width
sub sub-name paramter1 paramter2 etc
text unquoted-text-string
write string$
2.2. GRAPHICS PRIMITIVES (IN DETAIL)
2.2
11
Graphics Primitives (in detail)
! comment
Indicates the start of a comment. GLE ignores everything from the exclamation point to the
end of the line.
@xxx
Executes subroutine xxx.
aline x y [arrow start] [arrow end] [arrow both]
Draws a line from the current point to the absolute coordinates (x,y), which then becomes
the new current point. The arrow qualifiers are optional, they draw arrows at the start or
end of the line, the size of the arrow is proportional to the current font height.
amove x y
Changes the current point to the absolute coordinates (x,y).
arc radius a1 a2
Draws an arc of a circle in the anti-clockwise direction, centered at the current point, of
radius radius, starting at angle a1 and finishing at angle a2. Angles are specified in degrees.
Zero degrees is at three o’clock and Ninety degrees is at twelve o’clock.
arc 1.2 20 45
The command narc is identical but draws the arc in the clockwise direction. This is important
when constructing a path.
amove .5 .5
rline 1 .5 arrow end
arc 1 10 160
arc .5 -90 0
arcto x1 y1 x2 y2 rad
Draws a line from the current point to (x1,y1) then to (x2,y2) but fits an arc of radius rad
joining the two vectors instead of a vertex at the point (x1,y1).
amove 1.5 .5
rline 1 0
set lwidth .1
arcto 2 0 -1 1 .5
set lwidth 0
rline -1 1
begin block name ... end block name
There are several block structured commands in GLE. Each begin must have a matching
end. Blocks which change the current graphics state (e.g. scale, rotate, clip etc) will restore
whatever they change at the end of the block. Indentation is optional but should be used to
make the GLE program easier to read.
12
CHAPTER 2. GLE PRIMITIVES
begin box [fill pattern] [add gap] [nobox] [name xyz]
Draws a box around everything between begin box and end box. The option add adds a
margin of margin cm to each side of the box to make the box slightly larger than the area
defined by the graphics primitives in the begin box . . . end box group (to leave a gap around
text for example). The option nobox stops the box outline from being drawn.
The name option saves the coordinates of the box for later use with the join command.
amove 1 1
begin box add .1
begin box fill grey10 add .1
text John
end box
text John
end box
John
begin clip
This saves the current clipping region. A clipping region is an arbitrary path made from
lines and curves which defines the area on which drawing can occur. This is used to undo the
effect of a clipping region defined with the begin path command. See the example CLIP.GLE
in appendix B at the end of the manual.
begin origin
This makes the current point the origin. This is good for subroutines or something which
has been drawn using amove,aline. Everything between the begin origin and end origin can be
moved as one unit. The current point is also saved and restored.
begin path [stroke] [fill pattern] [clip]
Initialises the drawing of a filled shape. All the lines and curves generated until the next end
path command will be stored and then used to draw the shape. stroke draws the outline of
the shape, fill paints the inside of the shape in the given colour and clip defines the shape
as a clipping region for all future drawing. Clipping and filling will only work on PostScript
devices.
amove 1 1
begin rotate 90
text This is
end rotate
This is
begin rotate angle
The coordinate system is rotated anti-clockwise about the current point by the angle angle
(in degrees). For example, to draw a line of text running vertically up the page (as a Y axis
label, say), type:
2.2. GRAPHICS PRIMITIVES (IN DETAIL)
13
begin scale x y
Everything between the begin and end is scaled by the factors x and y. E.g., scale 2 3 would
make the picture twice as wide and three times higher.
amove 1 1
begin scale 3 1
begin rotate 30
text This is
end rotate
end scale
s
i
s
i
h
T
begin table
This module is an alternative to the TEXT module. It reads the spaces and tabs in the
source file and aligns the words accordingly. A single space between two words is treated as
a real space, not an alignment space.
With a proportionally spaced font columns will line up on the left hand side but not on the
right hand side. However with a fixed pitch font, like tt, everything will line up.
amove .5 .5
set hei .25 just bl
begin table
Here is my table
of text see how
22
44
55 33
0.1 999
1
.2
3
33
2
33
it lines up
end table
Here is my table
of text see
how
22 44
55 33
0.1 999 1
.2
3
33
2
33
it lines up
begin text [width exp]
This module displays multiple lines/paragraphs of text. The block of text is justified according to the current justify setting. See the set just command for a description of justification
settings.
If a width is specified the text is wrapped and justified to the given width. If a width is not
given, each line of text is drawn as it appears in the file. Remember that GLE treats text
in the same way that LaTEX does, so multiple spaces are ignored and some characters have
special meaning. E.g, \ ^ _ & { }
To include Greek characters in the middle of text use a backslash followed by the name of
the character. E.g., 3.3\Omega S would produce “3.3ΩS”.
To put a space between the Omega and the S add a backslash space at the end. E.g.,
3.3\Omega\ S produces “3.3Ω S”
14
CHAPTER 2. GLE PRIMITIVES
Sometimes the space control characters (e.g. \:) are also ignored, this may happen at the
beginning of a line of text. In this case use the control sequence \glass which will trick GLE
into thinking it isn’t at the beginning of a line. E.g.,
text \glass \:\: Indented text
amove .5 2.5
set hei .25 just tl font tt
begin text width 4
This is my paragraph of text to see
if it wraps things at four cm as I have
told it to do.
end text
amove .5 .5
This is my paragraph of
set justify bl
text to see if it wraps
begin text
things at four cm as I
Now some text without
have
told
it
to
do.
a width
specified
Now some text
end text
without a width
specified
There are several LaTEX like commands which can be used within text, they are:
\ \’ \v \u \= \^
\. \H \~ \"
^{}
_{}
\\
\_
\,
\:
\;
\char{22}
\chardef{a}{hello}
\def\v{hello}
\movexy{2}{3}
\glass
\rule{2}{4}
\setfont{rmb}
\sethei{.3}
\setstretch{2}
\lineskip{.1}
\linegap{-1}
Implemented TeX accents
Superscript
Subscript
Forced Newline
Underscore character
.5em (em = width of the letter ‘m’)
1em space
2em space
Any character in current font
Define a character as a macro
Defines a macro
Moves the current text point
Makes move/space work on beginning of line
Draws a filled in box, 2cm by 4cm
Sets the current text font
Sets the font height (in cm)
Scales the quantity of glue between words
Sets the default distance between lines of text
Sets the minimum required gap between lines
begin translate x y
Everything between the begin and end is moved x units to the right and y units up.
bezier x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3
Draws a Bézier cubic section from the current point to the point (x3,y3) with Bézier cubic
control points at the coordinates (x1,y1) and (x2,y2). For a full explanation of Bézier curves
see the PostScript Language Reference Manual.
bigfile filename.gle
This command reads the file one line at a time, compiles each line and executes it. This
means it can read any sized file. However, complex multi-line commands cannot be used.
Subroutines can be used but not defined, inside the bigfile. Note: there is also a bigfile option
in the graphing module for large datasets.
2.2. GRAPHICS PRIMITIVES (IN DETAIL)
15
box x y [justify jtype] [fill color] [name xxx] [nobox]
Draws a box, of width x and height y, with its bottom left corner at the current point. If
the justify option is used, the box will be positioned relative to the specified point. E.g., TL
= top left, CC = center center, BL = bottom left, CENTRE = bottom centre, RIGHT =
bottom right, LEFT = bottom left. See set just for a description of justification settings.
If a fill pattern is specified, the box will be filled. Remember that white fill is different from
no fill pattern - white fill will erase anything that was inside the box.
circle radius [fill pattern]
Draws a circle at the current point, with radius radius. If a fill pattern is specified the circle
will be filled.
closepath
Joins the beginning of a line to the end of a line. I.e., it does an aline to the end of the last
amove.
curve ix iy [x1 y1 x y x y ... xn yn]ex ey
Draws a curve starting at the current point and passing through the points (x1,y1) . . . (xn,yn),
with an initial slope of (ix,iy) to (x1,y1) and a final slope of (ex,ey). All the vectors are relative
movements from the vector before.
amove
curve
amove
curve
1 1
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 -1 1 0
3.6 1
0 1 0 1 1 0 0 -1 0 -1
define marker markername subroutine-name
This defines a new marker called markername which will call the subroutine subroutine-name
whenever it is used. It passes two parameters, the first is the requested size of the marker
and the second is a value from a secondary dataset which can be used to vary size or rotation
of a marker for each point plotted.
To define a character from the postscript ZapDingbats font as a marker you would use, e.g.
sub subnamex size mdata
gsave
! save font and x,y
set just left font pszd hei size
t$ = "\char{102}"
rmove -twidth(t$)/2 -theight(t$)/2 ! Centers marker
write t$
grestore
! restores font and x,y
end sub
The second parameter can be supplied using the MDATA command when drawing a graph,
this gives the marker subroutine a value from another dataset to use to draw the marker.
For example the marker could vary in size, or angle, with every one plotted.
d3 MARKER myname MDATA d4
16
CHAPTER 2. GLE PRIMITIVES
define markername fontname scale dx dy
This command defines a new marker, from any font, it is automatically centered but can be
adjusted using dx,dy. e.g.
defmarker hand pszd 43 1 0 0
for var = exp1 to exp2 [step exp3] command [...] next var
The for ... next structure lets you repeat a block of statements a number of times.
GLE sets var equal to exp1 and then repeats the following steps.
• If var is greater than exp2 then GLE commands are skipped until the line after the next
statement.
• The value exp3 is added to var.
• The statements between the for and next statement are executed.
If exp1 is greater than exp2 then the loop is not executed.
for xx = 1 to 4 step .5
amove xx 1
aline 5-xx 2
next xx
grestore
Restores the most recently saved graphics state. This is the simplest way to restore complicated transformations such as rotations and translations. It must be paired with a previous
gsave command.
gsave
Saves the current graphics transformation matrix and the current point and the current
colour, font etc.
if expression then command [...] else command [...] end if
If expression evaluates to true, then execution continues with the statements up to the corresponding else, otherwise the statements following the else and up to the corresponding end
if are executed.
amove 3 3
if xpos()=3 then
text We are at x=3
else
text We are elsewhere
end if
Note: end if is not spelt endif.
2.2. GRAPHICS PRIMITIVES (IN DETAIL)
17
include filename
The commands in filename are read just as if they were in the current GLE file. With a large
include file GLE may run out of memory. If this happens, use the bigfile command instead
of include. Note: there is also a bigfile option in the graphing module.
join object1.just sep object2.just
Draws a line between two named objects. An object is simply a point or a box which was
given a name when it was drawn.
The justify qualifiers are the standard GLE justification abbreviations (e.g. TL=top left, see
set just for details)
If sep is written as -, a line is drawn between the named objects e.g.
join fred.tr - mary.tl
Arrow heads can be included at both ends of the line by writing sep as <->. Single arrow
heads are produced by <- and ->. Note that sep must be separated from object1.just and
object2.just by white space.
If the justification qualifiers are omitted, a line will be drawn between the centres of the two
objects (clipped at the edges of the rectangles which define the objects).
See Chapter 5 for an example of joining objects.
marker marker-name [scale-factor]
Draws marker marker-name at the current point. The size of the marker is proportional to
the current font size, scaled by the value of scale-factor if present. Markers are referred to
by name, eg. square, diamond, triangle and fcircle. Markers beginning with the letter f are
usually filled variants. Markers beginning with w are filled with white so lines are not visible
through the marker. For a complete list of markers refer to Appendix A.1.
line 1 1
marker diamond 1
rmove .6 -.4
set font rm hei .7
text Diamond
Diamond
postscript filename.eps width-exp height-exp
Includes an encapsulated postscript file into a GLE picture, the postscript picture will be
scaled up or down to fit the width given. On the screen you will just see a rectangle.
Only the width-exp is used to scale the picture so that the aspect ratio is maintained. The
height is only used to display a rectangle of the right size on the screen.
rbezier x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3
This command is identical to the BEZIER command except that the points are all relative
to the current point.
18
CHAPTER 2. GLE PRIMITIVES
amove .5 2.8
rbezier 1 1 2 -1 3 1
amove .2 .2
rbezier 1 1 2 1.2 1.8 0
return exp
The return command is used inside subroutines to return a value.
reverse
Reverses the direction of the current path. This is used when filling multiple paths in order
that the Non-Zero Winding Rule will know which part of the path is ‘inside’.
With the Non-Zero Winding Rule an imaginary line is drawn through the object. Every time
a line of the object crosses it from left to right, one is added to the counter; every time a line
of the object crosses it from right to left, one is subtracted from the counter. Everywhere
the counter is non-zero is considered to be the ‘inside’ of the drawing and is filled.
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
2
1
0
rline x y [arrow end] [arrow start] [arrow both]
Draws a line from the current point to the relative coordinates (x,y), which then become the
new current point. If the current point is (5,5) then rline 3 -2 is equivalent to aline 8 3. The
optional qualifiers on the end of the command will draw arrows at one or both ends of the
line, the size of the arrow head is proportional to the current font size.
rmove x y
Changes the current point to the relative coordinate (x,y). If the current point is (5,5) then
rmove 3 -2 is equivalent to amove 8 3.
save objectname
This command saves a point for later use with the join command.
set cap butt — round — square
Defines what happens at the end of a wide line.
set cap butt
set cap round
set cap square
2.2. GRAPHICS PRIMITIVES (IN DETAIL)
19
set color col
Sets the current colour for all future drawing operations. There are several pre-defined colours
which can be specified by name.
black, white, red, green, blue, cyan, magenta, yellow, grey10, grey20 ... grey90, shade1 ... shade5,
grid1 ... grid5
It is also possible to specify a grey scale as an expression with 0.0 = black and 1.0 = white.
mm$ = "green"
amove .5 .5
for c = 0 to 1 step .05
box .2 2 fill (c) nobox
rmove .2 0
next c
amove 2 1
box 2 1 fill white nobox
rmove -.2 .2
box 2 1 fill mm$
set dashlen dashlen-exp
Sets the length of the smallest dash used for the line styles. This command MUST come
before the set lstyle command. This may be needed when scaling a drawing by a large factor.
set font font-name
Sets the current font to font-name. Valid font-names are listed in Appendix A.2.
There are three types of font: PostScript, LaTEX and Plotter. They will all work on any
device, however LaTEX fonts are drawn in outline on a plotter, and so may not look very nice.
PostScript fonts will be emulated by LaTEX fonts on non-PostScript printers.
set fontlwidth line-width
This sets the width of lines to be used to draw the stroked (Plotter fonts) on a PostScript
printer. This has a great effect on their appearance.
set font pltr
amove .2 .2
text Tester
set fontlwidth .1
set cap round
rmove 0 1.5
text Tester
set hei character-size
Sets the height of text. For historical reasons, concerning lead type and printing conventions,
a height of 10cm actually results in capital letters about 6.5cm tall.
set join mitre — round — bevel
Defines how two wide lines will be joined together. With mitre, the outside edges of the join
are extended to a point and then chopped off at a certain distance from the intersection of
the two lines. With round, a curve is drawn between the outside edges.
join mitre
join round
join bevel
20
CHAPTER 2. GLE PRIMITIVES
set just left — center — right — tl — etc...
Sets the justification which will be used for text commands.
amove .5 3
set just left
box 1.5 .6
text Justify left
rmove 2 0
set just bl
box 1.5 .6
text Justify bl
Justify bl
Justify left
tl
tc
tr
lc
cc
rc
bl
bc
br
set lstyle line-style
Sets the current line style to line style number line-style. There are 9 predefined line styles
(1–9). When a line style is given with more than one digit the first digit is read as a run
length in black, the second a run length in white, the third a run length in black, etc.
set hei .3
set just left
amove .5 2.5
for z = 0 to 4
set lstyle z
rline 2 0
rmove .1 0
write z
rmove -2.1 -.4
next z
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
9229
set lwidth line-width
Sets the width of lines to line-width cm. A value of zero will result in the device default of
about 0.02 cm, so a lwidth of .0001 gives a thinner line than an lwidth of 0.
sub sub-name parameter1 parameter2 etc
Defines a subroutine. The end of the subroutine is denoted with end sub. Subroutines must
be defined before they are used.
Subroutines can be called inside any GLE expression, and can also return values. The
parameters of a subroutine become local variables. Subroutines are reentrant.
sub tree x y a$
amove x y
rline 0 1
write a$
return x/y
end sub
@tree 2 4 "mytree"
(Normal call to subroutine)
slope = tree(2,4,"mytree") (Using subroutine in an expression)
text unquoted-text-string
This is the simplest command for drawing text. The current point is unmodified after the
text is drawn so following one text command with another will result in the second line of
text being drawn on top of the first. To generate multiple lines of text, use the begin text
. . . end text construct.
text "Hi, how’s tricks", said Jack!
2.2. GRAPHICS PRIMITIVES (IN DETAIL)
21
write string$
This command is similar to text except that it expects a quoted string, string variable, or
string expression as a parameter.
set hei .35 font rm
set just center
amove 3 .5
a$ = "Hello there "
xx = sqrt(10)
t$ = time$()
c$ = a$+t$
write a$+t$ xx
Hello there 19:08:23 3.16228
The built in functions sqrt() and time$() are described in appendix A.3.
22
2.3
CHAPTER 2. GLE PRIMITIVES
Expressions
Wherever GLE is expecting a number it can be replaced with an expression. For example
rline 3 2
and
rline 9/3 sqrt(4)
will produce the same result.
An expression in GLE is delimited by white space, so it may not contain any spaces - ‘rline 3*3 2’
is valid but ‘rline 3 * 3 2’ will not work.
Or ‘let d2 = 3+sin(d1)’ will work and ‘let d2= 3 + sin(d1) ’ won’t.
Expressions may contain numbers, arithmetic operators (+, −, ∗, /, ^ (to the power of)), relational
operators >, <, =>, <=, =, <>) boolean operators (AND, OR), variables and built-in functions.
When GLE is expecting a colour or marker name (like ‘green’ or ‘circle’) it can be given a string
variable, or an expression enclosed in braces).
GLE provides a large number of built in functions, these are listed in Appendix A.3.
2.4. FUNCTIONS INSIDE EXPRESSIONS
2.4
23
Functions Inside Expressions
xg(), yg()
With these functions it is possible to move to a position on a graph using the graph’s axis
units. To draw a filled box on a graph, at position x=948, y=.004 measured on the graph
axis:
begin graph
xaxis min 100 max 2000
yaxis min -.01 max .01
...
end graph
amove xg(948) yg(.004)
box 2 2 fill grey10
twidth(), theight(), tdepth()
These functions return the width, depth and height of a string, IF it was printed in the
current font and size.
xend(), yend()
These functions return the end point of the last thing drawn. This is of particular interest
when drawing text.
text abc
set color blue
text def
This would draw the def on top of the abc. To draw the def immediately following the abc
simply do the following (Note that absolute move is used, not relative move):
set hei 1 font rm
set just left
amove 1 1
text abc
set color grey20
amove xend() yend()
text def
xpos(), ypos()
Returns the current x and y points.
abcdef
24
CHAPTER 2. GLE PRIMITIVES
Chapter 3
The Graph Module
A graph should start with begin graph and end with end graph. The data to be plotted are organised
into datasets. A dataset consists of a series of (X,Y) coordinates, and has a name based on the
letter “d” and a number between 1 and 99, eg. d1
The name dn can be used to define a default for all datasets. Many graph commands described
below start with dn. This would normally be replaced by a specific dataset number e.g.,
d3 marker diamond
For each xaxis command there is a corresponding yaxis, y2axis and x2axis command for setting
the top left and right hand axes. These commands are not explicitly mentioned in the following
descriptions.
25
26
CHAPTER 3. THE GRAPH MODULE
3.1
Graph Commands (a summary)
data filename [d1 d2 d3 ...] [d1=c1,c3]
dn bigfile ”all.dat,xc,yc” [marker mname] [line]
dn bigfile xxx$ [autoscale]
dn err d5 errwidth width-exp errup nn% errdown d4
dn herr d5 herrwidth width-exp herrleft nn% errright d4
dn key ”Dataset title”
dn line
dn lstyle line-style lwidth line-width color col
dn marker marker-name [msize marker-size] [mdata dn]
dn nomiss
dn smooth — smoothm
dn xmin x-low xmax x-high ymin y-low ymax y-high
fullsize
hscale exp
key pos tl nobox hei exp offset xexp yexp
let ds = exp [from low to high step exp]
nobox
size x y
title ”title” [hei ch-hei] [color col] [font font] [dist cm]
vscale exp
x2labels on
xaxis — yaxis — x2axis — y2axis
xaxis color col font font-name hei exp-cm lwidth exp-cm
xaxis dsubticks sub-distance
xaxis grid
xaxis log
xaxis min low max high dpoints n
xaxis nofirst nolast
xaxis nticks number dticks distance
xaxis off
xaxis shift cm-exp
xlabels font font-name hei char-hei color col
xnames ”name” ”name” ...
xplaces pos1 pos2 pos3 ...
xside color col lwidth line-width off
xsubticks lstyle num lwidth exp length exp off
xticks lstyle num lwidth exp length exp off
xtitle ”title” [hei ch-hei] [color col] [font font] [dist cm]
y2title ”text-string” [rotate] yaxis negate
bar dx,... dist spacing
bar dx,... from dy,...
bar dn,... width xunits,... fill col,... color col,...
fill
fill
fill
fill
x1,d3 color green xmin val xmax val
d4,x2 color blue ymin val ymax val
d3,d4 color green xmin val xmax val
d4 color green xmin val xmax val
3.2. GRAPH COMMANDS (IN DETAIL)
3.2
27
Graph Commands (in detail)
data filename [d1 d2 d3 ...] [d1=c1,c3]
Specifies the name of a file to read data from. By default, the data will be read into the next
free datasets unless the optional specific dataset names are specified.
A dataset consists of a series of (X,Y) coordinates, and has a name based on the letter d and
a number between 1 and 99, e.g. d1 or d4. Up to 99 datasets may be defined.
From a file with 3 columns the command ‘data xx.dat’ would read the first and second columns
as the x and y values for dataset 1 (d1) and the first and third columns as the x and y values
for dataset 2 (d2). The next data command would use dataset 3 (d3).
A data file for two datasets looks like this (*=missing value):
1
2
3
4
2.7
5
7.8
9
3
*
7
4
The first coordinate of dataset d1 would then be (1,2.7) and the first coordinate of dataset
d2 would be (1,3).
The option d3=c2,c3 allows particular columns of data to be read into a dataset, d3 would
read x values from column 2 and y values from column 3.
size 6 3
begin graph
size 6 3
data tut.dat
yaxis min 0
d1 line marker star msize .2
end graph
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
dn bigfile ”all.dat,xc,yc” [marker mname] [line]
The bigfile option allows a dataset to be read as it is drawn, (rather than being complete
read into memory before it is drawn) this means that very large datasets can be drawn on
a PC without running out of memory. The axis minimum and maximum must be specified
(using the command xaxis min exp max exp.
By default the first two columns of the data file will be read in, but other columns may be
specified. E.g., all.dat,3,2 would read x values from column 3 and y values from column 2.
Or, to read the 4th dataset, specify the file as all.dat,1,5
If the x column is specified as ’0’ then GLE will generate the x data points. E.g., 1,2,3,4,5...
Bigfile also accepts variables in place of the file name, e.g.
xxx$ = "test.dat,2,3"
d1 bigfile xxx$
The AUTOSCALE option pre-reads the file to scale the axis, which is slow but sometimes
required, e.g.:
d1 bifile a.dat line autoscale
Many (but not all) of the normal dn commands can be used with the bigfile command. E.g.,
marker, lstyle, xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax, color and lwidth. You cannot use commands like let or
bar with the bigfile command.
28
CHAPTER 3. THE GRAPH MODULE
dn err d5 errwidth width-exp dn errup nn% errdown d4
For drawing error bars on a graph. The error bars can be specified as an absolute value, as
a percentage of the y value, or as a dataset. The up and down error bars can be specified
separately e.g.,
d3
d3
d3
d3
err .1
err 10%
errup 10% errdown d2
err d1 errwidth .2
begin graph
size 6 3
title "Trial of Error Bars"
yaxis min 0 max 30
dn lstyle 2 msize 1.5
d1 marker circle errup 30%
errdown 1
d2 marker fsquare err 30%
errwidth .1
end graph
Trial of Error Bars
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
dn herr d5 herrwidth width-exp dn herrleft nn% errright d4
These commands are identical to the error bar commands above except that they will draw
bars in the horizontal plane.
dn key ”Dataset title”
If a dataset is given a title like this a key will be drawn. Use the key command (below, after
hscale) to set the size and position of the key. Use the key module (Chapter 4) to draw more
complex keys.
dn line
This tells GLE to draw lines between the points of the dataset. By default GLE will not
draw lines or markers, this is often the reason for a blank graph.
If a dataset has missing values GLE will not draw a line to the next real value, which leaves a
gap in the curve. To avoid this behavior simply use the nomiss qualifier on the dn command
used to define the line. This simply throws away missing values so that lines are drawn from
the last real value to the next real value.
dn lstyle line-style lwidth line-width color col
These qualifiers are all fairly self explanatory. See the lstyle command in Chapter 2 for details
of specifying line styles.
dn marker marker-name [msize marker-size] [mdata dn]
Specifies the marker to be used for the dataset. There is a set of pre-defined markers (refer to
Appendix A.1 for a list) which can be specified by name (e.g., circle, square, triangle, diamond,
cross, ...). Markers can also be a user-defined subroutine (See the define marker command in
Chapter 2). The mdata option allows a secondary dataset to be defined which will be used
to pass another parameter to the marker subroutine, this allows each marker to be drawn at
a different angle,size or colour.
The msize qualifier sets the marker size for that dataset. The size is a character height in
cm, so that the actual size of the markers will be about 0.7 of this value.
3.2. GRAPH COMMANDS (IN DETAIL)
29
dn nomiss
If a dataset has missing values, GLE will not draw a line to the next real value, which leaves
a gap in the curve. To avoid this behavior simply use the nomiss qualifier on the dn command
used to define the line. This simply ignores missing values.
size 6 3
begin graph
title "No Miss"
data tut3.dat
yaxis min 0
d2 nomiss lstyle 1
marker diamond msize .2
end graph
No Miss
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
dn smooth — smoothm
This will make GLE draw a smoothed line through the points. A third degree polynomial is
fitted piecewise to the given points.
The smoothm alternative will work for multi valued functions, i.e., functions which have more
than one y value for each x value.
dn xmin x-low xmax x-high ymin y-low ymax y-high
These commands map the dataset onto the graph’s boundaries. The data will be drawn as if
the X axis was labelled from x-low to x-high (regardless of how the axis is actually labelled).
A point in the dataset at X = x-low will appear on the left hand edge of the graph.
fullsize
This is equivalent to vscale 1, hscale 1, noborder. It makes the graph size command specify
the size and position of the axes instead of the size of the outside border.
hscale exp
Scales the length of the yaxis. See vscale. The default value is 0.7.
key pos tl nobox hei exp offset xexp yexp
This command allows the features of a key to be specified. The pos qualifier sets the position
of the key. E.g., tl=topleft, br=bottomright, etc.
let ds = exp [ from low to high step exp]
This command defines a new dataset as the result of an expression on the variable x over a
range of values. It also allows the use of other datasets. E.g., to generate an average of two
datasets:
data aa.dat d1 d2
let d3 = d1+d2/2
Or to generate data from scratch:
let d1 = sin(x)+log(x) from 1 to 100 step 1
2pi = 2*3.14
begin graph
size 6 3
let d1 = 1/x from 0.2 to 10
let d2 = sin(x)*2+2 from 0.2 to 10
let d3 = 10*(1/sqrt(2pi))*
exp(-2*(sqr(x-4)/sqr(2))))
from 0.2 to 10 step .1
dn line
d2 lstyle 2
d3 lstyle 3
end graph
Calculating Formulars
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
30
CHAPTER 3. THE GRAPH MODULE
If the xaxis is a LOG axis then the step option is read as the number of steps to produce
rather than the size of each step.
NOTE: The spacing around the ‘=’ sign and the lack of spaces inside the expression are necessary.
nobox
This removes the outer border from the graph.
size x y
Defines the size of the graph in cm. This is the size of the outside box of a graph. The default
size of the axes of the graph will be 70% of this, (see vscale and hscale). This command is
required.
title ”title” [hei ch-hei] [color col] [font font] [dist cm]
This command gives the graph a centred title. The list of optional keywords specifies features
of it. The dist command is used for moving the title up or down.
vscale exp
This sets the width of the axis relative to the width of the graph. For example with a 10cm
wide graph and a vscale of .6 the x axis would be 6cm long. A setting of 1.0 makes the xaxis
the same length as the width of the graph, which is useful for positioning some graphs. The
default value is 0.7.
x2labels on
This command ‘activates’ the numbering of the x2axis. There is a corresponding command
‘y2axis on’ which will activate y2axis numbering.
xaxis — yaxis — x2axis — y2axis
A graph is considered to have four axes: The normal xaxis and yaxis as well as the top axis
(x2axis) and the right axis (y2axis).
Any command defining an xaxis setting will also define that setting for the x2axis.
The secondary axes x2 and y2 can be modified individually by starting the axis command
with the name of that axis. E.g.,
X2axis
10
9
Y2axis
8
Yaxis
begin graph
size 6 3
xtitle "Xaxis" hei .3
ytitle "Yaxis" hei .3
x2title "X2axis" hei .3
y2title "Y2axis" hei .3
x2ticks length .6
end graph
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Xaxis
xaxis color col font font-name hei exp-cm lwidth exp-cm
These axis qualifiers affect the colour, lstyle, lwidth, and font used for drawing the xaxis (and
the x2axis). These can be overriden with more specific commands. E.g., ‘xticks color blue’
would override the axis colour when drawing the ticks. The subticks would also be blue as
they pick up tick settings by default.
xaxis dsubticks sub-distance
See xaxis nticks below.
xaxis grid
This command makes the xaxis ticks long enough to reach the x2axis and the yaxis ticks
long enough to reach the y2axis. When used with both the x and y axes this produces a grid
over the graph. Use the xticks lstyle command to create a faint grid.
3.2. GRAPH COMMANDS (IN DETAIL)
31
xaxis log
Draws the axis in logarithmic style, and scales the data logarithmically to match (on the
x2axis or y2axis it does not affect the data, only the way the ticks and labelling are drawn)
Be aware that a straight line should become curved when drawn on a log graph. This will
only happen if you have enough points or have used the smooth option.
xaxis min low max high dpoints n
Sets the minimum and maximum values on the xaxis. This will determine both the labelling
of the axis and the default mapping of data onto the graph. To change the mapping see the
dataset dn commands xmin, ymin, xmax, and ymax.
The dpoints option specifies the number of decimal points that should be displayed. e.g. with
a value of 3 these numbers (0, 0.333333, 0.6666667, 1) would become (0.000, 0.333, 0.667,
1.000)
xaxis nofirst nolast
These two switches simply remove the first or last (or both) labels from the graph. This is
useful when the first labels on the x and y axis are too close to each other.
xaxis nticks number dticks distance
nticks specifies the number of ticks along the axis. dticks specifies the distance between
ticks and dsubticks specifies the distance between subticks. For example, to get one subtick
between every main tick with main ticks 3cm apart, simply specify dsubticks 1.5.
By default ticks are drawn on the inside of the graph. To draw them on the outside use the
command:
xticks length -.2
yticks length -.2
xaxis off
Turns the whole axis off — labels, ticks, subticks and line. Often the x2axis and y2axis are
not required, they could be turned off with the following commands:
x2axis off
y2axis off
xaxis shift cm-exp
This moves the labelling to the left or right, which is useful when the label refers to the data
between the two values.
xlabels font font-name hei char-hei color col
This command controls the appearance of the axis labels but not the axis title.
xnames ”name” ”name” ...
This command replaces the numeric labelling with absolutely anything. Given data consisting
of five measurements, taken from Monday to Friday, one per day then
xaxis min 0 max 6 dticks 1
xnames "" "Mon" "Tue" "Wed" "Thu" "Fri"
""
would give the desired result. Note it is essential to define a specific axis minimum, maximum,
dticks, etc., otherwise the labels may not correspond to the data.
If there isn’t enough room on the line for all the names then simply use an extra xnames
command.
32
CHAPTER 3. THE GRAPH MODULE
xplaces pos1 pos2 pos3 ...
This is similar to the xnames command but it specifies a list of points which should be
labelled. This allows labelling which isn’t equally spaced. The above example with days of
the week could be written like this:
xplaces 1 2 5
xplaces 7
xnames "Mon" "Tue" "Fri" "Sun"
If there isn’t enough room on the line for all the names then simply use an extra xplaces
command.
Place & Name
20
18
16
weight gain
begin graph
size 6 3
xtitle "ordered by places"
ytitle "weight gain"
title "Names & Places"
xaxis min 0 max 6 dticks 1
xplaces 0 1 2 5 3 4
xnames "Mon" "Tue" "Wed" "Thu" "Fri" "Sat"
yaxis min 0 max 20 nofirst
data test.dat
d1 marker square color blue
d2 marker triangle color red
d2 err 10% errwidth .5
end graph
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
Mon
Tue
Wed
Fri
Sat
Thu
ordered by places
xside color col lwidth line-width off
This command controls the appearance of the axis line, i.e. the line to which the ticks are
attached.
xsubticks lstyle num lwidth exp length exp off
This command gives fine control of the appearance of the axis subticks.
xticks lstyle num lwidth exp length exp off
This command gives fine control of the appearance of the axis ticks. Note: To get ticks on
the outside of the graph, i.e. pointing outwards, specify a negative tick length:
xticks length -.2
yticks length -.2
xtitle ”title” [hei ch-hei] [color col] [font font] [dist cm]
This command gives the axis a centered title. The list of optional keywords specify features
of it. The dist command is used for moving the title up or down.
xaxis negate
This is reversed the numbering on the y axis. For use with measurements below ground,
where you want zero at the top and positive numbers below the zero.
y2title ”text-string” [rotate]
By default the y2title is written vertically upwards. The optional rotate keyword changes
this direction to downwards. The rotate option is specific to the y2title command.
10
1
9
2
8
7
10
6
5
log Yaxis
5
2
4
10
3
5
2
2
10
5
10
0
0.9
1.8
2.7 3.6
4.5
5.4 6.3
7.2 8.1
Y2title rotated
begin graph
xaxis min 0 max 9 nofirst nolast
xaxis hei .6 nticks 10 dsubticks .2
xaxis lwidth .2 color red
ytitle "log Yaxis"
yaxis log min 1 max 10 lwidth .1
y2axis min 3 max 3000
y2side color blue lwidth 0
y2ticks length .9 lwidth 0
y2title "Y2title rotated " hei .3 rotate
x2axis off
y2labels on
let d1 = sin(x)*4+5 from 0 to 9
dn line
end graph
3
2
1
3.3. BAR GRAPHS
3.3
33
Bar Graphs
Drawing a bar graph is a subcommand of the normal graph module. This allows bar and line
graphs to be mixed. The bar command is quite complex as it allows a great deal of flexibility. The
same command allows stacked, overlapping and grouped bars.
For stacked bars use separate bar commands as in the first example below:
bar d1 fill black
bar d2 from d1 fill grey10
For grouped bars put all the datasets in a list on a single bar command:
bar d1,d2,d3 fill grey10,grey40,black
Bean stalk data
6
5
Height of stalk
begin graph
nobox
size 6.5 5
title "Bean stalk data"
xtitle "Year measured"
ytitle "Height of stalk"
xaxis min 85 max 91 dticks 1
yaxis min 0 max 6
data gc_bean.dat
bar d1,d2,d3
fill grey10,grey40,black
end graph
4
3
2
1
0
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
Year measured
bar dx,... dist spacing
Specifies the distance between bars in dataset(s) dx,.... The distance is measured from the
left hand side of one bar to the left hand side of the next bar. A distance of less than the
width of a bar results in the bars overlapping.
34
CHAPTER 3. THE GRAPH MODULE
bar dx,... from dy,...
This sets the starting point of each bar in datasets dx,... to be at the value in datasets dy,...,
and is used for creating stacked bar charts. Each layer of the bar chart is created with an
additional bar command.
bar d1,d2
bar d3,d4 from d1,d2
bar d5,d6 from d3,d4
Note 1: It is important that the values in d3 and d4 are greater than the values in d1 and
d2.
Note 2: Data files for stacked bar graphs should not have missing values, replace the *
character with the number on its left in the data file.
Bean stalk data
6
5
Height of stalk
begin graph
nobox
size 6.5 5
title "Bean stalk data"
xtitle "Year measured"
ytitle "Height of stalk"
xaxis min 85 max 91 dticks 1
yaxis min 0 max 6
data gc_bean.dat
bar d1 fill black
bar d2 from d1 fill grey10
end graph
4
3
2
1
0
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
Year measured
bar dn,... width xunits,... fill col,... color col,...
The rest of the bar qualifiers are fairly self explanatory. When several datasets are specified,
separate them with commas (with no spaces between commas).
bar d1,d2 width 0.2 dist 0.2 fill grey10,grey20 color red,green
3.4. 3D BAR GRAPHS
3.4
35
3D Bar Graphs
3d Bar graphs are now supported, the commands are:
bar d1,d2
bar d3,d4
3d .5 .3
3d .5 .3
side red,green notop
side red,green top black,white
Take note of comma’s.
bar dx,... 3d xoffset yoffset side color list top color list [notop]
3d xoffset yoffset
Specifies the x and y vector used to draw the receding lines, they are defined as fractions
of the width of the bar. A negative xoffset will draw the 3d bar on the left side of the bar
instead of the right hand side.
side color list
The color of the side of each of the bars in the group.
top color list
The color of the top part of the bar
notop
Turns off the top part of the bar, use this if you have a stacked bar graph so you only need
sides on the lower parts of each stack.
Bean stalk data
6
5
Height of stalk
begin graph
nobox
size 6.5 5
title "Bean stalk data"
xtitle "Year measured"
ytitle "Height of stalk"
xaxis min 85 max 91 dticks 1
yaxis min 0 max 6
data gc_bean.dat
bar d1,d2,d3 3d 1.5 1.3
side red,blue,green
top yellow,yellow,grey10
end graph
4
3
2
1
0
85
86
87
88
89
Year measured
Note: You won’t see the color of the side or top on the pc screen.
90
91
36
CHAPTER 3. THE GRAPH MODULE
3.5
Filling Between Lines
fill x1,d3 color green xmin val xmax val
Fills between the xaxis and a dataset, use the optional xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax qualifiers to
clip the filling to a smaller region
fill d4,x2 color blue ymin val ymax val
This command fills from a dataset to the x2axis.
fill d3,d4 color green xmin val xmax val
This command fills between two datasets.
fill d4 color green xmin val xmax val
This command treats the dataset as a polygon and fills it. The dataset should be a closed
polygon.
Shading areas of the graph
6
5
Year measured
fill d2,x2 color grey40
fill x1,d1 color grey10 xmin 85 xmax 88
fill x1,d1 color grey90 xmin 88 xmax 91
4
3
2
1
0
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
Height of stalk
3.6
Notes on Drawing Graphs
3.6.1
Importance of Order
Most of the graph commands can appear in any order, but in some cases order is significant.
As some let commands operate on data which has been read into datasets, the data commands
should precede the let commands.
The wildcard dn command should appear before specific d1 commands which it will override.
By default xaxis commands also change the x2axis, and xlabels commands also change x2labels,
so to specify different settings for the x and x2 axes, put the x2 settings after the x settings.
begin graph
size 10 10
data a.dat
let d2 = d1*3
dn marker square lstyle 3
d2 marker dot
xaxis color green
xticks color blue
x2axis color black
end graph
! sets d1 and d2
3.6. NOTES ON DRAWING GRAPHS
3.6.2
37
Line Width
When scaling a graph up or down for publication the default line width may need changing. To
do this simply specify a set lwidth command before beginning the graph.
size 10 10
set lwidth .1
begin graph
...
end graph
38
CHAPTER 3. THE GRAPH MODULE
Chapter 4
The KEY module
This module is used for drawing keys for graphs. It is completely separate from the graph module.
Specify a position for the key, the size of the lettering and then for each dataset specify marker,
color, lstyle and fill pattern:
begin graph
...
end graph
begin key
hei .5
position tr
text "Green trees" marker heart msize .2 fill grey10
text "Red trees" lstyle 3 marker heart fill blue
text "Oranges" marker circle lstyle 6 fill black
end key
10
Green trees
Red trees
Oranges
5
0
0.0
2.5
5.0
7.5
10.0
All commands to do with a particular line of the key module MUST appear on the same line.
39
40
4.1
CHAPTER 4. THE KEY MODULE
Key commands
offset x-exp y-exp
Specifies the offset in cm from the current point to the bottom left hand corner of the graph.
This command should be on a line of its own.
position justify-exp
This is an alternative to the OFFSET command. It allows you to specify a position on the
graph, e.g., tl = top left. This command should be on a line of its own. See set just for a list
of justify settings.
text str-exp
The text which will be displayed on the end of the line.
lstyle style-num
The line style which will be used for the short line drawn in the key.
marker marker-name
The marker which will be used for that line of the key.
msize exp
Specifies the size of the markers in cm.
mscale exp
Specifies how much to scale the size of the marker. E.g., 0.5 would produce a marker half as
big as normal.
color color-name
The colour of the text, line and marker.
hei cm-exp
This sets the height of the text used to draw the key. The key will change in size to fit around
the text. If you omit this command the current font size is used.
fill fill-pattern
The fill pattern used in that line of the key.
4.2
Key syntax
The syntax of the KEY module is rather confusing.
The commands which relate to global features of the key:
OFFSET, NOBOX, HEI, POS
Can appear anywhere except on the start of a line which defines a new dataset, e.g.:
begin key
OFFSET 2 3 HEI 2
text "abc" NOBOX
NOBOX text "abc" (this line is NOT valid)
...
end key
4.2. KEY SYNTAX
The commands which relate to a single dataset (or line of the key):
TEXT, MARKER, MSIZE, MSCALE, COLOR, FILL, LSTYLE, LINE, LWIDTH
Must appear together on a line, but any one of them can start the line, .e.g.:
begin key
marker circle text "abc" lstyle 2
lstyle 2 marker square
end key
So you usually put the global commands first, and then one line for each line in the key, e.g.:
begin key
nobox pos tl hei .5 (global commands)
marker circle text "The circles"
marker square lstyle 1 text "The squares"
end key
41
42
CHAPTER 4. THE KEY MODULE
Chapter 5
Advanced features of GLE
This chapter covers the advanced features of GLE. Some of these features will not give exactly
the same results on the PC screen as you would get when printing to a PostScript printer. E.g.,
clipping to an arbitrary shape is only implemented in the PostScript driver but most other features
will give as close as possible representation given the limitations of the screen.
5.1
Colour
Internally GLE treats colour and fill identically, they are simply an intensity of Red, Green and
Blue. Each of the predefined colour names (yellow,grey20,orange,red) simply define the ratio of
red, green and blue.
There are two ways to use variables to show colour, one is for shades of grey:
for i = 0 to 10
box 3 .2 fill (i/10)
rmove 0 .2
next i
The other is for passing a colour name as a variable:
sub stick c$
box .2 2 fill c$
end sub
@stick "green"
Remember a fill pattern completely obscures what is behind it, so the following command would
produce a box with a shadow:
amove 4 4
box 3 2 fill grey10
rmove -.1 .1
box 3 2 fill white
rmove .4 .4
text hellow
43
44
CHAPTER 5. ADVANCED FEATURES OF GLE
5.2
Device Drivers
GLE supports the following devices.
Interactive: IBM/PC (BGI), VT100, REGIS (VT125, VT240), TEK4010, VWS, XWindows.
Output: PostScript, HPGL, EPSON, EPSON 24pin, HP Deskjet.
Keyboard Mappings:
VT100
GOLD 1
GOLD 2
GOLD 3
GOLD 4
GOLD 9
GOLD 0
Control+Z
VT200
F11
F12
F13
F14
F9
F10
Control+Z
Control+E
Control+F
Control+E
Control+F
PC
F1
F2
F3
F4
F9
F10
Control+Z
Alt+X
Meaning
Help
Save
Load
Save-as
Graph-menu
Draw-it
Exit/Escape
Exit/Escape
Calls VAX EDT
Toggle fast/slow text
To find out what drivers are available type in:
ls /usr/local/gle/gle_*
5.2.1
PC Screen Drivers
Remember that what you see on the screen isn’t always what you will get on the printer. For
example filled regions will not be filled, and some characters may not look right.
After pressing F10 and drawing the graph it can be annotated by using the mouse (or arrow keys)
to draw lines, text and boxes. To draw lines simply click on the points of the line, use the right
hand mouse button to ‘pick up’ the pen.
To draw text press the letter ‘t’ and then click on where you would like the text to be drawn.
All movements are rounded to the grid size settings which are 1.0cm, 0.1cm, 0.01cm etc.
The height and colour of the text/lines is determined by the current settings at the end of the
GLE file.
If there is no mouse driver loaded then a cross-hair will appear and it can be moved around using
the arrow keys. Press ‘c’ to click, instead of the mouse button.
5.2. DEVICE DRIVERS
45
SuperVGA
To use a SuperVGA card you first need to get a BGI driver that supports your card. From
anonymous FTP you can get svgabgi3.zip: ftp wuarchive.wustl.edu
ftp>
ftp>
ftp>
ftp>
ftp>
ftp>
user anonymous
(mail ident)
cd /mirrors/msdos/borland
binary
get svgabgi3.zip
quit
Then unzip it, decide which driver will match your SVGA card and copy that driver into \GLE\EXE.
c:>
c:>
c:>
c:>
pkunzip svgabgi3.zip
pkunzip svgabgi3.zip
type readme.
copy svga16.bgi \gle\exe
Define an environment variable to tell gle about this driver and which mode to use. (put this line
in your autoexec.bat)
c:> set gle_addbgi=4.svga16
5.2.2
GO32/GRX Screen Driver
GLE 32 is a 32-bit-Implementation of GLE for MS-DOS. Axel Rohde did this port of the GLE
version 3.3b GLE32 was compiled with the free port of the GNU C-compiler DJGPP by D.J.
Delorie. The compiler itself and the DJGPP-compiled executables are running with the 32-bit
DOS-extender GO32.
GLE32 was compiled using Borland-C compatible libraries for text and graphics-modes and some
filesystem calls. There exists for the DJGPP specific graphics-library GRX from Csaba Biegl
a emulation-library called BCCGRX from Hartmut Schirmer to replace calls of the BorlandGraphics-Interface (BGI) with GRX-calls. Hartmut has implemented the mouse-functionality,
too, with GRX-calls.
In the example on the following lines, the progams are installed in the directory d:\gle32, the
fonts are in d:\gle32\fonts. GLE 32 searches for its vector-fonts in the directory GLE_TOP. Don’t
forget the trailing slash. In addition to this, GL32FONT points to the directory where the bitmapfonts (you can see them in the status-line of the preview) can be found.
The directory with the DOS-Extender GO32 and, if there’s no numeric-prozessor installed, the
co-prozessor-emulator, must be in the path-environment.
set GLE_TOP=d:/gle32/
set gle32font=d:/gle32/grxfont
path=..your normal path..;d:\gle;
go32=driver d:/gle32/driver/vesa_s3.grn gw 1024 gh 768 tw 80 th 25 nc 256
The configuration of graphics-drivers is a little bit more complicated. Please study the documentation of the Libraries GRX und BCCGRX and the README of GO32 in their directories.
The environment GO32 sets den path-name and the mode of the driver an. This example installs
the driver for an S3 graphics-board with a resolution of 1024 horizontal 768 vertical pixels and 256
colors.
46
CHAPTER 5. ADVANCED FEATURES OF GLE
There’s a second way to install a graphics-mode. If the environment- variables GLE32WIDTH,
GLE32HEIGHT and GLE32COLORS are set, the graphics- mode in the GO32 variable is overridden. You still have to specify a driver in the GO32 environment.
set GLE32WIDTH=800
set GLE32HEIGHT=600
set GLE32COLORS=16
There’s a prepared batch-file setgle32.bat to set all the environment- variables in the directory
gle32.
To figure out, which modes are supported, try to run the program modetest in the directory
gle32\driver\doc.
! WARNING !
A wrong installed graphics-mode can DESTROY your MONITOR (and/or graphics board) if the
refresh rate is too high!
USE THIS ON YOUR OWN RISK !
You should take a look into the manuals of your monitor and your graphics-adapter to figure out,
which horizontal frequencies are supported. If the horizontal frequency of the monitor is 64 kHz
or higher, you MAY feel save. (MY Monitor has a horizontal frequency of 64 kHz and supports a
resolution of 1024x768 with a refresh rate up to 80Hz.)
If you want to go save, don’t set the environment go32 at all! This will use the normal (flickering)
VGA-mode on a VGA-compatible adapter.
For more detailed information and instructions how to install GO32 see gle32.txt!
5.2.3
PostScript Driver
To print a GLE file to the laser printer type:
$ cgle myfile /print
or on a PC:
C:\GLE> psgle myfile
C:\GLE> print myfile.ps
The postscript drivers for GLE will automatically flip a picture to best fit onto the page, e.g. a
wide graph (as defined by the size command at the top) will be drawn in landscape mode and a
tall thin graph will be drawn in portrait mode.
To produce an .eps file on a VAX for inclusion in LaTEX or WordPerfect you would type:
$ cgle myfile /dev=eps
On a PC you would type:
C:\GLE> psgle myfile /eps
(this creates myfile.eps, not myfile.ps)
WordPerfect can also understand a special file format which contains both an EPS file for printing
to PostScript printers and a bitmap TIFF image for displaying on the screen. GLE can create this
sort of file with the command:
5.2. DEVICE DRIVERS
47
C:> wpgle myfile
This will create a file called MYFILE.EPF which you can include into WordPerfect.
To include Postscript in a LaTEX document use epsf.sty of the DVIPS-package. Inside your LaTEX
document use
epsffile to put it at the right place in a picture-environment, e.g. :
\documentstyle[12pt,epsf]{article}
...
\begin{picture}(13.0, 5.5)
\put(0.0,0.0){
\epsfclipon
\epsfxsize=6cm
\epsffile[60 170 560 740]{myfile.ps} } % [ bounding-box ] { file_name }
\end{picture}
Advanced features of epsf.sty are described in ../TeX/src/dvips/dvips.tex.
The laser printer driver will draw all zero width lines .02cm wide for any line width equal to zero,
but if an lwidth is greater than zero and less than or equal to .0001 then it will use a line width
of 1 pixel. Without this it would be impossible to specify a line width that didn’t occasionally get
rounded to 2 pixels.
There are also some commandline switches
/nod
/addd
/nomaxpath
/fill
5.2.4
(add ^D to ps file)
(Don’t add ^D to ps file)
(Don’t choke on complex fill paths)
(For dvibit, makes bar’s filled instead of shaded)
TEK4010 Driver
This driver allows initialization sequences to be defined with the symbols TEK OPEN and
TEK CLOSE.
On a VAX this is normally done by CGLECMD.COM so that when you specify /DEV=V550 the
assignments are done for you. (V550 = Visual 550)
5.2.5
HPGL Driver
This driver allows initialization sequences to be defined in the symbols HPGL OPEN and
HPGL CLOSE. On the PC use environment variables and on the VAX use DCL symbols. Also
HPGL WIDTH and HPGL HEIGHT can be defined for non A3 plotters.
The HPGL driver supports sizes greater than A3.
The symbols HPGL ADDX, HPGL ADDY add a margin to the plot. These default to .9cm and
1.5cm
On a VAX this is normally done by CGLECMD.COM so that when you specify /DEV=HPA4 the
assignments are done for you.
48
CHAPTER 5. ADVANCED FEATURES OF GLE
The HPGL driver assigns the following colours to pen numbers:
1=black, 2=red, 3=green, 4=blue, 5=magenta, 6=white, 7=yellow.
To get Gle-Output in a WIN-WORD text, HPGL is a good and easy way to do it.
The use of the HPGL-Converter HP2XX of Heinz W. Werntges is another way to get various
pix-map format output. HP2XX has been ported successfully for Unix, OS/2, DOS, Amiga, Atari,
VMS and AXP.
HP2XX has many controling options. In the current version it is able to write the following formats:
mf, cad, em, epic, eps, pcl, pcx, pic, img, pbm, pre, uis.
HP2XX is available via anonymous FTP at ftp.rz.uni-duesseldorf.de. For further information ask
Heinz (Internet: werntges@clio.rz.uni-duesseldorf.de).
5.2.6
PC Bitmap Drivers
GLE supports the EPSON 8 and 24 pin and HP deskjet/laserjet printers. To support bitmap devices which require a large amount of memory GLE first writes a device independent file OUT.DVI,
then the appropriate bitmap driver for your printer will read the OUT.DVI file and create a bitmap
which it then prints to LPT1:
C:> dvigle myfile
C:> dviepson
(produces OUT.DVI)
(creates bitmap and prints to LPT1:)
The output options are:
C:>
C:>
C:>
C:>
C:>
C:>
dviepson
dviep24
dvilj
dvilj300
dviprint -dpj
dviprint -dsx
Standard EPSON printers
24 Pin EPSON printers (180dpi)
HP Laser jet, Desk jet (150 dpi)
HP Laser jet, Desk jet (300 dpi)
HP PaintJet printers
Sixel graphics driver
The high resolution drivers (dviep24, dvilj300) are significantly slower than the low resolution
drivers so would only be used for final output.
See the file AAREADME.GLE for the latest information on drivers.
5.2. DEVICE DRIVERS
5.2.7
49
DVIPRINT
All available bitmap drivers and options can be use with
gle myfile -ddevice [-hires] [...]
To find out what drivers are available type in:
gle_dviprint
Usage: dviprint [-depson | -dlj] [-old] [-hires] [-vhires] [-debug] [-output xx.prt]
-depson
To produce output for epson printers
-dwp
To add tiff image to wp .eps file
-dec
Epson color ribbon printers
-dlj
To produce output for HP LaserJet printers
-dpj
To produce output for HP PaintJet printers
-dsx
Sixel graphics, for DEC printers la100’s ...
-dvt
To print bitmap to screen (preview)
-over
Overhead transparency mode for PaintJet
-old
For old HP Laser Jet printers (no compression)
-hires
Uses high resolution for that printer (slower)
-vhires
Viritcal high resolution for sixel graphics
-wide
If your printer has a wide carriage
-noflip
Disable’s auto flipping
-flip
Forces flip
-nosquash Tries to print it full size
-compress Force internal bitmap compression (slow)
-noff
No form feed
-debug
Prints debug messages
-out x.x Prints output to file instead of printer port
5.2.8
Fonts (font mapping)
By default the generic fonts (rm, rmb, ss, tt etc) will all map to PLSR (plotter simplex roman)
on BITMAP and HPGL drivers. To make this happen on other drivers put the command plotter
fonts immediately after the size command at the top of the GLE file.
A typical result of this change in fonts is that something that lines up on the screen will not line
up when printed to an EPSON printer. If this happens then use the plotter fonts command.
If a character is missing from a font, or isn’t the particular variation you like, you can define a
character to be from a different font in this way:
\chardef{%}{{\setfont{texcmr}\char{37}}}
\chardef{[}{{\setfont{texcmr}\char{91}}}
\chardef{]}{{\setfont{texcmr}\char{93}}}
On the PC some fonts may not be installed to save disk space. When one of the missing fonts is
called for, a replacement font will be displayed, this may look terrible and some special characters
may be completely wrong.
50
CHAPTER 5. ADVANCED FEATURES OF GLE
More importantly if you use a font which does not have its font metric file installed (e.g.
C:/GLE/FONTS/PLSR.FMT) then the PostScript driver will space the characters incorrectly.
This can be fixed by extracting that particular metric file from the distribution file CGLE FVE.ZIP
using PKUNZIP.
5.2.9
Printer Fonts
You can now tell gle about postscript fonts that you have downloaded into your own printer.
Lets pretend we are adding a font called Greek-Bold
1) Download the font into you laser printer
2) Add a line to FONT.DAT
psgb 86 psgb.fmt plsr.fve psgb.fmt
a
b c
d
a = GLE’s name for the font
b = The next unused number in font.dat
c = The font metric file, this can be created using
makefmt from and adobe font metric file
(.afm) which you should have been supplied
with your font.
d = The font vector file, this is just a font that
that gle can use to draw your font on non
postscript devices.
3) Add a line to psfont.dat
psgb Greek-Bold
This tells the postscript driver that this is a font that the printer knows how to deal with.
5.3
Diagrams, Joining Named Objects
To draw lines between boxes which contain text, first name each box as it is drawn and then use
the join command to draw the lines between the boxes.
box 2 3 fill blue name square
amove 5 5
begin box add .1 name titlebox
text Title
end box
join square.tr -> titlebox.bc
These commands draw a line from the “Top Right” of the square to the “Bottom Centre” of the
titlebox, with an arrow at the titlebox end.
join square - titlebox
would draw a line from the centre of the square to the centre of the titlebox but clipped correctly
at the edges of both boxes.
join square.tc <-> titlebox.v
would draw a vertical line from the top centre of the square to the titlebox with arrows at both
ends.
5.3. DIAGRAMS, JOINING NAMED OBJECTS
set hei .3 font plge
amove 1.2 .2
box 1 1 fill blue name square
amove 1.9 2
begin box add .1 name titlebox
text Title
end box
join square.tr -> titlebox.tr
join square <- titlebox
join square.tc <-> titlebox.v
Named points on each box:
.bl
.bc
.br
.cr
.tr
.tc
.tl
.cl
.v
.h
.cc
.ci
Bottom left
Bottom centre
Bottom right
Centre right
Top right
Top centre
Top left
Centre left
Vertical line
Horizontal line
Centre centre
Circle clipping (for drawing lines to a circle)
To draw lines to a given point, simply move there and save that point as a named object.
rmove 2 3
save apoint
join apoint - square
51
52
5.4
CHAPTER 5. ADVANCED FEATURES OF GLE
Filling, Stroking and Clipping Paths
It is possible to set up arbitrary clipping regions. To do this draw a shape and make it into a path
by putting a begin path clip ... end path, around it. Then draw the things to be clipped by that
region. To clear a clipping path surround the whole section of GLE commands with begin clip ...
end clip
Characters can be used to make up clipping paths, but only the PostScript fonts will currently
work for this purpose.
Clipping doesn’t work on the screen or p79 devices, but does on the laser printer. See example
CLIP.GLE at end of manual.
size 10 5
begin clip
! Save current clipping path
begin path clip stroke ! Define new clipping region
amove 2 2
box 3 3
amove 6 2
box 3 3
end path
amove 2 2
set hei 3
text Here is clipped text
end clip
! Restore original clipping path
Here is clipp
5.5
Using Variables
GLE has two types of variables, floating point and string. String variables always end with a dollar
sign. A string variable contains text like “Hello this is text”, a floating point variable can only
contain numbers like 1234.234.
name$ = "Joe"
height = 6.5
! Height of person
shoe = .05
! shoe adds to height of person
amove 1 1
box .2 height+shoe
write name$
5.6. PROGRAMMING LOOPS
5.6
53
Programming Loops
The simple way to draw a 6 × 8 grid would be to use a whole mass of line commands:
amove
rline
amove
rline
...
amove
rline
0
0
1
1
0
8
0
8
6 0
6 8
this would be laborious to type in, and would become impossible to manage with several grids. By
using a simple loop this can be avoided:
for x = 0 to 6
amove x 0
rline x 8
next x
for y = 0 to 8
amove 0 y
rline 6 y
next y
To draw lots of grids all of different dimensions a subroutine can be defined and then used again
and again:
! define the subroutine
sub grid nx ny
gsave
begin origin
for x = 0 to nx
amove x 0
aline x ny
next x
for y = 0 to ny
amove 0 y
aline nx y
next y
end origin
end sub
! now draw the grids wherever
amove 2 4
@grid 6 8
amove 2 2
@grid 9 5
Now the main GLE file will be much easier to modify particularly if the subroutine definition is
moved into a separate file:
size 10
include
amove 2
@grid 2
amove 2
@grid 9
10
griddef.gle
4
4
2
5
54
5.7
CHAPTER 5. ADVANCED FEATURES OF GLE
Extended I/O Functions
Some standard I/O function and macros are available:
fopen, fclose, fread, freadln, fwrite, fwriteln
e.g.:
fopen "file.dat" inchan read
fopen "file.out" outchan write
until feof(inchan)
fread inchan x y z
aline x y
rline x z
fwriteln outchan x*2 "y =" y
next
fclose inchan
fclose outchan
5.8
Device dependend Control
A built in function which returns a string describing the device is available.
e.g. DEVICE$() = "HARDCOPY, PS,"
on the postscript driver.
This can be used to use particular fonts etc on appropriate devices. E.g.:
if pos(device$(),"PS,",1)>0 then
set font psncsb
end if
Chapter 6
GLE Utilities
6.1
Fitls
The FITLS utility allows an equation with n unknown constants to be fitted to experimental data.
For example to fit a simple least squares regression line to a set of points you would give FITLS
the equation: a*x+b
FITLS would then solve the equation to find the best values for the constants a and b.
FITLS can work with non linear equations, it will ask for initial values for the parameters so that
a solution around those initial guesses will be found.
FITLS writes out a GLE file containing commands to draw the data points and the equation it
has fitted to them.
Here is a sample FITLS session:
$ fitls
Input data file (x and y columns optional) [test.dat,1,2] ? fitls.dat
Loading data from file, fitls.dat, xcolumn=1, ycolumn=2
Valid operators: +, -, *, /, ^ (power)
Valid functions:
abs(), atn(), cos(), exp(), fix(), int()
log(), log10(), not(), rnd(), sgn(), sin()
sqr(), sqrt(), tan()
Enter a function of ’x’ using constants ’a’...’z’
e.g.
a + b*x
(standard linear least squares fit)
sin(x)*a+b
a + b*x + c*x^2 + d*x^3
log(a*x)+(b+x)*c+a
Equation ? sin(a*x)*b+c*x^2+d
\clearpage
Output file name to write gle file [fitls.gle] ?
55
56
CHAPTER 6. GLE UTILITIES
Precision of fit required, [1e-4] ?
Initial value for constant a [1.0] ?
Initial value for constant b [1.0] ?
Initial value for constant c [1.0] ?
Initial value for constant d [1.0] ?
0 evaluations, 1 1 1 1 , fit = 1355.36
20 evaluations, 1.97005 1 1 1 , fit = 1281.95
40 evaluations, 1.97005 10.228 0.151285 1 , fit = 54.7694
60 evaluations, 2.01053 10.228 0.151285 1.06365 , fit = 54.1771
.
.
.
440 evaluations, -0.640525 -2.81525 0.13997 1.13871 , fit = 0.940192
460 evaluations, -0.638055 -2.82934 0.140971 1.10502 , fit = 0.93842
480 evaluations, -0.63808 -2.82357 0.140993 1.10452 , fit = 0.938389
a = -0.638262 b = -2.81719 c = 0.140722 d = 1.11256
10 Iterations, sum of squares devided by n = 0.938389
y = sin(-0.638262*x)*-2.81719+0.140722*x^2+1.11256
2
y = sin(-0.638262*x)*-2.81719+0.140722*x +1.11256, fit = 0.938389
..
11
10
9
8
.... .
.
.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
6.2. MANIP
6.2
57
Manip
Manip is a data manipulation package. It reads in a text file of numbers and displays them like a
spreadsheet. You can then do simple operations on the columns and write them out in any format
you like.
6.2.1
Usage
MANIP infile.dat -recover -step -commands c.log -single -size x y
–recover
Manip logs everything you type to a file called MANIP_.J1 When you use the -RECOVER
option on the manip command it then reads keys from that file as if they were typed at the
keyboard.
This will restore you to the point just before your pc crashed. The last three journal files are
stored (.j1 .j2 .j3) simply copy the one you want to (.j1) to use it.
–step
Used with recover, press a space for each key you want to read from the journal file, press
any other key to stop reading the journal.
–commands filename.man
This reads the commands in filename.man as if they were typed at the keyboard.
–single
This makes MANIP use single precision arithmetic and doesn’t store strings at all, this enables
three times as much data in the same amount of memory
–size x y
Sets the initial size of the spreadsheet. Use this with large datasets as it prevents the heap
from becoming fragmented and thus lets you use much larger datasets.
Range
Most manip commands accept a range as one or more of there parameters. A range is a rectangular
section of your spreadsheet. A range can ether start with a ’c’ or an ’r’ and this will affect how
the command operates.
If your spreadsheet has 5 columns and 10 rows then.
c1 == c1c1r1r10
r1 == r1r1c1c5
c1c2 ==c1c2r1r10
r1r2c3=r1r2c3c5
==
==
==
==
1,1
1,1
1,1
3,1
1,2
2,1
2,1
3,2
1,3
3,1
1,2
4,1
1,4
4,1
2,2
4,2
1,5
5,1
3,1
5,1
1,6 ...
3,2 ...
5,2
58
CHAPTER 6. GLE UTILITIES
Arrows
The arrow keys normally move the data cursor, however if you are half way thru typing a command
then, the left and right arrow keys allow you to edit the command. Use the PAGE-UP and PAGEDOWN keys to recall your last command.
SHIFT arrow keys will jump 7 cells at a time for fast movement.
Further help is available on the following toppics via the HELP command e.g. ”HELP COPY”
6.2. MANIP
6.2.2
Manip Primitives (a summary)
@mycmds
Arrows
BLANK
CLEAR
CLOSE
COPY [range] [range] IF [exp]
DATA [range]
DELETE [range] IF [exp]
EXIT filename [range] –TAB –SPACE –COMMA
FIT c3
Functions
GENERATE [pattern] [destination]
GOTO x y
INSERT [Cn] or [Rn]
LOAD filename [range] –0
LOAD filename [range]
LOGGING mycmds.man
MOVE [range] [range] IF [exp]
NEW
PARSUM [range1] [range2]
PROP [range] [range]
QUIT
Recover (recovering from power failure or crash)
SAVE filename [range] –TAB –SPACE –COMMA
SET SIZE ncols nrows
SET BETWEEN ” ”
SET COLTYPE
SET COLWIDTH
SET NCOL n
SET DPOINTS n
SET DIGITS n
SET WIDTH n
SHELL
SORT [range] on [exp]
SUM [range]
SWAP CnCn — RnRn
59
60
CHAPTER 6. GLE UTILITIES
6.2.3
Manip Primitives (in detail)
COPY [range1] [range2] if [exp]
For copying a section to another section. They do not have to be the same shape. The
pointers to both rangers are increased even if the number is not coppied e.g.
"% COPY r4r2 r1r2"
"% COPY c1c3r6r100
c6c8 if c1<c2"
"% COPY C1 C2 IF C1<4"
c1 c2
1
1
2
2
5
3
3
9
DELETE [range] IF [exp]
For deleteing entire rows or columns. e.g.
"% DELETE c1c3 IF r1>3.and.r2=0
"% DELETE r1"
Numbers are shuffled in from the right to take the place of the deleted range.
DATA [range]
Data entry mode is usefull for entering data. After typing in "% DATA c1c3" or "% DATA C2"
you can then enter data and pressing ¡cr¿ will move you to the next valid data position. In
this mode text or numbers can be entered. Press ESC to get back to command mode.
FIT c3
"FIT C3" will fit a least squares regression line to the data in columns c3 and c4 (x values
taken from c3) and print out the results.
EXIT
EXIT saves the data in your input file spec and exits to DOS. You can optionally specify an
output file as well. eg. "% EXIT myfile.dat"
The command "EXIT myfile.dat c3c5r1r3" will write out that range of numbers to the
file.
By default manip will write columns seperated by spaces.
The command "EXIT myfile.dat -TAB" will put a single tab between each column of numbers and "EXIT myfile.dat -COMMA" will put a comma and a space between each number.
(these two options are usefull if your data file is very big and you don’t want to waste
diskspace with the space characters.) Note: The settings stay in effect for future saves and
exits.
You can make it line up the columns on the decimal point by typing in the command.
"SET DPOINTS 3"
You change the width of each column or completely remove the spaces between columns with
the command. "SET WIDTH 10" (or set width 0)
You can change the number of significant digits displayed with the command "SET DIGITS 4"
SAVE myfile.dat
Saves all or part of your data. The command "SAVE myfile.dat c3c5r1r3" will write out
that range of numbers to the file.
6.2. MANIP
61
By default manip will write columns seperated by spaces.
The command "SAVE myfile.dat -TAB" will put a single tab between each column of numbers and "SAVE myfile.dat -COMMA" will put a comma and a space between each number.
(these two options are usefull if your data file is very big and you don’t want to waste
diskspace with the space characters).
Further options are the same like EXIT
GOTO
For moving the cursor directly to a point in your array. e.g. "% GOTO x y"
CLEAR
"% CLEAR C2C3" Clears the given range of all values
BLANK
"% BLANK C2C3" Clears the given range of all values
NEW
Clears the spread sheet of all data and frees memory.
INSERT
Inserts
a
new
column
or
e.g."% INSERT c5" or "% INSERT r2".
row
and
shifts
all
others
over.
LOAD
Load data into columns. eg. "% LOAD filename" loads all data into corresponding columns.
"% LOAD filename c3" load first column of data into c3 etc.
"LOAD myfile.dat c3 -LIST" This commmand will load the the data into a single column
or range (even if it is several columns wide in the data file)
MOVE [range1] [range2] if [exp]
For copying a section to another section. They do not have to be the same shape. The
pointer to the destination is only increased if the line or column is coppied e.g.
"% MOVE c1 c2c3"
"% MOVE r4r2 r1r2"
"% MOVE c1c3r6r100
c6c8 if c1<c2"
"% MOVE C1 C2 IF C1<4"
c1 c2
1
1
2
2
5
3
3
9
(See COPY command)
SORT [range] ON [exp]
Sort entire rows of the data based on the data in a particular column. e.g.
"% SORT c8 on c9"
"% SORT c1c8 on -c8"
"% SORT c1c3 on c2 "
!for sorting strings
62
CHAPTER 6. GLE UTILITIES
This command works out how to sort the column (or exp) specified in the ON part of the
command. It then does that operation to the range specified. e.g. "SORT C1 ON C1" will
sort column one.
Use the additional qualifier -STRINGS if you want to sort a column with strings in it. e.g.
"sort c1 on c2 -strings"
SWAP
Swap over two columns or rows. e.g.
"% SWAP c1c2"
"% SWAP r3r1"
SET SIZE ncols nrows
"SIZE 3 4" Truncates the spreadsheet to 3 columns and 4 rows. This also sets the values to
use for default ranges.
SET BETWEEN ” ”
"SET BETWEEN "##" Defines the string to be printed between each column of numbers when
written to a file. This is normally set to a single space.
SET COLWIDTH
Set the width of each column when displayed. e.g. "% SET COLWIDTH 12"
SET COLTYPE [n] DECIMAL — EXP — BOTH — DPOINTS n
This commands allows all or individual columns to be set to different output types. If
colnumber is missing then that setting is applied to all columns.
SET COLTYPE Ccolnumber TYPE Where TYPE is one of:
DECIMAL
produces 123.456
EXP
produces 1.23456e02
BOTH
produces whichever is more suitable
DPOINTS n produces a fixed number of decimal places.
e.g.
SET COLTYPE c2 DECIMAL
SET COLTYPE c1 EXP
SET COLTYPE c3 DPOINTS 4
Would print out: 1.2e02
SET COLTYPE EXP
1.2
1.2000
(column number missed out)
Would print out: 1.2e02
1.2e02
1.2e02
SET NCOL n
Set the number of columns to display. e.g."% SET NCOL 3"
SET DPOINTS n
Sets the number of decimal places to print. This is used for producing columns which line
up on the decimal point. e.g. with DPOINTS 3.
2.2
234
->
2.200
-> 234.000
(See also SET COLTYPE)
6.2. MANIP
63
SET DIGITS n
Sets the number of significat digits to be displayed, e.g. with DIGITS 3.
123456
0.12345
becomes
becomes
123000
0.123
SET WIDTH n
Sets the width of padding to use for the columns when they are written to a file. The columns
usually one space wider than this setting as the BETWEEN string is usually set to one space
by default.
LOGGING
For creating command files. e.g.
"%
"%
"%
"%
LOG sin.man"
c2=sin(c1)
c3=c2+2
close"
Then type in "@sin" to execute these commands.
PROPAGATE [source] [destination]
This command has the same format as move. The difference is that the source is coppied as
many times as possible to fill up the destination. e.g. "% PROP c1r1r7 c2"
SUM [range]
Adds up all the numbers in a range and displays the total and average. e.g. "% SUM C1C3"
PARSUM [range1] [range2]
Adds up one coloumn, putting the partial sum’s into another coloumn. e.g.
becomes 1,3,6,10.
1,2,3,4
GENERATE [pattern] [destination]
For generating a patter of data e.g. 1 1 2 2 5 5 1 1 2 2 5 5 etc.
"% GEN 2(1,2,5)30 c4" !1 1 2 2 5 5 repeated 30 times
"% GEN (1:100:5)5 c1" !1 to 100 step 5, 5 times
"% GEN (1,2,*,3:5)5 c1" !missing values included
Functions
Calculations can be performed on rows or columns. eg "% C1=C2*3+R" where ”R” stands for
row-number and C1 and C2 are columns. They can also be performed on ROWS. eg
r1=sin(r2)+log10(c)
c1 = cell(c+1,r)+cell(c+2,r)
cell(1,3) = 33.3
3+4*COS(PI/180)^(3+1/30)+C1+R
Valid operators and functions:
,
>=
ABS(
LOG10(
SQRT(
.NOT.
+
<>
ATN(
SGN(
.NE.
.AND.
−
<
COS(
SIN(
.EQ.
.OR.
^
>
EXP(
SQR(
.LT.
∗
=
FIX(
TAN(
.GT.
/
)AND(
INT(
NOT(
.LE.
<=
)OR(
LOG(
RND(
.GE.
64
CHAPTER 6. GLE UTILITIES
QUIT
Abandon file.
SHELL
Gives access to DOS.
Chapter 7
SURFACE
7.1
Surface primitives
SURFace plots 3 dimensional data using a wire frame with hidden line removal. The simplist
SURFACE file would look like this.
BEGIN SURFACE
DATA myfile.z 5 5
END SURFACE
More help is available on the following topics:
SIZE x y
CUBE [OFF] [XLEN v ] [YLEN v ] [ZLEN v ] [NOFRONT] [LSTYLE l ] [COLOR c ]
DATA myfile.z [XSAMPLE n1 ] [YSAMPLE n2 ] [SAMPLE n3 ] [NX n1 ] [NY n2 ]
HARRAY n
XLINES — YLINES [OFF]
XAXIS — YAXIS — ZAXIS [MIN v ] [MAX v ] [STEP v ] [COLOR c ] [LSTYLE l ] [HEI v ] [OFF]
XTITLE — YTITLE — ZTITLE ”title” [DIST v ] [COLOR c ] [HEI v ]
TITLE ”Main title” [DIST v ] [COLOR c ] [HEI v ]
ROTATE θ φ x
VIEW x y p
TOP — UNDERNEATH [OFF] [LSTYLE n ] [COLOR c ]
BACK [ZSTEP v ] [YSTEP v ] [LSTYLE l ] [COLOR c ] [NOHIDDEN]
BASE [XSTEP v ] [YSTEP v ] [LSTYLE l ] [COLOR c ] [NOHIDDEN]
RIGHT [ZSTEP v ] [XSTEP v ] [LSTYLE l ] [COLOR c ] [NOHIDDEN]
SKIRT ON
POINTS myfile.dat
MARKER circle [HEI v ] [COLOR c ]
DROPLINES — RISELINES [COLOR c ] [LSTYLE n ]
ZCLIP [MIN v1 ] [MAX v2 ]
65
66
CHAPTER 7. SURFACE
7.1.1
Surface Commands
size x y
Specifies the size in cm to draw the surface. The 3d cube will fit inside this box. The default
is 18cm x 18cm e.g. SIZE 10 10
cube [OFF] [XLEN v ] [YLEN v ] [ZLEN v ] [NOFRONT] [LSTYLE l ] [COLOR c ]
Surface is drawing a 3d cube.
OFF
XLEN
NOFRONT
LSTYLE
COLOR
Stops GLE from drawing the cube.
The length of the cubes x dimension in cm.
Removes the front three lines of the cube.
Sets the line style to use drawing the cube.
Sets the color of lines to use drawing the cube.
begin surface
size 10 10
data jack.z
cube zlen 5
end surface
300
250
200
150
100
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
50
0
0
0
5
5
10
15
20
25
30 0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
10
15
20
25
30 0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
DATA it myfile.z [XSAMPLE n1 ] [YSAMPLE n2 ] [SAMPLE n3 ] [NX n1 ] [NY n2 ]
Loads a file of Z values in. The NX and NY dimensions are optional, normally the dimensions
of the data will be defined on the first line of the data file. e.g.
! NX 10 NY 20
XMIN 1 XMAX 10 YMIN 1 YMAX 20
1 2 42 4 5 2 31 4 3 2 4
1 2 42 4 5 2 31 4 3 2 4 etc...
y1,x1, y1,x2 ... y1,xn
y2,x1, y2,x2 ... y2,xn
.
.
.
yn,x1, yn,x2 ... yn,xn
7.1. SURFACE PRIMITIVES
67
Data files can be created using LETZ or FITZ. LETZ will create a data file from an x,y
function. FITZ will create a data file from a list of x,y,z data points.
XSAMPLE
Tells surface to only read every n’th data point from
the data file. This speeds things up while you are
messing around.
YSAMPLE
Tells surface to only read every n’th line from the
data file.
SAMPLE
Sets both XSAMPLE and YSAMPLE
begin surface
size 5 5
xtitle "Xaxis"
ytitle "Yaxis"
data surf1.z
end surface
(see also POINTS)
2
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Xax
is
3. 5
4
4.5
5 1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
s
Yaxi
harray n
The hidden line removal is accomplished with the help of an array of heights which record
the current horizon, the quality of the output is proportional to the width of this array. (also
the speed of output)
To get good quality you may want to increase this from the default of about 900 to 2 or 3
thousand. e.g. HARRAY 2000
xlines off
Stops SURF from drawing lines of constant X.
YLINES OFF
Stops SURF from drawing lines of constant Y.
68
CHAPTER 7. SURFACE
XAXIS [MIN v ] [MAX v ] [STEP v ] [COLOR c ] [LSTYLE l ] [HEI v ] [OFF]
ZAXIS [MIN v ] [MAX v ] [STEP v ] [COLOR c ] [LSTYLE l ] [HEI v ] [OFF]
YAXIS [MIN v ] [MAX v ] [STEP v ] [COLOR c ] [LSTYLE l ] [HEI v ] [OFF]
MIN,MAX Set the range used for labelling the axis.
STEP
The distance between labels on the axis.
COLOR
The color of the axis ticks and labels.
LSTYLE
The line style used for drawing the ticks.
TICKLEN The length of the ticks.
HEI
The height of text used for labelling.
OFF
Stops GLE from drawing the axis.
begin surface
size 5 5
data surf1.z
zaxis min -1 max 3
base xstep .5 ystep .5
back ystep 1 zstep 1
right xstep .5 zstep .5 lstyle 2
xtitle "Xaxis" hei .3
ytitle "Yaxis" hei .3
end surface
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Xax
is
3.5
4
4.5
5 1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
s
Yaxi
XTITLE ”X title” [DIST v ] [COLOR c ] [HEI v ]
YTITLE ”Y title” [DIST v ] [COLOR c ] [HEI v ]
ZTITLE ”Z title”
DIST
COLOR
HEI
[DIST v ] [COLOR c ] [HEI v ]
Moves the title further away from the axis.
Sets the color of the title.
Sets the hei in cm of the text used for the title.
TITLE ”Main title” [DIST v ] [COLOR c ] [HEI v ]
DIST
Moves the title further away from the axis.
COLOR Sets the color of the title.
HEI
Sets the hei in cm of the text used for the title.
ROTATE θ φ x
Imagine the unit cube is sitting on the front of your terminal screen, x along the bottom, y
up the left hand side, and z coming towards you.
The first number (10) rotates the cube along the xaxis, ie hold the right hand side of the
cube and rotate your hand clockwise 10 degrees.
The second number (20) rotates the cube along the yaxis, ie hold the top of the cube and
rotate it 20 degrees clockwise.
The third number is currently ignored.
The default setting is 60 50 0.
ROTATE 10 20 30
7.1. SURFACE PRIMITIVES
69
VIEW x y p
Sets the perspective, this is where the cube gets smaller as the lines dissappear towards
infinity.
x and y are the position of infinity on your screen. p is the degree of perspective, 0 = no
perspective and with 1 the back edge of the box will be touching infinitiy. Good values are
between 0 and 0.6
2
1.5
1
0.5
View point
0
-0.5
-1
5
1 1.
2
2.5
3
3.5
begin surface
size 5 5
data surf1.z
zaxis min -1
rotate 85 85 0
view 0 5 .7
end surface
4
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
5
1.5
1
TOP [OFF] [LSTYLE n ] [COLOR c ]
Sets the features of the top of the surface. By default the top is on.
(see also UNDERNEATH, XLINES, YLINES)
UNDERNEATH [OFF] [LSTYLE n ] [COLOR c ]
Sets the features of the under side of the surface. By default the underneath is off.
(see also TOP, XLINES, YLINES)
BACK [ZSTEP v ] [YSTEP v ] [LSTYLE l ] [COLOR c ] [NOHIDDEN]
Draws a grid on the back face of the cube.
By default hidden lines are removed but NOHIDDEN will stop this from happenning.
BASE [XSTEP v ] [YSTEP v ] [LSTYLE l ] [COLOR c ] [NOHIDDEN]
Draws a grid on the base of the cube.
By default hidden lines are removed but NOHIDDEN will stop this from happenning.
RIGHT [ZSTEP v ] [XSTEP v ] [LSTYLE l ] [COLOR c ] [NOHIDDEN]
Draws a grid on the right face of the cube.
By default hidden lines are removed but NOHIDDEN will stop this from happenning.
SKIRT ON
Draws a skirt from the edge of the surface to ZMIN.
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
33
.5
4
-0.5
5
2
2.
5
2
1.
3
Xa
xi
s
3.
5
1.5
1
2.5
-1
4
4.
5
5
1
Zaxis
begin surface
size 5 5
data surf1.z
zaxis min -1 max 3
xtitle "Xaxis"
ztitle "Zaxis"
points surf3.dat
riselines lstyle 2
marker fcircle
skirt on
rotate 80 30 0
view 2.5 3 .6
end surface
70
CHAPTER 7. SURFACE
POINTS myfile.dat
Reads in a data file which must have 3 columns (x,y,z)
This is then used for plotting markers and rise and drop lines.
MARKER circle [HEI v ] [COLOR c ]
Draws markers at the co-ordinates read from the POINTS file.
DROPLINES [COLOR c ] [LSTYLEn ]
Draws lines from the co-ordinates read from the POINTS file down to zmin.
RISELINES [COLOR c ] [LSTYLE n ]
Draws lines from the co-ordinates read from the POINTS file up to zmax.
ZCLIP [MIN v1 ] [MAX v2 ]
ZCLIP goes through the Z array and sets any Z value smaller than MIN to v1 and sets any
value greater than MAX to v2.
begin surface
size 5 5
data jack.z sample 2
back ystep 1 zstep 100
color green
xtitle "Xaxis"
ytitle "Yaxis"
top color blue
zclip min 100
zaxis min 0
underneath on lstyle 2
end surface
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
5
10
15
Xax
is
20
25
30 0
2
4
6
8
10
12
s
Yaxi
14
16
18
20
7.2. LETZ
7.2
71
LETZ
LETZ generates a data file of z values given an expression in terms of x and y.
e.g. the following example does something like this:
For y = 0 to 20 step 1
For x = 0 to 30 step 1
z[x,y] = x+sin(y^2)/pi+10.22
next x
next y
----------- Log of a typical LETZ session -----------------------------$ letz
File to store data in ? jack
Storing data in {jack.z} and commands in {jack.let}
Enter xmin,xmax,xstep (on one line) [0,30,1] ?
Enter ymin,ymax,ystep [0,30,1] ? 0,20,1
For y = 0 to 20 step 1
For x = 0 to 30 step 1
Valid funtions: (trig functions use radians)
abs(), atn(), cos(), exp(), fix(),
int(), log(), log10(), rnd(), sgn(), sin(),
sqr(), sqrt(), tan(), PI, (x^3 = x*x*x)
e.g. 3*x^2+sin(y*180/pi)
Enter equation:
? x+sin(y^2)/pi+10.22
z = x+sin(y^2)/pi+10.22
Y = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Use
LETZ <jack.let
to remake the same data file
$
$ ----------- End of Log ------------------------------
The file JACK.Z now contains the required data.
The file JACK.LET contains
--------------JACK.LET----------jack.z
0, 30, 1
0, 20, 1
x+sin(y^2)/pi+10.22
-------------------end of file---This can be edited and then used to regenerate the data using a different range or a different
equation.
72
CHAPTER 7. SURFACE
begin surface
size 5 5
data jack.z sample 2
back ystep 1 zstep 100
color green
xtitle "Xaxis"
ytitle "Yaxis"
top color blue
zclip min 100
zaxis min 0
underneath on lstyle 2
end surface
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
5
10
15
Xax
is
20
25
30 0
LETZ
File to store data in ?
saddle.z
Enter xmin,xmax,xstep (on one line):
0, 20, 1
Enter ymin,ymax,ystep:
0, 20, 1
Enter equation:
2
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
s
Yaxi
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
3/2*(cos(3/5*(y-1))+5/4)/(1+(((x-4)/3) ))
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20 0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
7.3. FITZ
7.3
73
FITZ
FITZ fits smooth curves to a surface of data points. e.g. Given some data points, e.g.
x y z
---- data file testf.dat ----1 1 1
1 2 1
2 2 1
2 1 1
1.5 1.5 2
-----------------------------These points defile the for corners of a surface which has one high point in the center. As you can
see the order of points is not relevant.
It is important that each line of the data file has three points on it. (x, y, z)
FIT then asks you for a range of x and y values generate z values for. The range is given as
minimum,maximum,stepsize.
e.g. 1,3,.5 would produce 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3
Use SURF to draw the surface on the screen and see the finished product.
$ FITZ
Data file conaining x y z data ? TESTF.DAT
Read 5 points from file {testf.dat}
Will write data to {testf.z}
Number of points to use for contouring each point ? [3]
Range of output x values [1,2,6.666667e-02] ? 1,2,.05
Range of output y values [1,2,6.666667e-02] ? 1,2,.05
nx 21, ny 21, Work space iwk=2384 bytes wk=160 bytes
Y = 1 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65
1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 2
Now use TESTF.Z as your data file for SURFACE.
begin surface
size 5 5
data fitz1.z
xaxis step 1 hei .2
yaxis step 1 hei .2
zaxis step .5 hei .2
zaxis min 0 max 2
points fitz1.dat
droplines lstyle 1
marker circle
view 2.5 3 .3
end surface
2
1.5
1
0.5
00
1
2
3
4
1
0
2
3
4
74
CHAPTER 7. SURFACE
7.4
CONTOUR
This utility produces a graph with contour lines.
For input you give it grid of z values in a file the x and y values are assumed. e.g. a 4x3 grid of
points would look like this:
!
1
1
1
nx 4 ny 3 xmin 0 xmax 0 xmax 6 ymax 0 ymax 10
1 1 1
2 2 1
1 1 1
This defines the points
0,0,1
0,5,1
0,10,1
2,0,1
2,5,2
2,10,1
4,0,1
4,5,2
4,10,1
6,0,1
6,5,1
6,10,1
You would normally generate this file using the utility LETZ or FITZ.
LETZ takes an x,y function and produces a grid of z values
FITZ takes a file of x,y,z data points and fits a grid of z values.
Having created a data file of the correct sort CONTOUR will ask for a list of values to contour
at, you can enter a list of values, e.g. "1 2 3 4.5 5" or you can enter a range and step size e.g.
"1:3:.5" which would generate "1 1.5 2 2.5 3"
You are then asked if you want the lines labeled with the letters A . . . Z or by the actual numbers.
Then you are asked for a file name to write output to. If you give the name XYZ then CONTOUR
will create:
xyz.gle
xyz.dat
xyz.lab
xyz.key
The gle file to draw the contour plot
The data file containing the contour lines
A gle include file which labels the graph
A gle include file which draws a key
Then wait while the contours are calculated, this takes some time (even on a fast PC) e.g. 10
seconds on 33Mhz 386. The exact time will depend on the number of points and number of
contour lines you are using.
7.4. CONTOUR
75
10
9
8
7
6
5
F
4
E
3
A
1
B
1.2
C
1.4
D
1.6
E
1.8
F
2
G
2.2
H
2.4
I
2.6
J
2.8
K
3
2
1
0K
0
J
I
H
G
F
1
E
D
C
B
2
3
4
5
6
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
76
CHAPTER 7. SURFACE
Appendix A
Tables
A.1
Markers
.
circle
triangle
square
diamond
fcircle
ftriangle
fsquare
fdiamond
dot
cross
club
heart
star
snake
dag
ddag
asterisk
oplus
ominus
otimes
odot
trianglez
diamondz
wcircle
wtriangle
wsquare
wdiamond
77
78
A.2
APPENDIX A. TABLES
Fonts
font-name
Description
rm
rmb
rmi
ss
ssb
ssi
tt
ttb
tti
Roman
Roman Bold
Roman Italic
San Serif
San Serif Bold
San Serif Italic
Typewriter
Typewriter Bold
Typewriter Italic
font-name
Description
texcmb
texcmex
texcmitt
texcmmi
texcmr
texcmss
texcmssb
texcmssi
texcmsy
texcmti
texcmtt
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
font-name
Description
plba
plcc
plcg
plci
plcr
plcs
pldr
plge
plgg
plgi
plsa
plsg
plsr
plss
plsym1
plsym2
plti
pltr
Block Ascii
Complex Cartographic
Complex Gothic
Complex Italic
Complex Roman
Complex Script
Duplex Roman
Gothic English
Gothic German
Gothic Italian
Simplex Ascii
Simplex German
Simplex Roman
Simplex Script
Symbols one
Symbols two
Triplex Italic
Triplex Roman
Modern
Modern
Modern
Modern
Modern
Modern
Modern
Modern
Modern
Modern
Modern
Bold
Extensible
Italic Typewriter
Maths Italic
Roman
Sans Serif
Sans Serif Bold
Sans Serif Italic
Symbol
Text Italic
Typewriter Text
A.2. FONTS
font-name
psagb
psagbo
psagd
psagdo
psbd
psbdi
psbl
psbli
psc
pscb
pscbo
psco
psh
pshb
pshbo
psho
pshc
pshcb
pshcdo
pshn
pshnb
pshnbo
pshno
psncsb
psncsbi
psncsi
psncsr
pspb
pspbi
pspi
pspr
pstr
psti
pstb
pstbi
pszcmi
pszd
pssym
79
Description
AvantGarde-Book
AvantGarde-BookOblique
AvantGarde-Demi
AvantGarde-DemiOblique
Bookman-Demi
Bookman-DemiItalic
Bookman-Light
Bookman-LightItalic
Courier
Courier-Bold
Courier-BoldOblique
Courier-Oblique
Helvetica
Helvetica-Bold
Helvetica-BoldOblique
Helvetica-Oblique
Helvetica-Condensed
Helvetica-Condensed-Bold
Helvetica-Condensed-BoldOblique
Helvetica-Narrow
Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
Helvetica-NarrowOblique
NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
Palatino-Bold
Palatino-BoldItalic
Palatino-Italic
Palatino-Roman
Times-Roman
Times-Italic
Times-Bold
Times-BoldItalic
ZapfChancery-MediumItalic
ZapfDingbats
Symbol
80
APPENDIX A. TABLES
A.2. FONTS
81
rm
rmb
Roman
Roman Bold
psagb
psagbo
AvantGarde-Book
AvantGarde-BookOblique
rmi
ss
Roman Italic
Sans Serif
psagd
psagdo
AvantGarde-Demi
AvantGarde-DemiOblique
ssb
ssi
tt
Sans Serif Bold
Sans Serif Italic
Typewriter
ttb
tti
Typewriter Bold
Typewriter Italic
texcmb
texcmitt
texcmmi
texcmr
texcmss
texcmssb
texcmssi
texcmti
psbd
psbdi
psbli
psc
pscb
Courier-BoldOblique
Courier-Oblique
Helvetica
pshb
pshbo
psho
Helvetica-Bold
Helvetica-BoldOblique
Helvetica-Oblique
pshc
pshcb
pshcdo
pshn
pshnb
pshnbo
pshno
plba
plci
plcr
psncsb
psncsbi
psncsi
psncsr
pspb
pspbi
pspi
pspr
pssym
pstb
pstbi
psti
pstr
pszcmi
plgg
plgi
plsa
plsg
plsr
plss
plti
pltr
Courier
Courier-Bold
pscbo
psco
psh
texcmtt
plcs
pldr
plge
Bookman-Demi
Bookman-DemiItalic
Bookman-LightItalic
NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
Palatino-Bold
Palatino-BoldItalic
Palatino-Italic
Palatino-Roman
Σψµβολ
Times-Bold
Times-BoldItalic
Times-Italic
Times-Roman
ZapfChancery-MediumItalic
82
A.3
APPENDIX A. TABLES
Functions
Function Name
TIME$()
DATE$()
DEVICE$()
LEFT$(str$,exp)
RIGHT$(str$,exp)
SEG$(str$,exp1,exp2)
NUM$(exp)
NUM1$(exp)
VAL(str$)
POS(str1$,str2$,exp)
LEN(str$)
Returns . . .
current time e.g. “11:44:27”
current date e.g. “Tue Apr 09 1991”
available devices e.g. “HARDCOPY, PS”
left exp characters of str$
rest of str$ starting at exp
str$ from exp1 to exp2
string representation of exp
as above but with no spaces
value of the string str$
position of str2$ in str1$ from exp
the length of str$
Function Name
ABS(exp)
ATN(exp)
COS(exp)
EXP(exp)
FIX(exp)
INT(exp)
LOG(exp)
LOG10(exp)
SGN(exp)
SIN(exp)
SQR(exp)
TAN(exp)
NOT(exp)
RND(exp)
SQRT(exp)
Returns . . .
absolute value of expression
arctan
cosine
exponent
exp rounded towards 0
integer part of exp
log to base e of exp
log to base 10 of exp
returns 1 if exp is positive, -1 if exp is negative
sine of exp
exp squared
tangent of exp
logical not of exp
random number from seed exp
square root of exp
Function Name
XEND()
YEND()
XPOS()
YPOS()
TWIDTH(str$)
THEIGHT(str$)
TDEPTH(str$)
XG(xexp)
YG(yexp)
Returns . . .
the x end point of a text string when drawn
the y end point of a text string when drawn
the current x point
the current y point
the width of str$ assuming current font, size
the height of str$ assuming current font, size
the depth of str$ assuming current the font, size
converts units of last graph to abs cm.
converts units of last graph to abs cm.
A.4. LATEX MACROS AND SYMBOLS
A.4
LaTEX Macros and Symbols
There are several LaTEX like commands which can be used within text, they are:
\ \’ \v \u \= \^
\. \H \~ \"
^{}
_{}
\\
\_
\,
\:
\;
\char{22}
\chardef{a}{hello}
\def\v{hello}
\movexy{2}{3}
\glass
\rule{2}{4}
\setfont{rmb}
\sethei{.3}
\setstretch{2}
\lineskip{.1}
\linegap{-1}
Implemented TeX accents
Superscript
Subscript
Forced Newline
Underscore character
.5em (em = width of the letter ‘m’)
1em space
2em space
Any character in current font
Define a character as a macro
Defines a macro
Moves the current text point
Makes move/space work on beginning of line
Draws a filled in box, 2cm by 4cm
Sets the current text font
Sets the font height (in cm)
Scales the quantity of glue between words
Sets the default distance between lines of text
Sets the minimum required gap between lines
83
84
APPENDIX A. TABLES
[
\lbrack
‡
\ddag
α
\alpha
² \epsilon
ι
\iota
ν
\nu
σ
\sigma
χ
\chi
ϑ \vartheta
ϕ \varphi
ℵ
`
=
0
>
∀
[
♣
♠
ß
\ss
§
\S
β \beta
ζ \zeta
κ \kappa
ξ
\xi
τ
\tau
ψ
\psi
$ \varpi
\aleph
\ell
\Im
\prime
\top
\forall
\flat
\clubsuit
\spadesuit
V
\bigwedge
S
\bigcup
N
\bigotimes
F
\bigsqcup
H
\ointop
4 \bigtriangleup
∧
\land
∩
\cap
†
\dagger
]
\uplus
•
\bullet
¯
\odot
ª
\ominus
±
\pm
\
\setminus
×
\times
≥
\geq
¶
\P
γ \gamma
η
\eta
λ \lambda
π
\pi
υ \upsilon
ω \omega
% \varrho
\imath
\wp
\partial
\emptyset
\bot
\exists
\natural
\diamondsuit
`
\coprod
U
\biguplus
Q
\prod
L
\bigoplus
∫
\smallint
/
\triangleleft
5 \bigtriangledown
∨
\vee
∪
\cup
u
\sqcap
q
\amalg
o
\wr
®
\oslash
⊕
\oplus
◦
\circ
·
\cdot
?
\star
ı
℘
∂
∅
⊥
∃
\
♦
†
\dag
c \copyright
°
δ
\delta
θ
\theta
µ
\mu
ρ
\rho
φ
\phi
ε \varepsilon
ς \varsigma
\jmath
\Re
\infty
\nabla
\triangle
\neg
\sharp
\heartsuit
W
\bigvee
T
\bigcap
P
\sum
J
\bigodot
R
\intop
. \triangleright
∧
\wedge
∨
\lor
‡
\ddagger
t
\sqcup
¦
\diamond
÷
\div
⊗
\otimes
∓
\mp
°
\bigcirc
∗
\ast

<
∞
∇
4
¬
]
♥
Appendix B
Examples
• A Single Graph
• Stack of Two Graphs
• Stack of Four Graphs
• Shadow Graph
• Subroutines, Loops
• Joining Objects
• Clipping
• Wall Reference
85
86
APPENDIX B. EXAMPLES
87
Bar example
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
size 12 9 box
begin graph
SIZE 12 9
Title "Bar example"
data single.dat
bar d1,d2 fill green,blue
fill x1,d1 color grey10
end graph
single.gle
0
1
2
3
4
5
2 6
10 16
3 6
6 3
5 4
3 7
single.dat
88
APPENDIX B. EXAMPLES
22.
stack2.gle
70
60
Bud burst (%)
(a)
50
40
Shelter row
Shelter row + H
Middle row
Middle row + H
30
20
10
Sep 13
Sep 23
Oct 3
Oct 13
Oct 23
110
Flowers per cane at full bloom
100
(b)
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Nov 10
Nov 15
Nov 20
Nov 25
Nov 30
Figure 5. Influence of Hicane on the duration and timing of (a) bud burst and (b) flowering of
kiwifruit. (Note: this data has been made up)
89
size 18 27 box ! (uncomment box for debugging)
This is STACK2.GLE
amove 1.3 14.5
begin graph
size 16 12
nobox
xaxis min 0 max 20 dticks 4 dsubticks 1
xplaces 4 8 12 16 20 ! these would be set to match the dates
xnames "Sep 13" "Sep 23" "Oct 3" "Oct 13" "Oct 23"
xticks length .2
yticks length .2
yaxis min 0 max 75 dticks 10 dsubticks 5 nofirst
ytitle "Bud burst (%)"
xtitle ""
data TEST4.DAT
d1 lstyle 1 marker wcircle msize .3
d2 lstyle 1 marker wsquare msize .3
d3 lstyle 2 marker wcircle msize .3
d4 lstyle 2 marker wsquare msize .3
end graph
set hei .4
begin key
offset 8.2 2.3
text "Shelter row" lstyle 1 marker circle mscale .6
text "Shelter row + H " lstyle 1 marker square mscale .6
text "Middle row" lstyle 2 marker circle mscale .6
text "Middle row + H" lstyle 2 marker square mscale .6
end key
rmove 12 9
text (a)
amove 1.3 4
set font rm hei .5
begin graph
size 16 12
nobox
xaxis min 0 max 20 dticks 4 dsubticks 1
xplaces 4 8 12 16 20 ! these would be set to match the dates
xnames "Nov 10" "Nov 15" "Nov 20" "Nov 25" "Nov 30"
xticks length .2
yticks length .2
yaxis min 0 max 110 dticks 10 dsubticks 5
ytitle "Flowers per cane at full bloom "
xtitle ""
data TEST4.DAT
d1 lstyle 1 marker circle msize .3
d2 lstyle 1 marker square msize .3 smooth
d3 lstyle 2 marker circle msize .3 smooth
d4 lstyle 2 marker square msize .3
end graph
rmove 12 9
text (b)
set hei .4
amove 9 26
text 22.
amove 1.3 3
begin text width 16
Figure 5. Influence of Hicane on the duration and timing of (a) bud burst
and (b) flowering of kiwifruit. (Note: this data has been made up)
end text
set just left
amove .5 26
text stack2.gle
stack2.gle
1
3
5
8
10
14
19
10
30
50
80
90
70
80
5
15
25
40
45
35
40
90
80
70
60
55
50
60
12
22
10
15
11
14
6
test4.dat
90
APPENDIX B. EXAMPLES
Top graph, stack4b.gle
20
15
10
5
0
0
.
1
2
3
4
5
. ....
0
1
2
3
4
5
0
1
2
3
4
5
15
10
5
0
.
15
15
.
10
.
10
.
.
5
.
.
Bottom graph
15
10
5
0
.
.
5
.
. .
. ....
.
0
.
Age
Width
0
1
2
3
4
5
0
91
size 17 26 ! box (uncomment box for measuring with ruler) STACK4B.GLE
set font ss
amove 3.5 19
begin graph
size 10 5
data TEST.DAT
title "Top graph, stack4b.gle" hei .5 dist 1
fullsize
xaxis min -1 max 6 dticks 1 hei .3 nofirst nolast
yaxis min 0 max 20 hei .3 dticks 5
x2labels on
d1 marker wsquare msize .4 lstyle 1
d2 marker dot msize 1 lstyle 2
fill x1,d1 color grid4 xmax 3
fill x1,d1 color grey20 xmin 3
end graph
rmove 0 -5
begin graph
size 10 5
data TEST.DAT
fullsize
xaxis min -1 max 6 dticks 1 hei .3 nofirst nolast
yaxis min 0 max 20 hei .3 dticks 5 nolast
bar d1,d2 width .2 dist .2 fill grey10,grid3 color black,black
end graph
rmove 0 -5
begin graph
data TEST.DAT
fullsize
size 10 5
xaxis min -1 max 6 dticks 1 hei .3 nofirst nolast
yaxis min 0 max 20 hei .3 dticks 5 nolast
xlabels off
y2labels on
d1 marker dot lstyle 2 err 10%
d2 marker dot lstyle 1 err 10%
end graph
rmove 0 -5
begin graph
data TEST.DAT
title "Bottom graph" hei .4 dist 0.0
fullsize
size 10 5
xaxis min -1 max 6 dticks 1 hei .3 nofirst nolast grid
yaxis min 0 max 20 hei .3 dticks 5 nolast grid
xticks lstyle 2 lwidth 0.0001
! sets the grid line style
yticks lstyle 2 lwidth 0.0001
d1 marker wsquare msize .4 lstyle 2 key "Age"
key hei .5
d2 marker dot msize 1 lstyle 1 key "Width"
end graph
stack4b.gle
92
APPENDIX B. EXAMPLES
Data transfer on 9600 bit/sec line
10
K Bits
8
6
4
2
0
-1
0
1
2
3
Time (seconds)
stack1.gle
4
5
6
93
size 17 23 ! This is STACK1.GLE,
set hei .4
amove .3 .3
text stack1.gle
a single graph, with shading background
amove 1.5 5
box 15 16 fill grey60
rmove -1 1
box 15 16 fill white
rmove 2 4
box 11 8 fill grey5
set font ss
begin graph
fullsize
size 11 8
title "Data transfer on 9600 bit/sec line"
xtitle "Time (seconds)"
ytitle "K Bits"
data test.dat
d1 line marker wsquare mscale 2
xaxis min -1 max 6
yaxis min 0 max 11
end graph
stack1.gle
94
APPENDIX B. EXAMPLES
Subroutines, Loops
seeseeseesesesesessss
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
t
r
t
r
t
r
t
t
t
tttttr
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
rG
rG
rG
rG
rG
rrrererereee
G
G
G
G
G
G
Hello
Hello
Hello
Hello
Hello
Hello
Hello
Hello
Hello
Hello
Hello
95
size 17 17 box !18 24 box ! This is LOOP.GLE, shows programming examples
amove 5 14
set just center hei 1
text Subroutines, Loops
set just left hei .7
set hei .9
! First define a single neuron
sub neuron xx yy
amove xx yy
begin scale .5 .5
curve 0 .4 .4 .4 .4 -.4 .4 .4 .4 -.8 -.4 -.8 -.4 .4
curve -.4 -.8 -.4 .4 -.4 -.4 -.4 .4 0 .4
closepath
end scale
end sub
! Draw the neurons
for xx = 0 to 1
for i = 1 to 6
@neuron xx*6+2 i*2+1.2
next i
next xx
! Draw the lines between them
for i = 1 to 6
for j = 1 to 6
amove 3 i*2+1
aline 7.5 j*2+1
next j
next i
!-------------------------------------------------------------------------include ziptext.gle
amove 12 1
@ziptext "Hello"
amove 13 4
begin rotate 20
@ziptext "Green trees"
end rotate
loop.gle
sub ziptext tt$
gsave
for i = 1 to 0 step -.05
set color (i)
write tt$
rmove -.05 .025
next i
set color white
write tt$
grestore
end sub
ziptext.gle
96
APPENDIX B. EXAMPLES
Joining named objects
GRV
Cheese
CHV
Goats
Hi there
join.gle
97
size 18 24 box ! This is JOIN.GLE, demonstrates the join commands.
set hei .3
amove .3 .3
text join.gle
set hei 1.3 just center
amove 9 21
text Joining named objects
set hei .8 lwidth .1
amove 8.8 18.8
begin box name line
rline 0 -8.2
end box
set lwidth 0
amove 9.67745 8.7603
begin box
name cir
nobox
circle 1
end box
circle 1
amove 12.7461 4.59445
begin box name hi
add .2
text Hi there
end box
amove 3.14401 17.0566
begin box name grv add .2
text GRV
end box
amove 14.9533 12.2986
begin box name chv add .2
text CHV
end box
amove 12.5179 17.6103
begin box name cheese add .2
text Cheese
end box
amove 2.7381 11.229
begin box name goats add .2
text Goats
end box
! Now draw the lines between objects
join chv - goats
join grv -> line.h
! Note: ".h" means to join horizontally.
join line.h <-> cheese.tl
join cheese.tr - chv.tr
join cir.ci <- hi
! Note: ".ci" is used for circles
join cir.ci <- chv
join cir.ci <- goats
!----------------------------------------------------------------------------! A pie slice
(Will only work on PostScript it uses BEGIN PATH FILL).
sub pie ang1 ang2 radius color$
begin path fill color$ stroke
rmove 0 0
arc radius ang1 ang2
closepath
end path
end sub
amove 3 2
@pie 0 10 2 "grey10"
@pie 10 40 2 "grey20"
@pie 40 120 2 "blue"
join.gle
98
APPENDIX B. EXAMPLES
99
size 18 24 ! This is CLIP.GLE, sets up an arbitrary clipping region.
set hei .3 ! NOTE: CLIPPING ONLY WORKS ON POSTSCRIPT DEVICES.
amove 2.3 .3 ! So this won’t work on the pc-screen.
text clip.gle
set hei 10
amove 2 2
begin clip ! Save default clipping region
begin path clip ! Set up the clipping region
text GLE
end path
gsave
amove 2 2
text www ! Draw some text which will be clipped
for i = 1 to 90 ! Draw some lines which will be clipped
amove 2 2
rotate -1
rline 0 30
next i
grestore
end clip ! restore default clipping region
amove 0 0
rline 10 10 ! draw a line which won’t be clipped.
!----------------------------------------------------------------------------!Here’s a simple example of how to set up a clipping region which consists
!of two squares. Try this out
amove 1 11
begin origin
begin path clip stroke
amove 2 2
box 4 4
amove 7 2
box 4 4
end path
amove 2 2
set hei 4
text Here is clipped text
end origin
clip.gle
100
APPENDIX B. EXAMPLES
101
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
9229
lwidth 0.2
lwidth 0.1
lwidth 0.05
lwidth 0.02
lwidth 0.01
lwidth 0.0001
lwidth 0
rm
rmi
rmb
rmbi
tt
ttb
.
Roman
Roman Italic
dag
triangle
ddag
square
asterisk
diamond
oplus
fcircle
ominus
ftriangle
otimes
fsquare
odot
fdiamond
trianglez
dot
diamondz
cross
wcircle
club
wtriangle
heart
wsquare
star
wdiamond
snake
Roman Bold
Roman Bold Italic
Typewriter
Typewriter Bold
ss
ssb
Sans Serif
Sans Serif Bold
ssi
psc
Sans Serif Italic
PostScript Courier
The GRID and SHADE patterns should only be used
for filling on PostScript printers, the grey levels and
colors will work for both filling and color settings on
any device.
psh
psbd
psncsr
PostScript Helvetica
PostScript Bookman Demi
PostScript New Century Schlblk Roman
pszcmi
pszd
pltr
PostScript ZapfChancery-MediumItalic
✰❏▲▼✳❃❒❉❐▼ ✺❁❐❆✤❉■❇❂❁▼▲
pldr
plsr
plge
plci
plss
circle
Grid5
Grid4
Grid3
Grid2
Grid1
Grid
Shade5
Shade4
Shade3
Shade2
Shade1
Shade
Grey90
Grey20
Grey10
Grey5
Grey1
White
Black
Yellow
Magenta
Blue
Green
Red
102
APPENDIX B. EXAMPLES
Appendix C
GLE32
32 bit DOS version of GLE by Axel Rohde
--------------------------------------Introduction: (By Chris)
For a long time I have been explaining to people that a 32bit
dos version of GLE was not possible with currently available
compilers and libraries.
Clearly Axel has no appreciation for the impossible and has gone
ahead and compiled a version anyway (with absolutely no asistance
from me). On any 386 or better machine this version of GLE should
run without problems, it’s main features are these:
1) No 640K memory restrictions.
2) Much faster.
Installation Quick guide:
(By Chris)
1) FTP the binary distribution
ftp tui.marc.cri.nz
cd pub/gle/gle32
binary
mget gle32bi*.zip
2) Unzip them keeping the directory structure
cd c:\
pkunzip gle32bi1.zip -d
pkunzip gle32bi2.zip -d
pkunzip gle32bi3.zip -d
pkunzip gle32bi4.zip -d
pkunzip gle32bi5.zip -d
pkunzip gle32bi6.zip -d
3) Edit the batch file which tells gle where to find it’s fonts
and also what sort of graphics card you have.
edit setgle32.bat
(change the disk and directory as appropriate)
4) Run the batch script
setgle32
5) Try out the new version
gle_vga
6) Note most of the programs have been renamed to avoid conflicts!!!
Below are the more detailed instructions provided by Axel Rohde.
Read these carefully if you have any problems.
103
104
APPENDIX C. GLE32
Installation-manual and documentation
for the 32-Bit DOS version of
GLE 3.3 b
by Axel Rohde
The source-Code of GLE is free and available from many FTP-sites
(e.g. nic.funet.fi, ftp.informatik.uni-stuttgart.de). GLE 32 is a
implementation of GLE for MS-DOS. It was compiled with the free port
of the GNU C-compiler DJGPP by D.J. Delorie. The compiler itself and
the DJGPP-compiled executables are running with the 32-bit DOS-extender
GO32 by the same author. Thus, GLE 32 runs only on i386SX and above CPUs.
GO32 comes with a co-processor-emulator for those without a i387xx
Real-mode co-prozessor-emulators don’t work with GO32.
GLE was compiled using Borland-C compatible libraries for text and
graphics-modes and some filesystem calls.
There exists for the DJGPP specific graphics-library GRX from Csaba Biegl
a emulation-library called BCCGRX from Hartmut Schirmer
to replace calls of the Borland-Graphics-Interface (BGI) with GRX-calls.
Hartmut has implemented the mouse-functionality, too, with GRX-calls.
Copyright statements are at the end of this file.
Properties of GLE 32
- All programs are running in the 386-protected-mode and therefore there is
neither a limited 640kB adress-range nor a 64kB segmentation.
- 32-bit programs are running faster than their 16-bit-counterparts.
- There exists a multitude of GRX-graphics-drivers, e.g. for
TSENG ET4000(W32), S3, 8514A, Cirrus Logic GD 542x, Trident 8900,
Diamond Viper, ATI Ultra, ATI VGA and EGA. These drivers are highly
configureable and can use flicker-free high resolution modes.
Installation
To understand the next lines, you should have a basic knowledge of
the MS-DOS operating system and PC-hardware. Take a look into
your DOS-manual and your hardware documentation in case of doubt.
The DOS-Extender GO32 1.11 has different modes of operation:
1) VCPI: VCPI is an extension to EMS. EMS can be installed by
the driver EMM386.EXE of MS-DOS 5.0 and higher.
The (unoptimized) entry in the system-file CONFIG.SYS looks
like the follwing lines:
DOS=high,umb
device=c:\dos\himem.sys
device=c:\dos\emm386.exe RAM 2048
This entry installs
a) 2 MB EMS in the memory area above 1MB,
b) a page-frame with a size of 64kB between the memory area
of the graphics-board and the BIOS (upper memory).
Programs, that use VCPI-calls, can NOT run under Windows or the
DOS-emulation of OS/2 2.x. Other products, such as QEMM386 can
also be used.
105
2) DPMI: DPMI can be installed with special drivers like QDPMI (along
with QEMM 6.0 or higher) or 386ToTheMax 7.x. Both the DOS-emulation
of OS/2 2.x and Windows 3.x provide DPMI as a default. The
DPMI-interface does not allows direct access to (graphics-)hardware.
Only those programs, that don’t use graphic-mode, can run with
DPMI. I had a lot of total system crashes while running
some of the text-mode programs of GLE under OS/2 2.1. I recommend
to run GLE 32 under plain DOS.
To avoid name-conflicts between a 16-bit and a 32-bit version of GLE,
all the programs and the environment-variables were renamed.
All GLE-programs have now unix-style names like ’gle_ps’ (=’psgle’Postscript-output), ’gle_vga’ (=’cgle’ - VGA-Preview) etc. The names
of the utilities end with ’32’ - ’manip32’, ’contou32’....
In the example on the following lines, the progams are installed in the
directory d:\gle32, the fonts are in d:\gle32\fonts. GLE 32 searches for
its vector-fonts in the directory GLE_TOP. Don’t forget the trailing slash.
In addition to this, GL32FONT points to the directory where the bitmap-fonts
(you can see them in the status-line of the preview) can be found.
The directory with the DOS-Extender GO32 and, if there’s no
numeric-prozessor installed, the co-prozessor-emulator, must be in the
path-environment.
set GLE_TOP=d:/gle32/
set gle32font=d:/gle32/grxfont
path=..your normal path..;d:\gle;
go32=driver d:/gle32/driver/vesa_s3.grn gw 1024 gh 768 tw 80 th 25 nc 256
The configuration of graphics-drivers is a little bit more complicated.
Please study the documentation of the Libraries GRX und BCCGRX and
the README of GO32 in their directories.
The environment GO32 sets den path-name and the mode of the driver
an. This example installs the driver for an S3 graphics-board with a
resolution of 1024 horizontal 768 vertical pixels and 256 colors.
There’s a second way to install a graphics-mode. If the environmentvariables GLE32WIDTH, GLE32HEIGHT and GLE32COLORS are set, the graphicsmode in the GO32 variable is overridden. You still have to specify a
driver in the GO32 environment.
set GLE32WIDTH=800
set GLE32HEIGHT=600
set GLE32COLORS=16
There’s a prepared batch-file ’setgle32.bat’ to set all the environmentvariables in the directory gle32.
To figure out, which modes are supported, try to run the program
modetest in the directory gle32\driver\doc
!!!! WARNING !!!!
A wrong installed graphics-mode can DESTROY your MONITOR (and/or graphics
board) if the refresh rate is too high!
USE THIS ON YOUR OWN RISK!!!
You should take a look into the manuals of your monitor and your
graphics-adapter to figure out, which horizontal frequencies are supported.
If the horizontal frequency of the monitor is 64 kHz or higher,
you MAY feel save. (MY Monitor has a horizontal frequency of 64 kHz and
supports a resolution of 1024x768 with a refresh rate up to 80Hz.)
If you want to go save, don’t set the environment go32 at all!
This will use the normal (flickering) VGA-mode on a VGA-compatible
adapter.
106
APPENDIX C. GLE32
RESTRICTIONS and BUGS
1) The vector-fonts of the 32-bit-version are NOT compatible to their
16-bit-counterparts. They may be compatible to fonts that were created
under other 32-bit operating-systems.
2) The on-line-help of gle_vga is usable but may sometimes look different
compared to the original.
3) Makefmt and fbuild are missing. DJGPP’s Library lacks ecvt().
Both programs are used to calculate vector-fonts in the Unix-version
from the source-distribution. Both programs are NOT included in the
16-bit DOS-version, too. This package includes all (allready calculated)
fonts from the Unix-source distribution. They were calculated under Linux,
a free Unix-implementation for i386-PC’s and higher. Since a few months,
there exists an archive with my patches (at the ftp-sites sunsite.unc.edu
and nic.funet.fi) to compile GLE 3.3b under Linux.
4) The DVI-drivers are not testet! (I use Ghostscript or HP2XX for printing
and converting. Both programs are freely avaiable. Gle_ps and gle_hpgl
run properly.)
5) Surface (surf_vga) hanged under unknown circumstances while loading
one data-file. surf_vga can be stopped by pressing Control-Pause.
If this happens, load the data-file into an editor, save it, and try it
again.
Access to the DJGPP patches for the Source
I’ll release them in the near future after contacting Chris Pugmire.
You need a fixed version of Hartmut Schirmers BCC2GRX-library
to (properly) compile gle_vga and surf_vga. This will be released soon.
Postscript Documentation
The complete Postscript documentaion is in the directory
gle32\postscri.doc. I made diff-files to patch them in a
Ghostscript-printable state. For further information, take
a look into the file gle32\postscri.doc\readme.pat. The ’patch’
utility from the 1.11 release of DJGPP is included in this package.
107
LEGAL STUFF
Copyright-holders are:
GLE:
unknown to me, take a look into the original
documentation in the directory gle32\gle.doc\ and ask
Chris Pugmire
DJGPP and GO32:
D. J. Delorie, GNU LIBRARY GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE and
GNU PUBLIC LICENSE,
see the files in the directory gle32\go32.doc
GRX:
Csaba Biegl, GNU LIBRARY GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE,
(see gle32\driver\doc\grx.doc)
BCC2GRX:
MS-DOS:
Hartmut Schirmer, GNU LIBRARY GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE,
(see gle32\driver\doc\bccgrx.doc)
Microsoft Corporation (if you haven’t guessed...)
DJGPP, GRX and BCC2GRX are available from many ftp-sites. For examples see
the file gle32\driver\doc\bccgrx.doc.
LIKE ANYTHING ELSE THAT’S FREE, GLE 32 AND ITS ASSOCIATED UTILITIES ARE
PROVIDED AS IS AND COME WITH NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED. IN NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES
RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
These programs are distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Bug-reports are wellcome (to me and Chris Pugmire). It can not be guaranteed
that they can be fixed.
Axel Rohde, 19.1.94,
email: rohde@physik.uni-kiel.d400.de
Chris Pugmire’s email adress: chrisp@marc.cri.nz
gle32b.txt
108
APPENDIX C. GLE32
Appendix D
Fonttables
!From: TREV::SRPDBRS
27-JAN-1992 16:30:58.78
!To: GRV::SRGHCXP
!CC:
!Subj: Gle font viewer - here’s a going one
!Chris,
! thanks for the first approximation of the ’see a font’ program
!
- this is a working (ie tested and going) version.It could be
!
useful.
! Bruce
!PS - pszd isn’t available on (my) pc so it didn’t work there !!
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------size 18 24
text \chardef{~}{\movexy{.4}{0}}
sub tt a$
write a$
rmove 0 -1.2
end sub
set font pszd
amove .5 23.5
for j = 0 to 15
for i = 0 to 15
! note: no spaces in expression below. (exept inside quotes)
xx$ = "\char{"+num1$(j*16+i)+"}"
write xx$
rmove .9 0
next i
amove .5 (23.5-(1.3*(j+1)))
next j
amove 14 .5
set hei .2 font ss
write "DING2.GLE - BRS "+DATE$()
showfont.gle
109
110
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ %& ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U VWX Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
111
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
112
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ % & ’
(
) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \
d e f g h i
x y z { |
] ^ _ ‘ a b c
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
} ~
113
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
114
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
115
116
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
117
118
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
119
120
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
121
122
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
123
124
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
125
126
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
127
128
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
129
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
130
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
131
! " # $ %& ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V WX Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ %& ’
(
) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
132
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
! " # $ % & ’
(
) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
133
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
134
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
135
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ % & ’
(
) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
136
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
! " # $ % & ’
(
) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \
d e f g h i
x y z { |
] ^ _ ‘ a b c
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
} ~
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L MN O
P Q R S T U VWX Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
137
! " # $ %& ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K LMN O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ % & ’
(
) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L MN O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
138
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L MN O
P Q R S T U VW X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ %& ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 :
;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L MN O
P Q R S T U VW X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
139
! " # $ %& ’
(
) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 :
;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L MN O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ %& ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 :
;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L MN O
P Q R S T U VW X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
140
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 :
;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L MN O
P Q R S T U VW X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~

! ∀ # ∃ % & ∋
(
)
∗ +
,
−
.
/
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
:
;
< = > ? ≅ Α Β Χ ∆ Ε Φ Γ Η Ι ϑ Κ Λ Μ Ν Ο
Π Θ Ρ Σ Τ Υ ς Ω Ξ Ψ Ζ [ ∴ ] ⊥ _ 
δ
ε φ γ
ξ ψ ζ
{
α β χ
η ι ϕ κ λ µ ν ο π θ ρ σ τ υ ϖ ω
|
} ∼
141
! " # $ %& ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U VWX Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \
d e f g h i
] ^ _ ‘ a b c
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
142
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
! " # $ % & ’
( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;
< = > ? @A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘ a b c
d e f g h i
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
143
! " # $ % & ’
(
) * + , -
. / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 :
;
< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ‘
d e f g h i
a b c
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
x y z { | } ~
➾
✁✂✃✄ ☎ ✆ ✇
✈ ✉ ☛☞ ✌ ✍✎✏✐✑✒ ✓ ✔ ✕ ✖ ✗ ✘ ✙ ✚ ✛
✜ ✝ ✞ ✟ ✠ ✡ ✢ ✣ ✤ ✥ ✦ ✧ ★ ✩ ✪ ✫ ✬ ✭ ✮ ✯
✰ ✱ ✲ ✳ ✴ ✵ ✶ ✷ ✸ ✹ ✺ ✻ ✼ ✽ ✾ ✿ ❀ ❁ ❂ ❃
❄ ❅ ❆ ❇ ❈ ❉ ❊ ❋ ● ❍ ■ ❏ ❐ ❑ ❒ ▲▼ ◆ ❖ ◗
❘
❙ ❚ ❛ ❜ ❝ ❞
144
APPENDIX D. FONTTABLES
Index
BLANK, 61
border, 30
box, 15
bugs, 5
11
LaTEX, 14, 83
macros, 83
LaTEX (inserting graphs), 46
3d bar
notop, 35
offset, 35
side, 35
top, 35
char, 14
character size, 19
chardef, 14
circle, 15
clear, 61
clip, 12, 52
clipping, 52
closepath, 15
color (graph lines), 28
color (title), 30
color (variables), 43
colour-variables, 43
commands, 57
contour, 74
copy, 60
curve, 15
add, 12
aline, 11
aline (closepath), 15
amove, 11
amove (origin), 12
angle, 12
arc, 11
arcto, 11
arrow, 11, 18
arrow (join), 50
back, 69
bar
color, 34
dist, 33
fill, 34
from, 34
width, 34
bar graphs, 33
bar graphs 3d, 35
base, 69
baselineskip, 14
begin
box, 12
clip, 12
origin, 12
path, 12
rotate, 12
scale, 13
table, 13
text, 13
text (single line), 20
translate, 14
bevel, 19
bezier, 14
bezier (rbezier), 17
bigfile, 14
bigfile (dataset), 27
Bitmap Driver, 49
data, 6, 27, 60, 66
data (example file), 27
data (order), 36
decimal points, 31
def, 14
define marker, 15
delete, 60
DeskJet, 43
device control, 54
Device Drivers
DVIPRINT, 49
fonts, 49
HPGL Driver, 47
PC Bitmap Driver, 48
PC screen driver, 44
PC SVGA, 45
PostScript, 46
TEK4010, 47
device drivers, 43
Device Printer
fonts, 50
diagrams, 50
dn, 28
bigfile, 27
color, 28
err, 28
errdown, 28
145
146
errup, 28
errwidth, 28
herr, 28
herrleft, 28
herrright, 28
herrwidth, 28
key, 28
line, 28
lstyle, 28
lwidth, 28
marker, 28
msize, 28
nomiss, 29
smooth, 29
xmax, 29
xmin, 29
ymax, 29
ymin, 29
DOS, 1
32bit, 2
dpoints, 31
drivers, 43
droplines, 70
dsubticks, 31
dticks, 31
else, 16
Encapsulated PostScript, 2, 5, 46
end if, 16
end path, 12
EPS, 2, 5, 46
EPSON, 43
error bars (see dn err) , 28
errors, 5
example data file, 27
exit, 60
expressions, 22
fclose, 54
files, 6, 27
fill
color, 36
xmax, 36
xmin, 36
ymax, 36
ymin, 36
fill patterns, 43
filling, 43
filling areas, 36
fit, 60
Fitls, 55
fitz, 73
flipping, 46
font, 19
font (line width), 19
font (title), 30
font-examples, 80
fontlwidth, 19
INDEX
fonts, 78
fopen, 54
for, 16, 53
fread, 54
freadln, 54
fullsize, 29
Functions, 63
functions, 23, 82
fwrite, 54
fwriteln, 54
generate, 63
GLE32
GRX, 45
SVGA, 45
GO32, 45
goto, 61
graphing, 25
graphing functions, 29
greek characters, 13
grestore, 16
grid, 30
gsave, 16
harray, 67
horizontal error bars, 28
hp2xx, 48
HPGL, 47
converter, 48
hscale, 29
if, 16
include, 17
include (bigfile), 14
insert, 61
io-functions, 54
join, 17
join (set join), 19
joining, 50
justify (box), 15
justify (join), 17
justify (set), 20
justify (text), 13
key, 28
hei, 29
nobox, 29
offset, 29
pos, 29
key (module), 39
key module
color, 40
fill, 40
hei, 40
lstyle, 40
marker, 40
mscale, 40
msize, 40
INDEX
offset, 40
position, 40
text, 40
LaserJet, 43
let, 29
let (order), 36
line, 28
line width, 47
line width (graphs), 37
lineskip, 14
load, 61
log, 31
logging, 63
loops, 53
lstyle (graph lines), 28
lstyle (set), 20
lwidth, 47
lwidth (graph lines), 28
lwidth (graphs), 37
Manip, 57
Arrows, 58
Range, 57
usage, 57
marker, 17, 28, 70
markers, 77
mathchar, 14
mathchardef, 14
mathcode, 14
missing, 27, 28
mitre, 19
move, 61
movexy, 14
name (box), 12, 15
name (join), 17
name (point), 18
negate, 32
new, 61
next, 16
noborder, 30
nobox, 12, 15, 30
nofirst, 31
nolast, 31
nomiss, 29
nticks, 31
parsum, 63
path, 12
paths, 52
PC Bitmap Driver, 48
PC screen driver, 44
pens, 47
plotter pens, 47
plotters, 43
points, 70
postscript, 17
PostScript (driver), 46
147
PostScript (EPS, WordPerfect), 46
printers, 43
printing, 4, 46
propagate, 63
quit, 64
radius, 15
rbezier, 17
recover, 57
return, 18
reverse, 18
right, 69
riselines, 70
rline, 18
rmove, 18
rotate, 12, 68
rotate (y2title), 32
round, 19
round (cap), 18
round (join), 19
save, 18, 60
scale, 13
scale (hscale), 29
scale (marker), 17
set
cap, 18
color, 19
dashlen, 19
font, 19
fontlwidth, 19
hei, 19
join, 19
just, 20
lstyle, 20
lwidth, 20
set between, 62
set coltype, 62
set colwidth, 62
set digits, 63
set dpoints, 62
set ncol, 62
set size, 62
set width, 63
setfont, 14
sethei, 14
setstretch, 14
shell, 64
single, 57
size, 30, 66
size x y, 57
skirt, 69
smooth, 29
smoothm, 29
sort, 61
step, 16, 57
stroke, 12
stroking, 52
148
font, 31
hei, 31
xlines, 67
xnames, 31
xoffset, 35
xplaces, 32
xpos(), 23
xside, 32
color, 32
lwidth, 32
xsubticks, 32
length, 32
lstyle, 32
lwidth, 32
off, 32
xticks, 32
length, 32
lstyle, 32
lwidth, 32
off, 32
xtitle, 32, 68
color, 32
dist, 32
font, 32
hei, 32
y2axis (see xaxis), 30
y2side (see xside), 32
y2title rotate, 32
yaxis, 68
yaxis (see xaxis), 30
yend(), 23
yg(), 23
ylines, 67
ynames (see xnames), 31
yoffset, 35
ypos(), 23
yside (see xside), 32
yticks (see xticks), 32
ytitle, 68
ytitle (see xtitle), 32
zaxis, 68
zclip, 70
ztitle, 68
INDEX
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