TM1 GSM/GPRS Module
User Manual v1.2
History
Company was established on 15th of April 1998.
Main residence is based in Vilnius.
ompany
started
with
production
of
telecommunication devices.
In 2001 company expanded its fields of activity
by starting design and manufacturing of electronical
systems for wireless data transfer.
In 2002
contract
of partnership
and
collaboration was signed with company ProSign GmbH (Germany), considering design and
representation of graphic programming interface
iCon-L in Eastern Europe.
In 2003 Teltonika and NOKIA became partners and
started integration of NOKIA M2M technology
using NOKIA N12 module. It was the beginning of
wireless technology development process.
In 2004, NOKIA invited Teltonika to join
presentation of M2M technology innovations in
CeBIT 2004. It was very high evaluation of a small
Lithuanian company and its possibilities, which
helped to feel peculiarities of international business.
About US
In 2004 Teltonika produced more than 10 new
products and solutions using EDGE technology. It
was a condition that made Teltonika a leader of
M2M integration solutions using EDGE not only in
Lithuania, but also in Europe.
2005 was the year of two successful international
exhibitions: CEBIT 2005 and HANNOVER
MESSE 2005. These shows opened new
possibilities for offering our products and
solutions for all world.
In the year 2005 Teltonika became an international
company. We became Lithuanian - Finnish
Company. A few employees from NOKIA joined
Teltonika’s staff. Presently they successfully develop
activity of new companies: Teltonika International
GmbH (Düsseldorf) and Teltonika International Oy
(Helsinki).
Our vision is to provide added value for people and
companies by creating electronical devices and
solutions,
which are
based on the
latest
achievements of science and technology.
We aim to help people to integrate the latest
technologies in real life, what would bring more
cosiness, comfort, freedom of mobility and security
to their everyday life.
We seek to make all our solutions an inconceivable
part of people lives.
TM1 User Manual v1.2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Document Mission.................................................................................................................................................. 3
Glossary ................................................................................................................................................................. 3
Scope of Product.................................................................................................................................................... 6
3.1
Certification ..................................................................................................................................................... 6
Product functions.................................................................................................................................................... 8
4.1
Modem ............................................................................................................................................................ 8
4.1.1
GSM/GPRS modem functionalities.......................................................................................................... 8
4.1.2
Supplementary services .......................................................................................................................... 8
4.1.3
AT-command support .............................................................................................................................. 9
4.1.4
Other basic features ................................................................................................................................ 9
4.2
Voiceband ....................................................................................................................................................... 9
4.2.1
Audio Power Amplifier ............................................................................................................................. 9
4.2.2
Handset and Headset Mode .................................................................................................................. 10
4.2.3
Hands free ............................................................................................................................................. 10
4.2.4
Ringer Mode .......................................................................................................................................... 10
4.2.5
Audio Codecs......................................................................................................................................... 11
4.2.6
Echo canceller/Noise Reduction............................................................................................................ 11
4.2.7
Audio Features....................................................................................................................................... 11
4.3
Mechanical characteristics ............................................................................................................................ 14
4.4
Power supply................................................................................................................................................. 15
4.4.1
Current consumptions............................................................................................................................ 15
4.5
Battery charger feature list............................................................................................................................ 16
4.5.1
TM1 Charger specification..................................................................................................................... 18
4.5.2
Charger Additional Note ........................................................................................................................ 19
4.5.3
TM1 Charger SW driver functional overview ......................................................................................... 21
4.6
Power Saving ................................................................................................................................................ 24
4.7
SMS .............................................................................................................................................................. 25
User Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 26
5.1
SMD Connector............................................................................................................................................. 27
5.1.1
Switching ON of the data module .......................................................................................................... 29
5.1.2
SIM Interface.......................................................................................................................................... 29
5.1.3
Serial Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................... 30
5.1.4
GPIO ...................................................................................................................................................... 31
5.1.5
Keypad................................................................................................................................................... 32
5.1.6
ADC interface / Measurement interface ................................................................................................ 32
5.1.7
SPI ......................................................................................................................................................... 33
5.1.8
I2C bus interface.................................................................................................................................... 33
5.1.9
Electrical Characteristics of SMD connector pins.................................................................................. 33
Serial Port and Data Traffic Behavior................................................................................................................... 36
6.1
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 36
6.2
AT command mode at the startup................................................................................................................. 36
6.3
GPRS data communication........................................................................................................................... 37
6.3.1
Introduction to the GPRS IP relaying architecture................................................................................. 37
6.3.2
Context activation .................................................................................................................................. 39
6.3.3
Context deactivation .............................................................................................................................. 39
6.4
CSD data calls .............................................................................................................................................. 40
6.4.1
Outgoing data calls ................................................................................................................................ 40
6.4.2
Incoming data calls ................................................................................................................................ 42
6.5
Power saving and CTS handshake............................................................................................................... 44
6.6
Reference...................................................................................................................................................... 45
6.6.1
External.................................................................................................................................................. 45
Annex 1. Circuit 108/2, +++ behavior for the different &D: summarizing table.................................................... 46
Annex 2. Incoming GPRS context activation ....................................................................................................... 46
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
1 Document Mission
TM1 User Manual contains all information necessary for a successful integration of the system into the application
of the customer. Additionally, the customer uses the information described in the User Manual to compare different
systems and to finally select the appropriate system for his application. Therefore TM1 User Manual is an important
customer document. A particular attention has to be paid while writing the document from the customer point of
view.
2 Glossary
Acronym
3GPP
AC
Meaning
3rd Generation Partnership Project
Alternating Current
ADC
Analog to Digital Converter
AFC
Automatic Frequency Correction
APN
Access Point Name
ASC
Asynchronous Serial Interface Controller
AT
BSS
CB
CBCH
CGU
CS
AT Command Interpreter Software Subsystem, or
attention
Broadcasting Satellite Service
Cell Broadcast
Cell Broadcast Channel
Clock Generation Unit
Coding Scheme
CSD
Circuit Switched Data
DAI
Digital Audio Interface
DC
Direct Current
DCE
Data Communication Equipment
DCS
Digital Communications System
DCXO
DL
Digital Controlled Crystal Oscillator
Reception
DSP
Digital Signal Processing
DTE
Data Terminal Equipment
EBU
External Bus Interface Unit
EDGE
EEPROM
EGSM
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
Electrically Erasable and Programmable ROM
Enhanced GSM
EMC
Electromagnetic Compatibility
ERM
Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum
Matters
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Acronym
Meaning
ESD
Electrostatic Discharge
ETSI
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
FFS
Flash File System
FOAT
Firmware Over AT commands
GND
Ground
GPIO
General Purpose Input Output
GPRS
General Packet Radio Service
GSM
Global System for Mobile Communication
HDLC
High Level Data Link Control
HW
Hardware
JTAG
Joint Test Action Group
I2C
Inter-Integrated Circuit
IIR
Infinite Impulse Response
IMEI
International Mobile Equipment Identity
I/O
Input / Output
IP
Internet Protocol
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
LCP
Link Control Protocol
LVD
Low Voltage Directive
M2M
Machine to Machine
ME
MIDI
MS
Mobile Equipment
Musical Instrument Digital Interface
Mobile Station
MSC
Mobile Switching Centre
NOM
Network Operating Mode
NTC
Negative Temperature Coefficient
PA
PBCCH
PC
PCCCH
Power Amplifier
Packet Broadcast Control Channel
Personal Computer
Packet Common Control Channel
PCM
Pulse Code Modulation
PCS
Personal Communications Service
PDU
Protocol Data Unit
PDP
Parallel Data Processing
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Acronym
PICS
PIN
Meaning
Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement
Personal Identification Number
PIXIT
Protocol Implementation Extra Information for Testing
PLMN
Public Land Mobile Network
PMU
Power Management Unit
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol
PPS
Protocol and Parameter Selection
RAM
Random Access Memory
RF
Radio Frequency
RLP
Radio LINK Protocol
ROM
Read Only Memory
RTC
Real Time Clock
RX
R&TTED
Receiver
Radio and Tele Terminal Equipment Directive
SAW
Surface Acoustic Wave
SCCU
Standby Clock Control Unit
SIM
Subscriber Identification Module
SMA
SubMiniature version A connector
SMS
Short Message Service
SPI
Serial Peripheral Interface
SSC
Serial Synchronous Interface Controller
SW
Software
TCH
Traffic Channel
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
TS
Technical Specification
TX
Transmitter
UART
UL
USB
Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter
Reception
Universal Serial Bus
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
3 Scope of Product
TM1 is a small, light weight and low power consumption module that enables digital communications services on
GSM/GPRS networks for machine to machine, user to user or user to machine wireless applications.
These GSM/GPRS data modules are developed in compliance with internal and normative certification
requirements. In particular, they will be certified by CE approval report (99/5/EC) and Radio & Tele Terminal
Equipment Directive (R&TTED) report following the following standard regulations:
• 3GPP TS 51.010-1 rel.99 (Radio spectrum);
• EN 301 489–1 and EN 301 489–7 (EMC directive - 89/336/CEE);
• EN 60950 (LVD Directive - 73/23/CEE)
Requirements for lead-free components are imposed and satisfied.
The product implements a dual-band MS; it can be configured to operate in the frequency bands either EGSM 900
MHz, and DCS 1800 MHz (European bands) or GSM 850 MHz and PCS 1900 MHz (America bands).
The operative temperature range goes from -20 to +85 °C. The supported power classes for both voice and data
services are:
•
•
Class 4 (2W) for GSM/EGSM bands;
Class 1 (1W) for DCS/PCS bands;
The product implements a Class B Mobile Station; this means the data module can be attached to both GPRS and
GSM services, using one service at a time. Network operation modes I to III are supported, with user-definable
preferred service between GSM and GPRS.
Further functionalities that are implemented on the data module are Mux protocol (27.010) and Firmware Over AT
commands (FOAT).
3.1
Certification
TM1 GSM/GPRS Data Module is certified by CE approval report and Radio & Telecommunications Terminal
Equipment Directive (R&TTED) report.
Hereby, Teltonika declares that this GSM/GPRS Data Module is in compliance with the essential requirements and
other relevant provisions of Directive 1999/5/EC. The directives that are followed for this data module are described
below:
3GPP TS 51.010-1 rel.99
Technical Specification Group GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network and Mobile Station (MS) conformance
specification;
EN 301 489-01 V1.4.1
Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard
for radio equipment and services; Part 1: Common technical requirements;
EN 301 489-07 V1.2.1
Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard
for radio equipment and services; Part 7: Specific conditions for mobile and portable radio and ancillary equipment
of digital cellular radio telecommunications systems (GSM and DCS);
EN60950
Standard for safety of information technology equipment: to protect against excessive current, short circuits and
earth faults in primary circuits protective devices shall be included either as integral parts of the equipment or as
parts of the building installation;
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
73/23/EEC (Low Voltage Directive)
The Low Voltage Directive (LVD) 73/23/EEC seeks to ensure that electrical equipment within certain voltage limits
both provides a high level of protection for European citizens and enjoys a Single Market in the European Union.
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
4 Product functions
The features that are implemented on TM1 GSM/GPRS Data Module are reported in TM1 Features List. In the
following sections will be described the functionalities integrated in the data module.
4.1
Modem
The modem part provides with minimal component’s list all functionality necessary for voice and data transmission
over GSM and GPRS network.
The modem is divided in an area surrounded by traces on which metal box must be soldered. This area encloses
the RF High power components, the remaining passive components of the transceiver, the baseband processor,
memory, crystals and power management unit. The modem is designed as a dual-band transceiver, i.e. GSM850 /
PCS1900 or EGSM900 / DCS1800.
4.1.1
GSM/GPRS modem functionalities
TM1 GSM/GPRS module integrates a full-featured Release 99 GSM-GPRS Protocol Stack, whose main
characteristics are listed in the following. Refer to the PICS/PIXIT documentation for a detailed description of the
Stack features.
The product implements a dual-band MS able to operate in the frequency bands either GSM 850 MHz / DCS 1800
MHz or EGSM 900 MHz / PCS 1900 MHz.
The supported power classes for both voice and data services will be:
• Class 4 for GSM bands;
• Class 1 for DCS bands.
The product implements a Class B Mobile Station; this means the data module can be attached to both GPRS and
GSM services, using one service at a time. Network operation modes I to III are supported, with user-definable
preferred service between GSM and GPRS.
Optionally paging messages for GSM calls can be monitored during GPRS data transfer in not-coordinating network
operation mode NOM II-III.
PBCCH/PCCCH logical channels are supported, as well as CBCH reception. CBCH reception when on PBCCH is
supported.
GPRS multislot 10 is implemented, implying a maximum of 4 slots in DL (reception) and 1 slot in UL (transmission)
and 5 slots on the whole.
Finally TM1 GSM/GPRS module supports:
• All coding schemes from CS1 to CS4;
• Encryption algorithms A5/1 for GSM for GPRS are supported;
• CS Data calls are supported in transparent/non transparent mode up to 9.6 kbps;
• Bearer service fax Group 3 Class 2.0 is supported.
Among access interfaces to DTE, both V.32 and V.110 are provided.
4.1.2
Supplementary services
The following supplementary services are provided:
• Call Hold/Resume (CH);
• Call Waiting (CW);
• Multi-Party (MTPY);
• Call Forwarding (CF);
• Call Divert;
• Explicit Call Transfer (ECT);
• Call Barring (CB);
• CCBS;
• Advice of Charge (AoC);
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
•
•
•
•
•
•
4.1.3
Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP);
Calling Line Identification Restriction (CLIR);
Connected Line Identification Presentation (COLP);
Connected Line Identification Restriction (COLR);
Unstructured Supplementary Services Data (USSD);
Network Identify and Time Zone (NITZ).
AT-command support
The modem functionalities and services are provided through a rich serial AT-command interface. Standards of AT
commands that are supported on the module are:
• GSM 27.005;
• GSM 27.007;
• Proprietary AT commands.
For more details on the commands list and their syntax refer to AT commands Manual; more examples are
described in chapter.
4.1.4
Other basic features
The following indications and functionalities are supported through the interface of AT Commands:
• Display of Called Number;
• Indication of Call Progress Signals;
• Country/PLMN Indication;
• Short Message Indication and Acknowledgement;
• International Access Function;
• Service Indicator;
• Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF);
• Subscription Identity Management;
• Service Provider Indication;
• Abbreviated Dialing;
• Power on (external input).
4.2
Voiceband
The data module provides the following audio interfaces:
• A microphone input;
• A high power speaker output;
• 1 DAI/PCM interface.
Through the mother board the following devices can be used to realize a phone call with TM1 Data Module:
• Handset;
• Headset.
Moreover there is the possibility to realize phone call in hands free mode (through a loudspeaker). All these devices
(handset, headset and loudspeaker) are connected to the data module via QFN pins (and Mother Board).
4.2.1
Audio Power Amplifier
The audio power amplifier can be used as a voice amplifier for the hands-free functionality and as a melody player
amplifier for ringer functionality (see the next sections). The melody player could be the Midi synthesizer or the tone
generator.
In order to minimize the clipping of the audio signal, the polarization voltage can be adapted to the voltage supply
(battery voltage).
NOTE!! To be noticed that this output can be used both for a voice call and for the ring tones and could be
dangerous for the ear of the user if the volume was set to a high volume.
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4.2.2
Handset and Headset Mode
A headset and a handset could be connected to the mother board to perform a voice call; refer to the mother board
description for the procedure that must be followed for the connection of these devices.
The normal voiceband functional mode of the data module is completely handled by baseband:
• The microphone signal comes from the audio device and is connected to MIC inputs of baseband; there is
no specific pin for the ground of the microphone);
• The uplink path of the microphone can be muted;
• The ground of the microphone must be connected to the ground of the mother board (if the mother board is
connected to the data module);
• Voice output from baseband is connected to module with AUON and AUOP; and then to the external audio
device.
Warning: excessive sound pressure from earphones and headphones can cause hearing loss.
4.2.3
Hands free
A true hands-free functionality is implemented using high power loudspeaker, MS microphone and appropriate DSP
algorithms for voice band handling (Echo canceller and Automatic Gain control). This functionality is managed via
Software.
The product is equipped with a power audio amplifier that can drive (with a gain of +2.7dB) an external 8 ohm
speaker with 250/350 mW peak.
With viva voice operation is intended the possibility to realize a phone call with a loudspeaker and a microphone.
The audio signal on the loudspeaker is a mono signal.
In viva voice mode of operation, the output signal of baseband is amplified by the built-in Audio amplifier of
baseband, and then applied to the Loudspeaker output (outputs are AUON and AUOP). The microphone signal is
the signal that comes from the input MIC_BIAS/ MIC.
The table below shows the pin number related to the analog audio signals.
4.2.4
Name
PIN #
I/O
I/O type
Description
AUOP
AUON
MIC
MIC GND
43
44
46
45
O
O
I
Analog
Analog
Analog
PWR
Balanced power audio out
Balanced power audio out
Handset microphone bias (+)
Handset microphone ground
Ringer Mode
The data module support 40 tones polyphonic ring tones. The ringer tones are generated baseband built-in
generator and then they are amplified by internal amplifier before being applied to loudspeaker through the pin of
module AUON and AUOP. For ringing the gain of the audio amplifier is -1.2 dB.
Polyphonic ring-tones can be generated by an internal MIDI synthesizer, which runs at 16 or 32 KHz sample
frequency and can sum up to 40 voices at 16 kHz sampling rate.
The synthesizer output is only mono and cannot be mixed with TCH voice path (the two are mutually exclusive). To
perform in-band alerting during TCH with voice path open, only Tone Generator can be used.
The output samples of the synthesizer are post processed by two modules:
• High Frequency Shelving Filter: This module is implemented as a first order IIR Filter, which is mainly used
for high frequency boost in audio signals. Its transfer function can be controlled by 4 filter coefficients.
• Audio Compressor: The audio compressor is a device for manipulating the dynamic range of mono or
stereo audio signals. The audio compressor can be controlled by 14 configuration parameters.
Polyphonic standard format supported.
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
The MIDI driver can play:
• MIDI files conforming to:
o General Midi Level 1.0 with file-format 0 and 1;
o General Midi Lite 1.0.
• SPMidi (Scalable Polyphony MIDI) files conforming to:
o SPMidi 1.0.
• iMelody files conforming to:
o iMelody v.1.2 specifications.
4.2.5
Audio Codecs
The following speech codecs are supported in firmware on the DSP:
• GSM Half Rate (TCH/HS);
• GSM Full Rate (TCH/FS);
• GSM Enhanced Full Rate (TCH/EFR);
• 3GPP Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) (TCH/AFS+TCH/AHS).
4.2.6
Echo canceller/Noise Reduction
For better handling of speech calls and audio functionalities, the product supports algorithms for echo cancellation,
noise suppression and automatic gain control.
4.2.7
Audio Features
The main values referred to the audio part are listed as follows:
• Microphone input:
o Max (EGMICP1-EGVMICN1): 1.03 V;
o Min S/D: 65 dB;
o Min Signal-to-noise: 75 dB (gs=+12dB @300-3900Hz GSM mode)
o Typ Power supply rejection: 85 dB;
o Max Cross talk (RX and TX channels): -65 dB.
• Output AUOP/AUON:
o Single ended output load capacitance: 10 nF;
o Power supply rejection: 66 dB;
o Max Inductive load: 400 µH.
In the following is reported the microphone input equivalent circuit that has been used to evaluate the impedance
and the transfer function:
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
MIC 1
Baseband Chipset
C9
C5
5p
MICN1
EGMICN1
100n
R7
50k
C10
C6
R6
2k
R4
1.5k
V2
C4
27p
AC1
EGMICP1
0
5p
100n
R5
Baseband Chipset
1.5k
R9
C3
10µ
VMICP
V3
100
C13
1n
2.2V
Figure 4-1 : TM1 microphone input equivalent circuit
In the following is reported the transfer function of the (EGMICN1-EGMICP1)/VMICN1:
Figure 4-2: Transfer function of the microphone part
Finally is displayed the input impedance of the MIC1:
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
Figure 4-3: Input dialing of MIC1
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
4.3
Mechanical characteristics
The number of RF shield required is 1. The dimensions of the data module without shields are reported in the
following:
• 32.00 mm x 20.80 mm x 2.87 mm
Figure 4-4: TM1 Mechanical Dimensions
The weight is less than 5 g.
No natural rubbers, no hygroscopic materials nor materials containing asbestos are employed.
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
4.4
Power supply
TM1 Data Module can be supplied by a power supplier connected with the mother board. The voltage is provided to
the Data Module through the data module pins that provides a voltage value VBAT on pins 1, 2, 51, 52. The range
of VBAT is between 3.5 V and 4.2 V, while typically its value is 3.8 V. The minimum current that must be provided to
the data module through the power supplier is about 2 A; the maximum value is 2.5 A (peak).
Description
Min
Typ
Max
Supply voltage
3.5 V
3.8 V
4.2 V
The VBAT voltage is connected with the power management part of the baseband chipset that supplies all
components of the data module and derives all needed voltage levels to supply the different circuit parts. The power
amplifier is supplied directly by VBAT voltage.
The supply domain might have different setting and they are programmed via a dedicated EP_I2C bus
(implemented with SW driver) by baseband at startup. All the other programming of the baseband is performed in
the same way.
4.4.1
Current consumptions
Current consumptions of TM1 module are reported in the following pages.
Status
Average Current
Power OFF
< 90 µA
Idle Mode
< 2 mA
Telephony GSM
< 300 mA
Telephony DCS/PCS
< 250 mA
GPRS (4+1) attach mode
< 2 mA
GPRS (4+1) TBF mode @ 850 / 900 MHz
< 450 mA
GPRS (4+1) TBF mode @ 1800 / 1900 MHz
< 450 mA
A pins description of module that is enabled to supply the Data Module is reported below.
Name
PIN
#
I/O
I/O type
Description
VBAT
VBAT
1
2
PWR
PWR
From 3.5 to 4.2 V (Typ: 3.8 V)
From 3.5 to 4.2 V (Typ: 3.8 V)
GND
3
PWR
Ground
GND
6
PWR
Ground
GND
GND
MIC_GND
GND
GND
GND
VBAT
VBAT
17
42
45
47
49
50
51
52
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
From 3.5 to 4.2 V (Typ: 3.8 V)
From 3.5 to 4.2 V (Typ: 3.8 V)
Should be connected with pins 2, 51, 52
Should be connected with pins 1, 51, 52
Should be connected with pins 6, 17, 42, 45, 47, 49,
50
Should be connected with pins 3, 17, 42, 45, 47, 49,
50
Should be connected with pins 3, 6, 42, 45, 47, 49, 50
Should be connected with pins 3, 6, 17, 45, 47, 49, 50
Should be connected to microphone GND
Should be connected with pins 3, 6, 17, 42, 45, 49, 50
Should be connected with pins 3, 6, 17, 42, 45, 47, 50
Should be connected with pins 3, 6, 17, 42, 45, 47, 49
Should be connected with pins 1, 2, 52
Should be connected with pins 1, 2, 51
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
4.5
Battery charger feature list
Alternatively to the power supplier TM1 Data Module can be supplied through a battery. The supported type for the
battery is Li-Ion and Li-Polymer rechargeable only; default system supports 650 mAh nominal.
A description of the pins that are enabled to supply the Data Module with a battery is reported below.
Name
PIN #
I/O
I/O type
Description
VCHARGE
VCHARGE
4
5
PWR
PWR
Module Charge
Module Charge
Should be connected with pin 5
Should be connected with pin 4
In the case that a battery is not used the VCHARGE pins (4 and 5) should be left unconnected.
The main features of the battery charger system implemented on TM1 data module are listed in the following:
• The supported types for the battery are Li-Ion and Lithium-Ion-Polymer batteries (other type of batteries can
be supported in TM1 with dedicated SW);
• The default system support 500 mAh (minimum value); the typical value of the battery capacity is 650 mAh;
• Charger voltage range goes from 6 to 15 Volts while the charger voltage current is 500 mA;
• The supported battery voltage range goes from 3.1 V to 4.47 V;
• The charger circuitry generates the power on after battery connection or charger connection;
• The charging is optimized for current adjusted in the AC-DC wall adapter charger;
• Charger detection supported;
• Battery over-voltage detection, battery voltage monitoring;
• Protection against over-voltage integrated on the data module;
• Pre-charging (e.g. for deep discharged batteries);
• Software controlled charging supported.
In an electronic (switched) charger, the charge current is usually constant and defined by the electronics control in
the charger. The shortest charge times can be reached with constant current charger.
The charger circuit can handle the normal AC supply frequency range from 50 to 60 Hz (dedicated SW must be
implemented in the TM1 module).
The battery over-voltage detection is implemented for emergency switching off charging if e.g. the batteries are
removed during charging or battery protection. The over-voltage level can be set by a register bit to 4.47 V.
The battery voltage monitoring function is implemented for system start up and shut down. It delivers the input
signals for the PMU state machine. The shut down feature is implemented as an emergency shut down. A
controlled shut down should be done by software after measuring the battery voltage using the measurement unit.
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
Figure 4-5: Charger System
The power on reset is released if the battery voltage exceeds typical 2.5 V (2.25 V...2.85 V).
The power on reset starts the LRTC regulator. The system is started by the PMU state machine.
If the batteries are deeply discharged (that means battery voltage is between 0 V and 3.1 V) and the device is off (or
software has not disabled pre-charging) the charger circuits starts pre-charging beginning when an AC-DC wall
adapter is connected to TM1. In pre-charging the charge switch is pulsed with 100 Hz and a duty cycle of 12.5%.
That means the average charge current is reduced to avoid overheating of the charger parts and to gentle charge
the deeply discharged batteries. Pre-charging is hardware controlled and continued as long as the software
switches off precharging.
If software is running, it can switch off the pre-charging function. That means the hardware will not start any
charging after an AC-DC wall adapter was connected. The software is always informed when charger is connected
& disconnected, so the charge switch (main controller of the charging process) can be controlled by software
according to the software charge algorithm.
The duty cycle of the charge current never reach 100% so when the software closes the charge switch (transistor
T1 is conducting) it is not closed for 100% of the time but still pulsed with a 100 Hz clock and its on-time is >99% of
a period. The remaining off time is used to check if the AC-DC wall adapter is still connected since detection is
critical when charging switch is closed.
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
The integrated charging circuit doesn’t have any voltage or current limitation, therefore the charger must be chosen
very carefully: see the below charger specification section.
During the fast charging, that follows the precharging phase, the battery is charged with constant current I which
has to be limited by the charger appropriate selection. This current is monitored by the software with the aid of the
series resistor R102=0.15 Ohm and by the measuring of the CHARGE_SENSE voltage and the battery voltage. If
the charging current I exceeds the limit of 500 mA the charging is stopped to prevent circuit and battery damages.
When the battery voltage reaches the nominal maximum voltage, the charging enters in the constant voltage phase
where the average charging current decreases until the battery in completely charged.
The charging is enabled only if the module temperature is between the range 0°C to 40°C in order to satisfy the
battery specification. In order to enhance the battery temperature estimation, optionally the module can use an
external NTC temperature sensor in close thermal contact to the battery surface. The NTC has to be connected
using the appropriate pin.
4.5.1
TM1 Charger specification
The maximum limit of voltage and current supported by the pin VCHARGE on TM1 module are reported as follows:
•
•
Vin max: 15 V;
Iin max: 500 mA.
The charger is detected through the signal CDT when inserted, the minimum threshold at the VCHARGE pin is
4.8V. The suggested characteristics of the charger are listed below:
• Vout min @ 0A : 5V ;
• Vout max @ 0A : 15V ;
• Iout max: 500mA @ 5V.
The user must use current limited charger. An electronic (switched) charger where the charge current is usually
constant and defined by the electronics control in the charger is usually a good choice.
The limit of 500mA is relative to a battery with minimum 650 mAh of capacitance. The battery can have greater
capacitance but for lower capacitance user has to reduce the charger current.
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
Selection of very small charge batteries (< 400 mA) is not suggested unless a proper change (customization) in SW
allows to use it.
4.5.2
4.5.2.1
Charger Additional Note
BJT T1 data sheet
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
4.5.3
TM1 Charger SW driver functional overview
Basically the SW driver of the CHR module, controls the external MOSFet through the baseband PMU register and
some ADC peripherals, which measure Voltages and Charger Current.
The Charging current is obtained by measuring the Voltage difference dropping through an external resistor of the
value of 0.15Ohm. Since the resistor is quite small, the measurement is affecter by low accuracy, anyway they are
sufficient for the purpose, due to the intrinsic slowness of the charging process’ dynamics.
4.5.3.1 Charging process’ phases
The algorithm that controls battery charging, implement a classic Li-Ion battery charging process. So basically there
are 4 phases that occurs:
1. Pre-Charge (at Slow current for deeply discharged batteries)
2. Fast Charge, at the maximum allowed current
3. Top Charge, to complete the over charging of the batteries, after the maximum voltage (of 4.2) has
reached.
4. Trickle Charge, to maintain the battery at higher level of charge, if the External Charger remains
connected.
Pre Charge phase is managed by baseband FirmWare, while the others are triggered by the SW driver’s state
machines.
4.5.3.2 Charging parameters
The charging and battery driver are characterized by some parameters that can modify his behavior or
performance, even if within strict limits.
Basically the process is controlled by the monitoring of Voltage, Current and Temperature, directly measured by the
EGV ADC peripherals. These measurements can influence other quantities:
•
•
•
•
Capacity Estimation: this quantity represents the remaining battery life expressed as a percentage value
(100% is full 0% empty). See below for further details.
Shutdown Voltage: the battery driver can send a signal to issue a system SHUTDOWN. This feature can
be enabled or disabled.
Vmax: This voltage determines the change of state FastCharge – Top Charge; for Li-Ion batteries is 4.2V
Over Voltage: The over voltage protection is done by FW of baseband (for a fast switch off), and from the
battery driver for a SW intervention to slightly overcharge the battery and then switch to trickle charge.
4.5.3.3 Charging overview
Following pictures shows the overall charging process. The battery is a 600mAh Li-Ion accumulator. Nominal
Voltage is 3.7V
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
Battery Charging performance of N709
Voltage and Capacity Estimation
OV (4.25V)
Vmax(4.2V)
4.1V
Capacity (%)
Volt (V)
100
95
Nom(3.7V)
50
low(3.4V)
Vbat
VCell
Caplev
00:00
00:15
00:30
00:45
01:00
01:15
01:30
01:45
02:00
10
0
02:15
Time [hh:mm]
Figure 4-6: Voltage and Capacity
The Figure 4-6 shows the diagram of Voltage (red line) and Capacity (blue dashed line). The Vcell (green dashed
line) is the estimation of the internal voltage of the capacity model used in driver for estimation.Error! Reference
source not found.
According to the graph is visible that about every 3 minutes the charging process is stopped to allow the capacity
estimation. This to prevent the overvoltage that normally occurs when a battery is under charge.
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
Battery Charging performance of N709
Charging Current and Temperature
o
600mA
60 C
o
30 C
o
Temp (oC)
I(mA)
500mA
25 C
0mA
Ichr
Iovs
Tbat
00:00
00:15
00:30
00:45
01:00
01:15
Time[hh:mm]
01:30
01:45
02:00
o
0C
02:15
Figure 4-7: Current and Temperature
In Figure 4-7 is reported the graph of the current (calculated) and of the temperature. The green dashed line is the
instant current calculated from (Vchr – Vbat) / Rext (Rext is 0.15 Ohm). As seen the value is very noisy. To clean
this a mean of 16 samples is obtained and this is the value of I_ovs (red line). This is more stable.
The temperature is obtained by internal sensor of EGV. The temperature is higher during the phase with higher
current.
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4.6
Power Saving
Power saving is a special function that allows the reducing of power consumption during the idle time. If the clock
increases, required power increases too. Therefore a solution for minimizing the power is the reducing of the master
clock frequency when there are no activities. In this period the system doesn’t work with a clock of 26 MHz (“fast
clock”) but with a clock of 32 KHz (RTC clock or “slow clock”). This switching between 26 MHz and 32 KHz clock is
performed by SCCU (Standby Clock Control Unit).
Main priorities of power saving are the following:
1. Reduce base (min) current consumption;
2. Minimize full-speed running periods, minimize power saving on/off switching;
3. Reduce max current consumption.
These points are reported in the following figure:
Figure 4-8: Power saving priorities
More details related to the power saving and the serial port are described in chapter 6.
This functionality can be disabled by the user through an AT command (more details on TM1 AT Commands
ManualError! Reference source not found.).
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
4.7
SMS
SMS Classes that are supported by TM1 Data Module are 0, 1, 2 and 3. Mobile-originated as well as mobileterminated SMS are supported. Others SMS features that are implemented in TM1 Data Module are reported in the
following:
• SMS-CB Cell Broadcast (SMS CB);
• Concatenated SMS;
• Text and PDU mode are supported.
• Reception of SMS during circuit-switched calls;
• Reception of SMS via GSM or GPRS;
• SMS SIM storage is provided.
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
5 User Interfaces
An overview with available interfaces of TM1 Data Module is reported below:
J201
SMD Connector
Figure 5-1: TM1 Interface
In following section a pins description of connectors mounted on the data module will be reported.
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
5.1
SMD Connector
A 52-pin connector is provided to interface of TM1 module for the power supply, SIM interface, audio interface (1 x
analog, 1x digital), I2C bus, SPI bus, 1 x analog in (ADC), 1 ASC serial port, 6x4 Keypad matrix, 1 Antenna
interface and 3 GPIOs.
Pin 1
Pin 52
Pin 22
Pin 31
Pin 23
Pin 30
Figure 5-2: Pin localization
PIN
#
Name
I/O
Function
I/O type
1
VBAT
PWR
GSM Power Supply
Module Supply
2
VBAT
PWR
GSM Power Supply
Module Supply
3
GND
PWR
GSM Power Supply
Ground
4
VCHARGE
PWR
GSM Power Supply
Module Charge
5
VCHARGE
PWR
GSM Power Supply
Module Charge
6
GND
PWR
GSM Power Supply
Ground
7
KEYOUT0/GPIO
I/O
Keypad interface / GPIO
8
KEYOUT1/GPIO
I/O
Keypad interface / GPIO
9
KEYOUT2/GPIO
I/O
Keypad interface / GPIO
10
KEYOUT3/GPIO
I/O
Keypad interface / GPIO
CMOS
3.3V
compatible
CMOS
3.3V
compatible
CMOS
3.3V
compatible
CMOS
3.3V
compatible
Description
Should be connected with
pins 2, 51, 52
Should be connected with
pins 1, 51,52
Should be connected with
pins 6, 17, 42, 45, 47, 49, 50
Should be connected with
pin 5
Should be connected with
pin 4
Should be connected with
pins 3, 17, 42, 45, 47, 49, 50
Keypad output pin 0 / GPIO
00
Keypad output pin 1 / GPIO
01
Keypad output pin 2 / GPIO
02
Keypad output pin 3 / GPIO
03
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PIN
#
Name
I/O
Function
11
KEYOUT4/GPIO
I/O
Keypad interface / GPIO
12
KEYOUT5/GPIO
I/O
Keypad interface / GPIO
13
KEYIN0/GPIO
I/O
Keypad interface / GPIO
14
KEYIN1/GPIO
I/O
Keypad interface / GPIO
15
KEYIN2 / GPIO
I/O
Keypad interface / GPIO
16
KEYIN3/GPIO
I/O
17
GND
18
CAP00_EX5IN/GPIO
19
I/O type
Description
Keypad interface /
GPIO
CMOS
3.3V
compatible
CMOS
3.3V
compatible
CMOS
3.3V
compatible
CMOS
3.3V
compatible
CMOS
3.3V
compatible
CMOS 3.3V
compatible
PWR
GSM Power Supply
Ground
Keypad output pin 4 / GPIO
04
Keypad output pin 5 / GPIO
05
Keypad input pin 0 / GPIO
06
Keypad input pin 1 / GPIO
07
Keypad input pin 2 / GPIO
08
Keypad input pin 3
/ GPIO 09
Should be connected with
pins 3, 6, 42, 45, 47, 49, 50
I
External Interrupt
I
Power on
Asynchronous
Serial Interface 0
Asynchronous
Serial Interface 0
Asynchronous
Serial Interface 0
Asynchronous
Serial Interface 0
Asynchronous
Serial Interface 0
Asynchronous
Serial Interface 0
Asynchronous
Serial Interface 0
Asynchronous
Serial Interface 0
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
signal
Digital Audio Interface /
Synchronous Serial Interface
Generic digital
signal
Digital Audio Interface /
Synchronous Serial Interface
Digital Audio Interface /
Synchronous Serial Interface
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
signal
I
Digital Audio Interface /
Synchronous Serial Interface
Generic digital
signal
SCL
O
I2C bus interface
SDA
I/O
I2C bus interface
PWR_ON
20
CAP05/GPIO
I/O
GPIO
21
CAP19_GPIO
I/O
GPIO
22
EXTRSTN
I
External reset
23
DSR
O
24
RI
O
25
DCD
O
26
DTR
I
27
CTS
I
28
RTS
O
29
RXD
I
30
TXD
O
31
WA0_DAI
I/O
32
TXD_DAI
O
33
CLK0_DAI
I/O
34
RXD_DAI
35
36
Generic digital
signal
Generic digital
Ext Int 5B
Power on button
GPIO 37
GPIO 36
External HW reset
Data Set Ready
Ring Indicator
Data Carrier Detect
Data Terminal Ready
RTS (DCE)
CTS (DCE)
RX (DCE)
TX (DCE)
DAI Reset /
Master Transmit Slave
Receive
DAI Transmit /
SSC chip select
DAI Clock /
Shift Clock
DAI Receive /
Master Receive Slave
Transmit
Serial Clock Line
Serial Data Line
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PIN
#
Name
I/O
Function
I/O type
signal
SIM interface
signal
SIM interface
signal
SIM interface
signal
SIM Supply
ADC 12bits
0-0.96 V
37
SIM_CLK
O
SIM interface
38
SIM_IO
I/O
SIM interface
39
SIM_RST
O
SIM interface
40
SIM_VCC
PWR
SIM interface
41
ADC1
I
Measurement interface
42
GND
PWR
GSM Power Supply
Ground
43
44
AUOP
AUON
O
O
Analog signal
Analog signal
45
MIC_GND
PWR
Audio Interface
Audio Interface
GSM Power Supply
MIC reference
46
MIC
I
Audio Interface
Analog signal
47
GND
PWR
GSM Power Supply
Ground
48
ANT
RF
GSM antenna
RF
49
GND
PWR
GSM Power Supply
Ground
50
GND
PWR
GSM Power Supply
Ground
51
VBAT
PWR
GSM Power Supply
Module Supply
52
VBAT
PWR
GSM Power Supply
Module Supply
Ground
Description
SIM clock signal
SIM I/O serial data
SIM reset signal
SIM power supply
Analog to Digital Converter
Should be connected with
pins 3, 6, 17, 45, 47, 49, 50
Balanced power audio out
Balanced power audio out
Should be connected to
microphone ground
Handset microphone
bias (+)
Should be connected with
pins 3, 6, 17, 42, 45, 49, 50
Should be connected with
50 ohm PCB line
Should be connected with
pins 3, 6, 17, 42, 45, 47, 50
Should be connected with
pins 3, 6, 17, 42, 45, 47, 49
Should be connected with
pins 1, 2, 52
Should be connected with
pins 1, 2, 51
Note!! If the pin is unconnected it can be left floating.
5.1.1
Switching ON of the data module
To switch on the data module the pin 19 PWR_ON must be used; this pin must be connected. This pin is connected
with the ON button of the mother board.
Name
PIN #
I/O
I/O type
Description
PWR_ON
19
I
Generic digital signal
Power on button
Pin 19 has the electrical characteristics of a generic digital signal and TM1 Data Module has a tolerant circuit
against voltages greater than 3.3 Volts.
5.1.2
SIM Interface
TM1 Data Module can handle a SIM Card. High-speed SIM/ME interface is implemented as well as the automatic
detection of the required SIM supporting voltage.
Both 1.8V and 3V SIM type will be supported (1.8/3V ME); activation and deactivation with automatic voltage switch
from 1.8V to 3V are implemented, according to ISO-IEC 78-16-e Specifications. The SIM driver supports the PPS
(Protocol and Parameter Selection) procedure for baud-rate selection, according to the values proposed by the SIM
Card. Clock stop is supported at both high and low level.
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
Finally, external SIM ESD protection is required.
The description of pins related to SIM interface is reported in the following:
Name
PIN #
I/O
I/O type
Description
SIM_CLK
SIM_IO
SIM_RST
SIM_VCC
37
38
39
40
O
I/O
O
PWR
SIM interface signal
SIM interface signal
SIM interface signal
SIM Supply
SIM Clock Signal
SIM I/O Serial Data
SIM Reset Signal
SIM Power Supply
5.1.2.1 SIM Functionality
Among SIM functionalities, the following services of the SIM are supported:
• Abbreviated Dialing Numbers (ADN);
• Fixed Dialing Numbers (FDN);
• Last Dialed Numbers (LDN);
• Service Dialing Numbers (SDN);
• ME Personalization (SIM Lock).
ME Personalization handling is a mechanism to tie the ME operation to one specific SIM card or to a limited range
of SIM cards from a given Network Operator or Service Provider. The ME will only accept the SIM if there is a
positive match between the personalization code group(s) stored in the ME and the code group(s) belonging to the
inserted SIM.
The SIM Lock feature supported by TM1 GSM/GPRS module enables ME personalization through the following
personalization categories:
• Network lock;
• Network subset lock;
• Service provider lock;
• Corporate lock;
• Operator lock.
SIM Toolkit R 99 is supported. For a detailed description of the STK features, refer to the PICS/PIXIT
documentation.
5.1.3
Serial Interfaces
TM1 Data Module offers to the user the possibility to use a serial port (through the mother board) complaining with
ITU V.24 protocol Default baud rate is 115.2 Kbps; data rate maximum is 920 Kbps. Main features of ASC serial
port are reported in the following:
• Complete 9-pin serial port;
• Mux protocol (GSM 27.010);
• Power saving available;
• Interface (present on the mother board) is fully RS232 9-pin compliant;
• HW flow control supported;
• Used for AT interface.
The available signals for ASC serial port are:
• Data Carrier Detect (DCD);
• Data Terminal Ready (DTR);
• Clear to Send (CTS);
• Request to Send (RTS);
• RX Data (RXD);
• TX Data (TXD);
• Ring Indicator (RI);
• Data Set Ready (DSR).
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The design of the data module is done to use the data module as a DCE, while the application will be a DTE. Hence
with the signal RXD the data module will receive the data send by the DTE, while with TXD the data module will
transmit the data to the DTE.
In the table reported below are described the pins of the board-to-board connector of the serial ports:
Name
PIN #
I/O
I/O type
Description
DSR
23
O
Generic digital signal
Data Set Ready
RI
24
O
Generic digital signal
Ring Indicator
DCD
25
O
Generic digital signal
Data Carrier Detect
DTR
26
I
Generic digital signal
Data Terminal Ready
CTS
27
I
Generic digital signal
RTS (DCE)
RTS
28
O
Generic digital signal
CTS (DCE)
RXD
29
I
Generic digital signal
RX (DCE)
TXD
30
O
Generic digital signal
TX (DCE)
To be noticed that it is possible to have a second serial port for debugging purposes through a specific configuration
of the SPI interface (more details in 5.1.7).
For more details about serial port refer to chapter 6.
5.1.3.1 Mux
TM1 has integrated the MUX functionality supported by GSM 27.010 multiplexer protocol. It is a data link protocol
(layer 2 of OSI model) which uses HDLC-like framing, virtual data channels and channels’ control procedures. The
MUX protocol can run over a physical link (e.g. UART) existing between the wireless modem and an application
processor (embedded system or PC). This functionality allows user applications to access the GSM/GPRS modem
stack in concurrent way by emulating virtual communication channels.
The MUX process is responsible for:
• Control of virtual channels;
• Conveying user data over virtual channels.
Mux protocol 27.010 is implemented only on ASC0 serial port.
5.1.4
GPIO
All General Purpose I/O (GPIOs) shall be initialized to proper direction / output logic level as soon as possible. If
supply is removed from external device, relevant GPIOs should be placed at low logic level, or decoupled.
Name
PIN #
I/O
I/O type
Description
CAP00_EX5IN/GPIO
18
I
Generic digital signal
Ext Int 5B
CAP05/GPIO
20
I/O
Generic digital signal
GPIO 37
CAP19_GPIO
21
I/O
Generic digital signal
GPIO 36
KEYOUT0/GPIO
7
I/O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface / GPIO 00
KEYOUT1/GPIO
8
I/O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface / GPIO 01
KEYOUT2/GPIO
9
I/O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface / GPIO 02
KEYOUT3/GPIO
10
I/O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface / GPIO 03
KEYOUT4/GPIO
11
I/O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface / GPIO 04
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Name
PIN #
I/O
I/O type
Description
KEYOUT5/GPIO
12
I/O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface / GPIO 05
KEYIN0/GPIO
13
I/O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface / GPIO 06
KEYIN1/GPIO
14
I/O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface / GPIO 07
KEYIN2 / GPIO
15
I/O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface / GPIO 08
KEYIN3/GPIO
16
I/O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface / GPIO 09
In the case that a customer application is implemented on the data module and M2M software is integrated on the
data module is possible to have the maximum number of GPIO interface (13); otherwise the default number of
GPIO interface is 3; in the following are listed the pin that are always enabled as GPIO:
• CAP00_EX5IN/GPIO;
• CAP05/GPIO;
• CAP19_GPIO.
Note: M2M applications for GSM module are created in Teltonika
5.1.5
Keypad
Using M2M Software Package keypad interface become available. It consists of 6 output and 4 input pins in order to
manage a maximum of 24 keys with a matrix configuration.
Name
PIN #
I/O
I/O type
Description
KEYOUT0/GPIO
7
O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface
KEYOUT1/GPIO
8
O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface
KEYOUT2/GPIO
9
O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface
KEYOUT3/GPIO
10
O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface
KEYOUT4/GPIO
11
O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface
KEYOUT5/GPIO
12
O
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface
KEYIN0/GPIO
13
I
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface
KEYIN1/GPIO
14
I
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface
KEYIN2 / GPIO
15
I
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface
KEYIN3/GPIO
16
I
Generic digital signal
Keypad interface
Note: M2M applications for GSM module are created in Teltonika
5.1.6
ADC interface / Measurement interface
An input for Analog-to-Digital Converter is supported. The resolution of these converters is of 12-bit with a range of:
• 0 - 0.96 Volts ADC1 converter.
Name
PIN #
I/O
I/O type
Description
ADC1
41
I
ADC 12 bits 0 – 0.96 Volts
Analog to Digital Converter
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5.1.7
SPI
The SPI bus includes a clock signal, and two signals for the transmissions of the master and the slave. The SPI
interface is available on the data module only if the DAI interface is disabled.
Name
PIN #
I/O
I/O type
Description
CLK0_DAI
33
I/O
Generic digital signal
Shift Clock
RXD_DAI
34
I
Generic digital signal
Master Receive Slave Transmit
TXD_DAI
32
O
Generic digital signal
SSC Chip Select
WA0_DAI
31
I/O
Generic digital signal
Master Transmit Slave Receive
SPI interface is available to the user only if M2M software is integrated on the data module.
Though a specific SW configuration is possible to configure SPI interface as a 9-wire second serial port. To
implement this second serial port an external SPI / RS 232 converter is needed as well as a GPIO (GPIO_05). This
interface can be used for tracing purposes and is possible to send to the PC the trace of TM1 data module.
If a customer application is implemented on the data module and M2M software is integrated on the data module
then the functionality of the pins dedicated to SPI interface can be changed: In this case these pins can be assigned
to GPIO interface; with this configuration DAI and SPI interface are not enabled.
Note: M2M applications for GSM module are created in Teltonika
5.1.8
I2C bus interface
The I2C bus interface includes a serial clock and a serial data line.
Name
PIN #
I/O
I/O type
Description
SCL
35
O
Generic digital signal
Serial Clock Line
SDA
36
I/O
Generic digital signal
Serial Data Line
I2C bus interface are available to the user only if M2M software is integrated on the data module.
Note: M2M applications for GSM module are created in Teltonika
5.1.9
Electrical Characteristics of SMD connector pins
TM1 GSM/GPRS module is not protected against ESD in general. Consequently, it is subject to ESD handling
precautions that typically apply to ESD sensitive components. Proper ESD handling and packaging procedures
must be applied througout the processing, handling and operation of any application that incorporates the TM1
GSM/GPRS module. ESD protection is to be provided and verified on the final product that incorporates TM1
GSM/GPRS module as a component.
5.1.9.1
Absolute maximum ratings for input supply/power voltages
I/O type
Name
Min
Max
Module Supply
VBAT
-0.3 V
5.5 V
Module Charge
VCHARGE
12.5 V
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TM1 User Manual v1.2
Stresses above those listed here may cause permanent damage to the device. Exposure to absolute maximum
rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
5.1.9.2
Absolute maximum ratings for input signal voltages
I/O type
Min
Max
Generic digital signals
-0.3 V
3.6 V
SIM interface signals
-0.3 V
3.6 V
Analog signals
-0.15 V
3.0 V
Stresses above those listed here may cause permanent damage to the device. Exposure to absolute maximum
rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
5.1.9.3
5.1.9.4
5.1.9.5
Operating range for input supply/power voltages
I/O type
Name
Min
Typ
Max
Module Supply
VBAT
3.5 V
3.8 V
4.2 V
Module Charge
VCHARGE
6V
6.5V
15.0 V
Operating range for output supply/power voltages
I/O type
Name
SIM Supply
SIM_VCC
Min
Typ
Max
Test condition
1.80 V
VSIM = 1.80 V
2.85 V
VSIM = 2.85 V
Operating range for input signal voltages
I/O type
Generic digital signals
Parameter
Min
L-level
-0.20 V
0.57 V
H-level
2.00 V
3.30 V
0.00 V
0.36 V
VSIM = 1.80 V
0.00 V
0.57 V
VSIM = 2.85 V
1.26 V
3.30 V
VSIM = 1.80 V
2.00 V
3.30 V
VSIM = 2.85 V
L-level
SIM interface signals
H-level
Typ
Max
Test condition
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5.1.9.6
Operating range for output signal voltages
I/O type
Generic digital signals
Parameter
Min
L-level
H-level
L-level
SIM interface signals
H-level
2.50 V
Typ
Max
Test condition
0.00 V
0.35 V
High IOL
2.85 V
High IOH
0.00 V
0.36 V
VSIM = 1.80 V
0.00 V
0.57 V
VSIM = 2.85 V
1.26 V
1.80 V
3.30 V
VSIM = 1.80 V
2.00 V
2.85 V
3.30 V
VSIM = 2.85 V
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6 Serial Port and Data Traffic Behavior
6.1
Introduction
This chapter contains explanations of the procedures performed by TM1 needed to establish and terminate:
• GPRS data traffic, so called IP relaying in context activation;
• GSM Circuit Switched data traffic.
The chapter focuses about the behavior of the serial port (UART) in the previous two scenarios both like character
data traffic and signal lines status.
Another behavior of serial signal lines is described for power saving conditions and software reset.
In order to establish a data communication between the module, attached to an external Data Terminal Equipment
(like a PC or an application processor for embedded systems), and a remote server, different operations are
involved as reported in ETSI/3GPP specifications 03.60, 07.07, 07.60, 09.61. Since any specification looks at its
own scope, in this chapter is reported an overview of all of the interacting operations necessary to establish a data
communication, both GPRS and GSM Circuit Switched, with the behavior of the serial port (UART) in the different
stages. The GPRS traffic is Internet Protocol IP based i.e. it is a packet traffic. The CSD traffic is byte raw over a
dedicated GSM channel.
6.2
AT command mode at the startup
As default, the module starts with the serial port 0 in AT command mode (the behavior can be software configured
with different services at the serial port, this is out of the scope of this document).
The user can provide AT commands in conformance with in the internal document [11] and ETSI / 3GPP [3,7]
specifications.
The module is a Data Communication Equipment (DCE), a modem, in conformance with the [8,9,10] specifications
i.e in this document the next serial line convention is used:
Tx (103)
Rx (104)
RTS (105)
CTS (106)
DTR (108/2)
DSR (107)
DTE / Computer
DCE / Modem
DCD (109)
RI (126)
Serial lines at the startup are:
Circuit 107, DSR: ON
Circuit 106, CTS: ON
Circuit 109, DCD: OFF
Circuit 126, RI: OFF
Circuit 108/2 DTR is relevant when the module is in data traffic only
Circuit 105 RTS is continuously monitored i.e. the flow control is usually hardware like default (AT&K3).
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Please note:
• The CTS line is synchronized with the module power saving to prevent the DTE to deliver characters if the
module cannot receive them. If the power saving is let enabled without the hardware flow control, the chars
delivered by the DTE can be lost.
6.3
6.3.1
GPRS data communication
Introduction to the GPRS IP relaying architecture
A GPRS data communication is done in the IP-relaying mode as described in [2,4,5] i.e. the data sent to the module
through the serial port by a DTE, have to be IP packets put into PPP frames. IP packets are generated by an
application on the DTE and should follow rules of a TCP/IP stack; in order to understand TCP/IP architecture and
application sockets, a complete discussion can be found in [1].
The module extracts IP fragments from the PPP frames and delivers them through the GPRS infrastructure as the
next diagram reports:
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DCE Teltonika module
IP relaying
Application
TCP
IP
IP
IP
PPP
GPRS
protocol
stack
DTE
PPP
UART
UART
Radio layer
serial line
Gprs
Support
Node
BSS
IP
GPRS network
Application
Server
IP
IP network
IP Packets are delivered to an Application Server which is attached to a Packet Data Network IP based.
To establish the IP packet transfer the module requires context activation to the GPRS network [2]
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6.3.2
Context activation
In order to perform context activation, context info should be stored by the module. Context info are managed by the
module with the AT+CGDCONT, AT+CGQMIN, AT+CGQREQ commands, see [11] for a detail reference. Usually
the AT+CGDCONT=1,”IP”,”provider.apn.xx” is sufficient but be sure to have all of the necessary context info from
the GPRS provider.
A DTE application like the Windows “dial-up” (or Linux pppd) establishes the PPP traffic, and let the Windows
TCP/IP stack to be able to prepare IP packets over PPP.
Before activating the PPP protocol (data plane) a dial-up application has to provide the
ATD*99***<context_number># to the module: with this command the module switches from the AT command plane
to the PPP data plane and can accept PPP packets. The module puts the DCD line to the ON state, then answer
with a CONNECT to confirm the ATD*99 command. Please note that the DCD ON is not in relationship with the
context activation but with the PPP data plane.
It is then mandatory for the DTE to start the PPP negotiation with the module; context is not active after the
CONNECT string! During the PPP negotiation the context activation through the network is done by the module
which follows ETSI / 3GPP GPRS specifications in [2,4,5]. Note: the PPP has a local scope, DTE-DCE only; DCEnetwork traffic is GPRS protocol based with IP packets!
When the PPP link is established the IP data traffic can be done if the DTE properly delivers IP packets to the
module (in PPP frames through the serial line). Pay attention! It is not possible for a DTE to deliver raw info without
the IP/PPP envelope… this way of functionality is different to the GSM data traffic which will be described in next
sections.
Summary of the context activation operations:
• DTE sends context info with AT+CGDCONT=<context_number>…
• DTE sends ATD*99***<context_number>#
• DCE sets the serial line DCD ON
• DCE answer with CONNECT (or ERROR if something goes wrong)
• DTE starts PPP negotiation
• DCE deals with DTE PPP
• DCE requires context activation to the network
• Network activates the context and assign an IP address to the module
• DCE sends the IP network address to the DTE in order to make the DTE part of the IP network
• DTE acknowledges the IP address and consider PPP link UP
• DCE PPP link is UP
• DTE sends IP packets to the DCE in order to be delivered to a remote IP server
• DCE sends to the DTE packets received from the network (from remote IP servers)
• This DTE-DCE communication can continue indefinitely
6.3.3
Context deactivation
Deactivation of the context permits to switch off the IP relaying phase (the IP data traffic) and the module can return
to the AT command mode.
When the IP data traffic is established the deactivation is possible:
1. from user, the DTE follows at least one of the next actions:
a. sends a PPP packet called LCP termination request (Windows O.S. and Linux pppd follows this
strategy);
b. sends a +++ after a complete PPP packet (where complete means that it is terminated with the ~
char, 0x7e);
c. puts the circuit 108/2, DTR from ON to OFF;
2. from the network, the module takes the next actions in sequence:
a. sends the PPP packet LCP termination request;
b. puts the CD to the OFF state after the LCP termination acknowledge from the DTE or after a
timeout if the DTE does not take actions;
c. sends NO CARRIER string to the DTE;
Please note:
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1. The smart way to perform a context deactivation by the user DTE is through the PPP LCP termination
packet. The DTR ON to OFF transition usually is the last chance if the PPP daemon in the DTE blocks for
different reasons.
2. O.S. like Windows ignores the CD line if it does not switch from OFF to ON (or it is ON from the poweup)
i.e. the context activation can be done anyway without this line too. Other O.S. like Linux can ignore this line
anyway.
6.3.3.1
GPRS On line command mode
A special meaning of the &D value is provided in the module for the ~+++ sequence during a GPRS data transfer
(this is outside the specification [4,8,9] scope). The ~+++ lead to a context deactivation during a GPRS data transfer
session for the AT&D0, AT&D1 values (please note that the +++ return to on-line command mode is provided for
each &D value during a CSD data call [8,9]).
A different implementation for the ~+++ is done with the &D2 value: GPRS data transfer is escaped and system
returns in the on-line command state. The ~ character is mandatory before the +++ sequence for the GPRS data
transfer escaping, please note the slight difference in comparison with the CSD data call escaping.
Please note that the ~+++ command can be used when the PPP is established, unpredictable result are reported if
it is used after the CONNECT string before the PPP is established. The ATO command is used to resume the
GPRS data transfer session.
During the on-line command mode different AT commands can be sent but some limitations are present:
• data calls in GPRS on-line command mode cannot be granted (please activate the AT+CRC=1 mode in
order to identify the kind of call and reject data incoming calls if GPRS is in the on-line command mode);
• the MUX functionalities cannot be used in cooperation with the GPRS on-line command mode.
An important note about how to use this feature. A Windows dial-up application which is using a DTE serial port
cannot send by itself a ~+++ sequence i.e. this kind of feature has not been thought for standard usage. Please
note that some customers provide specific implementations (not necessary in the Windows environment) to send
~+++ at the same serial port of the dial-up application or they use an external hardware to multiplex two different
DTE serial ports attached to the same module port!
Anyway for experimental purposes, to check this behavior with a DTE, a hyper terminal application can send a ~+++
on a different serial port than the dial-up one. Switch by hand the cable from the dial-up associated serial port to the
hyper terminal port. Send the ~+++, an OK is the module answer, then AT commands can be delivered to do
different operations. At the end type ATO, a CONNECT is received, switch back again to the dial-up port and the
Internet data traffic can be resumed by the DTE.
6.4
6.4.1
CSD data calls
Outgoing data calls
To establish a data call the DTE can send the ATD<number> command to the module which sets an outgoing data
call to a remote modem (or another data module). Data can be transparent (non reliable) or non transparent (with
the reliable RLP protocol). The settings for the two kinds of data are outside the scope of this guide, see internal
reference [11]. The next diagram represents the architecture for a CSD data call.
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DCE Teltonika module
DTA functionalities
Application
CS data
UART
DTE
Radio layer
UART
serial line
MSC
BSS
PTSN
GSM network
DCE / wired modem
Application
DTA
functionalities
DTE
UART
UART
serial line
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When the remote DCE accepts the data call, the module DCD line is set to ON and the CONNECT <communication
baudrate> string is returned by the module. At this stage the DTE can send characters through the serial line to the
data module which sends them through the network to the remote DCE attached to a remote DTE. The remote DTE
application can take the characters and reply. The communication can proceed indefinitely.
If the remote DCE is an entry point of an internet provider, PPP packets are expected from the DTE attached to the
module. Please note that PPP packets are delivered like a raw char stream from DTE through the data module to
the remote DCE i.e. the data architecture is totally different than the GPRS one, in which the data module extracts
the IP packets from the DTE PPP and forwards them through the GPRS IP network to a remote IP server.
The CS data plane can be escaped through the +++ sequence as requested by [8,9] spec. The AT command plane
is resumed without cleardown call; we can refer to it as AT on-line command mode. Please note that the DCD line is
ON both in the AT on-line command plane and data plane.
In the AT on-line command mode the user can clear the call with an ATH command (DCD changes from ON to
OFF) or resume the data plane through an ATO command, the module answers with CONNECT again.
If the remote peer closes the call the DCD changes from ON to OFF and the NO CARRIER string is put on the
serial port.
Summary of a CSD outgoing data call:
• DTE sets the type of data requested to the DCE (through specific AT commands like AT+RLP, see [11])
• DTE sends ATD<remote DCE number>
• DCE establishes a call with the remote DCE through the GSM network
• Remote DCE accepts the call
• DCE sets serial line DCD ON
• DCE sends CONNECT <communication baudrate> to the DTE
• DTE sends any character
• Remote DCE receives characters through the GSM network and delivers them to the remote DTE
• Remote DTE receives characters and delivers its characters to the remote DCE
• Remote DCE sends character through the GSM network to the DCE
• DCE sends characters to the DTE
• DTE- remote DTE communication raw character based can continue indefinitely
Raw character stream can be a PPP packet stream i.e. IP network traffic is possible from a DTE to a remote
Internet provider equipped with a DCE (which deals with the local module attached to the DTE). The provider
forwards the IP packets of the DTE to the Internet to a remote IP server.
The CS call can be hang up from:
1. the user, the DTE makes one of the next operations:
o sends ATH to the DCE in AT on-line command mode;
o DTR transition ON to OFF with AT&D2 status (see reference [8,9] and annex 1 for a summary of
the AT&D behavior);
2. the network (or remote DCE), the DCE takes the next actions in sequence:
o puts serial line DCD to OFF;
o sends NO CARRIER string to the DTE;
6.4.2
Incoming data calls
The data module can accept an incoming call through the ATA command [3] (please note, commands like the
AT+CRC=1 can be used to decide about the kind of call, voice or data; this is out of the scope of this document).
Next operations are relevant to accept an incoming call:
1. During the incoming call the module RI line switches from OFF to ON and from ON to OFF with a duty cycle
4:1 as reported by the next figure.
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1s
RI ON
RI OFF
0
5
10
15
time
[s]
2. The module sends the RING string to the serial port at constant time intervals not correlated with the RI ON
action.
3. The DTE attached to the module sends the ATA string and the module accepts the incoming data call.
4. The DCE sets the serial line DCD ON.
5. The DCE sends the CONNECT<communication baudrate> to the DTE
6. DTE sends characters through the DCE and the GSM network to the remote DCE-DTE system and the
data communication can be done like for outgoing data calls
The data plane can be escaped with a +++ sequence in order to put the DCE in AT on-line command mode. AT
commands can be delivered from the DTE. The ATH command is sent by the DTE to cleardown call. The DTR rule
is the same as for outgoing calls.
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6.5
Power saving and CTS handshake
The CTS line is used during power saving periods in order to prevent a remote DTE to send chars to the DCE when
it cannot receive. During the power saving phase the module activity is reduced and the reference clock of the
system is reduced too. Under these conditions the UART cannot receive chars and the CTS line is switched to the
OFF state. When the module is network attached, it periodically wakes up in order to be synchronized with the
network activity; the power saving state time is in relationship with the network parameters and can be up to 450
GSM time frames (~2 s). Please note that this time is not constant, this is only a maximum time given as reference
and valid when the module is attached to the network. When the module wakes-up, the CTS line is switched ON
and it persists in this state at least for 3 GSM time frames (~14 ms). If the module has some network activity to do
or chars are delivered at the UART port, the module remains in the operative state otherwise it comes back to the
power saving conditions. When the module is outside the power saving conditions, the time amount before entering
in the power saving mode is variable and it depends on parameters like:
• the kind of activity with regards to the network;
• task activity of the M2M software;
• time elapsed from the last character received at the serial port: after 5000 GSM frames (~23 s) without
serial activity (chars transmitted or received), the serial drivers lets the module to go into power saving if
there aren’t other activities;
Next figure refers to the CTS line activity inside and outside the power saving in different scenarios. It can be
considered like an example, most scenarios have an unpredictable power saving time line because they are in
relationship with external events and network activity.
chars income here
CTS ON
CTS OFF
time [# GSM frames]
max 450
5000 at least
3 at least
(without any activity)
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6.6
Reference
6.6.1
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
External
Stevens. TCP/IP Illustrated Volume1 & 2 Addison-Wesley, 1994.
GSM 03.60 Digital cellular telecommunication system (Phase 2+); GPRS Mobile Station (MS)
supporting GPRS.
3GPP TS 27.007 version 7.6.0. Release 1998. Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+):
AT command set for GSM Mobile Equipment (ME); ETSI 100 916 v.7.6.0. 2001-03.
GSM 07.60 Digital cellular telecommunication system (Phase 2+); GPRS Service description; stage 2.
GSM 09.61 Digital cellular telecommunication system (Phase 2+); GPRS Service; Interworking
between the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) supporting GPRS and Packet Data Networks (PDN)
(3GPP TS 09.61 version 7.5.0 Release 1998).
3GPP TS 127.005
Technical Specification Group Terminals; Use of Data Terminal
Equipment - Data Circuit terminating Equipment (DTE-DCE) interface for Short Message Services
(SMS) and Cell Broadcast Service (CBS); V4.2.1.
3GPP TS27.007Technical Specification Group Terminals; AT command set for User Equipment
(UE); V3.11.0.
ITU-T V.25ter ITU-T
V.25
ter
Recommendation:
Data
Communications
over
the
Telephone Network; Serial asynchronous automatic ialing and control.
ITU-T Recommendation V250, 05-99.
ITU-T Recommendation V24, 02-2000. List of definitions for interchange circuits between Data
Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Connection Equipment (DCE).
ITU-T T.32 ITU-T Recommandation T.32 Asynchronous Facsimile DCE Control - Service Class 2.
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7 Annex 1. Circuit 108/2, +++ behavior for the different &D: summarizing
table
CSD
GPRS
+++
DTR On to Off
in data state
~+++
DTR On to Off
in data state
&D0
Command mode
Data state
Context deactivation
Context deactivation
&D1
Command mode
Command mode
Context deactivation
Context deactivation
&D2
Command mode
Cleardown call
Command mode
(with limitations)
Context deactivation
8 Annex 2. Incoming GPRS context activation
The 3GPP specification theoretically provides context activation from the network (something like a CSD incoming
call) but most of the GPRS providers do not implement this service. Currently the module does not allow network
context activation too and the protocol stack rejects any network activation request.
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