Owlcam LLC - Drone Laws Blog by Antonelli Law

Owlcam LLC - Drone Laws Blog by Antonelli Law
Drone/UAS Practice Group
100 North LaSalle Street
Suite 2400
Chicago, IL 60602
Tel. 312.201.8310
[email protected]
U.S. Department of Transportation
Docket Management System
1200 New Jersey Ave S.E.
Washington, D.C. 20590
January 22, 2015
Re: Request for Exemption under Section 333 of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act
of 2012 and Part 11 of the Federal Aviation Regulations from 14 C.F.R 21(h); 14 C.F.R.
43.7; 14 C.F.R. 43.11; 14 C.F.R. 45.11; 14 C.F.R. 45.27; 14 C.F.R. 45.29; 14 C.F.R.
91.7(a); 14 C.F.R. 91.9(b)(2); 14 C.F.R. 91.9(c); 14 C.F.R. 91.103(b)(2); 14 C.F.R. 91.105;
14 C.F.R. 91.113(b); 14 C.F.R. 91.119(b) and (c); 14 C.F.R. 121; 14 C.F.R. 91.151; 14
C.F.R. 91.203(a) and (b); 14 C.F.R. 215; 14 C.F.R. 91.403; 14 C.F.R. 405 (a) and (b); 14
C.F.R. 91.407; 14 C.F.R. 409; and 14 C.F.R. 91.417.
Dear Sir or Madam:
Pursuant to Section 333 of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (the Reform Act) and
14 C.F.R. Part 11, Antonelli Law’s Drone/UAS Practice Group, on behalf of Owlcam, LLC
(“Owlcam”), an operator of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (“sUAS”) equipped to film and
photograph real estate in rural areas in the state of Hawai’i, applies for an exemption from the
listed Federal Aviation Regulations (“FARs”) to allow commercial operation of its sUASs, so long
as such operations are conducted within and under the conditions outlined herein or as may be
established by the FAA as required by Section 333.
Approval of exemptions for Owlcam will allow commercial operations of sUASs in rural, remote,
low density areas on the Hawai’ian Islands, for the purpose of real estate photography and
videography. The pilot in command (PIC) is a certified commercial and instrument-rated
helicopter pilot with more than 6,100 hours of flight time, and has a second class medical
certificate. The requested exemption should be granted because the proposed operations of the DJI
Phantom 2, a small UASs that weighs 2.9 lbs., inclusive of battery and payload, conducted in the
strict conditions outlined below, will provide an equivalent level of safety, as Congress intended,
while still allowing commercial operations. The lightweight aircraft covered by the exemption are
far safer than conventional operations conducted with manned helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft
weighing thousands of pounds, containing highly flammable fuel, and operating in close proximity
to the ground and people, as a similar UAS has been previously approved in Exemption No. 11138,
Douglas Trudeau, Realtor®. The seven factors Congress directed the FAA to consider when
approving Section 333 exemption petitions - size, weight, speed, operational capability, proximity
to airports, proximity to populated areas, and operation within visual line of sight – each support
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Table of Contents
I.
Publishable Summary .............................................................................................................. 5
II. Petitioner’s Contact Information ............................................................................................. 5
III. Owlcam LLC’s Operations ...................................................................................................... 6
A.
The sUAS ....................................................................................................................... 6
B.
Flight Conditions ............................................................................................................ 6
C.
Flight Operations ............................................................................................................ 6
IV. Privacy ..................................................................................................................................... 8
V. Aircraft and Equivalent Level of Safety .................................................................................. 9
VI. Public Interest and Safety ...................................................................................................... 10
VII. Regulations from Which Exemption is Requested ................................................................ 11
A. 14 C.F.R. 21(h): Airworthiness Certificates ......................................................................... 11
B. 14 C.F.R. 43.7: Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines,
propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance,
preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. ................................................................ 12
C. 14 C.F.R. 43.11: Content, form, and disposition of records for inspections conducted under
parts 91 and 125 and §§135.411(a)(1) and 135.419 of this chapter. ..................................... 13
D. 14 C.F.R. 45.11: Marking of products. ................................................................................. 13
E. 14 C.F.R. 45.27: Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft ................................................ 13
F. 14 C.F.R. 45.29: Size of marks ............................................................................................. 14
G. 14 C.F.R. 91.7(a): Civil aircraft airworthiness. ..................................................................... 14
H. 14 C.F.R. 91.9(b)(2): Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements. ...... 14
I. 14 C.F.R. 91.9(c): Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements. ........... 15
J. 14 C.F.R. 91.103(b)(2): Preflight action. .............................................................................. 15
K. 14 C.F.R. 91.105: Flight crewmembers at stations. .............................................................. 16
L. 14 C.F.R. 91.113(b): Right-of-way rules: Except water operations. .................................... 16
M. 14 C.F.R. 91.119(c): Minimum safe altitudes: General. ....................................................... 16
N. 14 C.F.R. 91.121: Altimeter Settings .................................................................................... 17
O. 14 C.F.R. 91.151: Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions. ..................................... 17
P. 14 C.F.R. 91.203(a) and (b): Civil aircraft: Certifications required. ..................................... 18
Q. 14 C.F.R. 91.215: ATC Transponder and Altitude Reporting Equipment and Use.............. 19
R. 14 C.F.R. 91.403: General..................................................................................................... 20
S. 14 C.F.R. 91.405 (a) and (d): Maintenance Required ........................................................... 20
T. 14 C.F.R. 91.407: Operation after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or
alteration ................................................................................................................................ 21
U. 14 C.F.R. 91.409: Inspections ............................................................................................... 21
V. 14 C.F.R. 91.417: Maintenance records ................................................................................ 21
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Exhibit List
Exhibit 1: DJI Phantom 2 Manual ................................................................. Submitted Separately
Exhibit 2: Phantom 2 – Features ................................................................................................. 22
Exhibit 3: Phantom 2 – Specs ..................................................................................................... 28
Exhibit 4: Naza-M V2 Quick Start Guide ................................................................................... 30
Exhibit 5: 5.8G Video Link User Manual ................................................................................... 63
Exhibit 6: iOSD mini User Manual ............................................................................................. 69
Exhibit 7: DJI No Fly Zones ....................................................................................................... 74
Exhibit 8: Futaba Receiver T14SG Manual .................................................. Submitted Separately
Exhibit 9: Memorandum from Mark W. Bury, Assistant Chief Counsel for Int’l Law,
Legislation and Regulations, Fed. Aviation Admin., to John Duncan, Dir., Flight Standards
Serv. (Aug. 8, 2014). ................................................................................................................... 76
Exhibit 10: Douglas Trudeau, Realtor® Exemption No. 11138 ................................................. 78
Additional documents have been submitted to the FAA confidentially
and are not available to the public.
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I.
Publishable Summary
Pursuant to 14 C.F.R. Part 11, the following summary is provided for publication in the
Federal Register, should it be determined that publication is needed:
Applicant seeks an exemption from the following rules:
14 C.F.R 21(h); 14 C.F.R. 43.7; 14 C.F.R. 43.11; 14 C.F.R. 45.11; 14 C.F.R. 45.27;
14 C.F.R. 45.29; 14 C.F.R. 91.7(a); 14 C.F.R. 91.9(b)(2); 14 C.F.R. 91.9(c); 14
C.F.R. 91.103(b)(2); 14 C.F.R. 91.105; 14 C.F.R. 91.113(b); 14 C.F.R. 91.119(b)
and (c); 14 C.F.R. 91.151; 14 C.F.R. 91.203(a) and (b); 14 C.F.R. 215; 14 C.F.R.
91.403; 14 C.F.R. 405 (a) and (b); 14 C.F.R. 91.407; 14 C.F.R. 409; and 14 C.F.R.
91.417.
Approval of exemptions for Owlcam LLC will allow commercial operations of
sUASs in rural, remote, low density areas on the Hawai’ian Islands, for the purpose
of real estate photography and videotaping. The pilot in command (PIC) is a
certified commercial and instrument-rated helicopter pilot with more than 6,100
hours of flight time, and has a second class medical certificate. The requested
exemption should be granted because proposed operation of the DJI Phantom 2, a
small UASs weighing 2.9 lbs., inclusive of battery and payload, conducted in the
strict conditions outlined below, will provide an equivalent level of safety, as
Congress intended, while still allowing commercial operations. The lightweight
aircraft covered by the exemption are far safer than conventional operations
conducted with helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft operating in close proximity to
the ground and people. The seven factors Congress directed the FAA to consider
when approving Section 333 exemption petitions - size, weight, speed, operational
capability, proximity to airports, proximity to populated areas, and operation within
visual line of sight – each support the request. In particular, the aircraft are small,
and will operate at slow speeds, close to the ground, far from airports and in a low
risk, low population environment. In addition, the substantial experience of the PIC
weighs heavily in favor of granting the exemption.
II.
Petitioner’s Contact Information
Owlcam LLC
1140 Puuopae Road
Kapaa, HI 96746
Tel: 808-652-9890
Email: [email protected]
Antonelli Law
100 North LaSalle Street
Suite 2400
Chicago, IL 60602
Tel: 312-201-8310
Fax: 888-211-8624
Email: [email protected]
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III.
Owlcam LLC’s Operations
A.
The sUAS
The requested exemption will permit the operation of the DJI Phantom 2. The Phantom 2
is a small, unmanned multirotor aircraft, weighing 2.9 lbs. inclusive of batteries, the propeller
guard, and technical payload. This rotorcraft can operate at a speed up to 29 knots, but Owlcam
LLC (“Owlcam) will limit the speed to no more than 20 knots. The FAA has previously granted
Exemption No. 11138, allowing commercial flight of a member of the DJI Phantom 2 family, the
Phantom 2 Vision+. Exemption No. 11138 is attached to this petition as Exhibit 10.
The sUAS will have the following specifications:
Airframe: DJI Phantom 2
Flight Control System: Naza – M V2, which includes the main controller (MC), internal
measurement unit (IMU) with built-in internal sensor, barometric altimeter, which measures
attitude and altitude, compass, GPS, and radio receiver (Rx).
Transmitter (Tx): Futaba T14SG
Receiver (Rx): Internal to DJI Phantom 2
Data Link: 2.4G Data Link
Video Link: DJI AVL 58
Gimbal: H3-3D Zenmuse Gimbal for GoPro Hero
Camera: Go Pro Hero 4 Black
Batteries: 3S LiPo, 5200-mAh, 11.1V
iOSD: DJI iOSD mini, which allows live telemetry to be displayed on the video monitor, including
the battery level, and altitude.
Please refer to Exhibits 1-8 for further information about the sUAS and transmitter.
B.
Flight Conditions
The sUAS will be flown in airspace under 400 feet above ground level (“AGL”) and under
controlled conditions in rural areas. The majority of flights will take place under 100 feet AGL.
Owlcam’s operations will occur in rural, remote areas on the Hawai’ian Islands. Owlcam will
avoid congested and densely populated areas and will work with local Flight Standard District
Offices to determine safe areas to fly in. Owlcam will only operate its sUAS in VMC, visual
meteorological conditions: no less than 500 feet below and no less than 2,000 feet horizontally
from a cloud or when visibility at least 3 statute miles from the PIC. The flight crew will always
make a safety assessment of the risk of every operation, and will only operate when it is determined
that no undue hazards are present.
C.
Flight Operations
Owlcam’s flight operations require that the sUAS will always be in the line of sight of both
a PIC and a monitor specialist, who will also act as the visual observer (VO). Flights will be at
altitudes of no more than 400 feet AGL, and at speeds less than 20 knots. Despite the 400 ft. AGL
limit, most flights will take place at an altitude of no more than 100 ft. AGL.
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The PIC has a commercial rotorcraft license with an IFR rating, with 6,100 hours of flight
time, and a second class medical certificate. The VO has over four years of experience with RC
aircraft, and has over 100 hours flying sUAS as a hobbyist.
The week of an operation, the flight crew will file a flight plan with the local FSDO and
contact ATC. The day before an operation, the flight crew will visit and inspect for safety the area
in which operations will take place. The flight crew will also contact any neighbors to notify them
of the filming. The sUAS will only fly over land which it has permission from the landowner or
landowner’s agent to fly above. The notification will consist of, at minimum, the time, place, and
type of UAS operation being conducted. The flight crew will also have letters to leave in mailboxes
and front doors, informing neighbors of the planned sUAS operations. The flight crew will also
conduct a safety briefing with the property owners.
Flights will take place on parcels of land that are at least approximately an area of half an
acre to a full acre. Operations will not take place in congested or densely populated areas, and the
PIC will work with the local FSDO when planning operations. The flight crew will obtain all
aeronautical and weather data information, as laid out in Section 6 of the Operations Manual.
Exhibit 1.
On the day of filming, the flight crew will wear florescent shirts or vests to increase
visibility. Prior to departing for an operation, the flight crew will briefly turn on the sUAS to ensure
that everything is connected and that the sUAS is in operational condition.
Upon arrival at a location for filming or photography, the flight crew will conduct an aerial
and ground preflight inspection. This inspection is listed in Appendix D to the Owlcam Operations
Manual.
The flight crew will then set out traffic cones to designate the aircraft’s “home area,” which
will be a circle of approximately 20 feet in diameter to mark the sUAS take-off and landing zone.
Note: If the radio control link is broken during flight, the autopilot system will recognize
this broken control link and cause the sUAS to automatically return to the home area as recorded
by the GPS instrumentation.
The flight crew will conduct a physical inspection of the aircraft as set out in Appendix D
of the Operations Manual.
The flight crew will then power on the sUAS and set up a laptop connected to the sUAS
with the DJI AVL 58 video link. This laptop will display the telemetry information during the
flight, and be monitored by the VO. The VO will be able to see the images taken by the GoPro
camera in real time.
The PIC will then conduct a pre-flight inspection as outlined in Appendix D of the
Operations Manual.
At any time during the flight, should the aircraft lose connection with the remote control,
the flight control system failsafe will be activated automatically, and the aircraft will to return to
the previously-set home area and land, in order to reduce injuries or damage. If any of the following
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situations occur, the aircraft will not receive a signal, and enter into this failsafe mode:




The remote control is powered off;
The aircraft has flown out of the effective communication range of the remote
control, which is no greater than 1,000 meters (3,280 feet);
There is an obstacle obstructing the signal between the remote control and the
aircraft, essentially reducing the distance the signal can travel; or
There is interference causing a signal problem with the remote control.
For further information regarding the DJI Phantom 2’s failsafe functions, please refer to
Exhibit 1, the DJI User Manual, Section 6.4, beginning on page 25 of that document, and Exhibit
4, the Naza-M V2 flight control guide, section on Advanced Functions, beginning on page 16 of
that document.
The DJI Phantom 2 also has “no fly zones” programmed into it, which will prevent flights
in restricted zones. Although Owlcam will take every precaution to avoid flying in airspace other
than class G airspace, the preprogrammed “no fly zones” will add an additional level of safety to
operations. For further information regarding the DJI’s “no fly zones,” please refer to Exhibit 1,
Section 6.7 of the DJI User Manual, beginning on page 28 of that document, and Exhibit 7.
Other than this automated feature of the DJI Phantom 2, the PIC will always fly the sUAS
manually. The PIC and VO have tested the sUAS in a variety of weather conditions, including on
overcast days and in winds up to 15 knots. The PIC and VO will not fly the sUAS in heavy
rainstorms, due to decreased visibility and the potential for water damage to the sUAS. The PIC
and VO have also practiced emergency bailout procedures by having the sUAS return to home. In
the event of an emergency, the PIC will release the joysticks. This will make the sUAS
automatically hover in place and maintain its position and altitude, and the PIC and VO can
determine if and when it is safe for the sUAS to return to the home location.
During flights, the PIC and the VO will be standing next to each other, in oral
communication at all times at the ground station. The VO will observe the telemetry data on the
laptop and will monitor the images from the camera from the laptop. The VO will direct the PIC
if she wishes to capture a different angle on the camera. The Go Pro Hero 4 Black camera will be
filming or taking still images at intervals during the entirety of the flight and is not controlled
independently from the ground station, other than by the movement of the sUAS.
Flights will be limited to 18 minutes, which is 75% of the total battery life of the DJI
Phantom 2. Once the sUAS has landed, the PIC will conduct a post-flight checklist as set out in
Appendix D of the Operations Manual.
IV.
Privacy
There is little concern that the proposed flights will cause invasions of privacy because all
flights will occur over rural property with the property owner’s prior knowledge and consent. The
only people and/or property to be filmed will have requested and hired Owlcam for the express
purpose of filming and photographing the people and/or property with the sUAS.
No attempt will be made to identify any individuals filmed or photographed during the
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flights who have not consented to be filmed or photographed, except in cases where they are
trespassing upon or damaging customer property, or interfering with the applicant’s or its
customers’ operations
V.
Aircraft and Equivalent Level of Safety
Owlcam proposes that the exemption requested herein apply to civil aircraft that have the
characteristics and that operate with the limitations listed herein. These limitations provide for at
least an equivalent or higher level of safety to operations under the current regulatory structure.
These limitations and conditions to which Owlcam agrees to be bound when conducting
commercial operations under an FAA issued exemption include:
1. The sUAS will weigh significantly less than fifty (50) lbs. The DJI Phantom 2 weighs 2.9
lbs., inclusive of battery and payload.
2. Flights will be operated within line of sight of a pilot and VO.
3. Maximum total flight time for each operational flight will be 75% of battery life. Flights will
be terminated once the battery reaches a 25% level. This data will be available through
telemetry data submitted to the transmitter and monitor.
4. The sUAS will remain clear and yield the right of way to all other manned operations and
activities at all times.
5. Flights will be operated at an altitude of no more than 400 feet AGL. Despite this limitation,
the majority of flights are anticipated to operate at no more than 100 feet AGL.
6. Minimum crew for each operation will consist of the sUAS PIC and VO.
7. A briefing will be conducted in regard to the planned sUAS operations prior to each day’s
activities. It will be mandatory that all personnel who will be performing duties in connection
with the operations be present for this briefing.
8. The operator will obtain a FAA UAS Civil COA prior to conducting any operations under
this grant of exemption.
9. The operator will request a Notice to Airman (NOTAM) not more than 72 hours in advance,
but not less than 48 hours prior to the operation.
10. At least three days before scheduled filming, the operator of the sUAS will submit a written
Plan of Activities to the local FSDO with jurisdiction over the area of proposed filming.
11. The PIC is a certified commercial and instrument-rated helicopter pilot with more than 5,500
hours of flight time, and has a second class medical certificate. Copies of the certification
and license are submitted under seal as Appendix A to Exhibit 1.
12. The PIC and VO have practiced the DJI Phantom 2 for approximately 60 minutes a day,
9
every day, for 90 days, translating to 90 hours of flight on this model. Practice flights have
been in a variety of weather conditions, including in winds up to 15 knots and on overcast
days. Practice flights have also included using the DJI Phantom 2’s emergency return-tohome features.
13. The PIC and VO will at all times be able to communicate by voice and be stationed next to
each other at the ground station.
14. Written and/or oral permission from the landowner or authorized agent, of the land over
which the sUAS will be flying.
15. All required permissions and permits will be obtained from territorial, state, county or city
jurisdictions, including local law enforcement, fire, or other appropriate governmental
agencies.
16. The sUAS will have the capability to abort a flight in case of unexpected obstacles or
emergencies. The PIC and VO have practiced the emergency failsafe procedures, as
described above on pages 6-7.
17. If the multirotor and its controller disconnects during flight, the system’s failsafe protection
will come to the rescue and the multirotor will return to home and land automatically, rather
than flying off uncontrollably or landing at an unknown location. For more information on
the failsafe procedures, please refer to Exhibits 1-5. This condition is similar to one granted
in Exemption No. 11138, attached to this petition as Exhibit 8.
18. Because the PIC is a licensed commercial helicopter pilot, he has been subject to the security
screening by the Department of Homeland Security. Additionally, the sUAS that will be
used, a DJI Phantom 2, weighs no more than 2.9 lbs., inclusive of battery and payload.
Approval of commercial flights as outlined in this petition present no national security issue.
Satisfaction of the criteria provided in Section 333 of the Reform Act of 2012--size, weight,
speed, operating capabilities, proximity to airports and populated areas and operation within visual
line of sight and national security – provide more than adequate justification for the grant of the
requested exemptions allowing commercial operation of applicant’s sUAS pursuant to Owlcam’s
rules of operation appended hereto.
VI.
Public Interest and Safety
Use of the sUAS will increase ground safety by eliminating the need to have a manned,
aircraft take the videos or photographs. As the FAA recognized in the Douglas Trudeau, Realtor®
Exemption, No. 11138:
“Manned aircraft conducting aerial filming and photography can weigh 5,000 lbs. or more,
are operated by an onboard pilot and may carry other onboard crewmembers, as well as
100 gallons or more of fuel. The petitioner’s [sUAS] weighs less than 3 lbs. The pilot and
crew will be remotely located from the aircraft. The limited weight reduces the potential
for harm to persons or damage to property in the event of an incident or accident. The risk
of an onboard pilot and crew during an incident or accident is eliminated with the use of a
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[sUAS] for the proposed operation.” Exhibit 10 at 11-12.
As in the cited exemption, Owlcam will use a member of the DJI Phantom family, the DJI
Phantom 2. This sUAS also weighs 2.9 lbs., inclusive of battery and payload.
During Owlcam’s operations, the PIC and VO will similarly be safely on the ground,
directing the DJI Phantom 2 at altitudes no higher than 400 feet AGL. Owlcam will not fly over
congested or densely populated locations, and will work with local FSDO when planning
operations. Owlcam’s flight crew will make a safety assessment prior to each operation, and will
only operate when there are no undue risks.
The small weight, 2.9 lbs., is less than the size envisioned in Section 334(c)(2)(C) of the
FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, which allows government agencies “to operate
unmanned aircraft weighing 4.4 pounds or less, if operated –
(i)
within the line of sight of the operator;
(ii)
less than 400 feet above the ground;
(iii) during daylight conditions;
(iv)
within Class G airspace; and
(v)
outside of 5 statute miles from any airport, heliport, seaplane base, spaceport, or other
location with aviation activities.”
Congress’s determination that government agencies should be allowed to operate such
aircraft in these situations, with no further restrictions on location, population density, or pilot
experience and training, indicates that Congress did not believe that aircraft of this size and weight
warranted additional attention.
The PIC for Owlcam is a professional commercial helicopter pilot, who flies both an AStar helicopter and an EC-130 helicopter. The A-Star’s maximum gross weight is 4,960 pounds,
and the EC-130’s maximum gross weight is 5,350 pounds. As the FAA recognized in Exemption
No. 1162, manned aircraft of this size can pose a much greater threat to its occupants as well as to
individuals on the ground. Additionally, a much greater space will be necessary for takeoff,
landing, and operations than would be necessary for the 2.9 lbs. sUAS that Owlcam requests an
exemption to use and may render filming an area impossible, due to the rural areas Owlcam wishes
to operate in, and the low height footage Owlcam wishes to shoot.
VII.
Regulations from Which Exemption is Requested
A.
14 C.F.R. 21(h): Airworthiness Certificates
Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 21(h). This exemption meets the
requirements for an equivalent level of safety pursuant to Section 333 based on the small size, light
weight, relatively slow speed, and use in controlled environments on private land, as described
previously in this petition. In Exemption No. 11138, the FAA stated that the Secretary of
Transportation has determined that a member of the DJI Phantom 2 family, the Phantom 2 Vision+
meets the statutory conditions of Section 333, considering the size, weight, speed, and limited
operating area associated with the aircraft and its operation. See Exhibit 10 at 11.
Equivalent level of safety: Owlcam’s proposed exemption meets the requirements for an
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equivalent level of safety of this section, pursuant to Section 333, based on the following factors:
 Small size: the DJI Phantom 2 has a diagonal length of 350 millimeters, 13.77
inches.
 Light weight: 2.9 lbs.
 Relatively slow speed: the PIC will limit the sUAS’s speed to 20 knots (23 miles
per hour).
 Operational capacity: currently, the DJI Phantom 2 can operate for 25 minutes.
Flights will be terminated when 25% of the battery life remains. The DJI Phantom
2 can travel no more than 1,000 meters, 3280.84 feet, from the receiver.
 Proximity to airports: Owlcam will only operate in Class G airspace, and will notify
ATC and the local FSDO prior to operations, as described previously.
 Proximity to populated areas Owlcam will avoid the yellow congested areas in the
Hawai’i Sectional Aeronautical Charts, and work with the local Flight Standards
District Offices to determine which areas to avoid during flights. Local FSDO may
carve out areas indicated as yellow in the sectional chart and allow Owlcam to fly
in these specifically designated carve-out areas.
 Operation within visual line of sight: The PIC will always fly the sUAS within its
line of sight.
 Location: Owlcam will operate in rural, remote areas, with low population density,
on the Hawai’ian Islands to take photographs and video.
 Altitude: no more than 400 feet AGL, but the majority of flights are anticipated at
no more than 100 feet AGL.
 Restricted area in which the sUAS will be operated: as described above, prior to
the day of filming, the flight crew will visit with neighbors to inform them of the
filming over the consenting landowner’s property. During filming, which will occur
in rural areas, the flight crew will set out cones to mark the “home area” for the
sUAS, and will monitor the area to make sure no one comes into the flight area.
Should any nonparticipating individual enter the flight area, operations will
immediately cease. See Exhibit 10 at 19.
 Substantial experience of the PIC: the PIC has a commercial rotorcraft license with
an IFR rating, with 6,100 hours of flight time in manned aircraft.
B.
14 C.F.R. 43.7: Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines,
propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance,
preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.
Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 43.7. This part provides, inter alia, that the
holder of a mechanic certificate or a repair station certificate may approve an aircraft, airframe,
aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return to service. As described
previously, Owlcam’s flight crew will be capable to repair and maintain the DJI Phantom 2 to meet
an equivalent level of safety of this section.
Equivalent level of safety: The nature of the sUAS is that of a model aircraft, and the
operators of Owlcam who will maintain and when necessary repair the sUAS will conduct
inspections and maintenance based on maintenance guidelines provided by the manufacturer of
the sUAS, DJI. See Exhibits 1-5. The capabilities of these operators to maintain and repair the
sUAS will be listed in the operator’s manual and meet the requirements for an equivalent level of
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safety pursuant to Section 333 for the type of sUAS, its intended use, and the rural operating
environment.
C.
14 C.F.R. 43.11: Content, form, and disposition of records for inspections conducted
under parts 91 and 125 and §§135.411(a)(1) and 135.419 of this chapter.
Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 43.11. This part provides, inter alia, that
maintenance record entries be maintained and for the listing of discrepancies and placards by
inspectors. The sUAS, due to its small size, does not have room for placards to be placed in or on
it and no inspections for sUAS have been certified by FAA at the present time.
Equivalent level of safety: Owlcam will keep log books of all maintenance and repairs at
the ground station, as envisioned in the FAA Memorandum subject, “Interpretation regarding
whether certain required documents may be kept at an unmanned aircraft’s control station,” dated
August 8, 2014. See Exhibit 8. This request provides an equivalent level of safety as 14 C.F.R.
43.11 because the documentation will be at the ground station with the PIC, where it will be
useable in case of an emergency, rather than with the sUAS which could be up to 1,000 meters
from the operator.
D.
14 C.F.R. 45.11: Marking of products.
Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 45.11. This part provides, inter alia, that
the manufacturers of aircraft, engines, propellers, mark such aircraft, engines, or propellers with
an approved fireproof identification plate. The sUAS, due to its small size, does not have room for
fireproof placards to be placed in it. Any required placards could become hazardous, due to the
additional weight and strain placed on the sUAS. Any additional weight or placards on the 2.9 lbs.
sUAS could create a risk, due to the very small size and nature of the DJI Phantom 2.
Equivalent level of safety: Owlcam’s PIC and VO will keep information related to the
DJI Phantom 2, including the user manual, at the ground control station and affix its N-Number,
once obtained from the FAA Registration Office, on the “arms” of the sUAS as large as practicably
possible. This exemption provides an equivalent level of safety to 14 C.F.R. 45.11 because the
relevant documentation containing the serial number will be at the ground station with the PIC,
where it will be useable in case of an emergency, rather than with the sUAS. In addition, the
fuselage is marked with “DJI,” the manufacturer of the sUAS.
E.
14 C.F.R. 45.27: Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft
Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 45.27. This part provides, inter alia, that
each operator of a rotorcraft must display on that rotorcraft horizontally on both surfaces of the
cabin, fuselage, boom, or tail the marks required by §45.23. The sUAS, due to its small size, does
not have a cabin, fuselage, boom or tail to display the marks required by §45.23.
Equivalent level of safety: Once Owlcam receives its N-Number, it will display these
marks on the “arms” of the aircraft as large as practicably possible. This exemption provides an
equivalent level of safety to 14 C.F.R. 45.27 because the sUAS will be registered with the FAA
Aircraft Registration Branch. In the event of incident, the sUAS will be traceable to Owlcam.
13
F.
14 C.F.R. 45.29: Size of marks
Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 45.27. This part provides, inter alia, at
subpart (3) that the registration marks for rotorcraft must be at least 12 inches high. The sUAS,
due to its small size, does not have any surface area large enough to display marks anywhere near
12 inches high.
Equivalent level of safety: Owlcam will affix its registration number as large as
practicably possible on its “arms” once it obtains the N-Number. This exemption provides an
equivalent level of safety to 14 C.F.R. 45.29 because the sUAS will be registered with the FAA
Aircraft Registration Branch. In the event of incident, the sUAS will be traceable to Owlcam.
G.
14 C.F.R. 91.7(a): Civil aircraft airworthiness.
The FAA has previously stated that no exemption is required for a member of the DJI
Phantom 2 family. Exhibit 8 at 17. Owlcam requests the same determination to be made for its DJI
Phantom 2.
Alternatively, Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 91.7(a). The regulation
requires that no person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in airworthy condition. As there will
be no airworthiness certificate issued for the aircraft should this exemption be granted, no standard
will exist for determining airworthiness.
Equivalent level of safety: Owlcam will keep the DJI Phantom 2’s maintenance and safety
information at the ground station, where it will be readily accessible to the PIC and VO before,
during, and after operations. This exemption provides an equivalent level of safety as 14 C.F.R.
91.7(a) because the PIC will be able to make the determination of whether the sUAS is in an
airworthy mechanical and electrical condition, in accordance with 14 C.F.R. 91.7(b).
H.
14 C.F.R. 91.9(b)(2): Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard
requirements.
The FAA has previously stated that no exemption is required for a member of the DJI
Phantom 2 family. Exhibit 10 at 17. Owlcam requests the same determination to be made for its
DJI Phantom 2.
Alternatively, Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 91.9(b)(2). This part
provides:
"(b) No person may operate a U.S.-registered civil aircraft...
(2) For which an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual is not required by §21.5 of
this chapter, unless there is available in the aircraft a current approved Airplane or
Rotorcraft Flight Manual, approved manual material, markings, and placards, or
any combination thereof."
First, there does not currently exist a method of approving manuals for sUAS. Second,
given the size and configuration of the sUAS, there is no space to carry such a flight manual on
14
the aircraft. In addition, carrying the manual on the aircraft would be pointless, since there is no
pilot or other person on board who could read or use it. On August 8, 2014, the FAA issued a
memorandum entitled “Interpretation regarding whether certain required documents may be kept
at an unmanned aircraft’s control station.” This document stated, in part “maintaining these
documents at the pilot’s control station would meet the intent of the rule as the pilot would be able
to produce the documents for his or her own information or to an FAA inspector.” See Exhibit 9.
Equivalent level of safety: Owlcam will keep its flight manual at the ground station, where
both the PIC and VO can access it. An equivalent level of safety to 14 C.F.R. 91.9(b)(2) is provided
because the intent of this rule – the pilot having access to this material during flight – is met.
I.
14 C.F.R. 91.9(c): Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.
Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 91.9(c). This part provides: "(c) No person
may operate a U.S.-registered civil aircraft unless that aircraft is identified in accordance with part
45 of this chapter."
As stated above, Owlcam will obtain an N-Number from the FAA Registration Office and
the sUAS, due to its small size, does not have room to contain fireproof placard or to display
aircraft marks in a conventional size. However, once Owlcam obtains an N-Number, it will place
the number on the “arms” of the aircraft as large as practicably possible.
Equivalent level of safety: Owlcam will obtain its N-Number from the FAA Registration
Office and affix it to the “arms” of the aircraft as large as practicably possible. An equivalent level
of safety to 14 C.F.R. 91.9(c) is met because the sUAS will be registered with the FAA and
identifiable in the event of an incident.
J.
14 C.F.R. 91.103(b)(2): Preflight action.
Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 91.103(b)(2) to the extent that is applicable.
This part provides:
"Each pilot in command shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all
available information concerning that flight. This information must include—... (b)
For any flight, runway lengths at airports of intended use, and the following takeoff
and landing distance information: … (2) For civil aircraft other than those specified
in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, other reliable information appropriate to the
aircraft, relating to aircraft performance under expected values of airport elevation
and runway slope, aircraft gross weight, and wind and temperature."
Owlcam’s PIC in fact will, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available
information concerning that flight, including the aircraft performance under expected elevations,
the gross weight of the aircraft (which will be no more than 2.9 lbs.), and the wind and temperature.
As the flights of the sUAS will not be at airports the information required of Part 91.103(b)(2)
does not apply.
Equivalent level of safety: Owlcam shall perform preflight operations as outlined
previously in this petition, and flights will not be at airports. An equivalent level of safety to 14
15
C.F.R. 91.103(b)(2) will be met because the PIC will become familiar with the conditions prior to
the flight, including the aircraft performance under expected elevations, the gross weight of the
aircraft (which will be no more than 2.9 lbs), and the wind and temperature.
K.
14 C.F.R. 91.105: Flight crewmembers at stations.
Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 91.105 since this part is not applicable due
to the sUAS carrying no flight crewmembers.
Equivalent level of safety: Owlcam will not operate the aircraft unless someone is at the
controls at all times, and each flight will be manually flown, with the exception of the DJI Phantom
2’s automated safety features. This will provide an equivalent level of safety to 14 C.F.R. 91.105
because the flight crew will be at their stations at all times during the flight. The stations will not
be on the aircraft but on the ground.
L.
14 C.F.R. 91.113(b): Right-of-way rules: Except water operations.
Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 113(b) to the extent that it applies to
overhead aircraft operating at or above 500 feet AGL as the sUAS will be operating no higher than
400 feet AGL. This part provides:
“(b): General. When weather conditions permit, regardless of whether an operation
is conducted under instrument flight rules or visual flight rules, vigilance shall be
maintained by each person operating an aircraft so as to see and avoid other aircraft.
When a rule of this section gives another aircraft the right-of-way, the pilot shall
give way to that aircraft and may not pass over, under, or ahead of it unless well
clear."
For example, if another aircraft is operating overhead at 10,000 feet AGL there is no danger
posed to that other aircraft if the sUAS is operating under it or ahead of it at or beneath 400 feet
AGL. Despite this, should another aircraft enter the area in which Owlcam is operation, because
the flight will be within his line of sight, the PIC will be able to give right of way to that aircraft.
Equivalent level of safety: Owlcam will operate its sUAS to see and avoid and give way
to other aircraft that should enter airspace at or below 400 feet AGL, and will give right-of-way to
manned aircraft. All flights will be in class G airspace and the majority of flights will be at no
more than 100 feet AGL, which will create a very slim chance that Owlcam’s operations will
interfere with a manned aircraft’s flight. This will provide an equivalent level of safety to 14 C.F.R.
91.113(b) because the sUAS has significantly greater mobility than a much larger, manned aircraft.
As a result, the PIC will be able to react and respond much more quickly than the other pilot.
M.
14 C.F.R. 91.119(c): Minimum safe altitudes: General.
Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 91.119 subpart (c). This regulation
provides:
"Except when necessary for takeoff or landing, no person may operate an aircraft
below the following altitudes...
16
(c) Over other than congested areas. An altitude of 500 feet above the surface,
except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may
not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.”
Owlcam will not operate the sUAS any higher than 400 feet AGL.
Equivalent level of safety: Owlcam will operate the sUAS no higher than 400 feet AGL,
and it is anticipated that the majority of operations will be no higher than 100 feet AGL. Owlcam
will not operate in congested areas, and will work with the local FSDO when planning operations.
Owlcam’s flight crew will make a safety assessment prior to each operation, and only operate after
it determines that there is no undue hazard present. Exhibit 8 at 19.
The 400 feet AGL maximum will provide an equivalent level of safety to 14 C.F.R.
91.119(c) because, since 1981 with AC 91-57, this height has been an operating standard for model
aircraft. Additionally, in Section 334(c)(2)(C), Congress determined that sUAS operated by public
agencies flying sUAS the size of and larger than Owlcam’s DJI Phantom 2 could fly up to 400 feet
AGL.
N.
14 C.F.R. 91.121: Altimeter Settings
Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 91.121. This Part provides guidelines for
altimeter use in maintaining the cruising altitude or flight level of the aircraft. Owlcam is not
requesting a general exemption from the requirement that its sUAS have an Altimeter. The DJI
Phantom 2’s flight controller will have an internal measurement unit (“IMU”). The IMU has a
built-in internal sensor and a barometric altimeter that measures both attitude and altitude. See
Exhibit 1, Appendix B, page 5. Rather, Owlcam requests an exemption from the requirement to
set its altimeter to a station along the route, of out of an airport, because the DJI Phantom 2 is not
traveling point-to-point and is limited in the distance it can travel from the PIC. Additionally,
Owlcam will not be flying into or out of an airport.
Equivalent level of safety: The requested exemption provides an equivalent level of safety
to 14 C.F.R 91.121 because Owlcam will not operate the sUAS above 400 feet AGL in a sustained
cruising flight mode such as a manned aircraft will typically fly. The PIC will at all times be
controlling the maximum height of the sUAS through the telemetry features of the DJI controller.
Additionally, the sUAS will be operated within the line of sight of the PIC. The FAA has
previously granted this exemption for similar proposed operations. See Exhibit 10.
O.
14 C.F.R. 91.151: Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions.
The sUAS Owlcam will fly is powered by electricity, using lithium polymer batteries that
currently have a flight limit of approximately no more than 25 minutes. (See Exhibits 1 and 10).
Therefore, due to the limitations of the batteries, it is currently impossible to comply with Part
91.151. However, the sUAS will be operated in a manner with at least the equivalent level of safety
as that of a manned aircraft complying with Part 91.151.
Operation of an sUAS with less than 30 minutes of reserve fuel does not engender the type
of risks that Section 91.151(a) was intended to alleviate. During the entire flight, the PIC will
always have a visual line of sight of the sUAS and the VO will be monitoring the battery life via
17
the telemetry display on the laptop at the ground station. The sUAS will always have enough power
to land safely, given the minimum level of reserve capacity of the batteries.
Owlcam will limit flights to 75% of battery capacity. With the battery Owlcam currently
uses, the 75% point occurs at 18 minutes, leaving 7 minutes for the sUAS to reach the planned
landing zone. This amount of time will be more than sufficient for the PIC to safely return to and
land in the “home area.” As battery power increases, the number of minutes the sUAS can operate
before reaching the 75% mark will also increase. As new batteries are obtained and put into use,
Owlcam will continue to terminate flights after 75% of battery power has been used.
Applicant believes that an exemption from 14 CFR §91.151(a) is consistent with the scope
of similar exemptions already granted to other operations. Exhibit 10.
Equivalent level of safety: Owlcam will limit flights 75% of battery power. The proposed
exemption meets an equivalent level of safety to 14 C.F.R. 91.151 because, given the limitations
on Owlcam’s proposed operations and the location of those operations, a reduced minimum power
reserve for flight in daylight VFR conditions is reasonable.
P.
14 C.F.R. 91.203(a) and (b): Civil aircraft: Certifications required.
The FAA has previously determined that exemption from 14 C.F.R. 91.203(a) and (b) is
not necessary. See Exhibit 10 at 17.
Alternatively, Owlcam requests an exemption from 14 C.F.R. 91.203(a) and (b). This
section provides in part:
“(a) Except as provided in § 91.715, no person may operate a civil aircraft unless it
has within it the following:
(1) An appropriate and current airworthiness certificate…
(2) An effective U.S. registration certificate issued to its owner…
(b) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless the airworthiness certificate
required by paragraph (a) of this section or a special flight authorization issued
under § 91.715 is displayed at the cabin or cockpit entrance so that it is legible to
passengers or crew.”
First, there are currently no procedures in effect for providing airworthiness certificates for
sUAS. However, as a condition to the approval of exemption, Owlcam will display its N-Number,
once received, on the sUAS, and the operator will have, at the ground station, the user manual for
the DJI Phantom 2.
Second, the sUAS Owlcam will use the DJI Phantom 2, which has an equivalent level of
safety as a manned aircraft with an airworthiness certificate. Please refer to Exhibit 10, Exemption
No. 11138, as Owlcam’s DJI Phantom 2 is in the same sUAS family as the DJI Phantom 2 Vision+,
which was the subject of that exemption. This sUAS provides a number of safety features,
including the automatic return to home failsafe discussed in detail above.
18
Because of the use of GPS with the sUAS, the operator will set the initial location of flight
takeoff ("home position") and if the radio control link is broken, the autopilot system will recognize
this broken control link and cause the sUAS to automatically return to the home position as
recorded by the GPS instrumentation. Exhibits 1-7. Additionally, because the sUAS team will
mark off an area with traffic cones that has a 20 ft. radius, approximately 30 ft. from the operators
that will be used as the “home position” for the sUAS to return, no one will be standing in the way
of the path.
These safety enhancements provide a greater degree of safety to the public and property
owners than conventional operations conducted with airworthiness certificates issued under
Subpart H. Application of these same criteria demonstrates that there is no credible threat to
national security posed by the UAS, due to its size, speed of operation, location of operation, lack
of explosive materials or flammable liquid fuels, and inability to carry a substantial payload.
In the restricted environment and under the conditions proposed, operation of the sUAS
will be at least as safe as a conventional aircraft (fixed wing or rotorcraft) operating with an
airworthiness certificate but without the restrictions and conditions proposed. Owlcam will not
accept assignments from clients that would take place in Class B, C, D, or E airspace. Owlcam
will avoid flying over congested and populated areas and will work with local FSDO to avoid these
areas when planning operations.
Equivalent level of safety: The sUAS to be operated hereunder is 2.9 lbs. inclusive of
batteries and technical payload, carries neither a pilot nor passengers, and carries no explosive
materials or flammable liquid fuels. The sUASs operating under this exemption will be tightly
controlled and monitored by the operator and the observer, and in compliance with local public
safety requirements, to provide security for the area of operation. The FAA will have advance
notice of all operations because Owlcam will notify both ATC and the local FSDO prior to
operations, as described previously in this petition. Granting the proposed exemption will achieve
an equivalent level of safety to 14 C.F.R. 91.203(a) and (b) because of the small size of the sUAS
and the operational limits set out above.
Q.
14 C.F.R. 91.215: ATC Transponder and Altitude Reporting Equipment and Use
This section requires that installed Air Traffic Control (ATC) transponder equipment must
meet specific performance and environmental requirements, and aircraft must be equipped with an
operable coded radar beacon transponder.
There are presently no known commercially available ATC transponders that meet the
payload requirements of a sUAS and are available at reasonable cost. However, because the sUASs
used by Owlcam will not be flying into or near airports, and will fly no higher than 400 feet AGL,
there is very low risk of collision with any manned aircraft. In addition, because there will be no
need to have contemporaneous communication with ATC Control, due to the short distances, short
flight times, and restricted altitude the sUASs will operate within, Owlcam requests an exemption
from this section. Additionally, the sUAS is too small to contain ATC transponder equipment in
any form factor that is known to be available commercially.
Equivalent level of safety: An equivalent level of safety to 14 C.F.R. 91.215 will be met
because Owlcam will not fly its sUAS into or near airports, and all operations will be below 400
19
feet AGL, so there is very low risk of collision with any manned aircraft. Owlcam will contact
local ATC before operations to issue a NOTAM, and the local FSDO with its flight plan, as
described previously in this petition. Owlcam also give right of way to any manned aircraft that
do appear.
R.
14 C.F.R. 91.403: General
This section requires that the owner or operator of an aircraft is primarily responsible for
maintaining that aircraft in an airworthy condition. Owlcam will adhere to this requirement.
However, this Section also limits maintenance to that “prescribed in this subpart and other
applicable regulations, including part 43 of this chapter.” Because of this limitation, and because
of the exemptions under Part 43 requested above, Owlcam requests an exemption from this
Section.
This exemption meets the requirements for an equivalent level of safety pursuant to Section
333 based on the small size, light weight, relatively slow speed, and use in controlled rural
environments on private, secured land, as described previously in this petition.
Equivalent level of safety: To achieve an equivalent level of safety to 14 C.F.R. 91.403,
Owlcam will maintain its sUAS in an airworthy condition and adhere to all manufacturer
requirements for inspecting and maintaining the DJI Phantom 2. Owlcam will keep records of
maintenance to the sUAS, and these records will be available to the PIC and VO before, during,
and after operations of the sUAS.
S.
14 C.F.R. 91.405 (a) and (d): Maintenance Required
This section requires that aircraft be inspected as prescribed by Section E, 14 C.F.R.
§§91.401-91.421. As shown below, Owlcam is applying for an exemption for these sections, due
to the fact that its operators will inspect the sUAS prior to each flight and keep maintenance records
of all parts that are replaced, in accordance with DJI’s instructions. Because the Sections discussed
below are concerned with manned aircraft, and as such have inspection requirements designed for
the safety of passengers, they are inapplicable to Owlcam.
Owlcam is also applying for an exemption to subpart (d) of this section, which requires a
placard to be installed and references §43.11. As noted previously, Owlcam requests an exemption
to the placard requirement, because, due to the small size of the sUAS, there is no room to place
the placard.
Despite the requested exemption from subparts (a) and (d) of this section, Owlcam will
follow subparts (b) and (c) of this subpart.
Equivalent level of safety: To achieve an equivalent level of safety to 14 C.F.R. 91.405(a)
and (b), Owlcam will keep logbooks detailing all maintenance and repairs to the sUAS. The
logbooks will be available to the PIC and VO before, during, and after sUAS operation. Prior to
conducting post-maintenance operations, the flight crew will conduct a test flight to ensure that
the sUAS functions properly. The FAA has previously determined that following the
manufacturer’s requirements for maintenance, inspection, and record keeping are sufficient to
ensure that safety is not adversely affected. Exhibit 10 at 13.
20
T.
14 C.F.R. 91.407: Operation after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding,
or alteration
This section requires that any aircraft which “has undergone maintenance, preventative
maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration unless . . . [i]t has been approved for return to service by a
person authorized under § 43.7 of this chapter . . ..”
However, Owlcam has requested an exemption from §§ 43.7 and 43.11 as described
previously. The capability of the operators to maintain and repair the sUAS meets the requirements
for an equivalent level of safety pursuant to Section 333 for both the type of sUAS, its intended
use, and the rural operating environment. Additionally, due to the small size of the sUAS, there is
no room to place inspection placards.
Therefore, because Owlcam has requested an exemption from 43.7 and 43.11, Owlcam
respectfully requests an exemption from 91.407. The PIC, who holds a commercial pilot’s
certificate, will conduct maintenance on the sUAS and keep logs of the battery cycle and repairs
needed on the body or the propellers of the DJI Phantom 2.
Equivalent level of safety: The proposed exemption will meet an equivalent level of safety
to 14 C.F.R. 91.407 because Owlcam will regularly inspect and maintain its sUASs in accordance
with the DJI operator manual, and keep detailed inspection and maintenance records that will be
available to the PIC and VO before, during, and after operations. Prior to conducting postmaintenance operations, Owlcam will conduct a test flight to ensure that the sUAS functions
properly.
U.
14 C.F.R. 91.409: Inspections
This section lays out specific requirements for inspections of aircraft. Owlcam respectfully
requests an exemption from these requirements because they are intended to maintain the safety
of manned aircraft significantly larger and capable of significantly longer flights than is sUAS.
Owlcam’s pre-flight and post-flight inspections meet or exceed the level of safety achieved by
adherence to 14 C.F.R. 91.409.
Equivalent level of safety: As discussed above and in Appendix D, Owlcam has an
inspection procedure that provides an equivalent level of safety to 14 C.F.R. 91.409. Before and
after each flight, the flight crew will conduct an inspection of the sUAS as described previously.
V.
14 C.F.R. 91.417: Maintenance records
Owlcam respectfully requests an exemption from this Section, as it is only applicable for
aircraft with an airworthiness certificate. Because Owlcam will not have an airworthiness
certificate, this Section is inapplicable.
Equivalent level of safety: The requested exemption will meet an equivalent level of
safety to 14 C.F.R. 91.417 because Owlcam will keep detailed maintenance records on every part
as it is replaced, including but not limited to propellers, batteries, and electrical components. The
detailed maintenance records will be accessible to the PIC and the VO before, during, and after
operations.
21
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Body
Remote Control
With H3-3D
click and drag
Highlights
CREATE ASTONISHING
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The Phantom 2 is unbelievably easy to fly. Combined with
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Requires Zenmuse H3-2D or H3-3D, video downlink and
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Requires DJI Lightbridge, iOSD mini or iOSD MK II, video downlink and monitor.
http://www.dji.com/product/phantom­2/feature
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DJI LIGHTBRIDGE
SOLUTION
The DJI Lightbridge 2.4G full HD digital video downlink features a native OSD system
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Install an iOSD MK II or iOSD mini to see real-time flight data.
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http://www.dji.com/product/phantom­2/feature
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Phantom 2 ­ Features | DJI
ALL-IN-ONE NEW DESIGN
Self-tightening Propeller
Micro USB Port
CAN-Bus Expansion Module
INTELLIGENT, LONG LASTING
25% – 50% – 75% – 100% Battery Capacity
BATTERY
The high capacity, high performance 5200mAh Lithium Polymer
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25 Mins
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The upgraded remote control comes with many new features. A gimbal
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Phantom 2 ­ Features | DJI
IMPROVED POWER
New motors, propellers, and ESCs combine to give you greater thrust and control than ever before. You can load more equipment on your
Phantom, and achieve up to 200g/arm of extra thrust when using a 3S LiPo battery with this completely new system.
NEW COMPASS
A new, anti-static compass has been
developed, with a protective shell to help
shield it in any flight conditions.
EASY BATTERY
REPLACEMENT
Integrated battery compartment allows battery
changes in a matter of seconds.
http://www.dji.com/product/phantom­2/feature
25
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Phantom 2 ­ Features | DJI
Functions
PRECISION FLIGHT AND
STABLE HOVERING
An integrated GPS auto-pilot system that offers position holding,
altitude lock and stable hovering allows you to focus attention to be
focused on shooting.
AUTO RETURN-TO-HOME
/ONE-KEY GO-HOME
Out of Range
Return to Home
If the Phantom 2 and its controller are disconnected during flight, the system’s
failsafe protection will activate, automatically telling and if the signal is good
Home Point
enough, the Phantom 2 to return home and land automatically.
Control Range
You can also setup a One Key Go Home function to activate this feature
manually.
NO FLY ZONES FEATURE
In order to increase flight safety and prevent accidental flights in restricted areas, the
new firmware for the Phantom 2 series includes a No Fly Zone feature.
These zones have been divided into two categories: A and B. For a full explanation of
the difference between the categories and to view a complete list of places included,
please click here (http://www.dji.com/fly-safe/category-mc).
http://www.dji.com/product/phantom­2/feature
26
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Phantom 2 ­ Features | DJI
(/topics/phantom)
COMPARE PHANTOMS
DJI OFFICIAL STORE
DJI AUTHORIZED DEALERS


HELP AND SUPPORT

(/product/phantom-2/dealer)
(https://store.dji.com/product/phantom-2)
Buy from DJI authorized dealers
Buy from the DJI Official Store
Find a local dealer  (/product/phantom-
(http://www.dji.com/products/compare-
2/dealer)
Buy Now 
phantom)
(https://store.dji.com/product/phantom-2)
Wiki 
(http://wiki.dji.com/en/index.php/Pha
Downloads
(http://www.dji.com/product/phan
2/download)
Compare Now 
Support  (http://www.dji.com/sup
(http://www.dji.com/products/comparephantom)
After-sales Service Policies
(http://www.dji.com/service)
About DJI (http://www.dji.com/company)
Showcase (http://www.dji.com/showcase)
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Media Coverage (http://www.dji.com/info/media-coverage)
After-sales Service Policies (http://www.dji.com/service)
DJI SDK (http://dev.dji.com)
Copyright © 2014 DJI All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy (http://www.dji.com/policy)
Terms
of Use (http://www.dji.com/terms)
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Phantom 2 ­ Specs | DJI
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Ready to Fly, Multifunctional Quad-rotor System
General Features
Customized H3-2D and H3-3D Gimbal Support
Precision Flight and Stable Hovering
25min Flight Time & Smart Battery
Auto Return-to-Home & Landing
Advanced Power Management
Intelligent Orientation Control (IOC)
Easy Battery Replacement
Self-tightening Propeller
Video Downlink Support
CAN-Bus Expansion Module
Aircraft
DJI Smart Battery
Weight (Battery & Propellers Included)
1000g
Hover Accuracy (Ready To Fly)
Vertical: 0.8m;
Horizontal: 2.5m
Max Yaw Angular Velocity
200°/s
Max Tilt Angle
35°
Max Ascent / Descent Speed
Ascent: 6m/s; Descent: 2m/s
Max Flight Speed
15m/s(Not Recommended)
Diagonal Length
350mm
Flight Time
25mins
Take-Off Weight
≤1300g
Operating Temperature
-10°C ~ 50°C
Supported Battery
DJI Smart Battery
Type
3S LiPo
Capacity
5200mAh, 11.1V
Charging Environment Range
0℃ to 40℃
Discharging Environment Range
-20℃ to 50℃
http://www.dji.com/product/phantom­2/spec
28
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12/17/2014
Phantom 2 ­ Specs | DJI
2.4GHz Remote Control
Operating Frequency
2.4GHz ISM
Communication Distance (Open Area)
1000m
Receiver Sensitivity (1%PER)
-97dBm
Working Current/Voltage
120 [email protected]
Built-In LiPo Battery Working Current/Capacity
3.7V, 2000mAh
(/topics/phantom)
COMPARE PHANTOMS
DJI OFFICIAL STORE
DJI AUTHORIZED DEALERS


HELP AND SUPPORT

(/product/phantom-2/dealer)
(https://store.dji.com/product/phantom-2)
Buy from DJI authorized dealers
Buy from the DJI Official Store
(http://www.dji.com/products/comparephantom)
Find a local dealer  (/product/phantom2/dealer)
Buy Now 
(https://store.dji.com/product/phantom-2)
Wiki 
(http://wiki.dji.com/en/index.php/Pha
Downloads
(http://www.dji.com/product/phan
2/download)
Compare Now 
Support  (http://www.dji.com/sup
(http://www.dji.com/products/comparephantom)
After-sales Service Policies
(http://www.dji.com/service)
About DJI (http://www.dji.com/company)
Showcase (http://www.dji.com/showcase)
Contact DJI (http://www.dji.com/contact)
Careers (http://we.dji.com/en.html)
Website Feedback (/support/website-feedback)
(http://www.dji.com/)
News (http://www.dji.com/info)
DJI Wiki (http://wiki.dji.com/en)
Media Coverage (http://www.dji.com/info/media-coverage)
After-sales Service Policies (http://www.dji.com/service)
DJI SDK (http://dev.dji.com)
Copyright © 2014 DJI All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy (http://www.dji.com/policy)
Terms
of Use (http://www.dji.com/terms)
http://www.dji.com/product/phantom­2/spec
29
2/2
Naza-M V2
Quick Start Guide V 1.26
2014.05.12 Revision
For Firmware Version V4.02 or above
& Assistant Software Version V2.20 or above
Thank you for purchasing this DJI product. Please strictly follow these steps to mount and connect this system on
your aircraft, as well as to install the Assistant Software on your computer.
Please regularly check the web page of corresponding product* at our website
www.dji.com,
which is
updated regularly. Product information, technical updates and manual corrections will be available on this web
page. Due to unforeseen changes or product upgrades, the information contained in this manual is subject to
change without notice.
*
Important: Naza-M, Naza-M V2 and PHANTOM control system are different in hardware parts, but their
configurations and functions are the same when using the same Assistant Software and Firmware Version, so they
use the same Guide. Unless stated, the following instruction is basic on Naza-M V2. If you use the Naza-M, please
make sure to read the “Instruction of V1 (also known as Naza-M)” section; if you use the PHANTOM, download the
other corresponding manuals on the PHANTOM web page.
This manual is only for basic assembly and configuration; you can obtain more details and advanced instructions
when using the assistant software. To assure you have the latest information, please visit our website and download
the latest manual and current software version.
If you have any problem that you cannot solve during usage, please contact your authorized dealer.
30
Index
INDEX ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2
INSTRUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3
DISCLAIMER & WARNING ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3
TRADEMARK ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
CERTIFICATIONS ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4
SYMBOL INSTRUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
ASSEMBLY & CONNECTION ............................................................................................................................................................ 5
STEP1 PORT DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5
STEP2 ASSEMBLY & CONNECTION ................................................................................................................................................................ 6
ASSISTANT SOFTWARE INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION ....................................................................................... 7
STEP1 SOFTWARE AND DRIVER INSTALLATION ON A PC ........................................................................................................................... 7
STEP2 CONFIGURATION BY ASSISTANT SOFTWARE ON A PC.................................................................................................................. 8
BASIC FLYING ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
CONTROL MODE KNOWLEDGE .................................................................................................................................................................... 10
START & STOP MOTOR KNOWLEDGE .......................................................................................................................................................... 10
STEP1 COMPASS CALIBRATION ...................................................................................................................................................................... 12
STEP2 ASSEMBLY CHECKING LIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 13
STEP3 BEFORE FLIGHT..................................................................................................................................................................................... 13
STEP4 FLYING TEST ..........................................................................................................................................................................................14
ADVANCED FUNCTIONS ................................................................................................................................................................. 16
A1 FAILSAFE ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16
A2 LOW-VOLTAGE ALERT .............................................................................................................................................................................. 17
A3 INTELLIGENT ORIENTATION CONTROL (IOC) FLIGHT (WITH GPS MODULE) ............................................................................... 18
A4 RECEIVER ADVANCED PROTECTION FUNCTION ................................................................................................................................. 21
A5 FLIGHT LIMITS............................................................................................................................................................................................. 22
APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 23
SPECIFICATIONS ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 23
MC/PMU FIRMWARE UPGRADE ..................................................................................................................................................................24
LED DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
INSTRUCTION OF V1 (ALSO KNOWN AS NAZA-M) ............................................................................................................... 26
V1 ASSEMBLY AND CONNECTION................................................................................................................................................................. 26
V1 IS COMPATIBLE WITH THE PMU V2 (ACCESSORY OF NAZA-M V2) ................................................................................................ 26
V1 PORT DESCRIPTION .................................................................................................................................................................................... 27
V1 SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 28
FAQ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 29
ABNORMAL LED INDICATION LIST ............................................................................................................................................................... 29
FIX THE TBE (TOILET BOWL EFFECT) PROBLEM ...................................................................................................................................... 29
SHOULD YOU FIND THE MULTI-ROTOR DOES NOT TRACK STRAIGHT IN FORWARD FLIGHT............................................................... 30
MOTORS START FAILURE CAUSED BY TX STICK(S) MID POINT ERROR TOO BIG .................................................................................. 30
ATTITUDE CONTROLLABLE WHEN ONE MOTOR OUTPUT IS FAILED .................................................................................................... 31
WHEN USED WITH OTHER DJI PRODUCTS................................................................................................................................................... 32
31
Instruction
Disclaimer & Warning
Please read this disclaimer carefully before using the product. By using this product, you hereby
agree to this disclaimer and signify that you have read them fully. THIS PRODUCT IS NOT
SUITABLE FOR PEOPLE UNDER THE AGE OF 18.
This product is an autopilot system designed for serious multi-rotor enthusiasts providing excellent self-leveling and
altitude holding, which completely takes the stress out of flying RC multi-rotors for both professional and hobby
applications. Despite the system having a built-in autopilot system and our efforts in making the operation of the
controller as safe as possible when the main power battery is connected, we strongly recommend users to remove
all propellers when calibrating and setting parameters. Make sure all connections are good, and keep children and
animals away during firmware upgrade, system calibration and parameter setup. DJI Innovations accepts no liability
for damage(s) or injuries incurred directly or indirectly from the use of this product in the following conditions:
1.
Damage(s) or injuries incurred when users are drunk, taking drugs, drug anesthesia, dizziness, fatigue, nausea
and any other conditions no matter physically or mentally that could impair your ability.
2.
Damage(s) or injuries caused by subjective intentional operations. Any mental damage compensation caused
by accident.
3.
Failure to follow the guidance of the manual to assemble or operate.
4.
Malfunctions caused by refit or replacement with non-DJI accessories and parts.
5.
Damage(s) or injuries caused by using third party products or fake DJI products.
6.
Damage(s) or injuries caused by mis-operation or subjective mis-judgment.
7.
Damage(s) or injuries caused by mechanical failures due to erosion, aging.
8.
Damage(s) or injuries caused by continued flying after low voltage protection alarm is triggered.
9.
Damage(s) or injuries caused by knowingly flying the aircraft in abnormal condition (such as water, oil, soil,
sand and other unknown material ingress into the aircraft or the assembly is not completed, the main
components have obvious faults, obvious defect or missing accessories).
10.
Damage(s) or injuries caused by flying in the following situations such as the aircraft in magnetic interference
area, radio interference area, government regulated no-fly zones or the pilot is in backlight, blocked, fuzzy
sight, and poor eyesight is not suitable for operating and other conditions not suitable for operating.
11.
Damage(s) or injuries caused by using in bad weather, such as a rainy day or windy (more than moderate
breeze), snow, hail, lightning, tornadoes, hurricanes etc.
12.
Damage(s) or injuries caused when the aircraft is in the following situations: collision, fire, explosion, floods,
tsunamis, subsidence, ice trapped, avalanche, debris flow, landslide, earthquake, etc.
13.
Damage(s) or injuries caused by infringement such as any data, audio or video material recorded by the use of
aircraft.
14.
Damage(s) or injuries caused by the misuse of the battery, protection circuit, RC model and battery chargers.
15.
Other losses that are not covered by the scope of DJI Innovations liability.
32
Trademark
DJI and Naza-M are registered trademarks of DJI Innovations. Names of product, brand, etc., appearing in this
manual are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owner companies. This product and manual are
copyrighted by DJI Innovations with all rights reserved. No part of this product or manual shall be reproduced in
any form without the prior written consent or authorization of DJI Innovations. No patent liability is assumed with
respect to the use of the product or information contained herein.
Certifications
This product is approved with quality standards such as CE, FCC and RoHS.
Symbol Instruction
Forbidden(Important)
Cautions
33
Tip
Reference
Assembly & Connection
In the Box:
Main controller X1, PMU X1, GPS X1, GPS Bracket X1, LED X1, Servo Cable X8, Micro-USB Cable X1, 3M Adhesive
Tape.
Step1 Port Description
EXP:Connect to PMU module
LED:Connect to LED module
A: For roll control (left/right)
E: For pitch control (front/back)
T: For throttle control
R: For rudder control
U: For Control Model Switch
X1: For gimbal pitch control / For gain tuning
X2: For D-Bus(S-Bus/S-Bus2 compatible) / For gain tuning / For IOC switch
X3: For voltage monitor(Connect to PMU V-SEN port)
Pointing to the aircraft nose direction
M1: To #1 ESC(*)
M2: To #2 ESC
M3: To #3 ESC
M4: To #4 ESC
M5: To #5 ESC
M6: To #6 ESC
F1: To gimbal roll servo or To #7 ESC
F2: To gimbal pitch servo or To #8 ESC
NAZA output is 400Hz refresh frequency
Main Controller
V-SEN: Connect to Main Controller X3Port
Important: the continuous output of the
PMU is [email protected], and the maximum
instant current is 7.5A. If PMU cannot afford
the working current for your servos, please
use an independent power supply; otherwise,
it may cause the PMU safeguard and lead to
the main controller reboot。
Main Controller
PMU
(Power Management Unit)
2S~6S: Powered by 2S~6S LiPo(7.4V~26.0V)
GPS: Connect to GPS/Compass module
Extended CAN port
EXP: Connect to Main
Controller EXP port
Connect to Main Controller LED port
Micro-USB: PC connection
for parameter configuration
and firmware upgrade
Pointing to the aircraft nose direction
LED
Connect to GPS port of PMU
GPS/Compass
*ESC: Electronic Speed Controller
34
Step2 Assembly & Connection
Step1 Prepare an aircraft, supported the following Mixed Types.
The direction of the arrow in diagram indicates the rotation direction of the motor/propeller.
Important:To coaxial propellers: Blue propeller is at TOP; Red propeller is at Bottom. Otherwise all propellers are at top.
Quad-rotor X
Quad-rotor I
Hexa-rotor Y
Octo-rotor I
Hexa-rotor I
Octo-rotor V
Hexa-rotor IY
Hexa-rotor V
ESC & MC Connection
Aircraft Main Controller
M1
M1
M2
M2
M3
M3
M4
M4
M5
M5
M6
M6
M7
F1
M8
F2
Octo-rotor X
Note: The NAZA-M V2 flight control system doesn't support Gimbal function when used on the Octo-rotor aircraft.
For big aircraft that is larger than 650 or with heavy load, WKM is recommended.
Step2 Assembly and Connection
Main Controller(MC)
Mount:(1)The DJI logo should face the sky, DO
NOT mount the MC upside-down. (2)The MC sides
should be parallel to the aircraft body. (3)The arrow
should point to the nose direction of aircraft. (4)he
MC is best positioned near the aircraft ’s center of
gravity. Make sure all ports are accessible.
T i p : It is recommended to f i x the MC until all
wirings and configurations are completed, using 3M
gummed paper provided to fix the MC.
ESCs & Motors
Please use the ESCs and motors recommended by the manufacturer
of your aircraft. We recommend you use DJI motors and ESCs (Refer
to its manual for details). Connect all ESCs to MC by the motor
numbering method introduced in mixed types Supported .
Important:If you use 3rd party ESCs, make sure the ESCs travel
midpoint is at 1520us. DO NOT use 700us travel midpoint ESC, as it
may lead aircraft to fly away or cause injury and damage. After ESCs
connection , calibrate ESCs one by one through the receiver directly
before connect them to your MC, Make sure program all of them into
Governor off, Break off and Normal Start up to get best experience.
Gimbal
Connect the gimbal servos to
the ports of F1 and F2 if a
gimbal is used, and use the
software for configurations.
Traditional Receiver
ESCs
S-Bus/S-Bus2/PPM Receiver
F2
Roll
Pitch
Power Supply
F1
(Optional)GPS/Compass
Transmitter(TX) & Receiver(RX)
(1)Refer to you TX Manual, setup the
Aileron, Elevator, Throttle, Rudder
channels on your TX first, and choose a 3position switch as control mode switch.
(2)Attach the matched RX to aircraft, then
connect your RX to the right ports on MC.
The following diagram shows the
connection example for traditional RX.
(JR)
AILE
ELEV
THRO
RUDD
3-position Switch
A
E
T
R
U
1
2
3
4
3-position Switch
A
E
T
R
U
(Futaba
/Hitec)
MC
PMU Module
Mount:DO NOT attach the PMU on
other device. Sufficient air flow over
the PMU is highly recommended.
Tip:If use with DJI multi-rotor, you
can solder the power cable to power
pads on frame bottom board. Please
refer to DJI multi-rotor manual for
details. If use with 3rd part aircraft,
you can make a connecter by
yourself to connect PMU and battery.
LED Module
MC
Mount:Make sure You can see the
light during the flight. Leave the USB
interface to be accessible. Use the
3M gummed paper provided to fix.
Mount:GPS/Compass is sensitive to
magnetic interference, should be far
away from any electronic devices. If
you use your own mounting rod,
make sure it is NOT magnetic!
Procedures:
(1)You should use epoxy resin AB
glue to assemble the GPS bracket
first. Mount the bracket on the center
plate of craft. Position the bracket at
least 10 cm from any propeller.
(2)The DJI logo marked on the GPS
should face the sky, with the
orientation arrow pointing directly
forward. then fix the GPS on the plate
of the bracket (by 3M glue provided).
Tip:The GPS/Compass is packaged
with a special indication line for
mounting for the first time.
Step3 Double Check
In this step, turn on the transmitter, connect the battery to the PMU, and then watch the LED, if you can see the LED blinks
(
), the system is working.
35
Assistant Software Installation and Configuration
Step1 Software and Driver Installation
Installing and running on Windows
1.
Please download the driver and the Assistant installation software in EXE format from www.dji.com.
2.
Switch on the transmitter and then power on your autopilot system.
3.
Connect your autopilot system and PC via a Micro-USB cable.
4.
Open the driver installation software and follow the instructions to complete installation.
5.
Run the Assistant installation software and follow the instructions to complete installation.
The installer in EXE format is supported on Win XP, Win7, Win8 (32 or 64 bit).
Installing and running on Mac OS X
1.
Download the Assistant installer in DMG format from the download page of NAZA-M V2 on the DJI
website.
2.
Run the installation software and follow the prompts to finish installation.
3.
When launching for the first time if use Launchpad to run the NAZA-M V2 Assistant Software, Launchpad
won’t allow access because the software has not been reviewed by Mac App Store.
36
4.
Locate the NAZA-M V2 icon in the Finder and open the file by Control or right clicking the icon and
selecting “Open” from the menu.
5.
After the first successful launch, double-clicking the NAZA-M V2 icon in the Finder or using Launchpad
will open the application.
Installer in DMG format is supported on Mac OS X 10.6 or above.
The NAZA-M V2 Assistant on Mac OS X and Windows are exactly the same. The Assistant appear in
other places of this manual is based on Windows version.
Step2 Configuration by Assistant on a PC
1.
Power on the PC. Make sure your computer is connected to the Internet for the first time you use.
2.
Switch on the transmitter first, and then power on the autopilot system. Connect the autopilot system to
the PC with a Micro-USB cable. DO NOT break the connection until setup is finished.
3.
Run the Assistant Software.
4.
Observe the indicators on the left bottom of the software. (
They are the connection indicator and
communication indicator in order.) If the communication indicator is blinking, that the software is ready,
please go to next step.
5.
Select the “Info” option. Check the software firmware version. If the upgrade is available, you may update
the assistant software.
37
6.
Select the “Upgrade” option. Check the Main Controller, GPS and IMU firmware version.
7.
Select the “Basic” option. Please follow step-by-step for your first-time-configuration. Basic configuration
is necessary, including Mixer Type, Mounting, RC, and Gain settings.
8.
You can click the “Advanced” option for more parameter settings. Advanced setting is optional. There are
settings of Motor, FailSafe, Intelligent Orientation Control (IOC), Gimbal, Low-Voltage Alert, and Flight
Limits. Read the instruction in the assistant software to obtain more details.
9.
Select the “Viewer” option to check all parameters.
10.
Then break the Micro-USB cable, power off the aircraft. Finished.
(1)
You may be required to fill register information for your first-time-usage.
(2)
If the communication indicator is blue on, please double check the connections.
(3)
Basic configuration is necessary before you go to the “Basic Flying Test”.
(4)
Users are required to install a Windows system, since the software can only run on Windows
system .
(1)
If the firmware upgrade is available, please upgrade it by referring to the Firmware Upgrade
in the Appendix.
(2)
This step is required to use together with the assistant software to obtain more details.
Recommended Parameters
Recommended Settings for using F330/F450/F550
Configuration Information
Basic Gain
Attitude Gain
Motor
ESC
Propeller
Battery
Weight
Pitch
Roll
Yaw
Vertical
Pitch
Roll
F330
DJI-2212
DJI-18A
DJI-8 Inch
3S-2200
790 g
140
140
100
110
140
140
F450
DJI-2212
DJI-30A
DJI-8 Inch
3S-2200
890 g
150
150
100
105
150
150
F550
DJI-2212
DJI-30A
DJI-8 Inch
4S-3300
1530 g
170
170
150
140
170
170
38
Basic Flying
Control Mode Knowledge
Please read the Control Mode Knowledge clearly before usage, to know how to control the aircraft.
Different control modes will give you different flight performances. Please make sure you understand the features
and differences of the three control modes.
GPS ATTI. Mode
ATTI. Mode
(With GPS Module)
Rudder Angular
Maximum rudder angular velocity is 150°/s
Velocity
Command
YES
Linearity
Command Stick
Multi attitude control; Stick center position for 0˚
Meaning
attitude, its endpoint is 35˚.
Altitude Lock
Stick Released
GPS Lost
Manual Mode
Maintain the altitude best above 1 meter from ground.
Lock position if GPS signal
is adequate.
Only attitude stabilizing.
When GPS signal has been
Only performing attitude
lost for 3s, system enters
stabilizing without
ATTI. Mode automatically.
position lock.
Max-angular velocity is 150°/s.
No attitude angle limitation
and vertical velocity locking.
NO
NOT Recommend
---
Attitude & speed mixture control ensures stability
Safety
Enhanced Fail-Safe(Position
Auto Level Fail-Safe
lock when hovering)
(Attitude stabilizing)
Depends on experience.
With GPS/Compass module and the failsafe requirements are satisfied, in each Control
Mode (including GPS Mode, ATTI. Mode, Manual Mode and IOC Mode), the aircraft will
enter the failsafe Mode.
Applications
AP work
Sports flying.
---
Start & Stop Motor Knowledge
(1)
Both Immediately Mode and Intelligent Mode are available in the Assistant Software:
Advanced->Motor->Stop Type.
(2)
Stop Motor method is defaulted to Immediately Mode.
Please get to know well about this section before flying.
1
Start Motor: Pushing throttle stick before takeoff will not start the motors. You have to execute any one of
following four Combination Stick Commands (CSC) to start the motors:
39
2
Stop Motor: We provide two options to stop motors in the assistant software: Immediately and Intelligent.
(1)
Immediately Mode: If you select this mode, in any control mode, once motors start and throttle stick is
over 10%, motors will not stop immediately only when throttle stick is back under 10% the motors will
stop. In this case, if you push the throttle stick over 10% within 5 seconds after motors stop, motors
will re-start, CSC is not needed. If you don’t push throttle stick after motors start in three seconds,
motors will stop automatically.
(2)
Intelligent Mode: By using this mode, different control mode has different way of stopping motors. In
Manual Mode, only executing CSC can stop motors. In ATTI. Mode or GPS ATTI. Mode, any one of
following four cases will stop motors:
a)
You don’t push throttle stick after motors start within three seconds;
b)
Executing CSC;
c)
Throttle stick under 10%, and after landing for more than 3 seconds.
d)
If the angle of multi-rotor is over 70°, and throttle stick under 10%.
Notes of Intelligent Mode
(1)
In ATTI. / GPS ATTI. Mode, it has landing judgment, which will stop motors.
(2)
Start motors in ATTI. / GPS ATTI. Mode, you have to execute CSC and then push throttle stick
over 10% in 3 seconds, otherwise motors will stop after 3 seconds.
(3)
During normal flight, only pull throttle stick under 10% will not stop motors in any control mode.
(4)
For safety reason, when the slope angle of multi-rotor is over 70° during the flight in ATTI. /
GPS ATTI. Mode (may be caused by collision, motor and ESC error or propeller broken down),
and throttle stick is under 10%, motors will stop automatically.
Notes of Intelligent Mode & Immediately Mode
(1)
If you choose the Immediately Mode, you should not pull throttle stick under 10% during flight,
because it will stop motors. If you do it accidentally, you should push the throttle stick over 10% in
5s to re-start motors.
(2)
DO NOT execute the CSC during normal flight without any reason, or it will stop motors at once.
(1)
If you choose the Intelligent mode, and the throttle stick is under 10%, this will trigger the landing
Procedure, in any control mode. In this judgment, pitch, roll and yaw controls are denied except
the throttle, but multi-rotor will still auto level.
(2)
In any control mode, DO NOT pull throttle stick under 10% during normal flight without any
reason.
(1)
Any of these two cut off types will only work properly if TX calibration is correct done.
(2)
In failed-safe, CSC is denied by the main controller, motors will hold their state.
40
Step1 Compass Calibration
Without GPS module, please skip this step. If you use with GPS module, follow step-by-step for calibration.
(1)
DO NOT calibrate your compass where there is magnetic interference, such as magnetite, car
park, and steel reinforcement under the ground.
(2)
DO NOT carry ferromagnetic materials with you during calibration, such as keys or cell phones.
(3)
Compass module CANNOT work in the polar circle.
(4)
Compass Calibration is very important, otherwise the system will work abnormal.
Calibration Procedures
1.
Switch on the transmitter, and then power on autopilot system!
2.
Quickly switch the control mode switch from GPS Mode to Manual Mode and back to GPS Mode (or
from GPS Mode to ATTI. Mode and back to GPS Mode) for more than 5 times, The LED indicator will
turn on constantly yellow so that the aircraft is ready for the calibration.
3.
(Fig.1) Hold your Multi-rotor horizontal and rotate it around the gravitational force line (about 360o) until
the LED changes to constant green, and then go to the next step.
4.
(Fig.2)Hold your Multi-rotor vertically and rotate it (its nose is downward) around the gravitational force
line (about 360o) until the LED turns off, meaning the calibration is finished.
Fig.1
5.
Fig.2
If the calibration was successful, calibration mode will exit automatically. If the LED keeps flashing quickly
Red, the calibration has failed. Switch the control mode switch one time to cancel the calibration, and
then re-start from step 2.
1.
When the GPS is abnormal, the Main controller will tell you by the LED blinking Red and Yellow
alternately (
), disable the GPS Module, and automatically enter the aircraft into the
ATTI. Mode.
2.
You don’t need to rotate your multi-rotor on a precise horizontal or vertical surface, but keep at
least 45° difference between horizontal and vertical calibration.
3.
If you keep having calibration failure, it might suggest that there is very strong magnetic
interference around the GPS /Compass module, please avoid flying in this area.
4.
When to do re-calibration
(1)
The flight field is changed.
(2)
When the multi-rotor mechanical setup has changed:
a)
If the GPS/Compass module is re-positioned.
b)
If electronic devices are added/removed/ re-positioned (Main Controller, servos, batteries, etc.).
c)
When the mechanical structure of the multi-rotor is changed.
(3)
If the flight direction appears to be shifting (meaning the multi-rotor doesn’t “fly straight”).
(4)
The LED indicator often indicates abnormality blinking when the multi-rotor spins. (It is normal
for this to happen only occasionally)
41
Step2 Assembly Checking List
Please check each item, to make sure for safety.
Any of the following mistakes will lead to a dangerous accident, double check all these items:
(1)
Rotation direction of motor is opposite
(2)
Infirm connection between the motor and the ESC
(3)
Wrong or infirm installation of Main controller
(4)
Wrong or infirm connection between the main controller and ESC.
(5)
Propeller installation mistake
(6)
Magnetization of the compass
Make sure the following items are correct.
(1)
Make sure you have assembled your multi-rotor correctly.
(2)
Make sure you have done the configuration procedure correctly.
(3)
Make sure all connections are in good condition.
(4)
Make sure batteries are fully charged for your transmitter, autopilot system and all devices.
Step3 Before Flight
Carry out the following procedures (is based on Intelligent Mode of Motor Stop) to make sure all
configurations are correct. Refer to the Appendix->LED Description for more LED details.
1.
Always switch on the transmitter first, then power on multi-rotor!
2.
Keep the aircraft stationary until the system start and self-check has finished (
After that, the LED may blink Yellow 4 times quickly (
Yellow 4 times quickly (
3.
).
). Start motor is disable during LED blinking
), as the system is warming up.
After the 4 times Yellow LED disappears, toggle the control mode switch on your transmitter to make sure it
is working properly. For example, LED blinks (
), which means the system is in ATTI. Mode and the
GPS signal is worst Check it with LED indicator to specify the current working mode for MC. See following
table for details about LED indicator;
(1)
There are Manual Mode and ATTI. Mode without a GPS/Compass module, no GPS signal status LED
indicator.
(2)
After connecting to the GPS/Compass module, GPS ATTI. Mode is available, and GPS signal status
LED indicator is available.
Control Mode LED Indicator
GPS Signal Status LED Indicator
Signal is best (GPS satellites > 6) : NO LED
Manual Mode: NO LED
ATTI. Mode:
(
indicates that is stick(s) not at center)
GPS Mode:
(
indicates that is stick(s) not at center)
42
Signal is well (GPS satellites = 6) :
Signal is bad(GPS satellites = 5) :
Signal is worst (GPS satellites< 5) :
4.
Keep the aircraft stationary, and then push both sticks to the left bottom or right bottom (shown as the
following chart, defined as Combination Stick Commands (CSC)), to start the motors.
5.
Release the yaw, roll and pitch sticks and keep them at the mid point, and the throttle stick under the mid
point. Then check whether all propellers are rotating correctly.
6.
Stop motors, power off the Multi-rotor.
7.
Make sure all settings and configurations are correct and then you can take off you aircraft.
After power on, if abnormal LED Indicator occurs, please refer to the Abnormal LED instruction in the FAQ and
aids troubleshooting.
Step4 Flying Test
1. Choose an open space without obstruction, tall buildings and crowds as flying filed. Place the aircraft 3
meters away from you and others, to avoid accidental injury.
2. If in GPS ATTI. Mode, place the aircraft in an open space without buildings or trees. Take off the aircraft
after 6 or more GPS satellites are found (Red LED blinks once or no blinking). If in Manual Mode or ATTI.
Mode, you can skip this step.
3. Start-up
(1)
Switch on the transmitter first, then power on multi-rotor! Keep the aircraft stationary until the
system start and self-check has finished.
(2)
Please wait for the system to warm up gradually with the LED blinks Yellow 4 times quickly
(
). You should not start the motors until the blinking disappears.
(3)
Keep the aircraft stationary, and execute the CSC to start the motors.
(4)
Release the yaw, roll and pitch sticks and keep them at the mid point, at the same time raise the
throttle stick from the bottom. The motors will stop if you do not push the throttle stick from the
bottom within 3 sec and you will need to re-start the motors.
(5)
Keep raising the throttle stick until all the rotors are working, push the throttle stick to the mid point
and then take-off your multi-rotor gently, pay attention not to push the stick excessively.
(6)
Pay attention to the aircraft movement at any time when flying, and use the sticks to adjust the
aircraft’s position. Keep the yaw, roll, pitch and throttle sticks at the mid point to hover the aircraft
at the desired height.
4. Lower the aircraft slowly. Pull the throttle stick to the bottom and then execute the CSC to stop the motors
after landing.
5. Please always power off the Multi-rotor first, and then
43switch off the transmitter after landing.
!
!
FLYING NOTES(VERY IMPORTANT)!
(1)
If the warm up waiting is longer than 2 minutes (the 4 times Yellow blink continues), please power
off for 10 minutes, cold start, and then connect the assistant software, enter the "Tools" - > IMU
calibration, carry out the Advanced calibration.
(2)
If you enable the Immediately Mode of Motor Stop; you should not pull throttle stick under 10%
during flight, because it will stop motors. If you do it accidentally, you should push the throttle
stick over 10% in 5s to re-start motors.
(3)
DO NOT execute the CSC during normal flight without any reason, or it will stop motors at once.
(4)
Pay attention to the GPS satellite status LED indicator. Bad GPS signal may lead the aircraft to
drift when hovering.
(5)
DO NOT fly near to ferromagnetic substances, to avoid strong magnetic interference with the
GPS.
(6)
Please avoid using GPS ATTI. Mode in the areas, where GPS signal is most likely bad.
(7)
If the LED flashes quickly Red then this indicates battery voltage is low, land ASAP.
(8)
If the transmitter indicates low-battery alarm, please land ASAP. In this condition the transmitter
may cause the aircraft to go out of control or even crash.
(9)
In GPS ATTI. Mode, make sure that the home point is recorded when the GPS signal is well;
otherwise the home point recording may be not so precise.
(1)
In ATTI Mode, throttle stick center position is for 0m/s along the vertical direction. You should
keep the position of throttle stick higher than 10% from cut-throttle during the flight! In any
control mode, DO NOT pull throttle stick under 10% during normal flight without any reason.
(2)
It is recommended to land the aircraft slowly, to prevent the aircraft from damage when landing.
(3)
If Low-Voltage Alarm is set, the aircraft will act according to the configuration of the Assistant
Software once Low-Voltage Alarm is triggered. Make sure you remember what you have set
before.
(4)
If Fail-Safe function is set, the aircraft will act according to the configuration of the Assistant
Software once Fail-Safe is triggered. Make sure you remember what you have set before.
44
Advanced Functions
A1 FailSafe
An introduction of Go-Home and Landing.
Record Home Point
Stay hover
Home Point
Signal lost
Tx
1
Ground
Multi-rotor
Tx
2
3
Go-Home
Current location > 20m
Ready to Go-Home
Go-Home
20m
Signal lost >3s
Tx
Tx
4
Ascend
first
Hover 15s, then land
Tx
Current location ≤ 20m
6
5
Home-point: Before takeoff, current position of multi-rotor will be saved as home-point by MC automatically when
you start the motors for the first time after 6 or more GPS satellites are found (red light blinks once or no blinking)
for 10 seconds.
1. Please make sure to record the home-point before takeoff, and clearly know where it is.
Note
2. During go-home the nose direction of the aircraft is facing toward the home-point, the aircraft is
flying directly from the current position to the home-point.
3. You can regain the control during the aircraft is hovering 15 seconds.
The flowchart of failsafe and how to regain control
This section will demonstrate the working logic of failsafe and how to regain control.
The following description is effective only when:
1. The aircraft is in flight.
2. The GPS works normally and signal is good (≥ 6 satellite, the LED blinks a single
red light or no red light).
(1) The aircraft
flies far away,
TX is on but the
signal is weak.
(2)Turn off the
TX (we assume
you want to
trigger failsafe)
What triggered failsafe
The aircraft behavior
after failsafe
How to regain control
Precautions
Attitude Mode: (1) the aircraft will level its attitude
immediately (2) 3 seconds later, failsafe is triggered and
aircraft will start to go home. (3) If signal is regained during
(1) or (2), it will resume normal flight immediately.
Attitude Mode: In Attitude Mode as
soon as you get signal you can
regain control.
GPS Mode: (1) the aircraft will slow down and hover. (2) if
the signal is restored within 3 seconds (TX and receiver
connected), the system will immediately return to normal
operation; does not enter failsafe. (3) if not reconnected
within 3sec, the system will enter failsafe, then even if the
signal is restored, the system will not exit failsafe.
GPS Mode: switch the TX mode
switch to ATTI, if the receiver is
connected, then you will regain
control.
In this case, the behavior of the aircraft is the same as in
the above condition.
If you want the aircraft to Return Home, please do not turn
the TX back on within 3 seconds*, otherwise the aircraft
will exit failsafe mode immediately.
If you choose to turn off the TX,
you must be pretty sure that you
know how to regain control. Here
we offer a method, please read
carefully.
We strongly recommend you DO NOT try this, because there are three
types of risk:
(1) You must be pretty clear whether the Home-point is OK for landing or
not. (You have to understand the definition of Home-point well and the
working process of failsafe)
(2) If there are tall buildings around, the aircraft may be obstructed on the
way.
(3) When GPS signal is bad or GPS is not working, failsafe will not work.
When you turn off the TX, use the following
method to regain control:
(1) Switch the TX switch to GPS.
(2) and then put throttle to the center
position(greater than 3sec after switching off,
important), you can now turn the TX back on.
(3) then you can switch the TX Control mode
switch to ATTI to regain control.
Note: if you start the motors, but do not push the throttle to take-off the aircraft, in this case it is very dangerous to turn
off the TX, because the aircraft will take off automatically, so do not try this.
* If signal lost for more than 3 seconds failsafe will be triggered, if signal regained within 3 seconds it will exit failsafe immediately.
45
A2 Low-Voltage Alert
In order to prevent your multi-rotor from a crash or other harmful consequences caused by low battery voltage,
there are two levels of low voltage protection available to use. You can choose to use or not to use them; however
we strongly recommend using the protections if available! Low-Voltage Alert is to indicate that the battery cannot
provide enough power for the aircraft, in order to warn you to land the aircraft ASAP. You can configure this
function in the assistant software, and please read the text in the software carefully before your flight. Make sure to
carry out the Current Voltage Calibration.
There are both first level and second level protections. The first level protection has LED warning. During second
level protection the aircraft will land automatically with LED warning. Meanwhile the center point of throttle stick
will move up slowly to 90% of endpoint, you should land ASAP to prevent your aircraft from crashing!
It is not for fun, you should land your aircraft ASAP to prevent your aircraft from crashing or other harmful
consequences!!!
(1)
Configure the FailSafe function in the assistant software -> “Advanced” -> “F/S” and read the
instruction thoroughly and carefully.
(2)
Configure the Low-Voltage Alert function in the assistant software -> “Advanced” -> “Voltage”
and read the instruction thoroughly and carefully.
46
A3 Intelligent Orientation Control (IOC) Flight (with GPS module)
Definition of Forward Direction:
Multi -rotor will fly along this direction when you push the elevator stick (
).
Step1 Before You Start
Usually, the forward direction of a flying multi-rotor is the same as the nose direction. By using IOC, wherever the
nose points, the forward direction has nothing to do with nose direction. The red and blue arrows on the transmitter
are corresponding to pitch and roll operations in the following diagram.

In course lock flying, the forward direction is the same as a recorded nose direction. All the following
requirements are met: the autopilot system is in ATTI. Mode or GPS ATTI. Mode.
Normal flying

Course Lock Flying
In home lock flying, the forward direction is the same as the direction from home point to multi-rotor. All the
following requirements are met: 6 or more GPS satellites are found, in GPS ATTI. Mode, and the aircraft is
further than 10m away from the home point.
Normal flying
Home Lock Flying
Step2 IOC Switch Setting
Before using the IOC function, you have to choose a 3-position switch on your transmitter as the IOC switch, which
is also used for recording the orientation, home position in corresponding modes. Refer to the assistant software;
click the “Advanced” to find the “IOC”.
IOC Switch
IOC Function
OFF
Course Lock
Home Lock
The above table is for example. The function of the switch position may be reversed since the
normal/reversed setting of the switch channel. Toggle the switch and observe the slider position of
channel X2 on the assistant software screen, the corresponding area should turn blue.
47
Step3 Method of Forward Direction and Home Point Recording
If you use the IOC function, please be aware of the Forward Direction of Course Lock Flying, and the home point of
Home Lock Flying. There are two ways to record the forward direction and the home point: Manually and
Automatically. You may choose any one record method. The LED will blink Green quickly if successfully recorded.
Course Lock
Home Lock
Before takeoff, the current position of the aircraft
Automatically
30 seconds after you power on the
will be saved as home point when you start the
autopilot system.
motors for the first time after 6 or more GPS
satellites have been found for 10 seconds.
Manually
30 seconds after you power on the
After 6 or more GPS satellites have been found.
autopilot system. Toggle the IOC switch
And the aircraft can be hovering. Toggle the IOC
from Off to Course Lock, and back to Off
switch from Course Lock to Home Lock, and back
quickly 3 to 5 times.
to Course Lock quickly 3 to 5 times.
DO NOT toggle the switch between Off to Home Lock, since it may change the recording of the
Forward Direction of Course Lock.
Step4 IOC Flying Test
Then you can do Course Lock and Home Lock flying test.
Carry out an IOC flight by the following procedure. The Control Mode LED will blink Yellow and Green
alternatively (
) to indicate the IOC mode only when the main controller is really to fly in Course Lock, Home
Lock modes.
During the
same flight
STEP1: Record
STEP2: ON
STEP3: OFF
STEP4: ON again
Course Lock
Record the
Switch Setting
Forward
Direction
Set Control Mode switch at
GPS or ATTI. position,
Toggle IOC switch
Toggle IOC switch from OFF
to OFF position
to Course Lock position
Toggle IOC switch
from OFF to Course
Lock position
Home Lock
Set Control Mode switch at
Switch Setting
Record the
GPS position,
Toggle IOC switch
Home Point
Toggle IOC switch from OFF
to OFF position
to Home Lock position
Aircraft moving direction when pull pitch stick
Home point
Toggle IOC switch
from OFF to Home
Lock position
Aircraft moving direction when pull roll stick
48the direction of the aircraft nose)
Aircraft(the arrow is pointing to
!
!
IOC FLYING NOTES!
(1)
When Multi-rotor is flying by home lock far away from you and the home point, please DO NOT
toggle the IOC switch many times quickly so as to avoid the change of home point without your
attention.
(1)
Home lock flying requires that 6 or more GPS satellites are found and the aircraft is further than
10m away from the home point.
(2)
If the IOC flying requirement is not satisfied, the autopilot system will quit IOC control mode.
Please be aware of the LED indicator, to know the current control mode of the autopilot system.
(1)
Blinking indications of IOC
a)
Before motors start:
are:
blink, all sticks (except throttle stick) return to center;
blink, stick(s) (except throttle stick) not at center.
b)
After motors start and throttle stick is over 10% in 3 seconds:
return to center;
(2)
blink, all sticks
blink, stick(s) not at center.
Before you do the home lock flight, you have to fly the aircraft out of the 10m range around
home point, and then flip the IOC switch to Home Lock position to fly in home lock when all the
requirements are met. If you have already toggled the IOC switch to Home Lock position when
the aircraft is still in 10m range around home point, and this is the first time you are going to fly
in home lock during the current flight, then if all the requirements are met, the main controller
will change into home lock automatically when Multi-rotor flies out the 10m range around home
point.
(1)
When flying in Home Lock mode, if any of the following situations happen, then the
system will quit Home Lock flying and automatically enter Course Lock flying. The aircraft
will fly in Course Lock using the earlier forward direction.
a)
The aircraft fly’s within 10m range of the home point.
b)
You toggle the control mode switch to the ATTI. Mode.
c)
The GPS signal becomes bad (The GPS signal LED is blinking Red twice or three
times).
(2)
We suggest that you should know clearly which flight lock method you are going to fly,
and you know the locked forward direction or home point, before you switch on IOC
mode during the flight.
49
A4 Receiver Advanced Protection Function
You are asked to enable this function by connecting to the Assistant Software, please set it at the section of
Basic->R/C-> Receiver Advanced Protection.
If you choose enable it, the FailSafe will be triggered if the following situations occur during flight.
According to the difference of the aircraft height, there are two situations.
a)
Lower than 100m, the A/E/R channel is not at the mid point.
b)
Higher than 100m, the A/E/R channel is not at the mid point or the throttle stick is above the mid point.
In the GPS Mode or ATTI. Mode, if the requirement a) or b) is satisfied, and the output data of four channels
A/E/R/T have not changed for 20 seconds, then the aircraft will hover automatically. After that, if the output data
of four channels A/E/R/T still do not any changes and last for 10 seconds, the autopilot system will think that the
data from receiver is abnormal, and then enter the FailSafe Mode.
Brief introduction of how to quit the FailSafe Mode
If there is any command change from the receiver, the autopilot system thinks that the receiver is regained. In ATTI.
Mode and Manual Mode, it will quit the FailSafe Mode automatically. In GPS Mode, please toggle the control mode
switch to the ATTI. Mode and Manual Mode position to regain the control. Refer to the FailSafe section for more
details.
50
A5 Flight Limits
The flight limits function is default enabled in the NAZA-M Flight control system, it’s aimed to restrict the flying
height and distance of the aircraft. The Max Height restricts the vertical distance between the aircraft and the
Home point, the Max Radius restricts the horizontal distance between the aircraft and the Home point.
The default Max Height is 2000m and Max Radius is 2000m. Users can write the values of the Max Height and Max
Radius in the Assistant software, the range of the Max Height is 10m-100000m, the range of the Max Radius is the
same. So that the aircraft will fly in the entered range, which is a cylinder space above the Home point.
(1)
Height Limit works when the control mode is GPS or ATTI. Mode. Radius Limit works when the
control mode is GPS and the satellite number ≥6.
(2)
If the aircraft flies out of the limits, it's still controllable except flying further away.
(3)
If the control mode is changed to GPS when the aircraft is out of Max Radius, the aircraft will fly
back within the entered range.
(4)
The Failsafe and the Ground Station operations are not restricted to the Flight Limits.
51
Appendix
Specifications
General
Built-In Functions
(1) Three Modes of Autopilot
(4)S-Bus/S-Bus2 Receiver Support
(2)Enhanced Fail Safe
(5)PPM Receiver Support
(3)Low Voltage Protection
(6)2-axle Gimbal Support
Peripheral
Supported Multi-rotor

Quad-rotor I4, X4;

Hexa-rotor I 6, X6, IY6, Y6.

Octo- rotor I8, V8, X8
Supported ESC output
400Hz refresh frequency.
Recommended Transmitter
PCM or 2.4GHz with a minimum 4 channels.
Assistant Software System Requirement
Windows XP SP3; Windows 7; Windows 8
Electrical & Mechanical
Working Voltage Range

MC: 4.8V ~ 5.5 V

PMU Input: 7.4V ~ 26.0 V (recommend 2S ~ 6S LiPo)
Output(V-SEN port red wire): [email protected]
Output(V-SEN port red wire)burst current:7.5A
Power Consumption
Operating Temperature
Weight
Dimensions

MAX: 1.5W([email protected])

Normal: 0.6W([email protected])
-10°C ~ 50°C (14F ~122F)

MC: 27g

GPS/Compass: 27g

PMU: 28g

LED: 13g

MC: 45.5mm × 32.5mm × 18.5mm

GPS/Compass: 46mm (diameter) x 10mm

PMU:39.5mm × 27.5mm × 10.0mm

LED:25mm × 25mm × 7.0mm
Flight Performance (can be effected by mechanical performance and payloads)
Hovering Accuracy (GPS Mode)

Vertical: ±± 0.8m

Horizontal: ±±2.5m
Max Yaw Angular Velocity
200°/s
Max Tilt Angle
35°
Max Ascent / Descent Speed
±Ascent : 6m/s, Descent: 4.5 m/s
52
MC/PMU Firmware Upgrade
Please follow the procedure for software and firmware upgrade; otherwise the system might not work properly. For
SAFETY REASONS, DO NOT use power battery during firmware upgrade.
1.
Make sure your computer is connected to the Internet.
2.
Please close all the other applications during the firmware upgrade, including anti-virus software and
firewall.
3.
Make sure the power supply is securely connected. DO NOT un-plug the power supply until firmware
upgrade has finished.
4.
Connect system to PC with Micro-USB cable, DO NOT break connection until firmware upgrade is
finished.
5.
Run Software and wait for connection.
6.
Select Upgrade optionCheck the MC and PMU Firmware Version.
7.
DJI server will check your current firmware version, and get the latest firmware prepared for the unit.
8.
If there is a firmware version more up-to-date than your current version, you will be able to click to
update them.
9.
Wait until Assistant software shows “finished”.
10.
Click OK and power cycle the unit after at least 5 seconds.
11.
Your unit is now up-to-date.
(1)
After firmware upgrade, please re-configure the system using Assistant software.
(2)
If firmware upgrade failed, the system will enter waiting for firmware upgrade status
automatically, please try again with the above procedures.
(3)
Select Upgrade optionCheck the GPS Firmware Version, online upgrade is disable.
53
LED Description
System Status
LED Flashing
System start and self-check
IMU abnormal data or need advanced
calibration*
Warm up after power on
The aircraft is moved or bias of sensors too big
Compass error too big, need recalibration.
Transmitter (TX) signal lost, enter the FailSafe.
TX stick(s) mid point error too big
Low voltage alert or other abnormal alert*
(e.g. Configuration error, TX data error, Enable
low voltage protection without PMU, SN error
or Compass abnormal work.)
Record forward direction or home point
Manual Mode: None
Control Mode Indictor
ATTI. Mode:
( stick(s) not at center
)
GPS Mode:
( stick(s) not at center
)
IOC Mode:
( stick(s) not at center
GPS Signal is Best(GPS Satellite number > 6):
GPS Signal State Indicator
GPS Signal is Well(GPS Satellite number = 6):
(GPS/Compass Module is necessary)
GPS Signal is Bad (GPS Satellite number = 5) :
GPS Signal is Worst (GPS Satellite number < 5):
Compass Calibration
LED Flashing
Begin horizontal calibration
Begin vertical calibration
Calibration or others error
*You can figure out the error by connecting the autopilot system to the assistant software.
54
)
None
Instruction of V1 (also known as NAZA-M)
V1 (also known as NAZA-M) system is different from V2 system, if you are V1 system user, please read the following
text carefully, and refer to the other text in this Guide for usage details (including Assistant Software Configuration,
Basic flying, Advanced Function Appendix and FAQ, etc.) .
V1 Assembly and Connection
Connect the V1 system according to the following chart.
VU
R/C System
·
These are example connections.
Please setup Aileron, Elevator,
Throttle, Rudder channels on your
TX first, and choose one 3positions switch/channel as control
mode switch, then connect your
receiver to the right ports on MC.
·
·
TO Battery
·
3-position switch channel
R/C Receiver
(JR)
·
·
RUDD
ELEV
AILE
THRO
R/C Receiver
(Futaba / Hitec)
·
1
2
3
4
M1
M2
ESC
M3接电调
M4
M5
M6
3-position switch channel
Futaba S-Bus
S-Bus
/S-Bus2
Do not mount it on any other electronic devices. Make sure You
can see the LED light during the flight.
If use with DJI multi-rotor, you can solder the VU power cable to
power pads on frame bottom board. Please refer to DJI multi-rotor
manual for details.
If use with 3 rd part multi-rotor, you can make a connecter by
yourself to connect VU, ESCs and battery.
Sufficient air flow over the VU is highly recommended.
ESCs, Motors
Motors and ESCs in DJI multi-rotor kit are recommended.
Please make sure you are using the ESCs and motors
recommended by the manufacturer of your multi rotor first. NAZA
output is 400Hz refresh frequency.
If you use 3 rd party ESCs, please make sure the ESCs travel
midpoint is at 1520us. DO NOT use 700us travel midpoint ESC,
as it may lead aircraft to fly away or cause injury and damage.
After connect ESCs to motors, calibrate all your ESCs one by one
through the receiver directly before connect them to your MC,
Make sure program all of them into Governor off, Break off and
Normal Start up to get best experience.
接云台
PPM
F2
PPM
Roll
Aircraft Nose
Pitch
F1
MC
(Optional) GPS/COMPASS
·
·
·
·
·
Important: the continuous
output of the VU is [email protected], and
the maximum instant current is 7.5A. If
the V U cannot afford the working
current for you r servos, please use an
independent power supply; otherwise,
it may cause the V U safeguard and
lead to the main controller reboot.
GPS/Compass is sensitive to magnetic interference, should be far away from any electronic devices.
You should use epoxy resin AB glue to assemble the GPS bracket first as the figure showed in
previous page.
Mount the bracket on the center plate of craft first, then fix the GPS on the plate of the bracket (by
3M glue provided). The GPS is sensitive to vibration interference, so position the bracket at least 10
cm from any rotor.
The DJI logo marked on the GPS should face the sky, with the orientation arrow pointing directly
forward. The GPS/Compass is packaged with a special indication line for mounting for the first time.
If you are uncertain whether materials near the GPS/Compass module are magnetic or not, you can
use a compass or magnet to check it. If you use your own mounting rod, make sure it is NOT
magnetic!
·
Please use 3M gummed paper provided To mount MC, and mount
MC parallel to the aircraft horizon.
·
·
·
·
·
The output ports of MC (the right side in figure) should point to
the front of multi-rotor. You’d better put MC at the gravity
center of multi-rotor. Please make sure all ports are accessible
when installing the MC so as to facilitate wiring and software
configuration.
In three-pin ports, pins near the nicks are signal pins.
After choosing a location to mount the MC, it is
recommended that you DO NOT mount the MC
until all wirings and software configurations are completed.
V1 is compatible with the PMU V2 (Accessory of Naza-M V2)
V1 system is compatible with the PMU V2 of V2 system; please carry out the following connection. The other
modules connection is the same as before.
Important: You are asked to upgrade your Firmware version of V1 MC to V3.10 or above, as the PUM V2 can only
work with the MC of version 3.10 or above.
Disconnection
Take negative
power supply
take positive power supply
55
V1 Port Description
Please remember the function of each port, which may help you to use the Naza-M efficiently.
Main Controller
A
For roll control (left/right)
E
For pitch control (front/back)
T
For throttle control
R
For rudder control
U
For Control Mode Switch
X1
For gimbal pitch control
Or for gain tuning
X2
For D-Bus (S-Bus/ S-Bus2 compatible)
Or for gain tuning
X3
For voltage monitor (Connect with VU V-SEN port)
Or for IOC switch
M1
To #1 rotor
M2
To #2 rotor
M3
To #3 rotor
M4
To #4 rotor
M5
To #5 rotor
M6
To #6 rotor
F1
To gimbal roll servo
Or to #7 rotor (Upgrade the MC Firmware to V3.10 or above)
F2
To gimbal pitch servo
Or to #8 rotor (Upgrade the MC Firmware to V3.10 or above)
LED
LED port, for LED wire connection from Versatile Unit
EXP.
GPS port, for GPS module wire connection.
(In three-pin ports, pins near the nicks are signal pins.)
Versatile Unit
V-SEN
V-SEN port: To the X3 port of the main controller, for monitoring battery voltage and supplying
power
LED

Orange wire (signal wire) output: ±±3.3V

Red wire (power wire) output: [email protected]
LED wire, to LED port of the main controller.
USB port: PC connection for configuration and firmware upgrades.
Optional GPS & Compass
Connect to the EXP. port.
56
V1 Specification
General
Built-In Functions

Three Modes of Autopilot

Enhanced Fail Safe

Low Voltage Protection

S-Bus/ S-Bus2 Receiver Support

PPM Receiver Support

2-axle Gimbal Support

Quad-rotor I4, X4;

Hexa-rotor I 6, X6, IY6, Y6.

Octo-rotor I8, V8, X8 (Upgrade the MC Firmware to
Peripheral
Supported Multi-rotor
V3.10 or above)
Supported ESC output
400Hz refresh frequency.
Recommended Transmitter
PCM or 2.4GHz with a minimum 4 channels.
Assistant Software System Requirement
Windows XP SP3; Windows 7
Electrical & Mechanical
Working Voltage Range

MC: 4.8V ~ 5.5 V

VU Input: 7.2V ~ 26.0 V (recommend 2S ~ 6S LiPo)
Output(V-SEN port red wire): [email protected]
Output(V-SEN port red wire)burst current:7.5A
Power Consumption
Operating Temperature
Weight
Dimensions

MAX: 1.5W([email protected])

Normal: 0.6W([email protected])
-10°C ~ 50°C(14F ~122F)

MC: 25g

GPS: 21.3g

VU: 20g

MC: 45.5mm × 31.5mm × 18.5mm

GPS & Compass: 46mm (diameter) x 9mm

VU: 32.2mm × 21.1mm × 7.7mm
Flight Performance (can be effected by mechanical performance and payloads)
Hovering Accuracy (GPS Mode)

Vertical: ±± 0.8m

Horizontal: ±± 2.5m
Max Yaw Angular Velocity
200°/s
Max Tilt Angle
45°
Max Ascent / Descent Speed
±6m/s
57
FAQ
Abnormal LED Indication List
During the Checking Procedure, if abnormal LED Indicator occurs or even the system cannot work normally, please
refer to the following list and aids troubleshooting.
(1)
“System initializing and self-checking LED flashes” are not correct (
Red LED
appears in the last four green flashes). The autopilot system works abnormally. Please contact your
dealer.
(2)
LED blinks Yellow 4 times quickly (
). The system is warming up. You cannot start the motors until
the 4 rapid yellow flashes disappear. If the warm up waiting is longer than 2 minutes, please power off for
5 minutes, cold start, and then connect the assistant software, enter the "Tools" - > IMU calibration, carry
out the Advanced calibration.
(3)
After the system start and self-checking has finished, if the LED blinks Red, Green and Yellow (
)
continually. Sensor error is too big. Please connect the assistant software, enter the "Tools" - > IMU
calibration, carry out calibration.
(4)
At the first motors start, the system will check the sensors Bias and you are asked to keep the aircraft
stationary (no need of horizontal level). If you cannot start the motors and the LED blinks Green 6 times
quickly (
), it means that the sensor error is too big. Please connect the assistant software,
enter the "Tools" - > IMU calibration, carry out basic calibration.
Note: after the first successful motors start, this checking will be disabled and it is no need any more to
keep the aircraft stationary during starting motors.
(5)
The system blinks Red LED quickly during flying. Low-voltage protection is triggered. Please land the
aircraft ASAP.
(6)
The system blinks Yellow LED quickly during flying. FailSafe Mode is triggered. Pay attention that there is
no tall buildings and trees to block your aircraft during go-home.
(7)
The LED blinks Red and Yellow alternately (
a)
). Compass error is too big.
There may be a ferromagnetic substance close to the Phantom. Lift the aircraft up about 1m from
the ground, if there is no Red and Yellow flashing, then it will not affect the flight.
b)
Otherwise, re-calibrate the compass.
c)
If re-calibration does not work, please connect to the Assistant Software, select the “Tools” and
follow the tips to carry out the required operation.
Fix the TBE (Toilet Bowl Effect) Problem
When flying in GPS ATTI. Mode and the compass calibration has been done correctly, should you find the aircraft
rotating (Toilet bowl effect), or drifting when hovering. Please
58 check the GPS module mounting orientation and then
re-do the compass calibration. Carry out the following procedure to re-mount the GPS module.
In the following diagram (view from the top), the aircraft can appear to be rotating in both clockwise and
counter-clockwise direction, please re-mount the GPS module correspondingly.
is the rotating direction of aircraft,
is the nose direction of aircraft,
is the arrow direction on the GPS module, θ is the offset angle for GPS re-mounting(about 10~30o)
Clockwise rotating
GPS re-mounting
Counter Clockwise rotating
GPS re-mounting
θ
θ
Should you find the multi-rotor does not track straight in forward flight.
Please carry out several more courses, the system will fix it automatically.
Motors Start failure caused by TX stick(s) mid point error too big
If the TX stick(s) mid point error is too big, Motors Start will fail when you execute the Combination Stick
Commands (CSC) and lead to the aircraft will not takeoff.. And the LED will blink Red four times per second
continually to warn you.
TX stick(s) mid point error too big can be caused by the following reasons:
(1)
There is TX stick (except the throttle stick) not at center when power on the autopilot system.
(2)
The TX sticks has been trimmed, which leads to the large deviation of mid point. For example, the
SUB-TRIM has been adjusted for Futaba transmitter.
(3)
The TX stick(s) travel has larger asymmetry.
For the reason (1), please put all TX sticks at the mid point, and then power cycle the autopilot system to
re-record the mid point. If the problem continues, that can be caused by the reason (2) or reason (3), yo
u need to adjust the output range of your TX, and then use the Assistant Software to
redo the TX cali
bration. Please carry out the following procedures.
(1)
Connect to the Assistant software, click Basic-> R/C-> Command Sticks Calibration, and push all TX
sticks throughout their complete travel range to see if any stick cannot reach its largest position.
(2)
Adjust the largest travel of TX stick until the cursor on the Assistant software can reach both end
positions, according to your TX manual.
(3)
Power cycle the autopilot system, note that power cycle is required.
(4)
Redo the TX calibration according to the Assistant software.
59
Attitude Controllable When One Motor Output is Failed
For Hexa-rotor, including Hexa-rotor I, Hexa-rotor V, Hexa-rotor IY and Hexa-rotor Y, aircraft is attitude controllable
when one motor output is failed.
The NAZA-M can still control the attitude of the Hexa-rotor for a safe landing when one motor output of the
Hexa-rotor has failed, for example, one motor is stopped or one propeller is broken, etc.
The control mode of NAZA-M should be in Atti. Mode or GPS Atti. Mode. The aircraft will rotate, due to an
imbalance of torque; however, it can still be controlled by the Transmitter.
Select Course lock or home lock mode for flying the aircraft into a safe area to land when the aircraft is far away or
the attitude can’t be recognized. Even when the multi rotor is rotating, using Course lock or home lock mode will
allow you to move the multi rotor in the corresponding Transmitter stick direction.
60
When used with other DJI products
The NAZA-M system communicates with other DJI products (e.g. H3-2D gimbal, BTU module, iOSD mini and iOSD
Mark II) via the CAN-Bus port (
) of the NAZA PMU V2. You can plug new DJI products into any spare CAN-Bus
port, since CAN-Bus ports on NAZA-M, CAN HUB, GCU, iOSD mini, iOSD Mark II and 2.4G Bluetooth Datalink are
the same for the communications.
When there are not enough CAN-Bus ports for additional DJI products, then a DJI CAN HUB module is
recommended. The following diagram is for your connection reference.
Fig.1 Used with iOSD Mark II
Fig.2 Used with CAN HUB
61
Fig.3 Use a CAN HUB to connect the 2.4G Bluetooth Datalink
(1)
Users can use the NM Assistant on the mobile device when a BTU module is connecting with the
Ground end of the2.4G Bluetooth Datalink (No need to connect another BTU module to the
Flight control system).
62
AVL58 5.8G Video Link
User Manual
V1.0
2012-10-30
63
1
Disclaimer
Thank you for purchasing this product. Please read the instructions carefully before installing the
hardware and software for this product, this will ensure trouble free operation of your Video Link RX and
TX. Please use this product in accordance with the provisions of your local authorities and regulations.
Contents
Disclaimer.............................................................................................................................................. 2
Contents ................................................................................................................................................ 2
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 2
Contents ................................................................................................................................................ 3
Installation ............................................................................................................................................. 4
Specification .......................................................................................................................................... 5
Trouble Shooting.................................................................................................................................... 6
Introduction
The AVL58 includes both Video Link Transmitter (TX) and Video Link Receiver (RX), working in the ISM
frequency band of 5.8GHz (5645- 5945MHz MHz). Analogue modulated video signals are sent wirelessly
by the TX module to the RX module, and then the video signal will be demodulated and sent to a display.
There are 8 wireless channels can be selected when you are using AVL58. These channels are:
CH1-5705MHZ, CH2-5685MHZ, CH3-5665MHZ, CH4-5645MHZ, CH5-5885MHZ, CH6-5905MHZ,
CH7-5925MHZ, and CH8-5945MHZ.
The characteristics of the AVL58 are: small size, low power consumption and high sensitivity. The AVL58
can be used in many applications requiring wireless video communication. When it’s used in the
aero-modeling hobby, the Video Link Transmitter will be mounted to the aircraft and the Video Link
Receiver is connected to a display screen, allowing video signal wireless transmission.
64
2
Contents
5. 8GHz Video Link Transmitter (TX) ×1
Analogue modulated video signals will be sent
wirelessly by the TX module, working in the frequency
band of 5.8GHz with 8 channels.
5.8GHz Video Link Receiver (RX) ×1
Connect to a display screen.
The signal will be demodulated and sent to the display
by the RX module, working in the frequency band of
5.8GHz with 8 channels.
Antenna ×2
Optional, please make purchase according to your need.
Please refer to the Clover-Leaf Antenna User Manual for
all antenna details.
Video Input Cable ×1
Connect the TX to the video input source, with a port
connecting to the battery for power supply,
Video Output Cable ×1
Connect the RX module to a display screen,
transmitting video signal to display on the screen.
Power Cable ×1
Connect the battery to the RX module and the display
screen through the power cable for power supply.
65
3
Installation
STEP1.
Please assemble two antennas to the Video Link Transmitter and Receiver.
STEP2.
Connect the Video Link Transmitter to a video input source, and then connect the Video
Link Receiver to a display screen and battery.
STEP3.
Make sure the Video Link Transmitter and Receiver are working on the same channel by
using the channel-selection button; refer to the LED indicator flash pattern.
Video
Input Source
Antenna
Battery
AVL58
5.8G Vide oLi nk
(3S~6S)
调频按键
RECEIVER
RX
5.8G Vide oLi nk
TX
TRANSMITTER
AVL58
Antenna
Battery
!
Display Screen
TX Knowledge
Video input port is A 8-pin Port. The
TX transmits both channel control signal
(CH1, CH2, …CH8) and video signal. Make
sure the connection of the port is correct.
·
Chanel-Selection Button, which is for
TX wireless channel selection.
·
LED indicates the TX working channel .
·
RX Knowledge
Battery can apply power for both the RX module
and the display screen with an input voltage range of
3S.
·
Video Output Port transmits video signal,
connected to the display screen.
·
Chanel-Selection Button, which is for RX wireless
channel selection.
·
LED indicates the RX working channel .
·
Important:
 The antenna MUST be connected before power on, otherwise electronics damage may occur.

When use a battery to supply power for the RX and the display screen, the battery voltage must
not be higher than the input voltage of the display screen; otherwise damage may occur to your
display screen.
 Ensure there is no obstacle between antennas; otherwise the communication range will be reduced.
LED Indicator
CH 1
CH 2
CH 3
CH 4
CH 5
CH 6
CH 7
CH 8
Red LED blinks once after pressing the channel-selection button, indicating successful selection.
66
4
Specification
Performance Parameter
Outdoor/RF Line-of-Sight Range
1.0 km
Transmit Power
500mW
Receiver Sensitivity (1%PER)
-90dBm
 2dBm
CH1-CH8
Frequency Band

CH1:5705MHZ

CH5:5885MHZ

CH2:5685MHZ

CH6:5905MHZ

CH3:5665MHZ

CH7:5925MHZ

CH4:5645MHZ

CH8:5945MHZ
Physical Parameter
Operating Temperature
-20~70oC

TX: 50cm(length)X30cm(width)X22cm(height)

RX: 55.5cm(length)X48cm(width)X17cm(height)

TX: 39g

RX: 49.5g
Size (No Antenna)
Weight (No Antenna)
Hardware Supported
Antenna Options
SMA
Transmitter Supply Voltage
3S~6S
Receiver Supply Voltage
3S LiPo
Transmitter Current
575mA  50mA(@12V)
Receiver Current
90mA  10mA(@12V)
LiPo
Software Supported

5.8GHZ Broadband FM Video Transmit & Receive
Built-in Functions
Synchronously

Analog Video Output to Display

8 Transmitting and Receiving Channels
67
5
Trouble Shooting
No.
What
Why
How to
Power supply is
There is problem with the video
OK, but no video
input.
1
Please check the video input.
Make sure RX and TX modules are
The RX and TX modules are not
2
No video
on the same channel by using the
set to the same channel.
channel-selection button.
1. The video mode of the display
Video is flashing
screen sets incorrectly.
1. Reset the video mode of the
display screen.
3
and rolling.
2. The RX and TX modules are
not set to the same channel.
The transmission
distance between
1. The
antenna
assembly
2. Make sure RX and TX modules
are on the same channel.
is
incorrect.
1. Make sure there is no obstacle
between antennas.
4
the RX and TX is
shortening.
2. The RX and TX modules are
not set to the same channel.
68
2. Make sure RX and TX modules
are on the same channel.
6
iOSD mini User Manual
V1.06
Introduction
DJI iOSD mini is specially designed for DJI flight control system during the FPV flight or other aero-modeling activities. It
displays real time video and OSD information, to bring users more involved flight experience.
Specified autopilot systems for the iOSD mini:
Autopilot System
Required Accessories
Firmware Version
NAZA-M series
NAZA PMU V2
4.02 or above
WooKong-M series
---
5.16 or above
Specifications
Voltage
6V
Working Current (Typical Value)
[email protected]
Temperature
-20℃~60℃
Dimension
33.2mm x 28.2mm x 10.55mm
Weight
14g
Video Input/ Output Mode
PAL/NTSC (automatically recognize)
Assembly & Connection
1.
Prepare the iOSD mini、DJI autopilot system、video input source(e.g. camera)、wireless video transmitter
module(including transmitter and receiver), monitor, and then assemble all these to aircraft.
2.
Connect the iOSD mini according to the following diagram. Connect your wireless video receiver module and
monitor correctly.
To wireless video transmitter module GND
To wireless video transmitter module signal
To video input device(e.g. camera) GND
To video input device(e.g. camera) signal
CAN-Bus port(extended port)
To PC for configuration and upgrade via a
Micro-USB cable.
iOSD mini LED Indicator
Abnormal
Normal
Data communicating
CAN-Bus port, is for iOSD mini
power supply and communication
with Autopilot system.
69
OSD Display Description
6
1
7
P
R 0o
12.0V 94%
8
V
0o
9
m
0.0 s
0
45~179
45~179
2
D 15m
H 1m
3
14
4
5
0.0
Az 34°
11
12
ATT
FS
13
15
NO.
10
Function
Display
Description
Real time battery voltage of the aircraft power, unit in V. (For
PHANTOM 2 there will be current battery level percentage
1
Power voltage
、
blink
shown in addition.)
Blink: first level low-voltage alert, the alert threshold is same
to the protection voltage value set in the assistant software.
2
Distance between aircraft
and home point
D
(unit in m)
Show when the home point is successfully recorded
(unit in m)
Vertical height between the aircraft and the take-off point
3
Height
H
4
Control mode
ATT, M, GPS
5
FailSafe mode
FS, APT, GHome
6
Pitch attitude
P
7
Roll attitude
R 0o
8
Flight velocity
0.0m/s
9
GPS satellite
0o
0

ATT is Atti mode

M is Manual mode

FS: FailSafe mode

GHome: Go home

GPS is GPS mode

APT: Ground station mode
Positive value means the aircraft nose is pitching up;
Negative value means the aircraft nose is pitching down.
Positive value means the aircraft is rolling to right.
Negative value means the aircraft is rolling to left.
Horizontal speed of aircraft.
Number of GPS satellites acquired.
Display the relative angle between the
180°
aircraft nose and home point. The
10
Aircraft nose direction
、
、
aircraft nose is pointing to the home
45°
45°
Nose direction
0°
Home Point
11
Vertical velocity
12
Attitude line
0.0
0.0 、
point when the icon
to pull the aircraft back.
:Upward speed in vertical direction
:Downward speed in vertical direction
Use for aircraft attitude observation.
70
is in the middle
of monitor screen, which can help users
13
Compass error indicator
blink
Blinking
will appear when compass has errors, please
calibrate your compass.
Azimuth angle is a horizontal angle
measured
clockwise
from
the
North base line to the line goes
N
through the home point and
0°
14
Azimuth angle
Az(0o ~360o)
W
H
270°
90°
E
D
Az=225°
180°
S
Home Point
Aircraft
aircraft position. Users can locate
the aircraft by calculating the
aircraft position using Az, D ,
H.
15
Airport alert
Blinks when the aircraft enters a no-fly zone*.
blink
Disappears when the aircraft exits no-fly zone*.
Notes:
* For more information about the no-fly zones, visit www.dji.com and download the Phantom 2 User Manual.
Install Driver and Assistant Software
1.
Please download the driver installer and assistant software from the iOSD mini page of DJI website (www.dji.com).
2.
Connect the iOSD mini and the PC via a Micro-USB cable, and power on the iOSD mini system.
3.
Run the driver installer, and follow the tips to finish installation.
4.
Run the assistant software installer, and follow the tips to finish installation.
71
Assistant Software Usage
Language
iOSD Setting
Software & Firmware
Upgrade etc
Text Indication
Main Window
Warning Setting
Data Communication
Indicator
PC Connection
Indicator
iOSD is successfully connected to Assistant software.
Trouble Shooting
NO.
1
2
3
4
What
Only OSD information,
video signal loss.
Why
How to
Ensure the connection between iOSD mini
Video input error.
and video input port is OK.
Only video signal, OSD Connection between iOSD mini and Ensure the connection between iOSD and DJI
information loss.
Both video signal and
OSD information loss.
autopilot system error.
autopilot system is OK.
Ensure the communication between the video
Signal transmission error.
transmitter and receiver is working correctly.
Both video signal and The video signal cable to monitor is Ensure the connection of video signal cable is
OSD information loss.
unconnected or short circuit.
OK.
Disclaimer
Thank you for purchasing product(s) from DJI Innovations. Please read the instructions carefully before installing the
hardware and software for this product, this will ensure trouble free operation of your product. DJI Innovations accepts
no liability for damage(s) or injured incurred directly or indirectly from the use of this product.
DJI is a registered trademark of DJI Innovations. Names of products, brands, etc., appearing in this manual are
trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owner companies. This product and manual are copyrighted by
72
DJI Innovations with all rights reserved. No part of this product or manual shall be reproduced in any form without the
prior written consent or authorization of DJI Innovations. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the
product or information contained herein.
73
12/17/2014
No FLY Zones | DJI
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
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
Home (http://www.dji.com/) / Fly Safe (/fly-safe)
No FLY Zones
All unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operators should abide by all regulations from such organizations as the ICAO (International
Civil Aviation Organization) and their own national airspace regulations. In order to increase flight safety and prevent accidental
flights in restricted areas, the Phantom 2 series includes a No Fly Zones feature to help users use this product safely and legally.
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flights in restricted areas, the Phantom 2 series includes a No Fly Zones feature to help users use this product safely and legally.
These zones include airports worldwide and have been divided into two types, A and B. For a full explanation of the difference
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Federal Aviation
Administration
Memorandum
Date:
AUG -8 2014
To:
John Duncan, Director, Flight Standards Service, AFS-1
From:
Mark W. Bury, Assistant Chief Counsel for International Law, Legislation and
Regulations, AGC-200
Prepared by:
Dean E. Griffith, Attorney, AGC-220
Subject:
Interpretation regarding whether certain required documents may be kept at an
unmanned aircraft's control station.
This memorandum addresses whether the pilot of an unmanned aircraft may keep airworthiness
certificates, aircraft manuals, and aircraft registration certificates at the unmanned aircraft's
ground control station and satisfy the regulatory requirements of sections 91.9(b), 91.203(a) and
(b), 47.3(b)(2), and 47.3l (c) of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations. This question has been
brought to our attention because of the impracticality of placing these documents on a small
aircraft with no pilot on board. As discussed below, we find that the intent of these regulations is
met if the pilot of the unmanned aircraft has access to these documents at the control station from
which he or she is operating the aircraft.
Section 91.9(b) prohibits operation of U.S.-registered civil aircraft unless "there is available in
the aircraft" an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual or other material, markings and placards.
The FAA stated that the purpose of this rule is to "insure that the information is readily available
to the pilot" for use during operations. See 40 Fed. Reg. 24665 (June 9, 1975), 37 Fed. Reg.
20022 (Sept. 23, 1972). The text of the rule and preamble to subsequent revisions of the rule
confirm the intent that the pilot is to have access to the material during flight. Accordingly, we
find that the intent of the rule is met if the information is maintained at the pilot's control station
such that it is available to the pilot.
Section 91.203(a) prohibits operation of a civil aircraft "unless it has within it" an appropriate
and current airworthiness ce1iificate and the aircraft's registration certification. Section
91.203(b) requires that the airw01ihiness certificate be "displayed at the cabin or cockpit entrance
so that it is legible to passengers or crew." Similarly, sections 47.3(b)(2) and 47.3l (c) allow an
applicant for aircraft registration to carry "in the aircraft" the second copy of the registration
application as temporary authority to operate without registration. These documents demonstrate
that the aircraft is appropriately certificated and registered, or is in the process of being
registered. Additionally, the FAA has previously addressed the requirement to display the
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2
airworthiness certificate and found that the regulation permits displaying the certificate so that it
is only legible to the flight crew even if not legible to passengers. See Legal Interpretation to
Leonard A. Ceruzzi, from Donald P. Byrne, Acting Assistant Chief Counsel, Regulations and
Enforcement Division (Aug. 7, 1990). Accordingly, we find that maintaining these documents at
the pilot's control station would meet the intent of the rule as the pilot would be able to produce
the documents for his or her own information or to an FAA inspector.
We note that this memorandum is to be narrowly construed to unmanned aircraft systems and is
not intended to apply to operation of manned aircraft or optionally piloted aircraft with a pilot on
board.
77
Exemption No. 11138
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
WASHINGTON, DC 20591
In the matter of the petition of
DOUGLAS TRUDEAU, REALTOR®
Regulatory Docket No. FAA-2014-0481
for an exemption from Part 21; and
§§ 45.23(b); 61.113(a) & (b);
91.7(a); 91.9(b)(2); 91.103(b);
91.109; 91.119; 91.121, 91.151(a);
91.203(a) & (b); 91.405(a); 91.407(a)(1);
91.409(a)(2); and 91.417(a) & (b) of
Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations
GRANT OF EXEMPTION
By letter dated July 12, 2014, Mr. Douglas Trudeau, Realtor®, of Tierra Antigua Realty
(Trudeau), 1650 E River Road, Suite 202, Tucson, AZ 85718 petitioned the Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA) for an exemption from part 21, subpart H; and Sections 45.23(b),
61.113(a) and (b), 91.7(a), 91.9(b)(2), 91.103(b), 91.109, 91.119, 91.121, 91.151(a), 91.203(a)
and (b), 91.405(a), 91.407(a)(1), 91.409(a)(2), and 91.417(a) and (b) of Title 14, Code of
Federal Regulations (14 CFR). The proposed exemption would allow Trudeau to operate the
PHANTOM 2 Vision+ quad-copter unmanned aircraft system (UAS) to conduct aerial
videography and cinematography to enhance academic community awareness for those
individuals and companies unfamiliar with the geographical layout of the metro Tucson area
and augment real estate listing videos.
The petitioner requests relief from the following regulations:
Part 21 prescribes the procedural requirements for issuing and changing design approvals,
productions approvals, airworthiness certificates, and airworthiness approvals.
AFS-14-373-E
78
Section 45.23(b) prescribes that when marks include only the Roman capital letter “N” and
the registration number is displayed on limited, restricted or light-sport category aircraft or
experimental or provisionally certificated aircraft, the operator must also display on that
aircraft near each entrance to the cabin, cockpit, or pilot station, in letters not less than 2
inches nor more than 6 inches high, the words “limited,” “restricted,” “light-sport,”
“experimental,” or “provisional,” as applicable.
Section 61.113(a) and (b) prescribes that—
(a) no person who holds a private pilot certificate may act as a pilot in command of an
aircraft that is carrying passengers or property for compensation or hire; nor may that person,
for compensation or hire, act as pilot in command of an aircraft.
(b) a private pilot may, for compensation or hire, act as pilot in command of an aircraft
in connection with any business or employment if:
(1) The flight is only incidental to that business or employment; and
(2) The aircraft does not carry passengers or property for compensation or
hire.
Section 91.7(a) prescribes that no person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an
airworthy condition.
Section 91.7(b) prescribes that the pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for
determining whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight and that the PIC shall
discontinue the flight when unairworthy mechanical, electrical, or structural conditions occur.
Section 91.9(b)(2) prohibits operation of U.S.-registered civil aircraft unless there is available
in the aircraft a current approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual, approved manual
material, markings, and placards, or any combination thereof.
Section 91.103(b) prescribes that a pilot shall for any flight, become familiar with runway
lengths at airports of intended use, and takeoff and landing distance information.
Section 91.109(a) prescribes, in pertinent part, that no person may operate a civil aircraft
(except a manned free balloon) that is being used for flight instruction unless that aircraft has
fully functioning dual controls.
Section 91.119 prescribes that, except when necessary for takeoff or landing, no person may
operate an aircraft below the following altitudes:
79
(a) Anywhere. An altitude allowing, if a power unit fails, an emergency landing without
undue hazard to persons or property on the surface.
(b) Over congested areas. Over any congested area of a city, town, or settlement, or over
any open air assembly of persons, an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle
within a horizontal radius of 2,000 feet of the aircraft.
(c) Over other than congested areas. An altitude of 500 feet above the surface, except over
open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated
closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.
(d) Helicopters, powered parachutes, and weight-shift-control aircraft. If the operation is
conducted without hazard to persons or property on the surface—
(1) A helicopter may be operated at less than the minimums prescribed in paragraph
(b) or (c) of this section, provided each person operating the helicopter complies
with any routes or altitudes specifically prescribed for helicopters by the FAA; and
(2) A powered parachute or weight-shift-control aircraft may be operated at less than
the minimums prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.
Section 91.121 requires, in pertinent part, each person operating an aircraft to maintain
cruising altitude by reference to an altimeter that is set “…to the elevation of the departure
airport or an appropriate altimeter setting available before departure.”
Section 91.151(a) prescribes that no person may begin a flight in an airplane under VFR
conditions unless (considering wind and forecast weather conditions) there is enough fuel to
fly to the first point of intended landing and, assuming normal cruising speed, (1) during the
day, to fly after that for at least 30 minutes [emphasis added].
Section 91.203(a) prohibits, in pertinent part, any person from operating a civil aircraft unless
it has within it (1) an appropriate and current airworthiness certificate; and (2) an effective
U.S. registration certificate issued to its owner or, for operation within the United States, the
second copy of the Aircraft registration Application as provided for in § 47.31(c).
Section 91.203(b) prescribes, in pertinent part, that no person may operate a civil aircraft
unless the airworthiness certificate or a special flight authorization issued under § 91.715 is
displayed at the cabin or cockpit entrance so that it is legible to passengers or crew.
Section 91.405(a) requires, in pertinent part, that an aircraft operator or owner shall have that
aircraft inspected as prescribed in subpart E of the same part and shall, between required
inspections, except as provided in paragraph (c) of the same section, have discrepancies
repaired as prescribed in part 43 of the chapter.
80
Section 91.407(a)(1) prohibits, in pertinent part, any person from operating an aircraft that has
undergone maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration unless it has been
approved for return to service by a person authorized under § 43.7 of the same chapter.
Section 91.409(a)(2) prescribes, in pertinent part, that no person may operate an aircraft
unless, within the preceding 12 calendar months, it has had an inspection for the issuance of
an airworthiness certificate in accordance with part 21 of this chapter.
Section 91.417(a) and (b) prescribes, in pertinent part, that—
(a) Each registered owner or operator shall keep the following records for the periods
specified in paragraph (b) of this section:
(1) Records of the maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration and
records of the 100-hour, annual, progressive, and other required or approved
inspections, as appropriate, for each aircraft (including the airframe) and each
engine, propeller, rotor, and appliance of an aircraft. The records must
include—
(i) A description (or reference to data acceptable to the
Administrator) of the work performed; and
(ii) The date of completion of the work performed; and
(iii) The signature, and certificate number of the person approving the
aircraft for return to service.
(2) Records containing the following information:
(i) The total time in service of the airframe, each engine, each
propeller, and each rotor.
(ii) The current status of life-limited parts of each airframe, engine,
propeller, rotor, and appliance.
(iii) The time since last overhaul of all items installed on the aircraft
which are required to be overhauled on a specified time basis.
(iv) The current inspection status of the aircraft, including the time
since the last inspection required by the inspection program under
which the aircraft and its appliances are maintained.
81
(v) The current status of applicable airworthiness directives (AD) and
safety directives including, for each, the method of compliance, the AD
or safety directive number and revision date. If the AD or safety
directive involves recurring action, the time and date when the next
action is required.
(vi) Copies of the forms prescribed by § 43.9(d) of this chapter for each
major alteration to the airframe and currently installed engines, rotors,
propellers, and appliances.
(b) The owner or operator shall retain the following records for the periods prescribed:
(1) The records specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall be retained
until the work is repeated or superseded by other work or for 1 year after the
work is performed.
(2) The records specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall be retained
and transferred with the aircraft at the time the aircraft is sold.
(3) A list of defects furnished to a registered owner or operator under
§ 43.11 of this chapter shall be retained until the defects are repaired and the
aircraft is approved for return to service.
The petitioner supports his request with the following information:
The petitioner has provided the following information – contained in his petition and
supporting documentation including: 1) Supplemental Response for Petition, 2) PHANTOM
Flying Flow Chart V1.0 (Simplified Version), PHANTOM Quick Start Manual v1.7,
PHANTOM Advanced Manual v.1.4, 3) PHANTOM 2 Vision+ User Manual 4) restricted
areas map, 5) personal protocols and controls, and 6) Safety/Flight Manual (all hereinafter
referred to as operating documents).
The FAA has organized the petitioner’s information into four sections: 1) the unmanned
aircraft system (UAS), 2) the UAS Pilot In Command (PIC), 3) the UAS operating parameters
and 4) Public Interest.
Unmanned Aircraft System
The petitioner states he plans to operate a UAS, the PHANTOM 2 Vision+, which is
comprised of an unmanned aircraft (UA or PHANTOM) and a transportable ground station.
The PHANTOM is referred to as a quad-copter with a maximum gross weight of about 3
pounds. It is equipped with four rotors that are driven by electric motors powered by batteries.
The UA has a maximum airspeed of 30 knots. Petitioner plans to attach a small ultra-
82
lightweight GoPro 3+ camera to his UA and operate the UA over various areas near Tucson,
Arizona to enhance academic community awareness and augment real estate listing videos.
Petitioner makes the following representations of operational enhancements which he
proposes to abide by to ensure this exemption will provide a level of safety at least equal to
existing rules:
• He will only operate in reasonably safe environments that are strictly controlled, are
away from power lines, elevated lights, airports and actively populated areas; and
• He will conduct extensive preflight inspections and protocols, during which safety
carries primary importance.
The petitioner states that given the size, weight, speed, and limited operating area associated
with the aircraft to be utilized by him, an exemption from 14 CFR part 21, Subpart H
(Airworthiness Certificates) and § 91.203 (a) and (b) (Certifications required), subject to
certain conditions and limitations, is warranted and meets the requirements for an equivalent
level of safety under 14 CFR part 11 and Section 333 of P.L. 112-95 (Section 333).
Petitioner requests an exemption from § 45.23 Marking of the aircraft because his UA will
not have a cabin, cockpit or pilot station on which to mark certain words or phrases. Further,
he states that two-inch lettering is difficult to place on such a small aircraft with dimensions
smaller than the minimal lettering requirement. Regardless of this, petitioner states that he
will mark his UAS in the largest possible lettering by placing the word “Experimental” on its
fuselage as required by § 45.29(f) so that he or anyone assisting him as a spotter will see the
markings.
The petitioner states that an exemption from §§ 91.405(a), 91.407(a)(1), 91.409(a)(2) and
91.417(a) and (b) Maintenance inspections may be required and should be granted since they
only apply to aircraft with an airworthiness certificate. However, the petitioner states as a
safety precaution he will perform a preflight inspection of his UAS before each flight as
outlined in his operating documents.
UAS Pilot in Command (PIC)
The petitioner asserts that under § 61.113 (a) and (b) private pilots are limited to noncommercial operations, however he can achieve an equivalent level of safety as achieved by
current regulations because his UAS does not carry any pilots or passengers. Further, he
states that, while helpful, a pilot license will not ensure remote control piloting skills. He
further indicates that the risks of operating a UAS are far less than the risk levels inherent in
the commercial activities outlined in 14 CFR part 61, et seq., thus he requests an exemption
from § 61.113 Private Pilot Privileges and Limitations: Pilot in command.
Regarding UAS operational training, the petitioner states he has flown numerous practice
flights in remote areas as a hobbyist simulating flights for future commercial use to gain
familiarization with the characteristics of his UAS’ performance under different temperature
83
and weather conditions. He further states that he practices computerized simulated flights to
maintain adequate skills and response reflex time.
In a supplemental request to the FAA, the petitioner requests consideration of a 120 day
temporary airman certificate in accordance with § 63.13, to allow him time to obtain a private
pilot certificate or to allow the FAA time to establish minimum UAS airman certification
standards.
UAS Operating Parameters
The petitioner states that he will abide by the following additional operating conditions under
this exemption:
• operate his UAS below 300 feet and within a radius distance of 1000 feet from the
controller to both aid in direct line of sight visual observation;1
• operate the UAS for 3-7 minutes per flight;
• land his UAS prior to the manufacturer’s recommended minimum level of battery
power;
• operate his UAS only within visual line of sight (VLOS);
• use the UAS’ global positioning system (GPS) flight safety feature whereby it hovers
and then slowly lands if communication with the remote control pilot is lost;
• conduct all operations under his own personal and flight safety protocols (including
posting a warning sign reading: “Attention Aerial Photography in Progress – Remain
Back 150 feet”) contained in the operating documents and will actively analyze flight
data and other sources of information to constantly update and enhance his safety
protocols;
• contact respective airports if operations will be within 5 miles to advise them of his
estimated flight time, flight duration, elevation of flight and other pertinent
information;
• always obtain all necessary permissions prior to operation; and
• have procedures in place to abort flights in the event of safety breaches or potential
danger.
Petitioner states that § 91.7(a) prohibits the operation of an aircraft without an airworthiness
certificate. The petitioner asserts that since there is currently no certificate applicable to his
operation, this regulation is inapplicable.
Petitioner states that § 91.9(b)(2) requires an aircraft flight manual in the aircraft, however
since there are no pilots or passengers on board his aircraft and given its size, this regulation is
inapplicable. He further indicates an equivalent level of safety will be achieved by
maintaining a safety/flight manual with the UAS ground station.
1
As specified in Douglas Trudeau Supplementary Information No. 2
84
Although petitioner requests an exemption from § 91.103(b) Preflight action, he provides no
information supporting his request.
Similarly, the petitioner requests an exemption from § 91.109 Flight instruction; simulated
instrument flight and certain flight test, and provides no information indicating how safety
will be maintained if an exemption to this section is granted.
Petitioner states that § 91.119 prescribes safe altitudes for the operation of civil aircraft, but
that it allows helicopters to be operated at lower altitudes in certain conditions. Petitioner
states he will not operate his UAS above the altitude of 300 feet above ground level (AGL)
and will also only operate in safe areas away from the public and traffic, thus “providing a
level of safety at least equivalent to or below those in relation to minimum safe altitudes.”
The petitioner asserts that given the size, weight, maneuverability, and speed of his UAS, an
equivalent or higher level of safety will be achieved.
Petitioner indicates that § 91.121 Altimeter settings is inapplicable since he UAS utilizes
electronic GPS with a barometric sensor.
While petitioner requests an exemption from § 91.151(a) Fuel requirements for flight in VFR
conditions, he provides no information supporting his request for this exemption.
Public Interest
The petitioner states that aerial videography for geographical awareness and for real estate
marketing has been around for a long time through manned fixed wing aircraft and
helicopters, but for small business owners, its expense has been cost-prohibitive. Granting
this exemption to the petitioner would allow him to provide this service at a much lower cost.
Further, the petitioner indicates his small UAS will pose no threat to the public given its small
size and lack of combustible fuel when compared to larger manned aircraft. The petitioner
also states that the operation of his UAS will minimize ecological damage and promote
economic growth by providing information to companies looking to relocate or build in the
Tucson metro area.
Discussion of Public Comments:
A summary of the petition was published in the Federal Register on August 8, 2014
(79 FR 46500). The petition received five comments. During the comment period, the
petitioner submitted supplemental information in response to several of the comments.
Of the five comments received, including four from trade organizations and one submitted by
an individual, three raised concerns with the petition and one was specifically opposed. The
other two supported the petition. Three trade organizations submitted letters expressing
various concerns with the petition for exemption, including the Air Line Pilots Association
85
International (ALPA), the National Agricultural Aviation Association (NAAA), and the
United States Hang Gliding & Paragliding Association (USHPA).
ALPA expressed concern regarding certain conditions outlined in Trudeau’s petition. ALPA
noted that the proposed operations will be for “compensation or hire,” and believes the UAS
pilot must hold at least a current FAA Commercial Pilot Certificate with an appropriate
category and class rating for the type of aircraft being flown and a current second-class airman
medical certificate. ALPA also noted that this is the requirement for compensation or hire
operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) today. NAAA and USHPA raised similar
concerns on pilot qualification. NAAA and USHPA asserted that the operator should hold a
pilot certificate and be thoroughly familiar with the limitations of manned aircraft flight.
NAAA further stated that requirements for UAS pilot licensing should be developed along
with other rigorous rules and qualifications to ensure safe integration of the unmanned aircraft
into the NAS. The Small UAV Coalition (Coalition) disagreed with ALPA, NAAA and
USHPA, asserting that a pilot certification should not be required for small unmanned
operations such as the petitioner’s.
The FAA has carefully reviewed the concerns expressed in these comments and the discussion
regarding knowledge, training, and medical certification required by holders of both private
and commercial pilot certificates. Additional details are available in the ensuing analysis of
this issue with regard to 14 CFR part 61.
ALPA stated that the petitioner asserts that although he plans to fly below 300 feet above the
surface and will generally not operate near populated areas, he also states he plans to survey
real estate development which ALPA believes are by definition populated areas. ALPA also
stated that the petitioner’s area of operations as outlined in his exhibits show he would be
within the airport traffic area of both Tucson International Airport and Davis-Monthan AFB.
ALPA also raised concerns about whether the petitioner’s UAS’ barometric sensor will enable
him to accurately address his altitude restrictions. ALPA also asserted that processes or
mitigations, such as redundant control capability, fail-safe systems, and backups, and specific,
validated procedures for system and equipment failures, must be in place to ensure the aircraft
and its control system(s) operate to the same level of safety as other aircraft operated
commercially in the NAS. NAAA stated commercial UAS should have to receive
airworthiness certification by the FAA to ensure they can safely operate in the NAS without
posing a hazard to persons or property.
ALPA commented that command and control (C2) link failures are one of the most common
failures on a UAS, and that lost link mitigations should require safe modes to prevent UA
fly-away or other scenarios. If lost-link occurs, mitigations like auto-hover, auto-land, returnto-home and geo-fencing boundary protection must be incorporated into the navigation and
control systems for the UAS to safely land or re-establish C2.
86
The FAA agrees and carefully examined the proposed operation to ensure that the vehicle
design and the petitioner’s supporting documentation addressed potential hazards related to
C2 failure. The FAA finds that the UAS to be operated by Trudeau has sufficient design
features to address these hazards. Further detail is contained in the analysis of the UAS below.
Regarding use of the NAS, ALPA noted there must be means to ensure the UA remains within
the defined airspace and to ensure the hazard of other aircraft intruding on the operation is
mitigated. ALPA stated given the absence of an onboard pilot, the means to meet the
requirements to “see and avoid” must be specified. ALPA also expressed concern, stating that
“because the waiver request is not for a specific operation but rather for all operations of the
same general type, the FAA’s oversight task is considerably increased.” Per the conditions
and limitations below, the FAA has prescribed operator, pilot and notification requirements to
ensure that appropriate oversight can occur.
The FAA agrees and has required specific conditions and limitations outlined below related to
the use of a visual observer, that the pilot be a current FAA certificated private pilot and that a
notice-to-airmen (NOTAM) be issued prior to operations.
NAAA stated that it represents the interests of small business owners and pilots licensed as
commercial applicators and ensuring safe low-level airspace includes minimizing obstructions
which are difficult to be seen and identified by the pilots. NAAA members operate in lowlevel airspace, and clear low-level airspace is vital to the safety of these operators. NAAA
stated that seeing and avoiding other aircraft and hazardous obstructions is the backbone for
agricultural safety, and agricultural pilots depend on pilots of other aircraft to perform their
see and avoid functions needed to prevent collisions. NAAA believes that UA operations at
low altitudes will increase the potential of collision hazards with agricultural aircraft. NAAA
requested that operators of UAS develop ways of making the presence of UAS known to VFR
air traffic if they are to be integrated into the NAS and, for areas with less UAS activity,
recommended a procedure for issuing NOTAMs when they are present.
The FAA agrees and has incorporated this into the conditions and limitations of this
exemption. NAAA’s notification concerns are also addressed by the conditions and
limitations that will require an Air Traffic Organization issued Certificate of Waiver or
Authorization (COA) to address airspace requirements and notification. Further detail is
contained in the analysis of the UAS operating parameters below.
NAAA proposed UAS comply with 13 measures similar to those presented by the North
Dakota Agricultural Aviation Association to the North Dakota Department of Commerce, the
organization awarded the North Dakota UAS test site.
The FAA believes the limitations under which the petitioner will operate (i.e. VLOS and at or
below 300 feet AGL) and the UAS emergency procedures as outlined in the petitioner’s
supplemental documentation are sufficient mitigations to this risk so that the operations will
87
not adversely affect safety. Further, the FAA addressed additional concerns raised by NAAA
by adding operating conditions and limitations regarding operations in the proximity of
airports, stand-off distance from clouds, altitude restrictions, and operating distance from nonparticipating persons. Further detail is contained in the analysis of the UAS operating
parameters below.
The USHPA also raised concerns about the identification marking regulations as well as the
petitioner’s need to coordinate his operations with airports and comply with local and state
notification regulations associated with his type of activity.
Commenter James Lee wrote in support of Trudeau’s petition, so long as he does not fly
higher than 200 feet within a quarter mile from an airport or any flight path or flight operation
and never flies above 400 feet AGL.
The FAA considered USHPA’s and Mr. Lee’s concerns and included conditions and
limitations to address these issues as outlined below.
Lastly, the Small UAV Coalition submitted extensive comments supporting the petition.
These included suggestions that the FAA: apply regulations differently to small UAVs versus
those in the air transport category, not require all seven factors outlined in Section 333 as a
prerequisite for every exemption (i.e. beyond visual line of sight (VLOS); weight; size,
altitude, airspace, geographic area, and proposed technology), and consider Trudeau’s safety
protocols including his posting of signs warning of flights as sufficient to enable operations in
populated areas. Regarding use in the NAS, the Small UAV Coalition stated, in part, that the
FAA's safety evaluation of UAV operations should not hinge on the type of operation (i.e.
public, commercial, recreational or philanthropic) rather operational risks and steps that can
be taken to eliminate or reduce such risks. The Small UAV Coalition also commended the
petitioner for developing a “Personal Protocols and Controls” document that details how he
will contact any airport within a 5 mile radius in advance of his proposed UAV operation.
The FAA's analysis is as follows:
Unmanned aircraft system (UAS)
The petitioner requested relief from 14 CFR part 21, Certification procedures for products
and parts. In accordance with the statutory criteria provided in Section 333 of P.L. 112-95 in
reference to 49 USC § 44704, and in consideration of the size, weight, speed, and limited
operating area associated with the aircraft and its operation, the Secretary of Transportation
has determined that this aircraft meets the conditions of Section 333. Therefore, the FAA
finds that the requested relief from 14 CFR part 21, and any associated noise certification and
testing requirements of part 36, is not necessary.
Manned aircraft conducting aerial filming and photography can weigh 5,000 lbs. or more, are
operated by an onboard pilot and may carry other onboard crewmembers, as well as 100
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gallons or more of fuel. The petitioner’s UA weighs less than 3 lbs. The pilot and crew will be
remotely located from the aircraft. The limited weight reduces the potential for harm to
persons or damage to property in the event of an incident or accident. The risk to an onboard
pilot and crew during an incident or accident is eliminated with the use of a UAS for the
proposed operation.
Manned aircraft are at risk of fuel spillage and fire in the event of an incident or accident. The
Phantom 2 Vision+ carries no fuel, and therefore the risk of fire following an incident or
accident due to fuel spillage is eliminated.
This exemption does not require an electronic means to monitor and communicate with other
aircraft, such as transponders or sense and avoid technology. Rather the FAA is mitigating the
risk of these operations by placing limits on altitude, requiring stand-off distance from clouds,
permitting daytime operations only, and requiring that the UA be operated within VLOS and
yield right of way to all manned operations. Additionally, the exemption provides that the
operator will request a notice to airmen (NOTAM) prior to operations to alert other users of
the NAS. These mitigations address concerns raised by NAAA and ALPA regarding
awareness of UAS operations occurring in the airspace
The petitioner’s UAS has the capability to operate safely after experiencing certain in-flight
contingencies or failures and uses an auto-pilot system to maintain UAS stability and control.
The UAS is also able to respond to a loss of GPS or a lost-link event with pre-coordinated
automated flight maneuvers. These safety features provide an equivalent level of safety
compared to a manned aircraft holding a restricted airworthiness certificate performing a
similar operation and address concerns raised by ALPA and NAAA.
Regarding the petitioner’s requested relief from 14 CFR 45.23(b), Display of marks, the
petitioner requests this relief under the assumption that marking with the word “experimental”
will be required as a condition of a grant of exemption. However, this marking is reserved for
aircraft that are issued experimental certificates under 14 CFR 21.191. The petitioner’s UAS
will not be certificated under § 21.191, and therefore the “experimental” marking is not
required. Since the petitioner’s UAS will not be certificated under § 21.191, a grant of
exemption for § 45.23(b) is not necessary.
Regarding the petitioner’s requested relief from 14 CFR 91.405(a), Maintenance required,
91.407(a)(1), Operation after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration,
91.409(a)(2), Inspections, and 91.417(a) and (b), Maintenance records, the FAA has
determined that relief from § 91.409(a)(1) is also necessary because it is an alternate
inspection requirement of § 91.409(a)(2). The petitioner proposes to inspect and ensure that
the UAS is in a condition for safe flight.
Therefore, the FAA finds that adherence to the petitioner’s operating documents and the
conditions and limitations below, describing the requirements for maintenance, inspection,
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and recordkeeping, are sufficient to ensure that safety is not adversely affected. Accordingly,
the FAA finds that exemption from 14 CFR 91.405(a), 91.407(a)(1), 91.409(a)(1) and (2), and
91.417(a) and (b) is warranted.
Pilot In Command (PIC) of the UAS
Regarding the petitioner’s requested relief from 14 CFR 61.113(a) and (b), Private pilot
privileges and limitations, the petitioner requested regulatory relief to operate his UAS
without an FAA-certificated pilot. In support of his request, the petitioner states that “while
helpful, a pilot license will not ensure remote control piloting skills.” However, the FAA does
not possess the authority to exempt the petitioner from the statutory requirement to hold an
airman certificate, as prescribed in 49 USC § 44711.2 Although Section 333 provides limited
statutory flexibility relative to 49 USC § 44704 for the purposes of airworthiness certification,
it does not provide similar flexibility relative to other sections of Title 49.
Unlike operations pursuant to public COAs, the FAA is also requiring a pilot certificate for
UAS operations for two reasons, the first of which is to satisfy the statutory requirements as
stated above. The second is because pilots holding an FAA issued private or commercial pilot
certificate are subject to the security screening by the Department of Homeland Security that
certificated airmen undergo. As previously determined by the Secretary of Transportation, the
requirement to have an airman certificate ameliorates security concerns over civil UAS
operations conducted in accordance with Section 333.
Given these grounds, the FAA must determine the appropriate level of pilot certification for
the petitioner’s proposed operation.
Under current regulations, civil operations for compensation or hire require a PIC holding a
commercial pilot certificate per 14 CFR part 61. Based on the private pilot limitations in
accordance with pertinent parts of 14 CFR 61.113(a) and (b), a pilot holding a private pilot
certificate cannot act as a PIC of an aircraft for compensation or hire unless the flight is only
incidental to a business or employment. However, in Grant of Exemption No. 11062 to
Astraeus Aerial (Astraeus), the FAA determined that a PIC with a private pilot certificate
operating the Astraeus UAS would not adversely affect operations in the NAS or present a
hazard to persons or property on the ground.
As discussed above, the petition received three comments registering concern about pilot
certification. ALPA stated its opposition to the proposed operation by a non-certificated pilot
without a required medical certificate. ALPA believes that the operation should be conducted
by a PIC holding a current FAA commercial pilot certificate with an appropriate category and
2
49 USC § 44711 prohibits a person from serving “in any capacity as an airman with respect to a civil aircraft,
aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance used, or intended for use, in air commerce…without an airman certificate
authorizing the airman to serve in the capacity for which the certificate was issued . . . .”.
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class rating for the type of aircraft being flown and a current second-class airman medical
certificate. NAAA stated that the UAS pilot should be a commercial pilot or have similar
training and can demonstrate knowledge of aviation safety and communication procedures.
USHPA stated that since the petitioner has not indicated any restriction to location of his
operations, nor his knowledge of airspace rules, and because his operations would constitute
commercial operations, he should be required to meet that level of certification.
The FAA has analyzed the petitioner’s proposed operation, considered the comments above,
and determined it does not differ significantly from the situation described in Grant of
Exemption No. 11062 (Astraeus). The petitioner plans to operate in the NAS over private
property while also limiting access to the property at times he is operating the UA. Given: 1)
the similar nature of the petitioner’s proposed operating environment to that of Astraeus, 2)
the parallel nature of private pilot aeronautical knowledge requirements to those of
commercial requirements [ref: Exemption No. 11062], and 3) the airmanship skills necessary
to operate the UAS, the FAA finds that the additional manned airmanship experience of a
commercially certificated pilot would not correlate to the airmanship skills necessary for the
petitioner’s proposed operations. Therefore, the FAA finds that a PIC holding a private pilot
certificate and a third-class airman medical certificate is appropriate for the proposed
operations.
With regard to the airmanship skills necessary to operate the UAS, the petitioner has provided
no training program, minimum flight time hours, or test standards to demonstrate his
capability to meet some of the conditions and limitations below including avoiding hazards,
reacting to emergencies, or maintaining specific distances from persons or property. The
petitioner indicates he avoids risks that may cause a crash and that he has flown numerous
practice flights in remote areas as a hobbyist simulating flights for future commercial use to
gain familiarization with the characteristics and performance of this UAS under different
temperature and wind conditions. He also mentions his computerized simulated flights to
maintain adequate skills and response reflex time.
Since the petitioner provides no information regarding a training program, minimum flight
time hours, or test standards to demonstrate his capability to operate safely, and in response to
concerns raised by ALPA, NAAA, and USHPA, the FAA reviewed the minimum
requirements for providing a waiver to manned operations under 14 CFR 91.119. While this
process applies to an operator seeking a waiver rather than an exemption, the exemption
process is similar. Manned operations that require relief from 14 CFR 91.119 in the form of a
waiver have established minimum requirements for pilot personnel (PIC). 3
3
FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 3, Chapter 7, Section 1 Issue a Certificate of Waiver or Authorization: § 91.119(b)
and/or (c) (Minimum Safe Altitudes) and FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 3, Chapter 8, Section 1, Issue a Certificate
of Waiver for Motion Picture and Television Filming.
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1) at least 500 hours logged as the PIC and at least 20 hours logged as the PIC in the
aircraft type;
2) a minimum of 25 hours (or 100 hours in the case of motion picture operations) in
the same category and class of aircraft to be used; and
3) a minimum of 5 hours in the make and model aircraft to be used under the waiver.
However, given the relative size, weight, speed and operating parameters of the proposed
UAS operations and its accompanying reduction in risk to persons and property when
compared to manned operations, these minimum requirements should be reduced, but not
eliminated. UAS operators still need to establish airmanship skills in order to meet the
conditions and limitations listed below such as the ability to maneuver near but maintain
specific distances from persons and property, respond to unexpected emergencies, or avoid
objects as well as the ability to avoid potential conflicts with manned aircraft. In
consideration of the above, the FAA must determine the appropriate level of pilot flight hours
necessary to qualify the PIC for the petitioner’s proposed operations. The FAA has
considered minimum skills and associated flight-hours necessary to practice and build
proficiency in these skills. The petitioner is responsible for assessing its operations and
identifying any additional skills required to operate safely under normal and abnormal
conditions. Normal condition skills may include the ability to maintain altitude, maintain
VLOS, and navigational skills. Abnormal condition skills may include the ability to avoid
obstacles, avoid air traffic, and respond to loss of link.
In making its determination the FAA considered the requirements proposed by Astraeus in
Exemption No. 11062. The FAA notes that the petitioner’s proposed operation is similar to
that authorized in Exemption No. 11062 because both include operations closer than 500 feet
from persons, vessels, vehicles, and structures. In Exemption No. 11062, the FAA required
that prior to conducting operations for the purpose of motion picture filming (or similar
operations), the PIC must have accumulated and logged, in a manner consistent with
14 CFR 61.51(b), 25 hours of total time as a UAS rotorcraft pilot including at least 10 hours
logged as a UAS pilot with a multi-rotor UAS. Prior to operations under Exemption No.
11062, the PIC must also have accumulated and logged a minimum of 5 hours as a UAS pilot
operating the same make and model of UAS to be used for operations under the exemption.
For clarification, the FAA considers these minimum hour requirements to be inclusive rather
than additive; i.e. 5 hours make and model time may be included in the 10 hours of multirotor time and the 10 hours may be included in the total 25 hours of UAS rotorcraft time. In
addition to the hour requirements, the PIC must accomplish 3 take-offs and landings in the
preceding 90 days (for currency purposes). The FAA finds that at a minimum, the flight-hour
requirements in Exemption No. 11062 are appropriate to practice and build proficiency in the
skills necessary to safely conduct the petitioner’s proposed operations. The FAA also finds
that prior documented flight experience that was obtained in compliance with applicable
regulations would satisfy this requirement. Training, proficiency, and experience-building
flights can also be conducted under the grant of exemption to accomplish the required flight
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time. During training, proficiency, and experience-building flights the PIC is required to
operate the UA with appropriate distances in accordance with 14 CFR 91.119.
The flight-hours above are considered appropriate given the circumstances of the proposed
operation and the description provided by the petitioner of the preparations he has undertaken
to conduct the UAS operation safely. The petitioner may determine through its safety
assessment that additional hours are necessary to address all potential flight hazards and
requisite airmanship skills. Consequently, the FAA has included in the conditions and
limitations below that the petitioner may not permit any PIC to operate unless that PIC is able
to safely operate the UAS in a manner consistent with how the UAS will be operated under
this exemption, including evasive and emergency maneuvers and maintaining appropriate
distances from persons, vessels, vehicles and structures.
In conclusion, the FAA finds that prior to operations the PIC must, at a minimum, hold a
private pilot certificate, a third-class airman medical certificate, and completed the minimum
flight hour and currency requirements as stated in the conditions and limitations below. Thus,
the FAA finds relief from 14 CFR 61.113(a) and (b) is warranted.
In a supplemental request to the FAA, the petitioner requests consideration of a 120 day
temporary airman certificate in accordance with 14 CFR 63.13, to allow him time to obtain a
private pilot certificate. The requested relief is not applicable to pilot certificates because,
14 CFR 63.1, Applicability, states this part prescribes the requirements for issuing flight
engineer and flight navigator certificates and the general operating rules for holders of those
certificates, only. Thus, 14 CFR 63.13 does not provide a basis from which to issue a
temporary pilot certificate as requested by the petitioner and the requested relief is denied.
The petitioner has also indicated he will supplement his proposed operation(s) with a spotter,
hereafter referred to as a visual observer (VO). The conditions and limitations below stipulate
that the PIC must ensure that the VO can perform the functions prescribed in the operating
documents. Additionally, as discussed in Exemption No. 11109 to Clayco, Inc., there are no
regulatory requirements for visual observer medical certificates. Although a medical
certificate is not required for a VO, the UA must never be operated beyond the actual visual
capabilities of the VO, and the VO and PIC must have the ability to maintain visual line of
sight (VLOS) with the UA at all times. It is the responsibility of the PIC to be aware of the
VO’s visual limitations and limit operations of the UA to distances within the visual
capabilities of both the PIC and VO. Moreover, the VO will not be operating the aircraft.
Therefore, as in Grant of Exemption No. 11062 to Astraeus, the FAA does not consider a
medical certificate necessary for the VO.
Operating parameters of the UAS
Regarding the petitioner’s requested relief from 14 CFR 91.7(a) Civil aircraft airworthiness,
petitioner’s request is based on his belief that since no FAA regulatory standard exists for
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determining airworthiness of the UAS, the regulation is inapplicable. While the petitioner’s
UAS will not require an airworthiness certificate in accordance with 14 CFR part 21,
Subpart H, the FAA considers the petitioner’s compliance with his operating documents to be
sufficient means for determining an airworthy condition. Therefore, relief from § 91.7(a) is
granted. The petitioner is still required to ensure that his aircraft is in an airworthy condition –
based on compliance with the operating documents prior to every flight, and as stated in the
conditions and limitations below.
Additionally, in accordance with 14 CFR 91.7(b), the PIC of the UAS is responsible for
determining whether the aircraft is in a condition for safe flight. The FAA finds that the PIC
can comply with this requirement, therefore relief from § 91.7(b) is not necessary.
Regarding the petitioner’s requested relief from 14 CFR 91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual,
marking, and placard requirements and 14 CFR 91.203(a) and (b) Civil aircraft:
Certifications required, the FAA has previously determined that relief from these sections is
not necessary. Relevant materials may be kept in a location accessible to the PIC in
compliance with the regulations.
Regarding the petitioner’s requested relief from 14 CFR 91.103, Preflight Action, the
petitioner requires each PIC to take certain actions before flight to ensure the safety of the
flight. The exemption is needed because the pilot will take separate preflight actions as
referenced in the operating documents. Although there will be no approved Airplane or
Rotorcraft Flight Manual available, the FAA believes that the petitioner can comply with the
other applicable requirements in 14 CFR 91.103(b)(2). The procedures outlined in the
operating documents address the FAA’s concerns regarding compliance with § 91.103(b).
The PIC will take all actions including reviewing weather, flight battery requirements,
landings, and takeoff distances and aircraft performance data before initiation of flight. The
FAA has imposed stricter requirements with regard to visibility and distance from clouds; this
is to both keep the UA from departing the VLOS and to preclude the UA from operating in the
NAS. The FAA also notes the risks associated with sun glare; the FAA believes that the PIC’s
and VO’s ability to still see other air traffic, combined with the PIC’s ability to initiate a
return-to-home sequence, are sufficient mitigations in this respect. The PIC will also account
for all relevant site-specific conditions in his or her preflight procedures. Therefore, the FAA
finds that exemption from 14 CFR 91.103 is not necessary.
Regarding the petitioner’s requested relief from 14 CFR 91.109(a), Flight instruction;
Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests, the petitioner did not describe training
scenarios in which a dual set of controls would be utilized or required, i.e. dual flight
instruction, provided by a flight instructor or other company-designated individual, that would
require that individual to have fully functioning dual controls. Rather, the petitioner refers to
his “numerous practice flights in remote areas as a hobbyist.” But, as outlined above, the
FAA is requiring that the petitioner’s PIC possess at least a private pilot’s certificate. Also,
the currency requirements expressed in the conditions and limitations below will help ensure
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that a PIC training on the UAS has the authority to operate the UAS during training flights as
PIC in accordance with § 61.31(l). The FAA will impose a limitation that those training
operations are only conducted during dedicated training sessions. As such, the FAA finds that
the petitioner can conduct his operations without the requested relief from § 91.109.
The petitioner’s requested relief from 14 CFR 91.119, Minimum safe altitudes, relief from
§ 91.119(a), which requires operating at an altitude that allows a safe emergency landing if a
power unit fails, is not granted. The FAA expects the petitioner to be able to perform an
emergency landing without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface if a power unit
fails. Relief from § 91.119(b), operation over congested areas, is not granted, because, as
discussed below, operations over congested areas will not be permitted under this exemption.
Relief from § 91.119(c) is necessary because the aircraft will be operated at altitudes below
300 feet AGL. Section 91.119(c) states that no person may operate an aircraft below the
following altitudes: over other than congested areas, an altitude of 500 feet above the surface,
except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be
operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure. The petitioner states
that he will operate pursuant to the following, self-imposed restrictions related to § 91.119:
• operate in reasonably safe environment that are strictly controlled, are away from
power lines, elevated lights, airports and actively populated areas away from public
and traffic;
• conduct all operations under his own personal safety protocols (including posting a
warning sign reading: “Attention Aerial Photography in Progress – Remain Back 150
Feet”) contained in the operating documents and will actively analyze flight data and
other sources of information to constantly update and enhance his safety protocols;
• contact respective airports if operations will be within 5 miles to advise them of his
estimated flight time, flight duration, elevation of flight and other pertinent
information; and
• always obtain all necessary permissions prior to operation.
The petitioner proposes to avoid “actively populated areas” but does not explain how these
areas are determined. As in Exemption No. 11110 (Trimble Navigation, Ltd.), the FAA notes
that avoidance of areas which are depicted in “yellow” on VFR charts is a practicable step in
assuring that operations are not conducted over congested or densely populated areas.
However, using these “yellow” areas solely to make this determination is not sufficient. Pilots
may obtain information regarding congested areas from the local Flight Standards District
Office (FSDO). Therefore, operations over congested or densely populated areas are
prohibited as stated in the conditions and limitations below.
The petitioner did not describe stand-off distances from persons, vessels, vehicles and
structures. Section 91.119(c) requires that aircraft operate no closer than 500 feet to these
persons or objects. As discussed in Exemption No. 11109 (Clayco, Inc.), operations
conducted closer than 500 feet to the ground may require that the UA be operated closer than
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500 feet to essential persons, or objects that would not be possible without additional relief.
Therefore, the FAA is requiring that prior to conducting UAS operations, all persons not
essential to flight operations (nonparticipating persons) must remain at appropriate distances.
In open areas, this requires the UA to remain 500 feet from all persons other than essential
flight personnel (i.e. PIC, VO, operator trainees or essential persons). The FAA has also
considered the UA’s maximum gross weight of approximately 3 pounds. If barriers or
structures are present that can sufficiently protect nonparticipating persons from the UA or
debris in the event of an accident, then the UA may operate closer than 500 feet to persons
afforded such protection. The operator must also ensure that nonparticipating persons remain
under such protection. If a situation arises where nonparticipating persons leave such
protection and are within 500 feet of the UA, flight operations must cease immediately. When
considering how to immediately cease operations, the primary concern is the safety of those
nonparticipating persons. In addition, the FAA finds that operations may be conducted closer
than 500 feet to vessels, vehicles and structures when the owner/controller of any such
vessels, vehicles or structures grants permission for the operation and the PIC makes a safety
assessment of the risk of operating closer to those objects and determines that it does not
present an undue hazard.
Thus, the FAA finds that relief from § 91.119(c) is warranted provided adherence to the
procedures in the operating documents and the FAA’s additional conditions and limitations
outlined below. Relief from § 91.119(a) is unwarranted as the FAA expects the petitioner to
be able to perform an emergency landing without undue hazard to persons or property on the
surface. Relief from §§ 91.119(b) is not granted and 91.119(d) is not applicable.
Regarding the petitioner’s requested relief from 14 CFR 91.121 Altimeter Settings, the
petitioner has a barometric altimeter and GPS derived altitude capabilities. However, as
stated in the conditions and limitations below, the FAA requires any altitude reported to ATC
to be in feet AGL. The petitioner may choose to set the altimeter to zero feet AGL rather than
local barometric pressure or field altitude before flight. Considering the limited altitude of the
proposed operations, relief from 14 CFR 91.121 is granted to the extent necessary to comply
with the applicable conditions and limitations stated below.
Regarding the petitioner’s requested relief from § 91.151 (a) Fuel requirements for flight in
VFR conditions, prior relief has been granted for manned aircraft to operate at less than
prescribed minimums, including Exemption Nos. 2689, 5745, and 10650. In addition, similar
UAS-specific relief has been granted in Exemption Nos. 8811, 10808, and 10673 for daytime,
VFR conditions. The petitioner’s only reference to this section is his commitment to land the
UAS prior to the manufacturer’s recommended minimum level of battery power. The
operating documents indicate that two low-voltage (low battery) alerts are issued - warning
that the first alert should be followed (30% - low battery level warning). Further, the
petitioner has indicated his flights will last only 3-7 minutes each. Also, the UAS has an
automated function which results in immediate landing when a low battery is detected. These
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factors provide the FAA with sufficient reason to grant the relief from 14 CFR 91.151(a) as
requested in accordance with the conditions and limitations below, that prohibit the PIC from
beginning a flight unless (considering wind and forecast weather conditions) there is enough
power to fly to the first point of intended landing and, assuming normal cruising speed, land
the UA with 30% battery power remaining.
Regarding an Air Traffic Organization (ATO) issued Certificate of Waiver or Authorization
(COA), the majority of current UAS operations occurring in the NAS are being coordinated
through Air Traffic Control (ATC) by the issuance of a COA. This is an existing process that
not only makes local ATC facilities aware of UAS operations, but also provides ATC the
ability to consider airspace issues that are unique to UAS operations. The COA will require
the operator to request a NOTAM, which is the mechanism for alerting other users of the NAS
to the UAS activities being conducted. The conditions and limitations below prescribe the
requirement for the petitioner to obtain an ATO-issued COA.
Public Interest
The FAA finds that a grant of exemption is in the public interest. The enhanced safety and
reduced environmental impact achieved using a UA with the specifications described by the
petitioner and carrying no passengers or crew, rather than a manned aircraft of significantly
greater proportions, carrying crew in addition to flammable fuel, gives the FAA good cause to
find that the UAS operation enabled by this exemption is in the public interest. The following
table summarizes the FAA’s determinations regarding the relief sought by the petitioner:
Relief considered (14 CFR)
Part 21
45.23(b)
FAA determination (14 CFR)
Relief not necessary
Relief not necessary
Relief granted with conditions and
limitations
Relief not granted
Relief granted with conditions and
limitations
Relief not necessary
Relief not necessary
Relief not necessary
Paragraph (c) granted with conditions
and limitations
Relief granted with conditions and
limitations
Paragraph 91.151(a)(1), day, granted with
conditions and limitations
Relief not necessary
Relief granted with conditions and
61.113(a) and (b)
63.13
91.7(a)
91.9(b)(2)
91.103(b)
91.109
91.119
91.121
91.151(a)
91.203(a) and (b)
91.405(a)
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Relief considered (14 CFR)
FAA determination (14 CFR)
limitations
Relief granted with conditions and
limitations
Relief granted with conditions and
limitations
Relief granted with conditions and
limitations
91.407(a)(1)
91.409(a)(1) and (2)
91.417(a) and (b)
The FAA’s Decision
In consideration of the foregoing, I find that a grant of exemption is in the public interest.
Therefore, pursuant to the authority contained in 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 40113, and 44701,
delegated to me by the Administrator, Mr. Douglas Trudeau, Realtor®, of Tierra Antigua
Realty, is granted an exemption from 14 CFR 61.113(a) and (b), 91.7(a), 91.119(c), 91.121,
91.151(a)(1), 91.405(a), 91.407(a)(1), 91.409(a)(1) and (2), and 91.417(a) and (b) to the
extent necessary to allow petitioner to operate an unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for the
purpose of aerial videography/cinematography and augment real estate listing videos. This
exemption is subject to the conditions and limitations listed below.
Conditions and Limitations
Relative to this grant of exemption, Trudeau is hereafter referred to as the operator.
The following documents provided by the operator in its petition, 1) Supplemental Response
for Petition, 2) PHANTOM Flying Flow Chart V1.0 (Simplified Version), PHANTOM Quick
Start Manual v1.7, PHANTOM Advanced Manual v.1.4, 3) PHANTOM 2 Vision+ User
Manual 4) restricted areas map, 5) personal protocols and controls, and 6) Safety/Flight
Manual, are hereinafter referred to as operating documents.
Failure to comply with any of the conditions and limitations of this grant of exemption will be
grounds for the immediate suspension or rescission of this exemption.
1) Operations authorized by this grant of exemption are limited to the following aircraft
described in the operating documents which is a quad-rotor aircraft weighing less than
3 pounds: PHANTOM 2 Vision+ Unmanned Aircraft System. Proposed operations of
any other aircraft will require a new petition or a petition to amend this grant.
2) The UA may not be flown at an indicated airspeed exceeding 30 knots.
3) The UA must be operated at an altitude of no more than 300 feet above ground level
(AGL), as indicated by the procedures specified in the operating documents. All
altitudes reported to ATC must be in feet AGL.
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4) The UA must be operated within visual line of sight (VLOS) of the Pilot In Command
(PIC) at all times. This requires the PIC to be able to use human vision unaided by any
device other than corrective lenses, as specified on the PIC’s FAA-issued airman
medical certificate.
5) All operations must utilize a visual observer (VO). The UA must be operated within
the visual line of sight (VLOS) of the VO at all times. The VO may be used to satisfy
the VLOS requirement as long as the PIC always maintains VLOS capability. The VO
and PIC must be able to communicate verbally at all times. The PIC must be
designated before the flight and cannot transfer his or her designation for the duration
of the flight. The PIC must ensure that the VO can perform the functions prescribed in
the operating documents.
6) The operating documents and this grant of exemption must be accessible during UAS
operations and made available to the Administrator upon request. If a discrepancy
exists between the conditions and limitations in this exemption and the procedures
outlined in the operating documents, the conditions and limitations herein take
precedence and must be followed. Otherwise, the operator must follow the procedures
as outlined in its operating documents. The operator may update or revise its
operating documents. It is the operator’s responsibility to track such revisions and
present updated and revised documents to the Administrator upon request. The
operator must also present updated and revised documents if he petitions for extension
or amendment to this grant of exemption. If the operator determines that any update or
revision would affect the basis upon which the FAA granted this exemption, then the
operator must petition for amendment to its grant of exemption. The FAA’s UAS
Integration Office (AFS-80) may be contacted if questions arise regarding updates or
revisions to the operating documents.
7) Prior to each flight, the PIC must inspect the UAS to ensure it is in a condition for safe
flight. If the inspection reveals a condition that affects the safe operation of the UAS,
the UAS is prohibited from operating until the necessary maintenance has been
performed and the UAS is found to be in a condition for safe flight. The Ground
Control Station must be included in the preflight inspection. All maintenance and
alterations must be properly documented in the aircraft records.
8) Any UAS maintenance or alterations that affect the UAS operation or flight
characteristics, e.g. replacement of a flight critical component, must undergo a
functional test flight. The PIC who conducts the functional test flight must make an
entry in the aircraft records.
9) The pre-flight inspection section in the operating documents must account for all
discrepancies, i.e. inoperable components, items, or equipment, not already covered in
the relevant sections of the operating documents.
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10) The operator must follow the UAS manufacturer’s aircraft/component, maintenance,
overhaul, replacement, inspection, and life limit requirements.
11) The operator must carry out its maintenance, inspections, and record keeping
requirements, in accordance with the operating documents. Maintenance, inspection,
and alterations must be noted in the aircraft records, including total flight hours,
description of work accomplished, and the signature of the authorized person returning
the UAS to service.
12) Each UAS operated under this exemption must comply with all manufacturer Safety
Bulletins.
13) The authorized person must make an entry in the aircraft record of the corrective
action taken against discrepancies discovered between inspections.
14) UAS operations must be conducted by a PIC possessing at least a private pilot
certificate and at least a current third-class medical certificate. The PIC must also meet
the flight review requirements specified in 14 CFR 61.56 in an aircraft in which the
PIC is rated on his or her pilot certificate.
15) Prior to operations conducted for the purpose of aerial videography/cinematography
and augmenting real estate listing videos (or similar operations), the PIC must have
accumulated and logged, in a manner consistent with 14 CFR 61.51(b), a minimum of
25 hours of total time as a UAS rotorcraft pilot including at least 10 hours logged as a
UAS pilot with a multi-rotor UAS. Prior documented flight experience that was
obtained in compliance with applicable regulations may satisfy this requirement.
Training, proficiency, and experience-building flights can also be conducted under
this grant of exemption to accomplish the required flight time. However, said
training operations may only be conducted during dedicated training sessions. During
training, proficiency, and experience-building flights the PIC is required to operate
the UA with appropriate distances in accordance with 14 CFR 91.119.
16) Prior to operations conducted for the purpose of aerial videography/cinematography
and augmenting real estate listing videos (or similar operations), the PIC must have
accumulated and logged, in a manner consistent with 14 CFR 61.51(b), a minimum of
5 hours as UAS pilot operating the make and model of the UAS to be used in
operations under the exemption; 5 hours make and model time may be included in the
10 hours of multi-rotor time prescribed above. The PIC must accomplish 3 take-offs
and landings in the preceding 90 days (for currency purposes). Training, proficiency,
experience-building, and take-off and landing currency flights can be conducted
under this grant of exemption to accomplish the required flight time and 90 day
currency. However, said training operations may only be conducted during dedicated
training sessions. During training, proficiency, and experience-building flights the
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PIC is required to operate the UA with appropriate distances in accordance with
14 CFR 91.119.
17) The operator may not permit the PIC to operate the UAS for the purpose of aerial
videography/cinematography and augmenting real estate listing videos (or similar
operations), unless the PIC has demonstrated and logged in a manner consistent with
14 CFR 61.51(b), the ability to safely operate the UAS in a manner consistent with
how the UAS will be operated under this exemption, including evasive and emergency
maneuvers and maintaining appropriate distances from people, vessels, vehicles and
structures.
18) UAS operations may not be conducted during night, as defined in 14 CFR 1.1. All
operations must be conducted under visual meteorological conditions (VMC).
19) The UA may not operate within 5 nautical miles of an airport reference point as
denoted on a current FAA-published aeronautical chart.
20) The UA may not be operated less than 500 feet below or less than 2,000 feet
horizontally from a cloud or when visibility is less than 3 statute miles from the PIC.
21) If the UA loses communications or loses its GPS signal, it must return to a predetermined location within the planned operating area and land or be recovered in
accordance with the operating documents.
22) The PIC must abort the flight in the event of unpredicted obstacles or emergencies in
accordance with the operating documents.
23) The PIC is prohibited from beginning a flight unless (considering wind and forecast
weather conditions) there is enough power to fly at normal cruising speed to the
intended landing point and land the UA with 30% battery power remaining.
24) The operator must obtain an Air Traffic Organization (ATO) issued Certificate of
Waiver or Authorization (COA) prior to conducting any operations under this grant of
exemption. This COA will also require the operator to request a Notice to Airman
(NOTAM) not more than 72 hours in advance, but not less than 48 hours prior to the
operation.
25) All aircraft operated in accordance with this exemption must be identified by serial
number, registered in accordance with 14 CFR part 47, and have identification (NNumber) markings in accordance with 14 CFR part 45, Subpart C. Markings must be
as large as practicable.
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26) Before conducting operations, the radio frequency spectrum used for operation and
control of the UA must comply with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
or other appropriate government oversight agency requirements.
27) The documents required under 14 CFR 91.9 and 91.203 must be available to the PIC at
the Ground Control Station of the UAS any time the UAS is operating. These
documents must be made available to the Administrator or any law enforcement
official upon request.
28) The UA must remain clear and yield the right of way to all manned aviation operations
and activities at all times.
29) The UAS may not be operated by the PIC from any moving device or vehicle.
30) The UA may not be operated over congested or densely populated areas.
31) Flight operations must be conducted at least 500 feet from all nonparticipating
persons, vessels, vehicles, and structures unless:
a. Barriers or structures are present that sufficiently protect nonparticipating
persons from the UA and/or debris in the event of an accident. The operator
must ensure that nonparticipating persons remain under such protection. If a
situation arises where nonparticipating persons leave such protection and are
within 500 feet of the UA, flight operations must cease immediately and/or;
b. The aircraft is operated near vessels, vehicles or structures where the
owner/controller of such vessels, vehicles or structures has granted permission
and the PIC has made a safety assessment of the risk of operating closer to
those objects and determined that it does not present an undue hazard, and;
c. Operations nearer to the PIC, VO, operator trainees or essential persons do not
present an undue hazard to those persons per § 91.119(a).
32) All operations shall be conducted over private or controlled-access property with
permission from the land owner/controller or authorized representative. Permission
from land owner/controller or authorized representative will be obtained for each
flight to be conducted.
33) Any incident, accident, or flight operation that transgresses the lateral or vertical
boundaries of the operational area as defined by the applicable COA must be reported
to the FAA's UAS Integration Office (AFS-80) within 24 hours. Accidents must be
reported to the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) per instructions
contained on the NTSB Web site: www.ntsb.gov.
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Unless otherwise specified in this grant of exemption, the UAS, the UAS PIC, and the UAS
operations must comply with all applicable parts of 14 CFR including, but not limited to, parts
45, 47, 61, and 91.
This exemption terminates on January 31, 2017, unless sooner superseded or rescinded.
Issued in Washington, DC, on January 5, 2015.
/s/
John S. Duncan
Director, Flight Standards Service
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