FLIR Systems FLIR C2 Compact Thermal Imager - FLIR

User’s manual
FLIR Cx series
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User’s manual
FLIR Cx series
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Table of contents
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1
Disclaimers ........................................................................................1
1.1
Legal disclaimer ......................................................................... 1
1.2
Usage statistics .......................................................................... 1
1.3
Changes to registry ..................................................................... 1
1.4
U.S. Government Regulations........................................................ 1
1.5
Copyright .................................................................................. 1
1.6
Quality assurance ....................................................................... 1
1.7
Patents ..................................................................................... 1
1.8
EULA Terms .............................................................................. 1
1.9
EULA Terms .............................................................................. 2
2
Safety information ...............................................................................3
3
Notice to user .....................................................................................6
3.1
User-to-user forums .................................................................... 6
3.2
Calibration................................................................................. 6
3.3
Accuracy .................................................................................. 6
3.4
Disposal of electronic waste .......................................................... 6
3.5
Training .................................................................................... 6
3.6
Documentation updates ............................................................... 6
3.7
Important note about this manual.................................................... 6
3.8
Note about authoritative versions.................................................... 7
4
Customer help ....................................................................................8
4.1
General .................................................................................... 8
4.2
Submitting a question .................................................................. 9
4.3
Downloads ................................................................................ 9
5
Quick Start Guide .............................................................................. 10
5.1
Procedure ............................................................................... 10
6
Description ....................................................................................... 11
6.1
View from the front .................................................................... 11
6.2
View from the rear..................................................................... 11
6.3
Connector ............................................................................... 12
6.4
Screen elements ...................................................................... 12
6.5
Auto-orientation........................................................................ 12
6.6
Navigating the menu system ....................................................... 13
7
Operation ......................................................................................... 14
7.1
Charging the battery .................................................................. 14
7.2
Turning on and turning off the camera............................................ 14
7.3
Saving an image ....................................................................... 14
7.3.1 General........................................................................ 14
7.3.2 Image capacity .............................................................. 14
7.3.3 Naming convention......................................................... 14
7.3.4 Procedure .................................................................... 14
7.4
Recalling an image.................................................................... 14
7.4.1 General........................................................................ 14
7.4.2 Procedure .................................................................... 14
7.5
Deleting an image ..................................................................... 15
7.5.1 General........................................................................ 15
7.5.2 Procedure .................................................................... 15
7.6
Deleting all images.................................................................... 15
7.6.1 General........................................................................ 15
7.6.2 Procedure .................................................................... 15
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Table of contents
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
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Measuring a temperature using a spotmeter ................................... 16
7.7.1 General........................................................................ 16
Hiding measurement tools .......................................................... 16
7.8.1 Procedure .................................................................... 16
Changing the color palette .......................................................... 16
7.9.1 General........................................................................ 16
7.9.2 Procedure .................................................................... 16
Changing the image mode .......................................................... 16
7.10.1 General........................................................................ 16
7.10.2 Procedure .................................................................... 17
Changing the temperature scale mode .......................................... 18
7.11.1 General........................................................................ 18
7.11.2 When to use Lock mode .................................................. 18
7.11.3 Procedure .................................................................... 18
Setting the emissivity ................................................................. 18
7.12.1 General........................................................................ 18
7.12.2 Procedure .................................................................... 18
Changing the reflected apparent temperature ................................. 19
7.13.1 General........................................................................ 19
7.13.2 Procedure .................................................................... 19
Changing the distance ............................................................... 19
7.14.1 General........................................................................ 19
7.14.2 Procedure .................................................................... 19
Performing a non-uniformity correction .......................................... 20
7.15.1 What is a non-uniformity correction?................................... 20
7.15.2 When to perform a non-uniformity correction ........................ 20
7.15.3 Procedure .................................................................... 20
Using the camera lamp .............................................................. 20
7.16.1 General........................................................................ 20
7.16.2 Procedure .................................................................... 20
Changing the settings ................................................................ 20
7.17.1 General........................................................................ 20
7.17.2 Procedure .................................................................... 21
Updating the camera ................................................................. 21
7.18.1 General........................................................................ 21
7.18.2 Procedure .................................................................... 21
8
Technical data ................................................................................... 23
8.1
Online field-of-view calculator ...................................................... 23
8.2
Note about technical data ........................................................... 23
8.3
Note about authoritative versions.................................................. 23
8.4
FLIR C2 .................................................................................. 24
9
Mechanical drawings ......................................................................... 27
10
CE Declaration of conformity .............................................................. 28
11
Cleaning the camera .......................................................................... 29
11.1
Camera housing, cables, and other items....................................... 29
11.1.1 Liquids......................................................................... 29
11.1.2 Equipment .................................................................... 29
11.1.3 Procedure .................................................................... 29
11.2
Infrared lens ............................................................................ 29
11.2.1 Liquids......................................................................... 29
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11.2.2 Equipment .................................................................... 29
11.2.3 Procedure .................................................................... 29
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12
Application examples......................................................................... 30
12.1
Moisture & water damage ........................................................... 30
12.1.1 General........................................................................ 30
12.1.2 Figure.......................................................................... 30
12.2
Faulty contact in socket .............................................................. 30
12.2.1 General........................................................................ 30
12.2.2 Figure.......................................................................... 31
12.3
Oxidized socket........................................................................ 31
12.3.1 General........................................................................ 31
12.3.2 Figure.......................................................................... 31
12.4
Insulation deficiencies................................................................ 32
12.4.1 General........................................................................ 32
12.4.2 Figure.......................................................................... 32
12.5
Draft ...................................................................................... 33
12.5.1 General........................................................................ 33
12.5.2 Figure.......................................................................... 33
13
About FLIR Systems .......................................................................... 35
13.1
More than just an infrared camera ................................................ 36
13.2
Sharing our knowledge .............................................................. 36
13.3
Supporting our customers........................................................... 37
13.4
A few images from our facilities .................................................... 37
14
Glossary .......................................................................................... 38
15
Thermographic measurement techniques ............................................ 41
15.1
Introduction ............................................................................ 41
15.2
Emissivity................................................................................ 41
15.2.1 Finding the emissivity of a sample ...................................... 41
15.3
Reflected apparent temperature................................................... 45
15.4
Distance ................................................................................. 45
15.5
Relative humidity ...................................................................... 45
15.6
Other parameters...................................................................... 45
16
History of infrared technology............................................................. 46
17
Theory of thermography..................................................................... 49
17.1
Introduction ............................................................................. 49
17.2
The electromagnetic spectrum..................................................... 49
17.3
Blackbody radiation................................................................... 49
17.3.1 Planck’s law .................................................................. 50
17.3.2 Wien’s displacement law.................................................. 51
17.3.3 Stefan-Boltzmann's law ................................................... 53
17.3.4 Non-blackbody emitters................................................... 53
17.4
Infrared semi-transparent materials............................................... 55
18
The measurement formula.................................................................. 57
19
Emissivity tables ............................................................................... 61
19.1
References.............................................................................. 61
19.2
Tables .................................................................................... 61
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1
Disclaimers
1.1 Legal disclaimer
All products manufactured by FLIR Systems are warranted against defective
materials and workmanship for a period of one (1) year from the delivery date
of the original purchase, provided such products have been under normal storage, use and service, and in accordance with FLIR Systems instruction.
Uncooled handheld infrared cameras manufactured by FLIR Systems are warranted against defective materials and workmanship for a period of two (2)
years from the delivery date of the original purchase, provided such products
have been under normal storage, use and service, and in accordance with
FLIR Systems instruction, and provided that the camera has been registered
within 60 days of original purchase.
Detectors for uncooled handheld infrared cameras manufactured by FLIR Systems are warranted against defective materials and workmanship for a period
of ten (10) years from the delivery date of the original purchase, provided such
products have been under normal storage, use and service, and in accordance
with FLIR Systems instruction, and provided that the camera has been registered within 60 days of original purchase.
Products which are not manufactured by FLIR Systems but included in systems delivered by FLIR Systems to the original purchaser, carry the warranty, if
any, of the particular supplier only. FLIR Systems has no responsibility whatsoever for such products.
The warranty extends only to the original purchaser and is not transferable. It
is not applicable to any product which has been subjected to misuse, neglect,
accident or abnormal conditions of operation. Expendable parts are excluded
from the warranty.
In the case of a defect in a product covered by this warranty the product must
not be further used in order to prevent additional damage. The purchaser shall
promptly report any defect to FLIR Systems or this warranty will not apply.
FLIR Systems will, at its option, repair or replace any such defective product
free of charge if, upon inspection, it proves to be defective in material or workmanship and provided that it is returned to FLIR Systems within the said oneyear period.
FLIR Systems has no other obligation or liability for defects than those set forth
above.
FLIR Systems is committed to a policy of continuous development; therefore
we reserve the right to make changes and improvements on any of the products without prior notice.
1.7
000279476-0001; 000439161; 000499579-0001; 000653423; 000726344;
000859020; 001106306-0001; 001707738; 001707746; 001707787;
001776519; 001954074; 002021543; 002058180; 002249953; 002531178;
0600574-8; 1144833; 1182246; 1182620; 1285345; 1299699; 1325808;
1336775; 1391114; 1402918; 1404291; 1411581; 1415075; 1421497;
1458284; 1678485; 1732314; 2106017; 2107799; 2381417; 3006596;
3006597; 466540; 483782; 484155; 4889913; 5177595; 60122153.2;
602004011681.5-08; 6707044; 68657; 7034300; 7110035; 7154093;
7157705; 7237946; 7312822; 7332716; 7336823; 7544944; 7667198;
7809258 B2; 7826736; 8,153,971; 8,823,803; 8,853,631; 8018649 B2;
8212210 B2; 8289372; 8354639 B2; 8384783; 8520970; 8565547; 8595689;
8599262; 8654239; 8680468; 8803093; D540838; D549758; D579475;
D584755; D599,392; D615,113; D664,580; D664,581; D665,004; D665,440;
D677298; D710,424 S; D718801; DI6702302-9; DI6903617-9; DI7002221-6;
DI7002891-5; DI7002892-3; DI7005799-0; DM/057692; DM/061609; EP
2115696 B1; EP2315433; SE 0700240-5; US 8340414 B2; ZL
201330267619.5; ZL01823221.3; ZL01823226.4; ZL02331553.9;
ZL02331554.7; ZL200480034894.0; ZL200530120994.2; ZL200610088759.5;
ZL200630130114.4; ZL200730151141.4; ZL200730339504.7;
ZL200820105768.8; ZL200830128581.2; ZL200880105236.4;
ZL200880105769.2; ZL200930190061.9; ZL201030176127.1;
ZL201030176130.3; ZL201030176157.2; ZL201030595931.3;
ZL201130442354.9; ZL201230471744.3; ZL201230620731.8.
1.8
•
No other warranty is expressed or implied. FLIR Systems specifically disclaims
the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.
FLIR Systems shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental or
consequential loss or damage, whether based on contract, tort or any other legal theory.
This warranty shall be governed by Swedish law.
Any dispute, controversy or claim arising out of or in connection with this warranty, shall be finally settled by arbitration in accordance with the Rules of the
Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce. The place of arbitration shall be Stockholm. The language to be used in the arbitral proceedings shall be English.
1.2 Usage statistics
FLIR Systems reserves the right to gather anonymous usage statistics to help
maintain and improve the quality of our software and services.
Patents
One or several of the following patents and/or design patents may apply to the
products and/or features. Additional pending patents and/or pending design
patents may also apply.
•
•
EULA Terms
You have acquired a device (“INFRARED CAMERA”) that includes software licensed by FLIR Systems AB from Microsoft Licensing, GP or its affiliates (“MS”). Those installed software products of MS origin, as well as
associated media, printed materials, and “online” or electronic documentation (“SOFTWARE”) are protected by international intellectual property
laws and treaties. The SOFTWARE is licensed, not sold. All rights
reserved.
IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THIS END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT
(“EULA”), DO NOT USE THE DEVICE OR COPY THE SOFTWARE. INSTEAD, PROMPTLY CONTACT FLIR Systems AB FOR INSTRUCTIONS
ON RETURN OF THE UNUSED DEVICE(S) FOR A REFUND. ANY USE
OF THE SOFTWARE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO USE ON
THE DEVICE, WILL CONSTITUTE YOUR AGREEMENT TO THIS EULA (OR RATIFICATION OF ANY PREVIOUS CONSENT).
GRANT OF SOFTWARE LICENSE. This EULA grants you the following
license:
•
•
1.3 Changes to registry
The registry entry HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet
\Control\Lsa\LmCompatibilityLevel will be automatically changed to level 2 if
the FLIR Camera Monitor service detects a FLIR camera connected to the
computer with a USB cable. The modification will only be executed if the camera device implements a remote network service that supports network logons.
•
1.4 U.S. Government Regulations
This product may be subject to U.S. Export Regulations. Please send any inquiries to exportquestions@flir.com.
•
1.5 Copyright
© 2015, FLIR Systems, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide. No parts of the software including source code may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed or
translated into any language or computer language in any form or by any
means, electronic, magnetic, optical, manual or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of FLIR Systems.
The documentation must not, in whole or part, be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated or transmitted to any electronic medium or machine readable form without prior consent, in writing, from FLIR Systems.
Names and marks appearing on the products herein are either registered
trademarks or trademarks of FLIR Systems and/or its subsidiaries. All other
trademarks, trade names or company names referenced herein are used for
identification only and are the property of their respective owners.
•
•
•
1.6 Quality assurance
The Quality Management System under which these products are developed
and manufactured has been certified in accordance with the ISO 9001
standard.
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You may use the SOFTWARE only on the DEVICE.
NOT FAULT TOLERANT. THE SOFTWARE IS NOT FAULT TOLERANT. FLIR Systems AB HAS INDEPENDENTLY DETERMINED
HOW TO USE THE SOFTWARE IN THE DEVICE, AND MS HAS
RELIED UPON FLIR Systems AB TO CONDUCT SUFFICIENT
TESTING TO DETERMINE THAT THE SOFTWARE IS SUITABLE
FOR SUCH USE.
NO WARRANTIES FOR THE SOFTWARE. THE SOFTWARE is
provided “AS IS” and with all faults. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO SATISFACTORY QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, ACCURACY, AND EFFORT (INCLUDING LACK OF NEGLIGENCE) IS WITH YOU.
ALSO, THERE IS NO WARRANTY AGAINST INTERFERENCE
WITH YOUR ENJOYMENT OF THE SOFTWARE OR AGAINST INFRINGEMENT. IF YOU HAVE RECEIVED ANY WARRANTIES REGARDING THE DEVICE OR THE SOFTWARE, THOSE
WARRANTIES DO NOT ORIGINATE FROM, AND ARE NOT
BINDING ON, MS.
No Liability for Certain Damages. EXCEPT AS PROHIBITED BY
LAW, MS SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES ARISING
FROM OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE. THIS LIMITATION SHALL APPLY
EVEN IF ANY REMEDY FAILS OF ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE. IN
NO EVENT SHALL MS BE LIABLE FOR ANY AMOUNT IN EXCESS OF U.S. TWO HUNDRED FIFTY DOLLARS (U.S.$250.00).
Limitations on Reverse Engineering, Decompilation, and Disassembly. You may not reverse engineer, decompile, or disassemble the SOFTWARE, except and only to the extent that such activity
is expressly permitted by applicable law notwithstanding this
limitation.
SOFTWARE TRANSFER ALLOWED BUT WITH RESTRICTIONS.
You may permanently transfer rights under this EULA only as part of
a permanent sale or transfer of the Device, and only if the recipient
agrees to this EULA. If the SOFTWARE is an upgrade, any transfer
must also include all prior versions of the SOFTWARE.
EXPORT RESTRICTIONS. You acknowledge that SOFTWARE is
subject to U.S. export jurisdiction. You agree to comply with all applicable international and national laws that apply to the SOFTWARE,
including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, as well as
end-user, end-use and destination restrictions issued by U.S. and
other governments. For additional information see http://www.microsoft.com/exporting/.
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Disclaimers
1.9 EULA Terms
Qt4 Core and Qt4 GUI, Copyright ©2013 Nokia Corporation and FLIR Systems AB. This Qt library is a free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This library is distributed in the hope that it will be
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useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU Lesser General Public License, http://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl-2.1.html.
The source code for the libraries Qt4 Core and Qt4 GUI may be requested
from FLIR Systems AB.
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Safety information
WARNING
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Do not disassemble or do a modification to the battery. The battery contains safety and protection devices
which, if damage occurs, can cause the battery to become hot, or cause an explosion or an ignition.
WARNING
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
If there is a leak from the battery and you get the fluid in your eyes, do not rub your eyes. Flush well with
water and immediately get medical care. The battery fluid can cause injury to your eyes if you do not do
this.
WARNING
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Do not continue to charge the battery if it does not become charged in the specified charging time. If you
continue to charge the battery, it can become hot and cause an explosion or ignition. Injury to persons
can occur.
WARNING
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Only use the correct equipment to remove the electrical power from the battery. If you do not use the correct equipment, you can decrease the performance or the life cycle of the battery. If you do not use the
correct equipment, an incorrect flow of current to the battery can occur. This can cause the battery to become hot, or cause an explosion. Injury to persons can occur.
WARNING
Make sure that you read all applicable MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) and warning labels on containers before you use a liquid. The liquids can be dangerous. Injury to persons can occur.
CAUTION
Do not point the infrared camera (with or without the lens cover) at strong energy sources, for example,
devices that cause laser radiation, or the sun. This can have an unwanted effect on the accuracy of the
camera. It can also cause damage to the detector in the camera.
CAUTION
Do not use the camera in temperatures more than +50°C (+122°F), unless other information is specified
in the user documentation or technical data. High temperatures can cause damage to the camera.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Do not attach the batteries directly to a car’s cigarette lighter socket, unless FLIR Systems supplies a specific adapter to connect the batteries to a cigarette lighter socket. Damage to the batteries can occur.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Do not connect the positive terminal and the negative terminal of the battery to each other with a metal
object (such as wire). Damage to the batteries can occur.
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Safety information
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Do not get water or salt water on the battery, or permit the battery to become wet. Damage to the batteries
can occur.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Do not make holes in the battery with objects. Damage to the battery can occur.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Do not hit the battery with a hammer. Damage to the battery can occur.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Do not put your foot on the battery, hit it or cause shocks to it. Damage to the battery can occur.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Do not put the batteries in or near a fire, or into direct sunlight. When the battery becomes hot, the built-in
safety equipment becomes energized and can stop the battery charging procedure. If the battery becomes hot, damage can occur to the safety equipment and this can cause more heat, damage or ignition
of the battery.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Do not put the battery on a fire or increase the temperature of the battery with heat. Damage to the battery
and injury to persons can occur.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Do not put the battery on or near fires, stoves, or other high-temperature locations. Damage to the battery
and injury to persons can occur.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Do not solder directly onto the battery. Damage to the battery can occur.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Do not use the battery if, when you use, charge, or put the battery in storage, there is an unusual smell
from the battery, the battery feels hot, changes color, changes shape, or is in an unusual condition. Speak
with your sales office if one or more of these problems occurs. Damage to the battery and injury to persons can occur.
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Safety information
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Only use a specified battery charger when you charge the battery. Damage to the battery can occur if you
do not do this.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
The temperature range through which you can charge the battery is ±0°C to +45°C (+32°F to +113°F),
unless other information is specified in the user documentation or technical data. If you charge the battery
at temperatures out of this range, it can cause the battery to become hot or to break. It can also decrease
the performance or the life cycle of the battery.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
The temperature range through which you can remove the electrical power from the battery is -15°C to
+50°C (+5°F to +122°F), unless other information is specified in the user documentation or technical data.
If you operate the battery out of this temperature range, it can decrease the performance or the life cycle
of the battery.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
When the battery is worn, apply insulation to the terminals with adhesive tape or equivalent materials before you discard it. Damage to the battery and injury to persons can occur if you do not do this.
CAUTION
Applicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.
Remove any water or moisture on the battery before you install it. Damage to the battery can occur if you
do not do this.
CAUTION
Do not apply solvents or equivalent liquids to the camera, the cables, or other items. Damage to the battery and injury to persons can occur.
CAUTION
Be careful when you clean the infrared lens. The lens has an anti-reflective coating which is easily damaged. Damage to the infrared lens can occur.
CAUTION
Do not use too much force to clean the infrared lens. This can cause damage to the anti-reflective
coating.
NOTE
The encapsulation rating is only applicable when all the openings on the camera are sealed with their correct covers, hatches, or caps. This includes the compartments for data storage, batteries, and
connectors.
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Notice to user
3.1 User-to-user forums
Exchange ideas, problems, and infrared solutions with fellow thermographers around the
world in our user-to-user forums. To go to the forums, visit:
http://www.infraredtraining.com/community/boards/
3.2 Calibration
We recommend that you send in the camera for calibration once a year. Contact your local
sales office for instructions on where to send the camera.
3.3 Accuracy
For very accurate results, we recommend that you wait 5 minutes after you have started
the camera before measuring a temperature.
3.4 Disposal of electronic waste
As with most electronic products, this equipment must be disposed of in an environmentally friendly way, and in accordance with existing regulations for electronic waste.
Please contact your FLIR Systems representative for more details.
3.5 Training
To read about infrared training, visit:
• http://www.infraredtraining.com
• http://www.irtraining.com
• http://www.irtraining.eu
3.6 Documentation updates
Our manuals are updated several times per year, and we also issue product-critical notifications of changes on a regular basis.
To access the latest manuals and notifications, go to the Download tab at:
http://support.flir.com
It only takes a few minutes to register online. In the download area you will also find the latest releases of manuals for our other products, as well as manuals for our historical and
obsolete products.
3.7 Important note about this manual
FLIR Systems issues generic manuals that cover several cameras within a model line.
This means that this manual may contain descriptions and explanations that do not apply
to your particular camera model.
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Notice to user
3.8 Note about authoritative versions
The authoritative version of this publication is English. In the event of divergences due to
translation errors, the English text has precedence.
Any late changes are first implemented in English.
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Customer help
4.1 General
For customer help, visit:
http://support.flir.com
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Customer help
4.2 Submitting a question
To submit a question to the customer help team, you must be a registered user. It only
takes a few minutes to register online. If you only want to search the knowledgebase for
existing questions and answers, you do not need to be a registered user.
When you want to submit a question, make sure that you have the following information to
hand:
• The camera model
• The camera serial number
• The communication protocol, or method, between the camera and your device (for example, HDMI, Ethernet, USB, or FireWire)
• Device type (PC/Mac/iPhone/iPad/Android device, etc.)
• Version of any programs from FLIR Systems
• Full name, publication number, and revision number of the manual
4.3 Downloads
On the customer help site you can also download the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
info@FLIR-Direct.com
Firmware updates for your infrared camera.
Program updates for your PC/Mac software.
Freeware and evaluation versions of PC/Mac software.
User documentation for current, obsolete, and historical products.
Mechanical drawings (in *.dxf and *.pdf format).
Cad data models (in *.stp format).
Application stories.
Technical datasheets.
Product catalogs.
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Quick Start Guide
5.1 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Charge the battery for approximately 1.5 hours, using the FLIR power supply.
Push the On/off button
to turn on the camera.
Aim the camera toward your target of interest.
Push the Save button to save an image.
(Optional steps)
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
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Install FLIR Tools on your computer.
Start FLIR Tools.
Connect the camera to your computer, using the USB cable.
Import the images into FLIR Tools.
Create a PDF report in FLIR Tools.
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Description
6.1 View from the front
1.
2.
3.
4.
Camera lamp.
Digital camera lens.
Infrared lens.
Attachment point.
6.2 View from the rear
1. On/off button.
2. Save button.
3. Camera screen.
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Description
6.3 Connector
The purpose of this USB Micro-B connector is the following:
• Charging the battery using the FLIR power supply.
• Moving images from the camera to a computer for further analysis in FLIR Tools.
NOTE
Install FLIR Tools on your computer before you move the images.
6.4 Screen elements
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Main menu toolbar.
Submenu toolbar.
Result table.
Status icons.
Temperature scale.
Spotmeter.
6.5 Auto-orientation
The camera has an auto-orientation feature, which means that the camera automatically
adjusts the measurement information on the display to the vertical or horizontal position of
the camera.
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Description
NOTE
The auto-orientation feature is enabled by a setting. Select Settings > Device settings > Auto orientation
> On.
6.6 Navigating the menu system
The camera has a touch screen. You can use your index finger or a stylus pen specially
designed for capacitive touch usage to navigate the menu system.
Tap the camera screen to bring up the menu system.
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Operation
7.1 Charging the battery
Follow this procedure:
1. Connect the FLIR power supply to a wall outlet.
2. Connect the power supply cable to the USB connector on the camera.
7.2 Turning on and turning off the camera
• Push the On/off button
to turn on the camera.
• Push and hold the On/off button
until the screen goes off (for less than 5 seconds) to put the camera in standby mode. The camera then automatically turns off after
2 hours.
• Push and hold the On/off button
for more than 5 seconds to turn off the camera.
7.3 Saving an image
7.3.1 General
You can save images to the internal camera memory.
The camera saves both a thermal image and a visual image at the same time.
7.3.2 Image capacity
Approximately 500 images can be saved to the internal camera memory.
7.3.3 Naming convention
The naming convention for images is FLIRxxxx.jpg, where xxxx is a unique counter.
7.3.4 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. To save an image, push the Save button.
7.4 Recalling an image
7.4.1 General
When you save an image, it is stored in the internal camera memory. To display the image
again, you can recall it from the internal camera memory.
7.4.2 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.
2. Select Images
. This displays an image in the image archive.
3. To view the previous or next image, do one of the following:
• Swipe left or right.
• Tap the left arrow
or the right arrow
.
4. To switch between a thermal image and a visual image, swipe up or down.
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Operation
5. Tap the camera screen. This displays a toolbar.
• Select Full screen
normal views.
or Exit full screen
to switch between the full screen and
• Select Thumbnails
to display the thumbnail overview. To scroll between the
thumbnails, swipe up/down. To display an image, tap its thumbnail.
• Select Delete
to delete the image.
• Select Information
• Select Camera
to display information about the image.
to return to live mode.
7.5 Deleting an image
7.5.1 General
You can delete an image from the internal camera memory.
7.5.2 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.
2. Select Images
. This displays an image in the image archive.
3. To display the previous or next image, do one of the following:
• Swipe left or right.
• Tap the left arrow
or the right arrow
.
4. When the image you want to delete is displayed, tap the camera screen. This displays
a toolbar.
5. On the toolbar, select Delete
. This displays a dialog box.
6. In the dialog box, select Delete.
7. To return to live mode, tap the camera screen and select Camera
.
7.6 Deleting all images
7.6.1 General
You can delete all images from the internal camera memory.
7.6.2 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Select Settings
. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Device settings. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Reset options. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Delete all saved images. This displays a dialog box.
In the dialog box, select Delete.
7. To return to live mode, tap the upper left arrow
Save button once.
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repeatedly. You can also push the
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Operation
7.7 Measuring a temperature using a spotmeter
7.7.1 General
You can measure a temperature using a spotmeter. This will display the temperature at the
position of the spotmeter on the screen.
7.7.1.1
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.
2. Select Measurement
. This displays a submenu toolbar.
3. On the submenu toolbar, select Center spot
.
The temperature at the position of the spotmeter will now be displayed in the top left
corner of the screen.
7.8 Hiding measurement tools
7.8.1 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.
2. Select Measurement
. This displays a submenu toolbar.
3. On the submenu toolbar, select No measurements
.
7.9 Changing the color palette
7.9.1 General
You can change the color palette that the camera uses to display different temperatures. A
different palette can make it easier to analyze an image.
7.9.2 Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.
2. Select Color
. This displays a submenu toolbar.
3. On the submenu toolbar, select the type of color palette:
•
•
•
•
Iron.
Rainbow.
Rainbow HC.
Gray.
7.10 Changing the image mode
7.10.1
General
The camera captures both thermal and visual images at the same time. By your choice of
image mode, you select which type of image to display on the screen.
The camera supports the following image modes:
• Thermal MSX (Multi Spectral Dynamic Imaging): The camera displays an infrared image where the edges of the objects are enhanced with visual image details.
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Operation
• Thermal: The camera displays a fully infrared image.
• Digital camera: The camera displays only the visual image captured by the digital
camera.
To display a good fusion image (Thermal MSX mode), the camera must make adjustments
to compensate for the small difference in position between the digital camera lens and the
infrared lens. To adjust the image accurately, the camera requires the alignment distance
(i.e., the distance to the object).
7.10.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.
2. Select Image mode
. This displays a submenu toolbar.
3. On the submenu toolbar, select one of the following:
• Thermal MSX
• Thermal
.
• Digital camera
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Operation
4. If you have selected the Thermal MSX mode, also set the distance to the object by
doing the following:
• On the submenu toolbar, select Alignment distance
. This displays a dialog box.
• In the dialog box, select the distance to the object.
7.11 Changing the temperature scale mode
7.11.1
General
The camera can operate in two different temperature scale modes:
• Auto mode: In this mode, the camera is continuously auto-adjusted for the best image
brightness and contrast.
• Lock mode: In this mode, the camera locks the temperature span and the temperature
level.
7.11.2
When to use Lock mode
A typical situation where you would use Lock mode is when looking for temperature
anomalies in two items with a similar design or construction.
For example, you have two cables, and you suspect that one is overheated. With the camera in Auto mode, direct the camera toward the cable that has a normal temperature, and
then activate Lock mode. When you then direct the camera, in Lock mode, toward the suspected overheated cable, that cable will appear in a lighter color in the thermal image if its
temperature is higher than the first cable.
If you instead use Auto mode, the color for the two items might appear the same despite
their temperature being different.
7.11.3
Procedure
To go between Auto mode and Lock mode, tap the top or bottom temperature value in the
temperature scale.
A gray padlock icon indicates that Lock mode is active.
7.12 Setting the emissivity
7.12.1
General
To measure temperatures accurately, the camera must be aware of the type of surface you
are measuring. You can choose between the following surface properties:
• Matt.
• Semi-matt.
• Semi-glossy.
As an alternative, you can set a custom emissivity value.
For more information about emissivity, see section 15 Thermographic measurement techniques, page 41.
7.12.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.
2. Select Settings
. This displays a dialog box.
3. In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.
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Operation
4. In the dialog box, select Emissivity. This displays a dialog box.
5. In the dialog box, select one of the following:
•
•
•
•
Matt.
Semi-matt.
Semi-glossy.
Custom value. This displays a dialog box where you can set a value.
6. To return to live mode, tap the upper left arrow
Save button once.
repeatedly. You can also push the
7.13 Changing the reflected apparent temperature
7.13.1
General
This parameter is used to compensate for the radiation reflected by the object. If the emissivity is low and the object temperature significantly different from that of the reflected temperature, it will be important to set and compensate for the reflected apparent temperature
correctly.
For more information about the reflected apparent temperature, see section 15 Thermographic measurement techniques, page 41.
7.13.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.
2. Select Settings
. This displays a dialog box.
3. In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.
4. In the dialog box, select Reflected temperature. This displays a dialog box where you
can set a value.
5. To return to live mode, tap the upper left arrow
Save button once.
repeatedly. You can also push the
7.14 Changing the distance
7.14.1
General
The distance is the distance between the object and the front lens of the camera. This parameter is used to compensate for the following two facts:
• That radiation from the target is absorbed by the atmosphere between the object and
the camera.
• That radiation from the atmosphere itself is detected by the camera.
For more information, see section 15 Thermographic measurement techniques, page 41.
7.14.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.
2. Select Settings
. This displays a dialog box.
3. In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.
4. In the dialog box, select Distance. This displays a dialog box where you can set a
value.
5. To return to live mode, tap the upper left arrow
Save button once.
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repeatedly. You can also push the
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Operation
7.15 Performing a non-uniformity correction
7.15.1
What is a non-uniformity correction?
A non-uniformity correction (or NUC) is an image correction carried out by the camera
software to compensate for different sensitivities of detector elements and other optical
and geometrical disturbances1.
7.15.2
When to perform a non-uniformity correction
The non-uniformity correction process should be carried out whenever the output image
becomes spatially noisy. The output can become spatially noisy when the ambient temperature changes (such as from indoors to outdoors operation, and vice versa).
7.15.3
Procedure
To perform a non-uniformity correction, tap and hold the
appears on the screen.
icon. The text Calibrating...
7.16 Using the camera lamp
7.16.1
General
You can use the camera lamp as a flashlight, or as a flash when taking an image.
7.16.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.
2. Select Lamp
.
3. Tap one of the following:
• Flash (to use the lamp as a flash when taking an image).
• On (to turn on the lamp and use it as a flashlight).
• Off (to turn off the lamp).
7.17 Changing the settings
7.17.1
General
You can change a variety of settings for the camera.
The Settings menu includes the following:
• Measurement parameters.
• Save options.
• Device settings.
7.17.1.1
Measurement parameters
• Emissivity.
• Reflected temperature.
• Distance.
1. Definition from the imminent international adoption of DIN 54190-3 (Non-destructive testing – Thermographic
testing – Part 3: Terms and definitions).
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Operation
7.17.1.2
Save options
• Photo as separate JPEG: When this menu command is selected, the digital photograph
from the visual camera is saved at its full field of view as a separate JPEG image. It
may be necessary to activate this option if you are not using the FLIR Tools software.
7.17.1.3
Device settings
• Language, time & units:
•
•
•
•
•
Language.
Temperature unit.
Distance unit.
Date & time.
Date & time format.
• Reset options:
• Reset default camera mode.
• Reset device settings to factory default.
• Delete all saved images.
•
•
•
•
Auto power off.
Auto orientation.
Display intensity.
Camera information: This menu command displays various items of information about
the camera, such as the model, serial number, and software version.
7.17.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.
2. Select Settings
. This displays a dialog box.
3. In the dialog box, tap the setting that you want to change.
4. To return to live mode, tap the upper left arrow
Save button once.
repeatedly. You can also push the
7.18 Updating the camera
7.18.1
General
To take advantage of our latest camera firmware, it is important that you keep your camera
updated. You update your camera using FLIR Tools.
7.18.2
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Start FLIR Tools.
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Operation
2. Start the camera.
3. Connect the camera to the computer using the USB cable.
4. FLIR Tools displays a welcome screen when the camera is identified. On the welcome
screen, click Check for updates.
You can also click Check for updates on the Help menu in FLIR Tools.
5. Follow the on-screen instructions.
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Technical data
8.1 Online field-of-view calculator
Please visit http://support.flir.com and click the photo of the camera series for field-of-view
tables for all lens–camera combinations.
8.2 Note about technical data
FLIR Systems reserves the right to change specifications at any time without prior notice.
Please check http://support.flir.com for latest changes.
8.3 Note about authoritative versions
The authoritative version of this publication is English. In the event of divergences due to
translation errors, the English text has precedence.
Any late changes are first implemented in English.
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Technical data
8.4 FLIR C2
P/N: 72001-0101
Rev.: 22841
Imaging and optical data
NETD
100 mK
Field of view
41° × 31°
Minimum focus distance
•
•
Thermal: 0.15 m (0.49 ft.)
MSX: 1.0 m (3.3 ft.)
Focal length
1.54 mm (0.061 in.)
Spatial resolution (IFOV)
11 mrad
F-number
1.1
Image frequency
9 Hz
Focus
Focus free
Detector data
Focal Plane Array
Uncooled microbolometer
Spectral range
7.5–14 µm
Detector pitch
17 µm
IR sensor size
80 × 60
Image presentation
Display (color)
•
•
Display, aspect ratio
4:3
3.0 in.
320 × 240 pixels
Auto orientation
Yes
Touch screen
Yes, capacitive
Image adjustment (alignment calibration)
Yes
Image presentation modes
Infrared image
Yes
Visual image
Yes
MSX
Yes
Gallery
Yes
Measurement
Object temperature range
–10°C to +150°C (14 to 302°F)
Accuracy
±2°C (±3.6°F) or 2%, whichever is greater, at 25°C
(77°F) nominal.
Measurement analysis
Spotmeter
On/off
Emissivity correction
Yes; matt/semi-matt/semi-glossy + custom value
Measurements correction
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•
•
Emissivity
Reflected apparent temperature
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Technical data
Set-up
Color palettes
•
•
•
•
Iron
Rainbow
Rainbow HC
Gray
Set-up commands
Local adaptation of units, language, date and time
formats
Languages
Arabic, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish,
French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese,
Russian, Simpl. Chinese, Spanish, Swedish, Trad.
Chinese, Turkish.
Lamp
Output power
0.85 W
Field of view
60°
Service functions
Camera software update
Using FLIR Tools
Storage of images
Storage media
Image file format
Internal memory store at least 500 sets of images
•
•
Standard JPEG
14-bit measurement data included
Video streaming
Non-radiometric IR video streaming
Yes
Visual video streaming
Yes
Digital camera
Digital camera
640 × 480 pixels
Digital camera, focus
Fixed focus
Data communication interfaces
USB, connector type
USB Micro-B: Data transfer to and from PC
USB, standard
USB 2.0
Power system
Battery type
Rechargeable Li-ion polymer battery
Battery voltage
3.7 V
Battery operating time
2h
Charging system
Charged inside the camera
Charging time
1.5 h
External power operation
Power management
•
•
AC adapter, 90–260 VAC input
5 V output to camera
Automatic shut-down
Environmental data
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Operating temperature range
–10°C to +50°C (14 to 122°F)
Storage temperature range
–40°C to +70°C (–40 to 158°F)
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Technical data
Environmental data
Humidity (operating and storage)
IEC 60068-2-30/24 h 95% relative humidity +25°C
to +40°C (+77°F to +104°F) / 2 cycles
Relative humidity
95% relative humidity +25°C to +40°C (+77°F to
+104°F) non condensing
EMC
•
•
•
•
•
•
WEEE 2012/19/EC
RoHs 2011/65/EC
C-Tick
EN 61000-6-3
EN 61000-6-2
FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Class B
Magnetic fields
EN 61000-4-8
Battery regulations
UL 1642
Encapsulation
Camera housing and lens: IP 40 (IEC 60529)
Shock
25 g (IEC 60068-2-27)
Vibration
2 g (IEC 60068-2-6)
Physical data
Weight (incl. Battery)
0.13 kg (0.29 lb.)
Size (L × W × H)
125 × 80 × 24 mm (4.9 × 3.1 × 0.94 in.)
Tripod mounting
No
Housing material
Color
•
•
PC and ABS, partially covered with TPE
Aluminum
Black and gray
Shipping information
Packaging, type
List of contents
Cardboard box
•
•
•
•
•
•
info@FLIR-Direct.com
Infrared camera
Lanyard
Power supply/charger with EU, UK, US, CN
and Australian plugs
Printed getting started guide
USB memory stick with documentation
USB cable
Packaging, weight
0.53 kg (1.17 lb.)
Packaging, size
175 × 115 × 75 mm (6.9 × 4.5 × 3.0 in.)
EAN-13
4743254001961
UPC-12
845188010614
Country of origin
Estonia
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G
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FLIR-DIRECT .com
© 2012, FLIR Systems, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide. No part of this drawing may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without written permission from FLIR Systems, Inc. Specifications subject to change without further notice. Dimensional data is based on nominal values. Products may be subject to regional market considerations. License procedures may apply.
Product may be subject to US Export Regulations. Please refer to exportquestions@flir.com with any questions. Diversion contrary to US law is prohibited.
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1
2
2
3
3
Camera with build-in IR lens f=1,54mm
1
1,31
33,4 mm
1,78
45,3 mm
0,43
11 mm
4
4
IR Optical axis
Visual Optical axis
0,91
23,1 mm
5
5
0,58
14,8 mm
6
6
7
7
4,9
124,5mm
MABR
Check
Drawn by
R&D Thermography
9
Basic Dimensions Flir Cx
2014-12-18
Denomination
Modified
1,02
25,9 mm
Optical axis
8
3,1
78,7 mm
1:1
T128439
Drawing No.
A2
Size
Scale
10
B
1(1)
Size
Sheet
G
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Cleaning the camera
11.1 Camera housing, cables, and other items
11.1.1
Liquids
Use one of these liquids:
• Warm water
• A weak detergent solution
11.1.2
Equipment
A soft cloth
11.1.3
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Soak the cloth in the liquid.
2. Twist the cloth to remove excess liquid.
3. Clean the part with the cloth.
CAUTION
Do not apply solvents or similar liquids to the camera, the cables, or other items. This can cause damage.
11.2 Infrared lens
11.2.1
Liquids
Use one of these liquids:
• A commercial lens cleaning liquid with more than 30% isopropyl alcohol.
• 96% ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH).
11.2.2
Equipment
Cotton wool
11.2.3
Procedure
Follow this procedure:
1. Soak the cotton wool in the liquid.
2. Twist the cotton wool to remove excess liquid.
3. Clean the lens one time only and discard the cotton wool.
WARNING
Make sure that you read all applicable MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) and warning labels on containers before you use a liquid: the liquids can be dangerous.
CAUTION
•
•
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Be careful when you clean the infrared lens. The lens has a delicate anti-reflective coating.
Do not clean the infrared lens too vigorously. This can damage the anti-reflective coating.
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Application examples
12.1 Moisture & water damage
12.1.1
General
It is often possible to detect moisture and water damage in a house by using an infrared
camera. This is partly because the damaged area has a different heat conduction property
and partly because it has a different thermal capacity to store heat than the surrounding
material.
NOTE
Many factors can come into play as to how moisture or water damage will appear in an infrared image.
For example, heating and cooling of these parts takes place at different rates depending on the material
and the time of day. For this reason, it is important that other methods are used as well to check for moisture or water damage.
12.1.2
Figure
The image below shows extensive water damage on an external wall where the water has
penetrated the outer facing because of an incorrectly installed window ledge.
12.2 Faulty contact in socket
12.2.1
General
Depending on the type of connection a socket has, an improperly connected wire can result in local temperature increase. This temperature increase is caused by the reduced
contact area between the connection point of the incoming wire and the socket , and can
result in an electrical fire.
NOTE
A socket’s construction may differ dramatically from one manufacturer to another. For this reason, different faults in a socket can lead to the same typical appearance in an infrared image.
Local temperature increase can also result from improper contact between wire and socket, or from difference in load.
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Application examples
12.2.2
Figure
The image below shows a connection of a cable to a socket where improper contact in the
connection has resulted in local temperature increase.
12.3 Oxidized socket
12.3.1
General
Depending on the type of socket and the environment in which the socket is installed, oxides may occur on the socket's contact surfaces. These oxides can lead to locally increased resistance when the socket is loaded, which can be seen in an infrared image as
local temperature increase.
NOTE
A socket’s construction may differ dramatically from one manufacturer to another. For this reason, different faults in a socket can lead to the same typical appearance in an infrared image.
Local temperature increase can also result from improper contact between a wire and socket, or from difference in load.
12.3.2
Figure
The image below shows a series of fuses where one fuse has a raised temperature on the
contact surfaces against the fuse holder. Because of the fuse holder’s blank metal, the
temperature increase is not visible there, while it is visible on the fuse’s ceramic material.
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Application examples
12.4 Insulation deficiencies
12.4.1
General
Insulation deficiencies may result from insulation losing volume over the course of time
and thereby not entirely filling the cavity in a frame wall.
An infrared camera allows you to see these insulation deficiencies because they either
have a different heat conduction property than sections with correctly installed insulation,
and/or show the area where air is penetrating the frame of the building.
NOTE
When you are inspecting a building, the temperature difference between the inside and outside should be
at least 10°C (18°F). Studs, water pipes, concrete columns, and similar components may resemble an insulation deficiency in an infrared image. Minor differences may also occur naturally.
12.4.2
Figure
In the image below, insulation in the roof framing is lacking. Due to the absence of insulation, air has forced its way into the roof structure, which thus takes on a different characteristic appearance in the infrared image.
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Application examples
12.5 Draft
12.5.1
General
Draft can be found under baseboards, around door and window casings, and above ceiling trim. This type of draft is often possible to see with an infrared camera, as a cooler airstream cools down the surrounding surface.
NOTE
When you are investigating draft in a house, there should be sub-atmospheric pressure in the house.
Close all doors, windows, and ventilation ducts, and allow the kitchen fan to run for a while before you
take the infrared images.
An infrared image of draft often shows a typical stream pattern. You can see this stream pattern clearly in
the picture below.
Also keep in mind that drafts can be concealed by heat from floor heating circuits.
12.5.2
Figure
The image below shows a ceiling hatch where faulty installation has resulted in a strong
draft.
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Application examples
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About FLIR Systems
FLIR Systems was established in 1978 to pioneer the development of high-performance
infrared imaging systems, and is the world leader in the design, manufacture, and marketing of thermal imaging systems for a wide variety of commercial, industrial, and government applications. Today, FLIR Systems embraces five major companies with outstanding
achievements in infrared technology since 1958—the Swedish AGEMA Infrared Systems
(formerly AGA Infrared Systems), the three United States companies Indigo Systems, FSI,
and Inframetrics, and the French company Cedip.
Since 2007, FLIR Systems has acquired several companies with world-leading expertise
in sensor technologies:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extech Instruments (2007)
Ifara Tecnologías (2008)
Salvador Imaging (2009)
OmniTech Partners (2009)
Directed Perception (2009)
Raymarine (2010)
ICx Technologies (2010)
TackTick Marine Digital Instruments (2011)
Aerius Photonics (2011)
Lorex Technology (2012)
Traficon (2012)
MARSS (2013)
DigitalOptics micro-optics business (2013)
Figure 13.1 Patent documents from the early 1960s
The company has sold more than 350,000 infrared cameras worldwide for applications
such as predictive maintenance, R & D, non-destructive testing, process control and automation, and machine vision, among many others.
FLIR Systems has three manufacturing plants in the United States (Portland, OR, Boston,
MA, Santa Barbara, CA) and one in Sweden (Stockholm). Since 2007 there is also a
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About FLIR Systems
manufacturing plant in Tallinn, Estonia. Direct sales offices in Belgium, Brazil, China,
France, Germany, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and the USA—
together with a worldwide network of agents and distributors—support our international
customer base.
FLIR Systems is at the forefront of innovation in the infrared camera industry. We anticipate market demand by constantly improving our existing cameras and developing new
ones. The company has set milestones in product design and development such as the introduction of the first battery-operated portable camera for industrial inspections, and the
first uncooled infrared camera, to mention just two innovations.
Figure 13.2 LEFT: Thermovision Model 661 from 1969. The camera weighed approximately 25 kg (55 lb.),
the oscilloscope 20 kg (44 lb.), and the tripod 15 kg (33 lb.). The operator also needed a 220 VAC generator
set, and a 10 L (2.6 US gallon) jar with liquid nitrogen. To the left of the oscilloscope the Polaroid attachment
(6 kg/13 lb.) can be seen. RIGHT: FLIR One, which was launched in January 2014, is a slide-on attachment
that gives iPhones thermal imaging capabilities. Weight: 90 g (3.2 oz.).
FLIR Systems manufactures all vital mechanical and electronic components of the camera
systems itself. From detector design and manufacturing, to lenses and system electronics,
to final testing and calibration, all production steps are carried out and supervised by our
own engineers. The in-depth expertise of these infrared specialists ensures the accuracy
and reliability of all vital components that are assembled into your infrared camera.
13.1 More than just an infrared camera
At FLIR Systems we recognize that our job is to go beyond just producing the best infrared
camera systems. We are committed to enabling all users of our infrared camera systems
to work more productively by providing them with the most powerful camera–software
combination. Especially tailored software for predictive maintenance, R & D, and process
monitoring is developed in-house. Most software is available in a wide variety of
languages.
We support all our infrared cameras with a wide variety of accessories to adapt your equipment to the most demanding infrared applications.
13.2 Sharing our knowledge
Although our cameras are designed to be very user-friendly, there is a lot more to thermography than just knowing how to handle a camera. Therefore, FLIR Systems has founded
the Infrared Training Center (ITC), a separate business unit, that provides certified training
courses. Attending one of the ITC courses will give you a truly hands-on learning
experience.
The staff of the ITC are also there to provide you with any application support you may
need in putting infrared theory into practice.
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13.3 Supporting our customers
FLIR Systems operates a worldwide service network to keep your camera running at all
times. If you discover a problem with your camera, local service centers have all the equipment and expertise to solve it within the shortest possible time. Therefore, there is no need
to send your camera to the other side of the world or to talk to someone who does not
speak your language.
13.4 A few images from our facilities
Figure 13.3 LEFT: Development of system electronics; RIGHT: Testing of an FPA detector
Figure 13.4 LEFT: Diamond turning machine; RIGHT: Lens polishing
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Glossary
absorption (absorption factor)
The amount of radiation absorbed by an object relative to the received radiation. A number between 0 and 1.
atmosphere
The gases between the object being measured and the camera, normally air.
autoadjust
A function making a camera perform an internal image correction.
autopalette
The IR image is shown with an uneven spread of colors, displaying
cold objects as well as hot ones at the same time.
blackbody
Totally non-reflective object. All its radiation is due to its own
temperature.
blackbody
radiator
An IR radiating equipment with blackbody properties used to calibrate
IR cameras.
calculated atmospheric
transmission
A transmission value computed from the temperature, the relative humidity of air and the distance to the object.
cavity radiator
A bottle shaped radiator with an absorbing inside, viewed through the
bottleneck.
color
temperature
The temperature for which the color of a blackbody matches a specific color.
conduction
The process that makes heat diffuse into a material.
continuous
adjust
A function that adjusts the image. The function works all the time,
continuously adjusting brightness and contrast according to the image content.
convection
Convection is a heat transfer mode where a fluid is brought into motion, either by gravity or another force, thereby transferring heat from
one place to another.
dual isotherm
An isotherm with two color bands, instead of one.
emissivity
(emissivity
factor)
The amount of radiation coming from an object, compared to that of a
blackbody. A number between 0 and 1.
emittance
Amount of energy emitted from an object per unit of time and area
(W/m2)
environment
Objects and gases that emit radiation towards the object being
measured.
estimated atmospheric
transmission
A transmission value, supplied by a user, replacing a calculated one
external optics
Extra lenses, filters, heat shields etc. that can be put between the
camera and the object being measured.
filter
A material transparent only to some of the infrared wavelengths.
FOV
Field of view: The horizontal angle that can be viewed through an IR
lens.
FPA
Focal plane array: A type of IR detector.
graybody
An object that emits a fixed fraction of the amount of energy of a
blackbody for each wavelength.
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Glossary
IFOV
Instantaneous field of view: A measure of the geometrical resolution
of an IR camera.
image correction (internal or
external)
A way of compensating for sensitivity differences in various parts of
live images and also of stabilizing the camera.
infrared
Non-visible radiation, having a wavelength from about 2–13 μm.
IR
infrared
isotherm
A function highlighting those parts of an image that fall above, below
or between one or more temperature intervals.
isothermal
cavity
A bottle-shaped radiator with a uniform temperature viewed through
the bottleneck.
Laser LocatIR
An electrically powered light source on the camera that emits laser radiation in a thin, concentrated beam to point at certain parts of the object in front of the camera.
laser pointer
An electrically powered light source on the camera that emits laser radiation in a thin, concentrated beam to point at certain parts of the object in front of the camera.
level
The center value of the temperature scale, usually expressed as a
signal value.
manual adjust
A way to adjust the image by manually changing certain parameters.
NETD
Noise equivalent temperature difference. A measure of the image
noise level of an IR camera.
noise
Undesired small disturbance in the infrared image
object
parameters
A set of values describing the circumstances under which the measurement of an object was made, and the object itself (such as emissivity, reflected apparent temperature, distance etc.)
object signal
A non-calibrated value related to the amount of radiation received by
the camera from the object.
palette
The set of colors used to display an IR image.
pixel
Stands for picture element. One single spot in an image.
radiance
Amount of energy emitted from an object per unit of time, area and
angle (W/m2/sr)
radiant power
Amount of energy emitted from an object per unit of time (W)
radiation
The process by which electromagnetic energy, is emitted by an object
or a gas.
radiator
A piece of IR radiating equipment.
range
The current overall temperature measurement limitation of an IR camera. Cameras can have several ranges. Expressed as two blackbody
temperatures that limit the current calibration.
reference
temperature
A temperature which the ordinary measured values can be compared
with.
reflection
The amount of radiation reflected by an object relative to the received
radiation. A number between 0 and 1.
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Glossary
relative
humidity
Relative humidity represents the ratio between the current water vapour mass in the air and the maximum it may contain in saturation
conditions.
saturation
color
The areas that contain temperatures outside the present level/span
settings are colored with the saturation colors. The saturation colors
contain an ‘overflow’ color and an ‘underflow’ color. There is also a
third red saturation color that marks everything saturated by the detector indicating that the range should probably be changed.
span
The interval of the temperature scale, usually expressed as a signal
value.
spectral (radiant) emittance
Amount of energy emitted from an object per unit of time, area and
wavelength (W/m2/μm)
temperature
difference, or
difference of
temperature.
A value which is the result of a subtraction between two temperature
values.
temperature
range
The current overall temperature measurement limitation of an IR camera. Cameras can have several ranges. Expressed as two blackbody
temperatures that limit the current calibration.
temperature
scale
The way in which an IR image currently is displayed. Expressed as
two temperature values limiting the colors.
thermogram
infrared image
transmission
(or transmittance) factor
Gases and materials can be more or less transparent. Transmission
is the amount of IR radiation passing through them. A number between 0 and 1.
transparent
isotherm
An isotherm showing a linear spread of colors, instead of covering the
highlighted parts of the image.
visual
Refers to the video mode of a IR camera, as opposed to the normal,
thermographic mode. When a camera is in video mode it captures ordinary video images, while thermographic images are captured when
the camera is in IR mode.
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Thermographic measurement
techniques
15.1 Introduction
An infrared camera measures and images the emitted infrared radiation from an object.
The fact that radiation is a function of object surface temperature makes it possible for the
camera to calculate and display this temperature.
However, the radiation measured by the camera does not only depend on the temperature
of the object but is also a function of the emissivity. Radiation also originates from the surroundings and is reflected in the object. The radiation from the object and the reflected radiation will also be influenced by the absorption of the atmosphere.
To measure temperature accurately, it is therefore necessary to compensate for the effects
of a number of different radiation sources. This is done on-line automatically by the camera. The following object parameters must, however, be supplied for the camera:
•
•
•
•
•
The emissivity of the object
The reflected apparent temperature
The distance between the object and the camera
The relative humidity
Temperature of the atmosphere
15.2 Emissivity
The most important object parameter to set correctly is the emissivity which, in short, is a
measure of how much radiation is emitted from the object, compared to that from a perfect
blackbody of the same temperature.
Normally, object materials and surface treatments exhibit emissivity ranging from approximately 0.1 to 0.95. A highly polished (mirror) surface falls below 0.1, while an oxidized or
painted surface has a higher emissivity. Oil-based paint, regardless of color in the visible
spectrum, has an emissivity over 0.9 in the infrared. Human skin exhibits an emissivity
0.97 to 0.98.
Non-oxidized metals represent an extreme case of perfect opacity and high reflexivity,
which does not vary greatly with wavelength. Consequently, the emissivity of metals is low
– only increasing with temperature. For non-metals, emissivity tends to be high, and decreases with temperature.
15.2.1
15.2.1.1
Finding the emissivity of a sample
Step 1: Determining reflected apparent temperature
Use one of the following two methods to determine reflected apparent temperature:
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Thermographic measurement techniques
15.2.1.1.1
Method 1: Direct method
Follow this procedure:
1. Look for possible reflection sources, considering that the incident angle = reflection angle (a = b).
Figure 15.1 1 = Reflection source
2. If the reflection source is a spot source, modify the source by obstructing it using a
piece if cardboard.
Figure 15.2 1 = Reflection source
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Thermographic measurement techniques
3. Measure the radiation intensity (= apparent temperature) from the reflecting source using the following settings:
• Emissivity: 1.0
• Dobj: 0
You can measure the radiation intensity using one of the following two methods:
Figure 15.3 1 = Reflection source
NOTE
Using a thermocouple to measure reflected apparent temperature is not recommended for two important
reasons:
•
•
A thermocouple does not measure radiation intensity
A thermocouple requires a very good thermal contact to the surface, usually by gluing and covering
the sensor by a thermal isolator.
15.2.1.1.2
Method 2: Reflector method
Follow this procedure:
1. Crumble up a large piece of aluminum foil.
2. Uncrumble the aluminum foil and attach it to a piece of cardboard of the same size.
3. Put the piece of cardboard in front of the object you want to measure. Make sure that
the side with aluminum foil points to the camera.
4. Set the emissivity to 1.0.
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Thermographic measurement techniques
5. Measure the apparent temperature of the aluminum foil and write it down.
Figure 15.4 Measuring the apparent temperature of the aluminum foil.
15.2.1.2
Step 2: Determining the emissivity
Follow this procedure:
1. Select a place to put the sample.
2. Determine and set reflected apparent temperature according to the previous
procedure.
3. Put a piece of electrical tape with known high emissivity on the sample.
4. Heat the sample at least 20 K above room temperature. Heating must be reasonably
even.
5. Focus and auto-adjust the camera, and freeze the image.
6. Adjust Level and Span for best image brightness and contrast.
7. Set emissivity to that of the tape (usually 0.97).
8. Measure the temperature of the tape using one of the following measurement
functions:
• Isotherm (helps you to determine both the temperature and how evenly you have
heated the sample)
• Spot (simpler)
• Box Avg (good for surfaces with varying emissivity).
9. Write down the temperature.
10. Move your measurement function to the sample surface.
11. Change the emissivity setting until you read the same temperature as your previous
measurement.
12. Write down the emissivity.
NOTE
•
•
•
•
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Avoid forced convection
Look for a thermally stable surrounding that will not generate spot reflections
Use high quality tape that you know is not transparent, and has a high emissivity you are certain of
This method assumes that the temperature of your tape and the sample surface are the same. If they
are not, your emissivity measurement will be wrong.
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Thermographic measurement techniques
15.3 Reflected apparent temperature
This parameter is used to compensate for the radiation reflected in the object. If the emissivity is low and the object temperature relatively far from that of the reflected it will be important to set and compensate for the reflected apparent temperature correctly.
15.4 Distance
The distance is the distance between the object and the front lens of the camera. This parameter is used to compensate for the following two facts:
• That radiation from the target is absorbed by the atmosphere between the object and
the camera.
• That radiation from the atmosphere itself is detected by the camera.
15.5 Relative humidity
The camera can also compensate for the fact that the transmittance is also dependent on
the relative humidity of the atmosphere. To do this set the relative humidity to the correct
value. For short distances and normal humidity the relative humidity can normally be left at
a default value of 50%.
15.6 Other parameters
In addition, some cameras and analysis programs from FLIR Systems allow you to compensate for the following parameters:
• Atmospheric temperature – i.e. the temperature of the atmosphere between the camera
and the target
• External optics temperature – i.e. the temperature of any external lenses or windows
used in front of the camera
• External optics transmittance – i.e. the transmission of any external lenses or windows
used in front of the camera
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History of infrared technology
Before the year 1800, the existence of the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum
wasn't even suspected. The original significance of the infrared spectrum, or simply ‘the infrared’ as it is often called, as a form of heat radiation is perhaps less obvious today than it
was at the time of its discovery by Herschel in 1800.
Figure 16.1 Sir William Herschel (1738–1822)
The discovery was made accidentally during the search for a new optical material. Sir William Herschel – Royal Astronomer to King George III of England, and already famous for
his discovery of the planet Uranus – was searching for an optical filter material to reduce
the brightness of the sun’s image in telescopes during solar observations. While testing
different samples of colored glass which gave similar reductions in brightness he was intrigued to find that some of the samples passed very little of the sun’s heat, while others
passed so much heat that he risked eye damage after only a few seconds’ observation.
Herschel was soon convinced of the necessity of setting up a systematic experiment, with
the objective of finding a single material that would give the desired reduction in brightness
as well as the maximum reduction in heat. He began the experiment by actually repeating
Newton’s prism experiment, but looking for the heating effect rather than the visual distribution of intensity in the spectrum. He first blackened the bulb of a sensitive mercury-inglass thermometer with ink, and with this as his radiation detector he proceeded to test
the heating effect of the various colors of the spectrum formed on the top of a table by
passing sunlight through a glass prism. Other thermometers, placed outside the sun’s
rays, served as controls.
As the blackened thermometer was moved slowly along the colors of the spectrum, the
temperature readings showed a steady increase from the violet end to the red end. This
was not entirely unexpected, since the Italian researcher, Landriani, in a similar experiment
in 1777 had observed much the same effect. It was Herschel, however, who was the first
to recognize that there must be a point where the heating effect reaches a maximum, and
that measurements confined to the visible portion of the spectrum failed to locate this
point.
Figure 16.2 Marsilio Landriani (1746–1815)
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History of infrared technology
Moving the thermometer into the dark region beyond the red end of the spectrum, Herschel confirmed that the heating continued to increase. The maximum point, when he
found it, lay well beyond the red end – in what is known today as the ‘infrared wavelengths’.
When Herschel revealed his discovery, he referred to this new portion of the electromagnetic spectrum as the ‘thermometrical spectrum’. The radiation itself he sometimes referred to as ‘dark heat’, or simply ‘the invisible rays’. Ironically, and contrary to popular
opinion, it wasn't Herschel who originated the term ‘infrared’. The word only began to appear in print around 75 years later, and it is still unclear who should receive credit as the
originator.
Herschel’s use of glass in the prism of his original experiment led to some early controversies with his contemporaries about the actual existence of the infrared wavelengths. Different investigators, in attempting to confirm his work, used various types of glass
indiscriminately, having different transparencies in the infrared. Through his later experiments, Herschel was aware of the limited transparency of glass to the newly-discovered
thermal radiation, and he was forced to conclude that optics for the infrared would probably be doomed to the use of reflective elements exclusively (i.e. plane and curved mirrors). Fortunately, this proved to be true only until 1830, when the Italian investigator,
Melloni, made his great discovery that naturally occurring rock salt (NaCl) – which was
available in large enough natural crystals to be made into lenses and prisms – is remarkably transparent to the infrared. The result was that rock salt became the principal infrared
optical material, and remained so for the next hundred years, until the art of synthetic crystal growing was mastered in the 1930’s.
Figure 16.3 Macedonio Melloni (1798–1854)
Thermometers, as radiation detectors, remained unchallenged until 1829, the year Nobili
invented the thermocouple. (Herschel’s own thermometer could be read to 0.2 °C (0.036 °
F), and later models were able to be read to 0.05 °C (0.09 °F)). Then a breakthrough occurred; Melloni connected a number of thermocouples in series to form the first thermopile.
The new device was at least 40 times as sensitive as the best thermometer of the day for
detecting heat radiation – capable of detecting the heat from a person standing three meters away.
The first so-called ‘heat-picture’ became possible in 1840, the result of work by Sir John
Herschel, son of the discoverer of the infrared and a famous astronomer in his own right.
Based upon the differential evaporation of a thin film of oil when exposed to a heat pattern
focused upon it, the thermal image could be seen by reflected light where the interference
effects of the oil film made the image visible to the eye. Sir John also managed to obtain a
primitive record of the thermal image on paper, which he called a ‘thermograph’.
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History of infrared technology
Figure 16.4 Samuel P. Langley (1834–1906)
The improvement of infrared-detector sensitivity progressed slowly. Another major breakthrough, made by Langley in 1880, was the invention of the bolometer. This consisted of a
thin blackened strip of platinum connected in one arm of a Wheatstone bridge circuit upon
which the infrared radiation was focused and to which a sensitive galvanometer responded. This instrument is said to have been able to detect the heat from a cow at a distance of 400 meters.
An English scientist, Sir James Dewar, first introduced the use of liquefied gases as cooling agents (such as liquid nitrogen with a temperature of -196 °C (-320.8 °F)) in low temperature research. In 1892 he invented a unique vacuum insulating container in which it is
possible to store liquefied gases for entire days. The common ‘thermos bottle’, used for
storing hot and cold drinks, is based upon his invention.
Between the years 1900 and 1920, the inventors of the world ‘discovered’ the infrared.
Many patents were issued for devices to detect personnel, artillery, aircraft, ships – and
even icebergs. The first operating systems, in the modern sense, began to be developed
during the 1914–18 war, when both sides had research programs devoted to the military
exploitation of the infrared. These programs included experimental systems for enemy intrusion/detection, remote temperature sensing, secure communications, and ‘flying torpedo’ guidance. An infrared search system tested during this period was able to detect an
approaching airplane at a distance of 1.5 km (0.94 miles), or a person more than 300 meters (984 ft.) away.
The most sensitive systems up to this time were all based upon variations of the bolometer
idea, but the period between the two wars saw the development of two revolutionary new
infrared detectors: the image converter and the photon detector. At first, the image converter received the greatest attention by the military, because it enabled an observer for
the first time in history to literally ‘see in the dark’. However, the sensitivity of the image
converter was limited to the near infrared wavelengths, and the most interesting military
targets (i.e. enemy soldiers) had to be illuminated by infrared search beams. Since this involved the risk of giving away the observer’s position to a similarly-equipped enemy observer, it is understandable that military interest in the image converter eventually faded.
The tactical military disadvantages of so-called 'active’ (i.e. search beam-equipped) thermal imaging systems provided impetus following the 1939–45 war for extensive secret
military infrared-research programs into the possibilities of developing ‘passive’ (no search
beam) systems around the extremely sensitive photon detector. During this period, military
secrecy regulations completely prevented disclosure of the status of infrared-imaging
technology. This secrecy only began to be lifted in the middle of the 1950’s, and from that
time adequate thermal-imaging devices finally began to be available to civilian science
and industry.
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Theory of thermography
17.1 Introduction
The subjects of infrared radiation and the related technique of thermography are still new
to many who will use an infrared camera. In this section the theory behind thermography
will be given.
17.2 The electromagnetic spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum is divided arbitrarily into a number of wavelength regions,
called bands, distinguished by the methods used to produce and detect the radiation.
There is no fundamental difference between radiation in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. They are all governed by the same laws and the only differences are
those due to differences in wavelength.
Figure 17.1 The electromagnetic spectrum. 1: X-ray; 2: UV; 3: Visible; 4: IR; 5: Microwaves; 6: Radiowaves.
Thermography makes use of the infrared spectral band. At the short-wavelength end the
boundary lies at the limit of visual perception, in the deep red. At the long-wavelength end
it merges with the microwave radio wavelengths, in the millimeter range.
The infrared band is often further subdivided into four smaller bands, the boundaries of
which are also arbitrarily chosen. They include: the near infrared (0.75–3 μm), the middle
infrared (3–6 μm), the far infrared (6–15 μm) and the extreme infrared (15–100 μm).
Although the wavelengths are given in μm (micrometers), other units are often still used to
measure wavelength in this spectral region, e.g. nanometer (nm) and Ångström (Å).
The relationships between the different wavelength measurements is:
17.3 Blackbody radiation
A blackbody is defined as an object which absorbs all radiation that impinges on it at any
wavelength. The apparent misnomer black relating to an object emitting radiation is explained by Kirchhoff’s Law (after Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1824–1887), which states that a
body capable of absorbing all radiation at any wavelength is equally capable in the emission of radiation.
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Theory of thermography
Figure 17.2 Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824–1887)
The construction of a blackbody source is, in principle, very simple. The radiation characteristics of an aperture in an isotherm cavity made of an opaque absorbing material represents almost exactly the properties of a blackbody. A practical application of the principle
to the construction of a perfect absorber of radiation consists of a box that is light tight except for an aperture in one of the sides. Any radiation which then enters the hole is scattered and absorbed by repeated reflections so only an infinitesimal fraction can possibly
escape. The blackness which is obtained at the aperture is nearly equal to a blackbody
and almost perfect for all wavelengths.
By providing such an isothermal cavity with a suitable heater it becomes what is termed a
cavity radiator. An isothermal cavity heated to a uniform temperature generates blackbody
radiation, the characteristics of which are determined solely by the temperature of the cavity. Such cavity radiators are commonly used as sources of radiation in temperature reference standards in the laboratory for calibrating thermographic instruments, such as a
FLIR Systems camera for example.
If the temperature of blackbody radiation increases to more than 525°C (977°F), the
source begins to be visible so that it appears to the eye no longer black. This is the incipient red heat temperature of the radiator, which then becomes orange or yellow as the temperature increases further. In fact, the definition of the so-called color temperature of an
object is the temperature to which a blackbody would have to be heated to have the same
appearance.
Now consider three expressions that describe the radiation emitted from a blackbody.
17.3.1
Planck’s law
Figure 17.3 Max Planck (1858–1947)
Max Planck (1858–1947) was able to describe the spectral distribution of the radiation
from a blackbody by means of the following formula:
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Theory of thermography
where:
Wλb
Blackbody spectral radiant emittance at wavelength λ.
c
Velocity of light = 3 × 108 m/s
h
Planck’s constant = 6.6 × 10-34 Joule sec.
k
Boltzmann’s constant = 1.4 × 10-23 Joule/K.
T
Absolute temperature (K) of a blackbody.
λ
Wavelength (μm).
NOTE
The factor 10-6 is used since spectral emittance in the curves is expressed in Watt/m2, μm.
Planck’s formula, when plotted graphically for various temperatures, produces a family of
curves. Following any particular Planck curve, the spectral emittance is zero at λ = 0, then
increases rapidly to a maximum at a wavelength λmax and after passing it approaches zero
again at very long wavelengths. The higher the temperature, the shorter the wavelength at
which maximum occurs.
Figure 17.4 Blackbody spectral radiant emittance according to Planck’s law, plotted for various absolute
temperatures. 1: Spectral radiant emittance (W/cm2 × 103(μm)); 2: Wavelength (μm)
17.3.2
Wien’s displacement law
By differentiating Planck’s formula with respect to λ, and finding the maximum, we have:
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Theory of thermography
This is Wien’s formula (after Wilhelm Wien, 1864–1928), which expresses mathematically
the common observation that colors vary from red to orange or yellow as the temperature
of a thermal radiator increases. The wavelength of the color is the same as the wavelength
calculated for λmax. A good approximation of the value of λmax for a given blackbody temperature is obtained by applying the rule-of-thumb 3 000/T μm. Thus, a very hot star such
as Sirius (11 000 K), emitting bluish-white light, radiates with the peak of spectral radiant
emittance occurring within the invisible ultraviolet spectrum, at wavelength 0.27 μm.
Figure 17.5 Wilhelm Wien (1864–1928)
The sun (approx. 6 000 K) emits yellow light, peaking at about 0.5 μm in the middle of the
visible light spectrum.
At room temperature (300 K) the peak of radiant emittance lies at 9.7 μm, in the far infrared, while at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (77 K) the maximum of the almost insignificant amount of radiant emittance occurs at 38 μm, in the extreme infrared wavelengths.
Figure 17.6 Planckian curves plotted on semi-log scales from 100 K to 1000 K. The dotted line represents
the locus of maximum radiant emittance at each temperature as described by Wien's displacement law. 1:
Spectral radiant emittance (W/cm2 (μm)); 2: Wavelength (μm).
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17.3.3
Stefan-Boltzmann's law
By integrating Planck’s formula from λ = 0 to λ = ∞, we obtain the total radiant emittance
(Wb) of a blackbody:
This is the Stefan-Boltzmann formula (after Josef Stefan, 1835–1893, and Ludwig Boltzmann, 1844–1906), which states that the total emissive power of a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature. Graphically, Wb represents the area
below the Planck curve for a particular temperature. It can be shown that the radiant emittance in the interval λ = 0 to λmax is only 25% of the total, which represents about the
amount of the sun’s radiation which lies inside the visible light spectrum.
Figure 17.7 Josef Stefan (1835–1893), and Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906)
Using the Stefan-Boltzmann formula to calculate the power radiated by the human body,
at a temperature of 300 K and an external surface area of approx. 2 m2, we obtain 1 kW.
This power loss could not be sustained if it were not for the compensating absorption of radiation from surrounding surfaces, at room temperatures which do not vary too drastically
from the temperature of the body – or, of course, the addition of clothing.
17.3.4
Non-blackbody emitters
So far, only blackbody radiators and blackbody radiation have been discussed. However,
real objects almost never comply with these laws over an extended wavelength region –
although they may approach the blackbody behavior in certain spectral intervals. For example, a certain type of white paint may appear perfectly white in the visible light spectrum, but becomes distinctly gray at about 2 μm, and beyond 3 μm it is almost black.
There are three processes which can occur that prevent a real object from acting like a
blackbody: a fraction of the incident radiation α may be absorbed, a fraction ρ may be reflected, and a fraction τ may be transmitted. Since all of these factors are more or less
wavelength dependent, the subscript λ is used to imply the spectral dependence of their
definitions. Thus:
• The spectral absorptance αλ= the ratio of the spectral radiant power absorbed by an object to that incident upon it.
• The spectral reflectance ρλ = the ratio of the spectral radiant power reflected by an object to that incident upon it.
• The spectral transmittance τλ = the ratio of the spectral radiant power transmitted
through an object to that incident upon it.
The sum of these three factors must always add up to the whole at any wavelength, so we
have the relation:
For opaque materials τλ = 0 and the relation simplifies to:
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Theory of thermography
Another factor, called the emissivity, is required to describe the fraction ε of the radiant
emittance of a blackbody produced by an object at a specific temperature. Thus, we have
the definition:
The spectral emissivity ελ= the ratio of the spectral radiant power from an object to that
from a blackbody at the same temperature and wavelength.
Expressed mathematically, this can be written as the ratio of the spectral emittance of the
object to that of a blackbody as follows:
Generally speaking, there are three types of radiation source, distinguished by the ways in
which the spectral emittance of each varies with wavelength.
• A blackbody, for which ελ = ε = 1
• A graybody, for which ελ = ε = constant less than 1
• A selective radiator, for which ε varies with wavelength
According to Kirchhoff’s law, for any material the spectral emissivity and spectral absorptance of a body are equal at any specified temperature and wavelength. That is:
From this we obtain, for an opaque material (since αλ + ρλ = 1):
For highly polished materials ελ approaches zero, so that for a perfectly reflecting material
(i.e. a perfect mirror) we have:
For a graybody radiator, the Stefan-Boltzmann formula becomes:
This states that the total emissive power of a graybody is the same as a blackbody at the
same temperature reduced in proportion to the value of ε from the graybody.
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Theory of thermography
Figure 17.8 Spectral radiant emittance of three types of radiators. 1: Spectral radiant emittance; 2: Wavelength; 3: Blackbody; 4: Selective radiator; 5: Graybody.
Figure 17.9 Spectral emissivity of three types of radiators. 1: Spectral emissivity; 2: Wavelength; 3: Blackbody; 4: Graybody; 5: Selective radiator.
17.4 Infrared semi-transparent materials
Consider now a non-metallic, semi-transparent body – let us say, in the form of a thick flat
plate of plastic material. When the plate is heated, radiation generated within its volume
must work its way toward the surfaces through the material in which it is partially absorbed.
Moreover, when it arrives at the surface, some of it is reflected back into the interior. The
back-reflected radiation is again partially absorbed, but some of it arrives at the other surface, through which most of it escapes; part of it is reflected back again. Although the progressive reflections become weaker and weaker they must all be added up when the total
emittance of the plate is sought. When the resulting geometrical series is summed, the effective emissivity of a semi-transparent plate is obtained as:
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Theory of thermography
When the plate becomes opaque this formula is reduced to the single formula:
This last relation is a particularly convenient one, because it is often easier to measure reflectance than to measure emissivity directly.
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The measurement formula
As already mentioned, when viewing an object, the camera receives radiation not only
from the object itself. It also collects radiation from the surroundings reflected via the object surface. Both these radiation contributions become attenuated to some extent by the
atmosphere in the measurement path. To this comes a third radiation contribution from the
atmosphere itself.
This description of the measurement situation, as illustrated in the figure below, is so far a
fairly true description of the real conditions. What has been neglected could for instance
be sun light scattering in the atmosphere or stray radiation from intense radiation sources
outside the field of view. Such disturbances are difficult to quantify, however, in most cases
they are fortunately small enough to be neglected. In case they are not negligible, the
measurement configuration is likely to be such that the risk for disturbance is obvious, at
least to a trained operator. It is then his responsibility to modify the measurement situation
to avoid the disturbance e.g. by changing the viewing direction, shielding off intense radiation sources etc.
Accepting the description above, we can use the figure below to derive a formula for the
calculation of the object temperature from the calibrated camera output.
Figure 18.1 A schematic representation of the general thermographic measurement situation.1: Surroundings; 2: Object; 3: Atmosphere; 4: Camera
Assume that the received radiation power W from a blackbody source of temperature
Tsource on short distance generates a camera output signal Usource that is proportional to
the power input (power linear camera). We can then write (Equation 1):
or, with simplified notation:
where C is a constant.
Should the source be a graybody with emittance ε, the received radiation would consequently be εWsource.
We are now ready to write the three collected radiation power terms:
1. Emission from the object = ετWobj, where ε is the emittance of the object and τ is the
transmittance of the atmosphere. The object temperature is Tobj.
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2. Reflected emission from ambient sources = (1 – ε)τWrefl, where (1 – ε) is the reflectance of the object. The ambient sources have the temperature Trefl.
It has here been assumed that the temperature Trefl is the same for all emitting surfaces
within the halfsphere seen from a point on the object surface. This is of course sometimes a simplification of the true situation. It is, however, a necessary simplification in
order to derive a workable formula, and Trefl can – at least theoretically – be given a value that represents an efficient temperature of a complex surrounding.
Note also that we have assumed that the emittance for the surroundings = 1. This is
correct in accordance with Kirchhoff’s law: All radiation impinging on the surrounding
surfaces will eventually be absorbed by the same surfaces. Thus the emittance = 1.
(Note though that the latest discussion requires the complete sphere around the object
to be considered.)
3. Emission from the atmosphere = (1 – τ)τWatm, where (1 – τ) is the emittance of the atmosphere. The temperature of the atmosphere is Tatm.
The total received radiation power can now be written (Equation 2):
We multiply each term by the constant C of Equation 1 and replace the CW products by
the corresponding U according to the same equation, and get (Equation 3):
Solve Equation 3 for Uobj (Equation 4):
This is the general measurement formula used in all the FLIR Systems thermographic
equipment. The voltages of the formula are:
Table 18.1 Voltages
Uobj
Calculated camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperature Tobj
i.e. a voltage that can be directly converted into true requested object
temperature.
Utot
Measured camera output voltage for the actual case.
Urefl
Theoretical camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperature
Trefl according to the calibration.
Uatm
Theoretical camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperature
Tatm according to the calibration.
The operator has to supply a number of parameter values for the calculation:
•
•
•
•
•
the object emittance ε,
the relative humidity,
Tatm
object distance (Dobj)
the (effective) temperature of the object surroundings, or the reflected ambient temperature Trefl, and
• the temperature of the atmosphere Tatm
This task could sometimes be a heavy burden for the operator since there are normally no
easy ways to find accurate values of emittance and atmospheric transmittance for the
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The measurement formula
actual case. The two temperatures are normally less of a problem provided the surroundings do not contain large and intense radiation sources.
A natural question in this connection is: How important is it to know the right values of
these parameters? It could though be of interest to get a feeling for this problem already
here by looking into some different measurement cases and compare the relative magnitudes of the three radiation terms. This will give indications about when it is important to
use correct values of which parameters.
The figures below illustrates the relative magnitudes of the three radiation contributions for
three different object temperatures, two emittances, and two spectral ranges: SW and LW.
Remaining parameters have the following fixed values:
• τ = 0.88
• Trefl = +20°C (+68°F)
• Tatm = +20°C (+68°F)
It is obvious that measurement of low object temperatures are more critical than measuring high temperatures since the ‘disturbing’ radiation sources are relatively much stronger
in the first case. Should also the object emittance be low, the situation would be still more
difficult.
We have finally to answer a question about the importance of being allowed to use the calibration curve above the highest calibration point, what we call extrapolation. Imagine that
we in a certain case measure Utot = 4.5 volts. The highest calibration point for the camera
was in the order of 4.1 volts, a value unknown to the operator. Thus, even if the object happened to be a blackbody, i.e. Uobj = Utot, we are actually performing extrapolation of the
calibration curve when converting 4.5 volts into temperature.
Let us now assume that the object is not black, it has an emittance of 0.75, and the transmittance is 0.92. We also assume that the two second terms of Equation 4 amount to 0.5
volts together. Computation of Uobj by means of Equation 4 then results in Uobj = 4.5 / 0.75
/ 0.92 – 0.5 = 6.0. This is a rather extreme extrapolation, particularly when considering that
the video amplifier might limit the output to 5 volts! Note, though, that the application of the
calibration curve is a theoretical procedure where no electronic or other limitations exist.
We trust that if there had been no signal limitations in the camera, and if it had been calibrated far beyond 5 volts, the resulting curve would have been very much the same as our
real curve extrapolated beyond 4.1 volts, provided the calibration algorithm is based on radiation physics, like the FLIR Systems algorithm. Of course there must be a limit to such
extrapolations.
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The measurement formula
Figure 18.2 Relative magnitudes of radiation sources under varying measurement conditions (SW camera).
1: Object temperature; 2: Emittance; Obj: Object radiation; Refl: Reflected radiation; Atm: atmosphere radiation. Fixed parameters: τ = 0.88; Trefl = 20°C (+68°F); Tatm = 20°C (+68°F).
Figure 18.3 Relative magnitudes of radiation sources under varying measurement conditions (LW camera).
1: Object temperature; 2: Emittance; Obj: Object radiation; Refl: Reflected radiation; Atm: atmosphere radiation. Fixed parameters: τ = 0.88; Trefl = 20°C (+68°F); Tatm = 20°C (+68°F).
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Emissivity tables
This section presents a compilation of emissivity data from the infrared literature and
measurements made by FLIR Systems.
19.1 References
1. Mikaél A. Bramson: Infrared Radiation, A Handbook for Applications, Plenum press, N.
Y.
2. William L. Wolfe, George J. Zissis: The Infrared Handbook, Office of Naval Research,
Department of Navy, Washington, D.C.
3. Madding, R. P.: Thermographic Instruments and systems. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin – Extension, Department of Engineering and Applied Science.
4. William L. Wolfe: Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, Office of Naval Research,
Department of Navy, Washington, D.C.
5. Jones, Smith, Probert: External thermography of buildings..., Proc. of the Society of
Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, vol.110, Industrial and Civil Applications of
Infrared Technology, June 1977 London.
6. Paljak, Pettersson: Thermography of Buildings, Swedish Building Research Institute,
Stockholm 1972.
7. Vlcek, J: Determination of emissivity with imaging radiometers and some emissivities
at λ = 5 µm. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.
8. Kern: Evaluation of infrared emission of clouds and ground as measured by weather
satellites, Defence Documentation Center, AD 617 417.
9. Öhman, Claes: Emittansmätningar med AGEMA E-Box. Teknisk rapport, AGEMA
1999. (Emittance measurements using AGEMA E-Box. Technical report, AGEMA
1999.)
10. Matteï, S., Tang-Kwor, E: Emissivity measurements for Nextel Velvet coating 811-21
between –36°C AND 82°C.
11. Lohrengel & Todtenhaupt (1996)
12. ITC Technical publication 32.
13. ITC Technical publication 29.
NOTE
The emissivity values in the table below are recorded using a shortwave (SW) camera. The values should
be regarded as recommendations only and used with caution.
19.2 Tables
Table 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification; 3:
Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference
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1
2
3
4
5
6
3M type 35
Vinyl electrical
tape (several
colors)
< 80
LW
≈ 0.96
13
3M type 88
Black vinyl electrical tape
< 105
LW
≈ 0.96
13
3M type 88
Black vinyl electrical tape
< 105
MW
< 0.96
13
3M type Super 33
+
Black vinyl electrical tape
< 80
LW
≈ 0.96
13
Aluminum
anodized sheet
100
T
0.55
2
Aluminum
anodized, black,
dull
70
SW
0.67
9
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Emissivity tables
Table 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification; 3:
Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Aluminum
anodized, black,
dull
70
LW
0.95
9
Aluminum
anodized, light
gray, dull
70
SW
0.61
9
Aluminum
anodized, light
gray, dull
70
LW
0.97
9
Aluminum
as received, plate
100
T
0.09
4
Aluminum
as received, sheet
100
T
0.09
2
Aluminum
cast, blast
cleaned
70
SW
0.47
9
Aluminum
cast, blast
cleaned
70
LW
0.46
9
Aluminum
dipped in HNO3,
plate
100
T
0.05
4
Aluminum
foil
27
10 µm
0.04
3
Aluminum
foil
27
3 µm
0.09
3
Aluminum
oxidized, strongly
50–500
T
0.2–0.3
1
Aluminum
polished
50–100
T
0.04–0.06
1
Aluminum
polished plate
100
T
0.05
4
Aluminum
polished, sheet
100
T
0.05
2
Aluminum
rough surface
20–50
T
0.06–0.07
1
Aluminum
roughened
27
10 µm
0.18
3
Aluminum
roughened
27
3 µm
0.28
3
Aluminum
sheet, 4 samples
differently
scratched
70
SW
0.05–0.08
9
Aluminum
sheet, 4 samples
differently
scratched
70
LW
0.03–0.06
9
Aluminum
vacuum deposited
20
T
0.04
2
Aluminum
weathered,
heavily
17
SW
0.83–0.94
5
20
Aluminum bronze
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T
0.60
1
Aluminum
hydroxide
powder
T
0.28
1
Aluminum oxide
activated, powder
T
0.46
1
Aluminum oxide
pure, powder
(alumina)
T
0.16
1
Asbestos
board
Asbestos
fabric
Asbestos
floor tile
Asbestos
paper
Asbestos
powder
Asbestos
slate
20
T
0.96
1
T
0.78
1
35
SW
0.94
7
40–400
T
0.93–0.95
1
T
0.40–0.60
1
T
0.96
1
20
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Emissivity tables
Table 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification; 3:
Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
Asphalt paving
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3
4
5
6
4
LLW
0.967
8
Brass
dull, tarnished
20–350
T
0.22
1
Brass
oxidized
100
T
0.61
2
Brass
oxidized
70
SW
0.04–0.09
9
Brass
oxidized
70
LW
0.03–0.07
9
Brass
oxidized at 600°C
200–600
T
0.59–0.61
1
Brass
polished
200
T
0.03
1
Brass
polished, highly
100
T
0.03
2
Brass
rubbed with 80grit emery
20
T
0.20
2
Brass
sheet, rolled
20
T
0.06
1
Brass
sheet, worked
with emery
20
T
0.2
1
Brick
alumina
17
SW
0.68
5
Brick
common
17
SW
0.86–0.81
5
Brick
Dinas silica,
glazed, rough
1100
T
0.85
1
Brick
Dinas silica,
refractory
1000
T
0.66
1
Brick
Dinas silica, unglazed, rough
1000
T
0.80
1
Brick
firebrick
17
SW
0.68
5
Brick
fireclay
1000
T
0.75
1
Brick
fireclay
1200
T
0.59
1
Brick
fireclay
20
T
0.85
1
Brick
masonry
35
SW
0.94
7
Brick
masonry,
plastered
20
T
0.94
1
Brick
red, common
20
T
0.93
2
Brick
red, rough
20
T
0.88–0.93
1
Brick
refractory,
corundum
1000
T
0.46
1
Brick
refractory,
magnesite
1000–1300
T
0.38
1
Brick
refractory, strongly
radiating
500–1000
T
0.8–0.9
1
Brick
refractory, weakly
radiating
500–1000
T
0.65–0.75
1
Brick
silica, 95% SiO2
1230
T
0.66
1
Brick
sillimanite, 33%
SiO2, 64% Al2O3
1500
T
0.29
1
Brick
waterproof
17
SW
0.87
5
Bronze
phosphor bronze
70
SW
0.08
9
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Emissivity tables
Table 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification; 3:
Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Bronze
phosphor bronze
70
Bronze
polished
50
LW
0.06
9
T
0.1
1
Bronze
porous, rough
50–150
T
0.55
1
Bronze
powder
T
0.76–0.80
1
Carbon
candle soot
Carbon
charcoal powder
T
0.95
2
T
0.96
1
Carbon
graphite powder
Carbon
graphite, filed
surface
20
T
0.97
1
T
0.98
2
Carbon
lampblack
20–400
T
0.95–0.97
1
Chipboard
untreated
20
SW
0.90
6
Chromium
polished
50
T
0.10
1
Chromium
polished
500–1000
T
0.28–0.38
1
Clay
fired
70
T
0.91
1
Cloth
black
20
T
0.98
1
20
T
0.92
2
Concrete
info@FLIR-Direct.com
20
Concrete
dry
36
SW
0.95
7
Concrete
rough
17
SW
0.97
5
Concrete
walkway
5
LLW
0.974
8
Copper
commercial,
burnished
20
T
0.07
1
Copper
electrolytic, carefully polished
80
T
0.018
1
Copper
electrolytic,
polished
–34
T
0.006
4
Copper
molten
1100–1300
T
0.13–0.15
1
Copper
oxidized
50
T
0.6–0.7
1
Copper
oxidized to
blackness
T
0.88
1
Copper
oxidized, black
27
T
0.78
4
Copper
oxidized, heavily
20
T
0.78
2
Copper
polished
50–100
T
0.02
1
Copper
polished
100
T
0.03
2
Copper
polished,
commercial
27
T
0.03
4
Copper
polished,
mechanical
22
T
0.015
4
Copper
pure, carefully
prepared surface
22
T
0.008
4
Copper
scraped
27
T
0.07
4
Copper dioxide
powder
T
0.84
1
Copper oxide
red, powder
T
0.70
1
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Emissivity tables
Table 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification; 3:
Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
coarse
80
Ebonite
Emery
Enamel
4
5
6
T
0.89
1
T
0.85
1
20
T
0.9
1
Enamel
lacquer
20
T
0.85–0.95
1
Fiber board
hard, untreated
20
SW
0.85
6
Fiber board
masonite
70
SW
0.75
9
Fiber board
masonite
70
LW
0.88
9
Fiber board
particle board
70
SW
0.77
9
Fiber board
particle board
70
LW
0.89
9
Fiber board
porous, untreated
20
SW
0.85
6
Gold
polished
130
T
0.018
1
Gold
polished, carefully
200–600
T
0.02–0.03
1
Gold
polished, highly
100
T
0.02
2
Granite
polished
20
LLW
0.849
8
Granite
rough
21
LLW
0.879
8
Granite
rough, 4 different
samples
70
SW
0.95–0.97
9
Granite
rough, 4 different
samples
70
LW
0.77–0.87
9
20
T
0.8–0.9
1
Gypsum
Ice: See Water
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Iron and steel
cold rolled
70
SW
0.20
9
Iron and steel
cold rolled
70
LW
0.09
9
Iron and steel
covered with red
rust
20
T
0.61–0.85
1
Iron and steel
electrolytic
100
T
0.05
4
Iron and steel
electrolytic
22
T
0.05
4
Iron and steel
electrolytic
260
T
0.07
4
Iron and steel
electrolytic, carefully polished
175–225
T
0.05–0.06
1
Iron and steel
freshly worked
with emery
20
T
0.24
1
Iron and steel
ground sheet
950–1100
T
0.55–0.61
1
Iron and steel
heavily rusted
sheet
20
T
0.69
2
Iron and steel
hot rolled
130
T
0.60
1
Iron and steel
hot rolled
20
T
0.77
1
Iron and steel
oxidized
100
T
0.74
4
Iron and steel
oxidized
100
T
0.74
1
Iron and steel
oxidized
1227
T
0.89
4
Iron and steel
oxidized
125–525
T
0.78–0.82
1
Iron and steel
oxidized
200
T
0.79
2
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Emissivity tables
Table 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification; 3:
Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
info@FLIR-Direct.com
1
2
3
4
5
6
Iron and steel
oxidized
200–600
T
0.80
1
Iron and steel
oxidized strongly
50
T
0.88
1
Iron and steel
oxidized strongly
500
T
0.98
1
Iron and steel
polished
100
T
0.07
2
Iron and steel
polished
400–1000
T
0.14–0.38
1
Iron and steel
polished sheet
750–1050
T
0.52–0.56
1
Iron and steel
rolled sheet
50
T
0.56
1
Iron and steel
rolled, freshly
20
T
0.24
1
Iron and steel
rough, plane
surface
50
T
0.95–0.98
1
Iron and steel
rusted red, sheet
22
T
0.69
4
Iron and steel
rusted, heavily
17
SW
0.96
5
Iron and steel
rusty, red
20
T
0.69
1
Iron and steel
shiny oxide layer,
sheet,
20
T
0.82
1
Iron and steel
shiny, etched
150
T
0.16
1
Iron and steel
wrought, carefully
polished
40–250
T
0.28
1
Iron galvanized
heavily oxidized
70
SW
0.64
9
Iron galvanized
heavily oxidized
70
LW
0.85
9
Iron galvanized
sheet
92
T
0.07
4
Iron galvanized
sheet, burnished
30
T
0.23
1
Iron galvanized
sheet, oxidized
20
T
0.28
1
Iron tinned
sheet
24
T
0.064
4
Iron, cast
casting
50
T
0.81
1
Iron, cast
ingots
1000
T
0.95
1
Iron, cast
liquid
1300
T
0.28
1
Iron, cast
machined
800–1000
T
0.60–0.70
1
Iron, cast
oxidized
100
T
0.64
2
Iron, cast
oxidized
260
T
0.66
4
Iron, cast
oxidized
38
T
0.63
4
Iron, cast
oxidized
538
T
0.76
4
Iron, cast
oxidized at 600°C
200–600
T
0.64–0.78
1
Iron, cast
polished
200
T
0.21
1
Iron, cast
polished
38
T
0.21
4
Iron, cast
polished
40
T
0.21
2
Iron, cast
unworked
900–1100
T
0.87–0.95
1
Krylon Ultra-flat
black 1602
Flat black
Room temperature up to 175
LW
≈ 0.96
12
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Emissivity tables
Table 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification; 3:
Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Krylon Ultra-flat
black 1602
Flat black
Room temperature up to 175
MW
≈ 0.97
12
Lacquer
3 colors sprayed
on Aluminum
70
SW
0.50–0.53
9
Lacquer
3 colors sprayed
on Aluminum
70
LW
0.92–0.94
9
Lacquer
Aluminum on
rough surface
20
T
0.4
1
Lacquer
bakelite
80
T
0.83
1
Lacquer
black, dull
40–100
T
0.96–0.98
1
Lacquer
black, matte
100
T
0.97
2
Lacquer
black, shiny,
sprayed on iron
20
T
0.87
1
Lacquer
heat–resistant
100
T
0.92
1
Lacquer
white
100
T
0.92
2
Lacquer
white
40–100
T
0.8–0.95
1
Lead
oxidized at 200°C
200
T
0.63
1
Lead
oxidized, gray
20
T
0.28
1
Lead
oxidized, gray
22
T
0.28
4
Lead
shiny
250
T
0.08
1
Lead
unoxidized,
polished
100
T
0.05
4
Lead red
100
T
0.93
4
Lead red, powder
100
T
0.93
1
T
0.75–0.80
1
T
0.3–0.4
1
Leather
tanned
Lime
Magnesium
22
T
0.07
4
Magnesium
260
T
0.13
4
Magnesium
538
T
0.18
4
20
T
0.07
2
T
0.86
1
Magnesium
polished
Magnesium
powder
Molybdenum
1500–2200
T
0.19–0.26
1
Molybdenum
600–1000
T
0.08–0.13
1
700–2500
T
0.1–0.3
1
Molybdenum
filament
17
SW
0.87
5
Mortar
dry
36
SW
0.94
7
Nextel Velvet 81121 Black
Flat black
–60–150
LW
> 0.97
10 and
11
Nichrome
rolled
700
T
0.25
1
Nichrome
sandblasted
700
T
0.70
1
Nichrome
wire, clean
50
T
0.65
1
Mortar
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Emissivity tables
Table 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification; 3:
Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Nichrome
wire, clean
500–1000
T
0.71–0.79
1
Nichrome
wire, oxidized
50–500
T
0.95–0.98
1
Nickel
bright matte
122
T
0.041
4
Nickel
commercially
pure, polished
100
T
0.045
1
Nickel
commercially
pure, polished
200–400
T
0.07–0.09
1
Nickel
electrolytic
22
T
0.04
4
Nickel
electrolytic
260
T
0.07
4
Nickel
electrolytic
38
T
0.06
4
Nickel
electrolytic
538
T
0.10
4
Nickel
electroplated on
iron, polished
22
T
0.045
4
Nickel
electroplated on
iron, unpolished
20
T
0.11–0.40
1
Nickel
electroplated on
iron, unpolished
22
T
0.11
4
Nickel
electroplated,
polished
20
T
0.05
2
Nickel
oxidized
1227
T
0.85
4
Nickel
oxidized
200
T
0.37
2
Nickel
oxidized
227
T
0.37
4
Nickel
oxidized at 600°C
200–600
T
0.37–0.48
1
Nickel
polished
122
T
0.045
4
Nickel
wire
200–1000
T
0.1–0.2
1
Nickel oxide
1000–1250
T
0.75–0.86
1
Nickel oxide
500–650
T
0.52–0.59
1
Oil, lubricating
0.025 mm film
20
T
0.27
2
Oil, lubricating
0.050 mm film
20
T
0.46
2
Oil, lubricating
0.125 mm film
20
T
0.72
2
Oil, lubricating
film on Ni base: Ni
base only
20
T
0.05
2
Oil, lubricating
thick coating
20
T
0.82
2
Paint
8 different colors
and qualities
70
SW
0.88–0.96
9
Paint
8 different colors
and qualities
70
LW
0.92–0.94
9
Paint
Aluminum, various
ages
50–100
T
0.27–0.67
1
Paint
cadmium yellow
T
0.28–0.33
1
Paint
chrome green
T
0.65–0.70
1
Paint
cobalt blue
T
0.7–0.8
1
SW
0.87
5
Paint
info@FLIR-Direct.com
oil
17
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Emissivity tables
Table 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification; 3:
Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Paint
oil based, average
of 16 colors
100
T
0.94
2
Paint
oil, black flat
20
SW
0.94
6
Paint
oil, black gloss
20
SW
0.92
6
Paint
oil, gray flat
20
SW
0.97
6
Paint
oil, gray gloss
20
SW
0.96
6
Paint
oil, various colors
100
T
0.92–0.96
1
Paint
plastic, black
20
SW
0.95
6
Paint
plastic, white
20
SW
0.84
6
Paper
4 different colors
70
SW
0.68–0.74
9
Paper
4 different colors
70
LW
0.92–0.94
9
Paper
black
T
0.90
1
Paper
black, dull
T
0.94
1
Paper
black, dull
70
SW
0.86
9
Paper
black, dull
70
LW
0.89
9
Paper
blue, dark
T
0.84
1
Paper
coated with black
lacquer
T
0.93
1
Paper
green
T
0.85
1
Paper
red
T
0.76
1
Paper
white
20
T
0.7–0.9
1
Paper
white bond
20
T
0.93
2
Paper
white, 3 different
glosses
70
SW
0.76–0.78
9
Paper
white, 3 different
glosses
70
LW
0.88–0.90
9
Paper
yellow
T
0.72
1
17
SW
0.86
5
Plaster
plasterboard,
untreated
20
SW
0.90
6
Plaster
rough coat
20
T
0.91
2
Plastic
glass fibre laminate (printed circ.
board)
70
SW
0.94
9
Plastic
glass fibre laminate (printed circ.
board)
70
LW
0.91
9
Plastic
polyurethane isolation board
70
LW
0.55
9
Plastic
polyurethane isolation board
70
SW
0.29
9
Plastic
PVC, plastic floor,
dull, structured
70
SW
0.94
9
Plaster
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Emissivity tables
Table 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification; 3:
Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Plastic
PVC, plastic floor,
dull, structured
70
LW
0.93
9
Platinum
100
T
0.05
4
Platinum
1000–1500
T
0.14–0.18
1
Platinum
1094
T
0.18
4
Platinum
17
T
0.016
4
Platinum
22
T
0.03
4
Platinum
260
T
0.06
4
Platinum
538
T
0.10
4
Platinum
pure, polished
200–600
T
0.05–0.10
1
Platinum
ribbon
900–1100
T
0.12–0.17
1
Platinum
wire
1400
T
0.18
1
Platinum
wire
500–1000
T
0.10–0.16
1
Platinum
wire
50–200
T
0.06–0.07
1
Porcelain
glazed
20
T
0.92
1
Porcelain
white, shiny
T
0.70–0.75
1
Rubber
hard
20
T
0.95
1
Rubber
soft, gray, rough
20
T
0.95
1
Sand
Sand
T
0.60
1
20
T
0.90
2
Sandstone
polished
19
LLW
0.909
8
Sandstone
rough
19
LLW
0.935
8
Silver
polished
100
T
0.03
2
Silver
pure, polished
200–600
T
0.02–0.03
1
Skin
human
32
T
0.98
2
Slag
boiler
0–100
T
0.97–0.93
1
Slag
boiler
1400–1800
T
0.69–0.67
1
Slag
boiler
200–500
T
0.89–0.78
1
Slag
boiler
600–1200
T
0.76–0.70
1
Soil
dry
20
T
0.92
2
Soil
saturated with
water
20
T
0.95
2
Stainless steel
alloy, 8% Ni, 18%
Cr
500
T
0.35
1
Stainless steel
rolled
700
T
0.45
1
Stainless steel
sandblasted
700
T
0.70
1
Stainless steel
sheet, polished
70
SW
0.18
9
Stainless steel
sheet, polished
70
LW
0.14
9
Stainless steel
sheet, untreated,
somewhat
scratched
70
SW
0.30
9
Snow: See Water
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Emissivity tables
Table 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification; 3:
Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Stainless steel
sheet, untreated,
somewhat
scratched
70
LW
0.28
9
Stainless steel
type 18-8, buffed
20
T
0.16
2
Stainless steel
type 18-8, oxidized at 800°C
60
T
0.85
2
Stucco
rough, lime
10–90
T
0.91
1
Styrofoam
insulation
37
SW
0.60
7
T
0.79–0.84
1
Tar
Tar
paper
20
T
0.91–0.93
1
Tile
glazed
17
SW
0.94
5
Tin
burnished
20–50
T
0.04–0.06
1
Tin
tin–plated sheet
iron
100
T
0.07
2
Titanium
oxidized at 540°C
1000
T
0.60
1
Titanium
oxidized at 540°C
200
T
0.40
1
Titanium
oxidized at 540°C
500
T
0.50
1
Titanium
polished
1000
T
0.36
1
Titanium
polished
200
T
0.15
1
Titanium
polished
500
T
0.20
1
Tungsten
1500–2200
T
0.24–0.31
1
Tungsten
200
T
0.05
1
Tungsten
600–1000
T
0.1–0.16
1
Tungsten
filament
3300
T
0.39
1
Varnish
flat
20
SW
0.93
6
Varnish
on oak parquet
floor
70
SW
0.90
9
Varnish
on oak parquet
floor
70
LW
0.90–0.93
9
Wallpaper
slight pattern, light
gray
20
SW
0.85
6
Wallpaper
slight pattern, red
20
SW
0.90
6
Water
distilled
20
T
0.96
2
Water
frost crystals
–10
T
0.98
2
Water
ice, covered with
heavy frost
0
T
0.98
1
Water
ice, smooth
0
T
0.97
1
Water
ice, smooth
–10
T
0.96
2
Water
layer >0.1 mm
thick
0–100
T
0.95–0.98
1
Water
snow
Water
snow
Wood
info@FLIR-Direct.com
T
0.8
1
–10
T
0.85
2
17
SW
0.98
5
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Emissivity tables
Table 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification; 3:
Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)
1
2
Wood
info@FLIR-Direct.com
3
4
5
6
19
LLW
0.962
8
T
0.5–0.7
1
Wood
ground
Wood
pine, 4 different
samples
70
SW
0.67–0.75
9
Wood
pine, 4 different
samples
70
LW
0.81–0.89
9
Wood
planed
20
T
0.8–0.9
1
Wood
planed oak
20
T
0.90
2
Wood
planed oak
70
SW
0.77
9
Wood
planed oak
70
LW
0.88
9
Wood
plywood, smooth,
dry
36
SW
0.82
7
Wood
plywood,
untreated
20
SW
0.83
6
Wood
white, damp
20
T
0.7–0.8
1
Zinc
oxidized at 400°C
400
T
0.11
1
Zinc
oxidized surface
1000–1200
T
0.50–0.60
1
Zinc
polished
200–300
T
0.04–0.05
1
Zinc
sheet
50
T
0.20
1
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