Nexus 1252, 1250 User manual

Nexus 1252, 1250 User manual
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Nexus® 1250/1252 Meter Installation and Operation Manual Version 1.39
Published by:
Electro Industries/GaugeTech
1800 Shames Drive
Westbury, NY 11590
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or information storage or retrieval systems or any future forms of duplication, for
any purpose other than the purchaser's use, without the expressed written permission
of Electro Industries/GaugeTech.
© 2015 Electro Industries/GaugeTech
Nexus® is a registered trademark of Electro Industries/GaugeTech. Communicator
EXTTM is a trademark of Electro Industries/GaugeTech.
Windows® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States
and/or other countries.
Modbus® is a registered trademark of Schneider Electric, licensed to the Modbus
Organization, Inc.
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Customer Service and Support
Customer support is available 9:00 am to 4:30 pm, Eastern Standard Time, Monday
through Friday. Please have the model, serial number and a detailed problem description available. If the problem concerns a particular reading, please have all meter
readings available. When returning any merchandise to EIG, a return materials
authorization number is required. For customer or technical assistance, repair or
calibration, phone 516-334-0870 or fax 516-338-4741.
Product Warranty
Electro Industries/GaugeTech warrants all products to be free from defects in material
and workmanship for a period of four years from the date of shipment. During the
warranty period, we will, at our option, either repair or replace any product that
proves to be defective.
To exercise this warranty, fax or call our customer-support department. You will
receive prompt assistance and return instructions. Send the instrument, transportation prepaid, to EIG at 1800 Shames Drive, Westbury, NY 11590. Repairs will be made
and the instrument will be returned.
This warranty does not apply to defects resulting from unauthorized modification,
misuse, or use for any reason other than electrical power monitoring. The Nexus®
1250/1252 meter is not a user-serviceable product.
THIS WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. ELECTRO INDUSTRIES/
GAUGETECH SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING FROM ANY AUTHORIZED OR
UNAUTHORIZED USE OF ANY ELECTRO INDUSTRIES/GAUGETECH
PRODUCT. LIABILITY SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE ORIGINAL COST OF
THE PRODUCT SOLD.
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Use of Product for Protection
Our products are not to be used for primary over-current protection. Any protection
feature in our products is to be used for alarm or secondary protection only.
Statement of Calibration
Our instruments are inspected and tested in accordance with specifications published
by Electro Industries/GaugeTech. The accuracy and a calibration of our instruments
are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology through
equipment that is calibrated at planned intervals by comparison to certified standards.
For optimal performance, EIG recommends that any meter, including those manufactured by EIG, be verified for accuracy on a yearly interval using NIST traceable accuracy standards.
Disclaimer
The information presented in this publication has been carefully checked for
reliability; however, no responsibility is assumed for inaccuracies. The information
contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
Safety Symbols
In this manual, this symbol indicates that the operator must refer to
an important WARNING or CAUTION in the operating instructions.
Please see Chapter 4 for important safety information regarding
installation and hookup of the meter.
Dans ce manuel, ce symbole indique que l’opérateur doit se référer à un important
AVERTISSEMENT ou une MISE EN GARDE dans les instructions opérationnelles.
Veuillez consulter le chapitre 4 pour des informations importantes relatives à l’installation et branchement du compteur.
The following safety symbols may be used on the meter itself:
Les symboles de sécurité suivante peuvent être utilisés sur le compteur même:
This symbol alerts you to the presence of high voltage, which can
cause dangerous electrical shock.
Ce symbole vous indique la présence d’une haute tension qui peut
provoquer une décharge électrique dangereuse.
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This symbol indicates the field wiring terminal that must be connected
to earth ground before operating the meter, which protects against
electrical shock in case of a fault condition.
Ce symbole indique que la borne de pose des canalisations in-situ qui doit être
branchée dans la mise à terre avant de faire fonctionner le compteur qui est protégé
contre une décharge électrique ou un état défectueux.
About Electro Industries/GaugeTech (EIG)
Founded in 1975 by engineer and inventor Dr. Samuel Kagan, Electro Industries/
GaugeTech changed the face of power monitoring forever with its first breakthrough
innovation: an affordable, easy-to-use AC power meter.
More than thirty years since its founding, Electro Industries/GaugeTech, the leader in
power monitoring and control, continues to revolutionize the industry with the highest
quality, cutting edge power monitoring and control technology on the market today.
An ISO 9001:2000 certified company, EIG sets the industry standard for advanced
power quality and reporting, revenue metering and substation data acquisition and
control. EIG products can be found on site at mainly all of today's leading manufacturers, industrial giants and utilities.
EIG products are primarily designed, manufactured, tested and calibrated at our facility in Westbury, New York.
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Customer Service and Support
Product Warranty
Limitation of Warranty
Statement of Calibration
Disclaimer
About Electro Industries/GaugeTech
ii
ii
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iii
iii
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1:Three-Phase Power Measurement
1.1: Three-Phase System Configurations
1.1.1: Wye Connection
1.1.2: Delta Connection
1.1.3: Blondell’s Theorem and Three-Phase Measurement
1.2: Power, Energy and Demand
1.3: Reactive Energy and Power Factor
1.4: Harmonic Distortion
1.5: Power Quality
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-4
1-6
1-8
1-12
1-14
1-17
2: Meter Overview
2-1
2.1: The Nexus® System
2.2: DNP V.3.00 Level 1 and 2
2.3: Flicker
2.4: INP2 Internal Modem with Dial-in/Dial-out Option
2.4.1: Hardware Overview
2.4.2: Dial-In Function
2.4.3: Dial-Out Function
2.5: Total Web Solutions
2.5.1: Hardware Overview
2.5.2: Hardware Connection
2.5.3: Software Overview
2.5.4: Network Settings
2.6: Measurements and Calculations
2.7: Demand Integrators
2.8: Nexus® External I/O Modules (Optional)
2.9: Nexus® 1250/1252 Meter Specifications
2.10: Nexus® P40N+, P41N+, P43N+ LED External Display Specifications
2.11: Upgrading the Nexus® 1252 Meter’s V-SwitchTM Key
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-8
2-12
2-15
2-17
2-18
2-19
3: Hardware Installation
3.1: Mounting the Nexus® 1250/1252 Meter
3.2: Mounting the Nexus® LED External Displays
3.3: Mounting the Nexus® External I/O Modules
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-5
4: Electrical Installation
4.1: Considerations When Installing Meters
4.2: Wiring the Monitored Inputs and Voltages
4.3: Fusing the Voltage Connections
4.4: Wiring the Monitored Inputs - VRef
4.5: Wiring the Monitored Inputs - VAux
4.6: Wiring the Monitored Inputs - Currents
4.7: Isolating a CT Connection Reversal
4.8: Instrument Power Connections
4-1
4-1
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-7
4-7
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Table of Contents
4.9: Wiring Diagrams
4.10: Extended Surge Protection for Substation Instrumentation
4-8
4-18
5: Communication Wiring
5.1: Communication Overview
5.2: RS232 Connection (Port 1)
5.3: RS485 Communication
5.3.1: RS485 Connection
5.3.2: Connection to an RS485 Master (Unicom or Modem Manager)
5.3.3: Using the Unicom 2500
5.3.4: RS485 Connection to the Nexus® P40N+ External Display
5.4: RJ11 (Telephone Line) Connection—Nexus® Meter with Internal
Modem Option (INP2) to a PC
5.5: RJ45 Connection—Nexus® Meter with Internal Network Option
(INP200) to multiple PCs - 10/100BaseT
5.6: Communication Ports on the Nexus® I/O Modules
5.6.1: RS485 Connection—Nexus® Meter to Nexus® I/O Modules
5.6.2: Steps to Determine Power Needed
5.7: Linking Multiple Nexus® Meters in Series
5.8: Remote Communication Overview
5.8.1: Remote Communication—RS232
5.8.2: Remote Communication-RS485
5.8.3: Programming Modems for Remote Communication
5.8.3.1: Selected Modem Strings
5.9: High Speed Inputs Connection
5.10: IRIG-B Connections
5.11: Time Synchronization Alternatives
5-1
5-1
5-4
5-4
5-7
5-7
5-8
5-9
6: Using the External Displays
6.1: Overview
6.2: Nexus® P40N/P40N+, P41N+ and P43N+ LED External Displays
6.2.1: Connect Multiple Displays
6.2.2: Nexus® P40N/P40N+ Display Modes
6.3: Dynamic Readings Mode
6.4: Navigation Map of Dynamic Readings Mode
6.5: Nexus® Information Mode
6.6: Navigation Map of Nexus® Information Mode
6.7: Display Features Mode
6.8: Navigation Map of Display Features Mode
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-6
6-6
6-7
6-11
6-12
6-13
6-14
6-16
7: Transformer Loss Compensation
7.1: Introduction
7.2: Nexus® 1250/1252 Meter's Transformer Loss Compensation
7.2.1: Loss Compensation in Three Element Installations
7.2.1.1: Three-Element Loss Compensation Worksheet
7-1
7-1
7-4
7-5
7-6
8: Time-of-Use Function
8.1: Introduction
8.2: The Nexus® Meter's TOU Calendar
8.3: TOU Prior Season and Month
8.4: Updating, Retrieving and Replacing TOU Calendars
8.5: Daylight Savings and Demand
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-2
8-2
8-3
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5-10
5-10
5-11
5-11
5-13
5-14
5-14
5-15
5-15
5-17
5-17
5-18
5-20
TOC-2
Table of Contents
9: External I/O Modules
9.1: Hardware Overview
9.1.1: Port Overview
9.2: I/O Module Installation
9.2.1: Power Source for I/O Modules
9.3: Using the PSIO with Multiple I/O Modules
9.3.1: Steps for Attaching Multiple I/O Modules
9.4: Factory Settings and Reset Button
9.5: Analog Transducer Signal Output Modules
9.5.1: Overview
9.5.2: Normal Mode
9.6: Analog Input Modules
9.6.1: Overview
9.6.2: Normal Mode
9.7: Digital Dry Contact Relay Output (Form C) Module
9.7.1: Overview
9.7.2: Communication
9.7.3: Normal Mode
9.8: Digital Solid State Pulse Output (KYZ) Module
9.8.1: Overview
9.8.2: Communication
9.8.3: Normal Mode
9.9: Digital Status Input Module
9.9.1: Overview
9.9.2: Communication
9.9.3: Normal Mode
9-1
9-1
9-2
9-3
9-3
9-4
9-5
9-7
9-8
9-9
9-9
9-10
9-10
9-11
9-12
9-12
9-13
9-13
9-14
9-14
9-15
9-15
9-17
9-17
9-18
9-18
10: Meter with Internal Modem Option (INP2)
10.1: Hardware Overview
10.2: Hardware Connection
10.3: Dial-In Function
10.4: Dial-Out Function
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-2
10-2
11: Meter with Internal Network Option (INP200)
11.1: Hardware Overview
11.2: Network Connection
11- 1
11-1
11-2
12: Flicker and Analysis
12.1: Overview
12.2: Theory of Operation
12.2.1: Summary
12.3: Flicker Setting (Nexus® 1250 meter and 1252 V-1)
12.4: Flicker Polling Screen
12.5: Logging
12.6: Polling through a Communication Port
12.7: Log Viewer
12.8: Performance Notes
12.9: EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Power Quality Compliance Analysis
(Nexus® 1252 meter with V-2)
12.9.1: EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Configuration
12.9.2: EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Analysis
12-1
12-1
12-1
12-3
12-4
12-6
12-10
12-10
12-10
12-11
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12-12
12-14
TOC-3
Table of Contents
13: Substation 19-inch Rack Mount Assembly (Nexus® 1252 Meter)
13.1: Overview
13.2: Features
13.3: Options
13.4: Dimensions
13.5: Installation
13.6: Wiring
13.7: Ordering Information
13-1
13-1
13-1
13-2
13-2
13-2
13-3
13-3
Glossary
GL-1
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1: Three-Phase Power Measurement
1:Three-Phase Power Measurement
This introduction to three-phase power and power measurement is intended to
provide only a brief overview of the subject. The professional meter engineer or meter
technician should refer to more advanced documents such as the EEI Handbook for
Electricity Metering and the application standards for more in-depth and technical
coverage of the subject.
1.1: Three-Phase System Configurations
Three-phase power is most commonly used in situations where large amounts of
power will be used because it is a more effective way to transmit the power and
because it provides a smoother delivery of power to the end load. There are two
commonly used connections for three-phase power, a wye connection or a delta
connection. Each connection has several different manifestations in actual use.
When attempting to determine the type of connection in use, it is a good practice to
follow the circuit back to the transformer that is serving the circuit. It is often not
possible to conclusively determine the correct circuit connection simply by counting
the wires in the service or checking voltages. Checking the transformer connection
will provide conclusive evidence of the circuit connection and the relationships
between the phase voltages and ground.
1.1.1: Wye Connection
The wye connection is so called because when you look at the phase relationships and
the winding relationships between the phases it looks like a Y. Figure 1.1 depicts the
winding relationships for a wye-connected service. In a wye service the neutral (or
center point of the wye) is typically grounded. This leads to common voltages of 208/
120 and 480/277 (where the first number represents the phase-to-phase voltage and
the second number represents the phase-to-ground voltage).
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1: Three-Phase Power Measurement
VC
Phase 3
N
Phase 1
Phase 2
VB
VA
Figure 1.1: Three-phase Wye Winding
The three voltages are separated by 120o electrically. Under balanced load conditions
the currents are also separated by 120o. However, unbalanced loads and other
conditions can cause the currents to depart from the ideal 120o separation. Threephase voltages and currents are usually represented with a phasor diagram. A phasor
diagram for the typical connected voltages and currents is shown in Figure 1.2.
VC
IC
N
IA
VB
IB
VA
Figure 1.2: Phasor Diagram Showing Three-phase Voltages and Currents
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1: Three-Phase Power Measurement
The phasor diagram shows the 120o angular separation between the phase voltages.
The phase-to-phase voltage in a balanced three-phase wye system is 1.732 times the
phase-to-neutral voltage. The center point of the wye is tied together and is typically
grounded. Table 1.1 shows the common voltages used in the United States for wyeconnected systems.
Phase to Ground Voltage
Phase to Phase Voltage
120 volts
208 volts
277 volts
480 volts
2,400 volts
4,160 volts
7,200 volts
12,470 volts
7,620 volts
13,200 volts
Table 1: Common Phase Voltages on Wye Services
Usually a wye-connected service will have four wires: three wires for the phases and
one for the neutral. The three-phase wires connect to the three phases (as shown in
Figure 1.1). The neutral wire is typically tied to the ground or center point of the wye.
In many industrial applications the facility will be fed with a four-wire wye service but
only three wires will be run to individual loads. The load is then often referred to as a
delta-connected load but the service to the facility is still a wye service; it contains
four wires if you trace the circuit back to its source (usually a transformer). In this
type of connection the phase to ground voltage will be the phase-to-ground voltage
indicated in Table 1, even though a neutral or ground wire is not physically present at
the load. The transformer is the best place to determine the circuit connection type
because this is a location where the voltage reference to ground can be conclusively
identified.
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1: Three-Phase Power Measurement
1.1.2: Delta Connection
Delta-connected services may be fed with either three wires or four wires. In a threephase delta service the load windings are connected from phase-to-phase rather than
from phase-to-ground. Figure 1.3 shows the physical load connections for a delta
service.
VC
Phase 2
VB
Phase 3
Phase 1
VA
Figure 1.3: Three-phase Delta Winding Relationship
In this example of a delta service, three wires will transmit the power to the load. In a
true delta service, the phase-to-ground voltage will usually not be balanced because
the ground is not at the center of the delta.
Figure 1.4 shows the phasor relationships between voltage and current on a threephase delta circuit.
In many delta services, one corner of the delta is grounded. This means the phase to
ground voltage will be zero for one phase and will be full phase-to-phase voltage for
the other two phases. This is done for protective purposes.
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1: Three-Phase Power Measurement
VBC
VCA
IC
IA
IB
VAB
Figure 1.4: Phasor Diagram, Three-Phase Voltages and Currents, Delta-Connected
Another common delta connection is the four-wire, grounded delta used for lighting
loads. In this connection the center point of one winding is grounded. On a 120/240
volt, four-wire, grounded delta service the phase-to-ground voltage would be 120
volts on two phases and 208 volts on the third phase. Figure 1.5 shows the phasor
diagram for the voltages in a three-phase, four-wire delta system.
VC
VCA
VBC
N
VA
VAB
VB
Figure 1.5: Phasor Diagram Showing Three-phase Four-Wire Delta-Connected System
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1: Three-Phase Power Measurement
1.1.3: Blondel’s Theorem and Three Phase Measurement
In 1893 an engineer and mathematician named Andre E. Blondel set forth the first
scientific basis for polyphase metering. His theorem states:
If energy is supplied to any system of conductors through N wires, the total power in
the system is given by the algebraic sum of the readings of N wattmeters so arranged
that each of the N wires contains one current coil, the corresponding potential coil
being connected between that wire and some common point. If this common point is
on one of the N wires, the measurement may be made by the use of N-1 Wattmeters.
The theorem may be stated more simply, in modern language:
In a system of N conductors, N-1 meter elements will measure the power or energy
taken provided that all the potential coils have a common tie to the conductor in
which there is no current coil.
Three-phase power measurement is accomplished by measuring the three individual
phases and adding them together to obtain the total three phase value. In older
analog meters, this measurement was accomplished using up to three separate
elements. Each element combined the single-phase voltage and current to produce a
torque on the meter disk. All three elements were arranged around the disk so that
the disk was subjected to the combined torque of the three elements. As a result the
disk would turn at a higher speed and register power supplied by each of the three
wires.
According to Blondel's Theorem, it was possible to reduce the number of elements
under certain conditions. For example, a three-phase, three-wire delta system could
be correctly measured with two elements (two potential coils and two current coils) if
the potential coils were connected between the three phases with one phase in
common.
In a three-phase, four-wire wye system it is necessary to use three elements. Three
voltage coils are connected between the three phases and the common neutral
conductor. A current coil is required in each of the three phases.
In modern digital meters, Blondel's Theorem is still applied to obtain proper metering.
The difference in modern meters is that the digital meter measures each phase volt-
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1: Three-Phase Power Measurement
age and current and calculates the single-phase power for each phase. The meter
then sums the three phase powers to a single three-phase reading.
Some digital meters calculate the individual phase power values one phase at a time.
This means the meter samples the voltage and current on one phase and calculates a
power value. Then it samples the second phase and calculates the power for the
second phase. Finally, it samples the third phase and calculates that phase power.
After sampling all three phases, the meter combines the three readings to create the
equivalent three-phase power value. Using mathematical averaging techniques, this
method can derive a quite accurate measurement of three-phase power.
More advanced meters actually sample all three phases of voltage and current
simultaneously and calculate the individual phase and three-phase power values. The
advantage of simultaneous sampling is the reduction of error introduced due to the
difference in time when the samples were taken.
C
B
Phase B
Phase C
Node "n"
Phase A
A
N
Figure 1.6: Three-Phase Wye Load Illustrating Kirchhoff’s Law and Blondel’s Theorem
Blondel's Theorem is a derivation that results from Kirchhoff's Law. Kirchhoff's Law
states that the sum of the currents into a node is zero. Another way of stating the
same thing is that the current into a node (connection point) must equal the current
out of the node. The law can be applied to measuring three-phase loads. Figure 1.6
shows a typical connection of a three-phase load applied to a three-phase, four-wire
service. Kirchhoff's Law holds that the sum of currents A, B, C and N must equal zero
or that the sum of currents into Node "n" must equal zero.
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1: Three-Phase Power Measurement
If we measure the currents in wires A, B and C, we then know the current in wire N by
Kirchhoff's Law and it is not necessary to measure it. This fact leads us to the conclusion of Blondel's Theorem- that we only need to measure the power in three of the
four wires if they are connected by a common node. In the circuit of Figure 1.6 we
must measure the power flow in three wires. This will require three voltage coils and
three current coils (a three-element meter). Similar figures and conclusions could be
reached for other circuit configurations involving Delta-connected loads.
1.2: Power, Energy and Demand
It is quite common to exchange power, energy and demand without differentiating
between the three. Because this practice can lead to confusion, the differences
between these three measurements will be discussed.
Power is an instantaneous reading. The power reading provided by a meter is the
present flow of watts. Power is measured immediately just like current. In many
digital meters, the power value is actually measured and calculated over a one second
interval because it takes some amount of time to calculate the RMS values of voltage
and current. But this time interval is kept small to preserve the instantaneous nature
of power.
Energy is always based on some time increment; it is the integration of power over a
defined time increment. Energy is an important value because almost all electric bills
are based, in part, on the amount of energy used.
Typically, electrical energy is measured in units of kilowatt-hours (kWh). A kilowatthour represents a constant load of one thousand watts (one kilowatt) for one hour.
Stated another way, if the power delivered (instantaneous watts) is measured as
1,000 watts and the load was served for a one hour time interval then the load would
have absorbed one kilowatt-hour of energy. A different load may have a constant
power requirement of 4,000 watts. If the load were served for one hour it would
absorb four kWh. If the load were served for 15 minutes it would absorb ¼ of that
total or one kWh.
Figure 1.7 shows a graph of power and the resulting energy that would be transmitted
as a result of the illustrated power values. For this illustration, it is assumed that the
power level is held constant for each minute when a measurement is taken. Each bar
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1: Three-Phase Power Measurement
in the graph will represent the power load for the one-minute increment of time. In
real life the power value moves almost constantly.
The data from Figure 1.7 is reproduced in Table 2 to illustrate the calculation of
energy. Since the time increment of the measurement is one minute and since we
specified that the load is constant over that minute, we can convert the power reading
to an equivalent consumed energy reading by multiplying the power reading times 1/
60 (converting the time base from minutes to hours).
80
70
kilowat t s
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Time (minutes)
Figure 1.7: Power Use over Time
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1: Three-Phase Power Measurement
Time
Interval
(minute)
Power
(kW)
Energy
(kWh)
Accumulated
Energy
(kWh)
1
30
0.50
0.50
2
50
0.83
1.33
3
40
0.67
2.00
4
55
0.92
2.92
5
60
1.00
3.92
6
60
1.00
4.92
7
70
1.17
6.09
8
70
1.17
7.26
9
60
1.00
8.26
10
70
1.17
9.43
11
80
1.33
10.76
12
50
0.83
12.42
13
50
0.83
12.42
14
70
1.17
13.59
15
80
1.33
14.92
Table 1.2: Power and Energy Relationship over Time
As in Table 1.2, the accumulated energy for the power load profile of Figure 1.7 is
14.92 kWh.
Demand is also a time-based value. The demand is the average rate of energy use
over time. The actual label for demand is kilowatt-hours/hour but this is normally
reduced to kilowatts. This makes it easy to confuse demand with power, but demand
is not an instantaneous value. To calculate demand it is necessary to accumulate the
energy readings (as illustrated in Figure 1.7) and adjust the energy reading to an
hourly value that constitutes the demand.
In the example, the accumulated energy is 14.92 kWh. But this measurement was
made over a 15-minute interval. To convert the reading to a demand value, it must be
normalized to a 60-minute interval. If the pattern were repeated for an additional
three 15-minute intervals the total energy would be four times the measured value or
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59.68 kWh. The same process is applied to calculate the 15-minute demand value.
The demand value associated with the example load is 59.68 kWh/hr or 59.68 kWd.
Note that the peak instantaneous value of power is 80 kW, significantly more than the
demand value.
Figure 1.8 shows another example of energy and demand. In this case, each bar
represents the energy consumed in a 15-minute interval. The energy use in each
interval typically falls between 50 and 70 kWh. However, during two intervals the
energy rises sharply and peaks at 100 kWh in interval number 7. This peak of usage
will result in setting a high demand reading. For each interval shown the demand
value would be four times the indicated energy reading. So interval 1 would have an
associated demand of 240 kWh/hr. Interval 7 will have a demand value of 400 kWh/
hr. In the data shown, this is the peak demand value and would be the number that
would set the demand charge on the utility bill.
100
kilowat t-hours
80
60
40
20
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Intervals (15 mins.)
7
8
Figure 1.8: Energy Use and Demand
As can be seen from this example, it is important to recognize the relationships
between power, energy and demand in order to control loads effectively or to monitor
use correctly.
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1.3: Reactive Energy and Power Factor
The real power and energy measurements discussed in the previous section relate to
the quantities that are most used in electrical systems. But it is often not sufficient to
only measure real power and energy. Reactive power is a critical component of the
total power picture because almost all real-life applications have an impact on
reactive power. Reactive power and power factor concepts relate to both load and
generation applications. However, this discussion will be limited to analysis of reactive
power and power factor as they relate to loads. To simplify the discussion, generation
will not be considered.
Real power (and energy) is the component of power that is the combination of the
voltage and the value of corresponding current that is directly in phase with the
voltage. However, in actual practice the total current is almost never in phase with the
voltage. Since the current is not in phase with the voltage, it is necessary to consider
both the in-phase component and the component that is at quadrature (angularly
rotated 90o or perpendicular) to the voltage. Figure 1.9 shows a single-phase voltage
and current and breaks the current into its in-phase and quadrature components.
IR
V
0
IX
I
Figure 1.9: Voltage and Complex Current
The voltage (V) and the total current (I) can be combined to calculate the apparent
power or VA. The voltage and the in-phase current (IR) are combined to produce the
real power or watts. The voltage and the quadrature current (IX) are combined to
calculate the reactive power.
The quadrature current may be lagging the voltage (as shown in Figure 1.9) or it may
lead the voltage. When the quadrature current lags the voltage the load is requiring
both real power (watts) and reactive power (VARs). When the quadrature current
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leads the voltage the load is requiring real power (watts) but is delivering reactive
power (VARs) back into the system; that is VARs are flowing in the opposite direction
of the real power flow.
Reactive power (VARs) is required in all power systems. Any equipment that uses
magnetization to operate requires VARs. Usually the magnitude of VARs is relatively
low compared to the real power quantities. Utilities have an interest in maintaining
VAR requirements at the customer to a low value in order to maximize the return on
plant invested to deliver energy. When lines are carrying VARs, they cannot carry as
many watts. So keeping the VAR content low allows a line to carry its full capacity of
watts. In order to encourage customers to keep VAR requirements low, some utilities
impose a penalty if the VAR content of the load rises above a specified value.
A common method of measuring reactive power requirements is power factor. Power
factor can be defined in two different ways. The more common method of calculating
power factor is the ratio of the real power to the apparent power. This relationship is
expressed in the following formula:
Total PF = real power / apparent power = watts/VA
This formula calculates a power factor quantity known as Total Power Factor. It is
called Total PF because it is based on the ratios of the power delivered. The delivered
power quantities will include the impacts of any existing harmonic content. If the voltage or current includes high levels of harmonic distortion the power values will be
affected. By calculating power factor from the power values, the power factor will
include the impact of harmonic distortion. In many cases this is the preferred method
of calculation because the entire impact of the actual voltage and current are
included.
A second type of power factor is Displacement Power Factor. Displacement PF is based
on the angular relationship between the voltage and current. Displacement power factor does not consider the magnitudes of voltage, current or power. It is solely based
on the phase angle differences. As a result, it does not include the impact of harmonic
distortion. Displacement power factor is calculated using the following equation:
Displacement PF = cos T
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where T is the angle between the voltage and the current (see Fig. 1.9).
In applications where the voltage and current are not distorted, the Total Power Factor
will equal the Displacement Power Factor. But if harmonic distortion is present, the
two power factors will not be equal.
1.4: Harmonic Distortion
Harmonic distortion is primarily the result of high concentrations of non-linear loads.
Devices such as computer power supplies, variable speed drives and fluorescent light
ballasts make current demands that do not match the sinusoidal waveform of AC
electricity. As a result, the current waveform feeding these loads is periodic but not
sinusoidal. Figure 1.10 shows a normal, sinusoidal current waveform. This example
has no distortion.
1000
0
Amps
500
Time
– 500
– 1000
Figure 1.10: Nondistorted Current Waveform
Figure 1.11 shows a current waveform with a slight amount of harmonic distortion.
The waveform is still periodic and is fluctuating at the normal 60 Hz frequency.
However, the waveform is not a smooth sinusoidal form as seen in Figure 1.10.
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1500
Current (amps)
1000
500
t
0
a
2a
–500
–1000
–1500
Figure 1.11: Distorted Current Waveform
The distortion observed in Figure 1.11 can be modeled as the sum of several sinusoidal waveforms of frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental 60 Hz frequency.
This modeling is performed by mathematically disassembling the distorted waveform
into a collection of higher frequency waveforms.
These higher frequency waveforms are referred to as harmonics. Figure 1.12 shows
the content of the harmonic frequencies that make up the distortion portion of the
waveform in Figure 1.11.
1000
0
Amps
500
Time
3rd harmonic
– 500
5th harmonic
7th harmonic
Total
fundamental
Figure 1.12: Waveforms of the Harmonics
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The waveforms shown in Figure 1.12 are not smoothed but do provide an indication of
the impact of combining multiple harmonic frequencies together.
When harmonics are present it is important to remember that these quantities are
operating at higher frequencies. Therefore, they do not always respond in the same
manner as 60 Hz values.
Inductive and capacitive impedance are present in all power systems. We are accustomed to thinking about these impedances as they perform at 60 Hz. However, these
impedances are subject to frequency variation.
XL = jZL
and
XC = 1/jZC
At 60 Hz, Z = 377; but at 300 Hz (5th harmonic) Z = 1,885. As frequency changes
impedance changes and system impedance characteristics that are normal at 60 Hz
may behave entirely differently in the presence of higher order harmonic waveforms.
Traditionally, the most common harmonics have been the low order, odd frequencies,
such as the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th. However newer, new-linear loads are introducing
significant quantities of higher order harmonics.
Since much voltage monitoring and almost all current monitoring is performed using
instrument transformers, the higher order harmonics are often not visible. Instrument
transformers are designed to pass 60 Hz quantities with high accuracy. These devices,
when designed for accuracy at low frequency, do not pass high frequencies with high
accuracy; at frequencies above about 1200 Hz they pass almost no information. So
when instrument transformers are used, they effectively filter out higher frequency
harmonic distortion making it impossible to see.
However, when monitors can be connected directly to the measured circuit (such as
direct connection to a 480 volt bus) the user may often see higher order harmonic
distortion. An important rule in any harmonics study is to evaluate the type of equipment and connections before drawing a conclusion. Not being able to see harmonic
distortion is not the same as not having harmonic distortion.
It is common in advanced meters to perform a function commonly referred to as
waveform capture. Waveform capture is the ability of a meter to capture a present
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picture of the voltage or current waveform for viewing and harmonic analysis. Typically a waveform capture will be one or two cycles in duration and can be viewed as
the actual waveform, as a spectral view of the harmonic content, or a tabular view
showing the magnitude and phase shift of each harmonic value. Data collected with
waveform capture is typically not saved to memory. Waveform capture is a real-time
data collection event.
Waveform capture should not be confused with waveform recording that is used to
record multiple cycles of all voltage and current waveforms in response to a transient
condition.
1.5: Power Quality
Power quality can mean several different things. The terms "power quality" and
"power quality problem" have been applied to all types of conditions. A simple
definition of "power quality problem" is any voltage, current or frequency deviation
that results in mis-operation or failure of customer equipment or systems. The causes
of power quality problems vary widely and may originate in the customer equipment,
in an adjacent customer facility or with the utility.
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In his book Power Quality Primer, Barry Kennedy provided information on different
types of power quality problems. Some of that information is summarized in Table
1.3.
Cause
Disturbance Type
Source
Impulse transient
Transient voltage disturbance,
sub-cycle duration
Lightning
Electrostatic discharge
Load switching
Capacitor switching
Oscillatory
transient with decay
Transient voltage, sub-cycle
duration
Line/cable switching
Capacitor switching
Load switching
Sag/swell
RMS voltage, multiple cycle
duration
Remote system faults
Interruptions
RMS voltage, multiple
seconds or longer duration
System protection
Circuit breakers
Fuses
Maintenance
Under voltage/over voltage
RMS voltage, steady state,
multiple seconds or longer
duration
Motor starting
Load variations
Load dropping
Voltage flicker
RMS voltage, steady state,
repetitive condition
Intermittent loads
Motor starting
Arc furnaces
Harmonic distortion
Steady state current or voltage, long-term duration
Non-linear loads
System resonance
Table 1.3: Typical Power Quality Problems and Sources
It is often assumed that power quality problems originate with the utility. While it is
true that many power quality problems can originate with the utility system, many
problems originate with customer equipment. Customer-caused problems may
manifest themselves inside the customer location or they may be transported by the
utility system to another adjacent customer. Often, equipment that is sensitive to
power quality problems may in fact also be the cause of the problem.
If a power quality problem is suspected, it is generally wise to consult a power quality
professional for assistance in defining the cause and possible solutions to the
problem.
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2: Meter Overview
This chapter provides basic information on the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter.
2.1: The Nexus® System
Electro Industries’ Nexus® 1250/1252 combines high-end revenue metering with
sophisticated power quality analysis. Its advanced monitoring capabilities provide
detailed and precise pictures of any metered point within a distribution network. The
P40N+, P41N+ and P43N+ displays are detailed in Chapter 6. Extensive I/O capability
is available in conjunction with all metering functions. The optional Communicator
EXTTM software allows a user to poll and gather data from multiple Nexus® meters
installed at local or remote locations (see the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for details). On board mass memory enables the
meter to retrieve and store multiple logs. The Nexus® meter with Internal Modem (or
Network) Option connects to a PC via standard phone line (or Modbus TCP/IP) and a
daisy chain of Nexus® meters via an RS485 connection. See Chapters 10 and 11 for
details.
Nexus® 1250/1252 Revenue Metering
• Delivers laboratory-grade 0.04% Watt-hour accuracy (at full load Unity PF) in a
field-mounted device
• Auto-calibrates when there is a temperature change of about 2 degrees Celsius
• Meets all ANSI C12.20 and IEC 62053-22 accuracy specifications
• Adjusts for transformer and line losses, using user-defined compensation factors
• Automatically logs time-of-use for up to eight programmable tariff registers
• Counts pulses and aggregates different loads
Nexus® 1250/1252 Power Quality Monitoring
• Records up to 512 samples per cycle on an event
• Records sub-cycle transients on voltage or current readings
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• Measures and records Harmonics to the 255th order (Real Time Harmonics to the
128th order)
• Offers inputs for neutral-to-ground voltage measurements
• Synchronizes with IRIG-B or line frequency for clock synchronization
• Measures Flicker (1252 only)
• Offers EN50160/EN61000-4-15 logging and analysis (1252 V-2 only: see Section
2.11)
Nexus® 1250/1252 Memory, Communication and Control
• Up to 4 Megabytes NVRAM
• 4 high speed Communication ports
• Multiple protocols (see section below on DNP V3.00)
• Built-in RTU functionality.
• Built-in PLC functionality
• High speed updates for Control
2.2: DNP V.3.00 Level 1 and 2
NOTE: Nexus® 1250 supports DNP V3.00 Level 1; Nexus® 1252 supports DNP V3.00
Level 2.
DNP Level 2 Features:
• Up to 136 measurement (64 Binary Inputs, 8 Binary Counters, 64 Analog Inputs)
can be mapped to DNP Static Points (over 3000) in the customizable DNP Point
Map.
• Up to 16 Relays and 8 Resets can be controlled through DNP Level 2.
• Report-by-Exception Processing (DNP Events) Deadbands can be set on a per-point
basis.
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• Freeze Commands: Freeze, Freeze/No-Ack, Freeze with Time, Freeze with
Time/No-Ack.
• Freeze with Time Commands enable the Nexus® meter to have internal timedriven Frozen and Frozen Event data. When the Nexus® meter receives the Time
and Interval, the data is created.
For complete details, download the appropriate DNP User Manual from our website
www.electroind.com.
2.3: Flicker
A Nexus® 1252 with V-1 (base configuration) provides Flicker Evaluation in
Instantaneous, Short Term and Long Term Forms. A Nexus® 1252 meter with
V-SwitchTM key 2 provides EN50160 / EN61000-4-30 Power Quality Compliance. See
Chapter 12 for a detailed explanation of the Flicker and Power Quality Compliance
functions.
2.4: INP2 Internal Modem with Dial-in/Dial-out Option
The following sections describe the optional INP2 Internal Modem.
2.4.1: Hardware Overview
The INP2 Option for the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter provides a direct connection to a
standard telephone line. No additional hardware is required to establish a communication connection between the meter and a remote computer. The RJ11 Jack is on the
face of the meter. A standard telephone RJ11 plug can connect the meter to a standard PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network).
The modem operates at up to 56k baud. It supports both incoming calls (from a
remote computer) and automatic dial-out calls when a defined event must be automatically reported. With the device configured with the INP2 Option, the meter has
dial-in capability and provides remote access to other Modbus-based serial devices via
the meter’s RS485 Gateway over your phone line. The meter recognizes and responds
to a Modbus Address of 1. With any other address, the command passes through the
gateway and become a virtual connection between the remote Modbus master and
any Modbus slave connected to the RS485 Gateway.
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The modem continuously monitors the telephone line to detect an incoming call.
When an incoming call is detected, the modem will wait a user-set number of rings
and answer the call.
2.4.2: Dial-In Function
The modem can be programmed to check for a password on an incoming call. If the
correct password is not provided, the modem hangs up on the incoming call. If
several unsuccessful incoming call attempts are received in a set time period, the
modem locks out future incoming calls for a user-set number of hours.
When an incoming call is successfully connected, the control of communication is
passed to the calling software program. The modem responds to computer
commands to download data or other actions authorized by the meter passwords.
Refer to the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual
for instructions on programming the modem.
2.4.3: Dial-Out Function
The Dial-Out Function (INP2) is intended to allow the meter to automatically report
certain conditions without user intervention. The modem polls the meter to determine
if any abnormal or reportable conditions exist. The modem checks programmed meter
conditions and programmed events (set in Communicator EXTTM software) to determine if a call should be placed.
If any of the monitored events exist, the modem automatically initiates a call to a
specified location to make a report or perform some other function. For log full
conditions, the meter automatically downloads the log(s) that are nearing the full
condition.
2.5: Total Web Solutions
The 10/100BaseT Ethernet Option (INP200) is a fully customizable web server that
uses XML to provide access to real time data via Internet Explorer. EIG’s name for this
dynamic system is Total Web Solutions. The system incorporates a highly programmable network card with built-in memory that is installed in the 100BaseT Option
meters. Each card can be programmed to perform an extensive array of monitoring
functions. The INP200 system is much faster than the 10BaseT Ethernet Option.
NOTE: Nexus® meters with the INP10 Option do not support Total Web Solutions.
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2.5.1: Hardware Overview
The Nexus® 1250/1252 with the 10/100BaseT Ethernet Option (INP200) has all the
components of the standard Nexus® 1250/1252 plus the capability of connection to a
network through an Ethernet LAN or through the Internet via Modbus TCP, DNP3 LAN/
WAN (1252 only), HTTP, SMTP, FTP and/or DHCP.
The Internal Network Option of the Nexus® meter is an extremely versatile communication tool. The INP200:
• Adheres to IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard using TCP/IP
• Utilizes simple and inexpensive 10/100BaseT wiring and connections
• Plugs right into your network using built-in RJ45 jack
• Is programmable to any IP address, subnet mask and gateway requirements
• Communicates using the industry standard Modbus/TCP and DNP3 LAN/WAN over
Ethernet (1252 only) protocols
2.5.2: Hardware Connection
Use Standard RJ45 10/100BaseT cable to connect with the Nexus® meter. The RJ45
line is inserted into the RJ45 Port on the face of a Nexus® meter with the INP200
Ethernet Option.
2.5.3: Software Overview
To make the software connection, follow these steps:
1. Using Port 1 or Port 4 (RS485 connection), connect a PC to the meter. An RS232/
RS485 Converter may be required (Example: Electro Industries Unicom 2500).
2. Open Communicator EXTTM software.
3. Click the Quick Connect or the Connection Manager icon in the Icon tool bar. In the
Connect window that opens, click the Serial Port button. Make sure the connection
data (such as Address) matches the meter and then click Connect.
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2.5.4: Network Settings
Configure the Network Settings using the following steps (refer to the Communicator
EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for more details).
1. From the Communicator EXTTM application‘s Main screen, click Profile to open the
Device Profile screen.
2. From the Device Profile screen, double-click on the Communications Ports line,
then double-click on any of the ports. The Communications Settings screen opens.
3. If you are going to use DHCP, click the Advanced Settings button and follow these
steps:
a. Click the DHCP tab at the top of the Advanced Settings screen.
b. Click Enable. DHCP automatically enters the IP Address and some or all of the
Interface Settings.
c. Click OK at the bottom of the screen to return to the Communication Setting
screen. You may have to manually enter DNS, Email, Gateway Setting and/or a
unique computer name. Consult your Network Administrator if you are not sure
of the correct information to enter.
d. Click OK.
4. If you are not using DHCP, enter the following information in the Network Settings
section of the Communication Settings screen (consult your system administrator if
you are not sure of the information to enter):
• IP Address: For example:10.0.0.1
• Subnet Mask: For example: 255.255.255.0
• Default Gateway: For example: 0.0.0.0
• Computer Name: For example: NETWORK
5. Enter the Domain Name Server and Computer Name.
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6. Default web pages with an extensive array of readings come with the meter. The
content of the pages can be customized using FTP Client. Follow these steps:
a. Click the Advanced Settings button in the Communications Settings screen.
b. Click the FTP Client tab on the top of the Advanced Settings screen. Using FTP,
you can easily replace any file by using the same file name as the one you want
to replace.
c. Click OK.
7. Enter the Email Server IP Address. The Default Settings store one Email Server IP
Address for administrative purposes or to send an alarm, if there is a problem. An
additional 8 email addresses can be configured with FTP Client.
8. Update Firmware, if necessary, with TFTP protocol (see Appendix C).
9. After the parameters are configured, Communicator EXTTM software connects via
the Network using a Device Address of “1” and the assigned IP Address when you
follow these steps:
a. Open Communicator EXTTM software.
b. Click the Connect icon in the Icon tool bar to open the Connect screen.
c. Click the Network button at the top of the screen and then enter the following
information:
• Device Address:1
• Host: IP Address (per your network administrator). Example: 10.0.0.1
• Network Port: 502
• Protocol: Modbus TCP
d. Click the Connect button at the bottom of the screen. The Communicator EXTTM
software connects to the meter via the Network settings you entered.
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2.6: Measurements and Calculations
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter measures many different power parameters.
Following is a list of the formulas used to perform calculations with samples for Wye
and Delta services.
Samples for Wye: va, vb, vc, ia, ib, ic, in
Samples for Delta: vab, vbc, vca, ia, ib, ic
Root Mean Square (RMS) of Phase Voltages: N = number of samples
For Wye: x = a, b, c
N
¦v
2
x (t )
t 1
VRMS x
N
Root Mean Square (RMS) of Line Currents: N = number of samples
For Wye: x =a, b, c, n
For Delta: x = a, b, c
N
¦i
2
x (t )
t 1
I RMS x
N
Root Mean Square (RMS) of Line Voltages: N = number of samples
For Wye: x, y= a,b or b,c or c,a
N
¦ (v
VRMS xy
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x( t )
v y( t ) ) 2
t 1
N
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For Delta: xy = ab, bc, ca
N
¦v
2
xy ( t )
t 1
VRMS xy
N
Power (Watts) per phase: N = number of samples
For Wye: x = a, b, c
N
¦v
WX
x (t )
x ix ( t )
t 1
N
Apparent Power (VA) per phase:
For Wye: x = a, b, c
VAx
VRMS X x I RMS X
Reactive Power (VAR) per phase:
For Wye: x = a, b, c
VAx2 W x2
VAR x
Active Power (Watts) Total: N = number of samples
For Wye:
WT
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For Delta:
N
¦ v
ab ( t )
WT
x ia (t ) vbc (t ) x ic ( t ) t 1
N
Reactive Power (VAR) Total: N = number of samples
For Wye:
VART
VARa VARb VARc
For Delta:
VART = (VRMSab
⎡ N
⎤
vab (t ) • ia (t ) ⎥
∑
⎢
2
⎥
• I RMSa ) − ⎢ t =1
N
⎢
⎥
⎢⎣
⎥⎦
2
+
(VRMSbc
⎡ N
⎤
vbc (t ) • ic (t ) ⎥
∑
⎢
2
⎥
• I RMSc ) − ⎢ t =1
N
⎢
⎥
⎢⎣
⎥⎦
2
Apparent Power (VA) Total:
For Wye:
VAT
VAa VAb VAc
For Delta:
VAT
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Power Factor (PF):
For Wye: x = a,b,c,T
For Delta: x = T
Wx
V Ax
P Fx
Phase Angles:
x = a, b, c
‘x cos1 PFx % Total Harmonic Distortion (%THD):
For Wye: x = va, vb, vc, ia, ib, ic
For Delta: x = ia, ib, ic, vab, vbc, vca
127
THD
¦ RMS 2
xh
h 2
RMS x1
K Factor: x = ia, ib, ic
127
KFactor
¦ h x RMS
xh
¦ RMS
h 1
127
2
2
xh
h 1
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2: Meter Overview
Watt hour (Wh): N = number of samples
W(t )
N
Wh
¦ 3600
t 1
sec / hr
VAR hour (VARh): N = number of samples
N
VARh
VAR(t )
¦ 3600
t 1
sec / hr
2.7: Demand Integrators
Power utilities take into account both energy consumption and peak demand when
billing customers. Peak demand, expressed in kilowatts (kW), is the highest level of
demand recorded during a set period of time, called the interval. The Nexus® 1250/
1252 supports the following most popular conventions for averaging demand and
peak demand: Block Window Demand, Rolling Window Demand, Thermal Demand,
and Predictive Window Demand. You can program and access all conventions
concurrently with the Communicator EXTTM software (see the Communicator EXTTM
4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual).
Block (Fixed) Window Demand:
This convention records the average (arithmetic mean) demand for consecutive time
intervals (usually 15 minutes).
Example: A typical setting of 15 minutes produces an average value every 15 minutes
(at 12:00, 12:15. 12:30. etc.) for power reading over the previous fifteen minute
interval (11:45-12:00, 12:00-12:15, 12:15-12:30, etc.).
Rolling (Sliding) Window Demand:
Rolling Window Demand functions like multiple overlapping Block Window Demands.
The programmable settings provided are the number and length of demand subintervals. At every subinterval, an average (arithmetic mean) of power readings over the
subinterval is internally calculated. This new subinterval average is then averaged
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(arithmetic mean), with as many previous subinterval averages as programmed, to
produce the Rolling Window Demand.
Example: With settings of 3 five-minute subintervals, subinterval averages are computed every 5 minutes (12:00, 12:05, 12:15, etc.) for power readings over the
previous five-minute interval (11:55-12:00, 12:00-12:05, 12:05-12:10, 12:1012:15, etc.). In addition, every 5 minutes the subinterval averages are averaged in
groups of 3 (12:00. 12:05, 12:10, 12:15. etc.) to produce a fifteen (5x3) minute
average every 5 minutes (rolling (sliding) every 5 minutes) (11:55-12:10, 12:0012:15, etc.).
Thermal Demand:
Traditional analog Watt-hour (Wh) meters use heat-sensitive elements to measure
temperature rises produced by an increase in current flowing through the meter. A
pointer moves in proportion to the temperature change, providing a record of
demand. The pointer remains at peak level until a subsequent increase in demand
moves it again, or until it is manually reset. The Nexus® 1250/1252 mimics
traditional meters to provide Thermal Demand readings.
Each second, as a new power level is computed, a recurrence relation formula is
applied. This formula recomputes the thermal demand by averaging a small portion of
the new power value with a large portion of the previous thermal demand value. The
proportioning of new to previous is programmable, set by an averaging interval. The
averaging interval represents a 90% change in thermal demand to a step change in
power.
Predictive Window Demand:
Predictive Window Demand enables the user to forecast average demand for future
time intervals. The Nexus® uses the delta rate of change of a Rolling Window
Demand interval to predict average demand for an approaching time period. The user
can set a relay or alarm to signal when the Predictive Window reaches a specific level,
thereby avoiding unacceptable demand levels. The Nexus® 1250/1252 calculates
Predictive Window Demand using the following formula:
Example: Using the previous settings of 3 five-minute intervals and a new setting of
120% prediction factor, the working of the Predictive Window Demand could be
described as follows:
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At 12:10, we have the average of the subintervals from 11:55-12:00, 12:00-12:05
and 12:05-12:10. In five minutes (12:15), we will have an average of the subintervals 12:00-12:05 and 12:05-12:10 (which we know) and 12:10-12:15 (which we do
not yet know). As a guess, we will use the last subinterval (12:05-12:10) as an
approximation for the next subinterval (12:10-12:15). As a further refinement, we
will assume that the next subinterval might have a higher average (120%) than the
last subinterval. As we progress into the subinterval, (for example, up to 12:11), the
Predictive Window Demand will be the average of the first two subintervals (12:0012:05, 12:05-12:10), the actual values of the current subinterval (12:10-12:11) and
the prediction for the remainder of the subinterval, 4/5 of the 120% of the 12:0512:10 subinterval.
# of Subintervals = n
Subinterval Length = Len
Partial Subinterval Length = Cnt
Prediction Factor = Pct
Table 1:
Subn
Sub1
Sub0
Partial
Predict
Len
Len
Len
Cnt
Len
Len 1
¦Value
i
Sub
i 0
Len
Cnt 1
¦Value
i
Partial
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Cnt
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2: Meter Overview
n2
ª
º
Valuei »
¦
«
ª ª ª Len Cnt º
ºº
« Partial i 0
» u «1 « «
u Pct » »
»
n
«
» ¬ ¬ ¬ Len ¼
¼¼
«¬
»¼
ª n2
º
« ¦ Subi Sub Sub » ª ª Len Cnt º
º
0
n 1
» u ««
u Pct »
«i 0
»
2 x(n 1) » ¬ ¬ Len ¼
« n 1
¼
«¬
»¼
2.8: Nexus® External I/O Modules (Optional)
The following multiple analog or digital I/O modules mount externally to the Nexus®
1250/1252 meter. The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter supplies 12VA to its ports. You may
need to use additional power supplies, such as EIG’s 12V PSIO, to extend I/O capability. See Sections 5.6.2 to determine power needed; see Section 3.3 for mounting
diagrams; and see Chapter 9 for details on installation and use of the Nexus®
External I/O modules.
Analog Transducer Signal Outputs
• 1mAON4: 4 Analog Outputs, self powered, scalable, bidirectional
• 1mAON8: 8 Analog Outputs, self powered, scalable, bidirectional
• 20mAON4: 4 Analog Outputs, self powered, scalable
• 20mAON8: 8 Analog Outputs, self powered, scalable
Analog Transducer Inputs
• 8AI1: 8 Analog Inputs 0–1mA, scalable and bidirectional
• 8AI2: 8 Analog Inputs 0–20mA, scalable
• 8AI3: 8 Analog Inputs 0–5V DC, scalable
• 8AI4: 8 Analog Inputs 0–10V DC, scalable
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Digital Dry Contact Relay Outputs
• 4RO1: 4 Relay Outputs 10 Amps, 125V AC, 30V DC, Form C
Digital Solid State Pulse Outputs
• 4PO1: 4 Solid State Pulse Outputs, Form A KYZ pulses
Digital Inputs
• 8DI1: 8 Digital status inputs Wet/Dry Auto Detect, up to 300V AC/DC
Other I/O Accessories
• PSIO: 12V power supply for I/O modules and external displays
• MBIO: Bracket for surface-mounting I/O modules to any enclosure
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2.9: Nexus® 1250/1252 Meter Specifications
UL Measurement Category - Category III
Rated Altitude - 2,000 Meters Maximum
Nexus® meter
Specification
Control Power Requirement
Option D: 24VDC (-20%) to 48 VDC
(+20%)
Option D2: 120V AC/DC (-20%) to
230VAC (+20%)
Connection Screws’ Torque
(6 to 9) in-lb max. or (0.68 to 1) Nm
max.
Input Voltage Range
150 Volts Phase to Neutral, 300V Phase
to Phase (Standard; for use with PTs)
300 Volts Phase to Neutral, 600V Phase
to Phase (Option G)
Voltage Input Withstand Capability
Meets ANSI C37.90.1 Surge withstand
capability
Voltage inputs optically isolated to
2500VDC
Input Current Range
10A Max. (Programmable to any CT
Ratio)
Fault Current recording to 60A peak
secondary based on 5A Full Scale
NOTE: 1A and 0.25A current inputs are
available by special order.
Current Input Terminals
8-32 Threaded Studs; The current
inputs are only to be connected to
external current transformers
Current Input Withstand Capability (at
23o C)
Continuous rating - 20A
Burden
Voltage: 0.05VA @120V rms
Surge - 100A/10 secs, 300A/3 secs,
500A/1 sec
Current: 0.002VA @5A rms
Isolation
All inputs and outputs - 2500V
All Com ports are isolated from each
other
Sensing Method
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2: Meter Overview
Nexus® meter
Specification
Update Time
200msec - High-speed readings
1 sec - Revenue-accurate reading
Frequency Range
Fundamental 20-65Hz
Up to 255th Harmonic Measuring
Capability
Dimensions (HxWxL)
3.4 x 7.3 x 10.5 in/8.6 x 18.5 x 26.6 cm
Maximum Power Consumption
40 Watts (with optional modules and
display)
Nominal Power Consumption
Approximately 12 Watts (without
optional modules or display)
Operating Temperature
(-40 to +70)oC/(-40 to +158)oF
Auxiliary Output Power Voltage
15-20VDC at 5-200mA
Maximum Auxiliary Power Current
1A (short protected)
Maximum Power Supply Range
(100-250)VAC
UL Listing
61010-1 (not evaluated for accuracy,
reliability, or capability to perform intended
function)
Flicker (Nexus® 1252)
Evaluation per IEC 61000-4-15
EN50160/IEC 61000-4-30 PQ Analysis
Evaluation per IEC 61000-4-30*
IRIG-B Port Impedance
[email protected]
* EN50160/EN61000-4-30 PQ Analysis is only available for a Nexus® 1252 meter
with V- Switch™ key 2.
2.10: Nexus® P40N+, P41N+, P43N+ LED External Display
Specifications
Specification
P40N+/P41N+/P43N+ Displays
Maximum Input Voltage
30VDC
Minimum Input Voltage
12VDC
Maximum Power Consumption
5W
Nominal Power Consumption
Approximately 3W
Operating Temperature Range
(-20 to +70)oC/(-4 to +158)oF
Overall Dimensions (HxWxD)
*5.25 x 5.25 x1.79 inches/13.34 x 13.34 x
4.54 cm
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* The legacy P40N dimensions are: 4.4 x 4.4 x 2.2 inches/11.1 x 11.1 x 5.9cm.
2.11: Upgrading the Nexus® 1252 Meter’s V-SwitchTM Key
The Nexus® 1252 meter’s base configuration is V-SwitchTM key 1(V-1). To upgrade
your meter to a higher V-SwitchTM key (e.g., V-2), follow these steps:
1. Obtain a V-SwitchTM upgrade key by contacting EIG’s inside sales staff at
[email protected] or by calling 516-334-0870 (USA). You will be asked for the
following information:
a. Serial number(s) of the meter you are upgrading.
b. Desired V-SwitchTM upgrade.
c. Credit card or Purchase Order number.
2. EIG will issue you the V-SwitchTM upgrade key. To enable the key, follow these
steps:
a. Open Communicator EXTTM software.
b. Power up your Nexus® meter.
c. Connect to the meter via the Communicator EXTTM software. (See Chapter 3 of
the Communicator EXTTM and 4.0 Software User Manual for detailed instructions:
you can open the manual online by clicking Help>Contents from the Communicator EXTTM application’s Main screen).
d. Click Tools>Change V-SwitchTM from the Title Bar of the Main screen. A screen
opens, requesting the encrypted key.
e. Enter the upgrade key provided by EIG.
f. Click OK. The V-SwitchTM key is enabled and the meter is reset.
NOTE: The Nexus® 1250 meter does not have a V-SwitchTM key upgrade.
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3: Hardware Installation
3: Hardware Installation
This chapter provides installation information for the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter and
its optional modules and displays.
3.1: Mounting the Nexus® 1250/1252 Meter
The Nexus® 1250/1252 Meter is designed to mount against any firm, flat surface.
Use a #10 screw in each of the four slots on the flange to ensure that the unit is
installed securely. For safety reasons, mount the meter in an enclosed and protected
environment, such as in a switchgear cabinet. Install a switch or circuit breaker
nearby; label it clearly as the meter’s disconnecting mechanism.
NOTE: The Nexus® meter with the Internal Modem Option mounts the same way.
Maintain the following conditions:
• Operating Temperature: -40°C to +70°C / -40°F to +158°F
• Storage Temperature: -40°C to +70°C / -40°F to +158°F
• Relative Humidity: 5 to 95% non-condensing
Figure 3.1: Nexus® 1250/1252 Mounting Diagram Top View
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Figure 3.2: Nexus® 1250/1252 Mounting Diagram Side View
3.2: Mounting the Nexus® LED External Displays
The Nexus® 1250/1252 LED displays (model numbers P40N+, P41N+ and P43N+)
mount using a standard ANSI C39.1 drill plan.
Secure the four mounting studs to the back of the panel with the supplied nuts.
Six feet of RS485 communication/power cable harness is supplied. Allow for at least a
1.25-inch (3.17cm) diameter hole in the back for the cable harness. See Chapter 5 for
communication and power supply details.
The cable harness brings power to the display from the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter,
which supplies 15–20V DC. The P40N+ (or P41N+ or P43N+) can draw up to 500mA
in display test mode.
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3: Hardware Installation
4.38” Sq.
(11.12 cm)
NOTE: The P40N is not intended
for new applications.
.75”
1.438” Sq. (1.91
(3.65 cm) cm)
P40N Front Dimensions
P40N Side Dimensions
P40N+ Display
Figure 3.3: Legacy P40N and P40N+ Dimensions
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4x 0.200”/
0.508cm
3.375”/8.572cm
1.688”/
4.287cm
3.375”/
8.572cm
04.00”/10.16cm
Figure 3.4: ANSI C39.1 Drill Plan for P40N/P40N+ Display
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3.3: Mounting the Nexus® External I/O Modules
Secure the mounting brackets to the I/O using the screws supplied (#440 pan-head
screws). Next, secure the brackets to a flat surface using a #8 screw with a lock
washer.
If multiple I/O modules are connected together, as shown in Figure 3.5, secure a
mounting bracket to both ends of the group. One Nexus® will supply power for a
number of I/O modules. See Sections 5.6.2 to see if you need to use an additional
power supply, such as the EIG PSIO. Connect multiple I/O modules using the RS485
side ports.
Six feet of RS485 cable harness is supplied. The cable harness brings power to the
display from the Nexus® meter. See Chapter 5 for power supply and communication
details.
5.629”/14.30cm
3X 1.301”/3.305cm
Mounting Bracket
1.125”/2.858cm
.090”/.229cm
Mounting Bracket
4.188”/10.638cm
Figure 3.5: I/O Modules Mounting Diagram Overhead View
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3: Hardware Installation
Mounting Brackets (MBIO)
Female RS485
Side Port
I/O Port
(Size and Pin
Configuration Vary)
Male RS485
Side Port
Figure 3.6: I/O Module Communication Ports and Mounting Brackets
Mounting Bracket
Mounting Bracket
6.879”/13.088cm
/N
0OWER)N
.
,
3.437”/8.729cm
$!.'%2
0OWER3UPPLY
03)/
2.200”/5.588cm
-AX0OWER6!
)NPUT6OLTAGE6$#
1.100”/2.54cm
6!#$#
/UTPUT6OLTAGE6$#
%LECTRO)NDUSTRIES'AUGE4ECH
WWWELECTROINDCOM
.618”/1.570cm
1.301”/3.305cm
Figure 3.7: I/O Modules Mounting Diagram Front View
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4: Electrical Installation
4: Electrical Installation
This chapter provides electrical installation information for the Nexus® 1250/1252
meter.
4.1: Considerations When Installing Meters
Installation of the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter must be performed only by
qualified personnel who follow standard safety precautions during all
procedures. Those personnel should have appropriate training and experience with high voltage devices. Appropriate safety gloves, safety glasses and
protective clothing are recommended.
During normal operation of the Nexus® meter, dangerous voltages flow through
many parts of the unit, including: Terminals and any connected CTs (Current Transformers) and PTs (Potential Transformers), all I/O Modules and their circuits. All
Primary and Secondary circuits can, at times, produce lethal voltages and
currents. Avoid contact with any current-carrying surfaces.
Do not use the meter or any I/O device for primary protection or in an
energy-limiting capacity. The meter can only be used as secondary protection.
Do not use the meter for applications where failure of the meter may cause harm or
death.
Do not use the meter for any application where there may be a risk of fire.
All meter terminals should be inaccessible after installation.
Do not apply more than the maximum voltage the meter or any attached device can
withstand. Refer to meter and/or device labels and to the Specifications for all devices
before applying voltages. Do not HIPOT/Dielectric test any Outputs, Inputs or Communications terminals.
EIG requires the use of Fuses for voltage leads and power supply, and shorting blocks
to prevent hazardous voltage conditions or damage to CTs, if the meter needs to be
removed from service. One side of the CT must be grounded.
NOTE: The current inputs are only to be connected to external current transformers
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provided by the installer. The CTs shall be Approved or Certified and rated for the
current of the meter used.
L’installation des compteurs de Nexus 1250/1252 doit être effectuée
seulement par un personnel qualifié qui suit les normes relatives aux
précautions de sécurité pendant toute la procédure. Le personnel
doit avoir la formation appropriée et l'expérience avec les appareils
de haute tension. Des gants de sécurité, des verres et des vêtements
de protection appropriés sont recommandés.
AVERTISSEMENT! Pendant le fonctionnement normal du compteur Nexus 1250/
1252 des tensions dangereuses suivant de nombreuses pièces, notamment, les
bornes et tous les transformateurs de courant branchés, les transformateurs de tension, toutes les sorties, les entrées et leurs circuits. Tous les circuits secondaires
et primaires peuvent parfois produire des tensions de létal et des courants.
Évitez le contact avec les surfaces sous tensions. Avant de faire un travail
dans le compteur, assurez-vous d'éteindre l'alimentation et de mettre tous
les circuits branchés hors tension.
Ne pas utiliser les compteurs ou sorties d'appareil pour une protection primaire ou capacité de limite d'énergie. Le compteur peut seulement être utilisé comme une protection secondaire.
Ne pas utiliser le compteur pour application dans laquelle une panne de compteur
peut causer la mort ou des blessures graves.
Ne pas utiliser le compteur ou pour toute application dans laquelle un risque
d'incendie est susceptible.
Toutes les bornes de compteur doivent être inaccessibles après l'installation.
Ne pas appliquer plus que la tension maximale que le compteur ou appareil relatif
peut résister. Référez-vous au compteur ou aux étiquettes de l'appareil et les spécifications de tous les appareils avant d'appliquer les tensions. Ne pas faire de test
HIPOT/diélectrique, une sortie, une entrée ou un terminal de réseau.
EIG nécessite l'utilisation de les fusibles pour les fils de tension et alimentations électriques, ainsi que des coupe-circuits pour prévenir les tensions dangereuses ou
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4: Electrical Installation
endommagements de transformateur de courant si l'unité Nexus 1250/1252 doit être
enlevée du service. Un côté du transformateur de courant doit être mis à terre.
NOTE: Les entrées actuelles doivent seulement être branchées dans le transformateur externe actuel par l'installateur. Le transformateur de courant doit être approuvé
ou certifié et déterminé pour le compteur actuel utilisé.
To comply with UL standards, the meter case must be connected to a
reliable protective earth available within the installation area. For this
connection use minimum #14 AWG wire crimped to a ring terminal(3) with a
dedicated tool. Fasten the ring terminal(3) to the lower left slot of the meter
case with minimum #6 metal screw(1) and star washer(2), as is shown in
Figure 4.1.
Pour se conformer aux normes UL, le boîtier du compteur doit être connecté
à une terre de garde fiable disponible dans la zone d'installation. Pour cette
connexion, utilisez un fil d’un minimum no.14 de calibre américain des fils
serti à une cosse à anneau(3) avec un outil spécialisé. Fixez la cosse à
anneau(3) à l'emplacement inférieur gauche du boîtier du compteur avec
une vis à métaux(1) et une rondelle en étoile (2) d’un minimum de no.6, tel
qu’indiqué dans la figure 4.1.
Figure 4.1: Meter Case’s Earth Ground Connection
The UL Classification of the meter is Measurement Category III, Pollution Degree 2.
Measurement Category III is for measurements performed in the building installation
at the distribution level. This category refers to measurements on hard-wired hardware
such as hardware in fixed installations, distribution boards, and circuit breakers. Other
examples are wiring, including cables, bus bars, junction boxes, switches, socket
outlets in the fixed installation, and stationary motors with permanent connections to
fixed installations.
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4: Electrical Installation
NOTE: IF THE EQUIPMENT IS USED IN A MANNER NOT SPECIFIED BY THE MANUFACTURER, THE PROTECTION PROVIDED BY
THE EQUIPMENT MAY BE IMPAIRED.
NOTE: THERE IS NO REQUIRED PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OR INSPECTION
NECESSARY FOR SAFETY. HOWEVER, ANY REPAIR OR MAINTENANCE SHOULD BE
PERFORMED BY THE FACTORY.
DISCONNECT DEVICE: The following part is considered the
equipment disconnect device.
A SWITCH OR CIRCUIT-BREAKER SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE END-USE EQUIPMENT
OR BUILDING INSTALLATION. THE SWITCH SHALL BE IN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO THE
EQUIPMENT AND WITHIN EASY REACH OF THE OPERATOR. THE SWITCH SHALL BE
MARKED AS THE DISCONNECTING DEVICE FOR THE EQUIPMENT.
IMPORTANT! SI L'ÉQUIPEMENT EST UTILISÉ D'UNE FAÇON
NON SPÉCIFIÉE PAR LE FABRICANT, LA PROTECTION
FOURNIE PAR L'ÉQUIPEMENT PEUT ÊTRE ENDOMMAGÉE.
NOTE: Il N'Y A AUCUNE MAINTENANCE REQUISE POUR LA PRÉVENTION OU INSPECTION NÉCESSAIRE POUR LA SÉCURITÉ. CEPENDANT, TOUTE RÉPARATION OU MAINTENANCE DEVRAIT ÊTRE RÉALISÉE PAR LE FABRICANT.
DÉBRANCHEMENT DE L'APPAREIL : la partie suivante est considérée l'appareil de débranchement de l'équipement.
UN INTERRUPTEUR OU UN DISJONCTEUR DEVRAIT ÊTRE INCLUS
DANS L'UTILISATION FINALE DE L'ÉQUIPEMENT OU L'INSTALLATION.
L'INTERRUPTEUR DOIT ÊTRE DANS UNE PROXIMITÉ PROCHE DE
L'ÉQUIPEMENT ET A LA PORTÉE DE L'OPÉRATEUR. L'INTERRUPTEUR DOIT AVOIR LA
MENTION DÉBRANCHEMENT DE L'APPAREIL POUR L'ÉQUIPEMENT.
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4: Electrical Installation
4.2: Wiring the Monitored Inputs and Voltages
Select a wiring diagram from Section 4.9 that best suits your application. Wire the
Nexus® 1250/1252 meter exactly as shown. For proper operation, the voltage connection must be maintained and must correspond to the correct terminal. Program
the CT and PT Ratios in the Device Profile section of the Communicator EXTTM software; see the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual
for details.
The cable required to terminate the voltage sense circuit should have an insulation
rating greater than 600V AC and a current rating greater than 0.1 Amp.
Use a minimum of 14 AWG wire for all phase voltage and current connections.
The maximum installation torque for both the current input terminals and the voltage
connections is 1 Newton-Meter.
4.3: Fusing the Voltage Connections
For accuracy of the readings and for protection, EIG requires using 0.25-Amp rated
fuses on all voltage inputs as shown in the wiring diagrams (see Section 4.9).
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter can handle a maximum voltage of 150V phase to neutral and 300V phase to phase. Potential Transformers (PTs) are required for higher
voltages with the standard rating. With Option G, the direct voltage input is extended
to 300V phase to neutral and 600V phase to phase.
NOTE: Option G is only intended for use with direct connections. For PT connections,
use the standard 150 Volt version.
4.4: Wiring the Monitored Inputs - VRef
The Voltage Reference connection references the monitor to ground or neutral.
4.5: Wiring the Monitored Inputs - VAux
The Voltage Auxiliary connection is an auxiliary voltage input that can be used for any
desired purpose, such as monitoring neutral to ground voltage or monitoring two
different lines on a switch. The VAux Voltage rating is the same as the metering Voltage input connections.
4.6: Wiring the Monitored Inputs - Currents
Install the cables for the current at 600V AC minimum insulation. The cable connector
should be rated at 10 Amps or greater and have a cross-sectional area of 14 AWG.
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Mount the current transformers (CTs) as close as possible to the meter. The following
table illustrates the maximum recommended distances for various CT sizes, assuming
the connection is via 14 AWG cable.
EIG Recommendations
Table 1:
CT size
(VA)
Maximum
Distance
from CT to
Nexus®
Meter (Ft)
2.5
10
5
15
7.5
30
10
40
15
60
30
120
WARNING! DO NOT leave the secondary of the CT open when
primary current is flowing. This may cause high voltage, which will overheat the
CT. If the CT is not connected, provide a shorting block on the secondary of the CT.
AVERTISSEMENT! NE PAS laisser le transformateur de courant secondaire
ouvert lorsque le courant primaire est fluent. Cela peut provoquer une haute
tension qui surchauffera le transformateur de courant. Si ce dernier n'est pas
branché, fournir un court-circuit sur le transformateur de courant secondaire.
It is important to maintain the polarity of the CT circuit when connecting to the
Nexus® 1250/1252 meter. If the polarity is reversed, the meter will not provide
accurate readings. CT polarities are dependent upon correct connection of CT leads
and the direction CTs are facing when clamped around the conductors. Although
shorting blocks are not required for proper meter operation, EIG recommends using
shorting blocks to allow removal of the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter from an energized
circuit, if necessary.
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4.7: Isolating a CT Connection Reversal
For a Wye System, you may either:
• Check the current phase angle reading on the meter's external display (see Chapter
6). If it is negative, reverse the CTs.
• Go to the Phasors screen of the Communicator EXTTM software (see Chapter 13 in
the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for
instructions). Note the phase relationship between the current and voltage: they
should be in phase with each other.
For a Delta System:
• Go to the Phasors screen of the Communicator EXTTM software program (see
Chapter 13 in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User
Manual for instructions). The current should be 30 degrees off the phase-to-phase
voltage.
4.8: Instrument Power Connections
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter requires a separate power source.
To use AC power:
1. Connect the line supply wire to the L+ terminal
2. Connect the neutral supply wire to the N- terminal on the meter.
To use DC power:
1. Connect the positive supply wire to the L+ terminal.
2. Connect the negative (ground) supply wire to the N- terminal on the meter.
Power supply options and corresponding suffixes are listed in the table shown on the
next page.
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Table 2:
Control
Power
Option
Suffix
18-60 Volts
DC
D
90-276
Volts AC/
DC
D2
• Do not ground the unit through the negative of the DC supply. Separate grounding is required.
• Externally fuse the power supply with a 5 Amp @250V rated slow blow fuse. EIG
recommends that you fuse both the L+ and N- connections for increased safety,
but if you are fusing only one connection, fuse the L+ connection.
• Use at least 14 Gauge supply wire for the power supply and ground connections.
NOTE ON CORRECT METER FUNCTIONING:
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter has a Heartbeat LED, located on the top, right side of
the meter face. When the meter is functioning correctly, the red LED pulse toggles on
and off (blinks) 5 times per second. If the meter is not functioning correctly, the
Heartbeat LED slows to one pulse per second
4.9: Wiring Diagrams
Choose the diagram that best suits your application. Diagrams appear on the following pages. If the connection diagram you need is not shown, contact EIG for a custom
Connection diagram.
NOTE: If you purchased a "G" Option Nexus® 1250/1252 meter for a 300 Volt
secondary, be sure to enable the option on the CT and PT screen of the Communicator
EXTTM software's Device Profile (see Chapter 13 of the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and
MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for instructions). Do not use the “G” option
with PTs. It is intended for direct Voltage connection, only.
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Table 3:
Figure #
Description
4.2
4-Wire Wye, 3-Element Direct Voltage with 4 CTs
4.3
4-Wire Wye, 3-Element with 3 PTs and 4 CTs
4.4
4-Wire Wye, 3-Element with 3 PTs and 3 CTs
4.5
3-Wire, 2-Element Open Delta with 2 PTs and 3 CTs
4.6
3-Wire, 2-Element Open Delta with 2 PTs and 2 CTs
4.7
3-Wire, 2-Element Delta Direct Voltage with 3 CTs
4.8
3-Phase, 4-Wire Wye, 2.5 Element with 2 PTs and 3 CTs
4.9
4-Wire, 3-Element Grounded Delta with 4 CTs - G Option
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LINE
A B C N
SHORTING SWITCH OR
TEST BLOCK
HI
EARTH
In
LO
HI
Ic
LO
CTs
HI
Ib
LO
HI
Ia
Vc
LO
FUSES
Vb
Va
Vref
Vaux
NL+
AUXILIARY VOLTAGE
POWER SUPPLY
(DEPENDENT ON EQUIPPED SUPPLY OPTION)
A B C N
LOAD
Figure 4.2: 4-Wire Wye, 3-Element Direct Voltage with 4 CTs
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LINE
A B C N
SHORTING SWITCH OR
TEST BLOCK
HI
In
LO
EARTH
HI
Ic
LO
CTs
HI
Ib
LO
HI
Ia
Vc
LO
FUSES
PTs
Vb
Va
Vref
Vaux
NL+
AUXILIARY VOLTAGE
POWER SUPPLY
(DEPENDENT ON EQUIPPED SUPPLY OPTION)
A B C N
LOAD
Figure 4.3: 4-Wire Wye, 3-Element with 3 PTs and 4 CTs
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LINE
A B C N
SHORTING SWITCH OR
TEST BLOCK
EARTH
HI
Ic
LO
HI
Ib
LO
CTs
HI
Ia
Vc
LO
FUSES
PTs
Vb
Va
Vref
Vaux
NL+
AUXILIARY VOLTAGE
POWER SUPPLY
(DEPENDENT ON EQUIPPED SUPPLY OPTION)
A B C N
LOAD
Figure 4.4: 4-Wire Wye, 3-Element with 3 PTs and 3 CTs
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LINE
A B C
SHORTING SWITCH OR
TEST BLOCK
EARTH
HI
EARTH
Ic
LO
HI
Ib
LO
CTs
HI
Ia
Vc
LO
FUSES
PTs
Vb
Va
NL+
POWER SUPPLY
(DEPENDENT ON EQUIPPED SUPPLY OPTION)
A B C
LOAD
Figure 4.5: 3-Wire, 2-Element Open Delta with 2 PTs and 3 CTs
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LINE
A B C
SHORTING SWITCH OR
TEST BLOCK
EARTH
HI
EARTH
Ic
LO
HI
Ib
LO
CTs
HI
Ia
Vc
LO
FUSES
PTs
Vb
Va
NL+
POWER SUPPLY
(DEPENDENT ON EQUIPPED SUPPLY OPTION)
A B C
OAD
Figure 4.6: 3-Wire, 2-Element Open Delta with 2 PTs and 2 CTs
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LINE
A B C
SHORTING SWITCH OR
TEST BLOCK
EARTH
HI
Ic
LO
HI
Ib
CTs
LO
HI
Ia
Vc
LO
FUSES
Vb
Va
NL+
POWER SUPPLY
(DEPENDENT ON EQUIPPED SUPPLY OPTION)
A B C
LOAD
Figure 4.7: 3-Wire, 2-Element Delta Direct Voltage with 3 CTs
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LINE
A B C N
SHORTING SWITCH OR
TEST BLOCK
EARTH
HI
Ic
LO
HI
Ib
CTs
LO
HI
Ia
Vc
LO
FUSES
PTs
Va
Vref
Vaux
NL+
AUXILIARY VOLTAGE
POWER SUPPLY
(DEPENDENT ON EQUIPPED SUPPLY OPTION)
A B C N
LOAD
Figure 4.8: 3-Phase, 4-Wire, 2.5 Element with 2 PTs and 3 CTs
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LINE
A B C N
SHORTING SWITCH OR
TEST BLOCK
HI
EARTH
In
LO
HI
Ic
LO
CTs
HI
Ib
LO
HI
Ia
Vc
LO
FUSES
Vb
Va
Vref
Vaux
NL+
AUXILIARY VOLTAGE
POWER SUPPLY
(DEPENDENT ON EQUIPPED SUPPLY OPTION)
A B C N
LOAD
Figure 4.9: 4-Wire, 3-Element Grounded Delta with 4 CTs - G Option
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4.10: Extended Surge Protection for Substation Instrumentation
EIG offers a surge protector for applications with harsh electrical conditions. The
surge protector is EI-MSB10-400 and it can be ordered from EIG’s webstore:
www.electroind.com/store.
The EI-MSB10-400 surge protector is designed to protect sensitive equipment from
the damaging effects of lightning strikes and/or industrial switching surges in single
phase AC networks up to 320VAC (L-N / L-G), and DC networks up to 400 VDC. The
protectors are ideal for metering systems, RTUs, PLCs and protective relays. They are
used specifically to extend the life and increase reliability of critical control apparatus.
For best protection, it is recommended to use two protectors. These will protect the
instrument on the line inputs and on the reference input to ground. The protectors
have LED indication to annunciate when the protection has worn out.
The EI-MSB10-400 is connected by wires in parallel with the network to be protected.
It can be easily mounted on a wall or plate with self-adhesive tape.
See the wiring diagram below.
PE
L (+)
PE
NL
(-)(+)
N (-)
GND
BREAKER
FUSE
GND L (+)
FUSE
FUSE
L (+) N (-)
FUSE
N (-) Vref
BREAKER
Vref
Va
L/N
L/N
L/N
L/N
EI-MSB10-400
EI-MSB10-400
L/N
L/N
L/N
L/N
Vb
Substation
Instrumentatio
Substation
Va
Instrumentation
Vb
Vc
Vc
EI-MSB10-400
EI-MSB10-400
Figure 4.10: Wiring Schematic for Extended Surge Suppression
Suitable for Substation Instrumentation
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5: Communication Wiring
This chapter provides wiring information for the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter’s
communication options.
5.1: Communication Overview
RS232 communication is used to connect a single Nexus® 1250/1252 meter with
another device, such as a computer, RTU or PLC. The link is viable for a distance of up
to 50 feet (15.2 meters) and is available only through the meter’s Port 1. You must
set the selector switch beneath the port to RS232.
RS485 communication allows multiple Nexus® meters to communicate with another
device at a local or remote site. The I/O modules and the Nexus® displays use RS485
to communicate with the Nexus® meter. All RS485 links are viable for a distance of
up to 4000 feet (1220 meters). Ports 1 through 4 on the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter
are two-wire, RS485 connections operating up to 115200 baud. To use Port 1 for
RS485, set the selector switch to RS485 (the switch is located under the port).
RJ11 Telephone Line allows a Nexus® 1250/1252 meter with the Internal Modem
Option (INP2) to communicate with a PC. No other hardware is necessary for this
easy-to-use connection. For more details, see Chapter 10.
2*
.%853
#(!3)3
6AUX
6REF
/RIGINATE-ODEM
ORINTERNALTO0#
Figure 5.1: RJ11 Communication with Internal Modem Option
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RJ45 Network Connection allows a Nexus® 1250/1252 meter with the Internal
Network Option (INP200) to communicate with multiple PC’s simultaneously. No other
hardware is necessary for this easy-to-use connection.
In a Nexus® meter with INP200, Port 2 becomes a Gateway for connecting multiple
Nexus® meters using RS485.
See Chapter 11 for INP200 details.
-ODBUS4#0
/VER%THERNET)NTERNET
.%853
#(!3)3
6AUX
6REF
Figure 5.2: RJ45 Communication with Internal Network Option
NOTE: Nexus® 1252 meters can also communicate with DNP 3.0 protocol over
Ethernet.
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-
- ++G
23-ASTER
5NICOMOR
-ODEM-ANAGER
+ - S -V+
)/-ODULE
+ - S -V+
0.
%XTERNAL$ISPLAY
36
'
RT=
~120 Ohms
RT=
~120 Ohms
24
^/HMS
RS232
24
Extension
^/HMS
Cable
1:1 Wiring
36
RT=
~120 Ohms
24
^/HMS
23
%XTENSION
#ABLE
7IRING
RT=
120 Ohms
24
^/HMS
+V- S - +
+V- S - +
63
0ORT
2323
3ELECTABLE
RT=
~120 Ohms
RT=
~120 Ohms
24
^/HMS
+V- S - + +V- S - +
876543210
63 63 63
0ORT
0ORT
0ORT
24
^/HMS
- +
(IGH3PEED)NPUTS)2)'"
Figure 5.3: Communication Wiring
NOTES:
• I/O Modules and External Displays require power connections to the +/- Voltage
terminals (dashed lines).
• For all communications: S=Shield. This connection is used to reference the Nexus®
meter’s port to the same potential as the source. It is not an earth-ground connection. You must also connect the shield to earth-ground at one point.
Vous devez également connecter l’écran à la terre à un moment donné.
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• You can use ANY port to connect a Nexus® display or RS485 Master. The I/O
modules use Port 3 or Port 4. Nexus® P40N+, P41N+ and P43N+ displays are
shipped pre-programmed to use Port 3—see Section 5.3.4 for details.
5.2: RS232 Connection (Port 1)
• Use Port 1 for RS232 communication. Set the selector switch beneath the port to
RS232.
• Insert one end of an RS232 extension cable into the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter’s 9pin female serial port. Insert the opposite end into a port on the computer.
• The RS232 standard limits the cable length to 50 feet (15.2 meters).
• The RS232 Port is configured as Data Communications Equipment (DCE).
RS232 Port
230ORT
Pin #2=Transmit
0IN4RANSMIT
Pin #3=Receive
Pin #5=Ground
0IN2ECEIVE
0IN'ROUND
5
RS485 Port
+
V
230ORT
-
S
-
+
63
Pins:
4 3 2 1
9 8 7 6
0INS
Figure 5.4: RS232/RS485 Port Detail
5.3: RS485 Communication
RS485 communication allows multiple devices to communicate on a bus. The Nexus®
1250/1252 meter’s Ports 1 to 4 are RS485 terminals, viable for a distance of up to
4000 feet (1219 meters). (Port 1 can be switched between RS232 and RS485.) The
following figure shows wiring detail of a 2-wire RS485 port.
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From other RS485 device
Connect :
•
(−) to (−)
•
(+) to (+)
•
Shield(SH) to Shield(SH)
-
-
+
SH
.EXUS-ETER
23CONNECTION
+
SH
Figure 5.5: 2-Wire RS485 Port Detail
All of the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter’s RS485 ports have the following connections:
• +V- (Voltage terminals for power connections): use with Nexus® I/O Modules and
Displays only. The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter supplies 17V DC through the +Vterminal connections.
NOTE: Do not connect these pins to devices that receive power from another
source—e.g., a computer—or to devices that do not require power to operate.
• S (Shield): the Shield connection is used to reference the meter’s port to the same
potential as the source. It is not an earth-ground connection. You must also
connect the shield to earth-ground at one point. Do not connect the shield to
ground at multiple points, as this will interfere with communication.
•
+/- (Two-wire, RS485 communication terminals): connect the + terminal of the
Nexus® meter’s port to the + terminal of the device; connect the - terminal of the
Nexus® meter’s port to the - terminal of the device.
NOTES on RS485 Communication:
• Use a shielded twisted pair cable 22 AWG (0.33 mm2) or larger, grounding the
shield at one end only.
• Establish point-to-point configurations for each device on an RS485 bus: connect
(+) terminals to (+) terminals; connect (-) terminals to (-) terminals.
• Protect cables from sources of electrical noise.
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• Avoid both “star” and “tee” connections (see Figure 5.6). No more than two cables
should be connected at any one point on an RS485 network, whether the connections are for devices, converters or terminal strips.
• Include all segments when calculating the total cable length of a network. If you are
not using an RS485 repeater, the maximum length for cable connecting all devices
is 4000 feet (1219 meters).
• RT EXPLANATION: Termination Resistors are generally used on both ends of longer
length transmission lines. The value of the Termination Resistors is determined by
the electrical parameters of the cable. Use RTs only on Master and Last Slave when
connecting multiple meters in a Daisy Chain.
Slave device 1
SH
+
-
Long stub results “T” connection that can cause
interference problem!
Master device
Last Slave device N
RT
RT
Slave device 2
SH +
-
SH
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
+
-
SH
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
+
-
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
Earth Connection, preferably at
single location
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
Slave device 1
Slave device 2
SH +
-
-
Master device
SH
+
SH
+
-
+ SH
“STAR” connection can cause interference
problem!
-
SH
Slave device 3
+
Slave device 4
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
Figure 5.6: Incorrect “T” and “Star” Topologies
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5.3.1: RS485 Connection
• Use any Port on the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter. If you use Port 1, set the selector
switch beneath the port to RS485.
• The link using RS485 is viable for up to 4000 feet (1219 meters).
• You must use an RS485 to RS232 converter, such as EIG’s Unicom 2500. See
sections 5.3.2 and 5.3.3.
• For information on connecting the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter to a modem, see
sections 5.8.2 and 5.8.3.
• Do not use the V(+)/V(-) pins: they supply power to the Nexus® displays and I/O
modules.
5.3.2: Connection to an RS485 Master (Unicom or Modem Manager)
• To establish communication between a Nexus® 1250/1252 meter and any RS485
master, such as EIG’s Unicom 2500, Modem Manager or other RS232/RS485
converter, use a shielded, twisted pair cable.
• Use an RS485 port (Ports 1–4) on the Nexus® meter. If you use Port 1, set the
selector switch beneath it to RS485. Connect the (+) and (-) terminals on the
meter to the (+) and (-) terminals on the master. Provide jumpers on the master,
linking its two (-) terminals and two (+) terminals. RS485 communication is viable
for up to 4000 feet (1219 meters).
• Connect the shield to the Ground (G) terminal on the Master. The (S) terminal on
the Nexus® meter is used to reference the Nexus® meter’s port to the same
potential as the source. It is not an earth-ground connection. You must also
connect the shield to earth-ground at one point. Vous devez également
connecter l’écran à la terre à un moment donné.
• Provide resistors at each end, connected to the (+) and (-) lines. RT is approximately 120 Ohms, but this value may vary based on length of cable run, gauge and
the impedance of the wire. See RT EXPLANATION in Section 5.3.
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5.3.3: Using the Unicom 2500
The Unicom 2500 provides RS485/RS232 conversion. In doing so it allows the
Nexus® 1250/1252 meter to communicate with a PC or other device. See the Unicom
2500 Installation and Operation Manual for additional information. You can order the
Unicom 2500 from EIG’s webstore: www.electroind.com/store. Select the Communications Products category from the left side of the webpage.
Figure 5.7 illustrates the Unicom 2500 connections for RS485.
RS232 Port
PC
UNICOM 2500
TX(-) RX(-) TX(+) RX(+) SH
Jumpers:
Short TX(-) to RX(-) becomes (-) signal
Short TX(+) to RX(+) becomes (+) signal
SH
SH
(+)
(+)
Meter’s RS485 Port
(-)
(-)
Figure 5.7: Meter Connected to PC using Unicom 2500
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5: Communication Wiring
The Unicom 2500 can be configured for either 4wire or 2-wire RS485 connections. Since the
Set switch
Set the
to DCE
Baud rate
Nexus® meter uses a 2-wire connection, you
need to add jumper wires to convert the Unicom
2500 to the 2-wire configuration.
As shown in Figure 5.7, you connect the "RX-"
v
and "TX-" terminals with a jumper wire to make
the "-" terminal, and connect the "RX+" and
"TX+" terminals with a jumper wire to make the
Set switch
to FD
"+" terminal. See the figure on the right for the
Unicom 2500’s settings. The Unicom’s Baud rate
must match the Baud rate of the meter’s RS485 port: you set the Baud rate by turning the screw to point at the rate you want.
5.3.4: RS485 Connection to the Nexus® P40N+ External Display
Insert one end of the supplied RS485 cable into Port 3 of the Nexus® 1250/1252
meter. Port 3 is factory-set to match the Nexus® display’s baud rate of 9600. To use a
port other than Port 3, you must set the port’s baud rate to 9600 using the
Communicator EXTTM software (see Chapter 13 of the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and
MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for instructions). Insert the other end of the
cable into the back of the Nexus® P40N/P40N/+, P41N+ or P43N+ display. (The connectors fit only one way into the ports.)
The cable harness brings 17V DC to the displays from the Nexus® meter. RS485
communication is viable for up to 4000 feet (1219 meters). If your cable length
exceeds 200 feet you must use a remote power supply, such as EIG’s PSIO, and:
1. Connect the shield to the shield (S) terminal on the Nexus® display port. The (S)
terminal on the Nexus® meter is used to reference the Nexus® meter’s port to the
same potential as the source. It is not an earth-ground connection. You must also
connect the shield to earth-ground at one point. Vous devez également
connecter l’écran à la terre à un moment donné.
2. Provide termination resistors at each end, connected to the + and - lines. RT is
approximately 120 Ohms. See RT EXPLANATION in Section 5.3.
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5: Communication Wiring
5.4: RJ11 (Telephone Line) Connection—Nexus® Meter with Internal
Modem Option (INP2) to a PC
Use RJ11 Standard Telephone Line to connect with the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter. For
details on this connection, see Chapter 10.
5.5: RJ45 Connection—Nexus® Meter with Internal Network Option
(INP200) to Multiple PCs - 10/100BaseT
The Internal Network Option conforms to the IEEE 802.3, 10BaseT and 100BaseT
specification using unshielded twisted pair (UTP) wiring. This allows the use of
inexpensive RJ45 connectors and CAT 3 or better cabling. For details on this
connection, see Chapter 11.
5.6: Communication Ports on the Nexus® I/O Modules
• Female RS485 Side Port: use to connect to another module’s female RS485 side
port.
• Male RS485 Side Port: use to connect to the Nexus® meter’s Port 3 or Port 4, or to
connect to another module’s male RS485 side port.
• I/O Port: use for functions specific to the type of module; size and pin configuration
varies depending on type of module.
• For more detail, refer to the following section and Chapter 9.
Female RS485
Side Port
I/O Port
(Size and Pin
Configuration Vary)
Male RS485
Side Port
Figure 5.8: I/O Module Communication Ports
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5: Communication Wiring
5.6.1: RS485 Connection—Nexus® Meter to Nexus® I/O Modules
• Six feet of RS485 cable harness is supplied. Insert one end of the cable into Port 3
or Port 4 of the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter.
• Insert the other end of the cable into the I/O module’s female RS485 side port (see
Figure 5.8). The connectors fit only one way into the ports.
• Use the male RS485 side port to attach another I/O module. The Nexus® 1250/
1252 meter can power up to four connected I/O modules using 15–20V DC at 50–
200mA. Use the steps in Section 5.6.2 to determine if you must use a separate
power source (for example, EIG’s PSIO) to supply added power to the group. See
Section 9.2.1 for information on the PSIO. RS485 communication is viable for up to
4000 feet (1219 meters). However, if your cable length exceeds 200 feet, use the
remote power supply and:
1. Connect the + and - terminals on the Nexus® meter to the + and - terminals of
the female RS485 port. Connect the shield to the shield (S) terminal. The (S)
terminal on the Nexus® meter is used to reference the meter’s port to the same
potential as the source. It is not an earth-ground connection. You must also
connect the shield to earth-ground at one point. Vous devez également
connecter l’écran à la terre à un moment donné.
2. Provide termination resistors at each end, connected to the + and - lines. RT is
approximately 120 Ohms. See RT EXPLANATION in Section 5.3
5.6.2: Steps to Determine Power Needed
Available power for all ports of the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter is 12 VA.
1. Refer to the tables on the next two pages to determine the VA Ratings for I/O
modules and displays.
2. Add together the VA Ratings for all I/O modules and displays in use.
3. Compare available power to power needed to determine if you must use an
additional power source.
NOTE: EIG recommends the PSIO 12V power source if the I/O module VA rating
exceeds the Nexus® specification. See Section 9.2.1 for information and usage
instructions.
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5: Communication Wiring
Table 1:
I/O Module Factory Settings and VA Ratings
Model#
Module
Address
VA Rating
1mAON4
0-1mA, 4 Analog
Outputs
128
2.7VA
1mAON8
0-1mA, 8 Analog
Outputs
128
3.2VA
20mAON4
4-20mA, 4 Analog
Outputs
132
5.0VA
20mAON8
4-20mA, 8 Analog
Outputs
132
8.5VA
8AI1
0-1mA, 8 Analog
Inputs
136
2.3VA
8AI2
0-20mA, 8 Analog
Inputs
140
2.3VA
8AI3
0-5VDC, 8 Analog
Inputs
144
2.3VA
8AI4
0-10VDC, 8 Analog
Inputs
148
2.3VA
4RO1
4 Latching Relay
Outputs
156
2.7VA
4PO1
4 KYZ Pulse Outputs
160
2.7VA
8DI1
8 Status Inputs
(Wet/Dry)
164
1.0VA
As the table above shows, all I/O modules are shipped pre-programmed with a baud
rate of 57600 and addresses. For programming instructions, refer to Chapter 14 in
the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual.
See the next page for the external displays’ VA Ratings.
NOTE: For 24 or 48 VDC applications, EIG recommends the PB1 power supply.
Example order number: PB1-D-12VO (PB1)
If you are using a PSIO (for 125V AC/DC input) or PB1 your maximum VA is 12.
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5: Communication Wiring
Table 2:
Nexus® Display VA Ratings
P41N+/P41N+/
P43N+
LED Displays
8VA
5.7: Linking Multiple Nexus® Meters in Series
You may connect a total of 31 Nexus® meters in series on a single bus using RS485.
The cable length may not exceed 4000 feet (1219 meters). Before assembling the
bus, each Nexus® meter must be assigned a unique address. See Chapter 13 in the
Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for instructions.
• Connect the + and - terminals of each Nexus® meter. Use jumpers on any RS485
Master connected at the end of the chain.
• Connect the shield to the (S) terminal on each Nexus® meter and to the Ground on
the RS485 Master. This connection is used to reference the Nexus® meter’s port to
the same potential as the source. It is not an earth-ground connection. You must
also connect the shield to earth-ground at one point. Vous devez également connecter l’écran à la terre à un moment donné.
• Provide termination resistors at each end, connected to the (+) and (-) lines. RT is
approximately 120 Ohms, but this value may vary based on length of cable run,
gauge or the impedance of the wire. See RT EXPLANATION in Section 5.3 .
Master device
Last Slave device N
RT
SH
+
RT
-
Slave device 1
Slave device 2
SH
SH
+
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
-
+
-
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
SH
+
-
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
Earth Connection, preferably at
single location
Figure 5.9: Linking Multiple Nexus® Meters in Series
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5: Communication Wiring
You can use an RS485 repeater to network several links of instruments.
NOTES:
• A maximum number of 31 Nexus® meters may be connected to one repeater.
• A maximum number of 31 repeaters may be included on the same network.
5.8: Remote Communication Overview
Either RJ11 (INP2 Option) or RJ45 (INP200 Option) can connect devices at great
distances. Section 5.1 gives an overview of these communication options. Chapter 10
explains the INP2 Internal Modem Option; Chapter 11 explains the INP200 Network
Option.
You can use also use modems to connect devices. EIG recommends using RS485
wiring with a Modem Manager. See Section 5.8.2 for additional information.
5.8.1: Remote Communication—RS232
The link using RS232 is viable for up to 50 feet (15.2 meters).
Set the selector switch under Port 1 to RS232.
Use an RS232 serial extension cable connected to the 9-pin female serial port of the
Nexus® 1250/1252 meter’s Port 1. Program this port for Modbus ASCII. See Chapter
13 in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for
details.
•
You must use a Null Modem or Null Cable between the Nexus® meter and the
remote modem when using RS232. A Null Modem enables two DCE devices to
communicate. The figure below details how a null modem reconfigures the RS232
pins.
0INSAT.ULL-ODEM-ALE%ND
0INSAT&EMALE-ODEM-ALE%ND
Figure 5.10: Standard Null Modem Configuration
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5: Communication Wiring
NOTE: Connecting the Nexus® meter to a modem via RS485 protocol with EIG’s
Modem Manager converter eliminates the need for a Null Modem (see Section 5.8.2).
• The remote modem must be programmed for auto-answer and set at a fixed baud
rate of 9600 with no Flow Control. See Section 5.8.3 and the Communicator EXTTM
4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for further details.
5.8.2: Remote Communication-RS485
Use any Port on the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter. If you use Port 1, set the selector
switch beneath the port to RS485. The link using RS485 is viable for up to 4000 feet
(1219 meters).
Use Communicator EXTTM software to set the port's baud rate to 9600 and enable
Modbus ASCII protocol. See Chapter 13 in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for instructions. Remember, Modbus RTU will not
function properly with modem communication. You must change the protocol to
Modbus ASCII.
You must use an RS485 to RS232 converter and a Null Modem. EIG recommends
using its Modem Manager, a sophisticated RS232/RS485 converter that enables
devices with different baud rates to communicate. It also eliminates the need for a
Null modem and automatically programs the modem to the proper configuration.
Also, if the telephone lines are poor, Modem Manager acts as a line buffer, making the
communication more reliable.
5.8.3: Programming Modems for Remote Communication
You must program a modem before it can communicate properly with most RS485 or
RS232-based devices. This task is often quite complicated because modems can be
unpredictable when communicating with remote devices.
If you are not using the EIG Modem Manager device, you must set the following
strings to communicate with the remote Nexus® meter(s). Consult your modem’s
manual for the proper string settings or see Section 5.8.3.1 for a list of selected
modem strings.
NOTE: Use a Modem Manager! The product was designed to make this task “plug and
play.” We highly recommend it for all serial modem solutions.
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5: Communication Wiring
Modem Connected to a Computer (the Originate Modem)
• Restore modem to factory settings. This erases all previously programmed settings.
• Set modem to display Result Codes. The computer will use the result codes.
• Set modem to Verbal Result Codes. The computer will use the verbal result codes.
• Set modem to use DTR Signal. This is necessary for the computer to ensure
connection with the originate modem.
• Set modem to enable Flow Control. This is necessary to communicate with remote
modem connected to the Nexus® meter.
• Instruct modem to write the new settings to activate profile. This places these
settings into nonvolatile memory; the setting will take effect after the modem
powers up.
Modem Connected to the Nexus® Meter (the Remote Modem)
• Restore modem to factory settings. This erases all previously programmed settings.
• Set modem to auto answer on n rings. This sets the remote modem to answer the
call after n rings.
• Set modem to ignore DTR Signal. This is necessary for the Nexus® meter, to insure
connection with originate modem.
• Set modem to disable Flow Control. The Nexus® meter’s RS232 communication
does not support this feature.
• Instruct modem to write the new settings to activate profile. This places these
settings into nonvolatile memory; the setting will take effect after the modem
powers up.
• When programming the remote modem with a terminal program, make sure the
baud rate of the terminal program matches the Nexus® meter’s baud rate.
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5: Communication Wiring
5.8.3.1: Selected Modem Strings
Table 3:
Modem
String/Setting
Cardinal modem
AT&FE0F8&K0N0S37=9
Zoom/Faxmodem VFX
V.32BIS(14.4K)
AT&F0&K0S0=1&W0&Y0
Zoom/Faxmodem 56Kx
Dual Mode
AT&F0&K0&C0S0=1&W0&
Y0
USRobotics Sportster
33.6 Faxmodem:
DIP switch setting
AT&F0&N6&W0Y0 (for
9600 baud)
Up Up Down Down Up Up
Up Down
USRobotics Sportster 56K
Faxmodem:
DIP switch setting
AT&F0&W0Y0
Up Up Down Down Up Up
Up Down
5.9: High Speed Inputs Connection
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter’s built-in High Speed Inputs can be used in many
ways:
• Attach the KYZ HS Outputs from other meters for totalizing.
• Attach relaying contacts for breaker status or initiated logging.
• Set as an Input Trigger for Historical Log 2.
Refer to the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual
for instructions on programming these features.
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5: Communication Wiring
The High Speed Inputs can be used with either dry or wet field contacts. For Wet
contacts, the common rides on a unit-generated Nominal 15V DC. No user programming is necessary to use either wet or dry field contacts.
Figure 5.11: High-Speed Inputs Connections
5.10: IRIG-B Connections
IRIG-B is a standard time code format that synchronizes event time-stamping to
within 1 millisecond. An IRIG-B signal-generating device connected to the GPS
satellite system synchronizes Nexus® 1250/1252 meters located at different
geographic locations. Nexus® meters use an un-modulated signal from a satellitecontrolled clock (such as Arbiter 1093B). For details on installation, refer to the User’s
Manual for the satellite-controlled clock in use. Below are installation steps and tips
that will help you.
Connection
Connect the (+) terminal of the Nexus® meter to the (+) terminal of the signal generating device; connect the (-) terminal of the Nexus® meter to the (-) terminal of
the signal generating device.
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5: Communication Wiring
Installation
Set Time Settings for the meter being installed.
1. From the Communicator EXTTM application’s Device Profile menu:
a. Click General Settings>Time Settings>one of the Time Settings
lines, to open the Time Settings screen.
b. Set the Time Zone and Daylight Savings (Select AutoDST or Enable and
set dates).
c. Click Update Device Profile to save the new settings. (See Chapter 13
of the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User
Manual for details.)
2. Before connection, check that the date on the meter clock is correct (or,
within 2 Months of the actual date). This provides the right year for the
clock (GPS does not supply the year).
3. Connect the (+) terminal of the Nexus® meter to the (+) terminal of the
signal generating device; connect the (-) terminal of the Nexus® meter to
the (-) terminal of the signal generating device.
Troubleshooting Tip: The most common source of problems is a reversal of the two
wires. If you have a problem, try reversing the wires.
GP
S
Sa
tel
lite
Co
nn
ec
tio
n
IRIG-B Port
+
+
-
-
IRIG-B Time
Signal
Generating
Device
Figure 5.12: IRIG-B Communication
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5: Communication Wiring
NOTE: Please make sure that the selected clock can drive the amount of wired loads.
5.11: Time Synchronization Alternatives
(See the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for
details.)
IRIG-B
• All Nexus® 1250/1252 meters are equipped to use IRIG-B for time synchronization.
• If IRIG-B is connected, this form of time synchronization takes precedence over the
internal clock. If the GPS Signal is lost, the internal clock takes over time keeping
at the precise moment the signal is lost.
Line Frequency Clock Synchronization
• All Nexus® meters are equipped with Line Frequency Clock Synchronization, which
may be enabled or disabled for use instead of IRIG-B. If Line Frequency Clock
Synchronization is enabled and power is lost, the internal clock takes over at the
precise moment power is lost.
Internal Clock Crystal
• All Nexus® meters are equipped with internal clock crystals which are accurate to
20ppm, and which can be used if IRIG-B is not connected and/or Line Frequency
Clock Synchronization is not enabled.
DNP Time Synchronization
• Using Communicator EXT, you can set the meter to request time synchronization
from the DNP Master. Requests can be made from once per minute to once per day.
See the Nexus® 1252/1262/1272/1500 DNP User Manual for instructions. You can
download the manual from EIG’s website:
www.electroind.com/pdf/DNPv3.0_Level2.pdf.
Other Time Setting Tools
• Tools>Set Device Time: For manual or PC time setting
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5: Communication Wiring
• Script & Scheduler: Time stamps retrieved logs and data
• MV90: Can synchronize time on retrievals in the form of a Time Stamp. Refer to
the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual (HHF
Converter) for more MV-90 details.
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5: Communication Wiring
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6: Using the External Displays
6: Using the External Displays
This chapter provides information on the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter’s external
displays.
6.1: Overview
Electro Industries offers three external displays for use with the Nexus® 1250/1252
meter. The P40N+ (and legacy P40N), P41N+, and P43N+ are LED displays that
provide easy-to-use access to the information stored in your Nexus® meter. The
P40N+ display also features a USB port for direct data download.
Plug one of the Nexus® external displays into Port 3 or 4 of the meter, using the cable
supplied with the display. The displays operate at 9600 baud. Port 3 is already
factory-set to 9600 baud (see Chapter 5 for communication details). To use a display
on another port, configure that port to operate at 9600 baud with the Communicator
EXTTM software. See Chapter 13 of the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager
EXT Software User Manual for instructions on configuring the meter's port.
6.2: Nexus® P40N/P40N+, P41N+ and P43N+ LED External Displays
The Nexus® P40N and P40N+ LED external display can be used alone or as the
Master for a grouping of displays. The P40N/P40N+ prepares the data for the Slave
displays: the P41N+ and the P43N+. Once every second, it sends a request to the
Nexus® meter. All necessary data for the Slave displays is returned to the Master
display upon this request, and the Master sends the data to the Slaves in the proper
format.
The Nexus® P41N+ and P43N+ Slave displays listen to the Master, and display and
update values on the screen when they receive proper data. These displays have no
keypads. Data can only be received; it cannot be changed. If there is no data for more
than 5 seconds, "Communication Lost" appears on the bottom of the screen. The
following data is displayed when it is received:
• Amp Display (P41N+): Amp A, Amp B, Amp C
• Power Display (P43N+): Watt, VAR, PF
The Nexus® P40N+ LED external display has a USB port on the front for direct data
downloads. You can connect to the USB port with Communicator EXTTM software to
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6: Using the External Displays
poll and configure the meter attached to the display. To use the USB, follow these
instructions:
1. Use the Nexus® Series Product CD, shipped with your meter, to install the
Communicator EXTTM software and the driver for the P40N+ USB port.
a. Insert the CD into your PC's CD drive. The screen shown below opens in your
Browser.
b. Click the Nexus® Product Line button. The following screen opens in your
Browser.
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6: Using the External Displays
c. To install Communicator EXTTM 4.0 software and the driver for the P40N+:
i. Click Software>Communicator EXTTM Software to install the
software.
ii. Click Software>USB Driver to install the driver.
2. Connect the USB cable from your PC to the
port: using a USA-A Male to USB-B Male
cable, attach the USB-A connector to the
PC and attach the USB-B connector to the
P40N+ USB port. See Figure 6.1.
Figure 6.1: USB-B Male Connector and P40N+ USB Port
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6: Using the External Displays
3. Once the USB cable is connected to the P40N+, the display clears and the message
“USB in Use” scrolls at the bottom of the display. Additionally, the USB LED icon
lights up when the USB connection is being used.
You connect to the USB port using Communicator EXTTM software the same way you
connect to a meter with the software. Follow these instructions:
1. Determine which port the PC's USB is using:
a. On your PC, click Start>Settings>Control Panel.
b. Double-click the System folder.
c. Click the Hardware tab. You will see the screen below.
d. Click the Device Manager button. You will see a list of the computer's hardware
devices.
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6: Using the External Displays
e. Click the plus sign next to Ports (COM & LPT). The COM ports are displayed. Note
the COM number for the USB Serial Port. This is the number you will use to
connect to the P40N+ through Communicator EXTTM software. See the figure
below.
2. Open Communicator EXTTM software and click the Connect icon in the Icon bar.
See the screen shown below.
3. Click the Serial Port button if it’s not already selected.
4. Set the Baud Rate to 9600. (It uses 9600 because it shares an existing Com port
for displayed readings.)
5. Click the Available Ports button and select the USB COM Port number from the
drop-down list.
6. Protocol should be Modbus RTU.
7. Flow Control should be None.
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6: Using the External Displays
8. Echo Mode should be No Echo.
9. Click Connect. The software connects to the meter through the P40N+. Refer to
the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for
programming instructions. (Click Help>Contents from the Communicator EXTTM
application’s Title Bar to view the manual online.)
6.2.1: Connect Multiple Displays
One cable (housing two-wire RS485 and two-wire power wires plus shield) is used to
connect the displays. The Nexus® meter’s ports support 12 VA. Each P40N/P40N+,
P41N+ or P43N+ requires 3.3 VA (maximum 3.8 VA). The Master display (P40N+) is
the master in communication. The Amp, Power and Nexus® devices are slaves in
communication. Therefore, the Master display (P40N+) should be at the end of the
daisy-chained units as shown in Figure 6.2.
Figure 6.2: Daisy Chaining Displays
6.2.2: Nexus® P40N/P40N+ Display Modes
The Nexus® P40N/P40N+ LED external display has three modes:
• Dynamic Readings mode (sections 6.3 and 6.4)
• Nexus® Information mode (sections 6.5 and 6.6)
• Display Features mode (sections 6.7 and 6.8)
Each mode is divided into groups. Most groups are further broken down into readings.
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6: Using the External Displays
• Use the MODE button to scroll between modes.
• Use the UP/DOWN arrows to scroll from group to group within each mode.
• Use the LEFT/RIGHT arrows to scroll from reading to reading within each group.
Use the Communicator EXTTM software to Flash Update the P40N/P40N+ external
display. Refer to the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT User Manual for
instructions.
6.3: Dynamic Readings Mode
The External Display puts itself in the Dynamic Readings Mode upon power-up. Use
the Mode button to access the Dynamic Readings from other Modes. Use the Up/Down
arrows to navigate from Group to Group within this Mode. See Section 6.4 for a Navigation map of the Dynamic Readings Mode.
Group 1: Phase to Neutral Voltages (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in order.)
• Volts AN/BN/CN
• Maximum Volts AN/BN/CN
• Minimum Volts AN/BN/CN
• Volts AN/BN/CN %THD
• Volts AN/BN/CN Maximum %THD
• Volts AN/BN/CN Minimum %THD
Group 2: Phase to Phase Voltages (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in order.)
• Volts AB/BC/CA
• Minimum Volts AB/BC/CA
• Maximum Volts AB/BC/CA
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6: Using the External Displays
Group 3: Current (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in
order.)
• Current A/B/C
• Maximum Current
• Minimum Current
• Current %THD
• Current Maximum %THD
• Current Minimum %THD
• Current Calculated N/Measured N
• Maximum Current Calculated N/Measured N
Group 4: Watt/VAR (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in
order.)
• kWatt/kVAR
• Maximum +kWatt/+kVAR/CoIn kVAR
• Maximum -kWatt/-kVAR/CoIn kVAR
• Block (Fixed) Window Average Maximum +kWatt/+kVAR/CoIn kVAR
• Predictive Rolling (Sliding) Window Maximum +kWatt/+kVAR/CoIn kVAR
Group 5:VA/PF/Frequency (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in order.)
• kVA/PF lag/Hz
• Maximum kVA/Hz
• Minimum kVA/Hz
• Maximum Quadrant 1 Total PF
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6: Using the External Displays
• Minimum Quadrant 1 Total PF
• Maximum Quadrant 2 Total PF
• Minimum Quadrant 2 Total PF
• Maximum Quadrant 3 Total PF
• Minimum Quadrant 3 Total PF
• Maximum Quadrant 4 Total PF
• Minimum Quadrant 4 Total PF
Group 6: Delivered Energy (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in order.)
• +kWatthr Quadrant 1+Quadrant 4 (Primary)
• +kVAhr Quadrant 1 (Primary)
• +kVARhr Quadrant 1 (Primary)
• +kVAhr Quadrant 4 (Primary)
• -kVARhr Quadrant 4 (Primary)
Group 7: Received Energy (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in order.)
• -kWatthr Quadrant 2+Quadrant 3 (Primary)
• +kVAhr Quadrant 2 (Primary)
• +kVARhr Quadrant 2 (Primary)
• +kVAhr Quadrant 3 (Primary)
• -kVARhr Quadrant 3 (Primary)
Group 8: Accumulations (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in order.)
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6: Using the External Displays
• kI2t A
• kI2t B
• kI2t C
• kV2t A
• kV2t B
• kV2t C
Group 9: Phase Angles (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings,
in order.)
• Phase Angle Van/bn/cn
• Phase Angle Ia/b/c
• Phase Angle Vab/bc/ca
• Phase Sequence
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6: Using the External Displays
6.4: Navigation Map of Dynamic Readings Mode
• Use Left/Right arrow keys to navigate Readings
• Use Up/Down arrows to scroll between groups.
5HDGLQJV
*
U
R
X
S
V
1 Second Volts
AN,BN,CN
Maximum Volts
AN,BN,CN
Minimum Volts
AN,BN,CN
%THD Volts
AN,BN,CN
1 Second Volts
AB,BC,CA
Minimum Volts
AB,BC,CA
Maximum Volts
AB,BC,CA
Return to
First
Reading
1 Second
IA,IB,IC
Maximum
IA,IB,IC
1 Second
kWatt, kVAR
+Max kWatt,
+kVAR,CoIn
kVAR
1 Second
kVA, PF
lag,
Frequency
Max
kVA,
Freq
Positive
kWatthour
Q1+Q4
Min
kVA,
Freq
Minimum
IA,IB,IC
%THD
IA,IB,IC
-Max kWatt,
-kVAR,CoIn
kVAR
Block WinAvg Max
+kWatt,
+kVAR,CoIn kVAR
Max Q1,
Total PF
Positive
kVARhr
Q1
Min Q1,
Total PF
Max Q2,
Total PF
Negative
kVARhr
Q4
Return to
First
Reading
Negative
kWatthr
Q2+Q3
Positive
kVARhr
Q2
Negative
kVARhr
Q3
Return to
First
Reading
2
kI t A
2
kI t B
2
kI t C
2
kV t A
Phase Angles V
AN,BN,CN
Phase Angles I
A,B,C
Phase Angles V
AB,BC,CA
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Max %THD
IA,IB,IC
Max %THD
Volts
AN,BN,CN
Min %THD
Volts
AN,BN,CN
Min %THD
IA,IB,IC
1 Second
INc,INm
Pred Roll Win Avg
+kWatt,
+kVAR,CoIn kVAR
Min Q2,
Total PF
Max Q3,
Total PF
2
kV t B
Phase
Sequence
Doc#
Min Q3,
Total PF
2
kV t C
Return to
First
Reading
Return to
First
Reading
Return to
First
Reading
Min Q4,
Total PF
Min Q4,
Total PF
Return to
First
Reading
Return to
First
Reading
Return to First
Reading
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6 - 11
6: Using the External Displays
6.5: Nexus® Information Mode
Use the Mode button to access the Nexus® Information mode from other modes. Use
the Up/Down arrows to navigate from group to group within this mode. See Section
6.6 for a Navigation map of the Nexus® Information Mode.
Group 1: Device Time
Meter Time
Group 2: Communication Settings (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in order.)
• Communication Settings Port 1: Baud/Addr/Protocol
• Communication Settings Port 2: Baud/Addr/Protocol
• Communication Settings Port 3: Baud/Addr/Protocol
• Communication Settings Port 4: Baud/Addr/Protocol
Group 3: PT/CT Ratios (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings,
in order.)
• PT Ratio
• CT Ratio
Group 4: External Display Units
Primary/Secondary:
Select either Primary or Secondary units for the External Display using the Communicator EXTTM software (see the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual).
• When Primary is selected, the Display shows all readings in Primary units based on
the user programmed PT and CT Ratios.
• When Secondary is selected, the Display shows all readings in Secondary units.
Group 5: Firmware Versions and Serial Numbers (Use the Left/Right arrows to
access the following readings, in order.)
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6: Using the External Displays
• Run Time External Display/Run Time DSP/RunTime Comm
• Boot External Display/Boot DSP/Boot Comm
• Serial Number External Display; Serial Number Nexus® Monitor
6.6: Navigation Map of Nexus® Information Mode
•
Use Left/Right arrow keys to navigate Readings
Use Up/Down arrows to scroll between groups.
5HDGLQJV
*
U
R
X
S
V
Meter Time
Comm
Settings
Port 1
Comm
Settings
Port 2
PT Ratio
CT Ratio
Return
To
First Reading
Boot
Display,
DSP, Comm
Serial #
Display, Serial
# Monitor
Comm
Settings
Port 3
Comm
Settings
Port 4
Return
To
First Reading
Display
Primary/Secondary
Run-time
Display,
DSP, Comm
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6: Using the External Displays
6.7: Display Features Mode
Use the Mode button to access the Display Features Mode from other modes. Use the
Up/Down arrows to navigate from group to group within this mode. See Section 6.8
for a Navigation map of the Display Features mode.
Group 1: Reset Max/Min
Press Enter to reset the Max and Min values.
NOTE: If the Password Protection feature has been enabled through Communicator
EXT software, you will need to enter a password to reset the Max/Min readings. Follow
this procedure:
1. Press Enter.
2. Enter the password, one character at a time, by pressing the Up or Down arrows.
(Each password character begins as an "A". Press the Up arrow to increment the
character from "A-Z" and then from "0-9". Press the Down arrow to decrement the
character from "A" to "9-0" and then from "Z-A".)
3. Press Set to enter each character in the password.
4. When the entire password is shown on the Display screen, press Enter.
5. Once the password is entered correctly, press Enter again to reset the Max/Min
values.
Group 2: Reset Energy
Press Enter to reset the Energy readings.
NOTE: If the Password Protection feature has been enabled through Communicator
EXTTM software, you will need to enter a password to reset the Energy readings. Follow steps 1-4, above. Then press Enter again to reset energy.
Group 3: Display Baud Rate/Address
Group 4: Display Communication Protocol
Group 7: Lamp Test
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6: Using the External Displays
Press Enter to conduct an LED test.
Group 8: Display Scroll ON/OFF
Press Enter to turn the scroll feature on or off. When the scroll feature is on, the
P40N+ external display scrolls through the first reading of each group in the Dynamic
Readings mode. If a button is pressed during the scroll, scrolling pauses for one
minute.
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6: Using the External Displays
6.8: Navigation Map of Display Features Mode
Use Up/Down arrows to scroll between groups.
*
U
R
X
S
V
Reset Max/Min
Reset Energy
Baud
Rate/Address
Communication
Protocol
Lamp Test
Display Scroll
On/Off
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7: Transformer Loss Compensation
7: Transformer Loss Compensation
7.1: Introduction
The Edison Electric Institute's Handbook for Electricity Metering, Ninth Edition defines
Loss Compensation as:
A means for correcting the reading of a meter when the metering point and point of
service are physically separated, resulting in measurable losses including I2R losses
in conductors and transformers and iron-core losses. These losses may be added to or
subtracted from the meter registration.
Loss compensation may be used in any instance where the physical location of the
meter does not match the electrical location where change of ownership occurs. Most
often this appears when meters are connected on the low voltage side of power transformers when the actual ownership change occurs on the high side of the transformer. This condition is shown pictorially in Figure 7.1.
Ownership Change
M
Figure 7.1: Low Voltage Metering Installation Requiring Loss Compensation
It is generally less expensive to install metering equipment on the low voltage side of
a transformer and in some conditions other limitations may also impose the requirement of low-side metering even though the actual ownership change occurs on the
high-voltage side.
The need for loss compensated metering may also exist when the ownership changes
several miles along a transmission line where it is simply impractical to install metering equipment. Ownership may change at the midway point of a transmission line
where there are no substation facilities. In this case, power metering must again be
compensated. This condition is shown in Figure 7.2.
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7: Transformer Loss Compensation
M
Point of Ownership
Change
Figure 7.2: Joint Ownership Line Meeting Requiring Loss Compensation
A single meter cannot measure the losses in a transformer or transmission line
directly. It can, however, include computational corrections to calculate the losses
and add or subtract those losses to the power flow measured at the meter location.
This is the method used for loss compensation in the Nexus® meter. Refer to Appendix A in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual
for detailed explanation and instructions for using the Transformer Line Loss Compensation feature of the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter.
The computational corrections used for transformer and transmission line loss compensation are similar. In both cases, no-load losses and full-load losses are evaluated
and a correction factor for each loss level is calculated. However, the calculation of
the correction factors that must be programmed into the meter differ for the two different applications. For this reason, the two methodologies will be treated separately
in this chapter.
In the Nexus® meter, Loss Compensation is a technique that computationally
accounts for active and reactive power losses. The meter calculations are based on
the formulas below. These equations describe the amount of active (Watts) and reactive (VARs) power lost due to both iron and copper effects (reflected to the secondary
of the instrument transformers).
Total Secondary Watt Loss =
(((Measured Voltage/Cal point Voltage)2 x %LWFE) + ((Measured Current/Cal
Point Current)2
x %LWCU)) x Full-scale Secondary VA
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Total Secondary VAR Loss =
(((Measured Voltage/Cal point Voltage)4 x %LVFE) + ((Measured Current/Cal
Point Current)2 x %LVCU)) x Full-scale Secondary VA
The Values for %LWFE, %LWCU, %LVFE, and %LVCU are derived from the transformer and meter information, as demonstrated in the following sections.
The calculated loss compensation values are added to or subtracted from the measured Watts and VARs. The selection of adding or subtracting losses is made through
the meter's profile when programming the meter (see the following section for
instructions). The meter uses the combination of the add/subtract setting and the
directional definition of power flow (also in the profile) to determine how to handle the
losses. Losses will be "added to" or "subtracted from" (depending on whether add or
subtract is selected) the Received Power flow. For example, if losses are set to "Add
to" and received power equals 2000 kW and losses are equal to 20kW then the total
metered value with loss compensation would be 2020 kW; for these same settings if
the meter measured 2000 kW of delivered power the total metered value with loss
compensation would be 1980 kW.
Since transformer loss compensation is the more common loss compensation method,
the meter has been designed for this application. Line loss compensation is calculated
in the meter using the same terms but the percent values are calculated by a different
methodology.
Nexus® Meter Transformer Loss Compensation:
• Performs calculations on each phase of the meter for every measurement taken.
Unbalanced loads are accurately handled.
• Calculates numerically, eliminating the environmental effects that cause inaccuracies in electromechanical compensators.
• Performs Bidirectional Loss Compensation.
• Requires no additional wiring; the compensation occurs internally.
• Imposes no additional electrical burden when performing Loss Compensation.
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7: Transformer Loss Compensation
Loss Compensation is applied to 1 second per phase Watt/VAR readings and, because
of that, affects all subsequent readings based on 1 second per phase Watt/VAR readings. This method results in loss compensation being applied to the following quantities:
• Total Power
• Demands, per Phase and Total (Thermal, Block (Fixed) Window, Rolling (Sliding)
Window and Predictive Window)
• Maximum and Minimum Demands
• Energy Accumulations
• KYZ Output of Energy Accumulations
NOTE: Loss Compensation is disabled when the meter is placed in Test Mode.
7.2: Nexus® 1250/1252 Meter's Transformer Loss Compensation
The Nexus® meter provides compensation for active and reactive power quantities by
performing numerical calculations. The factors used in these calculations are derived
either:
• By clicking the TLC Calculator button on the Transformer Loss screen of the Device
Profile, to open the EIG Loss Compensation Calculator in Microsoft Excel
• By figuring the values from the worksheet shown here and in Appendix A of the
Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual.
Either way, you enter the derived values into the Communicator EXTTM software
through the Device Profile Transformer and Line Loss Compensation screen.
The Communicator EXTTM software allows you to enable Transformer Loss Compensation for Losses due to Copper and Iron, individually or simultaneously. Losses can
either be added to or subtracted from measured readings. Refer to Appendix A in the
Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for instructions.
Loss compensation values must be calculated based on the meter installation. As a
result, transformer loss values must be normalized to the meter by converting the
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7: Transformer Loss Compensation
base voltage and current and taking into account the number of elements used in the
metering installation. For three-element meters, the installation must be normalized
to the phase-to-neutral voltage and the phase current; in two-element meters the
installation must be normalized to the phase-to-phase voltage and the phase current.
This process is described in the following sections.
7.2.1: Loss Compensation in Three Element Installations
Loss compensation is based on the loss and impedance values provided on the transformer manufacturer's test report. A typical test report will include at least the following information:
• Manufacturer
• Unit Serial Number
• Transformer MVA Rating (Self-Cooled)
• Test Voltage
• No Load Loss Watts
• Load Loss Watts (or Full Load Loss Watts)
• % Exciting Current @ 100% voltage
• % Impedance
The transformer MVA rating is generally the lowest MVA rating (the self-cooled or OA
rating) of the transformer winding. The test voltage is generally the nominal voltage
of the secondary or low voltage winding. For three-phase transformers these values
will typically be the three-phase rating and the phase-to-phase voltage. All of the test
measurements are based on these two numbers. Part of the process of calculating the
loss compensation percentages is converting the transformer loss values based on the
transformer ratings to the base used by the meter.
Correct calculation of loss compensation also requires knowledge of the meter installation. In order to calculate the loss compensation settings you will need the following
information regarding the meter and the installation:
• Number of meter elements
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7: Transformer Loss Compensation
• Potential Transformer Ratio (PTR)
• Current Transformer Ratio (CTR)
• Meter Base Voltage
• Meter Base Current
This section is limited to application of Nexus® meters to three-element metering
installations. As a result, we know that:
• Number of metering elements = 3
• Meter Base Voltage = 120 Volts
• Meter Base Current = 5 Amps
7.2.1.1: Three-Element Loss Compensation Worksheet
Table 1:
Company
Station
Name
Date
Trf. Bank
No.
Trf Manf
Trf Serial
No.
Calculation
by
Transformer Data (from Transformer Manufacturer's Test Sheet)
Table 2:
Winding
Voltage
MVA
Connection
HV - High
¨-Y
XV - Low
¨-Y
YV - Tertiary
¨-Y
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7: Transformer Loss Compensation
Table 3:
Value
Watts Loss
3-Phase
1-Phase
1-Phase kW
No-Load Loss
Load Loss
Enter 3-Phase or 1-Phase values. If 3-Phase values are entered, calculate 1-Phase
values by dividing 3-Phase values by three. Convert 1-Phase Loss Watts to 1-Phase
kW by dividing 1-Phase Loss Watts by 1000.
Table 4:
Value
3-Phase MVA
1-Phase MVA
1-Phase kVA
Self-Cooled Rating
Enter 3-Phase or 1-Phase values. If 3-Phase values are entered, calculate 1-Phase
values by dividing 3-Phase values by three. Convert 1-Phase Self-Cooled MVA to 1Phase kVA by multiplying by 1000.
Table 5:
% Exciting Current
% Impedance
Table 6:
Value
Phase-to-Phase
Phase-to-Neutral
Test Voltage (Volts)
Full Load Current (Amps)
Test Voltage is generally Phase-to-Phase for three-phase transformers. Calculate
Phase-to-Neutral Voltage by dividing Phase-to-Phase Voltage by the square root of 3.
Calculate Full Load Current by dividing the (1-Phase kW Self-Cooled Rating) by the
(Phase-to-Neutral Voltage) and multiplying by 1000.
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7: Transformer Loss Compensation
Meter/Installation Data
Table 7:
Instrument Transformers
Numerator
Denominator
Multiplier
Potential Transformers
Current Transformers
Power Multiplier [(PT Multiplier) x (CT Multiplier)]
Enter the Numerator and Denominator for each instrument transformer. For example,
a PT with a ratio of 7200/120 has a numerator or 7200, a denominator or 120 and a
multiplier of 60 (7200/120 = 60/1).
Table 8:
Meter Secondary Voltage (Volts)
120
Meter Secondary Current (Amps)
5
Base Conversion Factors
Table 9:
Quantity
Transformer
Multiplier
Trf IT Sec
Meter Base
Voltage
120
Current
5
Meter/Trf
For Transformer Voltage, enter the Phase-to-Neutral value of Test Voltage previously
calculated. For Transformer Current, enter the Full-Load Current previously calculated. For Multipliers, enter the PT and CT multipliers previously calculated.
TrfIT Secondary is the Base Value of Voltage and Current at the Instrument Transformer Secondary of the Power Transformer. These numbers are obtained by dividing
the Transformer Voltage and Current by their respective Multipliers. The Meter/Trf
values for Voltage and Current are obtained by dividing the Meter Base values by the
TrfIT Secondary values.
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7: Transformer Loss Compensation
Load Loss at Transformer
No-Load Loss Watts (kW) = 1-Phase kW No-Load Loss = ______________
No-Load Loss VA (kVA) = (%Exciting Current) * (1-Phase kVA Self-Cooled Rating)
/ 100 = (______________) * (________________) / 100
= _______________ kVA
No-Load Loss VAR (kVAR) = SQRT((No-Load Loss kVA)2 - (No-Load Loss kW)2) =
SQRT((_________________)2 - (________________)2)
= SQRT((__________________) - (_________________))
= SQRT (_________________) = ____________________
Full-Load Loss Watts (kW) = 1-Phase Kw Load Loss = ______________
Full-Load Loss VA (kVA) = (%Impedance) * (1-Phase kVA Self-Cooled Rating) /
100 = (______________) * (________________) / 100
= _______________ kVA
Full-Load Loss VAR (kVAR) = SQRT((Full-Load Loss kVA)2 - (Full-Load Loss kW)2)
= SQRT((_________________)2 - (________________)2)
= SQRT((__________________) - (_________________))
= SQRT (_________________) = _________________
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7: Transformer Loss Compensation
Normalize Losses to Meter Base
Table 10:
Quantity
Value
at Trf
Base
M/T Factor
M/T Factor
Value
Exp
No-Load
Loss kW
V
́2
No-Load
Loss kVAR
V
́4
Load Loss
kW
1
́2
Load Loss
kVAR
1
́2
M/T Factor
w/Exp
Value
at
Meter
Base
Enter Value at Transformer Base for each quantity from calculations above. Enter
Meter/Trf Factor value from Base Conversion Factor calculations above. Calculate M/
T Factor with Exponent by raising the M/T Factor to the power indicated in the "Exp"
(or Exponent) column.
Calculate the "Value at Meter Base" by multiplying the (M/T Factor w/ Exp) times the
(Value at Trf Base).
Loss Watts Percentage Values
Meter Base kVA = 600 * (PT Multiplier) * (CT Multiplier) / 1000
= 600 * (____________) * (___________) / 1000
= ________________
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7: Transformer Loss Compensation
Calculate Load Loss Values
Table 11:
Quantity
Value at
Meter Base
Meter Base
kVA
% Loss at
Meter Base
Quantity
No-Load
Loss kW
% Loss
Watts FE
No-Load
Loss kVAR
% Loss
VARs FE
Load Loss
kW
% Loss
Watts CU
Load Loss
kVAR
% Loss
VARs CU
Enter "Value at Meter Base" from Normalize Losses section. Enter "Meter Base kVA"
from previous calculation. Calculate "% Loss at Meter Base" by dividing (Value at
Meter Base) by (Meter Base kVA) and multiplying by 100.
Enter calculated % Loss Watts values into the Nexus® meter using Communicator
EXTTM software. Refer to Appendix A in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for instructions.
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7: Transformer Loss Compensation
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8: Time-of-Use Function
8: Time-of-Use Function
8.1: Introduction
A Time-of-Use (TOU) usage structure takes into account the quantity of energy used
and the time at which it was consumed. The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter's TOU function, available with the Communicator EXTTM software, is designed to accommodate a
variety of programmable rate structures. The Nexus® meter's TOU function accumulates data based on the time-scheme programmed into the meter.
See Chapter 15 in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User
Manual for details on programming the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter's 20-year TOU
calendar and retrieving TOU data.
8.2: The Nexus® Meter's TOU Calendar
A Nexus® TOU calendar sets the parameters for TOU data accumulation. You may
store up to twenty calendars in the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter and an unlimited
amount of calendar files on your computer.
The Nexus® TOU calendar profile allows you to assign a programmable usage schedule - e.g., "Weekday," "Weekend," or "Holiday"- to each day of the calendar year. You
may create up to 16 different TOU schedules.
Each TOU schedule divides the 24-hour day into fifteen-minute intervals from
00:00:00 to 23:59:59. You may apply one of eight different programmable registers e.g., "Peak," "Off Peak," or "Shoulder Peak," to each fifteen-minute interval.
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter stores:
• Accumulations on a seasonal basis (up to four seasons per year)
• Accumulations on a monthly basis.
Seasonal and monthly accumulations may span from one year into the next. Each
season and month is defined by a programmable start/billing date, which is also the
end-date of the prior season or month.
A season ends at midnight of the day before the start of the next season.
A month ends at midnight of the month's billing day.
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If the year ends and there is no new calendar, TOU accumulations stop. The last
accumulation for the year ends on 12:31:23:59:59.
If a calendar is present for the following year, TOU accumulations continue until the
next monthly bill date or next start-of-season is reached. Accumulation can span into
the following year.
8.3: TOU Prior Season and Month
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter stores accumulations for the prior season and the prior
month. When the end of a billing period is reached, the current season or month
becomes stored as the prior. The registers are then cleared and accumulations
resume, using the next set of TOU schedules and register assignments from the
stored calendar.
Prior and current accumulations to date are always available.
8.4: Updating, Retrieving and Replacing TOU Calendars
Communicator EXT software retrieves TOU calendars from the Nexus® meter or from
the computer's hard drive for review and edit.
Up to a maximum of twenty yearly calendars can be stored in the Nexus® meter at
any given time. You may retrieve them one at a time; a new calendar can be stored
while a current calendar is in use.
Accumulations do not stop during calendar updates. If a calendar is replaced while in
use, the accumulations for the current period will continue until the set end date. At
that point, the current time will become the new start time and the settings of the
new calendar will be used.
Reset the current accumulations, if you replace a calendar in use. A reset clears only
the current accumulation registers. This causes the current accumulations to use the
present date as the start and accumulate to the next new end date, which will be
taken from the new calendar. Once stored, prior accumulations are always available
and cannot be reset. See Chapter 13 in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for instructions on resetting TOU accumulations.
At the end of a defined period, current accumulations are stored, the registers are
cleared and accumulations for the next period begin. When the year boundary is
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8: Time-of-Use Function
crossed, the second calendar, if present, is used. To retain continuity, you have up to
one year to replace the old calendar with one for the following year.
8.5: Daylight Savings and Demand
To enable Daylight Savings Time for the meter: from the Device Profile menu click
General Settings>Time Settings. In the Time Settings screen, click Auto DST,
which sets Daylight Savings Time automatically (for the United States only). You can
also select User Defined and enter the desired dates for Daylight Savings Time. See
Chapter 13 in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User
Manual for instructions.
To set Demand intervals: from the Device Profile menu click Revenue and Energy
Settings>Demand Integration Intervals and set the desired intervals. See Chapter 13 in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual
for instructions.
To set Cumulative Demand Type, from the Device Profile menu click Revenue and
Energy Settings>Cumulative Demand Type and select Block or Rolling Window Average. See Chapter 13 of the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software
User Manual for instructions.
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8: Time-of-Use Function
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9: External I/O Modules
9.1: Hardware Overview
All Nexus® External I/O modules have the following components:
• Female RS485 Side Port: use to connect to another module’s male RS485 side port.
• Male RS485 Side Port: use to connect to the Nexus® 1250/1252 Meter’s Port 3 or 4
or to another module’s female RS485 side port.
• I/O Port: used for functions specific to the type of module; size and pin configuration vary depending on type of module.
• Reset Button: Press and hold for three seconds to reset the module’s baud rate to
57600 and its address to 247 for 30 seconds.
• LEDs: when flashing, signal that the module is functioning.
• Mounting Brackets (MBIO): used to secure one or more modules to a flat surface.
Comes with 2 DIN rail mounting clips.
Mounting Brackets (MBIO)
Female RS485
Side Port
I/O Port
LEDs
(Size and Pin
Configuration Vary)
Male RS485
Side Port
Reset Button
Figure 9.1: I/O Module Components
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9.1.1: Port Overview
All Electro Industries I/O Modules have ports through which they interface with other
devices. The port configurations are variations of the four types shown below.
Four Analog Outputs
Eight Analog Outputs
(0-1mA and 4-20mA)
(0-1mA and 4-20mA)
0-1mA
Analog Output
Module
0-1mA
Analog Input
Module
COM
COM
OUT 1
OUT 1
OUT 2
OUT 2
OUT 3
OUT 3
OUT 4
OUT 4
OUT 5
OUT 6
OUT 7
OUT 8
RESET
RESET
Eight Analog Inputs
(0-1mA, 0-20mA, 0-5Vdc,
Four Relay Outputs
or Four KYZ Pulse Outputs
0-10Vdc) or Eight Status Inputs
NO
0-1mA
Analog Input
Module
C
1
NO
COM
INPUT 1
INPUT 2
INPUT 3
INPUT 4
INPUT 5
INPUT 6
NO
K
Y
Z
C
2
NO
O
U
T
P
U
T
S
NO
C
3
NO
NO
INPUT 7
C
INPUT 8
RESET
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9: External I/O Modules
9.2: I/O Module Installation
See sections 3.3 and 5.6 for installation instructions for the external I/O Modules.
9.2.1: Power Source for I/O Modules
The Nexus® 1250/1252 can supply power to a limited number of I/O Modules and
external displays. For more modules, you must use an external power source, such as
the EIG PSIO (12V). Refer to Section 5.6.2 to determine power needed.
Figure 9.2: PSIO Power Supply Side View, Showing Male RS485 Port
TX
CT
On
RX
0-1mA
Analog Input
Module
Power In
COM
N(-)
INPUT 1
!
INPUT 2
L(+)
DANGER
PowerPSIO
Supply
INPUT 3
INPUT 4
Max Power: 12 VA
Input Voltage: 12-60V DC
90-240V AC/DC
Output Voltage: 12V DC
RESET
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Figure 9.3: Power Flow from PSIO to I/O Module
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On
Power In
N(-)
!
L(+)
DANGER
PowerPSIO
Supply
Max Power: 12 VA
Input Voltage: 12-60V DC
90-240V AC/DC
Output Voltage: 12V DC
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POWER +
POWER -
Figure 9.4: PSIO Side and Top Labels (Labels are Red and White)
9.3: Using the PSIO with Multiple I/O Modules
0-1mA
Analog Input
Module
RX
CT
TX
RX
TX
0-1mA
Analog Output
Module
CT
CT
Communication
ONLY
(A+, B- and
Shield)
RX
Female
RS485
Side Port
TX
LEDs
On
0-1mA
Analog Input
Module
COM
COM
COM
OUT 1
INPUT 1
INPUT 1
OUT 2
INPUT 2
INPUT 2
OUT 3
INPUT 3
INPUT 3
Power In
N(-)
OUT 4
RESET
!
L(+)
DANGER
PowerPSIO
Supply
INPUT 4
INPUT 4
INPUT 5
INPUT 5
Max Power: 12 VA
INPUT 6
INPUT 6
Input Voltage: 12-60V DC
INPUT 7
INPUT 7
90-240V AC/DC
INPUT 8
INPUT 8
Output Voltage: 12V DC
RESET
Control
Power
RESET
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Reset Button
Mounting Bracket
I/O Port (Size and pin configuration vary)
Figure 9.5: PSIO Used with Multiple I/O Modules
NOTE: As shown, the PSIO must be to the right of I/O Modules when viewing the
front label.
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9.3.1: Steps for Attaching Multiple I/O Modules
1. Each I/O module in a group must be assigned a unique address. See the
Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for details
on configuring and programming the I/O Modules.
2. Determine how many power sources (such as the PSIO) are needed for the number
of modules in use. See Section 5.6.2 for details.
3. I/O modules can be mounted using either of two methods. The first method is
using the mounting brackets provided, to attach directly to a panel. The second
method is to attach the Din Rail clips to the mounting brackets to connect the I/O
modules to a DIN rail mounting system.
4. Starting with the left module and using a slotted screwdriver, fasten the first I/O
module to the left mounting bracket of the MBIO mounting brackets kit. The left
mounting bracket is the one with the PEM. Fasten the internal screw tightly into the
left mounting bracket.
5. Slide the female RS485 port into the male RS485 side port to connect the next
I/O module to the left module. Fasten together enough to grab but do not tighten,
yet.
6. Combine the modules together, one by one.
7. Attach the PSIO (power supply) to the right of the group of I/O Modules it is
supplying with power.
NOTE: The PB1 can also be used as a Low Voltage Power Supply. It must be mounted
separately. The PB1 should be ordered with a 12V output for this application.
8. Once you have combined all the I/O modules and power supplies together for the
group, fasten tightly. This final tightening will lock the whole group together as a
unit.
9. Attach the right Mounting Bracket to the right side of the group using the small
Phillips head screws provided.
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10. If not mounting on a DIN rail, mount the group of modules on a secure, flat
surface. This procedure will insure that all modules stay connected securely.
11.The MBIO mounting brackets kit comes with 2 DIN rail mounting clips and an 8mm
screw and lock washer for each clip. The clips let you easily mount the
connected I/O modules (or a single I/O module between two brackets) on a DIN
rail. See the figure below.
8 mm screw
Lock washer
I/O Mounting Bracket
DIN Rail Clip
DIN rail
Figure 9.6: Mounting the Brackets on a DIN Rail
To use the DIN rail mounting clips:
a. From the front of either bracket, insert the screw into the lock washer and
through the hole, and screw it into the clip using an appropriate screwdriver.
Note that the clip should be positioned as shown above, with the indented side
facing the back.
b. Repeat step a for the second bracket.
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9: External I/O Modules
c. Hook the bottom of the clips around the bottom of the DIN rail and then push the
top of the clips forward so that they fit over the top of the DIN rail. See the figure below.
2.Fit this over
the DIN rail
1.Hook these
under the DIN rail
Figure 9.7: Detail of DIN Rail Mounting Clip
9.4: Factory Settings and Reset Button
Factory Settings:
All Nexus® I/O Modules are shipped with a preset address and a baud rate of 57600.
See following sections for I/O Module addresses.
Reset Button:
If there is a communication problem or if you are unsure of a module’s address and
baud rate, press and hold the RESET button for 3 seconds; the module will reset to a
default address of 247 at 57600 baud rate for 30-seconds. This enables you to
interrogate the I/O using the Communicator EXTTM software; see the Modbus
Communicating I/O Modules User Manual.
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9.5: Analog Transducer Signal Output Modules
Table 1:
Analog Transducer Signal Output Module Specifications
Model Numbers
1mAON4: 4-channel analog output 0±1mA
1mAON8: 8-channel analog output 0±1mA
20mAON4: 4-channel analog output 4-20mA
20mAON8: 8-channel analog output 4-20mA
Accuracy
0.1% of Full Scale
Scaling
Programmable
Communication
RS485, Modbus RTU
Programmable Baud Rates: 4800, 9600, 19200,
38400, 57600
Power Requirement
12-20VDC @50-200mA; 1250/1252 supports up to
two modules
Operating Temperature
(-20 to +70)o C/(-4 to +158)o F
Maximum Load Impedance
0±1mA: 10k Ohms; 4-20mA: 500 Ohms
Factory Settings
Modbus Address: 1mAON4: 128; 1mAON8: 128;
20mAON4: 132; 20mAON8: 132
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 0
Default Settings (Reset Button)
Modbus Address: 247
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 20msec
9.5.1: Overview
The Analog Transducer Signal Output Modules (0±1mA or 4–20mA) are available in
either a 4- or 8-channel configuration. Maximum registers per request, read or write,
is 17 registers.
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter supplies power for up to two connected Analog Output
modules. See Section 9.2 for power and communication details. Refer to Section 5.6.2
to determine if you must use an additional power source, such as EIG’s PSIO.
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All outputs share a single common point. This is also an isolated connection (from
ground).
The Modbus Map for the Analog Output Module (and operating details) can be found in
the Modbus Communicating I/O Modules Manual.
9.5.2: Normal Mode
Normal Mode is the same for the 0-1mA and the 4-20mA Analog Output Modules
except for the number of processes performed by the modules.
Both devices:
1. Accept new values through communication.
2. Output current loops scaled from previously accepted values.
The 0-1mA module includes one more process in its Normal Mode:
3. Read and average the A/D and adjust values for Process 2 above.
The device will operate with the following default parameters:
Address:
247 (F7H)
Baud Rate:
57600 Baud
Transmit Delay Time:
20 msec
Normal Operation is prevented by a number of occurrences. See Section 9.4 for
details.
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9.6: Analog Input Modules
Table 2:
Analog Input Module Specifications
Model Numbers
8AI1: 8-channel analog input 0±1mA
8AI2: 8-channel analog input 0±20mA
8AI3: 8-channel analog input 0±5VDC
8AI4: 8-channel analog input 0±10VDC
Accuracy
0.25% of Full Scale
Scaling
Programmable
Communication
RS485, Modbus RTU
Programmable Baud Rates: 4800, 9600, 19200,
38400, 57600
Power Requirement
12-20VDC @50-200mA; 1250/1252 supports up to
four modules
Operating Temperature
(-20 to +70)o C/(-4 to +158)o F
Maximum Load Impedance
0±1mA: 10k Ohms; 4-20mA: 500 Ohms
Factory Settings
Modbus Address: 8AI1: 136; 8AI2: 140; 8AI3: 144;
8AI4: 148
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 0
Default Settings (Reset Button)
Modbus Address: 247
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 20msec
9.6.1: Overview
The Analog Input Modules (0±1mA, 0±20mA, 0±5Vdc and 0±10Vdc) are available in
8-channel format. Maximum registers per request, read or write, is 17 registers.
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter supplies power for up to 4 connected Analog Input
modules. See Section 9.2 for power and communication details. Refer to Section 5.6.2
to determine if you must use an additional power source, such as EIG’s PSIO.
All inputs share a single common point. This is also an isolated connection (from
ground).
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The Modbus Map for the Analog Output Module (and operating details) can be found in
the Modbus Communicating I/O Modules Manual.
9.6.2: Normal Mode
In Normal Mode, the Input Module:
1. Reads and averages the A/D and adjusts values for process 2.
2. Calculates the percentage of Input Value.
NOTE: The percentage value of the Input is stored in Input Value Registers (Registers
04097-04104).
The device will operate with the following default parameters:
Address:
247 (F7H)
Baud Rate:
57600 Baud
Transmit Delay Time:
20 msec
Normal Operation is prevented by a number of occurrences. See Section 9.4 for
details.
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9.7: Digital Dry Contact Relay Output (Form C) Module
Digital Dry Contact Relay Output Module Specifications
Model Number
4RO1: 4 latching relay outputs
Contact Type
Changeover (SPDT)
Relay Type
Mechanically latching
Communication
RS485, Modbus RTU
Programmable Baud Rates: 4800, 9600, 19200,
38400, 57600
Power Requirement
2.0W max @ 12-20VDC
Operating Temperature
(-20 to +70)o C/(-4 to +158)o F
Switching Voltage
AC 250V / DC 30V
Switching Power
1250VA / 150W
Switching Current
5A
Mechanical Life
5 x 107 switching operations
Electrical Life
105 switching operations at rated current
Factory Settings
Modbus Address: 156
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 0
Default Settings (Reset Button)
Modbus Address: 247
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 20msec
9.7.1: Overview
The Relay Output Module consists of four Latching Relay Outputs. In Normal Mode,
the device accepts commands to control the relays. Relay output modules are
triggered by limits programmed with the Communicator EXTTM software. See the
Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for details on
programming limits.
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter supplies power for up to 4 connected Relay Output
modules. See Section 9.2 for power and communication details. Refer to Section 5.6.2
to determine if you must use an additional power source, such as EIG’s PSIO.
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The Modbus Map for the Analog Output Module (and operating details) can be found in
the Modbus Communicating I/O Modules Manual.
Each latching relay will hold its state in the event of a power loss.
9.7.2: Communication
Maximum registers per request, read or write, is 4 registers.
The device will operate with the following default parameters:
Address:
247 (F7H)
Baud Rate:
57600 Baud
Transmit Delay Time:
20 msec
Some situations will cause the device to operate with the above Default Parameters.
See Section 9.4 for details of Default Mode.
9.7.3: Normal Mode
Normal Mode consists of one process: the device accepts new commands to control
the relays.
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9.8: Digital Solid State Pulse Output (KYZ) Module
Digital Solid State Pulse Output Module Specifications
Model Number
4PO1
Communication
RS485, Modbus RTU
Programmable Baud Rates: 4800, 9600, 19200,
38400, 57600
Power Requirement
12-20VDC @50-200mA; 1250/1252 supports up to
four modules
Operating Temperature
(-20 to +70)o C/(-4 to +158)o F
Voltage Rating
Up to 300VDC
Commands Accepted
Read and Write with at least 4 registers of data per
command
Memory
256 Byte IC EEPROM for storage of programmable settings and non-volatile memory
Factory Settings
Modbus Address: 160
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 0
Default Settings (Reset Button)
Modbus Address: 247
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 20msec
9.8.1: Overview
The KYZ Pulse Output Modules have 4 KYZ Pulse Outputs and accept Read and Write
Commands with at least 4 registers of data per command. Digital Solid State Pulse
Output (KYZ) Modules are user programmed to reflect VAR-hours, Watt-hours, or
VA-hours. See the Modbus Communicating I/O Modules User Manual for details on
programming the module.
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter supplies power for up to 4 connected KYZ Pulse Output
modules. See Section 9.2 for power and communication details. Refer to Section 5.6.2
to determine if you must use an additional power source, such as EIG’s PSIO.
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The Modbus Map for the KYZ Pulse Output Module (and operating details) can be
found in the Modbus Communicating I/O Modules Manual.
NC = Normally Closed; NO = Normally Open; C = Common.
9.8.2: Communication
Maximum registers per request, read or write, is 4 registers.
The device will operate with the following Default Mode Parameters. See Section 9.4
for details.
Address:
247 (F7H)
Baud Rate:
57600 Baud
Transmit Delay Time:
20 msec
9.8.3: Normal Mode
Energy readings are given to the device frequently. The device generates a pulse at
each channel after a certain energy increase.
Normal Operation consists of three processes:
1. The first process accepts writes to registers 04097 - 04112. Writes can be up to
four registers long and should end on the fourth register of a group (register
04100, or registers 04103-04112 or registers 04109-04112). These writes can be
interpreted as two-byte, four-byte, six-byte or eight-byte energy readings. The
reception of the first value for a given channel provides the initial value for that
channel. Subsequent writes will increment the Residual for that channel by the
difference of the old value and the new value. The previous value is then replaced
with the new value. Attempting to write a value greater than the programmed
Rollover Value for a given channel is completely ignored and no registers are modified. If the difference is greater than half of the programmed Rollover Value for a
given channel, the write does not increment the Residual but does update the Last
Value. Overflow of the Residual is not prevented.
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2. The second process occurs in the main loop and attempts to decrement the Residual by the Programmed Energy/Pulse Value. If the Residual is greater than the Programmed Energy/Pulse Value and the Pending Pulses Value for that channel has not
reached the maximum limit, then Residual is decremented appropriately and the
Pending Pulses is incremented by two, signifying two more transitions and one
more pulse.
3. The third process runs from a timer which counts off pulse widths from the Programmable Minimum Pulse Width Values. If there are Pulses Pending for a channel
and the delay has passed, then the Pulses Pending is decremented for that channel
and the Output Relay is toggled.
Operation Indicator (0000H = OK, 1000H = Problem):
Bit 1:1 = EEPROM Failure
Bit 2:1 = Checksum for Communications Settings bad
Bit 3:1 = Checksum for Programmable Settings bad
Bit 4:1 = 1 or more Communications Settings are invalid
Bit 5:1 = 1 or more Programmable Settings are invalid
Bit 6:1 = 1 or more Programmable Settings have been modified
Bit 7:1 = Forced Default by Reset Value
Bit 15:1 = Normal Operation of the device is disabled
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9.9: Digital Status Input Module
Digital Status Input Module Specifications
Model Number
8DI1
Communication
RS485, Modbus RTU
Programmable Baud Rates: 4800, 9600, 19200,
38400, 57600
Power Requirement
12-20VDC @50-200mA; 1250/1252 supports up to
four modules
Operating Temperature
(-20 to +70)o C/(-4 to +158)o F
Voltage Rating
Up to 300VDC
Detection
Wet/Dry, Auto-detect
Memory
256 Byte I2C EEPROM for storage of programmable
settings and non-volatile memory
Factory Settings
Modbus Address: 164
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 0
Default Settings (Reset Button)
Modbus Address: 247
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 20msec
9.9.1: Overview
The Digital Status Input Module is used either for additional status detect or for accumulating pulses from external equipment, such as power meters, water meters, etc.
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter supplies power for up to 4 connected Digital Status
Input modules. See Section 9.2 for power and communication details. Refer to
Section 5.6.2 to determine if you must use an additional power source, such as EIG’s
PSIO.
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9.9.2: Communication
Maximum registers per request, read or write, is 4 registers.
The device will operate with the following Default Mode Parameters. See Section 9.4
for details.
Address:
247 (F7H)
Baud Rate:
57600 Baud
Transmit Delay Time:
20 msec
9.9.3: Normal Mode
The device polls the inputs at 100Hz (once every 10 msec), debouncing the inputs
and incrementing the Transition Accumulators for each channel as appropriate.
The inputs are represented by Channel 1 in the LSB through Channel 8 in the MSB of
the low order byte of the register.
The Modbus Map for the Digital Status Input Modules (and operating details) can be
found in the Modbus Communicating I/O Modules Manual.
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10: Meter with Internal Modem Option
10: Meter with Internal Modem Option (INP2)
10.1: Hardware Overview
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter with the INP2, Internal Modem Option, has all the
components of the standard Nexus® meter plus the capability of connecting to a PC
via a standard phone line. No additional hardware is required to establish this connection.
If desired, the internal expansion port of the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter can be configured with an internal 56K bps modem. This gives the meter Dial-In and Dial-Out
capability without additional hardware. This configuration of the meter is ideal for
small remote applications.
2*
.%853
#(!3)3
6AUX
6REF
/RIGINATE-ODEM
ORINTERNALTO0#
Figure 10.1: Meter Communication with Internal Modem Option
10.2: Hardware Connection
Use RJ11 Standard Telephone Line to connect with the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter.
Insert the RJ11 line into the RJ11 Port on the face of a Nexus® meter with the Internal Modem Option. The RJ11 connection is virtually unlimited, since it utilizes a PSTN
(Public Switched Telephone Network).
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10.3: Dial-In Function
The modem continuously monitors the telephone line to detect an incoming call.
When an incoming call is detected, the modem waits a pre-programmed number of
rings and then answers the call. The modem can be programmed to check passwords
and lock-out a user after unsuccessful attempts to connect.
When an incoming call is successfully connected, the control of communication passes
to the calling software program. The modem respond to computer demands to download data or perform other actions authorized by the meter's passwords.
10.4: Dial-Out Function
The Dial-Out Function enabled by the INP2 Option allows the meter to automatically
report certain conditions without direct user oversight. The modem normally polls the
meter to determine if any abnormal or reportable conditions exist, such as those in
the following list. If such conditions are found, the modem checks meter conditions
and events, which have been programmed through Communicator EXTTM, to determine if a call should be placed.
• Are any meter set-point limits exceeded?
• Has the status of the High-Speed Inputs changed?
• Has a waveform been recorded?
• Has a power quality event been recorded?
• Has a control output changed?
• Is either history log approaching a full condition?
• Is the event log approaching a full condition?
• Is any other log approaching a full condition?
• Has the Modem Password failed?
• Has communication with the Nexus® meter failed?
If any of the monitored events exist, the modem automatically initiates a call to a
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10: Meter with Internal Modem Option
tions, the meter automatically downloads the log(s) that are nearing the full state.
The modem can be programmed to call two different numbers to make the required
reports: Primary and Backup.
The modem can be programmed with an ASCII string for identification purposes. If
this string is present, the modem plays the string to the host computer upon connection to identify the meter to the host software. Refer to the Communicator EXTTM 4.0
and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for programming details.
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11: Meter with Internal Network Option
11: Meter with Internal Network Option
(INP200)
11.1: Hardware Overview
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter with the Internal Network Option (INP200) has all the
components of the standard Nexus® meter, plus giving you the capability of connecting to multiple PC’s via Modbus/TCP over the Ethernet and providing a DNP LAN/WAN
connection. Additional hardware is not required to establish a connection from a network to a Nexus® meter with the Internal Network Option.
With the Internal Network Option, the Nexus® 1250/1252 provides an Ethernet Gateway, allowing access to other Modbus/RTU devices. Additional connections can
include a daisy chain of standard Nexus® and Shark® meters. A daisy chain can
include up to 31 meters. You can install repeaters if you need to connect more than
31 meters. (See Section 5.7 for repeater details.)
Modbus RS485 Communication
RJ45 Ethernet
Modbus TCP over Ethernet
NEXUS 1250
CHASIS
Vaux.
Vref
Daisy Chain
NEXUS 1250
CHASIS
Vaux.
Vref
NEXUS 1250
CHASIS
Vaux.
Vref
Network Connections
NEXUS 1250
CHASIS
Vaux.
Vref
Figure 11.1: Meter Communication with Network Option/Daisy Chained Meters
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11: Meter with Internal Network Option
The Internal Network Option of the Nexus® meter is an extremely versatile communications tool. The Internal Network Option:
• Adheres to IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard using TCP/IP
• Utilizes simple and inexpensive 10/100BaseT wiring and connections
• Plugs into your network using built-in RJ45 jack
• Is programmable to any IP address, subnet mask and gateway requirements
• Communicates using the industry-standard Modbus/TCP and DNP LAN/WAN
protocols.
With the Internal Network Option, the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter’s Port 2 becomes a
“gateway” that allows access to additional Nexus® meters via the LAN. Simply connect a daisy chain of Nexus® meters together via RS485, each with its own device
address and using the same baud rates. With this option, you can access any of those
instruments via the single LAN connection.
The Internal Network Option allows multiple simultaneous connections (via LAN) to
the Nexus® meter. You can access the meter with SCADA, MV90 and RTU simultaneously.
The Internal Network Option allows multiple users running Communicator EXTTM software to access the meter concurrently.
11.2: Network Connection
Use Standard RJ45 10/100BaseT cable to connect with the Nexus® meter. Insert the
RJ45 line into the RJ45 Port on the face of a Nexus® 1250/1252 meter with the Internal Network Option.
Set the IP Address using the following steps: (Refer to Section 13.1.5 of the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for more detailed
instructions.)
1. From the Device Profile screen, double-click General Settings> Communications, then double-click on any of the ports. The Communications Settings screen
opens.
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2. In the Network Settings section enter the following data. (Consult your System
Administrator if you do not know this information.)
IP Address:
10.0.0.1 (Example)
Subnet Mask:
255.255.255.0 (Example)
Default Gateway:
0.0.0.0 (Example)
3. Click OK to return to the Device Profile screen.
Once the above parameters have been set, Communicator EXTTM software connects
via the network using a Device Address of "1" and the assigned IP Address when you
follow these steps:
1. Open the Communicator EXTTM application.
2. Click the Connect icon in the icon tool bar. The Connect screen opens.
3. Click the Network button at the top of the screen. Enter the following information:
Device Address:
1
Host:
IP Address
Network Port:
502
Protocol:
Modbus TCP
4. Click the Connect button at the bottom of the screen. Communicator EXTTM software connects to the meter via the network.
To connect with other Nexus® meters in either local or remote locations, you must
use the Ethernet Gateway as a Master and an RS485 connection to any port on the
remote Nexus.
The Address of the remote Nexus® meter must be something other than “1.” “1” is
reserved for the meter connected to the network via RJ45.
The link using RS485 is viable for up to 4000 feet (1219 meters).
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12: Flicker and Analysis
12: Flicker and Analysis
12.1: Overview
Flicker is the sensation that is experienced by the human visual system when it is
subjected to changes occurring in the illumination intensity of light sources. The
primary effects of Flicker are headaches, irritability and, sometimes, epileptic
seizures.
IEC 61000-4-15 and former IEC 868 describe the methods used to determine Flicker
severity. This phenomenon is strictly related to the sensitivity and the reaction of individuals. It can only be studied on a statistical basis by setting up suitable experiments
among people.
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter with V-1 (base configuration) offers Flicker monitoring
and analysis. The Nexus® 1252 meter with V-2 has EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Power
Quality Compliance analysis for Flicker and other power quality measurements. (Refer
to the V-Switch™ key information in Chapter 2.) Refer to Chapter 23 in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software EXT User Manual for additional information.
12.2: Theory of Operation
Flicker can be caused by voltage variations that are in turn caused by variable loads,
such as arc furnaces, laser printers and microwave ovens. In order to model the eye
brain change, which is a complex physiological process, the signal from the power
network has to be processed while conforming with Figure 12.1, shown on page 12-4.
• Block 1 consists of scaling circuitry and an automatic gain control function that normalizes input voltages to Blocks 2, 3 and 4. For the specified 50 Hz operation, the
voltage standard is 230 V RMS.
• Block 2 recovers the voltage fluctuation by squaring the input voltage scaled to the
reference level. This simulates the behavior of a lamp.
• Block 3 is composed of a cascade of two filters and a measuring range selector. In
this implementation, a log classifier covers the full scale in use so the gain selection
is automatic and not shown here. The first filter eliminates the DC component and
the double mains frequency components of the demodulated output. The configura-
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12: Flicker and Analysis
tion consists of a .05 Hz Low High Pass filter and a 6 Pole Butterworth Low Pass
filter located at 35 Hz. The second filter is a weighting filter that simulates the
response of the human visual system to sinusoidal voltage fluctuations of a coiled
filament, gas-filled lamp (60 W - 230 V). The filter implementation of this function
is as specified in IEC 61000-4-15.
• Block 4 is composed of a squaring multiplier and a Low Pass filter. The Human
Flicker Sensation via lamp, eye and brain is simulated by the combined non-linear
response of Blocks 2, 3 and 4.
• Block 5 performs an online statistical cumulative probability analysis of the Flicker
level. Block 5 allows direct calculation of the evaluation parameters Pst and Plt.
Flicker Evaluation occurs in the following forms: Instantaneous, Short Term or Long
Term. Each form is detailed below:
• Instantaneous Flicker Evaluation: An output of 1.00 from Block 4 corresponds to
the Reference Human Flicker Perceptibility Threshold for 50% of the population.
This value is measured in Perceptibility Units (PU) and is labeled Pinst. This is a real
time value and it is continuously updated.
• Short Term Flicker Evaluation: An output of 1.00 from Block 5 (corresponding to the
Pst value) corresponds to the conventional threshold of irritability per IEC 1000-33. In order to evaluate Flicker severity, two parameters have been defined: one for
the short term called Pst (defined in this section) and one for the long term called
Plt (defined in the next section).
The standard measurement time for Pst is 10 minutes. Pst is derived from the time
at level statistics obtained from the level classifier in Block 5 of the Flicker meter.
The following formula is used:
Pst
0.0314 P0.1 0.0525 P1s 0.0657 P3 s 0.28 P10 s 0.08 P50 s
,where the percentiles P(0.1), P(1), P(3), P(10), P(50) are the Flicker levels
exceeded for 0.1, 1, 2, 20 and 50% of the time during the observation period. The
suffix S in the formula indicates that the smoothed value should be used. The
smoothed values are obtained using the following formulas:
P(1s) = (P(.7) + P(1) + P(1.5))/3
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12: Flicker and Analysis
P(3s) = (P(2.2) + P(3) + P(4))/3
P(10s) = (P(6) + P(8) + P(10) + P(13) + P(17))/5
P(50s) = (P(30) + P(50) + P(80))/3
The .3-second memory time constant in the Flicker meter ensures that P(0.1) cannot change abruptly and no smoothing is needed for this percentile.
• Long Term Flicker Evaluation: The 10-minute period on which the short-term Flicker
severity is based is suitable for short duty cycle disturbances. For Flicker sources
with long and variable duty cycles (e.g. arc furnaces) it is necessary to provide criteria for long-term assessment. For this purpose, the long-term Plt is derived from
the short-term values over an appropriate period. By definition, this is 12 shortterm values of 10 minutes each over a period of 2 hours. The following formula is
used:
N
Plt
3
¦P
3
sti
i 1
N
where Psti (i = 1, 2, 3, ...) are consecutive readings of the short-term severity Pst.
12.2.1: Summary
Flicker is changes in the illumination of light sources due to cyclical voltage
variations.
Pinst is Instantaneous Flicker values in Perceptibility Units (PU).
Pst is value based on 10-minute analysis.
Plt is value based on 12 Pst values.
Measurement Procedure
1. Original Signal with amplitude variations
2. Square demodulator
3. Weighted filter
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4. Low pass filter 1st order
5. Statistical computing
Data available
• Pst, Pst Max, Pst Min values for short term recording
• Plt, Plt Max, Plt Min values for long term recording
Simulation Of Eye Brain Response
Block 1
Block 2
Voltage
Detector
and Gain
Control
Square
Law
Demodulator
Input
Voltage
Adaptor
Block 4
Block 3
High Pass
Filter
(DC
Removal)
Low
Pass Filter
(Carrier
Removal
Weighting
Filter
Squaring
Multiplier
1st
Order
Sliding
Mean
Filter
Block 5
A/D
Converter
Sampling
Rate
>50Hz
Minimum
64 level
Classifier
Output
Interface
Programming of short and
long observation periods
Output Recording
Instantaneous Flicker in
Perceptibility Units
(Pinst)
Output and Data Display
Pst Max/Min Pst
Plt Max/Min Plt
Figure 12.1: Simulation of Eye Brain Response
12.3: Flicker Setting (Nexus® 1250 meter and 1252 V-1)
You must set up several parameters to properly configure Flicker.
NOTE: If your Nexus® 1252 meter has V-Switch key 2, see Section 12.9 for instructions on configuring EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Power Quality Compliance analysis,
including Flicker.
1. Select the Profile icon from Communicator EXTTM application's Icon bar.
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2. From the Device Profile screen, double-click Power Quality and Alarm
Settings>EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Flicker. You will see the screen shown
below.
• Select the Frequency of operation. 50 Hz is the approved frequency according
to Flicker standards. A 60 Hz implementation is available and can be selected.
Remember the voltage is normalized. For 50 Hz, the normalized voltage is 230
V and for 60 Hz, the normalized voltage is 120 V.
• Select a Short Term Test Time (PST) time range from 1 to 10 minutes. The
standard measurement period is nominally 10 minutes.
• Select a Long Term Test Time (PLT) time range from 1 to 240 minutes. The
standard measurement is nominally 12 Pst periods (120 minutes). Plt time
must always be equal to or greater than and a multiple of Pst time. This is
reflected in the available selections.
3. Click OK when you are finished.
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12.4: Flicker Polling Screen
1. From the Communicator EXTTM application’s Title bar, select Real-Time
Poll>Power Quality and Alarms>Flicker. You will see the screen shown below.
Main screen:
This section describes the Main Screen functions. These functions are found on the
left side of the screen.
Time
• Start/Reset is the time when Flicker was started or reset. A Reset of Flicker causes
the Max/Min values to be cleared and restarts the Flicker Pst and Plt timers. A Start
of Flicker is also equivalent to a Reset in that the PST and PLT are restarted and the
Max/Min Values are cleared.
• Stop corresponds to the time when Flicker is turned off.
• Current is the current clock time.
• Next Pst is the countdown time to when the next Pst value is available.
• Next Plt is the countdown time to when the next Plt value is available.
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Status
• This screen indicates the current status: Active = On; Stopped = Off.
Frequency
• Base is the operating frequency (50 or 60 Hz) selected in the EN50160 Flicker
screen (see Section 12.3).
• Current is the real-time frequency measurement of the applied voltage.
Base Voltage
• This field shows the normalized voltage for the selected frequency (230 V for 50 Hz
or 120 V for 60 Hz).
Flicker Monitoring
• Clicking on Stop causes Flicker to stop being processed and freezes all the current
values. Stop Time is recorded and the current Max/Min values are cleared.
• Clicking on Start starts Flicker processing. Start Time is recorded.
• Clicking on Reset causes the Max/Min values to be cleared and restarts the Flicker
Pst and Plt timers.
Use the tabs at the top of the screen to navigate to the Instantaneous, Short Term,
and Long Term Readings views, shown on the right side of the screen.
Instantaneous Readings
NOTE: The Instantaneous view is the default of this screen. (See the screen pictured
on the previous page.) If you are in the Short or Long Term views, click on the Instantaneous tab to display this view.
• The PU values, Pinst for Voltage Inputs Va, Vb and Vc are displayed here and are
continuously updated. The corresponding Current Voltage values for each channel
are displayed for reference.
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Short Term Readings
Click on the Short Term tab to access a screen containing three groups of Pst readings
(shown below).
Pst readings displayed:
• Current Pst values for Va, Vb and Vc and the time of computation
• Current Pst Max values for Va, Vb and Vc since the last reset and the time of the
last reset
• Current Pst Min values for Va, Vb and Vc since the last reset and the time of the last
reset
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Long Term Readings
1. Click on the Long Term tab to access a screen containing three groups of Plt
readings (shown below).
Plt readings displayed:
• Current Plt values for Va, Vb and Vc and the time of computation
• Current Plt Max values for Va, Vb and Vc since the last reset and the time of the last
reset
• Current Plt Min values for Va, Vb and Vc since the last reset and the time of the last
reset
2. Click OK to exit the EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Flicker Polling screen; click Print to
print all of the Readings views.
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12.5: Logging
The Nexus® 1250/1252 meter is capable of logging Flicker values in an independent
log. When Flicker is on, entries are made into the log in accordance with the times
that associated values occur. Pst, Pst Max, Pst Min, Plt, Plt Max, Plt Min, Start/Reset
and Stop times are all recorded. All values can be downloaded to the Log Viewer
where they are available for graphing or export to another program, such as Excel. All
Flicker values are predefined and cannot be changed. Refer to Chapter 19 in the
Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for additional
instructions concerning the Flicker log.
12.6: Polling through a Communication Port
The Pinst, Pst, Pst Max, Pst Min, Plt, Plt Max, Plt Min values can be polled through the
Communications Port. Refer to the Nexus® 1250 and 1252 meters' Modbus and DNP
Mapping manuals for register assignments and data definitions.
12.7: Log Viewer
1. Open Log Viewer by selecting the Open Logs icon from Communicator EXTTM application’s Icon bar.
2. Using the menus at the top of the screen, select a meter, time ranges and values to
access.
3.Click the Flicker icon.
The values and the associated time stamps (when the values occurred) are displayed
in a grid box. Use the buttons at the bottom of the screen to create a graph or export
the data to another program.
• Graphed values include Pst and Plt Va, Vb and Vc.
• Displayed values include Pst and Plt Max and Min for Va, Vb and Vc.
NOTE: Max and Min values are only displayed; they cannot be graphed. However,
Max and Min values are available for export.
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12.8: Performance Notes
Pst and Plt average time are synchronized to the clock (e.g. for a 10 minute average,
the times will occur at 0, 10, 20, etc.). The actual time of the first average can be less
than the selected period to allow for initial clock synchronization.
If the wrong frequency is chosen (e.g. 50Hz selection for a system operating at
60Hz), Flicker will still operate but the computed values will not be valid. Therefore,
you should select the frequency setting with care.
User settings are stored. If Flicker is on and power is removed from the meter, Flicker
will still be on when power returns. This can cause gaps in the logged data.
The Max and Min values are stored, and are not lost if the unit is powered down.
Flicker meets the requirements of IEC 61000-4-15 and former IEC 868. Refer to those
specifications for more details, if needed. Meters with the EN50160 option also meet
the EN50160 conformance standards for Flicker. Refer to Chapters 23 in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for additional information.
Operation is at 230V for 50Hz and 120V for 60Hz as per specification. If the input
voltage is different, the system will normalize it to 230V or 120V for computational
purposes.
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12: Flicker and Analysis
12.9: EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Power Quality Compliance Analysis
(Nexus® 1252 meter with V-2)
If your Nexus® 1252 meter is equipped with V-Switch™ key 2, you have access to
the EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 PQ Compliance analysis function, as well as to Flicker
measurement.
12.9.1: EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Configuration
1. Select the Profile icon from Communicator EXTTM application's Icon bar.
2. From the Device Profile screen, double-click Power Quality and Alarm Settings>EN50160/IEC61000-4-30. Depending on your current setting, you will see
one of the following screens.
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3. The Nexus® 1252 meter with V-2 can use Historical Log 2 to record the results of
Flicker testing: you will see the top screen if EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 logging has
not been selected for the meter; you will see the bottom screen if it has already
been selected.
• To set up EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 recording, click Auto-Configure. Historical
Log 2 will now be used for EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 logging, only.
• If EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 recording is already active and you want to disable
it, click Enable Log 2. This will disable the EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 logging in
Historical Log 2. You can then configure Historical Log 2 normally. (See Chapter
13 in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User
Manual for instructions)
NOTE: It takes a week for the meter to collect all the data needed for the analysis.
4. Make the following selections:
a. FVF: select the number of Fast Voltage Fluctuations that are acceptable
per day.
b. Sync Connection: select YES for a system with a synchronous connection
to another system, NO if there is no such synchronous connection.
c. Select your Frequency (50 Hz or 60Hz).
d. Nominal Voltage (in Secondary): Enter the value for the Nominal voltage in
Secondary that you want to use in the analysis; for example, 120 V for a 60 Hz
frequency, or 230 V for a 50 Hz frequency.
e. Short Term Test Time: Select the time in minutes for the PST - short-term test.
The available range is from 1-10 minutes.
f. Long Term Test Time: Select the time in minutes for the LST - long-term test.
The available range is 10-240 minutes, in multiples of 10 (10, 20, 30, etc.).
5. Click OK.
6. Click Update Device to send the new settings to the meter and return to the main
Communicator EXTTM software screen.
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12.9.2: EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Analysis
NOTE: A full week of logging is necessary before an EN50160/IEC61000-4-30
analysis can be created.
1. From the Communicator EXTTM application toolbar, click Logs>Retrieve Logs
from Device(s) or click the Retrieve Logs icon. You will see the screen shown
below.
2. Double-click the No to the right of EN50160/IEC61000-4-30.
3. You will see a pop-up window displaying the message: "Updated Related Logs (PQ
and Historical Log 2)."Click OK.
4. The No changes to a Yes next to the Historical Log 2, Waveform/PQ, and EN50160/
IEC61000-4-30 logs.
5. Click Start to begin retrieving the logs. Communicator EXTTM software retrieves the
selected logs and automatically creates a database for you. Pop-ups confirm the
retrieval and conversion.
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6. The Log Viewer opens.
7. Your meter is displayed next to Meter 1. If you want to view EN 50160/IEC 610004-30 information for a specific time range, e.g., for the last month only, click the
Time Range button and select the range you want. See Chapter 19 in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User Manual for detailed instructions on setting time range and other aspects of the Log Viewer.
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8. Click the EN50160 button.
9. The screen that is displayed (example shown above) lists all of the weeks for which
data has been collected, within the date range specified in the Log Viewer’s Main
screen. Information provided includes:
• Start/End Time of Week
• Device Name
• Nominal Frequency / Voltage
• Pass / Fail Value for each component
10. Click on a week to select it and click the Graph button at the bottom of the screen.
The EN 50160/IEC 61000-4-30 report is generated and opens on your PC. See
Chapter 16 in the Communicator EXTTM 4.0 and MeterManager EXT Software User
Manual for more information on the EN 50160/ IEC 61000-4-30 report.
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13: Substation Rack Mount Assembly
13: Substation 19-inch Rack Mount Assembly
(Nexus 1252 Meter)
®
13.1: Overview
The Nexus® 1252 meter can be ordered in a 19-inch rack mount assembly for use in
modern substation control apparatus. The assembly houses the Nexus® 1252 meter,
a Test switch, and three LED displays. The assembly is pre-wired and pre-labeled for
easy installation. An example assembly is shown below. Figure 13.3 shows the assembly components from the back.
13.1: Front of Rack Mount Assembly
13.2: Features
• Ideal for substation 19-inch rack mount control panel applications
• Incorporates three displays: Amps, Power, and Volts
• Has a front panel download port
• Equipped with a built-in Test switch (accessed from the rear of the assembly)
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13.3: Options
The rack assembly is equipped with three LED displays:
• P40N+: Master LED display providing either multifunction measurement or use as a
Volts master unit. The P40N+ is the standard display for the rack assembly.
• P41N+: An LED Amps display which is a slave display.
• P43N+: An LED Power display which is a slave display.
13.4: Dimensions
The dimensions for the Nexus® 1252 rack assembly are:
• Length: 19 inches/482.6mm
• Height: 7 inches/177.8 mm (4 Rack units)
• Depth: 14 inches/355.6 mm
13.5: Installation
The rack assembly is 4 Rack units high. It has four screw holes for attaching to the
panel.
1. Align the rack assembly’s screw holes with the holes in the panel (see Figure
13.2.)
2. Insert two screws on each side of the rack assembly into the panel to secure it.
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13: Substation Rack Mount Assembly
Figure 13.2: Rack Assembly Dimensions
13.6: Wiring
The voltage and current signals from the potential and current transformers should be
connected to the Test switch (see Figure 13.4). There are positions for voltage and
current phases A, B, and C, Neutral voltage, and DC Power supply. The Test switches
are labeled for easy wiring.
Please follow the Nexus® 1252 meter wiring diagrams concerning proper connections
(see Section 4.9).
13.7: Ordering Information
The rack assembly ordering code is 4RU3DSP. It is placed at the end of the Nexus®
1252 meter order, for example:
1252-A-120-D-60-V1-X-X-4RU3DSP
which translates to a Nexus® 1252 meter with Advanced memory, 120 Input Voltage
option, D Power Supply option, 60Hz, V-SwitchTM key 1, no expansion port, no Revenue Seal, and in the rack assembly.
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13: Substation Rack Mount Assembly
Test
Switch
Displays connected to
meter’s Port 3
Port 1 Serial Connection
going to front of the unit
Figure 13.3: Back of Rack Assembly
POT
AØ
1
CURRENT
AØ
2
POT
BØ
3
Low High
4
CURRENT
BØ
5
POT
CØ
6
7
Low High
CURRENT
CØ
8
9
POT DC SUPPLY
N
+
–
10
11
12
Low High
Figure 13.4: Detail of Test Switches
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Glossary
Glossary
0.2 Second Values:
These values are the RMS values of the indicated
quantity as calculated after approximately 200
milliseconds (3 cycles) of sampling.
1 Second Values:
These values are the RMS values of the indicated
quantity as calculated after one second (60
cycles) of sampling.
Alarm:
An event or condition in a meter that can cause a
trigger or call-back to occur.
Annunciator:
A short label that identifies particular quantities or
values displayed, for example kWh.
Average (Current):
When applied to current values (Amps) the
average is a calculated value that corresponds to
the thermal average over a specified time
interval.
The interval is specified by the user in the meter
profile. The interval is typically 15 minutes.
So, Average Amps is the thermal average of Amps
over the previous 15-minute interval. The thermal
average rises to 90% of the actual value in each
time interval. For example, if a constant 100Amp
load is applied, the thermal average will indicate
90 amps after one time interval, 99 amps after
two time intervals and 99.9 amps after three time
intervals.
Average (Input Pulse
Accumulations:
When applied to Input Pulse Accumulations, the
“Average” refers to the block (fixed) window
average value of the input pulses.
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Glossary
Average (Power):
When applied to power values (Watts, VARs, VA),
the average is a calculated value that corresponds
to the thermal average over a specified time
interval.
The interval is specified by the user in the meter
profile. The interval is typically 15 minutes.
So, the Average Watts is the thermal average of
Watts over the previous 15-minute interval. The
thermal average rises to 90% of the actual value
in each time interval. For example, if a constant
100kW load is applied, the thermal average will
indicate 90kW after one time interval, 99kW after
two time intervals and 99.9kW after three time
intervals.
Bit:
A unit of computer information equivalent to the
result of a choice between two alternatives (Yes/
No, On/Off, for example).
Or, the physical representation of a bit by an
electrical pulse whose presence or absence
indicates data.
Binary:
Relating to a system of numbers having 2 as its
base (digits 0 and 1).
Block Window Avg
(Power):
The Block (Fixed) Window Average is the average
power calculated over a user-set time interval,
typically 15 minutes. This calculated average
corresponds to the demand calculations
performed by most electric utilities in monitoring
user power demand. (See Rolling Window
Average.)
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Byte:
A group of 8 binary digits processed as a unit by a
computer (or device) and used especially to
represent an alphanumeric character.
CBEMA Curve:
A voltage quality curve established originally by
the Computer Business Equipment Manufacturers
Association. The CBEMA Curve defines voltage
disturbances that could cause malfunction or
damage in microprocessor devices.
The curve is characterized by voltage magnitude
and the duration which the voltage is outside of
tolerance. (See ITIC Curve.)
Channel:
The storage of a single value in each interval in a
load profile.
Cold Load Pickup:
This value is the delay from the time control
power is restored to the time when the user wants
to resume demand accumulation.
CRC Field:
Cyclic Redundancy Check Field (Modbus
communication) is an error checksum
calculation that enables a Slave device to
determine if a request packet from a Master
device has been corrupted during transmission. If
the calculated value does not match the value in
the request packet, the Slave ignores the request.
CT (Current) Ratio:
A Current Transformer Ratio is used to scale the
value of the current from a secondary value up to
the primary side of an instrument transformer.
Cumulative Demand:
The sum of the previous billing period maximum
demand readings at the time of billing period
reset. The maximum demand for the most recent
billing period is added to the previously
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accumulated total of the maximum demands.
Demand:
The average value of power or a similar quantity
over a specified period of time.
Demand Interval:
A specified time over which demand is calculated.
Display:
User-configurable visual indication of data in a
meter.
DNP 3.0:
A robust, non-proprietary protocol based on
existing open standards. DNP 3.0 is used to
operate between various systems in electric and
other utility industries and SCADA networks.
EEPROM:
Nonvolatile memory; Electrically Erasable
Programmable Read Only Memory that retains its
data during a power outage without need for a
battery. Also refers to meter’s FLASH memory.
Energy Register:
Programmable record that monitors any energy
quantity. Example: Watthours, VARhours,
VAhours.
Ethernet:
A type of LAN network connection that connects
two or more devices on a common communications backbone. An Ethernet LAN consists of at
least one hub device (the network backbone) with
multiple devices connected to it in a star configuration. The most common versions of Ethernet in
use are 10BaseT and 100BaseT as defined in
IEEE 802.3 standards. However, several other
versions of Ethernet are also available.
Flicker:
Flicker is the sensation that is experienced by the
human visual system when it is subjected to
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changes occurring in the illumination intensity of
light sources. IEC 61000-4-15 and former IEC
868 describe the methods used to determine
Flicker severity.
Harmonics:
Measuring values of the fundamental current and
voltage and percent of the fundamental.
Heartbeat Pulse:
Energy indicator on the face of the Nexus® 1250/
1252 meter; pulses are generated per the
programmed Ke value.
I2T Threshold:
Data will not accumulate until current reaches
programmed level.
Integer:
Any of the natural numbers, the negatives of
those numbers, or zero.
Internal Modem:
An optional modem within the meter’s enclosure
that connects to the RJ11 telephone connector.
Invalid Register:
In the Nexus® meter’s Modbus Map there are
gaps between Registers. For example, the next
Register after 08320 is 34817. Any unmapped
Register stores no information and is said to be
invalid.
ITIC Curve:
An updated version of the CBEMA Curve that
reflects further study into the performance of
microprocessor devices. The curve consists of a
series of steps but still defines combinations of
voltage magnitude and duration that will cause
malfunction or damage.
Ke:
kWh per pulse; i.e. the energy.
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kWh:
Kilowatt hours; kW x demand interval in hours.
KYZ Output:
Output where the rate of changes between 1 and
0 reflects the magnitude of a metered quantity.
LCD:
Liquid Crystal Display.
LED:
Light Emitting Diode.
Maximum Demand:
The largest demand calculated during any interval
over a billing period.
Modbus ASCII:
Alternate version of the Modbus protocol that
utilizes a different data transfer format. This
version is not dependent upon strict timing, as is
the RTU version. This is the best choice for
telecommunications applications (via modems).
Modbus RTU:
The most common form of Modbus protocol.
Modbus RTU is an open protocol spoken by many
field devices to enable devices from multiple
vendors to communicate in a common language.
Data is transmitted in a timed binary format,
providing increased throughput and therefore,
increased performance.
Network:
A communications connection between two or
more devices to enable those devices to send to
and receive data from one another. In most
applications, the network is either a serial type or
a LAN type.
NVRAM:
Nonvolatile Random Access Memory: able to
keep the stored values in memory even during
the loss of circuit or control power. High speed
NVRAM is used in the Nexus® meter to gather
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measured information and to insure that no
information is lost.
Optical Port:
A port that facilitates infrared communication with
a meter. Using an ANSI C12.13 Type II magnetic
optical communications coupler and an RS232
cable from the coupler to a PC, the meter can be
programmed with Communicator EXTTM software.
Packet:
A short fixed-length section of data that is
transmitted as a unit. Example: a serial string of
8-bit bytes.
Percent (%) THD:
Percent Total Harmonic Distortion. (See THD.)
Protocol:
A language that is spoken between two or more
devices connected on a network.
PT Ratio:
Potential Transformer Ratio used to scale the
value of the voltage to the primary side of an
instrument transformer. Also referred to as VT
Ratio.
Pulse:
The closing and opening of the circuit of a twowire pulse system or the alternate closing and
opening of one side and then the other of a threewire system (which is equal to two pulses).
Q Readings:
Q is the quantity obtained by lagging the applied
voltage to a wattmeter by 60 degrees. Values are
displayed on the Uncompensated Power and Q
Readings screen.
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Quadrant
(Programmable Values and
Factors on the Nexus®
meter:)
Watt and VAR flow is typically represented using
an X-Y coordinate system. The four corners of the
X-Y plane are referred to as quadrants. Most
power applications label the right hand corner as
the first quadrant and number the remaining
quadrants in a counter-clockwise rotation. Following are the positions of the quadrants:
1st - upper right, 2nd - upper left, 3rd - lower left
and 4th - lower right.
Power flow is generally positive in quadrants 1
and 4.
VAR flow is positive in quadrants 1 and 2.
The most common load conditions are:
Quadrant 1 - power flow positive, VAR flow
positive, inductive load, lagging or positive
power factor;
Quadrant 2 - power flow negative, VAR flow
positive, capacitive load, leading or negative
power factor.
Register:
An entry or record that stores a small amount of
data.
Register Rollover:
A point at which a Register reaches its maximum
value and rolls over to zero.
Reset:
Logs are cleared or new (or default) values are
sent to counters or timers.
Rolling Window
The Rolling (Sliding) Window Average is the
Average (Power):
average power calculated over a user-set time
interval that is derived from a specified number of
sub-intervals, each of a specified time. For
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example, the average is calculated over a
15-minute interval by calculating the sum of the
average of three consecutive 5-minute intervals.
This demand calculation methodology has been
adopted by several utilities to prevent customer
manipulation of kW demand by simply spreading
peak demand across two intervals.
RS232:
A type of serial network connection that connects
two devices to enable communication between
the devices. An RS232 connection connects only
two points. Distance between devices is typically
limited to fairly short runs.
Current standards recommend a maximum of 50
feet but some users have had success with runs
up to 100 feet.
Communications speed is typically in the range of
1200 bits per second to 57,600 bits per second.
RS232 connection can be accomplished using Port
1 of the Nexus® 1250/1252 meter.
RS485:
A type of serial network connection that connects
two or more devices to enable communication
between the devices. An RS485 connection allows
multi-drop communication from one to many
points.
Distance between devices is typically limited to
around 2,000 to 3,000 wire feet.
Communications speed is typically in the range of
120 bits per second to 115,000 bits per second.
Sag:
A voltage quality event during which the RMS
voltage is lower than normal for a period of time,
typically from 1/2 cycle to 1 minute.
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Secondary Rated:
Any Register or pulse output that does not use
any CT or PT(VT) Ratio.
Serial Port:
The type of port used to directly interface with a
device using the RS232 standard.
Swell:
A voltage quality event during which the RMS
voltage is higher than normal for a period of time,
typically from 1/2 cycle to 1 minute.
TDD:
The Total Demand Distortion of the current
waveform. The ratio of the root-sum-square value
of the harmonic current to the maximum demand
load current. (See equation below.)
NOTE: The TDD displayed in the Harmonics
screen is calculated by Communicator EXTTM
software, using the Max Average Demand.
I 22 + I 32 + I 42 + I 52 + }
TDD I = ------------------------------------------------------ u 100%
IL
THD:
Total Harmonic Distortion is the combined effect
of all harmonics measured in a voltage or current.
The THD number is expressed as a percent of the
fundamental. For example, a 3% THD indicates
that the magnitude of all harmonic distortion
measured equals 3% of the magnitude of the
fundamental 60Hz quantity. The %THD displayed
is calculated by your Nexus® meter.
I 22 + I 32 + I 42 + I 52 + }
-----------------------------------------------------THD I =
u 100%
I1
Time Stamp:
A stored representation of the time of an event.
Time Stamp can include year, month, day, hour,
minute, second and Daylight Savings Time
indication.
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TOU:
Time of Use.
Uncompensated
Power:
VA, Watt and VAR readings not adjusted by
Transformer Loss Compensation.
V2T Threshold:
Data will stop accumulating when voltage falls
below programmed level.
Voltage Imbalance:
The ratio of the voltage on a phase to the average
voltage on all phases.
Voltage Quality Event:
An instance of abnormal voltage on a phase. The
events the meter tracks include sags, swells,
interruptions and imbalances.
VT Ratio:
The Voltage Transformer Ratio is used to scale the
value of the voltage to the primary side of an
instrument transformer. Also referred to as PT
Ratio.
Voltage, Vab:
Vab, Vbc, Vca are all Phase-to-Phase voltage
measurements. These voltages are measured
between the three phase voltage inputs to the
meter.
Voltage, Van:
Van, Vbn, Vcn are all Phase-to-Neutral voltages
applied to the monitor. These voltages are
measured between the phase voltage inputs and
Vn input to the meter. Technologically, these
voltages can be “measured” even when the meter
is in a Delta configuration and there is no connection to the Vn input. However, in this configuration, these voltages have limited meaning and are
typically not reported.
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Voltage, Vaux
This is the fourth voltage input measured from
between the Vaux and Vref inputs. This input can
be scaled to any value. However, the actual input
voltage to the meter should be of the same
magnitude as the voltages applied to the Va, Vb
and Vc terminals.
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