AHRS Interface Control Document

AHRS Interface Control Document
AHRS Interface Control Document
Attitude and Heading Reference System
INERTIAL LABSTM
AHRS
Interface Control Document
February, 2012
Revision 1.2
 2012, Inertial LabsTM
This document contains information proprietary to Inertial Labs
TM
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
1
AHRS Interface Control Document
CHANGE STATUS LOG
DOCUMENT NUMBER: AHRS ICD
TITLE: Inertial LabsTM AHRS Interface Control Document
REVISION
1.0
1.1
DATE
Jan. 19, 2012
Feb.06, 2012
AFFECTED
PAGES
All
35
37-38, 45
39
1.2
Feb.13, 2012
23, 27, 47
REMARKS
Released version.
For AHRS firmware since v.4.9.1.6
1. Inserted 4 bytes float for set-point
azimuth in the AHRS message after each
calibration run (Table 6.14).
2. 2D calibration is realized and its
description is added.
3. Because of added 2D calibration the
AHRS answer on GetClbRes command is
updated (Table 6.16).
For AHRS firmware since v.4.9.2.0
1. Added commands NMEAcont, NMEAreq
for new NMEA output data format and
description of this format (Table 6.7).
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
2
AHRS Interface Control Document
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 6
1.1. Description of the System .................................................................................... 6
1.2. Principles of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS Operation ................................................ 8
2. Scope and applicability ................................................................................................ 9
3. Specifications ............................................................................................................ 10
4. Mechanical interface ................................................................................................. 11
4.1. Where to install the Inertial LabsTM AHRS for tests ............................................ 11
4.2. Where to install the Inertial LabsTM AHRS on the object .................................... 12
4.3. Mechanically mounting the Inertial LabsTM AHRS .............................................. 14
5. Electrical Interface ..................................................................................................... 16
6. Software interface ..................................................................................................... 19
6.1. Operational modes of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS ................................................ 21
6.2. Output Data Formats of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS in the Operating Modes ....... 22
6.3. Control of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS ................................................................... 25
6.3.1. AHRScont1, AHRScont2, AHRScont3 commands ..................................... 25
6.3.2. AHRSreq1, AHRSreq2, AHRSreq3 commands .......................................... 27
6.3.3. NMEAcont, NMEAreq commands ............................................................... 28
6.3.4. GetDataReq command ............................................................................... 29
6.3.5. Stop command ............................................................................................ 30
6.3.6. LoadAHRSPar command ............................................................................ 30
6.3.7. ReadAHRSPar command ........................................................................... 31
6.3.8. LowPowerOn command .............................................................................. 32
6.3.9. LowPowerOff command .............................................................................. 32
6.3.10. GetVerFirmware command ....................................................................... 33
6.3.11. GetBIT command ...................................................................................... 33
6.4. Calibration of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS on hard and soft iron ........................... 33
6.4.1. Start3DClb command for AHRS 3D calibration ........................................... 34
6.4.2. StopСlb command ...................................................................................... 37
6.4.3. AcceptClb command ................................................................................... 37
6.4.4. ExitClb command ........................................................................................ 37
6.4.5. Start2D2TClb command for AHRS 2D-2T calibration ................................. 38
6.4.6. StartClbRun command ................................................................................ 41
6.4.7. Start2DClb command for AHRS 2D calibration ........................................... 41
6.4.8. ClearClb command ..................................................................................... 43
6.4.9. GetClbRes command .................................................................................. 43
6.5. The Unit Status Word definition.......................................................................... 44
Appendix ....................................................................................................................... 46
A. The Inertial LabsTM AHRS calibration .................................................................. 46
B. Variants of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS mounting relative to the object axes........... 47
C. Full list of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS commands .................................................. 49
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
3
AHRS Interface Control Document
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1. The Inertial LabsTM AHRS ............................................................................ 6
Figure 1.2. Coordinate system of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS .......................................... 7
Figure 2.1. Operational Diagram of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS ...................................... 8
Figure 4.1. The Inertial LabsTM AHRS mounting surfaces A, B and mounting holes 1 – 2
...................................................................................................................................... 14
Figure 4.2. The Inertial LabsTM AHRS outline drawing ................................................. 15
Figure 5.1. The Inertial LabsTM AHRS connector pinout (mating face of the connector) 17
Figure 5.2. The diagram of electric connection of the Inertial LabsTM
AHRS to host computer ................................................................................................ 18
Figure 5.3. The diagram of the interface cable 1 for the Inertial LabsTM AHRS
connections to the СОМ-port of host computer and to the AC/DC adapter .................. 19
Figure B.1. Examples of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS mounting on the carrier object ....... 48
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1. Inertial LabsTM AHRS Specifications ........................................................... 10
Table 5.1. Pin diagram of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS connector ................................... 17
Table 5.2. Electrical specifications ............................................................................... 17
Table 6.1. СОМ-port parameters ................................................................................. 20
Table 6.2. Byte structure for all commands and messages to / from the AHRS ........... 20
Table 6.3. Format of the check sum transmitting ......................................................... 20
Table 6.4. The AHRS message payload at Full Output Data format (at AHRScont1 or
AHRSreq1 command) ................................................................................................... 23
Table 6.5. The AHRS message payload at Quaternion of Orientation format (at
AHRScont2 or AHRSreq2 command) .......................................................................... 23
Table 6.6. The AHRS message payload at Orientation + Sensor Outputs format (at
AHRScont3 or AHRSreq3 command) .......................................................................... 24
Тable 6.7. The AHRS message in NMEA (at NMEAcont or NMEAreq command) ........ 24
Table 6.8. Structure of the payload of block of initial alignment data ........................... 26
Table 6.9. Payload of the message following after the LoadAHRSPar command (block
of parameters for loading to the AHRS) ....................................................................... 30
Table 6.10. Payload of the AHRS answer on the ReadAHRSPar command
(block of parameters read from the AHRS) .................................................................. 32
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
4
AHRS Interface Control Document
Table 6.11. Payload of the AHRS answer on the GetVerFirmware command ........... 33
Table 6.12. Payload of the AHRS answer on the GetBIT command ........................... 33
Table 6.13. Payload of the message following after the Start3DClb and Start2D2TClb
commands (the block of parameters loaded to the AHRS) .......................................... 35
Table 6.14. Payload of the AHRS message after calibration completed ...................... 36
Table 6.15. Payload of the AHRS message after each calibration run of the 2D-2T
calibration ...................................................................................................................... 39
Table 6.16. Payload of the message following after the StartClbRun command (block of
parameters loaded to the AHRS) ................................................................................. 41
Table 6.17. Payload of the AHRS answer on request about calibration results ........... 43
Table 6.18. The Unit Status Word description .............................................................. 44
Table 6.19. Indication of the AHRS current operational modes .................................... 46
Table C.1. List of the AHRS commands with exact structure ........................................ 49
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
5
AHRS Interface Control Document
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Description of the System
The Inertial LabsTM Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) is
a high-performance strapdown system that determines absolute orientation
(heading, pitch and roll) for any device on which it is mounted. Orientation
is determined with high accuracy for both motionless and dynamic
applications.
The Inertial LabsTM AHRS utilizes 3-axes each of precision MEMS
gyroscopes, MEMS accelerometers and fluxgate magnetometers to
provide accurate heading, pitch and roll of the device under measure.
Integration of gyroscopes’ output provides high frequency, real-time
measurement of the device rotation about all three rotational axes.
Accelerometers and magnetometers measure absolute pitch, roll and
magnetic azimuth at AHRS initial alignment as well as ongoing corrections
to gyroscopes during operation.
Fig.1.1. The Inertial LabsTM AHRS
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
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AHRS Interface Control Document
Fig.1.2 shows the AHRS own coordinate system Oxoyozo. This coordinate
system is body-fixed and defined as the calibrated sensors coordinate
system. Non-orthogonality between the axes of the body-fixed coordinate
system Oxoyozo is an order of 0.01°.
X0 (Lateral)
Zo (Up)
Heading
Pitch
Roll
Y0 (Forward)
Fig.1.2. Coordinate system of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS
Measured angles are the standard Euler angles of rotation from the Earthlevel frame (East-North-Up) to the body frame, heading first, then pitch,
and then roll.
Orientation angles, measured by the Inertial LabsTM AHRS, are not limited
and are within common ranges:
• Heading 0…360;
• Pitch
±90;
• Roll
±180.
Also the Inertial LabsTM AHRS provided orientation calculation in
quaternion form.
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
7
AHRS Interface Control Document
1.2. Principles of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS Operation
Fig.2.1 shows the operational diagram of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS.
The AHRS uses gyros to measure absolute angular rate of the carrier
object, then its orientation angles (heading, pitch and roll) are obtained by
using special integration of gyros outputs.
Accelerometers are used to determine initial attitude of the AHRS and to
correct gyros drift in the tilt angles (pitch, roll) determination.
Magnetometers are used to determine initial heading of the AHRS and to
correct gyros drift in the heading angle determination.
Initial
alignment
algorithm
Magnetometers Accelerometers Gyros
Initial conditions
Gy0
Heading H
rxo
Numeric
integrating of
the orientation
equations
ryo
rzo
Gz0 G
x0
axo
ayo
Ay0
azo
Az0
Ax0
My0
mxo
myo
mzo
Mz0
Mx0
Orientation
angles
estimation
Pitch P
Roll R
rxc ryc rzc
Computation
of correction
signals
Kalman filter based
algorithm
Fig.2.1. Operational Diagram of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
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AHRS Interface Control Document
The base of the AHRS algorithm is robust Kalman filter which is used for
estimation of the gyros bias drift and for calculation of stabilized heading,
pitch and roll angles. The Kalman filter automatically adjusts for changing
dynamic conditions without any external user input.
After start the Inertial LabsTM AHRS it requires about 60 seconds for initial
alignment process. At this initial orientation angles are determined as initial
conditions for integration of gyros outputs. Also gyros drift is estimated
using Kalman filter for next compensation. Therefore don’t move the AHRS
during initial alignment process. If this requirement is not met then large
errors may be occurred in orientation angles determination.
As the Inertial LabsTM AHRS uses magnetic sensors for heading reference,
then it directly determines just magnetic heading.
The Inertial LabsTM AHRS also provides true North heading when the
current magnetic declination is set. Declination, also called magnetic
variation, is the difference between true and magnetic North, relative to a
point on the Earth. Declination angle vary throughout the world, and
changes slowly over time. Declination angle can be entered directly to the
Inertial LabsTM AHRS memory using special command (see Table 6.2) or
the Inertial LabsTM AHRS Demo Program. Also, the declination can be
calculated by AHRS itself based on entered latitude, longitude, altitude and
date (see section “6.3.6. LoadAHRSPar command” for details).
Both AHRS and AHRS Demo Program calculate the declination using the
World Magnetic Model produced by the U.S. National Geophysical Data
Center and the British Geological Survey.
http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/WMM/DoDWMM.shtml
The World Magnetic Model is the standard model of the US Department of
Defense, the UK Ministry of Defense, the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO), and the World Hydrographic Office (WHO)
navigation and attitude/heading referencing systems.
2. SCOPE AND APPLICABILITY
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
9
AHRS Interface Control Document
This Interface Control Document (ICD) provides details on mechanically
mounting, the electrical connections, powering and software interface
between the Inertial LabsTM AHRS and host computer.
This document is intended for all parties requiring such information,
including engineers and researchers responsible for implementing the
interface.
3. SPECIFICATIONS
Table 3.1. Inertial LabsTM AHRS specifications
Parameter
Units
AHRS.1.1 AHRS.1.2 AHRS.1.3
Update Rate
Hz
1 … 100 (user settable)
Start-up Time
s
<1
(1)
Full Accuracy Data (Warm-up Time)
s
30
Heading
Range
deg
0 to 360
Angular Resolution
deg
0.01
(2)
Static Accuracy in Whole Temperature Range
deg
≤0.4
≤0.7 (2)
≤1.2 (2)
Dynamic Accuracy (3)
deg RMS
0.7
1.0
2.0
Noise (at 100 Hz output)
deg RMS
0.03
Attitude
Range: Pitch, Roll
deg
±90, ±180
Angular Resolution
deg
0.01
Static Accuracy in Whole Temperature Range
deg
≤0.1
≤0.1
≤0.4
(3)
Dynamic Accuracy
deg RMS
0.3
0.3
0.8
Noise (at 100 Hz output)
deg RMS
0.02
Angular Rate
Gyro Range
deg/s
±400 (4)
±400 (4)
±300 (4)
In-run Bias Stability at Constant Temperature deg/s RMS
0.02
0.02
0.02
Bias stability in whole Temperature Range
deg/s RMS
0.2
0.2
0.2
Scale Factor Accuracy
%
0.1
0.1
0.1
Random Walk
deg/sqrt(hr)
1
1
1
Resolution
deg/sec
0.02
0.02
0.01
Bandwidth
Hz
50
50
50
Linear Acceleration
Accelerometer range
g
±1.7
±1.7
±6
Bias stability in Whole Temperature Range
mg RMS
1
1
5
Scale Factor Accuracy
%
< 0.1
< 0.1
< 0.5
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
10
AHRS Interface Control Document
Random Walk
Resolution
Bandwidth
Environment
Operating temperature
Storage temperature
Electrical
Supply voltage
Current draw
 in readiness mode
 in sleep mode
Connector
Digital Interface
Physical
Size
Weight
m/s/sqrt(hr)
mg
Hz
0.06
0.1
50
0.06
0.1
50
0.06
0.2
50
deg C
deg C
-40 to +70
-50 to +85
V DC
+5.5 to +6.5
mA
mA
-
85
85
87
15
15
15
6-Pin Binder 718 series, Female
RS-232
mm
gram
90(5) × 27 × 26
73
(1)
including time of initial alignment. It may be decreased on request;
in homogeneous magnetic environment, for latitude up to ±65 deg;
(3)
may depend on type of motion;
(4)
AHRS1 modification with ±1000 deg/s gyro range is also available;
(5)
length with mounting lugs.
(2)
4. MECHANICAL INTERFACE
4.1. Where to install the Inertial LabsTM AHRS for tests
The Inertial LabsTM AHRS has magnetometers with wide dynamic range
and its sophisticated calibration algorithms allow it to operate in many
environments. For optimal performance however, you should mount the
Inertial LabsTM AHRS with the following considerations in mind.
 Locate the Inertial Labs
TM
AHRS away from local sources of
magnetic fields
The place for testing must not have ferromagnetic (magneto-susceptible)
materials and the lab room itself must have the level of intrinsic magnetic
and electro-magnetic fields suitable for the magnetic heading system
testing:
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
11
AHRS Interface Control Document
- inside and near the lab room there must be no powerful source of
magnetic, electrical and electro-magnetic fields. The magnetic field
intensity must not be different from the Earth magnetic field intensity at
the test site more than 0.01%;
- small ferromagnetic objects must be as far as 3 meters from the test
table. Large size ferromagnetic objects such as cars and trucks must be
as far as 15 m from the table;
- it is necessary to conduct a regular check-up of the magnetic field
uniformity inside the lab room.
It is highly recommended to degauss AHRS before heading test to remove
permanent magnetization of some components in the AHRS (if you
accidentally expose the unit to a large magnetic field). You can use a handheld degausser (tape eraser) to demagnetize the AHRS. Most audio and
video degaussing units can be used. Follow the instructions for your
demagnetizer.
If heading accuracy is not checked and only pitch and roll accuracy are
tested then there are no requirements to magnetic fields and ferromagnetic
materials near place of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS mounting,
 The Inertial Labs
TM
AHRS should be mounted in a physically stable
location
Choose a location that is isolated from excessive shock, oscillation, and
vibration. Special rotary table must be used for the Inertial LabsTM AHRS
accuracy testing, that mounted on a special testing basement which is free
from the laboratory oscillations and vibrations.
Tests on vibrations and shocks are fulfilled separately from the main
accuracy tests.
4.2. Where to install the Inertial LabsTM AHRS on the object
It is necessary to follow the recommendations listed in the section 4.1
whenever it is possible, when installing the Inertial LabsTM AHRS on an
carrier object.
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
12
AHRS Interface Control Document
 Inertial Labs
TM
AHRS should be installed on an object as far as possible from large ferromagnetic masses of the object and powerful
sources of magnetic, electrical and electro-magnetic fields
Inertial LabsTM AHRS software allows compensation of hard and soft iron
effects of the carrier object on the heading measurement accuracy. For this
purpose, field calibration of the AHRS magnetometers is provided. This
calibration does not require any additional equipment, but it requires turns
of the carrier object, on which the AHRS is mounted.
Note that the above field calibration is correct until the residual magnetic
field of the object surrounding the AHRS is changed. If this field is changed
due to displacement of ferromagnetic masses of the object or magnetic
field sources, the AHRS should be re-calibrated.
Field calibration procedure of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS can be performed
by two means:
 by AHRS itself using special commands described in the section 6.4;
 using the Inertial LabsTM AHRS Demo Program.
The AHRS Demo Program provides more variants of the field calibration
and is more convenient for use, but it requires connection of the AHRS to
PC. Calibration of the AHRS itself is performed without its disconnection
from the host system on the carrier object.
More detailed description of the field calibration procedure is given in the
User’s Manual on the Inertial LabsTM AHRS Demo Program. Field
calibration procedure is developed by Inertial Labs after type of the object,
on which the Inertial LabsTM AHRS will be used, is agreed on with a
customer.
 It is preferable to locate the Inertial Labs
TM
AHRS as close to the
centre of mass of the object as possible
With such location, effects of linear accelerations during oscillations on the
AHRS accelerometers are reduced, and therefore, orientation angle
determination errors are also reduced.
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
13
AHRS Interface Control Document
4.3. Mechanically mounting the Inertial LabsTM AHRS
The Inertial LabsTM AHRS housing has two base surfaces A and B (see
Fig.4.1) that are designed for the AHRS mounting during its run and
testing.
B
1
2
1
1
A
A
1
1
2
A
2
21
22
1A
A
2
2 1
2 2
A
1 A
Fig.4.1. AHRS mounting surfaces
A A, B and mounting holes 1, 2
Salient bottom base surface А has 4 holes 2.6 mm on 4 lugs (see
Fig.4.1, positions 1) and 4 threaded holes M3x6 mm (see Fig.4.1, positions
2) which are designed for the AHRS mounting. Lateral base surface B is
designed for the AHRS alignment during mounting. The Inertial LabsTM
AHRS is factory calibrated with respect to the base surfaces A and B, thus
it must be aligned within the host system (carrier object) with respect to
these mounting surface, not the device edges.
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
14
AHRS Interface Control Document
Fig.4.2. The Inertial LabsTM AHRS outline drawing
(all dimensions are in millimeters)
When mounting Inertial LabsTM AHRS on your system, please pay attention
to orientation of input axes X", "Y", "Z" marked on the cover of the AHRS
(see Fig.1.2). During the ordinary operation on the carrier object the AHRS
is set on the surface A with the axis Y directed to the nose of the object.
Also the Inertial LabsTM AHRS can be mounted on the object in any known
position (up to upside-down, upright etc.) relative to the object axes. Such
mounting doesn’t change right determination of the object orientation if
angles of the AHRS mounting are correctly stored in the AHRS nonvolatile
memory. See Appendix B. Variants of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS mounting
relative to carrier object axes.
To obtain accurate attitude and heading, please remember that mounting is
very important and mounting error can cause attitude and heading errors.
When Inertial LabsTM AHRS mounting please align it on two base surfaces
A, B relative your system axes.
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
15
AHRS Interface Control Document
There are two variants of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS mounting on your
system:
1) Use 4 holes 2.6 mm on 4 lugs (see Fig.4.1, positions 1).
2) Use 4 threaded holes M3x6 mm on the bottom of AHRS (see Fig.4.1,
positions 2).
Note: It is recommended to use holes in lugs for the AHRS mounting because of
threaded holes in the aluminum case of the AHRS can be damaged at multiple
mounting/dismounting procedures..
Requirements to the mounting surface of the carrier object: flatness
tolerance is 0.03 mm; undulation is Ra=1.25.
5. ELECTRICAL INTERFACE
The Inertial LabsTM AHRS has the Binder Series 718 female 6 pin
connector (cordset), part # 79-3464-52-06
(see http://www.binder-usa.com/psearch_detail.php?pid=28852 ).
For electrical connection of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS to the host system,
the Binder Series 718 male 6 pin connector (cordset), part # 79-3465-5206 or part # 79-3465-55-06 should be used
(see http://www.binder-usa.com/psearch_detail.php?pid=28850 ),
or Binder Series 768 male 6 pin connectors, part #
09-3463-00-06
09-3423-00-06
09-3423-81-06
09-3423-86-06
09-3463-81-06
09-3463-86-06
Fig.5.1 shows the Inertial LabsTM AHRS connector pinout. Pin color fits to
wire color in mating cordset.
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
16
AHRS Interface Control Document
4
3
6
5
2
1
Fig.5.1. The Inertial LabsTM AHRS connector pinout
(mating side of the connector)
Table 5.1 Pin diagram of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS connector
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
Signal
Do not connect
Tx-RS232
Rx-RS232
GND
VDD
Do not connect
Note. Do not connect anything to pins #1 and #6 that are
connected to AHRS PCB for firmware updates.
Table 5.2 Electrical specifications
Parameter
Input Supply
Current
Power
Conditions
VDD = +6V
VDD = +6V
Min
+5.5V
15
90
Typical
+6V
85
510
Max
+6.5V
90
540
Units
Volts DC
mA
mW
At the Inertial LabsTM AHRS operations, it is connected to the host system
that provides command interface described in the section 6 and the AHRS
powering.
For tests, the Inertial LabsTM AHRS can be connected to PC by wire as
Fig.5.2 shows. At this, for the Inertial LabsTM AHRS powering the AC/DC
adapter can be used which receives the power from the 100…240V
50…60Hz AC power source. This AC/DC adapter is provided by the Inertial
Labs and is included in the delivery set.
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
17
AHRS Interface Control Document
Inertial Labs
AHRS
X1
Cable 1
6
X3
9
СОМ
Host Computer
100...240V
50...60Hz
PowerBlock
100...240V //
X2
2
+ 6V
AC/DC Adapter
Fig.5.2. The diagram of electric connection of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS to host
computer
The delivery set for the AHRS electrical connection to PC is provided by
the Inertial Labs and includes:
- interface cable 1 for the Inertial LabsTM AHRS connection to the СОМ-port
of PC or another device, with branch wires for the Inertial LabsTM AHRS
DC powering;
- COM-to-USB converter for connection of the AHRS to PC through the
USB port;
- AC/DC adapter.
Also Inertial Labs AHRS Demo software is included in the delivery set for
quick evaluation of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS.
Fig.5.3 shows the diagram of the interface cable 1 for the Inertial LabsTM
AHRS connections to the СОМ-port of host computer and to the DC power
source.
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AHRS Interface Control Document
X3
X1
Cable 1
66
9
СОМ
X2
2
X1-Male Cable Connector
Binder 718
X3(COM)-Female
Connector DB-9F in the case
Do not connect
1
1
DCD
Tx-RS232
2
2
Rx
Rx-RS232
3
3
Tx
GND
4
4
DTR
Vdd
5
5
SG
Do not connect
6
6
DSR
7
RTS
8
CTR
9
RI
X2(Power)
GND
Vdd
PR-002B
Fig.5.3. The diagram of the interface cable 1 for the Inertial LabsTM AHRS
connections to the СОМ-port of host computer and to the AC/DC adapter
6. SOFTWARE INTERFACE
After power connection the primary initialization of the Inertial LabsTM
AHRS microprocessor takes place and the main program starts working.
The time of the device pretreatment is not more 1 second. The program
works in the waiting mode of the commands.
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AHRS Interface Control Document
The commands are transmitted through the serial port according to the
protocol RS232.
Тable 6.1. СОМ-port parameters
СОМ-port parameters
Baud rate
115200
Data bits
8
Parity
none
Stop bits
1
All commands and messages to / from the Inertial LabsTM AHRS have the
byte structure shown in the Table 6.2. Exception is done for the AHRS
output in the NMEA text format (see section 6.2).
Table 6.2. Byte structure for all commands and messages to / from the AHRS
Byte
number
Parameter
Length
Note
0
1
2
3
Header
0
1 byte
0xAA
Header
1
1 byte
0x55
Message
type
1 byte
Reserved
1 byte
4–5
6–n
Message
Payload
length
1 word Variable
Equal to n
(n+1) –
(n+2)
Check
sum
1 word
Message type is equal to:
0 – for commands;
1 – for transferring data.
All the AHRS outputs are data, therefore they have Message type = 1.
The Message length is the number of bytes in the message without
header.
The Check sum is the arithmetical sum of bytes 2…n (all bytes without
Header). In the check sum the low byte is transmitted first (see Table 6.3).
Table 6.3. Format of the check sum transmitting
byte0
low byte
byte1
high byte
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AHRS Interface Control Document
In the Table 6.2 and in all other there is denoted:
word = unsigned 2 byte integer;
sword = signed 2 byte integer.
Important note
The low byte is transmitted by first in all data denoted as word, sword, float.
6.1. Operational modes of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS
The Inertial LabsTM AHRS can operate in the five modes:
1. Idle mode. All sensors and electronics are powered. The AHRS
microprocessor waits any command from the host computer to start
operate in one of the next modes. In the idle mode the AHRS’ indicator
lights red.
2. Continuous operating mode. In this mode the AHRS operates in the
endless loop, providing the continuous output of calculated orientation
angles and some other data according to chosen output data format (see
section 6.2). Data rate is set by user from 1 Hz to 100 Hz. In the
Continuous operating mode the AHRS’s indicator lights green.
3. “On Request” operating mode. It is close to the Continuous operating
mode, but the AHRS sends only one data block after each Request
command issued from host computer. In this mode the AHRS’s indicator
lights green.
4. Calibration operating mode. In this mode the embedded calibration
procedure is performed for compensation of hard and soft iron effects of
the carrier object. See section 6.4 for more details.
5. “Sleep” low-power mode with the minimal power consumption of the
AHRS. All sensors are switched off, processor core and part of periphery
are switched off. No outputs are from the AHRS, only Its microprocessor
waits command from the host computer to exit from the Sleep mode. In the
Sleep mode the AHRS’s indicator lamp is off.
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AHRS Interface Control Document
6.2. Output Data Formats of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS in the Operating
Modes
The next output data formats are available in the “Continuous” and “On
Request” operating modes:
 Full Output Data;
 Quaternion of Orientation;
 Orientation + Sensor Outputs;
 NMEA Output (since AHRS firmware version 4.9.2)
The default is “Orientation + Sensor Outputs” data format. It provides the
AHRS output in the form of 3 orientation angles (heading, pitch and roll)
and calibrated outputs of the 9 sensors (gyros, accelerometers,
magnetometers) that give information about current angular rate, linear
acceleration of the AHRS and components of outer magnetic field along
the AHRS measurement axes (see Fig.1.2).
More correctly, these 9 sensors output are integrated angular rate, linear
acceleration (specific force), magnetic field increments. In the AHRS output
these increments are divided by time step of data output so they may be
interpreted as average angular rates, linear acceleration and magnetic field
for cycle of data output. On the other hand, incremental sensor data are
good for the AHRS using as IMU (inertial measurement unit).
The “Quaternion of Orientation” data format gives quaternion
presentation of an object orientation in addition to 3 orientation angles.
Usually the “Full Output Data” format is used by the AHRS developers for
full control of calculations in the AHRS microprocessor. Also this format
can be used by user at any troubles to get full data from the AHRS for next
sending them to developers.
Structure of the AHRS output in above output data formats corresponds to
the Table 6.2 where payload depends on chosen output data format. Table
6.4 – Table 6.6 show these payloads where is denoted:
word = unsigned 2 byte integer;
sword = signed 2 byte integer.
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AHRS Interface Control Document
Table 6.4. The AHRS message payload at Full Output Data format
(at AHRScont1 or AHRSreq1 command)
Byte
number
Parameter
Length
Note
0–1
2–3
4–5
Heading
Pitch
Roll
2 byte
word
2 byte
sword
2 byte
sword
Orientation angles,
deg*100
6 – 23
24 – 27 28 – 29 30 – 31 32 – 33
Ugyro,
ReserUacc,
USW
ved
Umag
9
2 byte
2 byte 4 byte word
sword
Raw
sensor
data
(gyros,
accelerometers,
magnetometers)
Vdd
Utermo
2 byte
word
2 byte
sword
Combined
voltage Temper
VDC*
ature in
1000
each
sensor
Notes
USW is unit status word (see section 6.5 for details).
The following data are recorded in the field «Vdd» sequentially:
- the AHRS input voltage;
- stabilized voltage supplied to the AHRS sensors;
In the «Utermo» field ADC codes are recorded sequentially from 7 temperature sensors
inside gyros, accelerometers and magnetometers.
The low byte is transmitted by first.
Table 6.5. The AHRS message payload at Quaternion of Orientation format
(at AHRScont2 or AHRSreq2 command)
Byte
number
2–3
4–5
Parameter Heading Pitch
Roll
Length
Note
0–1
2 byte
word
2 byte 2 byte
sword sword
Orientation angles,
deg*100
6 –13
Lk0, Lk1,
Lk2, Lk3
4
2 byte
sword
Quaternion of
orientation
*10000
14 –
28 –
27
29
Reser- USW
ved
2 byte
14
bytes word
30 – 31 32 – 33
Vdd
Utermo
2 byte
word
2 byte
sword
Supply Temper
voltage, ature,
VDC*
ºC*10
1000
Notes
USW is unit status word (see section 6.5 for details).
Vdd is input voltage of the AHRS.
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AHRS Interface Control Document
Utermo is averaged temperature in 3 accelerometers.
The low byte is transmitted by first.
Table 6.6. The AHRS message payload at Orientation + Sensor Outputs format
(at AHRScont3 or AHRSreq3 command)
Byte
12 – 18 – 24– 28 –
32 –
0 – 1 2 – 3 4 – 5 6 – 11
30 – 31
number
17
23
27
29
33
GyroX, AccX, MagX,
Reser USW
Parameter Heading Pitch Roll GyroY, AccY, MagY,
Vdd Utermo
ved
GyroZ AccZ MagZ
3
3
3
2 byte 2 byte 2 byte
2 byte 2 byte 2 byte
Length
2 byte 2 byte 2 byte 4 byte word
word sword sword
word sword
sword sword sword
Angular
Supply
Accele- Magne
Orientation angles,
rates,
voltage, Tempe
rations tic
Note
deg*100
deg/s
VDC* rature,
g*KA fields,
1000 ºC*10
*KG
nT/10
Notes
KG=50; KA=10000; for AHRS1.1, AHRS1.2
KG=100; KA=5000; for AHRS1.3
Angular rates, linear accelerations and magnetic fields are in the AHRS axes
(X is lateral axis, Y is longitudinal axis, Z is vertical axis).
USW is unit status word (see section 6.5 for details).
Vdd is input voltage of the AHRS.
Utermo is averaged temperature in 3 accelerometers.
The low byte is transmitted by first.
At the “NMEA Output” the AHRS output data are transmitted in the form
of sentences with printable ASCII characters like the NMEA 0183 format.
Each sentence starts with a "$" sign and ends with <CR><LF> (carriage
return 0xD and line feed 0xA symbols). All data fields are separated by
commas. The general form of the “NMEA Output” sentence is the next
$PAHR,RRRR.rr,PPP.pp,HHH.hh,TTT.t,V.vv,SSSS*CC<CR><LF>
where PAHR is identifier and other fields are listed in the Table 6.7.
Тable 6.7.The AHRS message in NMEA format
(at NMEAcont or NMEAreq command)
RRRR.rr PPP.pp HHH.hh
TTT.t
V.vv
SSSS
Field
Parameter
Roll
Pitch
Heading
Temperature
Vdd
USW
Note
deg
deg
deg
ºC
VDC
hex written
CC
Check
sum
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AHRS Interface Control Document
with ASCII
Notes
USW is unit status word (see section 6.5 for details).
Temperature is averaged value for 3 accelerometers.
Vdd is input voltage of the AHRS.
Check sum consists of a "*" and two hex digits representing XOR of all characters
between, but not including "$" and "*".
Important note: The AHRS maximum data rate is limited to 50 Hz in the NMEA output
format
6.3. Control of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS
After power connection the AHRS is in the idle mode. Red light of the
indicator lamp near the connector signifies readiness of the Inertial LabsTM
AHRS to receive commands from the host computer. When the AHRS
switches from idle to any operation mode, the light indicator changes its
color from red to green.
The next commands are used to control the AHRS:





AHRScont1, AHRScont2, AHRScont3;
AHRSreq1, AHRSreq2, AHRSreq3;
NMEAcont, NMEAreq
GetDataReq;
Stop;






ReadAHRSPar;
LoadAHRSPar;
LowPowerOn;
LowPowerOff.
GetVerFirmware;
GetBIT.
All these commands have the byte structure shown in the Table 6.2.
Payload for all commands has length 1 byte and contains code of the
command. See Appendix C for exact structure of these commands.
6.3.1. AHRScont1, AHRScont2, AHRScont3 commands
The commands AHRScont1, AHRScont2, AHRScont3 are used to start
the Inertial LabsTM AHRS in the “Continuous” operating mode with one of
three variants of output data:
- AHRScont1 command, code 0x80 – Full Output Data format,
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AHRS Interface Control Document
- AHRScont2 command, code 0x82 – Quaternion Of Orientation format,
- AHRScont3 command, code 0x83 – Orientation+Sensor Outputs
format.
All these commands have the byte structure shown in the Table 6.2.
Payload for all commands has length 1 byte and contains code of the
command.
In order to identify to the host system that AHRS received one of these
commands, the AHRS answers back immediately on this command prior to
completion of the initial alignment process. The AHRS calculates the check
sum of the message (without its header and check sum) and returns it for a
checking. Byte structure of this message is shown in the Table 6.2 where
payload is the calculated check sum (1 word). This check sum should be
equal to the check sum in the message that was sent to the AHRS.
After receiving of any from these commands the AHRS starts process of
initial alignment that takes usually 30 seconds. This process includes the
AHRS gyros drift estimation, therefore don’t move the AHRS during its initial alignment. If this requirement is not met then large errors may be occurred in orientation angles calculation.
Note: Default time 30 seconds of the initial alignment can be changed (see section
6.3.6. LoadAHRSPar command) but only in agreement with developers of the Inertial
LabsTM AHRS.
After completing of the initial alignment the AHRS gives out message with
block of the initial data (payload is 50 bytes of the data – see the Table 6.8)
and goes to the “Continuous” operating mode.
Table 6.8. Structure of the payload of block of initial alignment data
Byte
0-11
Parameter
Gyros bias
12-23 Average acceleration
24-35 Average magn. field
Format Length Note
float
3*4
3 numbers in ADC
codes
float
3*4
3 numbers in ADC
codes
float
3*4
3 numbers in ADC
codes
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AHRS Interface Control Document
36-39
40-43
44-47
48-49
Initial Heading
Initial Roll
Initial Pitch
USW
(see section 6.5)
float
float
float
word
4
4
4
2
degrees
degrees
degrees
0 – successful initial
alignment;
0 – unsuccessful
In the “Continuous” operating mode set by any of above commands
AHRScont1, AHRScont2, AHRScont3, the program in the AHRS
microprocessor operates in the endless loop, providing the process of data
reading from ADC and orientation angles calculating. Data blocks are
transmitted according to chosen variant of output data in messages
described in the Table 6.2. In all variants the message payload has 34
bytes of data which structure depends on chosen variant of output data
(see section 6.2).
The update rate of data blocks is set by the user in range (1...100)Hz.
Default update rate is100 Hz.
6.3.2. AHRSreq1, AHRSreq2, AHRSreq3 commands
The commands AHRSreq1, AHRSreq2, AHRSreq3 are used to start the
Inertial LabsTM AHRS in the “On Request” operating mode with one of three
variants of output data:
- AHRSreq1 command, code 0x84 – Full Output Data format,
- AHRSreq2 command, code 0x86 – Quaternion Of Orientation format,
- AHRSreq3 command, code 0x87 – Orientation + Sensor Outputs format.
All these commands have the byte structure shown in the Table 6.2.
Payload for all commands has length 1 byte and contains code of the
command.
In order to identify to the host system that AHRS received one of these
commands, the AHRS answers back immediately on this command prior to
completion of the initial alignment process. The AHRS calculates the check
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AHRS Interface Control Document
sum of the message (without its header and check sum) and returns it for a
checking. Byte structure of this message is shown in the Table 6.2 where
payload is the calculated check sum (1 word). This check sum should be
equal to the check sum in the message that was sent to the AHRS.
After receiving of any from these commands the AHRS starts process of
initial alignment that takes usually 30 seconds. This process includes the
AHRS gyros drift estimation, therefore don’t move the AHRS during its initial alignment. If this requirement is not met then large errors may be occurred in orientation angles calculation.
Note: Default time 30 seconds of the initial alignment can be changed (see section
6.3.6. LoadAHRSPar command) but only in agreement with developers of the Inertial
LabsTM AHRS.
After completing of the initial alignment the AHRS gives out message with
block of the initial data (payload is 50 bytes of the data – see the Table 6.8)
and goes to the “On Request” operating mode.
In the “On Request” operating mode the AHRS sends only one data block
after each request command GetDataReq (see section 6.3.4) issued from
host computer. Data blocks have structure described in the Table 6.2 with
payload depending on chosen variant of output data format (see section
6.2 for details).
6.3.3. NMEAcont, NMEAreq commands
The NMEAcont command is used to start the Inertial LabsTM AHRS in the
“Continuous” operating mode with NMEA format of output data (see Table
6.7). The NMEAcont command has the byte structure shown in the Table
6.2 where payload is one byte equal to 0x88.
The NMEAreq command is used to start the Inertial LabsTM AHRS in the
“On Request” operating mode with NMEA format of output data (see Table
6.7). The NMEAreq command has the byte structure shown in the Table
6.2 where payload is one byte equal to 0x89.
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AHRS Interface Control Document
In order to identify to the host system that AHRS received one of these
commands, the AHRS answers back immediately on this command prior to
completion of the initial alignment process. The AHRS calculates the check
sum of the message (without its header and check sum) and returns it for a
checking. Byte structure of this message is shown in the Table 6.2 where
payload is the calculated check sum (1 word). This check sum should be
equal to the check sum in the message that was sent to the AHRS.
Then the AHRS starts process of initial alignment that takes usually 30 seconds. This process includes the AHRS gyros drift estimation, therefore
don’t move the AHRS during its initial alignment. If this requirement is not
met then large errors may be occurred in orientation angles calculation.
Note: Default time 30 seconds of the initial alignment can be changed (see section
6.3.6. LoadAHRSPar command) but only in agreement with developers of the Inertial
LabsTM AHRS.
After completing of the initial alignment the AHRS gives out message with
block of the initial data (payload is 50 bytes of the data – see the Table 6.8)
and goes to
 “Continuous” operating mode in case of NMEAcont command;
 “On Request” operating mode in case of NMEAreq command.
In the “Continuous” operating mode the AHRS sends out data blocks with
update rate set by user in range (1...50) Hz. Default update rate is 50 Hz.
In the “On Request” operating mode the AHRS sends only one data block
after each request command GetDataReq (see section 6.3.4) issued from
host computer.
In both operating modes the data blocks are transmitted in the form of sentences with printable ASCII characters like the NMEA 0183 format (see
Table 6.7).
6.3.4. GetDataReq command
The GetDataReq command (code 0xCA in the “Payload” field, see the
Table 6.2) is used to get one data block from the AHRS in the “On
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AHRS Interface Control Document
Request” operating mode. Command GetDataReq is valid if one of the
AHRSreq1, AHRSreq2, AHRSreq3, NMEAreq commands was sent before.
As answer on the GetDataReq command the AHRS outputs one block of
orientation data with structure described in the Table 6.2 and payload
according to the Table 6.4, Table 6.5 or Table 6.6 depending on chosen
variant of output data format.
At the NMEA format of output data set by the NMEAreq command the
AHRS outputs one block of orientation data with structure described in the
Table 6.7.
6.3.5. Stop command
At receiving the Stop command (code 0xFE in the “Payload” field) the
AHRS stops work in an operating mode and goes to the idle mode. At that
the light indicator of the AHRS changes its color to red.
Important Note: Before using all other commands please send the Stop command to
the AHRS to switch device into the idle mode. Be sure that the AHRS’s light indicator is
red before sending of any other commands.
6.3.6. LoadAHRSPar command
The LoadAHRSPar command (code 0x40 in the “Payload” field) is used to
load the block of the AHRS parameters (which are available for changing
by user) into the AHRS nonvolatile memory. After sending the
LoadAHRSPar command, the block of the AHRS parameters must be send
to the AHRS in the message shown the Table 6.2 with payload shown in
the Table 6.9. This message should be sent without pause after sending
the LoadAHRSPar command.
Table 6.9. Payload of the message following after the LoadAHRSPar command
(block of parameters for loading to the AHRS)
Byte
0-1
Parameter
Update rate
Format Length
Note
word 2
(1 … 100) Hz, default is
100 Hz
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AHRS Interface Control Document
2-3
4-7
8-11
12-15
16-19
20-23
24-27
28-31
32-35
36-49
Initial alignment time
Magnetic declination,
Mdec
Latitude
Longitude
Altitude
Date (Year, Month,
Day)
Alignment angle A1
Alignment angle A2
Alignment angle A3
Reserved
word
float
2
4
float
float
float
float
4
4
4
4
float
float
float
4
4
4
14
seconds, default is 30 sec
degrees, if Mdec > 360
then AHRS calculates it
degrees
degrees
meters
Year + (Month -1)/12 +
Day/365
Angles of AHRS mounting
on the carrier object,
degrees (see Appendix B)
Should be all zeros
The AHRS calculates the check sum of received parameters and returns it
for a checking. Byte structure of this message is shown in the Table 6.2
where payload is the calculated check sum (2 bytes).
Notes:
1. The most easy and sure way to change above parameters is using the Inertial
LabsTM AHRS Demo Program.
2. Before using LoadAHRSPar command it is necessary to use ReadAHRSPar command (see below) to read parameters from the AHRS at first. After that user can
change some parameters listed in the Table 6.9, and to send back all block of parameters to the Inertial LabsTM AHRS.
3. Default time 30 seconds of the initial alignment can be changed but only in agreement with developers of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS.
4. It is necessary to set current latitude, longitude, altitude, year, month, day only in two
cases :
a) if the magnetic declination is unknown so its calculation inside the AHRS is
required for current place and date;
b) before hard/soft iron calibration of the AHRS magnetometers (see section 6.4)
6.3.7. ReadAHRSPar command
The ReadAHRSPar command (code 0x41 in the “Payload” field, see the
Table 6.2) is used to read block of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS parameters
(50 bytes) from the AHRS nonvolatile memory.
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After receiving ReadAHRSPar command, the AHRS sends out the
message with structure according to Table 6.2 and payload shown in the
Table 6.10.
Table 6.10. Payload of the AHRS answer on the ReadAHRSPar command
(block of parameters read from the AHRS)
Byte
0-1
2-3
4-7
8-11
12-15
16-19
20-23
24-27
28-31
32-35
36-43
44-49
Parameter
Measurement rate
Initial alignment time
Magnetic declination
Latitude
Longitude
Altitude
Date (Year, Month,
Day)
Alignment angle A1
Alignment angle A2
Alignment angle A3
Device ID
Reserved
Format
word
word
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
char
Length
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
8
6
Note
Hz
seconds
degrees
degrees
degrees
meters
Year + (Month -1)/12 +
Day/365
Angles of AHRS mounting
on the carrier object,
degrees (see Appendix B)
only read
6.3.8. LowPowerOn command
The LowPowerOn command (code 0xB0 in the “Payload” field, see the
Table 6.2) switches the AHRS to low power “Sleep” mode. At this
command all AHRS sensors are switched off, processor core and part of
periphery are switched off. No outputs are from the AHRS, Its
microprocessor only waits command from the host computer to exit from
the Sleep mode. In the Sleep mode the AHRS’s indicator lamp is off.
6.3.9. LowPowerOff command
The LowPowerOff command (code 0xBA in the “Payload” field, see the
Table 6.2) awakes the AHRS from the Sleep mode and switches it to the
idle mode with normal power consumption.
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6.3.10. GetVerFirmware command
The GetVerFirmware command (code 0x1F in the “Payload” field) is used
to read firmware version of the AHRS (50 bytes) from the AHRS
nonvolatile memory. As answer the AHRS sends out the message with
structure according to the Table 6.2 and payload shown in the Table 6.11.
Table 6.11. Payload of the AHRS answer on the GetVerFirmware command
Byte
0-49
Parameter
Firmware version
Format Length
char
50
Note
6.3.11. GetBIT command
The Inertial LabsTM AHRS has continuous built-in monitoring of its health.
In both “Continuous” and “On Request” operation modes the AHRS sends
out Unit Status Word (USW) in each data block (see Table 6.4 – Table
6.6). The USW is described in the section 6.5.
The USW can be got in any time if the AHRS is in Idle or “On Request”
operation mode (after AHRSreq1, AHRSreq2 or AHRSreq3 command). For
this the GetBIT command (code 0x1A in the “Payload” field) is used. In
answer the AHRS sends out the message with data according to the Table
6.12.
Table 6.12. Payload of the AHRS answer on the GetBIT command
Byte number
0–1
2–3
Parameter
Utermo100
USW
Length
2 byte word
2 byte word
Utermo100 is the AHRS temperature in 1/100 °C increments.
6.4. Calibration of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS on hard and soft iron
The Inertial LabsTM AHRS software allows compensation of hard and soft
iron effects of the carrier object on the heading determination accuracy. For
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this purpose, field calibration of the AHRS magnetometers is provided (see
Appendix A, The AHRS calibration). Inertial Labs utilizes several types of
field calibration depending on the carrier object type.
The next types of the calibration are realized in the Inertial LabsTM AHRS
firmware:
 3D calibration;
 2D-2T calibration;
 2D calibration (since firmware version 4.9.1.6).
The next commands are used for the AHRS calibration:









Start3DClb;
Start2D2TClb;
Start2DClb;
StartСlbRun;
StopСlb;
AcceptClb;
ClearClb;
ExitClb;
GetClbRes.
All these commands have the byte structure shown in the Table 6.2.
Payload for all commands has length 1 byte and contains code of the
command. See Appendix C for examples of these commands.
6.4.1. Start3DClb command for AHRS 3D calibration
The 3D calibration is designed for carrier objects that can operate in full
heading, pitch and roll ranges. At this calibration the carrier object should
be rotated in all these ranges.
To start the 3D calibration the host computer sends to the AHRS the
Start3DClb command (code 0x23 in the “Payload” field) followed by
message with block of parameters listed in the Table 6.13. This message
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have the byte structure shown in the Table 6.2, and should be sent without
pause after sending the Start3DClb command.
Table 6.13. Payload of the message following after the Start3DClb, Start2D2TClb
and Start2DClb commands (the block of parameters loaded to the AHRS)
Byte
0-3
4-5
Parameter
Format Length
Reserved
byte
4
Time of data accu- word 2
mulation in one run
6-9
Latitude
float
4
10-13 Longitude
float
4
14-17 Altitude
float
4
18-21 Date (Year, Month, float
4
Day)
Note
Seconds
Degrees
Degrees
Meters
Year + (Month -1)/12 +
Day/365
The AHRS calculates the check sum of received parameters and returns it
for a checking. Byte structure of this message is shown in the Table 6.2
where payload is the calculated check sum (1 word).
Then the AHRS starts process of initial alignment. This process includes
the AHRS gyros drift estimation, therefore don’t move the AHRS during its
initial alignment. Default time of the initial alignment is 30 seconds and can
be changed (see section 6.3.6. LoadAHRSPar command) but only in
agreement with developers of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS.
After completing of the initial alignment the AHRS gives out the block of the
initial data (payload is 50 bytes of the data – see the Table 6.8) and starts
data accumulation during time specified in message sent after the
Start3DClb command (see the Table 6.13).
During the AHRS data accumulation the object should be rotated in full
azimuth, pitch and roll ranges. For example the object is rotated in the
horizon plane (the Z-axis is up) with periodical stops about each 90
degrees for tilting in pitch and roll. After full 360 rotation the object with the
AHRS is turned over (the Z-axis is down) and the procedure described
above should be repeated. During this calibration the range of pitch and roll
angles changing must be as much as possible.
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After set accumulation time is reached or StopClb command is sent to the
AHRS (see section 6.4.2 for details) the AHRS finishes data accumulation
and calculates the calibration parameters.
After calculation of the calibration parameters that takes <0.5 seconds, the
AHRS gives out message with the calibration results (see the Table 6.14)
and it waits one of the next commands:
 the AcceptClb command (see section 6.4.3) to accept and save the
calibration parameters (usually if the “Calibration success” byte in the
AHRS message is equal to 1 (see the Table 6.14);
 or the ExitClb command (see section 6.4.4) to exit from calibration
procedure without accepting and saving its results (usually if the
“Calibration success” byte in the AHRS message is equal to 0 (see the
Table 6.14).
The AHRS answers on these commands with checksum and goes to idle
mode.
Table 6.14. Payload of the AHRS message after calibration completed
Byte
0
Parameter
Type of calibration
1
Number of used
calibration runs
Data decimation
Calibration success
2
3
4-39
Matrix for soft iron
correction
39-51 Matrix for hard iron
correction
Format Length
Note
byte 1
2 for 2D-2T calibration;
3 for 3D calibration
byte 1
Not used for 3D
calibration
byte 1
for 3D calibration only
byte 1
0 – calibration is not
successful
1 – calibration is
successful
float 9*4
Matrix Tm_c (33) by
rows
float 3*4
Matrix Hm_0 (31)
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6.4.2. StopСlb command
After receiving the StopСlb command (code 0x20 in the “Payload” field)
the AHRS finishes data accumulation in calibration procedure and
calculates the calibration parameters. After that the AHRS gives out
message with the calibration results (see the Table 6.14).
After receiving the StopСlb command the AHRS waits one of the next
commands:
 the AcceptClb command (see section 6.4.3) to accept and save the
calibration parameters;
 or the ExitClb command (see section 6.4.4) to exit from calibration
procedure without accepting and saving its results.
6.4.3. AcceptClb command
The AcceptClb command (code 0x2E in the “Payload” field) is applied to
accept the calibration parameters and to save them to the AHRS
nonvolatile memory. This command can be used in the end of the 3D and
2D-2T calibration.
The AHRS answers on this command. The AHRS calculates the check
sum of the message (without its header and check sum) and returns it for a
checking. Byte structure of this message is shown in the Table 6.2 where
payload is the calculated check sum (1 word).
6.4.4. ExitClb command
The ExitClb command (code 0xFE in the “Payload” field) is used to exit
from the calibration without any calculations in the AHRS and without
saving any calibration parameters. The AHRS stops work in operating
mode and goes into the idle mode.
The AHRS answers on this command. The AHRS calculates the check
sum of the message (without its header and check sum) and returns it for a
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checking. Byte structure of this message is shown in the Table 6.2 where
payload is the calculated check sum (1 word).
6.4.5. Start2D2TClb command for AHRS 2D-2T calibration
Since AHRS firmware version 4.9.1 the 2D-2T calibration is realized in the
AHRS. This calibration is designed for objects that operate in full azimuth
range but with limited range of pitch and roll angles. This calibration
procedure involves a few full 360 rotations of the object in azimuth with
different pitch angles.
To start the 2D-2T calibration the Host computer sends to the AHRS the
Start2D2TClb command (code 0x22 in the “Payload” field) followed by
message with block of parameters listed in the Table 6.13. This message
have the byte structure shown in the Table 6.2, and should be sent without
pause after sending the Start2D2TClb command.
The AHRS calculates the check sum of received parameters and returns it
for a checking. Byte structure of this message is shown in the Table 6.2
where payload is the calculated check sum (1 word).
The 2D-2T calibration procedure involves a few runs with full 360 rotations
of the object with installed AHRS in heading with different pitch angles.
Set the object to the first pitch angle (usually the minimum pitch angle is
set first). Then send the StartClbRun command followed by message (see
section 6.4.6) to start the first run of the calibration.
After receiving the StartClbRun command with its message, the AHRS
calculates the check sum of received block of parameters and returns it for
checking. This check sum should be equal to the check sum in the
StartClbRun command message that was sent to the AHRS. Byte structure
of this message is shown in the Table 6.2 where payload is the calculated
check sum (1 word).
Then the AHRS starts process of initial alignment. This process includes
the AHRS gyros drift estimation, therefore don’t move the AHRS during its
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initial alignment. Default time of the initial alignment is 30 seconds and can
be changed (see section 6.3.6. LoadAHRSPar command) but only in
agreement with developers of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS.
After completing of the initial alignment the AHRS gives out the block of the
initial data (payload is 50 bytes of the data – see the Table 6.8) and starts
data accumulation during time specified in message sent after the
Start2D2TClb command (see the Table 6.13). Rotate object in azimuth with
approximately constant pitch and roll. This rotation must include one or
more full 360 deg turns. Please, correct the time required for such rotation
in the «Time of data accumulation» field of the message (Table 6.13) to
provide necessary rotation.
After set accumulation time is reached or Stop command is sent to the
AHRS (see section 6.3.5 for details) the AHRS gives out message with
result of the calibration run (see the Table 6.15).
Table 6.15. Payload of the AHRS message after each calibration run of the 2D-2T
calibration
Byte
0
1
2
3
Parameter
Type of calibration
Calibration run
Reserved
Calibration success
4-7
8-11
12-15
16-27
28-29
Set-point azimuth, deg
Average pitch, deg
Average roll, deg
Reserved
USW
Format
byte
byte
byte
byte
float
float
float
byte
word
Length
Note
1
2 for 2D-2T calibration
1
1, 2, …
1
1
0 – unsuccessful;
1 – successful
4
Not realized yet
4
4
12
2
See section 6.5
If the “Success of the current calibration run” byte is zero (calibration run is
not successful) in the AHRS answer Table 6.15 then this run will be
excluded from calculations in the 2D-2T calibration procedure. To complete
this procedure, it is necessary to perform at least two successful runs with
essentially different pitch angles.
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After each calibration run the AHRS sends message with payload shown in
the Table 6.15, and it waits one of the next three commands from the host
computer:
1. StartClbRun command followed by its message (see section 6.4.6) to
start new calibration run. Before send this command the object
should be turned to the next pitch angle. After sending this command
the above described procedure of the calibration run with object
rotation in heading should be performed.
2. StopClb command (see section 6.4.2 for details) to finish the
calibration procedure and to calculate calibration parameters. After
that the AHRS gives out message with the calibration results (see the
Table 6.14) and waits one of the two commands:
a. the AcceptClb command (see section 6.4.3) to accept and save
the calibration parameters (usually if the “Calibration success”
byte in the AHRS message is equal to 1 (see the Table 6.14);
b. or the ExitClb command (see section 6.4.4) to exit from calibration
procedure without accepting and saving its results (usually if the
“Calibration success” byte in the AHRS message is equal to 0
(see the Table 6.14).
The AHRS answers on these commands with checksum and goes to
idle mode.
3. ExitClb command (see section 6.4.4) In this case the calibration
finishes without any calculations in the AHRS and without saving any
calibration parameters. The AHRS answers on this command with
checksum and goes into the idle mode.
Notes:
1. Rotation of the object with the AHRS in heading must include one or more full 360
turns. Please, correct the time required for saving data in the «Accumulation time»
window to attain necessary rotations.
2. During calibration run pitch and roll angles should be approximately constant.
3. If place of the AHRS mounting on the object is changed, or if the object is changed,
then the AHRS should be re-calibrated on the hard and soft iron of this object.
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6.4.6. StartClbRun command
If calibration procedure includes more than one run (like 2D-2T calibration)
then the StartClbRun command (code 0x2B in the “Payload” field) is used
to start each run.
For unification with the StartClbRun command for some other calibration
types, this command must be followed by message with block of
parameters listed in the Table 6.16. But for the 2D-2T calibration the value
of those 6 bytes does not influenced, so these 6 bytes may be any, for
example zeros. Only requirement is that this message should have the
byte structure shown in the Table 6.2, and should be sent without pause
after sending the StartClbRun command.
Table 6.16. Payload of the message following after the StartClbRun command
(block of parameters loaded to the AHRS)
Byte
0-3
4-5
Parameter
Reserved
Measurement units
Format Length
Note
byte
4
word 2
0 = degrees; 1 = mils
After receiving the StartClbRun command the AHRS calculates the check
sum of received parameters and returns it for a checking. This check sum
should be equal to the check sum in the StartClbRun command message
that was sent to the AHRS. Byte structure of this message is shown in the
Table 6.2 where payload is the calculated check sum (1 word).
6.4.7. Start2DClb command for AHRS 2D calibration
Since AHRS firmware version 4.9.1.5 the 2D calibration is realized in the
AHRS. This calibration is designed for carrier objects that operate in full
azimuth range but with small pitch and roll angles (not more than a few
degrees). This calibration procedure involves full 360 rotation of the carrier
object in azimuth. During this rotation pitch and roll angles must be as
close to zero as possible.
To start the 2D calibration the host computer sends to the AHRS the
Start2DClb command (code 0x21 in the “Payload” field) followed by
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message with block of parameters listed in the Table 6.13. This message
have the byte structure shown in the Table 6.2, and should be sent without
pause after sending the Start2DClb command. Note that first 4 bytes in the
payload (Reference azimuth) do not influence on the 2D calibration as it is
noted in the Table 6.13.
The AHRS calculates the check sum of received parameters and returns it
for a checking. Byte structure of this message is shown in the Table 6.2
where payload is the calculated check sum (1 word).
Then the AHRS starts process of initial alignment. This process includes
the AHRS gyros drift estimation, therefore don’t move the AHRS during its
initial alignment. Default time of the initial alignment is 30 seconds and can
be changed (see section 6.3.6. LoadAHRSPar command) but only in
agreement with developers of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS.
After completing of the initial alignment the AHRS gives out the block of the
initial data (payload is 50 bytes of the data – see the Table 6.8) and starts
data accumulation during time specified in message sent after the
Start2DClb command (see the Table 6.13). Rotate carrier object in azimuth
with pitch and roll angles close to zero as possible. This rotation must
include one or more full 360 deg turns. Please, correct the time required for
such rotation in the «Time of data accumulation» field of the message
(Table 6.13) to provide necessary rotation.
After set accumulation time is reached or StopClb command is sent to the
AHRS (see section 6.4.2 for details) the AHRS finishes data accumulation
and calculates the calibration parameters.
After calculation of the calibration parameters that takes <0.5 seconds, the
AHRS gives out message with the calibration results (see the Table 6.14)
and it waits one of the next commands:
 the AcceptClb command (see section 6.4.3) to accept and save the
calibration parameters (usually if the “Calibration success” byte in the
AHRS message is equal to 1 (see the Table 6.14);
 or the ExitClb command (see section 6.4.4) to exit from calibration
procedure without accepting and saving its results (usually if the
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“Calibration success” byte in the AHRS message is equal to 0 (see the
Table 6.14).
The AHRS answers on these commands with checksum and goes to idle
mode.
6.4.8. ClearClb command
The ClearClb command (code 0x2F in the “Payload” field) is used to clear
parameters of the hard and soft iron calibration from the AHRS nonvolatile
memory.
The AHRS answers on this command. The AHRS calculates the check
sum of the message (without its header and check sum) and returns it for a
checking. Byte structure of this message is shown in the Table 6.2 where
payload is the calculated check sum (1 word).
You should clear parameters of the soft and hard iron calibration if you
uninstall the AHRS from object to avoid incorrect azimuth determination
with standalone AHRS.
6.4.9. GetClbRes command
The GetClbRes command (code 0x2A in the “Payload” field) can be send
from the host computer to check the last calibration results of the AHRS.
As answer on this command the AHRS sends out the message with the
data block near the same as after completing calibration with StopClb
command, see the Table 6.17.
Table 6.17. Payload of the AHRS answer on request about calibration results
Byte
0
Parameter
Type of calibration
performed
Format Length
Note
byte 1
0 – AHRS is not
calibrated;
1 – 2D calibration;
2 – 2D-2T calibration;
3 – 3D calibration;
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>80 – AHRS is
calibrated by loading
calibration parameters
from other software
(e.g. Demo software).
1
Number of used
calibration runs
Reserved
Calibration success
byte
1
byte
byte
1
1
Matrix for soft iron
correction
39-51 Matrix for hard iron
correction
float
9*4
float
3*4
2
3
4-39
0 – calibration is not
successful
1 – calibration is
successful
Matrix Tm_c (33) by
rows
Matrix Hm_0 (31)
6.5. The Unit Status Word definition
The Unit Status Word (USW) provides the AHRS state information. The
low byte (bits 0-7) of USW indicates failure of the AHRS. If this byte is 0,
the AHRS operates correctly, if it is not 0, see the Table 6.18 for type of
failure. The high byte (bits 8-15) contains a warning or is informative for the
user. Status of each bit of the USW warning byte is specified in the Table
6.18 and Table 6.19.
Table 6.18. The Unit Status Word description
Low
(failure)
byte
Bit
Parameter
0 Initial Alignment
1
AHRS Parameters
2
Gyroscope Unit
Description
0 – Successful initial alignment
1 – Unsuccessful initial alignment due
to AHRS moving or large changing of
outer magnetic field
0 – Parameters are correct
1 – Parameters are incorrect
0 – No failure
1 – Failure detected
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High
(warning)
byte
3
Accelerometer Unit
4
Magnetometer Unit
5
Electronics
6
Software
7
8
AHRS mode
9
Incorrect Power
Supply
10
11
Angular Rate
Exceeding Detect
12
13
Large Magnetic
Field Detect
14
Environmental
Temperature
15
AHRS mode
0 – No failure
1 – Failure detected
0 – No failure
1 – Failure detected
0 – No failure
1 – Failure detected
0 – No failure
1 – Failure detected
See the Table 6.19
0 – Supply voltage is not less than
minimum level
1 – Low supply voltage detected
0 – Supply voltage is not higher than
maximum level
1 – High supply voltage detected
0 – X-angular rate is within the range
1 – X-angular rate is outrange
0 – Y-angular rate is within the range
1 – Y-angular rate is outrange
0 – Z-angular rate is within the range
1 – Z-angular rate is outrange
0 – Total magnetic field is within the
normal range
1 – Total magnetic field limit is
exceeded
0 – Temperature is within the operating
range
1 – Temperature is out of the operating
range
See the Table 6.19
The AHRS indicates its current mode of operation in the bits 7 and 15 as
the Table 6.19 shows:
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Table 6.19. Indication of the AHRS current operational modes
USW bits
AHRS mode
Bit #7 Bit #15
0
0
Readiness
1
1
Sleep (this is in the last data block sent by the AHRS
before it went to Sleep mode)
APPENDIX
A. The Inertial LabsTM AHRS calibration
The Inertial Labs AHRS software allows to take into account influence of
the carrier object soft and hard iron on the heading determination. For this
purpose, field calibration of the AHRS magnetometers on hard and soft
iron is provided. This calibration does not require any additional equipment,
but it requires setting of the carrier object, where the AHRS is mounted, in
specified positions.
There are several types of the calibration. Since AHRS firmware version
4.8.1 the 3D and 2D-2T calibrations are realized in the AHRS. Other types
of hard/soft iron calibration can be fulfilled with Inertial Labs AHRS Demo
software.
3D calibration is designed for carrier objects that can operate in full
heading, pitch and roll ranges. For this calibration the carrier object is
rotated in the horizon plane (the Z-axis is up) with periodical stops about
each 90 degrees for tilting in pitch and roll. After full 360 rotation the
carrier object with the AHRS is turned over (the Z-axis is down) and the
procedure described above should be repeated. During this calibration the
range of pitch and roll angles changing must be as much as possible.
2D-2T calibration is designed for carrier objects that operate in full
heading range but with limited range of pitch and roll angles. This
calibration procedure involves a few full 360 rotations of the carrier object
with installed AHRS in heading with different pitch angles. During each
rotation, pitch and roll angles should be as constant as possible.
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If place of the AHRS mounting on the carrier object is changed, or if the
carrier object is changed, then the AHRS should be re-calibrated on the
hard and soft iron of the carrier object.
B. Variants of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS mounting relative to the object
axes
The Inertial LabsTM AHRS can be mounted on the object in any known
position (up to upside-down, upright etc.) relative to the object axes. Such
mounting doesn’t change right determination of the object orientation if
angles of the AHRS mounting are correctly stored in the AHRS nonvolatile
memory.
To store angles of mounting in the AHRS please use the Inertial LabsTM
AHRS Demo Program (item «Device option …» from the «Options» menu)
or send LoadBlockPar command to the AHRS directly (see structure of the
message following after the LoadAHRSPar command in the Table 6.9).
Angles of the AHRS position (alignment angles) are set in next order (like
heading, pitch and roll setting):
 first alignment angle sets position of the AHRS longitudinal axis Y relative to longitudinal axes of the object measured in the horizontal
plane of the object. Clockwise rotation is positive;
 second alignment angle is equal to angle of inclination of the AHRS
longitudinal axis Y relative to the horizontal plane of the object. Positive direction is up;
 third alignment angle is equal to inclination angle of the AHRS lateral
axis X measured around AHRS’ longitudinal axis. Positive rotation is
X axis moving down.
All angles are set in degrees.
Some examples of the Inertial Labs AHRS mounting relative the carrier
object are shown on Fig.B.1.
To check correctness of the alignment angles please run the AHRS using
the Inertial Labs AHRS Demo program.
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
47
AHRS Interface Control Document
z
a
x
y
b
y
x
z
d
z
y
c
z
x
x
y
Fig.B.1. Examples of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS mounting on the carrier object
a – alignment angles are 0, 0, 0 (degrees);
b – alignment angles are 0, 0, 180 (degrees);
c – alignment angles are 90, 0, 0 (degrees);
d – alignment angles are 180, -90, 0 (degrees);
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
48
AHRS Interface Control Document
C. Full list of the Inertial LabsTM AHRS commands
All the AHRS commands have the byte structure shown in the Table 6.2.
Payload for all commands has length 1 byte and contains code of the
command. Below Table C.1 lists all commands with their exact structure in
hexadecimal numbers.
Table C.1. List of the AHRS commands with exact structure
Command name
Code
Exact structure (hex)
TM
Commands for Inertial Labs AHRS control
AHRScont1
0x80
AA 55 00 00 07 00 80 87 00
AHRScont2
0x82
AA 55 00 00 07 00 82 89 00
AHRScont3
0x83
AA 55 00 00 07 00 83 8A 00
AHRSreq1
0x84
AA 55 00 00 07 00 84 8B 00
AHRSreq2
0x86
AA 55 00 00 07 00 86 8D 00
AHRSreq3
0x87
AA 55 00 00 07 00 87 8E 00
NMEAcont
0x88
AA 55 00 00 07 00 88 8F 00
NMEAreq
0x89
AA 55 00 00 07 00 89 90 00
GetDataReq
0xCA
AA 55 00 00 07 00 CA D1 00
Stop
0xFE
AA 55 00 00 07 00 FE 05 01
LoadAHRSPar
0x40
AA 55 00 00 07 00 40 47 00
ReadAHRSPar
0x41
AA 55 00 00 07 00 41 48 00
LowPowerOn
0xB0
AA 55 00 00 07 00 B0 B7 00
LowPowerOff
0xBA
AA 55 00 00 07 00 BA C1 00
GetVerFirmware
0x1F
AA 55 00 00 07 00 1F 26 00
GetBIT
0x1A
AA 55 00 00 07 00 1A 21 00
Commands for Inertial LabsTM AHRS calibration
Start2DClb
0x21
AA 55 00 00 07 00 21 28 00
Start2D2TClb
0x22
AA 55 00 00 07 00 22 29 00
Start3DClb
0x23
AA 55 00 00 07 00 23 2A 00
StartClbRun
0x2B
AA 55 00 00 07 00 2B 32 00
StopСlb
0x20
AA 55 00 00 07 00 20 27 00
AcceptClb
0x2E
AA 55 00 00 07 00 2E 35 00
ExitClb
0xFE
AA 55 00 00 07 00 FE 05 01
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
49
AHRS Interface Control Document
ClearClb
GetClbRes
0x2F
0x2A
AA 55 00 00 07 00 2F 36 00
AA 55 00 00 07 00 2A 31 00
Inertial Labs, IncTM
Address: 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
Tel: +1 (703) 880-4222, Fax: +1 (703) 935-8377 Website: www.inertiallabs.com
50
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