3-Space Sensor HiPerGyro User`s Manual

3-Space Sensor HiPerGyro User`s Manual
3-Space Sensor
3-Space Sensor
HiPerGyro
High Performance
Attitude & Heading Reference System
User's Manual
YEI Technology
630 Second Street
Portsmouth, Ohio 45662
www.YeiTechnology.com
www.3SpaceSensor.com
Patents Pending
©2007-2012 Yost Engineering, Inc.
Printed in USA
3-Space Sensor
HiPerGyro
Miniature Attitude & Heading
Reference System
User's Manual
YEI Technology
630 Second Street
Portsmouth, Ohio 45662
www.YeiTechnology.com
www.3SpaceSensor.com
Toll-Free: 888-395-9029
Phone: 740-355-9029
Patents Pending
©2007-2012 Yost Engineering, Inc.
Printed in USA
Table of Contents
1. Usage/Safety Considerations...........................................................................................................................................1
1.1 Usage Conditions.....................................................................................................................................................1
1.2 Technical Support and Repairs................................................................................................................................1
2. Overview of the YEI 3-Space Sensor HiPerGyro...........................................................................................................2
2.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................................2
2.2 Applications.............................................................................................................................................................2
2.3 Key Features............................................................................................................................................................2
2.4 Hardware Overview.................................................................................................................................................3
2.5 Block Diagram of Sensor Operation.......................................................................................................................4
2.6 Specifications*.........................................................................................................................................................5
2.7 Physical Dimensions................................................................................................................................................6
2.8 Axis Assignment......................................................................................................................................................6
3. Description of the 3-Space Sensor HiPerGyro................................................................................................................7
3.1 Navigation Grade Gyroscope..................................................................................................................................7
3.1.1 Fusion..............................................................................................................................................................7
3.2 Orientation Estimation.............................................................................................................................................7
3.2.1 Component Sensors........................................................................................................................................7
3.2.2 Scale, Bias, and Cross-Axis Effect.................................................................................................................8
3.2.3 Reference Vectors...........................................................................................................................................8
3.2.4 Reference Orientation/Taring.........................................................................................................................8
3.3 Communication........................................................................................................................................................8
3.4 Sensor Settings........................................................................................................................................................8
3.4.1 Committing Settings........................................................................................................................................8
3.4.2 Settings and Defaults......................................................................................................................................9
4. HiPerGyro Usage/Protocol...........................................................................................................................................10
4.1. Usage Overview...................................................................................................................................................10
4.1.1 Protocol Overview........................................................................................................................................10
4.1.2 Computer Interfacing Overview...................................................................................................................10
4.2. Protocol Packet Format........................................................................................................................................11
4.2.1 Binary Packet Format...................................................................................................................................11
4.2.2 ASCII Text Packet Format...........................................................................................................................12
4.3. Command Chart....................................................................................................................................................13
4.3.1 Filtered Data Commands..............................................................................................................................13
4.3.2 Raw Data Commands....................................................................................................................................13
4.3.3 Calibrated Data Commands..........................................................................................................................14
4.3.4 Orientation Fusion Commands.....................................................................................................................14
4.3.5 Gyro Fusion Commands...............................................................................................................................15
4.3.6 Calibration Commands.................................................................................................................................16
4.3.7 System Fusion Commands............................................................................................................................17
Appendix...........................................................................................................................................................................18
USB Connector............................................................................................................................................................18
RS422 Connector.........................................................................................................................................................18
Hex / Decimal Conversion Chart.................................................................................................................................18
User's Manual
1. Usage/Safety Considerations
1.1 Usage Conditions
•
Do not use the 3-Space Sensor in any system on which people's lives depend(life support, weapons, etc.)
•
Because of its reliance on a compass, the 3-Space Sensor's orientation estimate will not work properly near the earth's north or south pole.
•
Because of its reliance on a compass and accelerometer, the 3-Space Sensor's orientation estimate will not work properly in outer space or
on planets with no magnetic field.
•
Care should be taken when using the 3-Space Sensor in a car or other moving vehicle, as the disturbances caused by the vehicle's
acceleration may cause the sensor to give inaccurate readings.
•
Because of its reliance on a compass, care should be taken when using the 3-Space Sensor near ferrous metal structures, magnetic fields,
current carrying conductors, and should be kept about 6 inches away from any computer screens or towers.
1.2 Technical Support and Repairs
YEI provides technical and user support via our toll-free number (888-395-9029) and via email
([email protected]). Support is provided for the lifetime of the equipment. Requests for repairs should be
made through the Support department. For damage occurring outside of the warranty period or provisions, customers
will be provided with cost estimates prior to repairs being performed.
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2. Overview of the YEI 3-Space Sensor HiPerGyro
2.1 Introduction
The YEI 3-Space HiPerGyro is an integrated system that utilizes a novel arrangement of sensing elements combined
with advanced algorithmic processing to produce an ultra-high-precision, high-reliability, miniature, navigation-grade
Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) / Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The system exhibits size, weight,
and power characteristics similar to MEMS-based solutions yet achieves performance characteristics previously only
attainable in laser-ring and fiber-optic systems.
The YEI 3-Space HiPerGyro utilizes a combination of gyroscope, accelerometer, magnetometer and barometer sensing
elements in conjunction with advanced on-board processing and filtering algorithms to achieve ultra-accurate inertial
measurements and attitude/heading outputs in real-time.
A proprietary multi-sensor-fusion approach combined with dynamic sensor-error and bias tracking allow for extreme
accuracy and precision across a wide range of operating conditions.
The YEI 3-Space HiPerGyro unit features are accessible via a well-documented open communication protocol
that allows access to all available sensor data and configuration parameters using either RS422 or USB 2.0
interfaces. Versatile commands allow access to raw sensor data, normalized sensor data, and filtered absolute and
relative orientation outputs.
2.2 Applications
• Navigation
• Autonomous vehicles
• Antenna and platform stabilization
• Optical stabilization
• Personnel / pedestrian navigation and tracking
• Unmanned air/land/water vehicle guidance
• Marine motion sensing
2.3 Key Features
The YEI 3-Space HiPerGyro has many features that allow it to be a flexible all-in-one solution for your high-accuracy
inertial and orientation sensing needs. Below are some of the key features:
• Small, self-contained, ultra-high-performance AHRS at 54mm x 64mm x 10mm and <40 grams
• Optical gyro IMU performance characteristics at MEMS size, weight, and power.
• Fast sensor update and filter rate allow use in real-time applications, including navigation, stabilization, and
guidance
• Advanced integrated on-board multi-sensor fusion provides ultra-high accuracy.
• Proprietary dynamic sensor-error tracking and bias tracking automatically minimize the effects of sensor noise
and sensor error across a wide range of operating conditions.
• Proprietary bias-tracking achieves gyro bias drift of less than 0.001º/hr for all axes and gyro ARW of less than
0.00005º/√hr
• Robust open protocol allows commands to be sent in human readable form, or, more quickly, in machine readable
form
• Orientation output format available in absolute or relative terms in multiple formats (quaternion, rotation matrix,
axis angle, two-vector)
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• Absolute or custom reference axes
• Includes barometric sensor to aid in altitude estimation.
• Flexible communication options: USB 2.0 or Full Duplex RS422
• Communication through a virtual COM port
• Upgradeable firmware
• RGB status LEDs
2.4 Hardware Overview
4. RGB Status
Indicator LEDs
1. Power Switch
3. Mini USB 2.0 Port
2. RS-422 / Ext Power
Connector
1.
Power Switch – The 3-Space Sensor HiPerGyro can be switch on and off by using the power switch.
2.
RS-422 Connector - The 3-Space Sensor HiPerGyro allows for external power and full-duplex RS-422
communication via connection to this port. The RS-422 connector provides for both power and
communication signals.
3.
USB Connector – The 3-Space Sensor HiPerGyro uses a 5-pin mini USB connector to connect to a computer
via USB. The USB connector provides for both power and communication signals.
4.
Indicator LEDs – The 3-Space Sensor HiPerGyro includes two RGB status LEDs that can provide visual
status feedback during operation.
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2.5 Block Diagram of Sensor Operation
USB 2.0
Host System
RS422 Serial
Host System
TSS HG
RS-422 Driver
Processor
USB 2.0
Interface
Asynchronous
Serial Interface
Final Orientation &
Fused Inertial Data
High Performance
Dynamic
Sensor Fusion
Non-volatile
Calibration &
Performance
Settings
Scale, Bias, Normalization, Weighting,
& Error Compensation
3-Axis
Accelerometer
Sensor Set
3-Axis
Rate Gyro
Sensor Set
3-Axis
Compass
Sensor Set
4
Component
Temperature
Sensor Set
Barometric
Pressure
Sensor
User's Manual
2.6 Specifications*
General
Part number
TSS-HG-1
Dimensions
52.8mm x 64mm x 9.2mm ( 2.08in x 2.525in x 0.36in )
Weight
<45 grams ( 1.6 oz )
Supply voltage
+5v USB or +3.3v~+6v External
Power requirement
< 0.72W (<150mA @ 5VDC)
Communication interfaces
USB 2.0, RS422(Full Duplex)
Filter update
rate 1
180Hz with full performance filtering and bias tracking
Orientation output
absolute & relative quaternion, Euler angles, axis angle, rotation matrix, two vector
Other output
raw sensor data, normalized sensor data, calibrated sensor data, barometric pressure, temperature
Shock survivability
5000g
Temperature range
-40C ~ 85C ( -40F ~ 185F )
Sensor2
Orientation range
360º about all axes
Orientation accuracy
TBD
Orientation resolution
<0.02º
Orientation repeatability
0.021º for all orientations
Accelerometer scale
±2g/±4g/±8g selectable (other ranges up to ±400g available)
Accelerometer resolution
16-bit effective
Accelerometer noise density
24.8 µg/√ Hz
Accelerometer sensitivity
0.00024g/digit for ±2g range
0.00048g/digit for ±4g range
0.00096g/digit for ±8g range
Accelerometer temperature sensitivity
±0.008%/°C
Gyro scale
±250/±500/±2000 º/sec selectable
Gyro resolution
Gyro angular random
Gyro bias
20-bit effective
walk3
stability3
Gyro sensitivity
<0.00005º/√ hr
<0.001º/hr average for all axes
0.00875º/sec/digit for ±250º/sec
0.01750º/sec/digit for ±500º/sec
0.070º/sec/digit for ±2000º/sec
Gyro non-linearity
0.2% full-scale
Gyro temperature sensitivity
±0.016%/°C
Compass scale
±10 Ga
Compass resolution
20-bit effective
Compass sensitivity
1 mGa/digit
Compass non-linearity
0.1% full-scale
Barometer resolution
10-bit
Barometer range
50 kPa to 115 kPa (Absolute)
Barometer sensitivity
0.15 kPa / digit
Barometer accuracy
±1 kPa
1. Depends upon communication mode and filter mode.
2. All performance data are preliminary and subject to change
3. With full filtering and bias tracking enabled
* Some parameters may be application and configuration dependent.
Specifications are subject to change.
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2.7 Physical Dimensions
2.8 Axis Assignment
All YEI 3-Space Sensor product family members have re-mappable axis assignments and axis directions. This
flexibility allows axis assignment and axis direction to match the desired end-use requirements.
The natural axes of the 3-Space Sensor HiPerGyro are as follows:
•
The positive X-axis points out of the right hand side of the sensor, which is the side that is facing right when
the LEDs face upward and USB plug faces towards you.
•
The positive Y-axis points out of the top of the sensor, the side with the LEDs.
•
The positive Z-axis points out of the front of the sensor, the side opposite the USB plug.
The natural axes are illustrated in the diagram below.
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3. Description of the 3-Space Sensor HiPerGyro
3.1 Navigation Grade Gyroscope
The primary purpose of the HiPerGyro is to act as a navigation grade gyroscope. This means that it is highly accurate
and does not suffer as much from error sources as other gyroscopes. In order to understand how to calibrate the
HiPerGyro and use the output in a meaningful way, there are a few concepts about the sensor that should be understood.
The following sections describe these concepts.
3.1.1 Fusion
The HiPerGyro uses an array of gyroscopes and other sensors in order to deliver a single high accuracy gyroscope
reading. The process of combining these sensors is called fusion, and there are several options for each phase of fusion.
•
Fusion Method: This determines how the outputs of the sensors are combined together. Currently, the options
are Averaged, which will just take a simple average of the gyroscopes, or Filtered, where the outputs are put
through a more complex algorithm which reduces the noise greatly, but is more computationally expensive than
Averaged.
•
Deadband: This sets up a deadband around the gyroscope readings so that, if it falls below a certain
threshhold, the reading will be set to zero. This can be enabled or disabled.
•
Bias Tracking: In order to reduce the effects of bias instability, the HiPerGyro can automatically track how
the bias of the gyroscopes change over time, and how the bias of the final fusion reading changes as well. It
also has a mode where gyroscopes will be compared to each other, allowing some bias tracking to occur while
the sensor is in motion.
•
Orient Gyro Filter: This will use the orientation estimate to further filter the gyroscope reading. This helps to
reduce drift greatly, but makes it more susceptible to accelerations and magnetic effects. This can be enabled
or disabled.
3.2 Orientation Estimation
Another purpose of the HiPerGyro is to estimate orientation. In order to understand how to handle this estimation and
use it in a meaningful way, there are a few concepts about the sensor that should be understood. The following sections
describe these concepts.
3.2.1 Component Sensors
The HiPerGyro estimates orientation by combining the data it gets from three types of sensors: a gyroscope, an
accelerometer, and a compass. A few things you should know about each of these sensors:
•
Accelerometer: This sensor measures the acceleration due to gravity, as well as any other accelerations that
occur. Because of this, this sensor is at its best when the 3-Space Sensor is sitting still. Most jitter seen as the
orientation of the sensor changes is due to shaking causing perturbations in the accelerometer readings. To
account for this, by default, when the 3-Space Sensor is being moved, the gyroscope becomes more
trusted(becomes a greater part of the orientation estimate), and the accelerometer becomes less trusted.
•
Gyroscope: This sensor measures angular motion. It has no ability to give any absolute orientation
information like the accelerometer or compass, and so is most useful for correcting the orientation during
sensor motion. Its role during these times becomes vital, though, as the accelerometer readings can become
unreliable during motion.
•
Compass: This sensor measures magnetic direction. The readings from the compass and accelerometer are
used together to form the absolute component of orientation, which is used to correct any short term changes
the gyroscope makes. Its readings are much more stable than those of the accelerometer, but it can be
adversely affected by any ferrous metal or magnetic objects. When the accelerometer is less trusted, the
compass is treated in the same way so as to avoid updates to orientation based on partial absolute information.
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3.2.2 Scale, Bias, and Cross-Axis Effect
The readings taken from each component sensor are not in a readily usable form. The compass and accelerometer
readings are not unit vectors, and the gyroscope readings aren't yet in radians per second. To convert them to these
forms, scale and bias must be taken into account. Scale is how much larger the range of data read from the component
sensor is than the range of data should be when it is converted. For example, if the compass were to give readings in the
range of -500 to 500 on the x axis, but we would like it to be in the range of -1 to 1, the scale would be 500. Bias is how
far the center of the data readings is from 0. If another compass read from -200 to 900 on the x axis, the bias would be
350, and the scale would be 550. The last parameter used in turning this component sensor data into usable data is
cross-axis effect. This is the tendency for a little bit of data on one axis of a sensor to get mixed up with the other two.
This is an effect experienced by the accelerometer and compass. There are 6 numbers for each of these, one to indicate
how much each axis is affected by each other axis. Values for these are generally in the range of 1 to 10%. These
parameters are applied in the following order:
1) Bias is subtracted from each axis
2) The three axes are treated as a vector and multiplied by a matrix representing scale and cross-axis
parameters
Factory calibration provides default values for these parameters for the accelerometer and compass, but end users may
need to recalibrate the sensor to obtain parameters more appropriate to their location and application. The gyroscope is
also factory calibrated, and these parameters should not change based on location or application.
3.2.3 Reference Vectors
In order to get an absolute estimation of orientation from the accelerometer and compass, the sensor needs a reference
vector for each to compare to the data read from it. The default for these are the standard direction of gravity(down)
and the standard direction of magnetic force(north), respectively.
The component sensor data and reference vectors are fed into a Kalman filter, which uses statistical techniques to
optimally combine the data into a final orientation reading.
3.2.4 Reference Orientation/Taring
Given the results of the Kalman filter, the sensor can make a good estimation of orientation, but it will likely be offset
from the actual orientation of the device by a constant angle until it has been given a reference orientation. This
reference orientation tells the sensor where you would like its zero orientation to be. The sensor will always consider
the zero orientation to be the orientation in which the plug is facing towards you and top(the side with LEDs on it)
facing up. The sensor must be given a reference orientation that represents the orientation of the sensor when it is in the
position in which you consider the plug to be towards you and the LEDs up. The act of giving this reference orientation
to the sensor is called taring, just as some scales have a tare button which can be pressed to tell the scale that nothing is
on it and it should read zero. For instructions on doing this, refer to command 64(0x40) to 66(0x42) on the command
chart.
3.3 Communication
Obtaining data about orientation from the sensor or giving values for any of its settings is done through the sensor's
communication protocol. The protocol can be used through either the USB port or the RS422 port. A complete
description of how to use this protocol is given in section 4 of this document.
3.4 Sensor Settings
3.4.1 Committing Settings
Changes made to the HiPerGyro will not be saved unless they are committed. This allows you to make changes to the
sensor and easily revert it to its previous state by resetting the chip. To commit your changes, call command 225(0xe1).
Any changes relating to the multiple reference vector mode are an exception to this rule, as all these changes are saved
immediately.
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3.4.2 Settings and Defaults
Setting Name
Purpose
Default Value
RS232 Baud Rate
Determines the speed of RS232 communication
115200
RS422 Baud Rate
Determines the speed of RS422 communication
115200
LED 0 Color
Determines the color of the first LED
0,0,255
LED 1 Color
Determines the color of the second LED
0,255,0
Calibration Mode
Determine how sensors are calibrated
Vector Correction Mode(1)
Gyro Fusion Method
Determine how gyro fusion is carried out
Filtered(3)
Bias Tracking Mode
Determine how bias tracking is carried out
Both(3)
Orient Gyro Filter
Determine if orientation plays a role in gyroscope readings
Disabled(0)
Deadband
Determines if the gyroscope reading should have a deadband on it.
Disabled(0)
For more information on these settings, see the command chart.
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4. HiPerGyro Usage/Protocol
4.1. Usage Overview
4.1.1 Protocol Overview
The 3-Space Sensor receives messages from the controlling system in the form of sequences of serial communication
bytes called packets. For ease of use and flexibility of operation, two methods of encoding commands are provided:
binary and text. Binary encoding is more compact, more efficient, and easier to access programmatically. ASCII text
encoding is more verbose and less efficient yet is easier to read and easier to access via a traditional terminal interface.
Both binary and ASCII text encoding methods share an identical command structure and support the entire 3-Space
command set.
The 3-Space Sensor buffers the incoming command stream and will only take an action once the entire packet has been
received and the checksum has been verified as correct(ASCII mode commands do not use checksums for convenience).
Incomplete packets and packets with incorrect checksums will be ignored. This allows the controlling system to send
command data at leisure without loss of functionality. The command buffer will, however, be cleared whenever the 3Space Sensor is either reset or powered off/on.
Specific details of the 3-Space Sensor protocol and its control commands are discussed in the following pages.
4.1.2 Computer Interfacing Overview
When interfacing with a computer, the HiPerGyro presents itself as a COM port, which provides an interface by which
the serial communication the protocol requires may happen. The name of this COM port is specific to the operating
system being used, and the communication interface being used. It is possible to use multiple HiPerGyro on a single
computer. Each will be assigned its own COM port. The easiest way to find out which COM port belongs to a certain
sensor is to take note of what COM port appears when that sensor is plugged in(provided the drivers have been installed
on that computer already. Otherwise, find out what COM port appears once driver installation has finished.) For more
information on how to install the sensor software on a computer and begin using it, see the Quick Start guide.
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4.2. Protocol Packet Format
4.2.1 Binary Packet Format
The binary packet size can be three or more bytes long, depending upon the nature of the command being sent to the
controller. Each packet consists of an initial “start of packet” byte, followed by a “command value” specifier byte,
followed by zero or more “command data” bytes, and terminated by a packet “checksum value” byte.
Each binary packet is at least 3 bytes in length and is formatted as shown in figure 1
247(0xF7)
First Byte – Start of Packet
Command
Second Byte – Command Value
Selected from the command chart
Command Data
…
Command Data
}
Command Data
Zero or more bytes representing
parameters to the command being called.
See the command chart for details.
Last Byte – Packet Checksum
Sum of all other bytes except the first.
Checksum
Figure 1 - Typical Binary Command Packet Format
Binary Return Values:
When a 3 Space Sensor command is called in binary mode, any data it returns will also be in binary format. For
example, if a floating point number is returned, it will be returned as its 4 byte binary representation.
For information on the floating point format, go here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_precision_floatingpoint_format
Also keep in mind that integer and floating point values coming from the sensor are stored in big-endian format.
The Checksum Value:
The checksum is computed as an arithmetic summation of all of the characters in the packet (except the first byte and
the checksum value itself) modulus 256. This gives a resulting checksum in the range 0 to 255. The checksum for
binary packets is transmitted as a single 8-bit byte value.
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4.2.2 ASCII Text Packet Format
ASCII text command packets are similar to binary command packets, but are received as a single formatted line of text.
Each text line consists of the following: an ASCII colon character followed by an integral command id in decimal,
followed by a list of ASCII encoded floating-point command values, followed by a terminating newline character. The
command id and command values are given in decimal. The ASCII encoded command values must be separated by an
ASCII comma character or an ASCII space character. Thus, legal command characters are: the colon, the comma, the
period, the digits 0 through 9, the minus sign, the new-line, the space, and the backspace. When a command calls for an
integer or byte sized parameter, the floating point number given for that parameter will be interpreted as being the
appropriate data type. For simplicity, the ASCII encoded commands follow the same format as the binary encoded
commands, but ASCII text encodings of values are used rather than raw binary encodings.
Each ASCII packet is formatted as shown in figure 2.
: Command , Data1 , Data2 , ... , DataN \n
End of Packet – The
ASCII newline character
Command Data – Zero or more bytes
representing parameters to the command
being called. See the command chart for
details.
Command Value – Selected from the command chart, in decimal.
Start of ASCII Packet – Indicated by the colon character
Figure 2 - Typical ASCII Command Packet Format
Thus the ASCII packet consists of the the following characters:
: – the ASCII colon character signifies the start of an ASCII text packet.
, – the ASCII comma character acts as a value delimiter when multiple values are specified.
. – the ASCII period character is used in floating point numbers.
0~9 – the ASCII digits are used to in integer and floating point values.
- - the ASCII minus sign is used to indicate a negative number
\n – the ASCII newline character is used to signify the end of an ASCII command packet.
\b – the ASCII backspace character can be used to backup through the partially completed line to correct
errors.
If a command is given in ASCII mode but does not have the right number of parameters, the entire command will be
ignored.
Sample ASCII commands:
:0\n
Read orientation as a quaternion
:106,2\n
Set oversample rate to 2
ASCII Return Values:
All values are returned in ASCII text format when an ASCII-format command is issued. To read the return data, simply
read data from the sensor until a Windows newline(a carriage return and a line feed) is encountered..
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4.3. Command Chart
There are over 90 different command messages that are grouped numerically by function. Unused command message
bytes are reserved for future expansion. All commands are listed in the command chart which follows.
When looking at the command charts, note the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The “Data Len” field indicates the number of additional data-bytes the command expects to follow the
command-byte itself. This number doesn't include the Start of Packet, Command, or Checksum bytes. Thus,
the total message size can be calculated by adding three bytes to the “Data Len” listed in the table.
Likewise, the “Return Data Len” field indicates the number of data-bytes the command delivers back to the
sender once the command has finished executing.
Under “Return Data Details”, each command lists the sort of data which is being returned and next to this in
parenthesis the form this data takes. For example, a quaternion is represented by 4 floating point numbers, so a
command which returns a quaternion would list “Quaternion(float x4)” for its return data details.
Command length information only applies to binary commands, as ascii commands can vary in length.
For quaternions, data is always returned in x, y, z, w order.
Euler angles are always returned in pitch, yaw, roll order.
When calling commands in ASCII mode, there is no fixed byte length for the parameter data or return data, as
the length depends on the ASCII encoding.
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4.3.1 Filtered Data Commands
Command
0(0x00)
1(0x01)
Description
Read gyroscope fusion
result
Return
Data Len
Long Description
Returns the final gyroscope reading output from the
fusion filter.
12
Returns the final accelerometer reading output from
12
the fusion filter.
Returns the final compass reading output from the
fusion filter.
12
Returns the final orientation output from the fusion
16
filter, relative to the tare orientation.
2(0x02)
Read accel fusion result
Read compass fusion
result
3(0x03)
Read orient fusion result
4(0x04)
Read all component fusion Returns the final gyroscope, accelerometer, and
results
compass readings from the fusion filters.
14(0x0E)
Set filter modes
15(0x0F)
Read filter modes
16(0x10)
Read delta theta for last
time frame(gyroscope)
17(0x11)
Read delta theta since last
read(gyroscope)
18(0x12)
Read delta theta for last
time frame(orientation)
19(0x13)
Read delta theta since last
read(orientation)
20(0x14)
Read accumulated axis
rotations since last frame
21(0x15)
Read accumulated axis
rotations since last read
22(0x16)
Read delta velocity for last
time frame
23(0x17)
Read delta velocity since
last read
24(0x18)
Read orientation filtered
accelerometer vector
25(0x19)
Read orientation filtered
compass vector
Set which types of filters are enabled or disabled.
Read which types of filters are enabled or disabled.
Read the difference in orientation, based on the
gyroscope, since the last calculation frame, as a
quaternion.
Read the difference in orientation, based on the
gyroscope, since the last call to this command, as a
quaternion.
Read the difference in orientation, based on the
fused orientation, since the last calculation frame, as
a quaternion.
Read the difference in orientation, based on the
fused orientation, since the last call to this
command, as a quaternion.
Read the time integrated sum of the gyroscope
readings since the last calculation frame. Useful in
cases where a stable rotation about a single axis is
being measured, but the overall orientation does not
matter.
Read the time integrated sum of the gyroscope
readings since the last call to this command. Useful
in cases where a stable rotation about a single axis
is being measured, but the overall orientation does
not matter.
Read the estimated change in velocity since the last
calculation frame as calculated from an orientation
compensated accelerometer reading.
Read the estimated change in velocity since the last
call to this command as calculated from an
orientation compensated accelerometer reading.
Read the orientation filtered accelerometer vector.
This should point in roughly the same direction as
the accelerometer vector, but it is much more stable
as it comes from the fused orientation.
Read the orientation filtered compass vector. This
should point in roughly the same direction as the
accelerometer vector, but it is much more stable as
it comes from the fused orientation.
36
Return Data Details
Data
Len Data Details
Vector(float x3)
0
Vector(float x3)
0
Vector(float x3)
0
Quaternion(float x4)
Gyro vector(float x3), Accel
vector(float x3), Compass
vector(float x3)
0
0
0
1
1
Mode bitfield(U8, bit 5 on
for delta theta off, bit 4 on
for orient off, bit 3 on for
compass off, bit 2 on for
accel off, bit 1 on for gyro
off)
0
16
Quaternion(float x4)
0
16
Quaternion(float x4)
0
16
Quaternion(float x4)
0
16
Quaternion(float x4)
0
12
Vector(float x3)
0
12
Vector(float x3)
0
12
Vector(float x3)
0
12
Vector(float x3)
0
12
Vector(float x3)
0
12
Vector(float x3)
0
Mode bitfield(U8, bit 5 on for
delta theta off, bit 4 on for
orient off, bit 3 on for
compass off, bit 2 on for
accel off, bit 1 on for gyro off)
4.3.2 Raw Data Commands
Command
32(0x20)
33(0x21)
Description
Read single raw gyro
Read single accel raw
Long Description
Read the raw value from a single gyroscope.
Read the raw value from a single accelerometer.
34(0x22)
35(0x23)
36(0x24)
37(0x25)
Read single compass raw
Read all gyros raw
Read all accels raw
Read all compasses raw
Read all raw with
timestamp
Read raw barometer
Read the raw value from a single compass.
Read the raw values from all gyroscopes.
Read the raw values from all accelerometer.
Read the raw values from all compasses.
Read the raw values from all sensors,along with a
timestamp.
Read the raw barometer value.
38(0x26)
39(0x27)
14
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
6
Raw vector(short x3)
6
Raw vector(short x3)
6
96
24
24
148
2
Raw vector(short x3)
Raw vector(short x3) x16
Raw vector(short x3) x4
Raw vector(short x3) x4
Timestamp(U32),Raw
vector(short x3) x24
Raw value(short)
Data
Len Data Details
1 Index(U8)
1 Index(U8)
1
0
0
0
0
0
Index(U8)
User's Manual
4.3.3 Calibrated Data Commands
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Command
Description
Long Description
48(0x30)
Read single gyro
49(0x31)
50(0x32)
51(0x33)
52(0x34)
53(0x35)
Read single accel
Read single compass
Read all gyros
Read all accels
Read all compasses
Read the calibrated value from a single gyroscope.
Read the calibrated value from a single
accelerometer.
Read the calibrated value from a single compass.
Read the calibrated values from all gyroscopes.
Read the calibrated values from all accelerometer.
Read the calibrated values from all compasses.
54(0x36)
Read all with timestamp
56(0x38)
Read gyro temperature C
Read the calibrated values from all sensors,along
with a timestamp.
Read the calibrated temperature of a gyroscope in
degrees C.
57(0x39)
Read gyro temperature F
Read the calibrated temperature of a gyroscope in
degrees F.
58(0x3A)
Read all gyro temperatures Read the calibrated temperatures of all gyroscopes
C
in degrees C.
Data
Len Data Details
12
Vector(float x3)
1
Index(U8)
12
12
192
48
48
Vector(float
Vector(float
Vector(float
Vector(float
Vector(float
1
1
0
0
0
Index(U8)
Index(U8)
292
Timestamp(U32),Vector(flo
at x3) x24
0
4
Temperature(float)
1
Index(U8)
4
Temperature(float)
1
Index(U8)
64
Temperature(float)*16
0
x3)
x3)
x3) x16
x3) x4
x3) x4
4.3.4 Orientation Fusion Commands
Command
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Data
Len Data Details
Long Description
64(0x40)
65(0x41)
66(0x42)
Description
Tare with current
orientation
Tare with quaternion
Read tare orientation
Set the tare orientation to the current orientation.
Set the tare orientation to the give quaternion.
Read the tare orientation.
0
0
0
Quaternion(float x4)
0
16
0
67(0x43)
Read covariance matrix
Read the current Kalman filter covariance matrix.
0
Covariance matrix(float x16)
0
68(0x44)
Set gyro enabled
Enable or disable a gyroscope.
0
69(0x45)
Read gyro enabled
Read the enabled state of a gyroscope.
1
70(0x46)
Set accel enabled
Enable or disable a accelerometer.
0
71(0x47)
Read accel enabled
Read the enabled state of a acclerometer.
1
72(0x48)
Set compass enabled
Enable or disable a compass.
0
73(0x49)
Read compass enabled
Read the enabled state of a compass.
1
74(0x4A)
Set reference vectors
Set accelerometer and compass reference vectors.
0
75(0x4B)
Read reference vectors
Read accelerometer and compass reference vectors.
15
24
State(U8, 0 for disabled, 1
for enabled)
State(U8, 0 for disabled, 1
for enabled)
2
Index(U8), State(U8, 0 for
disabled, 1 for enabled)
1
Index(U8)
2
Index(U8), State(U8, 0 for
disabled, 1 for enabled)
1
2
State(U8, 0 for disabled, 1
for enabled)
1
24
Accel ref vector(float x3),
Compass ref vector(float
x3)
Quaternion(float x4)
0
Index(U8)
Index(U8), State(U8, 0 for
disabled, 1 for enabled)
Index(U8)
Accel ref vector(float x3),
Compass ref vector(float x3)
User's Manual
4.3.5 Gyro Fusion Commands
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Command
Description
Long Description
96(0x60)
Set gyro fusion method
Set the filtering method the gyroscope fusion uses.
0
97(0x61)
Read gyro fusion method
Read the filtering method the gyroscope fusion uses.
1
98(0x62)
Set deadband
Enable or disable the deadband.
0
99(0x63)
Read deadband
Read the enabled state of the deadband.
1
100(0x64)
Set deadband threshold
Set the threshold used for stillness by the deadband.
101(0x65)
Read the threshold used for stillness by the
Read deadband threshold deadband.
102(0x66)
Set bias tracking mode
Set the bias tracking method used by gyroscope
fusion.
Read the bias tracking method used by gyroscope
fusion.
Set the fused gyroscope reading bias.
Read the fused gyroscope reading bias.
Read the stillness value used by bias tracking and
the deadband.
103(0x67)
104(0x68)
105(0x69)
Read bias tracking mode
Set fusion bias
Read fusion bias
106(0x6A)
Read sensor stillness
Set bias tracking stillness
Set the threshold used for stillness by bias tracking.
threshold
Read bias tracking
stillness threshold
Read the stillness threshold used by bias tracking.
107(0x6B)
108(0x6C)
16
4
Method(U8, 0 for average, 3
for filtered)
4
State(U8, 0 for disabled, 1
for enabled)
State(U8, 0 for disabled, 1 for
enabled)
0
4
Stillness(float)
1
Method(U8, 0 for none, 1 for
gyro bias only, 2 for fusion
bias only, 3 for both, 7 for
both with no temp bias
tracking)
Stillness(float)
Method(U8, 0 for none, 1
for gyro bias only, 2 for
fusion bias only, 3 for both,
7 for both with no temp bias
tracking)
Vector(float x3)
0
12
0
Stillness(float)
0
0
4
0
1
0
1
0
12
Data
Len Data Details
Method(U8, 0 for average, 3
1 for filtered)
4
Stillness(float)
0
Vector(float x3)
Stillness(float)
User's Manual
4.3.6 Calibration Commands
Command
Description
128(0x80)
131(0x83)
Calibrate all gyro biases
Set gyro calibration
parameters
Read gyro calibration
parameters
132(0x84)
Set gyro temperature
parameters
130(0x82)
135(0x87)
Read gyro temperature
parameters
Set accel calibration
parameters
Read accel calibration
parameters
136(0x88)
Set accel temperature
parameters
133(0x85)
134(0x86)
Return
Long Description
Data Len Return Data Details
Run gyroscope bias calibration. Both LEDs will turn
purple during this process. Leave the sensor as still
as possible until the LEDs revert to their normal
colors.
0
Set bias and scale parameters for a gyroscope.
0
Read bias and scale parameters for a gyroscope.
48
Set temperature parameters for a gyroscope.
0
Read temperature parameters for a gyroscope.
48
Set bias and scale parameters for an accelerometer.
Read bias and scale parameters for an
accelerometer.
0
Set temperature parameters for an accelerometer.
139(0x8B)
Read accel temperature
parameters
Read temperature parameters for an accelerometer.
Set compass calibration
Set bias and scale parameters for a compass.
parameters
Read compass calibration
parameters
Read bias and scale parameters for a compass.
140(0x8C)
Set compass temperature
parameters
Set temperature parameters for a compass.
137(0x89)
138(0x8A)
48
Read compass
temperature parameters
Read temperature parameters for a compass.
48
142(0x8E)
Set calibration mode
Set calibration mode for sensors.
0
Read calibration mode
Read calibration mode for sensors.
1
144(0x90)
Set lookup table vertex
Set a vertex in the vector lookup table.
0
145(0x91)
Read lookup table vertex
Set ortho calibration from
current orient
Read a vertex in the vector lookup table.
Set an ortho calibration point using the current
orientation.
12
146(0x92)
Set ortho calibration point Set an ortho calibration point manually.
0
149(0x95)
Read ortho calibration
point
Read an ortho calibration point.
12
150(0x96)
151(0x97)
Perform ortho calibration
Clear ortho calibration
Use the ortho calibration data to fill the lookup table.
Clear the ortho calibration data.
0
0
152(0x98)
Set gyro range
Set the range of a single gyroscope.
Bias(float x3), Matrix(float
x9)
Bias per degree(float x3),
Linear scale per
degree(float x9)
Bias per degree(float x3),
Linear scale per
degree(float x9)
Mode(U8, 0 for scale and
bias only, 1 for vector
correction)
Value(float x3)
Read gyro range
Read the range of a single gyroscope.
1
154(0x9A)
Set accel range
Set the range of a single accelerometer.
0
Vector(float x3)
49
1
Index(U8)
49
Index(U8), Bias per
degree(float x3), Linear scale
per degree(float x9)
1
1
Index(U8)
Index(U8), Bias(float x3),
Matrix(float x9)
49
Index(U8)
Index(U8), Bias per
degree(float x3), Linear scale
per degree(float x9)
1
Index(U8)
1
Mode(U8, 0 for scale and bias
only, 1 for vector correction)
0
3
Value type(U8, 0 for
compass, 1 for
accelerometer), Index(short),
Value(float x3)
Value type(U8, 0 for
compass, 1 for
accelerometer), Index(short)
14
Type(U8, 0 for compass, 1 for
accel), Index(U8), Vector(float
x3)
2
Type(U8, 0 for compass, 1 for
accel), Index(U8)
0
0
2
Range(U8, 0 for 250 dps, 1
for 500 dps, 2 for 2000 dps)
1
2
155(0x9B)
Read accel range
Read the range of a single accelerometer.
1
156(0x9C)
157(0x9D)
Set compass range
Read compass range
Set the range of a single compass.
Read the range of a single compass.
0
1
Range(U8, 0 for 10 G)
158(0x9E)
Set gyro oversample rate
Set the current oversample rate for all gyroscopes.
0
159(0x9F)
Read gyro oversample rate Read the current oversample rate for all gyroscopes.
17
Index(U8)
Index(U8), Bias per
degree(float x3), Linear scale
per degree(float x9)
0
Range(U8, 0 for 2G, 1 for
4G, 2 for 8G)
1
Index(U8), Bias(float x3),
Matrix(float x9)
Index(U8)
Index(U8), Bias(float x3),
Matrix(float x9)
15
0
153(0x99)
1
49
Bias(float x3), Matrix(float
x9)
0
148(0x94)
1
49
Bias per degree(float x3),
Linear scale per
degree(float x9)
0
141(0x8D)
143(0x8F)
Bias(float x3), Matrix(float
x9)
0
48
0
49
0
48
Data
Len Data Details
Oversample rate(U8, 1 to
10, 1 being no
oversampling)
Index(U8), Range(U8, 0 for
250 dps, 1 for 500 dps, 2 for
2000 dps)
Index(U8)
Index(U8), Range(U8, 0 for
2G, 1 for 4G, 2 for 8G)
1
2
1
Index(U8)
Index(U8), Range(U8, 0 for 10
G)
Index(U8)
1
Oversample rate(U8, 1 to 10,
1 being no oversampling)
0
User's Manual
Command
160(0xa0)
161(0xa1)
Description
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Long Description
Sets the alpha value of the temperature's low pass
Set temperature filter alpha filter.
Read temperature filter
Reads the alpha value of the temperature's low pass
alpha
filter.
4.3.7 System Commands
0
4
4
Alpha value(float)
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Command
Description
Long Description
224(0xe0)
225(0xe1)
226(0xe2)
227(0xe3)
Restore factory settings
Commit settings
Software reset
Set idle mode
Restore all settings to their defaults. Does not
automatically commit this.
Commit current changes to flash.
Reset the sensor from software.
Pauses or resumes the execution of all filters.
0
0
0
0
228(0xe4)
229(0xe5)
230(0xe6)
231(0xe7)
Read idle mode
Enter bootloader mode
Read hardware id
Read software id
Reads the state of execution of the filters.
Put the sensor into bootloader mode.
Read hardware version information.
Read software version information.
1
0
32
32
232(0xe8)
Set serial rate
Set the communication rate of a serial port.
0
233(0xe9)
Read serial rate
4
235(0xeb)
Read current update rate
Read the communication rate of a serial port.
Read the current time taken by the filter loop per
cycle, in microseconds.
236(0xec)
237(0xed)
Set serial number
Read serial number
Set the serial number.
Read the serial number.
0
4
238(0xee)
Set LED color
Set the color of an LED.
0
239(0xef)
Read LED color
Read the color of an LED.
4
18
4
Data
Len Data Details
0
Data
Len Data Details
0
0
0
1
Mode(0 for no idle, 1 for
idle)
Version string
Version string
Baud rate(U32)
Update rate(U32,
microseconds)
Serial number(U32)
Red(U8), Green(U8),
Blue(U8)
Alpha value(float)
Mode(0 for no idle, 1 for idle)
0
0
0
0
5
Index(U8, 1 for RS422, 0 for
debug port), Baud rate(U32)
1
Index(U8, 1 for RS422, 0 for
debug port)
0
8
0
Code(Byte x4), Serial
number(U32)
4
LED index(U8, 0 or 1),
Red(U8), Green(U8), Blue(U8)
1
LED index(U8, 0 or 1)
User's Manual
Appendix
USB Connector
The 3-Space Sensor has a 5-pin USB Type-B jack and can be connected via a standard 5-pin mini USB cable.
RS422 Connector
The RS422 connector provides a means to provide to and communicate with the 3-Space Sensor via full duplex RS422
signals. The RS422 connector is a 6-pin 2mm Hirose part number DF3A-6P-2DS and allows connection of several style
mating connector including IDC and crimp pin options. See the DF3A series datasheet for all mating connector options.
The signals of the RS422 connector are assigned as follows:
Signal Number
Signal Description
1
+3.3 ~ +6 vdc (External Power Input)
2
RS422 A Signal (RxD+ into unit)
3
RS422 B Signal (RxD- into unit)
4
RS422 Z Signal (TxD- from unit)
5
RS422 Y Signal (TxD+ from unit)
6
Gnd (Shared power and signal ground )
Mating plugs are available from Yost Engineering, Inc. or from other electronics vendors.
Note that the RS422 power input is provided as a convenient way to provide power along with communications via a
single connector. Thus, the external power input is only required when the unit is not being powered via USB.
Hex / Decimal Conversion Chart
First Hexadecimal Digit
Second Hexadecimal digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
0
000
001
002
003
004
005
006
007
008
009
010
011
012
013
014
015
1
016
017
018
019
020
021
022
023
024
025
026
027
028
029
030
031
2
032
033
034
035
036
037
038
039
040
041
042
043
044
045
046
047
3
048
049
050
051
052
053
054
055
056
057
058
059
060
061
062
063
4
064
065
066
067
068
069
070
071
072
073
074
075
076
077
078
079
5
080
081
082
083
084
085
086
087
088
089
090
091
092
093
094
095
6
096
097
098
099
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
7
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
8
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
9
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
A
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
B
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
C
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
D
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
E
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
F
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
19
User's Manual
Notes:
Serial Number: _____________________________________
20
YEI Technology
630 Second Street
Portsmouth, Ohio 45662
Toll-Free: 888-395-9029
Phone: 740-355-9029
www.YeiTechnology.com
www.3SpaceSensor.com
Patents Pending
©2007-2012 Yost Engineering, Inc.
Printed in USA
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