BE184114.book - Brüel & Kjær

BE184114.book - Brüel & Kjær
BE1841-14_Cover.fm Page 1 Wednesday, December 18, 2013 10:47 AM
Technical
Documentation
Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233
For use with
Hand-held Analyzer Type 2270
HEADQUARTERS: Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S · DK-2850 Nærum · Denmark
Telephone: +45 7741 2000 · Fax: +45 4580 1405 · www.bksv.com · [email protected]
Local representatives and service organisations worldwide
ËBE-1841---ÉÎ
User Manual
English BE 1841–14
Sound Intensity Software
BZ-7233
For use with
Hand-held Analyzer Type 2270
User Manual
BE 184114
December 2013
Safety Considerations
This apparatus has been designed and tested in accordance with IEC/EN 61010 – 1 and
ANSI/UL 61010 – 1 Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for Measurement,
Control and Laboratory Use. This manual contains information and warnings which must be
followed to ensure safe operation and to retain the apparatus in safe condition. Special note should
be made of the following:
Safety Symbols
The apparatus will be marked with this symbol when it is important that you refer to the
associated warning statements given in the manual.
Protective Earth Terminal
Hazardous Voltage
Explosion Hazard
The equipment is not designed to be used in potentially explosive environments. It should not be
operated in the presence of flammable liquids or gases.
Warnings
•
•
•
Switch off all power to equipment before connecting or disconnecting their digital interface.
Failure to do so could damage the equipment
Whenever it is likely that the correct function or operating safety of the apparatus has been
impaired, it must be made inoperative and be secured against unintended operation
Any adjustment, maintenance and repair of the open apparatus under voltage must be
avoided as far as possible and, if unavoidable, must be carried out only by trained service
personnel
• Do not dispose of electronic equipment or batteries as unsorted municipal waste
• It is your responsibility to contribute to a clean and healthy environment by using
the appropriate local return and collection systems
• Hazardous substances in electronic equipment or batteries may have detrimental
effects on the environment and human health
• The symbol shown to the left indicates that separate collection systems must be used
for any discarded equipment or batteries marked with that symbol
• Waste electrical and electronic equipment or batteries may be returned to your
local Brüel & Kjær representative or to Brüel & Kjær Headquarters for disposal
Trademarks
Microsoft and Windows, Vista and Excel are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Pentium is a trademark of the Intel Corporation.
Copyright  2013, Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form, or
by any means, without prior written consent from Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement
A/S, Nærum, Denmark
Contents
CHAPTER 1
Introduction......................................................................................................... 1
1.1
1.2
Welcome .............................................................................................................. 1
How to Use this Manual ....................................................................................... 1
CHAPTER 2
Concept and Contents of Type 2270-G ............................................................ 3
2.1
2.2
Sound Intensity .................................................................................................... 3
Type 2270-G Overview ........................................................................................ 4
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer...................................................................................... 7
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
Connecting the Microphones to the Analyzer ...................................................... 7
Setting up Type 2270-G..................................................................................... 10
Calibration.......................................................................................................... 13
Tutorials ............................................................................................................. 22
CHAPTER 4
Measuring.......................................................................................................... 39
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
Measurement Control ........................................................................................
Displaying Measurement Parameters................................................................
Aural Feedback..................................................................................................
Validation ...........................................................................................................
Temporal Variability ...........................................................................................
Compass............................................................................................................
39
41
49
51
52
52
CHAPTER 5
Viewing Results ................................................................................................ 55
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
Displaying Result Parameters............................................................................
Examine Results ................................................................................................
Validation ...........................................................................................................
Creating New Projects Based on Recalled Projects ..........................................
Exporting, Post-processing and Reporting ........................................................
55
60
64
64
65
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice ......................................................................................... 67
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
Sound Pressure and Sound Power....................................................................
What is Sound Intensity? ...................................................................................
Why Measure Sound Intensity? .........................................................................
Sound Fields ......................................................................................................
Particle Velocity .................................................................................................
How is Sound Intensity Measured? ...................................................................
The Measuring System ......................................................................................
67
67
68
68
70
70
71
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
Reference Levels ...............................................................................................
Pressure-intensity Index ....................................................................................
Pressure-residual Intensity Index.......................................................................
Dynamic Capability ............................................................................................
Measurement Limitations...................................................................................
Using Sound Intensity to Determine Sound Power............................................
Spatial Averaging...............................................................................................
What about Background Noise? ........................................................................
Using Sound Power Standards..........................................................................
73
74
74
75
75
84
84
85
87
CHAPTER 7
Specifications ................................................................................................. 103
APPENDIX A
Setup Parameters ........................................................................................... 111
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6
A.7
A.8
A.9
Input, Range Setting (Auto Range), Spacer
and Transducer ................................................................................................ 111
Standard .......................................................................................................... 112
Bandwidth ........................................................................................................ 113
Measurement Control: Measurement Mode, Preset Time, Segment
Order, Auto Save ............................................................................................. 113
Surface: Dimensions........................................................................................ 114
Units................................................................................................................. 115
Output Socket Signal ....................................................................................... 115
Headphone Signal ........................................................................................... 116
Generator......................................................................................................... 116
APPENDIX B
Measurement and Calculated Parameters ................................................... 117
B.1
B.2
Measurement Parameters ............................................................................... 117
Calculated Parameters .................................................................................... 117
INDEX .................................................................................................................
121
1
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1
Welcome
Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 is one of the many application packages available for
Hand-held Analyzer Type 2270.
If you are newcomer to Hand-held Analyzer Type 2270, you are strongly advised to study the
User Manual for Hand-held Analyzers Types 2250 and 2270 (BE 1713) before reading this
manual. Studying the User Manual for Hand-held Analyzers Types 2250 and 2270 will enable
a better understanding of the platform concept and how the BZ-7233 application fits into the
portfolio of available options. You will also become familiar with some terms used in this
manual that apply to Type 2270 in general.
This manual details Type 2270 for sound intensity measurements, how to measure sound
intensity and how to evaluate results. Anything not pertaining to BZ-7233 will be found in the
User Manual for Hand-held Analyzers Types 2250 and 2270 (BE 1713).
This manual assumes that you are familiar with the concepts of measuring sound using a
microphone and some form of sound level meter/analyzer.
1.2
How to Use this Manual
1.2.1
Conventions Used in this Manual
Instructions and descriptions that refer to Type 2270 pushbuttons are shown with the
pushbutton icons as seen on the instrument.
Icons, Buttons and Tabs Used on the Screen
Indicated by bold type face (for example, tap the Main Menu icon).
Parameter Text Appearing on the Screen
Parameters, instructions and descriptions appearing on the screen are indicated by italics (for
example, Measurement Mode).
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Path Denotations
Indicated by capitals (for example, SETUP\BZ7222\).
Menu/Screen Navigation
Indicated by italics (for example, Setup > Frequency Settings > BB Peak).
1.2.2
Beginner Users of Acoustic Measurement Equipment
Before you read the rest of this manual, read Brüel & Kjær’s primer on Measuring Sound. The
Primer will give you a basic idea of acoustic measurements. It can be found on the
www.bksv.com Web site, by typing ‘Primer’ in the search window. The Web site also contains
other information you might find useful.
To best understand the concepts and terms related to sound intensity, it is also recommended to
read Chapter 6.
Further information is available in the On-line Help installed on Type 2270.
1.2.3
Experienced Users of Acoustic Measurement Equipment
The manual is designed so that you do not have to read all of it to be able to use the instrument.
It is built around the most frequently used operations, which are as follows:
•
A brief introduction to sound intensity and Type 2270-G (Chapter 2)
•
Preparing the Analyzer for measurements: Mounting microphones, setting analyzer
parameters, calibration and tutorials (Chapter 3)
•
Making measurements: Measurement control, display measured parameters, feedback
validation and creating new projects from recalled projects (Chapter 4)
•
Results: Display result parameters, map data, validate, recall projects, exporting, postprocessing and reporting (Chapter 5)
•
A thorough background in the theory and practice of sound intensity (Chapter 6)
•
Specifications (Chapter 7)
•
Setup Parameters (Appendix A)
•
Measurement and Calculated Parameters (Appendix B)
It is recommended that you read the entire manual for appropriate procedures on how to use
Type 2270 and obtain accurate results.
3
Chapter 2
Concept and Contents of Type 2270-G
2.1
Sound Intensity
In simple terms, sound pressure is what a person hears in a given area. Sound pressure is the
result of sound power being influenced by environment at the moment of measurement. Sound
power is the rate of the energy emitted from the sound source and sound intensity is a timeaveraged vector-quantity rate of energy flow per unit area. And as it is time averaged, it allows
for cases where energy is travelling back and forth and cancelling itself out; i.e., if there is no
net energy flow, there can be no net intensity (however, in this case there will be a reactive
intensity, which is described in section 6.4.3).
2.1.1
Why Measure Sound Intensity?
One application is workplace noise control. On the factory floor sound pressure measurements
can determine if the workers risk hearing damage and if the noise should be reduced. To reduce
the noise, we need to know how much noise is being radiated and by what machine. Therefore
the sound power of the individual machines must be known and then ranked by their sound
power. Once located, the noise sources of the machine making the most noise can be measured
to locate the individual components radiating noise.
Sound power can be derived from sound pressure only under carefully controlled conditions
where special assumptions are made about the sound field. Specially constructed rooms such as
anechoic or reverberant chambers fulfil these requirements, but the noise source must be
placed in these rooms to calculate sound power, which may have been logistically impossible
or cost prohibitive. All this can be done in situ with intensity measurements.
In situ measurement with Type 2270-G can provide the necessary information to determine a
course of action for complying with appropriate local and international standards
and requirements.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
2.2
Type 2270-G Overview
Hand-held Sound Intensity System Type 2270-G is a powerful combination of Hand-held
Analyzer Type 2270, Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 and Sound Intensity Probe Kit
Type 3654 and enables intensity measurements for noise source location and sound power
calculations. Automatic measurement guidance and aural feedback during measurements allow
smooth scans of the area under investigation. The system also provides on-the-spot analyses of
sound intensity spectra and calculation of sound power. Results can be exported via Measurement Partner Suite BZ-5503 to Excel® for further calculation and reporting or to PULSE™
Noise Source Identification Type 7752 for noise contour mapping. The system is part of the
Type 2270 hand-held platform, which has a vast range of sound and vibration analysis applications.
Fig.2.1
Hand-held Sound Intensity
System Type 2270-G
CHAPTER 2
Concept and Contents of Type 2270-G
Fig.2.2
Hand-held Sound Intensity System Type 2270-G (included items)
QA-0236
Tape Measure
KE-0458
Carrying Case
DP-0888
Intensity Adaptor
for 4231
HT-0015
Earphones
10-pin
UA-0781
Ellipsoidal
Windscreen
4197
Sound Intensity
Microphone Pair
2683
Dual Preamplifier
10-pin
BZ-7233
Sound Intensity
Software
10-pin 10-pin
UA-1439
Extension
Stem
10-pin
UA-1440
Handle with
Integral Cable
2270 Hand-held Analyzer
including
4189 Microphone
ZE-0032 Microphone Preamplifier
100129/1
5
6
Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
7
Chapter 3
Setting up the Analyzer
3.1
Connecting the Microphones to the Analyzer
3.1.1
Mounting the Microphones
NOTE: Before mounting the microphones, please observe the following precautions:
•
Do not touch the microphone diaphragm with anything – it is very delicate
•
Gently screw on the microphones to avoid damaging the threads
•
Keep dust and foreign matter off the microphone diaphragm
The microphones normally used with this software are the phase matched 1/2 Sound Intensity
Microphone Pair Type 4197, which require an external polarization voltage of 200 V.
To mount a microphone pair:
1) Identify Microphone Type 4197 Part1 and Part2, tube connected to cable A and cable B
and the compression joints (Fig. 3.1)
Fig. 3.1
1. Microphone part numbers, 2. Cables A and B, 3. Compression joints
1
2) Loosen the bottom compression joint screw and gently retract the bottom tube
(connected to the cable marked B).
3) Gently screw Microphone Type 4197 Part2 onto the bottom tube.
4) Select the desired spacer (for more information in spacer selection, see section 6.9.7)
and gently screw the side of the spacer with the metal insert onto Microphone
Type 4187 Part1.
5) Gently screw Microphone Type 4187 Part1 onto the top tube (connected to cable A).
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
6) Slightly loosen the compression joint for the top tube so that the tube can twist.
7) Gently push the bottom tube towards Microphone Type 4187 Part1 (twisting the top tube
as necessary to align the microphone pair) until the nib on the end of Type 4187 Part2
slots into the hole on the spacer.
The general position of the tubes should as shown in Fig. 3.2.
8) Tighten both compression joints.
3.1.2
Conecting the Probe to the Analyzer
NOTE: Do not mount the probe directly onto the Analyzer. If you do so by mistake, you will
need to remove it by gently prising the probe out with a small screwdriver.
The probe should be mounted onto the Extension Stem UA-1439, which is attached to the
Handle with Integral Cable UA-1440, which is then connected to the Analyzer.
3.1.3
Mounting the Probe onto the Handle
The probe can be connected directly to the handle if necessary (i.e., space considerations), but
because it is difficult to remove, this is not recommended.
To mount the probe onto the handle, simply insert the probe plug into the input socket of the
handle, making sure it snaps into position
3.1.4
Mounting the Probe onto the Extension Stem
To mount the probe onto the extension stem, insert the LEMO connector at the bottom of the
probe into the socket of the extension stem, pressing gently (rotating if necessary to correctly
align the LEMO connectors) until it snaps into position. Push the securing sleeve up and screw
the sleeve into position (Fig. 3.2).
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
9
Fig. 3.2
The probe in position on
the extension stem
3.1.5
Mounting the Extension Stem onto the Handle
Insert the probe plug into the input socket at the top of the handle. Push into position and secure
by turning the threaded securing sleeve.
3.1.6
Removing the Probe from the Handle or Extension Stem
To remove the probe from the handle, slide back the locking ring and gently pull out the probe.
When removing the probe from the extension stem, unscrew the threaded securing sleeve, slide
back the locking ring and gently pull out the probe.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
3.2
Setting up Type 2270-G
To set up Type 2270 for the Sound Intensity Project Template:
1) Select the SOUND INTENSITY Project Template. (see section 3.3.1 of Hand-held
Analyzers Types 2250 and 2270 – User Manual for more details on templates.) The
Project Template is displayed on the black banner at the top of the screen (see Fig. 3.3). If
this banner does not display SOUND INTENSITY, tap on the banner and select SOUND
INTENSITY from the drop-down menu and then select Open from the subsequent dropdown menu.
Fig. 3.3
Template line displaying:
a. Template, b. Standard
and c. SI Task
a.
b.
c.
2) Measurements can be stored on the internal disk, or as an optional storage method, insert
an SD card in the SD Card slot, a USB memory stick in the USB Standard A slot
(hardware version 4 only) or CF card in the CF card slot (hardware versions 1 – 3 only).
The slots are located on the connector panel described in Hand-held Analyzers Types
2250 and 2270 – User Manual. You will be notified that a memory card has been
inserted – select Yes to change the default measurement path to the memory card.
3) Tap the Main Menu icon
and select Explorer. Create a job folder for the
measurements and set the default measurement job/path as described in Chapter 6 of
Hand-held Analyzers Types 2250 and 2270 – User Manual.
4) Tap
and select Setup. The Setup screen, Full tab will appear, see Fig. 3.4.
Fig. 3.4
The SETUP screen
See Appendix A for details
on the setup parameters
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
11
5) Set Input:
–
Input: Top Socket
–
Range Setting: Low Range or High Range
NOTE: Pressing
before a measurement institutes Auto Range, which
automatically selects High or Low range, as appropriate
–
Spacer: Between 6 and 200 mm (12 mm is recommended)
–
Input Ch.1: Enter the microphone pair being used and specify Windscreen Correction
if applicable
NOTE: Selecting a microphone pair for Input Ch.1 will apply the same settings to
Input Ch.2
NOTE: 1/4” microphones will need to be individually input
If the microphone pair does not appear in the list, they must be defined:
a)
Tap
and select Transducers.
b) Tap the New Transducer icon
and select Microphone Pair. The microphone
pair is then created as 4197_P1 (0) and 4197_P2 (0) and automatically selected as
input for Ch. 1 and Ch. 2.
c)
Tap on 4197_P1 (0) to open it.
d) If the microphone pair is a Type 4181 pair, tap on Microphone Type and
select 4181.
e)
Tap Serial No. and insert serial number of the microphone pair.
f)
Tap
when finished.
g) Tap Preamplifier ID No. and insert serial number of the preamplifier.
h) Tap
when finished.
You should now have a screen like Fig. 3.5.
Fig. 3.5
Transducer input screen
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
6) Set Standard (see section 6.16): None, ISO 9614–1, ISO 9614–2, ANSI S12.12 or
ECMA 160
7) Set Bandwidth:
–
Bandwidth: 1/1-octave or 1/3-octave
8) Set Measurement Control:
–
SI Task: Sound Power/Mapping, Temp. Variability or Compass
–
Measurement Mode: Manual or Automatic
–
Preset Time: Enter time
–
Segment Order: Select measurement pattern from drop-down list
–
Automatic Save: Yes or No
9) Set Surface:
–
Total Surface Type: Box (the number or surfaces will be set to five, prearranged in the
Box pattern) or Custom (the number of surfaces can be user-defined)
–
Selected Surface: Individual surface parameters (Surface Name, Surface Height,
Rows, Columns, Segment Height and Segment Width) are valid for the selected surface
–
Surface Name: Enter a name for the selected surface
–
Surface Height: Enter the total height for the area to be measured. (This will autopopulate if Rows and then Segment Height were stipulated.)
–
Surface Width: Enter the total width for the area to be measured. (This will autopopulate if Columns and then Segment Width were stipulated.)
–
Rows: Enter the number of rows into which the total height will be segmented
–
Columns: Enter the number of columns into which the total height will be segmented
–
Segment Height: Enter the height of the individual segments. (This will auto-populate
if Rows and then Surface Height were stipulated.)
–
Segment Width: Enter the width of the individual segments. (This will auto-populate if
Columns and then Surface Width were stipulated.)
Repeat specifying individual surface parameters for each surface.
NOTE: You can set Height and Width in metres (SI) or feet (US/UK) – set in
Preferences > Regional Settings > Dimension Unit.
10) Set Signal Recording (requires license for Signal Recording Option BZ-7226):
NOTE: You can record the signal in a 2-channel .WAV file for further analysis using
Brüel & Kjær’s PULSE™ Multi-analyzer platform or just for listening and validation
purposes.
–
Recording Mode: Off or Automatic for recording during the measurement.
–
Recording Quality: High (20 kHz), Medium (10 kHz), Fair (6.6 kHz) or Low
(3.3 kHz) in accordance with your needs.
NOTE: High quality requires more disk space than low quality – see details in
Specifications
–
Resolution: 16 or 24 bit
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
13
NOTE: 24 bit at High (20 kHz) recording quality is not available for hardware
versions 1 – 3
11) Set Output Socket Signal:
–
Source: Off, Intensity, AF, Intensity, CF, Intensity, ZF or Generator
If Generator is selected Generator settings will be available
–
Lowest Level (= 0 V) (only availible if Source is set to Intensity, AF, CF or ZF): From
– 20 to 160 dB
12) Set Headphone Signal:
–
Aural Feedback: Off or On
–
Aural Feedback Gain: Enter the + or – dB for headphone volume
13) Set Generator:
–
Noise Type: White or Pink
–
Level[re. 1 V]: From –80.0 to 0.0 (use number pad or the arrows (up/down))
–
Bottom Frequency: Incrementally from 50 Hz to 10 kHz
–
Top Frequency: Incrementally from 50 Hz to 10 kHz
14) To exit the screen, tap the Close icon
.
3.3
Calibration
3.3.1
Using Type 4297 for Sound Pressure and Phase Calibration
To calibrate the microphone pair using Sound Intensity Calibrator Type 4297:
1) Place the calibrator on a clean, flat surface. Lift the upper half to a near vertical position, as
shown in Fig. 3.6 (to open the unit, lift the black handle into the vertical position and turn
it counterclockwise) and remove the protection plug. This exposes the intensity probe
holder and the black plastic button that gives access to the battery compartment.
14
Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig. 3.6
The unit is open and ready
to receive the sound
intensity probe
2) Place the Sound Intensity Probe into the holder (Fig. 3.7).
Fig. 3.7
Sound Intensity Probe
in holder
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
15
NOTE: For best results, the spacer should be removed. But the spacer should be used to
set the correct distance by placing it between the microphone pair without screwing in the
spacer (see Fig. 3.8.), tightening the compression joint to hold the slider in place and then
removing the spacer for placement into the calibrator.
Fig. 3.8
Spacer as a guide
3) Close the unit by reversing the procedure described above.
Sound Pressure Level Calibration
Type 2270-G is now ready for sound pressure calibration.
NOTE: Minimise vibrations at your work surface/equipment during calibration as vibrations
will falsely affect readings.
1) With the sound intensity probe connected to Type 2270-G, switch on the Analyzer and
select Sound Intensity Project Template.
2) Ensure that the Analyzer is properly set up for calibration with the calibrator to be used.
a)
Tap
and select Setup.
b) Expand Input by tapping it and ensure that the Input line reads Top Socket and that
the Spacer line reads 12 mm.
c)
Tap
and select Transducers.
If the transducers are not in the system, see section 3.2, step 5) Set Input: for
instructions on entering a new microphone pair.
3) Tap
and select Calibration. The Calibration screen will appear (Fig. 3.9).
16
Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig. 3.9
Calibration screen
4) On the Details tab:
a)
Tap Calibrator, select 4297.
b) Tap Calibration level and enter 94 dB.
5) On the Level tab:
a)
Tap Ambient Temperature and enter the current temperature.
NOTE: You can set temperature to Celsius (SI) or Fahrenheit (US/UK) – set in
Preferences > Regional Settings > Temperature Unit.
b) Tap Ambient Pressure and enter the current barometric pressure.
6) Press the Start button on the Type 4297 control panel (see Fig. 3.10). The sine wave
(251.2 Hz) LED indicator should light. If it does not, the batteries need to be replaced, as
described in Chapter 1 of the Sound Intensity Calibrator Type 4297 – User Manual.
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
17
Fig. 3.10
Type 4297 control panel
showing the start, sine
wave/broadband noise
selector buttons and LED
indicators
NOTE: If a sound intensity probe is not placed in the chamber, the unit will shut down
after approximately 10 seconds.
7) Allow at least 5 seconds for the pressure to equalise and for stabilisation of the feedback
circuit.
8) Tap Calibrate and wait for it to finish.
Phase Calibration and Pressure-Residual Intensity Index Verification
Phase calibration and pressure-residual intensity index verification are part of the complete
calibration process and should follow after sound pressure level calibration; however, they can
also be performed individually. If calibrating and verifying phase by itself, perform steps 1)
through 5) and then continue from step 9).
NOTE: Minimise vibrations at your work surface/equipment during calibration as vibrations
will falsely affect readings.
9) Tap on the Phase tab at the bottom of the screen and the Phase calibration screen will
appear (Fig. 3.11).
18
Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig. 3.11
Phase Calibration screen
10) Tap Calibrate and wait for it to finish.
NOTE: Tapping Calibrate includes the verification process, but verification can be
performed individually. To do so, tap Verify and let the verification continue for 2 minutes
and press Stop Verify.
11) Tap Yes to accept the new calibration (and verification). There should be no yellow
smileys.
12) Turn off the calibrator, remove the probe, insert the protection plug and close the
calibrator.
NOTE: The frequency range for the calibrators does not include the 8 and 10 kHz bands.
Results shown from these bands are extrapolated from the 6.3 kHz band.
3.3.2
Using Type 3541 for Sound Pressure and Phase Calibration
For full details on the use of this calibrator, please refer to Sound Intensity Calibrator
Type 3541 – User Manual (BE 1024-12) or Sound Intensity Calibrator Type 3541-A – User
Manual (BE 1024 version 13 or later).
NOTE: Type 3541-A does not support phase calibration because it does not contain Sound
Source ZI-0055.
Sound Pressure Level Calibration
To calibrate the sound pressure sensitivity of the microphone channels:
1) Switch on the Analyzer and select Sound Intensity Project Template.
2) Ensure that the Analyzer is properly set up for calibration with the calibrator to be used.
a)
Tap
and select Setup.
b) Expand Input by tapping it and ensure that the Input line reads Top Socket and that
the Spacer line reads 12 mm.
c)
Tap
and select Transducers.
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
19
If the transducers are not in the system, see section 3.2, step 5) Set Input: for
instructions on entering a new microphone pair.
3) Tap
and select Calibration. The Calibration screen will appear (Fig. 3.9).
4) On the Details tab:
a)
Tap Calibrator, select 3541
b) Tap Calibration level and enter the sound pressure level from the Type 3541
calibration chart. Type 2270 will automatically correct the calibration level for
the ambient pressure during the calibration.
5) On the Level tab:
a)
Tap Ambient Temperature and enter the current temperature.
NOTE: You can set temperature to Celsius (SI) or Fahrenheit (US/UK) – set in
Preferences > Regional Settings > Temperature Unit.
b) Tap Ambient Pressure and enter the current barometric pressure.
6) Screw the intensity coupler onto its base.
7) Insert the dummy microphone into port 3.
8) Insert one microphone into port 1 and one into port 2.
9) Place the pistonphone on the intensity coupler.
The pistonphone, intensity coupler and microphones should now be arranged as shown in
Fig.3.12.
NOTE: This is a very tight fit. Press firmly and ensure that the microphones are fully
seated to avoid erroneous results.
Fig.3.12
Arrangement for sound
pressure calibration
20
Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
NOTE: Do not place the coupler in a warm area, for example on top of measuring equipment,
as heat affects calibrations.
10) Set up Type 2270 for sound pressure level calibration.
11) Switch on the pistonphone.
12) Tap Calibrate and wait for it to finish.
13) Switch off the pistonphone
14) Remove the pistonphone from the top of the coupler.
Phase Calibration and Verification
Phase calibration and pressure-residual intensity index verification are part of the complete
calibration process and should follow after sound pressure level calibration; however, they can
also be performed individually. If calibrating and verifying phase by itself, perform steps 1)
through 8) and then continue from step 15).
15) Mount Sound Source ZI-0055 on top of the coupler.
16) Switch on the sound source.
17) Tap on the Phase tab at the bottom of the screen and the Phase calibration screen will
appear (Fig. 3.11).
18) Tap Calibrate and wait for it to finish.
NOTE: Tapping Calibrate includes the verification process, but verification can be
performed individually. To do so, tap Verify and let the verification continue for 2 minutes
and press Stop Verify.
19) Tap Yes to accept the new calibration (and verification). There should be no yellow
smileys.
20) Switch off the sound source.
3.3.3
Using Type 4231
For full details on the use of this calibrator, please refer to Sound Calibrator Type 4231 – User
Manual (BA 5341)
Sound Pressure Level Calibration.
1) Select the correct adaptor for the microphone diameter you want to calibrate and fit it to
the calibrator (see Table 1.1 of Sound Calibrator Type 4231 – User Manual).
2) Switch on the Analyzer and select the Sound Intensity Project Template.
3) Ensure that the Analyzer is properly set up for calibration with the calibrator to be used.
a)
Tap
and select Setup.
b) Expand Input by tapping it and ensure that the Input line reads Top Socket and that
the Spacer line reads 12 mm.
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
c)
Tap
21
and select Transducers.
If the transducers are not in the system, see section 3.2, step 5) Set Input: for
instructions on entering a new microphone pair.
4) Tap
and select Calibration from the list of options. The Calibration screen will
appear (Fig. 3.9).
5) On the Details tab:
a)
Tap Calibrator, select 4231
6) On the Level tab:
a)
Tap Ambient Temperature and enter the current temperature.
NOTE: You can set temperature to Celsius (SI) or Fahrenheit (US/UK) – set in
Preferences > Regional Settings > Temperature Unit.
b) Tap Ambient Pressure and enter the current barometric pressure.
7) Insert microphone pair Part2 (cable B/channel 2) into the Type 4231 – slightly loosen
the compression joints for both tubes so that the Channel 2 tube can be pushed forward
and the Channel 1 tube can be pulled back and twisted out of the way (see Fig. 3.13).
Fig.3.13
Single microphone
arrangement
8) Press the calibrator’s On/Off button (you should be able to hear a faint tone), then tap
the Calibrate button on the Type 2270 touch-screen.
9) The Analyzer will prompt you to continue when Channel 2’s level has been detected.
10) Remove microphone pair Part2 (cable B/channel 2) from the calibrator and insert it into
Coupler DP-0888.
11) Insert microphone pair Part1 (cable A/channel 1) into the other side of the coupler and
insert Coupler DP-0888 into the calibrator (see Fig. 3.14).
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig.3.14
Dual microphone
arrangement
12) Press the calibrator’s On/Off button on the calibrator (listen for the tone).
13) Tap Continue Calibration and wait for it to finish.
14) Remove the calibrator from the microphone.
15) Switch off the calibrator, or wait for it to stop, before closing the flap on its case.
3.3.4
Field Check
To check the instrumentation for proper operation prior to a series of measurements, perform a
field check, as is recommended by the supported standards:
1) On the Calibration screen, tap the Check tab.
2) Place the intensity probe on the measurement plane, with the axis oriented normal to the
surface.
The probe should be placed at a location where the intensity is higher than the surface
average.
3) Tap Start First Pass to begin the measurement.
4) Watch the spectrum and wait for it to stabilise (at least 20 s), then tap Stop First Pass.
5) Note the location of the spacer and rotate the intensity probe 180° so that the probe is
pointing in the opposite direction while keeping the spacer in the same position as
during the first measurement.
6) Tap Start Second Pass and wait for the measurement to finish (the second measurement
will run the same number of seconds as the first measurement), or tap Stop Second Pass
to end the measurement early.
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
23
The cursor will automatically be set to the frequency band with the highest level, which is
checked against the limit.
NOTE: Mounting the intensity probe on a stand makes it much easier to maintain the same
spacer position when rotating the probe.
The result of the field check is not stored together with a job.
3.4
Tutorials
3.4.1
Description of the Measurement and Result Displays
The display views are divided into:
•
Measurement displays for usage during measurement
•
Result displays for studying the results
The Measurement displays are dependant on the SI Task (selected in the upper right corner of
the screen.
For SI Task = S.Pwr (sound power/mapping), the available Measurement displays consist of:
•
Surface: Displays measurements in segments on a surface. The segments are coloured in
accordance with the measurement state.
•
Spectrum: Displays the measured spectra during the measurement
For SI Task = Temp.Variability (temporal variability), the available Measurement display is:
•
Spectrum: Displays the Temporal Variability Spectrum and setting for the averaging time
For SI Task = Compass, the available Measurement display is:
•
Compass: Useful for noise source location
When opening a Sound Intensity template or project, one of the measurement views will be
displayed.
The Result displays consists of:
•
Total: Displays results from the surfaces, either as a list or as numbers in a box (for Total
Surface Type = Box, only)
•
Surface: Displays measurement results as numbers in the segments or as Curve or
Contour maps
•
Spectrum: Displays measurement results
The Result Displays are accessed from a link on the Measurement displays (for
SI Task = S.Pwr).
Examples of the various displays are used in the tutorials and in chapters 4 and 5.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
3.4.2
On-line Noise Source Location – Compass
With 2270-G turned on and Sound Intensity template selected and a microphone pair set up:
1) Tap the far right section of the Template line (Fig. 3.3), then tap Compass.
2) Select the desired parameter (Intens., ZF or Intens., AF) and frequency (25 Hz – 10 kHz or
A- or Z-weighted).
Fig. 3.15
Left
Compass display positive
Right
Compass display negative
3) Holding the microphone pair parallel with the plane of the measured surface, scan the
plane and observe the motion of the speaker icon on the compass display.
NOTE: The probe should be oriented the same way as the probe presented on the
Compass display: either change the direction of the probe in your hand or tap the image of
the probe on the Compass display, which will flip the image of the display.
Three positions are available: 1) Pointing to the left, 2) probe pointing to the right and
3) probe pointing forwards.
When the speaker is in front of the probe, the noise source is in front of the probe and the
direction of the sound intensity is defined as positive, indicated in Fig. 3.15 Left, with the
white bar graph and the + sign behind the dB in the readout.
When the speaker is behind the probe, the noise source is behind and the direction of the
sound intensity is defined as negative, indicated in Fig. 3.15 Right, with a coloured bar
graph and a – sign behind the dB in the readout.
When the speaker icon jumps rapidly back and forth on the display, the noise source is in
the probe’s 90° direction (further information in Fig. 6.4).
Using Aural Feedback in the headphones aids locating the noise source relative to the
probe – high pitch indicates that the noise source is in front of the probe and low
pitch, behind.
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
25
Fig. 3.16
Aural Feedback setup
3.4.3
Sound Power Measurement (Standard: None)
With 2270-G turned on, Sound Intensity template selected and a microphone pair set up and
selected (see section 3.2):
1) Perform calibration (see section 3.3).
2) Tap the far right section of the Template line (Fig. 3.3), then tap S.Pwr. (Ensure that
Standard is set to None.)
3) Set Measurement Control (tap
> Setup > Measurement Control; see section 3.2).
Fig. 3.17
Measurement Control
setup
4) Set Surface (tap
> Setup > Surface; see sections 3.2 and 4.2.2).
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig. 3.18
Surface setup
For example: To set up a simple box:
a)
Select Total Surface Type = Box.
b) Set Surface Height and Surface Width for each surface (select the surface using the
Selected Surface parameter).
c)
For Front: set Surface Height = 1.2 m and set Surface Width = 1.5 m.
d) For Left: set Surface Width = 1.6 m, Surface Height for Left is equal to Surface
Width for Front.
All surface dimensions are set now (Settings for Front is equal to settings for Back, Left is
equal to Right and Top Surface Width is equal to Front Surface Width and Top Surface Height
is equal to Left Surface Width).
Fig. 3.19
Left
Result >: Select Total tab
and select Number instead
of List in the status panel to
get an overview of the box
Right
Hypothetical box
surrounding a
noise surface
5) Close the Result display, select the Spectrum tab and select Front in the status panel.
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
27
6) Position the probe at the centre of the segment: Place the probe on the measurement plane
with the axis oriented normal to the surface. Let the curved part of the probe point towards
the plane, such that the acoustical centre of the probe (the middle of the spacer, not the tip
of the probe) is bisected by the plane.
7) Press
and measure for the full time period that was stipulated in Setup.
8) Examine the spectrum:
a)
If the result is satisfactory, press
.
b) If the result was unsatisfactory, press
and remeasure the segment.
9) Select the next surface (for example, Left).
Repeat steps 6), through 9) for the remainder of the measurement.
10) Tap Result >.
11) Tap Result > and select the Spectrum tab and set the Spectrum Parameters to Power, A and
Tot. Pwr, A.
If the A-total reading in Tot. Pwr, A does not have a smiley, there are no warnings for the
calculated A-total. However, if it has a smiley, you must investigate the segment spectra or
surface spectra in more detail.
Fig. 3.20
Spectrum Result tab
with parameters set to
Power,A and Tot. Pwr,A*
12) Examine the saved data in the segments, looking for smileys in different frequencies or
with A- or Z-weighting.
13) Tap Spectrum and use the display cursor to examine different frequencies for different
segments and exclude or include bands to pinpoint problems.
*
The Tot. Pwr,A parameter is the sum of the sound power from the individual segments.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
If a yellow smiley is present below a frequency band, tap in the spectrum to select this
band with the cursor, then tap the smiley at the cursor readout to determine the cause. If the
dynamic capability is too low, examine the p-I index of the individual segments. Select
Dynamic C and p-I index and step through the segments using
or
in order to locate
segments that need to be remeasured.
NOTE: In Fig. 3.21, the Surf. Pwr,A has no smiley, which means that the smileys on the
individual segments do not affect the total surface.
Fig. 3.21
Result spectrum
with smileys
14) Select the Total tab and view the results for each surface in the box view. The Total
Power is stated below the box in the Power, A parameter.
3.4.4
Sound Power Measurement (Standard: ISO 9614-2)
With 2270-G turned on, Sound Intensity template selected and a microphone pair set up and
selected (see section 3.2):
1) Perform calibration (see section 3.3).
2) Tap the far right section of the Template line (Fig. 3.3), then tap S.Pwr. (Ensure that
Standard is set to ISO 9614-2.)
3) Set Grade of Accuracy (e.g., Engineering; tap
> Setup > Standard > Grade of
Accuracy).
NOTE: Precision grade is only specified in ISO 9614–1.
4) Set Measurement Control (tap
> Setup > Measurement Control; section 3.2).
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
29
Fig. 3.22
Measurement Control
setup
5) Set Surface (tap
> Setup > Surface; see sections 3.2 and 4.2.2).
Fig. 3.23
Surface setup
For example: To set up a simple box:
a)
Select Total Surface Type = Box.
b) Set Surface Height and Surface Width for each surface (select the surface using the
Selected Surface parameter).
c)
For Front: set Surface Height = 1.2 m and set Surface Width = 1.5 m.
d) For Left: set Surface Width = 1.6 m, Surface Height for Left is equal to Surface
Width for Front.
All surface dimensions are set now (Settings for Front is equal to settings for Back, Left is
equal to Right and Top Surface Width is equal to Front Surface Width and Top Surface Height is
equal to Left Surface Width).
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig. 3.24
Left
Result >: Select Total tab
and select Number instead
of List in the status panel to
get an overview of the box
Right
Hypothetical box
surrounding a
noise surface
6) Close the Result display, select the Spectrum tab and select Front in the status panel.
According to ISO 9614–2, each segment must be scanned twice, and the second scan must be
orthogonal to the first. Each scan must have a duration of at least 20 seconds.
7) Position the probe in one of the corners of the segment: Place the probe on the
measurement plane with the axis oriented normal to the surface. Let the curved part of the
probe point towards the plane, such that the acoustical centre of the probe (the middle of
the spacer, not the tip of the probe) is bisected by the plane.
8) Press
and listening for the Aural feedback, scan the segment in an evenly paced
s-pattern, covering equal areas in equal time, for the full time period (minimum
20 seconds) that was stipulated in Setup. When the specified time period has elapsed the
measurement will automatically pause and the count indication will change from 1to 2.
9) Press
and listening for the Aural feedback, scan the segment in an evenly paced
s-pattern, orthogonal to the s-pattern used in step 8), covering equal areas in equal time, for
the full time period (minimum 20 seconds) that was stipulated in Setup. When the
specified time period has elapsed the measurement will automatically pause.
10) Examine the spectrum:
a)
If the result is satisfactory, press
.
b) If the result was unsatisfactory, press
and remeasure the segment.
NOTE: If you have Repeatability failed smileys at important frequency bands, you might
need to redo both scans. Refer to section 6.16.6 for more hints on what to do if there is a
“repeatability failed” or other smiley.
11) Select the next surface (for example, Left).
Repeat steps 7), through 11) for the remainder of the measurement.
12) Tap Result > and select the Spectrum tab and set the Spectrum Parameters to Power, A and
Tot. Pwr, A.
If the A-total reading in Tot. Pwr, A does not have a smiley, there are no warnings for the
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
31
calculated A-total. However, if it has a smiley, you must investigate the segment spectra or
surface spectra in more detail.
Fig. 3.25
Spectrum Result tab
with parameters set to
Power,A and Tot. Pwr,A*
13) Examine the saved data in the segments, looking for smileys in different frequencies or
with A- or Z-weighting.
14) Tap Spectrum and use the display cursor to examine different frequencies for different
segments and exclude or include bands to pinpoint problems.
If a yellow smiley is present below a frequency band, tap in the spectrum to select this
band with the cursor, then tap the smiley at the cursor readout to determine the cause. If the
dynamic capability is too low, examine the p-I index of the individual segments. Select
Dynamic C and p-I index and step through the segments using
or
in order to locate
segments that need to be remeasured.
NOTE: In Fig. 3.21, the Tot. Pwr, A has no smiley, which means that the smileys on the
individual segments do not affect the total surface.
*
The Tot. Pwr,A parameter is the sum of the sound power from the individual segments.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig. 3.26
Result spectrum
with smileys
See section 6.16.2 for more information on measuring with this standard.
3.4.5
Sound Power Measurement (Standard: ANSI S12.12)
With 2270-G turned on, Sound Intensity template selected and a microphone pair set up and
selected (see section 3.2):
1) Perform calibration (see section 3.3).
2) Tap the far right section of the Template line (Fig. 3.3), then tap S.Pwr. (Ensure that
Standard is set to ANSI S12.12.)
3) Set Grade of Accuracy as requested (e.g., Engineering; tap
Grade of Accuracy).
4) Set Measurement Control (tap
Fig. 3.27
Measurement Control
setup
> Setup > Standard >
> Setup > Measurement Control; see section 3.2).
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
5) Set Surface (tap
33
> Setup > Surface; see sections 3.2 and 4.2.2).
Fig. 3.28
Surface setup
According to ANSI S12.12, two measurement surfaces must be defined around the
source under test, one divided into N/2 segments, the other divided into N segments
(N  
To set up a simple surface two rows and two columns:
a)
Select Total Surface Type = Custom.
b) Set Surface Height = 1 m and set Surface Width = 1 m.
c)
Fig. 3.29
Left:
Pop-up dialog
Right: Adjust setting
options
Set Rows N/2 = 2 and Columns N/2 = 2. Tapping the parameter to the right of each
brings up the pop-up dialog shown in Fig. 3.29. To set the number place the check
in the checkbox for Adjust setting and tap OK.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
d) To set the N value to double Columns, tap the parameter to the right of Double no.
of Columns to bring up the pop-up dialog shown in Fig. 3.30, place the check in the
checkbox for Adjust setting and tap OK.
e)
Select Columns: The N value for Columns will be set to 4.
Fig. 3.30
Left:
Pop-up dialog
Right: Adjust setting
options
All surface dimensions are now set.
6) Perform a measurement at each segment of the two surfaces.
7) Position the probe at the center of the segment: Place the probe on the measurement plane
with the axis oriented normal to the surface. Let the curved part of the probe point towards
the plane, such that the acoustical centre of the probe (the middle of the spacer, not the tip
of the probe) is bisected by the plane.
NOTE: As an alternative to this meathod, scanning can be used.
8) Press
and measure for the full time period that was stipulated in Setup. When the
specified time period has elapsed the measurement will automatically pause. For the
required time period, see section 6.16.4.
9) Examine the spectrum:
a)
If the result is satisfactory, press
.
b) If the result was unsatisfactory, press
10) Pressing
or
and remeasure the segment.
automatically selects the next segment in the series for measurement.
Repeat steps 6), through 8) for the remainder of the measurement.
11) Tap Result > and select the Spectrum tab and set the Spectrum Parameters to Power, A and
Tot. Pwr, A.
If the A-total reading in Tot. Pwr, A does not have a smiley, there are no warnings for the
calculated A-total. However, if it has a smiley, you must investigate the segment spectra or
surface spectra in more detail.
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
35
Fig. 3.31
Spectrum Result tab
with parameters set to
Power,A and Tot. Pwr,A*
12) Examine the saved data in the segments, looking for smileys in different frequencies or
with A- or Z-weighting.
13) Tap Spectrum and use the display cursor to examine different frequencies for different
segments and exclude or include bands to pinpoint problems.
If a yellow smiley is present below a frequency band, tap in the spectrum to select this
band with the cursor, then tap the smiley at the cursor readout to determine the cause. If the
dynamic capability is too low, examine the p-I index of the individual segments. Select
Dynamic C and p-I index and step through the segments using
or
in order to locate
segments that need to be remeasured.
NOTE: In Fig. 3.21, the Tot. Pwr,A has no smiley, which means that the smileys on the
individual segments do not affect the total surface.
Fig. 3.32
Result spectrum
with smileys
*
The Tot. Pwr,A parameter is the sum of the sound power from the individual segments.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
If there is a problem with the Convergence index failed smiley according to step 13), double N
and remeasure by:
14) Tap
> Setup > Surface and select Rows N/2, Columns N/2 or Double no. of to bring
up the pop-up dialog shown in Fig. 3.33.
Fig. 3.33
Left:
Pop-up dialog
Right: Adjust setting
options
15) Place the check in the checkbox for Double number of Columns and tap OK to bring up
the dialog in Fig. 3.33 Right and tap OK to confirm.
Rows will remain the same, but the N/2 value and N value for Columns will be set to 4
and 8, respectively.
All surface dimensions are now set.
16) Repeat the measurement process until the measurement is satisfactory.
See section 6.16.4 for more information on measuring with this standard.
3.4.6
Images
With Type 2270-G turned on and Sound Intensity template selected:
1) Navigate to the Surface tab.
2) Tap on
3) Tap on
(at the bottom left of the Surface display).
. (ensure that the image conforms to the measurement surface).
4) Press
to capture the image.
5) Press
to save the image or
to reject the image and capture the image again.
6) Tap the image and tap Select for Surface to place the image as the surface background.
7) Tap and drag the stylus across the image to crop image that will be measured to the
defined surface.
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
3.4.7
37
Mapping Measurement
With Type 2270-G turned on, Sound Intensity template selected and transducers set up and
selected (see section 3.2):
1) Perform calibration (see section 3.3).
2) Set SI Task to S.Pwr then set the standard to None.
3) Set Measurement Control (tap
> Setup > Measurement Control; see section 3.2).
Fig. 3.34
Measurement Control
setup
4) Set Surface (tap
> Setup > Surface; see sections 3.2 and 4.2.2).
Fig. 3.35
Surface setup
5) Tap
to exit Setup.
6) Apply an image, if desired (see section 3.4.6).
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
7) Tap Surface tab.
8) Beginning with the segment indicated on the Surface display, position the probe to
measure from the centre of the segment.
9) Press
and hold the probe in the centre of the segment for the full time period that was
stipulated in Setup.
10) Data are auto saved, and the segment selector is positioned on the next segment.
11) Follow the segment measurement path stipulated in Setup for the remainder of the
measurement. See Fig. 3.36.
Fig. 3.36
Left
Three measurements
have been made, you
are ready to measure
at segment R1, C4
Right
You are measuring at R1,
C4 – the segment has
turned green. When
paused it turns yellow, and
when saved, it turns blue
and the position moves to
next segment
Bottom
R1, C5 ready for
measurement
12) Tap Result >.
CHAPTER 3
Setting up the Analyzer
39
13) Examine the saved data in the segments, select to display A-weighted total from Power,A,
which gives a good overview of the data. If a smiley appears at a frequency, it will also
appear in the A-weighted total.
In Fig. 3.37, Left, there is only a single smiley at R1, C3. Tap at the smiley in the line
above the surface to display the problem. In this case the dynamic capability is too low
(see Fig. 3.37, Right).
14) Display using Contour and Curve maps and show maxima.
Fig. 3.37
Left
Quality indicator: Smiley in
segment R1, C3
Right
Smiley description
15) Tap Spectrum to display the spectrum at R1, C3. Note that the dynamic capability is too
low for 80 Hz only in this segment. Because it does not have any effect on the Power for
the surface, there is no smiley for the Surf.Pwr,A readout (Fig. 3.38).
Fig. 3.38
Spectrum view with smiley
on Power,A
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
39
Chapter 4
Measuring
4.1
Measurement Control
The stylus and navigation pushbuttons are used for setting up the analyzer, navigating through
the screens and managing the results.
A number of items that appear on the screen (parameter values or icons) can be selected,
updated and activated. For instance, a new parameter value can be selected from a drop-down
list.
The selection and activation of items on the screen can be done in two ways:
1) Tapping once on the item on the screen will select and activate it.
2) Moving the field selector around using the navigation keys until the item you want is
highlighted, then pressing the Accept pushbutton
to activate it.
You can choose to use the stylus or the pushbuttons, depending on your preference and the
measurement situation.
4.1.1
Use of Pushbuttons for Controlling Measurements
The design of the analyzer is such that the layout of the pushbuttons has been optimised for
single-handed operation.
Reset Pushbutton
Use the Reset pushbutton
to reset a measurement. If the measurement is paused (i.e.,
Pause icon
is displayed in the status field), then the measurement reverts to a ‘stopped’
displayed with a zeroed readout). If the measurement
state after a reset, (i.e., Stopped icon
is running, then the measurement will be automatically re-started after the reset.
If there are no data to reset (no unsaved data), you will be asked if you want to create a new
project using the current template.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Start/Pause Pushbutton
Use the Start/Pause pushbutton
for controlling the measurement. The function of this key
depends on the current measurement state, standard and SI state, see Table 4.1 and Table 4.1.
Table 4.1
Start/Pause
pushbutton functions
Table 4.2
Start/Pause
pushbutton functions
for ISO 9614–2
and ECMA 160
Current
Measurement
State
Function of
Start/Pause Pushbutton
Next Measurement
State
Stopped
Start the measurement
Running
Running
Pause the measurement
Paused
Paused
Continue the measurement
Running
Current
Measurement
State
Function of
Start/Pause Pushbutton
Next Measurement
State
Stopped
Start scan 1
Running scan 1
Running scan 1
Pause scan 1
Paused scan 1
Paused scan 1
Start scan 2
Running scan 2
Running scan 2
Pause scan 2
Paused scan 2
Paused scan 2
No function
Paused scan 2
Save Pushbutton
Use the Save pushbutton
to save the measurement data together with the calibration
data onto the selected segment on the surface of the project. The current project template
(including all the screen settings and setup information) is updated in the project.
Pressing
will affect the pause and running states. In both cases the measurement state will be
‘stopped’ shortly after pressing the pushbutton ( displayed).
Back-erase Pushbutton
Use the Back-erase pushbutton
to reset the paused measurement.
If used when the current measurement is running, then the measurement will be stopped
and reset.
If used with ISO 9614–2 and ECMA 160, the latest scan will be reset.
CHAPTER 4
Measuring
4.1.2
41
Use of Stylus for Controlling Measurements
Segment Order
Segments will become sequentially active in the measuring process according to the pattern
designated in Setup>Measurement Control>Segment Order; however, specific segments can
be selected manually by tapping the segment with the stylus.
Exclude/include Segments
Before measurement begins, individual segments can be excluded by tapping the segment with
the stylus and selecting Exclude from the drop-down menu. The segment can be re-included by
tapping the segment again and selecting Include.
Exclude/Include Bands
Exclude/include frequency bands from calculation of the Total values by:
1) Selecting the frequency band to exclude by tapping it above the X-axis with the stylus.
The frequency will be marked by the spectrum display cursor.
2) Tapping on the X-axis.
3) Selecting Exclude band from the drop-down menu.
4) The band will be excluded and marked by an x.
Tapping on the X-axis when at an excluded band will display the Include band option.
NOTE: Calculations of Totals are made for the non-excluded frequency bands. For
specific standard’s requirements, see section 6.16.
4.2
Displaying Measurement Parameters
Measurement parameters are displayed in spectrum, surface, temporal variability and compass
views. These measurement displays are optimised to support the measurement process.
4.2.1
Spectrum
In the spectrum, the A- and Z-weighted total values are calculated based on the frequency
bands in the spectrum – excluding the bands marked with an “x” (Excluded).
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig. 4.1
The Spectrum view
23
1
2
3
4
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
8
9
12
10
11
The displayed data in the Spectrum display is defined by the measurement state (see Table 4.4)
and user-defined parameters. The information and selected parameters are:
1) Measurement state ( stopped,
, playing or
paused) and duration: These are not
selectable here and are displays of the actual state of the measurement.
2) Surface selection: This selection determines the displayed surface.
3) Reference spectrum selection: This selection determines the data displayed by the
reference frequency bar graph (item 6).
4) Main spectrum selection: This selection determines the data displayed by the main
frequency bar graph (item 7) and data displayed in the Surface view.
5) Y-axis: The Y-axis represents the level at a given frequency. Tapping the Y-axis creates a
drop-down menu with the options presented in Fig.4.2.
CHAPTER 4
Measuring
43
Fig.4.2
Y-axis options
–
Auto Zoom: Auto zooms to an optimised level of detail and visibility
–
Zoom In: Increases the detail of the Y-axis
–
Zoom Out: Reduces the detail of the Y-axis
–
Auto Scale: Places the viewing window of the display to show the max level
–
Scale Up: Shifts the viewing window higher on the Y-axis
–
Scale Down: Shifts the viewing window lower on the Y-axis
–
Spectrum Table: Opens the Spectrum Table (see Fig. 4.3)
–
Close: Closes the menu
Fig. 4.3
Spectrum Table
6) Reference bar graph: A bar graph of the data stipulated in item 3 according to the selected
segment (item 19) and frequency indicated by the spectrum frequency cursor (item 15).
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
7) Main bar graph: A bar graph of the data stipulated in item 4 according to the selected
segment (item 19) and frequency indicated by the spectrum frequency cursor (item 15).
For Pressure spectra the bars in the graph are normally very light on a dark background
(dependant on chosen color scheme). For Intensity spectra, the bands with positive
direction are also light on a dark background; however, bands with negative direction are
shown as colored bars.
8) Band information: This area provides visual cues to the state of the individual bands Xs
indicate excluded bands and smileys are quality indicators.
9) Single values parameter: Below the graph, two single-measurement parameters are
displayed. Tap them to choose parameters for your reference. See section 4.2.5 for details.
10) Single value parameter. Refer to section 4.2.5 for details.
11) Single value parameter, corresponding result. Refer to section 4.2.5 for details.
12) Single value parameter, corresponding result. Refer to section 4.2.5 for details.
13) X-axis: Represents the frequency bands.
14) Spectrum totals: The totals A and Z of the spectra are calculated from the frequency bands
(excluding the Excluded bands).
15) Spectrum frequency cursor: Selects the frequency displayed in item 15.
16) Frequency: Stipulated by the spectrum frequency cursor (item 15).
17) dB level: dB level based on the measurement parameter (items 3 and 4), the selected
segment (item 19) and frequency indicated by the spectrum frequency cursor (item 15).
Readouts for values with a direction have a + or – behind the dB to indicate the direction
of the measured value.
18) Result >: Click here for the Results displays.
19) Segment: Segment selection arrows and selected segment.
20) Paperclip icon
: Click this icon to access the metadata (text fields) and annotations
(commentaries, notes and images) common to the project. If the icon is not visible, there
are no metadata or annotations. Use the Analyzer’s Up Arrow /Down Arrow
pushbuttons to move the field selector to the Project line and press the Right Arrow
pushbutton to reveal the Paperclip icon . Press the Accept pushbutton
to access the
Annotations screen and enter metadata.
21) Standard: When S.Pwr. (Sound Power/Mapping) is selected, select None, ISO 9614–1,
ISO 9614–2, ANSI S12.12 or ECMA 160
22) SI Task: Select S.Pwr. (Sound Power/Mapping), Temp. Variability or Compass.
23) Paperclip icon
: Click this icon to access the metadata (text fields) for the current
segment. You can define metadata for all segments here. These are saved on the template.
The values of the metadata can then be set per segment. If the icon is not visible, there are
no metadata or annotations. Use the Analyzer’s Up Arrow
/Down Arrow
CHAPTER 4
Measuring
45
pushbuttons to move the field selector to the Segment line and press the Right Arrow
pushbutton to reveal the Paperclip icon . Press the Accept pushbutton
to access the
Annotations screen and enter metadata.
24) Additional Information while Standard Is Set to ISO 9614–2 or ECMA 160
When the standard is set to ISO 9614–2 or ECMA 160, additional standard-specific
information is available.
Fig. 4.4
The Measurement Status
Field contains alternate
displays while the standard
is set to ISO 9614–2
or ECMA 160
24
28
27
25
26
25) Measurement status: Displays Play (green background) or Pause (yellow background).
26) Duration of current scan.
27) Row and column: Segment currently being measured.
28) Action Tracker: During measurement, Scanning is displayed; at completion of first scan of
segment, Start Scan 2 is displayed; at completion of Scan 2, Store Segm. is displayed.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
4.2.2
Surface
The Surface display presents measurements in a grid format of rows and columns representing
the plane area measured (see Fig.4.5).
Fig.4.5
The Surface view
1
15
2
3
14
13
4
5
12
6
11
7
10
8
9
1) Measurement state ( stopped,
, playing or
paused) and duration: These are not
selectable here and are displays of the actual state of the measurement.
2) The surface name.
3) Main spectrum measurement parameter selection: This selection determines the data
displayed by the main frequency bar graph (section 4.2.1 item 7) and displayed in the
selected segment.
4) Spectrum frequency cursor: Selects the frequency of the parameter displayed the segment
and also in item 15 of section 4.2.1.
5) Y-axis: Row (see item 15).
6) Segments: Segments display information dependant on their state:
–
Blue: Saved data
–
Yellow: Unsaved measurement paused
–
Green: Measuring
–
Smileys: Quality indicator offering hints and guidance.
–
Averaged value: the presence and detail of the data are dependant on grid resolution
(see Grid)
Tap on the segment to:
–
Select the segment
–
Exclude/Include the segment in the measurement process and calculations for the
Surface parameters
–
Copy the data in the segment to the clipboard
CHAPTER 4
Measuring
–
Cut the data in the segment to the clipboard
–
Paste the data from the clipboard to the segment
–
Delete the segment
47
7) Smiley: Quality indicator offering hints and guidance.
8) Averaged value: Displays the time-averaged value at the displayed frequency band and
segment (item 4). The presence and detail of the data are dependant on grid resolution
(see Grid).
9) Camera icon: Tap
to incorporate images (see section 4.2.3).
10) X-axis: Grid columns.
11) Grid: See Grid.
12) Level: dBs defined by measurement parameter (see item 3), segment (see item 15) and
spectrum cursor display (see item 4).
13) Quality indicator/Smiley: Offers hints and guidance in the parameters defined by
measurement parameter (see item 3), segment (see item 15) and spectrum cursor display
(see item 4). This smiley can be tapped for a display of more detailed information. More
smiley information is presented in Table 4.6.
14) Result >: Click here for the Results displays.
15) Segment: Segment selection arrows and selected segment.
Grid
To set up the grid tap
, Setup and then Surface and fill in the parameters. The grid can be
set up in different configurations for different uses. For more information on setting up the
grid, see section 3.2, step 9) Set Surface:.
The view of the surface is automatically adjusted for optimum use of the display area.
The grid is displayed to visualize the area of each segment. Measurements per segment are
either scanned to cover the area of the segment, or measured at the centre of each segment –
not at the intersection of the grid lines.
The segments are numbered in a row-column system, with columns on the horizontal axis and
rows on the vertical axis. The segment in the lower, left corner is at Row 1 (R1) and
Column 1 (C1).
Tap on an individual segment and select Exclude or Include from the drop-down list to remove
it from or include it back into the measurement.
Tap on the Row axis (Y-axis) and select Hide Grid or Show Grid (when hidden) to hide or show
the grid and to select the transparency of the colored segments (available if there is a grid
superimposed on an image).
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
The amount of detail presented in the segments depends on the space available: from 2 decimal
places (to set a default number of decimal places, tap
> Preferences > Display Settings >
Number of Decimal Places and then select 1 or 2) to no decimals, and in extreme cases, not
displayed at all.
Quality indicators for the values are displayed as smileys (see Table 4.6). Depending on the
space available, Smileys will either be large, small or not present.
4.2.3
Images
The grid in surface view can be superimposed on an image made by Type 2270.
The image for display can be selected among the images made for the project. The images are
listed on the Annotations screen. To re-use images in a new project, see section 5.4.1.
Tap
to select or adjust the image.
If no image has been selected before for the project, then pressing the photo icon will just open
the Annotations screen for selection of the image. If no image is in the list, you will have to
make one first.
1) Tap on the name of an image in the list and choose Select for Surface to open the image for
selecting the part of the image you want displayed on the surface.
2) Tap on the image and drag the stylus across the part of the image that will be measured.
3) Tap
to accept the selection and close the Annotations display.
The selected area is displayed behind the grid.
NOTE: The image is turned into a black and white image for better readability of the
information superimposed on the image.
Tapping after the image has been selected brings up the options menu shown in Fig.4.6:
Fig.4.6
Image options
•
Adjust Selection reopens the image to re-select the grid area on the image
•
Select Image returns to the Annotations tab to select a different image
•
Tap Brighter or Darker to adjust the brightness of the image until the required readability
has been obtained:
•
Hide Image removes the image from the background until the menu is reopened and Show
Image is selected
•
Selecting Close closes the menu
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49
NOTE: The selected image is common to the Surface views in Measurement and Result
displays; however, brightness and whether the image is switched on or off are set individually
for each Surface display.
NOTE: For making images using a camera and inserting them as annotations on the project in
BZ-5503, and transferring the project to Type 2270, the image format must be .JPG and contain
exactly 640 x 480 pixels with resolution of 96 dpi, bit depth 24.
4.2.4
Spectrum Parameters
The data to be displayed in the Surface and Spectrum displays relates directly to the
measurement process, i.e., Intensity and Pressure spectra and the p-I index spectrum:
Table 4.3
Available parameters
Instantaneous
Time-Averaged
Intensity, AF
Intensity, A
Pressure, AF
Pressure, A
Intensity, ZF
Intensity, Z
Pressure, ZF
Pressure, Z
p-I index, F
p-I index
Dynamic Cap.
Scan Difference
Repeatability
Limit
Instantaneous spectra are displayed when the measurement is in Stopped state (no un-saved
measured data), and averaged spectra are displayed while measuring and when in Paused state.
Table 4.4
Displayed data by view type and measurement state
State \ View
Spectrum
Surface
Instantaneous spectra
Instantaneous value
Measuring
Average spectra
Average value
Paused
Average spectra
Average value
Stopped
The measurement parameters will automatically switch from instantaneous (e.g., Intens.,AF) to
averaged (e.g., Intensity,A) when measurement state changes from stopped to measuring.
The measurement parameters will automatically switch back from averaged to instantaneous
when measurement state changes from paused to stop.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
4.2.5
Single Values
Single values/measurement parameters are displayed below the spectrum. Tap on them to
chose parameters for your reference. See Table 4.5 for the full list of options. You can select
between General parameters (such as Start Time, etc.) and Totals of the spectra calculated from
the frequency bands (excluding the Excluded bands).
Table 4.5
Available single-value
measurement parameters
Instantaneous
Averaged
General
Intensity, AF
Intensity, A
Start time
Pressure, AF
Pressure, A
Stop time
p-I index, AF
p-I index, A
Overload
Intensity, ZF
Intensity, Z
Time remaining
Pressure, ZF
Pressure, Z
p-I index, ZF
p-I index, Z
NOTE: The Total values are the same values as the A and Z bands in the spectrum.
4.3
Document your Measurement
You can document your measurement by adding metadata or annotations like spoken
comments, written notes or images to your project. Please consult User Manual for Hand-held
Analyzers Types 2250 and 2270 (BE 1713), chapter 3.5 for details.
In addition to project documentation, you can define up to 30 metadata used on all the
segments.
Tap the Paperclip icon
(Fig. 4.1 item 23) to access the Metadata (text fields) for the current
segment. You can define metadata for all segments here. These are saved on the template. The
values of the metadata can then be set per segment. If the icon is not visible, there are no
metadata or annotations. Use the Analyzer’s Up Arrow /Down Arrow
pushbuttons to
move the field selector to the Segment line and press the Right Arrow
pushbutton to reveal
the Paperclip icon . Press the Accept pushbutton
to access the Annotations screen and
enter metadata.
Fig. 4.7 shows an example of segment metadata. (three have been defined). The definitions and
default values are common to all segments, but you can select individual values per segment.
CHAPTER 4
Measuring
51
Fig. 4.7
Example of segment
metadata
At the top of the display (Fig. 4.7) are the surface selector and segment selection arrows for
selecting other surfaces and segments.
You can also select segment metadata for display on the Measurement screen (Fig. 4.8; see also
Fig. 4.1, items 20 and 23).
Fig. 4.8
Measurement screen with
Paperclip icons
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
4.4
Aural Feedback
The hand-held sound intensity system provides aural feedback via headphones for guidance
and information. The aural feedback is an internally generated sound signal generated to aid in
pacing the measurement.
To turn aural feedback on, off or adjust for volume:
1) Tap
.
2) Navigate to Setup > Headphones, then:
–
Aural Feedback can be toggled to Off or On
–
Aural Feedback Gain can be adjusted louder or quieter by entering the desired value
Fig. 4.9
Aural Feedback setup
Aural feedback assists concentration on the probe and scanning process while still keeping
track of Type 2270’s status.
The sound scheme functions as a metronome or beatbox that beeps at one second intervals
during the measurement. Every fifth beat is an octave higher. After 20 seconds the entire
5 second pattern shifts an octave.
An alarm signal is triggered if an overload occurs. The alarm signal has priority over the aural
feedback sequence.
When Type 2270 is used for noise source location (compass mode), the metronome signal is
still available but is now used for indicating whether the noise source is in front of or behind
the probe.
CHAPTER 4
Measuring
4.5
53
Validation
There are Quality Indicators for each frequency band in each spectrum. (These include letters
and smileys, see Table 4.6)
Table 4.6
Quality indicators
and Smileys
Quality
Indicator
Smiley
Description
Code*
x
*
†
‡
**
Code when
Exported to
Excel® using
BZ-5503†
X
Excluded band
1
O
Overload
512
D
Dynamic capability too low
2
C
Copied data
1024
U
Underrange
32
F
Field check failed‡
64
I
IEC 61043 compliance failed**
16384
R
Repeatability failed
4
E
Extraneous noise too high
8
S
Averaging time too short
16
V
Convergence index failed
256
H
High levels outside Tot.,A freq. range
2048
T
Temporal variability too high
8192
N
Sound field is non-uniform
32768
The Quality Indicators (first column) are shown in the spectrum table (single parameter view) only (see Fig.5.8).
Negative Direction has code 4096. The codes are added together for values with more than one code..
Only in Field Check view.
Only in Phase Calibration view.
Smileys are shown on:
•
All displays of results,
•
The Project as the smiley for the calculated A-Total for the total Surface
For explanations of smileys, tap on the smiley in question, or for the small smileys below the
frequency bands in the spectrum, select the frequency band with the cursor and tap on the
smiley in the cursor readout.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Hint: To get an overview of how many different quality indicators there are for a spectrum,
select the spectrum table (tap the y-axis) and display One Parameter (see Fig.5.8)
4.6
Temporal Variability
Temporal variability is selected by the SI Task selector in the upper right corner of the display.
The Temporal Variability indicator F1 is defined in ISO 9614–1 as an assessment of whether or
not the sound field is stationary. F1 is the normalized standard deviation of 10 successive short
measurements.
To measure the temporal variability indicator, measure at a typical measurement position on
the measurement surface. The measurement will last for 10 times the Short Averaging Time
selectable below the spectrum.
When the measurement has been made, the temporal variability indicator is calculated and
displayed together with the limits defined by the standard.
Quality indicators are set at frequency bands that violate the limits.
If the temporal variability indicator is above the limit at frequencies of interest, take actions to
reduce the temporal variability of extraneous noise, measure during periods of less variability
or increase the averaging time at each segment.
The result is automatically saved as part of the current project.
The temporal variability indicator can be measured and calculated regardless of the chosen
standard.
The Total Power, A will get a smiley if temporal variability is too high; however, only if
ISO 9614–1 has been selected as the standard.
4.7
Compass
Compass view is selected with the SI Task selector on the right side of the Template bar.
The Compass Display is used for on-line source location.
The data displayed in the Compass display can be either Intensity, ZF or Intensity, AF.
The display comprises a Bar Graph showing the instantaneous intensity (A or Z) and a probe
with a loudspeaker positioned to indicate the location of the sound source.
When the speaker is in front of the probe, the noise source is in front of the probe and the
direction of the sound intensity is defined as positive, indicated in Fig. 4.10 Left, with the white
bar graph and the + sign behind the dB in the readout.
When the speaker is behind the probe, the noise source is behind and the direction of the
sound intensity is defined as negative, indicated in Fig. 4.10 Right, with a coloured bar graph
and a – sign behind the dB in the readout.
CHAPTER 4
Measuring
55
Fig. 4.10
Left
Compass display positive
Right
Compass display negative
The selected frequency or the A or Z total follows the cursor position in the Spectrum display.
Change the frequency by tapping on the < or > icons or the frequency parameter in the
bar graph.
The range and full scale of the bar graph follows the Y-axis on the Spectrum and can only be
changed by changing the Y-axis in the spectrum.
The direction of the probe can be changed to Left, Right and Forward by tapping on the probe
display.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
55
Chapter 5
Viewing Results
5.1
Displaying Result Parameters
The Result displays consist of Total, Surface and Spectrum displays optimised for
viewing results.
To open the Results displays, tap Results > on the Spectrum or Surface tabs in the measurement
displays. To exit Results and return to the measurement displays, tap
5.1.1
Spectrum
Fig. 5.1
Results Spectrum display
1
2
19
18
3
4
5
6
7
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
8
9
1) Surface selection: This selection determines the displayed surface.
2) Reference spectrum selection: This selection determines the data displayed by the
reference frequency bar graph (item 15).
3) Main spectrum selection: This selection determines the data displayed by the main
frequency bar graph (item 14) and data displayed in the Surface view.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
4) Y-axis: The Y-axis represents the frequency band level. Tapping the Y-axis creates a dropdown menu with the options presented in Fig.5.7.
5) Spectrum frequency cursor: Selects the frequency displayed in item 14 and item 15.
6) X-axis: Represents the frequency bands.
7) Single values parameter: Below the graph three single measurement parameters are
displayed. Tap on them to choose parameters for your reference. Refer to section 5.3 for
details.
8) Single value parameter. Refer to section 4.2.5 for details.
9) Single value parameter. Refer to section 4.2.5 for details.
10) Single value parameter, corresponding result. Refer to section 4.2.5 for details.
11) Single value parameter, corresponding result. Refer to section 4.2.5 for details.
12) Single value parameter, corresponding result. Refer to section 4.2.5 for details.
13) Frequency band information: This area provides visual cues to the state of the individual
bands. Xs indicate excluded bands; smileys are quality indicators.
14) Main bar graph: A bar graph of the data stipulated in item item 4 according to the selected
segment (item 18) and frequency indicated by the spectrum frequency cursor (item 5).
For Pressure spectra the bars in the graph are normally very light on a dark background
(dependant on chosen color scheme). For Intensity spectra, the bands with positive
direction are also light on a dark background; however, bands with negative direction are
shown as colored bars.
15) Reference bar graph: A bar graph of the data stipulated in item 3 according to the selected
segment (item 18) and frequency indicated by the spectrum frequency cursor (item 5).
16) Frequency: Stipulated by the spectrum frequency cursor (item 5).
17) dB level: dB level based on the measurement parameter (items 2) and 3), the selected
segment (item 18) and frequency indicated by the spectrum frequency cursor (item 5).
Readouts for values with a direction have a + or – behind the dB to indicate the direction
of the measured value.
18) Segment: Segment selection arrows and selected segment.
19) Standard: Indicates the selected standard.
CHAPTER 5
Viewing Results
5.1.2
57
Surface
Fig. 5.2
Results Surface display
1
15
14
2
16
3
13
12
4
11
5
10
9
6
8
7
1) Surface selection: This selection determines the displayed surface.
2) Main spectrum measurement parameter selection: This selection determines the data
displayed by the main frequency bar graph (section 5.1.1 items 3 and 14) and displayed in
the selected segment.
3) Spectrum frequency cursor: Selects the frequency displayed in item 15 of section 5.1.1.
4) Y-axis: Tap on the y-axis to hide/show the grid, hide/show maxima on Curve and Contour
maps and hide/show cursor.
5) Segments:
–
Smileys: Quality indicators offering hints and guidance.
–
Time-averaged value: the presence and detail of the data depend on the grid resolution
(see section 4.2.2: Grid)
Tap on the segment to
–
Select the segment
–
Exclude/Include the segment in the measurement process and calculations for the
Surface parameters
–
Copy the data in the segment to the clipboard
–
Cut the data in the segment to the clipboard
–
Paste the data from the clipboard to the segment
–
Delete the segment
–
If you have recorded the signal during the measurement (Signal Recording Option
BZ-7226 required), you can play back the signal to the headphone output.
6) Camera icon: Tap camera icon to incorporate images (see section 4.2.3).
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
7) Single values parameter: Below the graph one single measurement parameter is displayed.
Tap on it to choose a parameter for your reference. Refer to section 5.2.2 for details.
8) Single value parameter, corresponding value. Refer to section 5.2.2 for details.
9) X-axis: Columns.
10) Grid: See section 4.2.2: Grid.
11) Averaged value: Displays the time-averaged value at the displayed frequency (item 3). The
presence and detail of the data is dependant on the grid resolution (see section 4.2.2: Grid).
12) Quality indicator/Smiley: Indicates a problem in the parameters defined by measurement
parameter (see item 2), segment (see item 14) and spectrum cursor display (see item 3).
This smiley can be tapped for a display of the specific problem. More smiley information
is presented in Table 5.2.
13) Level: dBs defined by measurement parameter (see item 2), segment (see item 14) and
spectrum cursor display (see item 3).
Readouts for values with a direction have a + or – behind the dB to indicate the direction
of the measured value.
14) Segment: Segment selection arrows and selected segment.
15) Standard: Indicates the selected standard.
16) Surface Type selection: Select between Number, Curve and Contour.
Select Number to display a number map (as in Fig. 5.2). The measured values at the
selected frequency are displayed.
Select Curve to display curves of equal levels (as in Fig. 5.4). The curves are interpolated
from the measured values.
Select Contour to display a color between the curves of equal levels (as in Fig. 5.2).
The scale to the right of Curve and Contour maps defines the colors used and the range of
the displayed values. Tap on the scale to zoom in or out. If Auto Scale Always is set, the
display is auto-scaled whenever the content is changed. Set Auto scale to off if you want to
control it yourself using Scale Up or Scale down. You can also tap on the scale to set the
transparency on Contour maps and set the color scale on the Curve and Contour maps.
CHAPTER 5
Viewing Results
59
Fig. 5.3
Results Surface display
16
17
17) Curve index: Tap to Zoom In, Zoom Out, set Auto Scale to On or Off, set Transparency for
the curves or set Color Scale to Multi-Color or Red-Blue.
Fig. 5.4
Results Surface display
16
18
18) Contour index: Tap to Zoom In, Zoom Out, set Auto Scale to On or Off, set Transparency
for the curves or set Color Scale to Multi-Color or Red-Blue.
The spectrum parameters and the parameters selected in the value panels are selected independently of the parameters selected in the measurement displays; however, the selected position
in the surface (Row, Column) is aligned between the measurement and result displays, as is the
cursor position in the spectrum.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
5.1.3
Total Display
Fig. 5.5
Results Total display,
List view
The Total display lists the surfaces defined in the project (Fig. 5.5): one reading from each
surface. Use the check box to include/exclude the entire surface from the calculation of the
total power.
If you have set the Total Surface Type to a Box, then in addition to the list of the surfaces, you
can select Number instead of List. This will display the numbers in an exploded view of the
box as in Fig. 5.6
Fig. 5.6
Results Total display,
Number view
CHAPTER 5
Viewing Results
5.2
61
Examine Results
1) Select which spectra to view by tapping the parameter fields in the two lines above the
spectrum display.
These lines also include readouts of the spectrum values highlighted by the spectrum cursor.
Tap on the spectrum at the frequency of interest - or just tap anywhere in the spectrum area
and then move the cursor to the position of interest using the left
and right
arrow
pushbuttons.
To the right of the spectrum, two total bars (of the same parameters) are also displayed.
The totals A and Z of the spectra are calculated from the frequency bands (excluding the
Excluded bands).
2) Scale the Y-axis (left-hand vertical scale of the graphical display) by tapping on the scale
and accessing the drop-down menu, see Fig.5.7. (You can also select the spectrum cursor
and press the Accept
pushbutton.):
Fig.5.7
Scaling the Y-axis on the
Spectrum display
–
Select Auto Zoom to adjust the range of the Y-axis for best fit of the measured
spectrum.
–
Select Zoom In/Zoom Out to adjust the zoom.
–
Select Scale Up/Scale Down to adjust the scale value on the Y-axis – or select Auto
Scale to select the best scaling for viewing the spectra – without adjusting the zoom.
–
Spectrum Table displays the spectrum in tabular form – as in Fig.5.8. Tap the Table
Format icon
(top of the screen) to select between three different formats:
Two Parameters: for displaying values from both spectra
One Parameter: for displaying values from the main spectrum only together with the
details on the smileys at the individual frequency bands
One Parameter (wrap): for displaying values from the main spectrum only, but with
the columns wrapped on the display to allow as many values as possible on the screen
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig.5.8
Spectrum table
3) To exit the Spectrum table, tap
.
4) Auto Zoom and Auto Scale automatically close the drop-down menu, otherwise, select
Close, tap outside the drop-down list or use the
pushbutton to close the menu.
Hint: a quick way of auto zooming is to tap anywhere in the spectrum and then press the
Accept
pushbutton twice.
NOTE: The Reference Spectrum
belongs to which parameter.
5.2.1
and Main Spectrum
icons indicate which spectrum
Spectrum Parameters
Available parameters:
5.2.2
•
Intensity: The intensity for the segment or surface is shown.
•
Pressure: The mean pressure for the segment or surface is shown.
•
Power: The sound power is calculated from intensity and the area of the segment/surface.
•
p-I Index: Pressure-intensity index and Dynamic capability. With this display you can
verify the p-I index of the measurement together with the Dynamic capability (Table 5.1)
Single Values
Single values/measurement parameters are displayed below the spectrum. Tap on them to
choose parameters for your reference. See Table 5.2 for the full list of options. You can select
between General parameters (such as Start Time, etc.) and Totals of the spectra calculated from
the frequency bands (excluding the Excluded bands).
NOTE: The Total values are the same values as the A and Z bands in the spectrum.
CHAPTER 5
Viewing Results
Table 5.1
Available spectrum
result parameters
Segment
Surface
Total
Power, A
Surf. Pwr., A
Tot. Pwr., A
Intensity, A
Surf. Int., A
Tot. Int., A
Pressure, A
Surf. Pres., A
Tot. Pres., A
Power, Z
Surf. Pwr., Z
Tot. Pwr., Z
Intensity, Z
Surf. Int., Z
Tot. Int., Z
Pressure, Z
Surf. Pres., Z
Tot. Pres., Z
p-I index
Surf. p-I idx
Tot. p-I idx
Dynamic C.
Surf. Dyn. C.
Tot. Dyn. C.
Scan diff.
Field unif.
Rep. limit
Fld.uni.lim
Ext. noise
Conv. idx
Con. idx lim
Table 5.2
Available single-value
result parameters
Segment
Surface
Total
General
Power, A
Surf. Power, A
Tot. Power, A
Start time
Intensity, A
Surf. Intensity, A
Tot. Intensity, A
Stop time
Pressure, A
Surf. Pressure, A
Tot. Pressure, A
Overload
p-I index, A
Surf. p-I index, A
Tot. p-I index, A
Time remaining
Power, Z
Surf. Power, Z
Tot. Power, Z
Intensity, Z
Surf. Intensity, Z
Tot. Intensity, Z
Pressure, Z
Surf. Pressure, Z
Tot. Pressure, Z
p-I index, Z
Surf. p-I index, Z
Tot. p-I index, Z
Field uniform, A
63
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
5.3
Validation
There are Quality Indicators for each frequency band in each spectrum. (These include letters
and smileys, see Table 4.5)
5.4
Creating New Projects Based on Recalled Projects
5.4.1
Recall Project/Press Reset
Type 2270-G will start up in the most recent template. Earlier projects can be recalled by
tapping the project line (see Fig. 5.9). Choose the project you want and tap OPEN. The
project will then be re-created allowing you to study it in detail as described in previous pages.
Fig. 5.9
Project line
You can continue your measurement, and if you make a new calibration, it will automatically
be used for the new data. The data already measured will not be affected.
To create a new empty project with identical settings as the current project– including the
annotations (e.g., image on Surface view) and the segment metadata – press the Reset
pushbutton
while in Stopped state (if all data in the current project have been saved) and tap
Yes on the pop-up (see Fig. 5.10). Or reselect the Sound Intensity template.
Fig. 5.10
Information pop-up
CHAPTER 5
Viewing Results
5.5
Exporting, Post-processing and Reporting
5.5.1
Exporting
65
Measurement Partner Suite BZ-5503 is used for communication between your PC and the
analyzer. Connect the analyzer to your PC using the supplied USB Cable AO-1476.
Use this software to:
•
Transfer measurement data to your PC
•
View data
•
Organise data on the analyzer
•
Upgrade software on the analyzer
•
Install software licenses on the analyzer
Using this software, measurements on the analyzer can be controlled from your PC.
Data transferred to the PC are organised in Archives where data can then be viewed.
Sound Intensity Data in the archives can be exported to:
5.5.2
•
Microsoft® Excel® for further post-processing and reporting
•
An XML file for post-processing
•
PULSE Noise Source Identification software Type 7752 for mapping and sound power
calculation
Post-processing and Reporting
The software is further enhanced by Brüel & Kjær’s post-processing software suite, including
Measurement Partner Suite BZ-5503 for data transfer, setup and remote display (included with
your analyzer), and PULSE Noise Source Identification software Type 7752 (PULSE version
16.1 or later) for mapping and sound power calculation.
Fig. 5.11
A 3D contour map made
using Type 7752 mapping
software
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
67
Chapter 6
Theory and Practice
6.1
Sound Pressure and Sound Power
A sound source radiates power and causes sound pressure. So what we hear is sound pressure
caused by the sound power emitted from the source.
A sound pressure that is too high may cause hearing damage. So when trying to quantify
human response to sound, such as noise annoyance or the risk of hearing loss, pressure is the
obvious quantity to measure. It is also relatively easy to measure. The pressure variations
detected by the eardrum that we perceive as sound are the same pressure variations that are
detected by the diaphragm of a condenser microphone.
The sound pressure that we hear (or measure with a microphone) is dependent on the source,
the distance from the source and the acoustic environment in which sound waves are present.
This in turn depends on the size of the room and the sound absorption of the surfaces. So only
measuring sound pressure cannot necessarily quantify how much noise a machine emits. The
machine’s sound power is the important factor because this quantity is independent of the
environment and is the unique descriptor of the noise emission of a sound source.
6.2
What is Sound Intensity?
Any piece of machinery that vibrates radiates acoustical energy. Sound power is the rate at
which energy is radiated (energy per unit time, Watts). Sound intensity describes the rate of
energy flow through a unit area. The unit for sound intensity is Watts per square metre.
Sound intensity is a vector quantity, having both magnitude and direction, and sound pressure
is a scalar quantity, having magnitude only. Usually intensity is measured in a direction normal
(at 90°) to a specified area through which the sound energy is flowing.
Specifically, sound intensity is the time-averaged rate of energy flow per unit area. In some
cases energy may be travelling in opposite directions. If there is no net energy flow during the
averaging time, there will be no net intensity. However, in this case there will be a reactive
intensity as described in section 6.4.3.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
In Fig.6.1 the sound source is radiating energy. All this energy must pass through an area
enclosing the source. Since intensity is the power per area, it is easy to measure the normal
spatial-averaged intensity over an area that encloses the source and then multiply it by the area
to find the sound power.
6.3
Why Measure Sound Intensity?
On the factory floor, sound pressure measurements provide the data needed to determine if
workers risk hearing damage. If the workers are at risk, noise reduction is needed. To do this,
the amount of radiated noise and the source(s) must be determined. Therefore, the sound power
of the individual machines must be measured and ranked by their sound power. After locating
the machine making the most noise, we may want to reduce the noise by locating the individual
components radiating noise.
Intensity measurements can accomplish all of this. Measuring pressure will depend on the
sound field. Sound power can be related to sound pressure only under carefully controlled
conditions where special assumptions are made about the sound field. Specially constructed
rooms such as anechoic or reverberant chambers fulfil these requirements. Noise sources have
to be placed in these rooms to calculate sound power.
Sound intensity, however, can be measured in any sound field. No assumptions need to be
made. This property allows all the measurements to be done directly on site. In addition,
measurements on individual machines or individual components can be made even when all
the others are radiating noise, because steady background noise does not contribute to the
sound power determined when measuring intensity.
Because sound intensity gives a measure of direction as well as magnitude it is also very useful
when locating sources of sound. Therefore the radiation patterns of complex vibrating
machinery can be studied on site.
6.4
Sound Fields
Sound in a region is classified according to the manner and the environment in which the sound
waves travel. Some examples will now be described and the relationship between pressure and
intensity discussed. This relationship is precisely known only in the first two special cases
described below (free and diffuse field).
6.4.1
The Free Field
This term describes sound propagation in idealised free space where there are no reflections.
These conditions hold in the open air (sufficiently far enough away from the ground) or in an
anechoic room where all the sound striking the walls is absorbed (see Fig.6.1). Free-field
propagation is characterized by a 6 dB drop in sound pressure level and intensity level (in the
direction of sound propagation) each time the distance from the source is doubled. This is
simply a statement of the inverse square law. The relationship between sound pressure and
sound intensity (magnitude only) is also known. It gives one way of finding sound power
which is described in the International Standard ISO 3745.
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
69
Fig.6.1
Free and diffuse fields
Free Field
p2rms
|Ι|=
ρc
Diffuse Field
|I|=0
Ix =
p2rms
4 ρc
980275/1
6.4.2
The Diffuse Field
In a diffuse field, sound is reflected so many times that it travels in all directions with equal
magnitude and probability. This field is approximated in a reverberant room. Although the net
intensity is zero, there is a theoretical relationship which relates the pressure in the room to the
one-sided intensity, Ix. This is the intensity in one direction, ignoring the equal and opposite
component. One-sided intensity cannot be measured by a sound intensity analyzer but it is
nevertheless a useful quantity. By measuring pressure we can use the relationship between
pressure and one-sided intensity to find the sound power. This is described in ISO 3741.
6.4.3
Active and Reactive Sound Fields
Sound propagation involves energy flow, but there can still be a sound pressure even when
there is no propagation. An active field is one where there is energy flow. In a purely reactive
field, there is no net energy flow. That is, energy may be travelling outward at any instant, but
it will always be returned at a later instant. The energy is stored as if in a spring. Hence the net
intensity is zero. In general, a sound field will have both active and reactive components.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Pressure measurements for sound power in fields that are not well-defined can be unreliable,
since the reactive part is unrelated to the power radiated. We can, however, measure sound
intensity. Since sound intensity describes energy flow, there will be no contribution from the
reactive component of the field.
6.4.4
The Near Field of a Source
In the region very close to a source, air acts as a mass-spring system that stores energy. The
energy circulates without propagating (a reactive field), and the region in which it circulates is
called the near field. For determining sound power, only sound intensity measurements can be
made here. And because it is possible to get close to the source, the signal-to-noise ratio can
be improved.
6.5
Particle Velocity
When a particle of air is displaced from its mean position there is a temporary increase in
pressure. The pressure increase acts in two ways: to restore the particle to its original position,
and to pass on the disturbance to the next particle. The cycle of pressure increases
(compressions) and decreases (rarefactions) propagates through the medium as a sound wave.
There are two important parameters in this process: the pressure (the local increases and
decreases with respect to the ambient) and the velocity of the particles of air which oscillate
about a fixed position. Sound intensity is the product of particle velocity and pressure.
Intensity = Pressure  Particle Velocity
In an active field, pressure and particle velocity vary simultaneously. A peak in the pressure
signal occurs at the same time as a peak in the particle velocity signal. They are therefore said
to be in phase and the product of the two signals gives a net intensity. In a reactive field the
pressure and particle velocity are 90° out of phase. One is shifted a quarter of a wavelength
with respect to the other. Multiplying the two signals together gives an instantaneous intensity
signal varying sinusoidally about zero. Therefore the time-averaged intensity is zero.
In a diffuse field the pressure and particle velocity phase vary at random and so the net
intensity is zero.
6.6
How is Sound Intensity Measured?
6.6.1
Finding the Particle Velocity
Sound intensity is the time-averaged product of the pressure and particle velocity. A single
microphone can measure pressure – this is not a problem. But measuring particle velocity is not
as simple. The particle velocity, however, can be related to the pressure gradient (the rate at
which the instantaneous pressure changes with distance). This is done with the linearized Euler
equation (see Fig. 6.2). With this equation, it is possible to measure this pressure gradient with
two closely spaced microphones and relate it to particle velocity.
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
Fig.6.2
The pressure gradient is
approximated by using two
closely spaced pressure
microphones ( is the
density of the media)
71
From Euler
v=
p2
∂p
∂r
p1
1
ρ
∂p
dt
∂r
- p1
Δr
p2
The Finite Difference Approximation
v=
p=
1
ρ
p2 – p1
dt
Δr
p1 + p2
2
Ι = p·v
Ι =
6.6.2
p1 + p2
2ρΔr
(p2 – p1) dt
980276/2
The Finite Difference Approximation
The pressure gradient is a continuous function, that is, a smoothly changing curve. With two
closely spaced microphones it is possible to obtain a straight line approximation to the pressure
gradient by taking the difference in pressure and dividing by the distance between them. This is
called a finite difference approximation.
6.6.3
The Intensity Calculation
The pressure gradient signal must now be integrated to give the particle velocity. The estimate
of particle velocity is made at a position in the acoustic centre of the probe, between the two
microphones. The pressure is also approximated at this point by taking the mean pressure of
the two microphones. The mean pressure and particle velocity signals are then multiplied
together and time averaging gives the intensity.
6.7
The Measuring System
A sound intensity analyzing system consists of a probe and an analyzer. The probe simply
measures the pressure at the two microphones. The analyzer does the necessary integration and
calculations to find the sound intensity (Fig. 6.3).
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig.6.3
Block diagram for sound level meter with programmable phase correction network used for
improving the residual pressure-intensity index
The Brüel & Kjær probe has two microphones mounted face to face with a solid spacer in
between. This arrangement has been found to have better frequency response and directivity
characteristics than side-by-side, back-to-back or face-to-face without solid spacer
arrangements. The choice of spacer depends on the frequency range to be covered.
6.7.1
Probe Directivity Characteristics
The ideal directivity characteristic for the sound intensity probe looks (two-dimensionally) like
a figure-of-eight pattern – known as a cosine characteristic (see Fig. 6.4).
Fig.6.4
Theoretical sound intensity
directional characteristics
for a sound intensity probe
at low frequencies. The
acoustic centre (between
the microphones) is held
at the centre of the curve
as the probe is rotated
360 degrees
980326/1
Since pressure is a scalar quantity, an ideal pressure transducer should have an equal response,
no matter what the direction of sound incidence (that is, we need an omnidirectional characteristic). In contrast, sound intensity is a vector quantity. With a two-microphone probe, we do
not measure the vector; we measure the component in one direction, along the probe axis. The
full vector is made up of three mutually perpendicular components (at 90° to each other) – one
for each coordinate direction.
For sound incident at 90° to the axis there is no component along the probe’s axis, as there will
be no difference in the pressure signals. Hence there will be zero particle velocity and zero
intensity. For sound incident at an arbitrary angle  to the axis the intensity component along
the axis will be reduced by the factor cos . This reduction produces the cosine directivity
characteristic (Fig.6.5).
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
Fig.6.5
The effective spacer
distance is reduced by
the factor cos  if sound
is incident at an angle to
the probe axis
73
Effective Spacer Distance = Δr cosθ
Phase change
Δr cosθ ⋅ 360°
=
Across Spacer
λ
Sound propagating
at an angle to the
probe axis
λ
}
θ
Sound
propagating
along the
probe axis
Δr
}
Phase Change
Across Spacer
Δr ⋅ 360°
=
λ
λ
860793/1
6.8
Reference Levels
The sound pressure, intensity, power and particle velocity levels (Lp, LI, Lw, and Lu respectively) are all measured in dB. Decibels are a ratio of the specified quantity measured against
some reference. For pressure, the reference level is chosen so that it corresponds approximately
to the threshold of hearing.
Other reference levels have been approximately related to this by using the free field relations
between pressure and intensity, and pressure and particle velocity. Therefore, in a free field, the
same dB reading will be obtained, regardless whether one measures pressure, intensity or
particle velocity (measured in the direction of propagation).
Sound Pressure
2
p
L p = 10log -------2
p0
–6
p 0 = 20  Pa = 20  10 Pa
Sound Intensity
I
L I = 10log ---I0
2
I 0 = 1pW/m = 1  10
– 12
Wm
2
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Sound Power
W
L w = 10log ------W0
W 0 = 1pW = 1  10
– 12
W
Particle Velocity
2
v
L v = 10log -------2
v0
–9
v 0 = 50 nm/s = 50  10 m  s
Actually, because round numbers have been chosen for the reference levels, there is a small
difference in levels. The actual difference depends on the value of the characteristic
impedance,  c, of the medium in which it is measured. Here  is the density and c the speed of
sound in the medium. The characteristic impedance,  c, depends on temperature and
ambient pressure.
If  c = 400 Nsm3, then Lp = LI = Lu but at reference environmental conditions (20ºC and
1013.25 hPa)  c = 414 Nsm3; therefore, LI = Lp – 0.15 dB at reference environmental
conditions.
6.9
Pressure-intensity Index
In practice, we will not measure in the direction of propagation in a free field, so there will be a
difference between the pressure and intensity levels. This difference is an important quantity
known as the pressure-intensity index (p-I index).
p-I = L p – L I
High p-I index levels correspond to low intensity levels compared to the pressure levels. This
happens when measurements are done in a diffuse field or a reactive field (near field) and when
measurements are done perpendicular to the direction of propagation in a free field. So a high
p-I index level indicates a low level of energy flow in the measured direction.
6.10
Pressure-residual Intensity Index
The finite difference approximation requires that the two microphones in the probe and the two
channels in the analyzer have the same phase response.
If the same signal is fed to the two microphones, the analyzer should ideally measure zero
intensity. However, the phase mismatch causes a small phase difference between the two
signals, which the analyzer interprets as intensity along the spacer. The detected intensity can
be likened to a noise floor, below which measurements cannot be made. This intensity floor is
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
75
not fixed; it varies with the pressure level. However, the difference between the pressure and
the intensity level when the same signal is fed to both channels is fixed. The difference is
defined as the pressure-residual intensity index (p-RI index).
The international standard for sound intensity instruments, IEC 61043, sets minimum
requirements for the instruments p-RI index.
6.11
Dynamic Capability
The dynamic capability of the system is the p-RI index minus the bias error factor. The bias
error factor is dependant on the sound power standard used; for example, 7 dB (for ± 1 dB
accuracy) for survey and 10 dB (for ± 0.5 dB) for precision and engineering. The dynamic
capability of the system (p-RI index – bias error factor) can be compared directly with the
p-I index of the measurement to determine if it is within the required accuracy.
6.12
Measurement Limitations
This section discusses in detail how frequency range, pressure-residual intensity index and
dynamic range limitations arise and how physics limit these parameters. The capability of
Sound Intensity System Type 2270-G to extend the usable frequency range and pressureresidual intensity index and how the system helps to assess dynamic range will also be
discussed.
6.12.1
The High Frequency Limit
The upper frequency range is limited by the finite difference approximation used to measure
the particle velocity (section 6.6.1). The two microphones approximate the gradient of a curve
to a straight line between two points. If the curve changes too rapidly with distance, the
estimate will be inaccurate. This will happen if the wavelength measured becomes small
compared to the effective spacer distance (Fig. 6.6).
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig.6.6
The approximation of
the pressure gradient
is inaccurate at high
frequencies
r
∂p/
∂r
Δ
Δp/
Low Frequency
Δp/Δr ≈ ∂p/∂r
Δp/Δ
∂p/∂
r
r
High Frequency
Δp/Δr ≠ ∂p/∂r
100135
Because it is the effective spacer distance (Fig. 6.5) that is compared to the wavelength, the
sound intensity directional characteristics for the probe will be distorted. Most severely in the
direction along the probe axis (Fig. 6.7).
For a given effective spacer distance there will be a high frequency limit beyond which errors
will increase significantly. For accuracy to be within 1 dB, the wavelength measured must be
greater than six times the spacer distance. This corresponds to the following high
frequency limits:
6.12.2
•
50 mm spacer: up to 1.25 kHz
•
12 mm spacer: up to 5 kHz
•
6 mm spacer: up to 10 kHz
Extended High Frequency Limit
The fact that the two microphones are placed face to face causes resonance in the small cavity
between the spacer and the membrane of the microphone. This in turn causes an increase in
pressure for sound incidence along the probe axis. The pressure increase does, to some extent,
compensate for distortion of the directional characteristic of the probe caused by the finite
difference error. Therefore, the operational frequency range for a Brüel & Kjær Probe can be
extended to an octave above the limit determined by the finite difference error if the length of
the spacer between the microphones equals the diameter of the microphones, and if the levels
are compensated with an optimized frequency response for the microphone pair. This
CHAPTER 6
77
Theory and Practice
phenomena was originally discovered by the authors of “A Sound Intensity Probe for
Measuring from 50 Hz to 10 kHz”; F. Jacobsen, V. Cutanda and P.M. Juhl: Brüel & Kjær
Technical Review, No.1, 1996.
In Fig. 6.7 – Fig. 6.9, it can be seen how Type 2270-G Sound Intensity System extends the
frequency range to include the 10 kHz 1/3-octave frequency band when using a 12 mm spacer
and Microphone Pair Type 4197.
Fig.6.7
Theoretical sound intensity
directional characteristics
according to the finite
difference theory with
a 12 mm spacer at 50 Hz
and 3.15, 4, 5, 6.3, 8
and 10 kHz
90
120
0 dB
60
– 2 dB
– 4 dB
150
30
180
0
330
210
240
300
270
980323e
78
Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig.6.8
Typical uncompensated
sound intensity directional
characteristics for
Microphone Pair
Type 4197 and a
12 mm spacer at
50 Hz and 3.15, 4, 5, 6.3, 8
and 10 kHz (1/3-octave
bands measured with
pink noise)
90
120
0 dB
60
– 2 dB
– 4 dB
150
30
180
0
330
210
240
300
270
Fig.6.9
Directional characteristics
from Fig. 6.8 compensated
with optimized frequency
response for Microphone
Pair Type 4197. This
compensation is done
automatically by
Type 2270-G Sound
Intensity System
980325e
90
120
0 dB
60
– 2 dB
– 4 dB
150
30
180
0
330
210
240
300
270
980324e
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
6.12.3
79
The Low Frequency Limit
At low frequencies, there will be only a small difference between the signals from the two
microphones (Fig. 6.10). The measurements will therefore be more sensitive to self-generated
noise and phase mismatch errors in the measurement equipment.
Fig.6.10
The phase change over
the spacer is very small at
low frequencies
Free-field phase change over spacer distance
60° Phase Change
1° Phase Change
860806/1
These problems can be reduced by using a longer spacer between the microphones, but as
stated in section 6.12.1, this will reduce the high frequency limit.
This section further examines phase mismatch errors; the effects of self-generated noise will be
examined in section 6.12.5.
In Fig. 6.10, the same sound signal arrives at the two microphones with a small delay that is
used to calculate the velocity of the sound propagation. Because there are translations between
delay, phase, and pressure-intensity index for sound intensity measurements, errors from the
phase perspective can be examined and translated into the pressure-intensity index perspective.
Both the microphones and the electrical components in the measurement channels change the
phase of the signals. Any difference in the change in the two channels will yield phase
mismatch errors.
The amount of phase mismatch between the two channels in the analyzing system determines
the low frequency limit. At high frequencies, the change in phase across the spacer distance is
big. For example, the phase change is 65° at 5 kHz over a 12 mm spacer. On the other hand, at
low frequencies, the change in phase across the spacer distance is small. At 50 Hz, the change
of phase over a 12 mm spacer is only 0.65°. For accuracy to within 1 dB, the phase change over
the spacer distance should be more than five times the phase mismatch.
The international standard for sound intensity instruments IEC 61043 sets minimum
requirements for the instruments pressure-residual intensity index. These requirements can be
translated into phase errors for the whole system giving ±0.086 ° at 50 Hz and ± 1.7 ° at 5 kHz.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
6.12.4
Improving the Pressure-residual Intensity Index
Using a longer spacer between the microphones extends the frequency range to a lower low
frequency limit, but this reduces the high frequency limit. If phase mismatch errors are in stead
reduced by compensation, lower low frequency limit can be achieved while retaining the high
frequency limit.
This is exactly what Sound Intensity System Type 2270-G and Sound Intensity Calibrator
Type 4297 can do.
In Calibrator Type 4297, both microphones are fed the same acoustical pink noise signal. With
this signal, Type 2270 measures the pressure-residual intensity index and from the pressureresidual intensity index, calculates the coefficients for the phase correction networks in the two
channels (Fig. 6.3). To improve accuracy, this process is repeated a number of times. The phase
correction networks correct for phase errors at both low and high frequencies.
A typical improvement of the pressure-residual intensity index can be seen in Fig. 6.11. Note
that not only is pressure-residual intensity improved at low frequencies but it is also improved
in the rest of the frequency range, giving an improved dynamic capability at all frequencies.
Fig.6.11
Left:
Typical Pressure-residual
intensity index without any
phase calibration, shown
with minimum values
required by IEC 61043
Right
Typical Pressure-residual
intensity index after phase
calibration
6.12.5
Dynamic Range of Measurements
The dynamic range of the measurement is the range of levels that can be measured without
errors greater than a certain limit (not to be confused with the dynamic capability defined in
section 6.11).
At high levels, the dynamic range is limited by clipping in the microphones and the electrical
circuitry. If this occurs, Overload will be indicated. For the Microphone Pair Type 4197 this
typically happens at 153.5 dB for a sinusoidal signal at 1 kHz.
At low levels, the dynamic range is limited by the self-generated noise from the microphones,
the preamplifiers, and the analyzer. Here sound pressure and sound intensity measurements
behave differently.
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
81
Sound pressure measurements have a well-defined behaviour at low levels. Measurement
levels lower than the self-generated noise level are not possible. When the signal approaches
the self-generated noise level, the influence from the noise adds as a bias error of to the
measured level.
For sound intensity measurements, there is not a well-defined “lowest” level. There is no bias
error from the self-generated noise. What happens, when the level is reduced, is that the spread
of the measurements coming from the self-generated noise is increased. The amount of spread
that is introduced for a given level of self-generated noise depends on the intensity level, the
pressure level, the spacer length, the frequency, the filter bandwidth and the averaging time.
For a given amount of spread, in theory, the level of intensity and pressure can be lowered 3 dB
each time the averaging time is doubled. In practice, this holds for averaging times up to
15 minutes (or longer, based on circumstances).
This rather complex relationship between many factors makes it difficult to give a picture of
where the “lowest” level is without assuming some of the factors.
As an example, use the following as levels of accuracy for the measurement:
•
For the sound pressure: 0.5 dB bias error
•
For the sound intensity: 95% confidence interval of ± 0.7 dB, which corresponds to a 95%
confidence interval of ± 1 dB for the repeatability of two measurements
•
Assume that the signal itself is fully deterministic and without any spread
Then assume the following:
•
Transducer set to 4197 without windscreen
•
Analyzer set to Low Range, 1/3 octave and an averaging time of 30 sec
•
The pressure-intensity index of the signal is between 0 and 10 dB.
Under all these assumptions, the lower limit of the dynamic range for the sound intensity
measurements can be determined and plotted in Fig.6.12.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig.6.12
The lower limit of the dynamic range for sound intensity measurements under all the
assumptions defined above
80
70
60
I L ev el [ d B ]
12 mm Spacer
50
40
50 mm spacer
30
20
10
10
100
Frequency [Hz]
1x103
1x104
110654
The curves in Fig.6.12 consist of two parts: The decreasing part at low frequencies and the
slightly increasing part at high frequencies. The first part is the sound intensity part. It is
limitted by the spread in the sound intensity measurement. The second part is the sound
pressure part. It is limited by the bias error in the sound pressure measurement. Only the sound
intensity part can be lowered if the averaging time is increased.
6.12.6
How to Assess the Lower Limit of the Dynamic Range
The example in section 6.12.5 shows how complex it is to assess the lower limit of the dynamic
range.
To help ease this process, Sound Intensity System Type 2270-G introduces an underrange
indication while measuring. The underrange indication is shown as a smiley for each frequency
band. Type 2270 knows its settings and the selected transducer and calculates the limits from
that information.
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
83
The underrange indication uses same criteria for the levels of accuracy of the measurement as
in section 6.12.5:
•
For the sound pressure: Maximum 0.5 dB bias error
•
For the sound intensity: 95% confidence interval of maximum ± 0.7 dB
•
Assume that the signal itself is fully deterministic and without any spread
It is important to understand the limitations of the underrange indication, as follows:
•
The limits are based on typical self-generated noise and transducer sensitivities
•
If there is no underrange indication:
•
•
–
You can conclude that your sound pressure measurement has a bias error less than
typical: 0.5 dB, maximum 1 dB
–
You cannot conclude that your sound intensity measurement has a 95% confidence
interval of maximum ± 0.7 dB. In practice, the object you are measuring also gives a
spread in the measurements. However, you can conclude that if you have a greater
confidence interval on your measurements some of the spread comes from the object.
If there is an underrange indication at low frequencies:
–
You cannot conclude that you have a bad sound pressure measurement. The sound
pressure part of the curves in Fig. 6.12 continues nearly flat at low frequencies, so the
sound pressure measurement could be good even if the sound intensity measurement
is corrupted
–
You can conclude that your sound intensity measurement has a 95% confidence
interval that is greater than ± 0.7 dB.
If you have an underrange indication at high frequencies:
–
You can conclude that your sound pressure measurement has a bias error greater than
0.5 dB.
–
You cannot conclude that you have a bad sound intensity measurement. The sound
intensity part of the curves in Fig. 6.12 continues to decrease at high frequencies so
the sound intensity measurement could be good even if the sound pressure
measurement is corrupted
•
While measuring, the averaging time increases and therefore the underrange limit
decreases at low frequencies. You can therefore experience that a measurement starts with
underrange indications at low frequencies and that they disappear after some time
•
For total sound power, underrange indications in some segment measurements might be
ignored if the influence on the total is negligible. Also, the sound pressure measurements
are only used to test the quality of the sound intensity measurements. They are not used in
the sound power calculation. If they give underrange indications, it does not necessarily
disqualify the resulting sound power.
The underrange indication is a good tool to assess if a measurement is approaching the lower
limit of the dynamic range. Nevertheless, there is a gray zone where you have to make further
investigations before drawing any conclusions as to the quality of your measurements. These
further investigations could consist of taking serials of sound intensity measurements at critical
points and observing the spread of the measurements and experimenting with the distance to
the sound source in these points.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
6.12.7
Conclusion
Sound Intensity System Type 2270-G is typically able to measure sound intensity with a
p-I index greater than 10 dB in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 10 kHz using a 12 mm spacer.
This is due to the unique enhancements that Sound Intensity System Type 2270-G offers.
At the same time, the Sound Intensity System Type 2270-G also makes it easier to check if a
measurement approaches the lower limit of the dynamic range.
The 50 mm spacer can still be used. It will improve the p-RI index with 6.2 dB and the
dynamic range at low frequencies with 12 dB but the cost is that the upper limit of the
frequency ranges is reduced to 1.25 kHz
6.13
Using Sound Intensity to Determine Sound Power
The use of sound intensity rather than sound pressure to determine sound power means that
measurements can be made on site, with steady background noise and in the near field of
machines. It is above all a simple technique. The sound power is the average normal intensity
over a surface enclosing the source, multiplied by the surface area. First we need to define this
hypothetical surface.
Fig.6.13
Hypothetical box used as
the surface surrounding a
noise source
We can choose any enclosing surface as long as no other sources or sinks (absorbers of sound)
are present within the surface. The floor is assumed to reflect all the power and so need not be
included in the measuring surface. The surface may, in theory, be any distance from the source.
6.14
Spatial Averaging
After a surface has been defined, we need to spatially average the intensity values measured
normal to the surface. Note that the surface can be defined with a physical grid or just as
distances from reference points. To obtain an average intensity value from each surface, one of
two spatial averaging techniques can be used.
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
6.14.1
85
Scanning the Surface
With a suitable speed, the probe is simply scanned over the surface, as if the surface were being
painted. This gives a single-value spatial average intensity for the surface. Multiplying by the
area gives the sound power from this surface. Then the sound power contributions from all the
surfaces are added to give the total sound power.
6.14.2
Discrete Point Averaging
Another method of averaging is to divide the surface into small segments and measure the
sound intensity at discrete points in each segment. The measuring points are frequently defined
by a grid. This can be a frame with string or wire, although a ruler or tape measure can also be
used. The results are averaged and multiplied by the surface area to find the sound power from
the surface.
Neither method is best for all applications and in some cases both methods may be useful.
Because the scanning technique is mathematically a better approximation to the continuous
space integral, it is often more accurate and fast. But care needs to be taken to sweep the probe
at a constant rate and to cover the surface equally. The discrete point method, however, is often
more repeatable.
6.15
What about Background Noise?
One of the main advantages of the intensity method of sound power determination is that high
levels of steady background noise are not important.
Let us imagine a surface in space – any closed volume will do. If a sound source is present
within the closed surface then we can measure the average intensity over the surface and
multiply by the area to find the total sound power radiated by the source.
If the source were then moved outside the surface and we tried to find the sound power we
would measure zero. We will always measure some energy flowing in on a part of the surface.
But the energy will flow out on other parts of the surface and so the contribution to the sound
power radiated from the surface will be zero.
Background noise can be regarded as sources outside the measurement surface and will have
no effect on the measured sound power of the source (in theory).
For this to be true the background noise level must not vary significantly with time. If this
condition is met the noise is said to be stationary.
NOTE: With a long enough averaging time, small random fluctuations in level will not matter.
A further condition is that there must be no absorption within the surface. Otherwise some
background noise will not flow out of the surface again.
In practice this means that sound power can be measured to an accuracy of 1 dB from sources
as much as 10 dB lower than the background noise. If background noise is a problem, then
choosing a smaller measurement surface will improve the signal-to-noise ratio.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig.6.14
The calculated sound
power is only related to the
energy generated inside
the enclosed surface
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
6.16
Using Sound Power Standards
6.16.1
ISO 9614–1: 1993 (E) Determination of Sound Power Levels
of Noise Sources using sound intensity – Part 1: Measurement
at Discrete Points
87
ISO 9614-1 is an appropriate standard for on-site determination of sound power. It is based on
measurements where the sound intensity is measured over a surface using discrete points.
Frequency Range: 63 Hz to 4 kHz in 1/1-octaves and 50 Hz to 6.3 kHz in 1/3-octaves.
Initial Test
1) Calibrate the intensity system as described in section 3.3.
2) Check the instrumentation for proper operation by performing a field check, as described
in section 3.3.4.
3) Check whether or not the sound field is stationary by measuring the temporal variability,
as described in section 4.6
The Measurement Method
1) Define a measurement surface of at least 10 segments around the test source.
2) Perform a measurement at each segment.
3) Evaluate:
a)
The dynamic capability compared to the p-I index of the measurement.
b) The level of extraneous noise.
c)
the non-uniformity of the sound field.
4) Calculate the total sound power by summing the results of all segments.
The pressure, intensity, p-I index and sound power are calculated in Type 2270 per segment,
per surface and for the total surface as:

2
  pi  p0  
Pressure = 10 log  -----------------------------


N


  I i  I 0 
Intensity = 10 log  -------------------------


N


2
  pi  p0  
  I i  I 0 
p-I index = F 2 = 10 log  ----------------------------- – 10 log  ----------------------------




N
N






Sound Power = 10 log
Si  Ii  I0 






where: pi = pressure of segment i, p0 = 20 µPa, N: number of segments, Ii = Intensity of
segment i, I0 = 1pW/m2, and Si = area of segment i.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
The following table outlines the requirements of the standard in the first column and provides
the means to fulfil these requirements using the 2270 Hand-held Sound Intensity System.
Required by Standard
2270 Solution
Calibration:
Make Pressure and Phase Calibration:
•
•
The instrument, including the probe, shall comply
with IEC 1043
•
•
•
Make a pressure calibration of the
microphones using calibrators Type 4197,
3541, 3541-A or 4231
Make a phase calibration using
calibrators 4197 or 3541
Make a phase verification and
measurement of the pressure-residual
intensity index using calibrators 4197 or
3541
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley
“IEC61043 Compliance failed”
Field Check:
Use Field Check:
•
•
Measure the intensity level at the same point two
times, one of the times with the probe reversed.
The difference at the band with the maximum level
shall be less than 1.5 dB and the values shall have
opposite directions
•
•
Perform the built-in Field Check
procedure (Calibration Check)
If non-compliant: yellow smiley for “Field
Check failed”
Detailed view of difference and limit
available
Stationary Noise Source Check:
Use Temporal Variability Check:
•
•
•
Chose a “typical” measurement position
Measure 10 spectra and calculate the normalized
standard deviation:
F1 =
•
1
I
 (I
m
 I )2
•
•
9
Perform the built-in Temporal Variability
check procedure
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
“Temporal Variability too high”
Detailed view of normalized standard
deviation of 10 measurements together
with limit
Verify F1 < 0.6
Surface Definition:
Define Surfaces and Segments:
•
•
Define a measurement surface of at least 10
segments around the source under test.
•
Divide the total measurement surface into
a number of surface grids consisting of a
number of segments
Define the dimensions of the surfaces
Probe Positioning:
Position the probe:
Use image:
•
•
•
•
At the centre of the segment
With the probe pointing towards the source
With acoustic centre of probe at the surface
•
Capture an image of the device under
test and overlay it on the surface grid
Use image and grid as guideline for
positioning the probe
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
Averaging Time:
View:
•
•
The averaging time must be at least 400/B
seconds, where B is the filter bandwidth
Yellow smileys for ”Averaging Time too
short” appears if averaging time is less
than 400/B seconds
Dynamic Capability:
Evaluate F2, criterion 1:
Dynamic capability:
•
•
•
F2 < Ld for each frequency band (pressureintensity index for the total surface should be less
than the dynamic capability)
Three grades of accuracy
•
•
p-I index is checked against dynamic
capability for each frequency band – in
each segment, surface and total surface.
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
”Dynamic Capability too low” for each
frequency band
Three grades of accuracy
Detailed views of p-I index and Dynamic
Capability available for each segment,
surface and total surface
Field Uniformity:
Field uniformity:
Evaluate Criterion 2:
•
•
•
N > C * F42 for each frequency band
Three grades of accuracy
Definition:
F4 =
1
I
 (I
n
 I )2
N 1
,
•
•
•
N > C * F42 checked.
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
”Sound Field is non-uniform” for each
frequency band.
Three grades of accuracy
Detailed views of Field uniform and Field
uniform Limit available for the total
surface
N number of segments
C defined in table
Extraneous Noise:
Evaluate F3-F2:
Extraneous noise:
•
•
•
F3-F2≤ 3 for each frequency band
Definition:
F3–F2 =
10 log(  I i )
i
|I |
•
•
Extraneous noise checked against 3 dB
for each frequency band in the total
surface.
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
”Extraneous Noise too high” for each
frequency band
Detailed view of Extraneous Noise
available for the total surface
89
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Calculation of Sound Power:
Calculation of Sound Power:
•
•
Sound power is automatically calculated
for the displayed segment, surface or
total surface
•
A-total is calculated on all segments,
surfaces and total surface using
frequency bands not marked with
”Dynamic Capability too low” or ”Sound
Field is non-uniform”
Only the smileys relevant for the
calculation of A-total are marked on the
A-total
•
Calculate the sound power from each segment by
multiplying the sound intensity by the area of the
segment
Calculate the total sound power by adding the
sound power from all the segments together
Calculation of A-total:
•
•
•
Calculate A-total from all the frequency bands but
don’t use bands not fulfilling criteria 1 (dynamic
capability) and/or 2 (field uniformity).
Uncertainty in any frequency band more than
10 dB below A-total is irrelevant
Frequency bands with a sum more than 10 dB
below A-total may be ignored
•
A-weighted bands below 50 Hz or above 6.3 kHz
should be more than 6 dB below the total value
•
Increase accuracy:
See Hints for Improving Accuracy
In order to guarantee upper limits for uncertainties of
the sound power levels determined, certain actions
have to be taken if criteria 1 and 2 are not fulfilled
A-weighted bands below 50 Hz and
above 6.3 kHz checked. If too high:
A smiley ”High levels outside Tot.,A freq.
range” set on A-total
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
6.16.2
91
ISO 9614–2: 1996 (E) Determination of Sound Power Levels
of Noise Sources using sound intensity – Part 2: Measurement
by Scanning
ISO 9614–2 is an appropriate standard for on-site determination of sound power. It is based on
measurements where the sound intensity is measured over a surface using the
scanning method.
Frequency Range: 63 Hz to 4 kHz in 1/1-octaves and 50 Hz to 6.3 kHz in 1/3-octaves.
Initial Test
1) Calibrate the intensity system as described in section 3.3.
2) Check the instrumentation for proper operation by performing a field check, as described
in section 3.3.4.
3) The sound field shall be stationary; however, the standard does not specify how to check
this. Brüel & Kjær recommends checking the temporal variability, described in section 4.6
The Measurement Method
1) Define a measurement surface of at least four segments around the test source.
2) Perform a measurement at each segment.
3) Evaluate:
a)
The partial power repeatability of the two scans.
b) The dynamic capability compared to the p-I index of the measurement.
c)
The level of extraneous noise.
4) Calculate the total sound power by summing the results of all segments.
The pressure, intensity, p-I index and sound power are calculated in Type 2270 per segment,
per surface and for the total surface as:

2
 Si  pi  p0  
Pressure = 10 log  ----------------------------------
S


 S i  I i  I 0 
Intensity = 10 log  ------------------------------


S


2
 Si  pi  p0  
 S i  I i  I 0 
p-I index = FpI = 10 log  ---------------------------------- – 10 log  ------------------------------




S
S






Sound Power = 10 log  S i  I i  I 0 




where: pi = pressure of segment i, p0 = 20 µPa, N: number of segments, Ii = Intensity of
segment i, I0 = 1pW/m2, and Si = area of segment i.
92
Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
The following table outlines the requirements of the standard in the first column and provides
the means to fulfil these requirements using the Type 2270 Hand-held Sound Intensity System.
Required by Standard
2270 Solution
Calibration:
Make Pressure and Phase Calibration:
•
•
The instrument, including the probe, shall comply
with IEC 1043
•
•
•
Make a pressure calibration of the
microphones using calibrators Type 4197,
3541, 3541-A or 4231
Make a phase calibration using calibrators
Type 4197 or 3541
Make a phase verification and
measurement of the pressure-residual
intensity index using calibrators Type 4197
or 3541
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley ”IEC61043
Compliance failed”
Field Check:
Use Field Check:
•
•
•
Measure the intensity level at the same point two
times, one of the times with the probe reversed.
The difference at the band with the maximum
level shall be less than 1.5 dB and the values
shall have opposite directions
•
Perform the built-in Field Check procedure
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for “Field
Check failed”
Detailed view of difference and limit
available
Stationary Noise Source Check:
Use Temporal Variability Check:
•
•
No method given
•
•
Perform the built-in Temporal Variability
check procedure
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
“Temporal variability too high”
Detailed view of normalized standard
deviation of 10 measurements together
with limit
Surface Definition:
Define Surfaces and Segments:
•
•
Define a measurement surface of at least 4
segments around the source under test.
•
Divide the total measurement surface into
a number of surfaces consisting of a
number of segments
Define the dimensions of the surfaces
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
Scanning:
Perform the scan:
Use aural feedback:
•
•
•
•
•
At a steady pace
With the probe pointing towards the source
With acoustic centre of probe at the surface
Follow the scan path accurately
The scan must have a duration of at least 20 seconds
•
Count number of “beeps” while moving the
probe to and fro
Keep your eyes on the probe while
listening to the progress of the
measurement
Listen:
•
•
Aural feedback pitch rises one octave after
20 seconds
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
”Averaging Time too short”
Make two orthogonal scans of each segment
Press the Pause/Continue button and view the
status panel to keep track of the scans
Repeatability:
Repeatability:
•
Partial power repeatability, criterion 3:
Perform two scans on each segment, then check
every frequency band for the following:
•
The difference between the power levels of the
two scans must be within a certain limit
•
Two grades of accuracy
•
•
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
”Repeatability failed” for each frequency
band with scan difference above limit
Detailed views of Scan difference and
Repeatability limit available
Three grades of accuracy available,
however: select Engineering or Survey
For all segments:
For all segments:
•
•
If, in any one frequency band, the sum of the
partial powers failing to meet Criterion 3 is more
than 10 dB below the sum of the partial powers
satisfying Criterion 3, then the total sound power
can still be calculated for that frequency band
This is automatically checked by the
software
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
”Repeatability failed” is displayed for total
sound power
Dynamic capability:
Evaluate FpI, criterion 1:
Dynamic capability:
•
•
•
FpI < Ld for each frequency band (pressureintensity index for the total surface should be less
than the dynamic capability)
Two grades of accuracy
•
•
p-I index is checked against dynamic
capability for each frequency band – in
each segment, surface and total surface.
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
”Dynamic Capability too low” for each
frequency band
Three grades of accuracy available,
however: select Engineering or Survey
Detailed views of p-I index and Dynamic
Capability available for each segment,
surface and total surface
93
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Extraneous Noise:
Evaluate F+/-, criterion 2:
Extraneous noise:
•
•
•
•
F+/- ≤ 3 dB for each frequency band (negative
partial power indicator for the total surface should
be less than 3 dB)
Only mandatory for Engineering grade
Definition:
F+/- = 10 log(
•
 | Pi |
)
 Pi
Extraneous noise checked against 3 dB for
each frequency band in the total surface.
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
”Extraneous Noise too high” for each
frequency band
Detailed view of Extraneous Noise
available for the total surface
Calculation of Sound Power:
Calculation of Sound Power:
•
•
Sound power is automatically calculated
for the displayed segment, surface or total
surface
Calculate A-total from all the frequency bands but
do not use bands not fulfilling criteria 1 and/or 2
Uncertainty in any frequency band more than
10 dB below A-total is irrelevant
Frequency bands with a sum more than 10 dB
below A-total may be ignored
•
A-total is calculated on all segments,
surfaces and total surface using frequency
bands not marked with ”Dynamic Capability
too low” or ”Extraneous Noise too high”
Only the smileys relevant for the
calculation of A-total are marked on the
A-total
A-weighted bands below 50 Hz or above 6.3 kHz
should be more than 6 dB below the total value
•
•
Calculate the sound power from each segment
by multiplying the sound intensity by the area of
the segment
Calculate the total sound power by adding the
sound power from all the segments
Calculation of A-total:
•
•
•
•
Increase Accuracy:
•
A-weighted band levels below 50 Hz and
above 6.3 kHz checked.
If too high: A smiley ”High levels outside
Tot.,A freq. range” set on A-total
See Hints for Improving Accuracy
In order to guarantee upper limits for uncertainties of
the sound power levels determined, certain actions
have to be taken if criteria 1, 2 and 3 are not fulfilled
6.16.3
ECMA 160:1992 Determination of Sound Power Levels of Computer
and Business Equipment using Sound Intensity Measurements;
Scanning Method in Controlled Rooms
ECMA 160 is very similar to ISO 9614–2.
The differences are:
•
Frequency Range: 125 Hz to 4 kHz in 1/1-octaves and 100 Hz to 6.3 kHz in 1/3-octaves
•
For A-weighted data, no conditions for the frequency bands below the bottom end of the
frequency range
•
Grade of Accuracy: Engineering only
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
6.16.4
95
ANSI S12.12–1992 Engineering Method for the Determination of
Sound Power Levels of Noise Sources using Sound Intensity
ANSI S12.12 is an American standard for on-site determination of sound power. It is based on
measurements where sound intensity is measured over a surface at fixed points or by scanning
over each segment.
Frequency Range: 125 Hz to 8 kHz in 1/1-octaves and 100 Hz to 10 kHz in 1/3-octaves.
Initial Test
1) Calibrate the intensity system as described in section 3.3.
2) Check the instrumentation for proper operation by performing a field check, as described
in section 3.3.4.
3) The sound field shall be stationary; however, a method for testing is not stated.
Brüel & Kjær recommends checking whether or not the sound field is stationary by
measuring the temporal variability, as described in section 4.6
The Measurement Method
1) Define two measurement surfaces around the source under test, one divided into N/2
segments, the other divided into N segments, N  
2) Perform a measurement at each segment of the two surfaces.
3) Evaluate the convergence index = difference in total sound power based on N/2 and N
segments.
4) if the convergence index is higher than allowed, double the number of segments and repeat
steps 2) and 3) until the convergence index check succeeds.
5) Evaluate:
a)
The dynamic capability compared to the p-I index of the measurement.
b) The parasitic noise indicator, in Type 2270 referred to as extraneous noise.
6) Calculate the total sound power by summing the results of all segments (based on the N
surface).
The pressure, intensity, p-I index and sound power are calculated in Type 2270 per segment,
per surface and for the total surface as:

2
 Si  pi  p0  
Pressure = 10 log  ----------------------------------
S


 S i  I i  I 0 
Intensity = 10 log  ------------------------------


S



96
Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual


2
 Si  pi  p0  
 S i  I i  I 0 
p-I index = FpI = 10 log  ---------------------------------- – 10 log  ------------------------------




S
S




Sound Power = 10 log  S i  I i  I 0 



where: pi = pressure of segment i, p0 = 20 µPa, N: number of segments, Ii = Intensity of
segment i, I0 = 1pW/m2, and Si = area of segment i.
The standard recommends the use of some of the 26 data quality indicators defined in the
standard. The most important indicators are:
•
D53: p-I index
•
D52: Pressure-residual intensity index minus D53
•
D21: Similar to extraneous noise
The following table outlines the requirements of the standard in the first column and provides
the means to fulfil these requirements using the Type 2270 Hand-held Sound Intensity System.
Required by Standard
2270 Solution
Calibration:
Make Pressure and Phase Calibration:
•
•
The instrument, including the probe, shall comply
with ANSI S1.40–1984
•
•
•
Make a pressure calibration of the
microphones using calibrators Type 4197,
3541, 3541-A or 4231
Make a phase calibration using
calibrators Type 4197 or 3541
Make a phase verification and
measurement of the pressure-residual
intensity index using calibrators
Type 4197 or 3541
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley
”IEC61043 Compliance failed”
Field Check:
Use Field Check:
•
•
Measure the intensity level at the same point two
times, one of the times with the probe reversed.
The difference at the band with the maximum level
shall be less than a frequency dependent limit and
the values shall have opposite directions
•
•
Perform the built-in Field Check
procedure
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for ”Field
Check failed”
Detailed view of difference and limit
available
Stationary Noise Source Check:
Use Temporal Variability Check:
•
•
No method given
•
Perform the built-in temporal variability
check procedure
Detailed view of normalized standard
deviation of 10 measurements together
with limit
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
Surface Definition:
Define Surfaces and Segments:
•
•
Define a measurement surface around the source
under test and divide the surface into N/2 and N
segments.
•
•
Divide the total measurement surface into
a number of surfaces consisting of a
number of segments
Define the dimensions of the surfaces
and segments
Type 2270 automatically creates surfaces
with double the number of segments
Point Measurement:
Position the probe:
Use image:
•
•
•
•
At the centre of the segment
With probe pointing towards the source
With the acoustic centre of probe at the surface
•
Capture an image of the device under test
and overlay it on the surface grid
Use image and grid as guideline for
positioning the probe
Scanning:
Perform the scan:
•
•
•
•
At a steady pace
With the probe pointing towards the source
With the acoustic centre of the probe at the
surface
Follow the scan path accurately
Use aural feedback:
•
•
Count number of “beeps” while moving
the probe to and fro
Keep your eyes on the probe while
listening to the progress of the scan
View:
The averaging time must be at least 30 s for
frequencies at or below 160 Hz and at least 10 s for
frequencies at or above 200 Hz
Convergence Index:
•
Convergence Index:
•
Evaluate LWN/2 – LWN:
•
•
Compute the difference between the sound power
calculated from the first set of measurements and
the second set (twice as many). Compare the
difference to the limits specified in the standard at
each frequency band of interest. If the
convergence index is too high, go to next step
Double the number of segments, make a
measurement on each segment and calculate the
sound power. Repeat this step until the
convergence index is within the limits for each
frequency band of interest
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
”Averaging Time too short” appears
•
•
Total Power based on N and N/2
segments is compared to the limit.
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
”Convergence index failed” for each
frequency band.
Detailed views of Convergence index and
Convergence index limit available for the
total surface
If Convergence index fails, then double
the number of rows or columns, measure
these segments and evaluate again
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Dynamic Capability:
Dynamic Capability:
•
•
•
Evaluate phase indicator D53 (equal to p-I index)
Check that D52 = pressure-residual intensity index
- D53 > 7 for each frequency band
•
•
p-I index is checked against dynamic
capability for each frequency band – in
each segment, surface and total surface.
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
”Dynamic Capability too low” for each
frequency band
Set Grade of Accuracy to Survey
Detailed views of p-I index and Dynamic
Capability available for each segment,
surface and total surface
Extraneous Noise:
Evaluate D21:
Extraneous noise:
•
•
•
No limit stated for D21
Definition:
D21 =
10 log(
 | Pi |
)
 Pi
•
Extraneous noise checked against 3 dB
for each frequency band in the total
surface.
If non-compliant: Yellow smiley for
“Extraneous Noise too high” for each
frequency band
Detailed view of Extraneous Noise
available for the total surface
Calculation of Sound Power:
Calculation of Sound Power:
•
•
Sound power is automatically calculated
for the displayed segment, surface or total
surface
•
A-total is calculated on all segments,
surfaces and total surface using all
frequency bands
•
Calculate the sound power from each segment by
multiplying the sound intensity by the area of the
segment
Calculate the total sound power by adding the
sound power from all the segments
Calculation of A-total:
•
Calculate A-total from all the frequency bands
Increase accuracy:
In order to guarantee upper limits for uncertainties of
the sound power levels determined, certain actions
have to be taken if D21 and D52 are not fulfilled
See Hints for Improving Accuracy
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
6.16.5
99
None – No Standard Used
Using no standard is useful in mapping sound intensity for the identification and quantification
of noise sources. Measurements will typically be point measurements.
Frequency Range: 31.5 Hz to 8 kHz in 1/1-octaves and 25 Hz to 10 kHz in 1/3-octaves.
Initial Test
1) Calibrate the intensity system as described in section 3.3.
2) Check the instrumentation for proper operation by performing a field check, as described
in section 3.3.4.
3) The sound field shall be stationary. Brüel & Kjær recommends checking whether or not
the sound field is stationary by measuring the temporal variability, as described in section
4.6
The Measurement Method
1) Define a number of measurement surfaces as planes of at least 3 × 3 segments around the
interesting parts of the test source
2) Define the dimensions of the surfaces.
3) Capture an image for each surface and overlay them on the surfaces.
4) Use the image and grid as a guideline for positioning the probe at the center of the segment
with the probe pointing towards the source and with the acoustic center of the probe
bisected by the surface.
5) Perform a measurement at each segment.
6) Evaluate:
a)
The dynamic capability compared to the p-I index of the measurement.
b) The amount of extraneous noise if your surface encapsulates the device under test.
7) The sound power is automatically calculated per segment, per surface and for the total
surface.
8) Views of colored contours or contour level curves are available.
The pressure, intensity, p-I index and sound power are calculated in Type 2270 per segment,
per surface and for the total surface as:

2
 Si  pi  p0  
Pressure = 10 log  ----------------------------------


S


 S i  I i  I 0 
Intensity = 10 log  ------------------------------


S



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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual

2

 Si  pi  p0  
 S i  I i  I 0 
p-I index = FpI = 10 log  ---------------------------------- – 10 log  ------------------------------




S
S




Sound Power = 10 log  S i  I i  I 0 



where: pi = pressure of segment i, p0 = 20 µPa, N: number of segments, Ii = Intensity of
segment i, I0 = 1pW/m2, and Si = area of segment i.
•
Extraneous noise is calculated and checked against a maximum of 3 dB for each frequency
band in the total surface
•
A detailed view of extraneous noise is available for the total surface



Pi 
Extraneous Noise = 10 log  ----------------


Pi 

6.16.6
Hints for Improving Accuracy
If one or more of the following status codes appear take the associated action(s).
Dynamic Capability Failed and Extraneous Noise too High (Suitable for:
ISO 9614–2, ECMA 160, ANSI S12.12 and None):
Halve the average distance of the measurement surface from source to not less than a minimum
average value of 10 cm and double the scan-line density.
or
Shield the measurement surface from strong extraneous noise sources by means of a screen.
or
Reduce the adverse influence of the reverberant sound field by introducing additional
absorption into the test space at locations remote from the source.
Dynamic Capability Failed and Extraneous Noise too High (Suitable for:
ISO 9614–1):
In the presence of significant extraneous noise and/or strong reverberation, reduce the average
distance of the measured surface from the source to a minimum average value of 25 cm. In the
absence of significant extraneous noise and/or strong reverberation, increase the average
measured distance to 1 m.
or
Shield measurement surface from extraneous sources or take action to reduce sound reflections
towards the source.
CHAPTER 6
Theory and Practice
101
Dynamic Capability Failed (Suitable for: ISO 9614–2, ECMA 160 and None):
Halve the average distance of the measurement surface from source to not less than a minimum
average value of 10 cm and double the scan-line density.
or
Reduce the adverse influence of the reverberant sound field by introducing additional
absorption into the test space at locations remote from the source.
Repeatability Failed (Suitable for: ISO 9614–2 and ECMA 160):
Identify and suppress causes of temporal variation in field conditions or, if this fails, double the
scan-line density on the same segment.
Repeatability Failed and Extraneous Noise < 1 dB (Suitable for: ISO 9614–2 and
ECMA 160):
Double the average distance from the measurement surface to the source, keeping the same
scan-line density.
Convergence Index Failed (Suitable for: ANSI S12.12):
Double the number of segments on the surface
Temporal Variability too High (Suitable for: All Standards):
Take action to reduce the temporal variability of extraneous intensity, or measure during
periods of less variability, or increase the averaging time at each position.
Sound Field Is Non-uniform and 1 dB  Extraneous Noise  3 dB (Suitable for:
ISO 9614–1):
Increase the density of measurement positions uniformly.
Sound Field Is Non-uniform and Extraneous Noise  1 dB (Suitable for:
ISO 9614–1):
Increase average distance of measurement surface from source using the same number of
measurement positions, or increase the number of measurement positions on the same surface.
Underrange at Frequencies below 1 kHz (Suitable for: All Standards):
Select p
> Setup > Input > Range Setting > Low Range.
or
Increase the averaging time.
or
Increase spacer length to 50 mm.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
103
Chapter 7
Specifications
Unless otherwise stated, values are given as typical values under Reference Environmental
Conditions with nominal sensitivities.
Type 2270 with Sound Intensity Probe Type 3654 and Software BZ-7233
Specifications are given for Type 2270-G with software
BZ-7233 installed and using Sound Intensity Probe Kit
Type 3654, including ½ Microphone Pair Type 4197
and Dual Preamplifier Type 2683.
Unless otherwise noted, values are given under
reference ambient conditions with nominal sensitivities
for the microphones and preamplifiers (see the
Product Data for Type 3654 – BP 2324) and with a
12 mm spacer. Licenses for Sound Level Meter
Software BZ-7222 and Sound Intensity Software
BZ-7233 are required to run the system
REFERENCE CONDITIONS
Reference Sound Pressure Level: 94 dB
Reference Frequency: 250 Hz
Reference Temperature: +20°C
Reference Static Pressure: 1013.25 hPa
Reference Relative Humidity: 65%
INSTRUMENTATION STANDARDS
Conforms with the following standards:
• IEC 61043 (1993–12) Class 1
• IEC TS 62370 (2004–05)
• IEC 61260 (1995–07) plus Amendment 1
(2001 – 09), 1/1-octave Bands and 1/3-octave
Bands, Class 0
• ANSI S1.11–1986, 1/1-octave Bands and 1/3-octave
Bands, Order 3, Type 0-C
• ANSI S1.11– 2004, 1/1-octave Bands and 1/3octave Bands, Class 0
SOUND POWER STANDARDS
Conforms with the following standards:
• ISO 9614–1:1993 (E)
• ISO 9614–2:1996 (E)
• ANSI S12.12–1992
• ECMA 160:1992
FREQUENCY RANGE
1/1- and 1/3-octave spectral measurements based on a
linear electrical frequency response (Z freq. weighting)
1/1-octave Band Centre Frequencies:
31.5 Hz – 8 kHz
1/3-octave Band Centre Frequencies:
25 Hz – 10 kHz
FREQUENCY WEIGHTING
Z- and A-weighted total results are based on weighted
summation of spectral bands in the frequency range
22 Hz – 11.3 kHz. Frequency bands can be manually
excluded from calculation
PRESSURE-RESIDUAL INTENSITY INDEX
The minimum pressure-residual intensity index for the
analyzer (the “Processor” in IEC 61043), measured
with pink noise at a band-filtered level of 114 dB in the
high range, is shown in Fig.7.1
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Fig.7.1
Minimum pressure-residual intensity index for the analyzer
Minimum electrical
IEC1043, Processor
25
20
15
10
ENHANCED PHASE MATCHING
The phase matching of the sound intensity system can
be enhanced using a Sound Intensity Calibrator
Type 4297
HIGH-FREQUENCY COMPENSATION
High-frequency compensation is made for the ½
microphone and 12 mm spacer combination. The
mean pressure and sound intensity spectra can then
be measured at frequencies up to 10 kHz (one octave
higher than the normal theoretical limit)
DETECTORS
Linear Integration: 1 s to days in 1 s steps
Overload Detector: Monitors the two channels for
overload
AUTORANGE
Manual and automatic range controls are provided
SPACER SETTINGS
Spacer Length: 6 – 200 mm in 0.5 mm steps
AMBIENT CONDITIONS SETTINGS
Measurements are automatically compensated for the
current temperature and ambient pressure, set by the
user
TRANSDUCER DATABASE
The microphone pair is described in the transducer
database with information on Serial No., Preamplifier
ID, Nominal Sensitivity, Polarization Voltage and Freefield Type. In addition to ½ Microphone Pair
Type 4197, ½ Microphone Pair Type 4181 and ¼
Microphone Pair Type 4178 (consisting of two phasematched Microphones Type 4939) are supported
CORRECTION FILTERS
For microphone pair Types 4197 and 4181, the
analyzer is able to correct the frequency response to
compensate for Ellipsoidal Windscreen UA-0781
8k
10 k
5k
6.3 k
4k
2k
2.5 k
1.6 k
1k
3.15 k
Frequency, Hz
1.25 k
800
630
500
400
315
250
200
160
125
100
63
80
50
40
0
25
5
31,5
Pressure-Residual Intensity Index [dB] (12 mm)
30
980317/1
CALIBRATION
Acoustic: Individual (Pressure) gain calibration of the
two input channels can be performed using Sound
Intensity Calibrator Type 4297, Sound Intensity
Calibrator Type 3541-A, Sound Calibrator Type 4231
with Coupler DP-0888 or a custom calibrator
Electrical: Using internally generated electrical signal
combined with typed-in value of microphone sensitivity
Calibration History: Up to 20 of the latest calibrations
made are listed and can be viewed on the instrument
Verification: Verification of the Pressure-residual
intensity index can be made using Sound Intensity
Calibrator Type 4297. Pressure-residual intensity
index is stored with the calibration and on each
measurement for documentation purposes and for
calculating the dynamic capability
Field Check: A field check of the intensity measured
with the probe in normal and reversed position can be
performed
MEASUREMENTS
Spectra: Simultaneous measurement of mean
pressure and intensity
TEMPORAL VARIABILITY
Assessment of whether or not the sound field is
stationary. Measured in accordance with ISO 9614–1.
Result stored with project
MEASUREMENT CONTROL
Manual or semi-automatic: Measurements are
started manually and the user is guided through the
measurement for each segment. After storing the
measurement for one segment, the analyzer is
automatically ready to measure the next segment. 16
different segment sequences are available.
For ISO 9614–2 and ECMA 160, the measurement
supports two scans per segment with repeatability
check
Manual Controls: Reset, Start, Pause, Back-erase,
Continue and Store the measurement manually
CHAPTER 7
Specifications
Measurement Mode: Manual or Automatic. Automatic
Save option in Automatic mode
Back Erase: It is possible to erase backwards to the
latest pause or to erase the latest scan when using
ISO 9614–2 and ECMA 160 standards
Aural Feedback: Periodic sound signal to earphones
to assist your measurement process
SIGNAL MONITORING
Headphone Output: Can be set to output the input
mean pressure signal, the aural feedback signal or
both to be monitored with headphones/earphones
Gain Adjustment: –60 dB to +60 dB
Output Socket: Can be set to output the Intensity AF,
CF or ZF broadband level as a voltage between
–4.47 V and 4.47 V. Gain is 20 dB/V. Lowest level
(= 0 V) can be set
INTERNAL GENERATOR
Built-in pseudo-random noise generator
Spectrum: Selectable between Pink and White
Crest Factor:
Pink Noise: 4.4 (13 dB)
White Noise: 3.6 (11 dB)
Bandwidth: Selectable:
• Lower Limit: 50 Hz (1/3-oct.) or 63 Hz (oct.)
• Upper Limit: 10 kHz (1/3-oct.) or 8 kHz (oct.)
Output Level: Independent of bandwidth
• Max.: 1 Vrms (0 dB)
• Gain Adjustment: –60 to 0 dB
When bandwidth is changed, the level for all bands is
automatically adjusted to comply with the set output
level
Repetition Period: 175 s
Output Connector: Output Socket
SURFACE AND PROJECT DEFINITION
• Setups and measurements for a given measurement
session and measurement of temporal variability are
stored in a project
• A project can contain up to 25 surfaces (Custom)
or 5 surfaces pre-structured as a box (Box)
• A surface is defined as a plane with a number of
segments of equal size organised as a rectangle
• Each segment can contain one measurement
• Height and width dimensions can be set for the
segments or set for the total surface
• For ANSI S12.12, each surface is doubled using N/2
and N segments
• Dimensions can be set in SI units or US/UK units
• A surface can contain up to 15 × 15 segments
• Definitions of surface and segments can be modified
at any time (before, during or after a measurement)
• Measurements can be stored in previously
measured segments, overwriting existing data (a
warning is displayed)
• Individual segments can be deleted
• The measured data of a segment can be copied to
other positions
IMAGES
• Image annotations can be selected as background
for surfaces
• The selected part of the image can be adjusted to
match the surface
• The image is displayed in black and white and can
be made darker or lighter for optimal visibility
together with grid and readouts on the screen
CALCULATIONS
• Sound power can be calculated for each segment,
surface or total surface
• Frequency bands or segments can be manually
included in or excluded from calculations
• The following status information is available for each
frequency band or segment: Data excluded,
Dynamic capability too low, Overload, Underrange,
Repeatability failed, Extraneous noise too high,
Averaging time too short, Convergence index failed,
High levels outside Tot., A frequency range,
Temporal variability too high, Sound field is nonuniform
• Quality Indicators based on status information are
shown in the measurement displays
Measurement Displays
SPECTRUM
Display of one or two spectra plus calculated Z- or Aweighted totals. Quality indicators are shown below
each frequency band
Available Spectra: Sound pressure (Z- or Aweighted), sound intensity (Z- or A-weighted),
p-I index, dynamic capability, scan difference, repeatability limit
Y-axis: Range: 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 or
160 dB. Auto zoom or auto scale available
Cursor: Readout of selected band and quality
indicator for each frequency band
SPECTRUM TABLE
One or two spectra can be displayed in tabular form
105
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
SURFACE
For display of all segments organised in a rectangle.
• The segments are displayed in the correct height/
width ratio
• A grid of segments can be superimposed on the
surface
• Segments are coloured in accordance with the
measurement status:
The current position is green when measurement is
in progress and yellow when paused and not saved.
All segments with saved data are blue
• The values from a selectable frequency band are
displayed together with quality indicators
• The surface can be superimposed on an image
• The transparency of the colors can be adjusted
TOTAL VALUES
Single values displayed as numbers: Sound Pressure,
Sound Intensity, p-I index (all Z- or A-weighted)
COMPASS
For display of the direction of the incident sound
energy near the probe
Result Displays
SPECTRUM
Display of one or two spectra plus calculated Z- and
A-weighted totals. Quality indicators are shown below
each frequency band
Available Spectra (per segment, surface and total
surface): Sound pressure (Z- or A-weighted), sound
intensity (Z- or A-weighted), p-I index, dynamic
capability, sound power (Z-or A-weighted)
Y-axis: Range: 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 or
160 dB. Auto zoom or auto scale available
Available spectra per segment: Scan difference,
repeatability limit
Available spectra for the total surface: Field nonuniformity, field non-uniformity limit, extraneous noise,
convergence index, convergence index limit
Cursor: Readout of selected band and quality
indicator for each frequency band
SPECTRUM TABLE
One or two spectra can be displayed in tabular form
SURFACE
For display of all the segments organised in a
rectangle
• The segments are displayed in the correct height/
width ratio
• A grid can be superimposed on the surface
• The surface can be superimposed on an image
• Number: The values from a selectable frequency
band are displayed together with quality indicators
• Curve: Displays curves of equal levels from a
selectable frequency band
• Contour: Displays colors between the curves of
equal levels from a selectable frequency band
• For Curve and Contour: Hide/show maxima, Zoom
in or out, auto scale, transparency adjustment and
two color scales
TOTAL
For display of surface results organised in a list or a
exploded box:
• Include/exclude a surface from calculation of total
surface results
TOTAL VALUES
Single values per segment, surface or total surface
displayed as numbers: Sound pressure, sound
intensity, p-I index, sound power (all Z- or A-weighted)
Single values for field non-uniformity (A-weighted),
start time, stop time, overload, time remaining
CHAPTER 7
Specifications
General Specifications
KEYBOARD
Pushbuttons: 11 keys with backlight, optimised for
measurement control and screen navigation
IMAGE ANNOTATIONS
Image annotations can be attached to measurements
Images can be viewed on the screen
ON-OFF BUTTON
Function: Press for 1 s to turn on. When on: press for
1 s to enter standby or press for more than 5 s to
switch off
GPS ANNOTATIONS
A text annotation with GPS information can be
attached (Latitude, Longitude, Altitude and position
error). Requires connection to a GPS receiver
STATUS INDICATORS
Traffic Lights: Red, yellow and green LEDs show
measurement status and instantaneous overload as
follows:
• Yellow LED flash every 5 s = stopped, ready to
measure
• Green LED flashing slowly = awaiting trigger or
calibration signal
• Green LED on constantly = measuring
• Yellow LED flashing slowly = paused, measurement
not stored
• Red LED flashing quickly = intermittent overload,
calibration failed
METADATA
Up to 30 metadata annotations can be set per project
(text from keyboard or text from pick list, number from
keyboard or auto-generated number). Up to 30
metadata can also be set for the individual segments
DISPLAY
Type: Transflective back-lit colour touch screen, 240 ×
320 dot matrix
Colour Schemes: Five different – optimised for
different usage scenarios (day, night, etc.)
Backlight: Adjustable level and on-time
USER INTERFACE
Measurement Control: Using pushbuttons on
keyboard
Setup and Display of Results: Using stylus on touch
screen or pushbuttons on keyboard
Lock: Keyboard and touch screen can be locked and
unlocked
VOICE ANNOTATIONS
Voice annotations can be attached to measurements
so that verbal comments can be stored together with
the measurement
Playback: Playback of voice annotations can be
listened to using an earphone/headphones connected
to the headphone socket
Gain Adjustment: –60 dB to 0 dB
TEXT ANNOTATIONS
Text annotations can be attached to measurements so
that written comments can be stored with the
measurement
DATA MANAGEMENT
Project Template: Defines the display and
measurement setups. Setups can be locked and
password protected
Project: Measurement data stored with the Project
Template
Job: Projects are organised in Jobs
Explorer facilities for easy management of data (copy,
cut, paste, delete, rename, open project, create job,
set default project name)
USB INTERFACE
Hardware Versions 1 to 3: USB 1.1 OTG Mini B
socket
Hardware Version 4: USB 2.0 OTG Micro AB and
USB 2.0 Standard A sockets
MODEM INTERFACE
Connection to Internet through GPRS/EDGE/HSPA
modem connected through:
• the Compact Flash slot (hardware versions 1 – 3)
• the USB Standard A Socket (hardware version 4)
Supports DynDNS for automatic update of IP address
of host name
PRINTER INTERFACE
PCL printers, Mobile Pro Spectrum thermal printer or
Seiko DPU S245/S445 thermal printers can be
connected to USB socket
COMPACT FLASH SOCKET (Hardware Version 1 to
3 only)
Connection of CF memory card, CF modem, CF to
serial interface, CF Ethernet interface or CF WLAN
interface
SECURE DIGITAL SOCKET
• 1 × SD socket for hardware versions 1 – 3
• 2 × SD sockets for hardware version 4
Connect SD and SDHC memory cards
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
LAN INTERFACE SOCKET
Hardware Versions 1 to 3 (Type 2270 only):
• Connector: RJ45 MDI
• Speed: 10 Mbps
• Protocol: TCP/IP
Hardware Version 4 (Types 2250 and 2270):
• Connector: RJ45 Auto-MDIX
• Speed: 100 Mbps
• Protocol: TCP/IP
EXTERNAL SECURE DIGITAL MEMORY CARD
SD and SDHC Card: For store/recall of measurement
data
TWO INPUT SOCKETS
Connector: Triaxial LEMO
Input Impedance: ≥1 MΩ
Direct Input: Max. input voltage: ±14.14 Vpeak
CCLD Input: Max. input voltage: ±7.07 Vpeak
CCLD Current/Voltage: 4 mA/25 V
EXTERNAL DC POWER SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS
Used to charge the battery pack in the instrument
Voltage: 8 – 24 V DC, ripple voltage <20 mV
Current Requirement: min. 1.5 A
Power Consumption: <2.5 W, without battery
charging, <10 W when charging
Cable Connector: LEMO Type FFA.00, positive at
centre pin
TRIGGER SOCKET
Connector: Triaxial LEMO
Max. Input Voltage: ±20 Vpeak
Input Impedance: >47 kΩ
Precision: ±0.1 V
OUTPUT SOCKET
Connector: Triaxial LEMO
Max. Peak Output Level: ±4.46 V
Output Impedance: 50 Ω
HEADPHONE SOCKET
Connector: 3.5 mm Minijack stereo socket
Max. Peak Output Level: ±1.4 V
Output Impedance: 32 Ω in each channel
MICROPHONE FOR COMMENTARY
Microphone, which utilises Automatic Gain Control
(AGC), is incorporated in underside of instrument.
Used to create voice annotations for attaching to
measurements
CAMERA
Camera with fixed focus and automatic exposure is
incorporated in underside of instrument.
Used to create image annotations for attaching to
measurements
Image Size:
• Hardware versions 1 – 3: 640 x 480 pixels
• Hardware version 4: 2048 x 1536 pixels
Viewfinder Size: 212 × 160 pixels
Format: jpg with exif information
Storage
INTERNAL FLASH-RAM (NON-VOLATILE)
For user setups and measurement data
• Hardware versions 1 – 3: 20 MB
• Hardware version 4: 512 MB
EXTERNAL COMPACT FLASH MEMORY CARD
(Hardware Versions 1 – 3 Only)
CF Card: For store/recall of measurement data
USB MEMORY STICK (Hardware version 4 only)
For store/recall of measurement data
MAINS POWER SUPPLY
Supply Voltage: 100 – 120/200 – 240 VAC; 47 –
63 Hz
Connector: 2-pin IEC320
BATTERY PACK
Part No.: QB-0061 Rechargeable Li-Ion battery
Voltage: 3.7 V
Capacity: 5200 mAh nominal
Typical Operating Time:
• Single-channel: >11 h (screen backlight dimmed);
>8.5 h (full screen backlight)
• Dual-channel: >7.5 h (full screen backlight)
Use of external interfaces (LAN, USB, WLAN) will
decrease battery operating time
Battery Cycle Life: > 500 complete charge/discharge
cycles
Battery Aging: Approximately 20% loss in capacity
per year
Battery Indicator: Remaining battery capacity and
expected working time may be read out in % and in
time
Battery Fuel Gauge: The battery is equipped with a
built-in fuel gauge, which continuously measures and
stores the actual battery capacity in the battery unit
Charge Time: In analyzer, typically 10 hours from
empty at ambient temperatures below 30C. To protect
the battery, charging will be terminated completely at
ambient temperatures above 40C. At 30 to 40C
charging time will be prolonged. With External Charger
ZG-0444 (optional accessory), typically 5 hours
NOTE: It is not recommended to charge the battery at
temperatures below 0C (32F) or over 50C (122F).
Doing this will reduce battery lifetime
CLOCK
Back-up battery powered clock. Drift <0.45 s per 24
hour period
CHAPTER 7
Specifications
WARM-UP TIME
From Power Off: <2 minutes
From Standby: <10 s for prepolarized microphones
WEIGHT AND DIMENSIONS
650 g (23 oz.) including rechargeable battery
300 × 93 × 50 mm (11.8 × 3.7 × 1.9) including
preamplifier and microphone
USERS
Multi-user concept with login. Users can have their
own settings with jobs and projects totally independent
of other users
PREFERENCES
Date, time and Number formats can be specified per
user
LANGUAGE
User interface in Catalan, Chinese (People’s Republic
of China), Chinese (Taiwan), Croatian, Czech, Danish,
English, Flemish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian,
Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian,
Russian, Serbian, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish
and Turkish
HELP
Concise context-sensitive help in English, French,
German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish,
Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Slovenian and
Spanish
UPDATE OF SOFTWARE
Update to any version using BZ-5503 through USB or
update via Internet:
• Hardware versions 1 – 3: the latest version only
• Hardware version 4: any version from 4.0 and up
WEB PAGE
Connect to the instrument using an Internet Browser
supporting Java script. The connection is password
protected
Two levels of protection:
• Guest level: for viewing only
• Administrator level: for viewing and full control of the
instrument
Software Specifications – Signal Recording Option BZ-7226
Signal Recording Option BZ-7226 is enabled with a
separate license. It works with all the software for
Type 2250/2270
For data storage, Signal Recording requires:
• SD Card: All hardware versions
• CF Card: Hardware versions 1 – 3
• USB Memory Stick: Hardware version 4
RECORDED SIGNAL
Z-weighted signal from the two microphones
SAMPLING RATE AND PRE-RECORDING
Sampling
Rate
(kHz)
Recording
Quality
(kHz)
Memory
(KB/s)
16-bit
Memory
(KB/s)
24-bit
8
Low
3.3
32
48
16
Fair
6.6
64
96
24
Medium
10
96
144
48
High
20
192
288
PLAYBACK
Playback of signal recordings can be listened to using
the earphone/headphones connected to the
headphone socket
RECORDING FORMAT
The recording format is either 24- or 16-bit wave files
(extension .WAV) attached to the data in the project.
Calibration information is stored in the .WAV file,
allowing BZ-5503 and PULSE to analyse the
recordings
Automatic Control of Recording: Start of recording
when measurement is started.
NOTE: 24-bit at High (20 kHz) recording quality is not
available for hardware versions 1 – 3
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Specifications – Measurement Partner Suite BZ-5503
BZ-5503 is included with Type 2270 for easy synchronisation of setups and data between PC and
Type 2270. BZ-5503 is supplied on DVD BZ-5298
ON-LINE DISPLAY OF TYPE 2270 DATA
Measurements on Type 2270 can be controlled from
the PC and displayed on-line with the PC, using the
same user interface on the PC as on Type 2270
DATA MANAGEMENT
Explorer: Facilities for easy management of
instruments, users, jobs, projects and project
templates (copy, cut, paste, delete, rename, create)
Synchronisation: Project templates and Projects for a
specific user can be synchronised between PC and
Type 2270
USERS
Users of Type 2270 can be created or deleted
EXPORT FACILITIES
Excel/XML: Projects (or user specified parts) can be
exported to Microsoft® Excel®
Type 7752: Projects can be exported to PULSE Noise
Source Identification Type 7752 (version 16.1 or
higher) for mapping and sound power calculation.
Images superimposed on surfaces are automatically
exported and shown in 7752. The pre-defined box will
be displayed in 7752 in 3D
TYPE 2270 SOFTWARE UPGRADES AND
LICENSES
Controls Type 2270 software upgrades and licensing
of Type 2270 applications
INTERFACE TO TYPE 2270
USB, LAN or Internet connection
USB Connection:
• Hardware versions 1 – 3: USB ver. 1.1
• Hardware version 4: USB ver. 2.0
LICENSE MOVER
To move a license from one analyzer to another, use
BZ-5503, together with License Mover VP-0647
LANGUAGE
User Interface in Chinese (People’s Republic of
China), Chinese (Taiwan), Croatian, Czech, Danish,
English, Flemish, French, German, Hungarian,
Japanese, Italian, Korean, Polish, Portuguese,
Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovenian, Spanish,
Swedish and Turkish
HELP
Concise context-sensitive help in English
PC REQUIREMENT
Operating System: Windows® 7 or XP (both in 32-bit
or 64-bit versions)
Recommended PC:
• Intel® Core™ 2 Duo
• Microsoft®.NET 4.0
• 2 GB of memory
• Sound card
• DVD drive
• At least one available USB port
CHAPTER 7
Specifications
Compliance with Standards
The CE marking is the manufacturer's declaration that the product meets the
requirements of the applicable EU directives
RCM mark indicates compliance with applicable ACMA technical standards – that is, for
telecommunications, radio communications, EMC and EME
China RoHS mark indicates compliance with administrative measures on the control of
pollution caused by electronic information products according to the Ministry of
Information Industries of the People’s Republic of China
WEEE mark indicates compliance with the EU WEEE Directive
Safety
EN/IEC 61010– 1, ANSI/UL 61010–1 and CSA C22.2 No.1010.1: Safety requirements
for electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use
EMC Emission
EN/IEC 61000–6–3: Generic emission standard for residential, commercial and light
industrial environments
EN/IEC 61326: Electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use – EMC
requirements
CISPR 22: Radio disturbance characteristics of information technology equipment. Class
B Limits
IEC 61672–1, IEC 61260, IEC 60651 and IEC 60804: Instrumentation standards
NOTE: The above is only guaranteed using accessories listed in this Product Data
EMC Immunity
EN/IEC 61000–6–2: Generic standard – Immunity for industrial environments
EN/IEC 61326: Electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use – EMC
requirements
IEC 61672–1, IEC 61260, IEC 60651 and IEC 60804: Instrumentation standards
NOTE: The above is only guaranteed using accessories listed in this Product Data
Temperature
IEC 60068-2-1 & IEC 60068-2-2: Environmental Testing.
Cold and Dry Heat.
Operating Temperature: -10 to +50°C (14 to 122°F)
Storage Temperature: -25 to +70°C (-13 to 158°F)
Humidity
IEC 60068-2-78: Damp Heat: 93% RH (non-condensing at +40°C (104°F)). Recovery time
2 ~ 4 hours
Mechanical
Non-operating:
IEC 60068-2-6: Vibration: 0.3 mm, 20 m/s2, 10 - 500 Hz
IEC 60068-2-27: Bump: 1000 bumps at 400 m/s2
IEC 60068-2-27: Shock: 1000 m/s2, 6 directions
Enclosure
IEC 60529 (1989): Protection provided by enclosures: IP20
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111
Appendix A
Setup Parameters
A.1
Input, Range Setting (Auto Range), Spacer
and Transducer
Parameter
Values
Comment
Input
Top Socket
Rear Socket
Determines whether the input is taken from
the top socket or the “Input” sockets at the
connector panel.
Range
Low Range
High Range
Select either Low Range or High Range for the input
channels.
NOTE: Press the Manual Event key
to Autorange
the setting.
High Range will select a range with 0 dB gain, which
allows the highest possible input.
Low Range will select a range with 30 dB gain.
Low levels:
If you select High Range but the peak level is more than
60 dB below max. input, then a “Low Level” warning is
indicated in the status panel line 2.
Spacer
6 to 200 mm
Set the spacer between the microphones, as required.
The 12 mm spacer is recommended for
1/2” microphones.
Transd. Used Ch. 1
One of the
transducers
defined in the
transducer
database
Determines which transducer is currently
connected to the Hand-held Analyzer and once
selected, the hardware of the analyzer will be
automatically set up to fit the transducer.
You should select a Part 1 microphone from
a Microphone Pair.
This parameter is part of the instrument setup and is
common to all setups. It can also be set from the
Transducers option of the Main Menu.
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Windscreen
Correction Ch.1
None
UA-1070
Select Windscreen Correction if you
have mounted a windscreen on the
Sound Intensity Probe.
Transd. Used Ch. 2
One of the
transducers
defined in the
transducer
database
Determines which transducer is currently
connected to the Hand-held Analyzer and once
selected, the hardware of the analyzer will be
automatically set up to fit the transducer.
You should select a Part 2 microphone from
a Microphone Pair.
This parameter is part of the instrument setup and is
common to all setups. It can also be set from the
Transducers option of the Main Menu.
Windscreen
Correction Ch.2
None
UA-1070
Select Windscreen Correction if you
have mounted a windscreen on the
Sound Intensity Probe.
A.2
Standard
Standard
Values
Comment
Standards
None
ISO 9614–1
ISO 9614–2
ANSI S12.12
ECMA 160
This setting determines the measurement procedure, sound power
calculation and display of field indicators.
See details of the standards in section 6.16
•
Grade of
Accuracy
Precision
Engineering
Survey
This setting stipulates the accuracy of the Sound Power calculation
If you follow the chosen standard and there are no smileys on the
result, expect the following precision of the sound power calculation:
•
Precision: 1 – 2 dB, depending on frequency
•
Engineering: 1.5 – 3 dB, depending on frequency
•
Survey: 4 dB
Check of Dynamic Capability uses this setting:
•
Precision: bias error factor = 10 dB
•
Engineering: bias error factor = 10 dB
•
Survey: bias error factor = 7 dB
APPENDIX A
Setup Parameters
A.3
Bandwidth
Parameter
Values
Comment
Bandwidth
1/1-octave
1/3-octave
The frequency analysis is either 1/1-octave or
1/3-octave.
A.4 Measurement Control: Measurement Mode, Preset
Time, Segment Order, Auto Save
Parameter
Values
Comment
SI Task
Sound Power/Mapping
Temporal Variability
Compass
Choose Sound Power/Mapping for sound power
calculations and for noise mapping.
Choose Temporal Variability for testing whether the
sound field is stationary or not.
Choose Compass for on-line noise source location.
Measurement Mode
Manual
Automatic
Determines whether the measurement is under
Manual control (fully controlled by the Reset and
Start/Pause pushbuttons), or Automatic control
(start of measurement controlled by the Reset and
Start/Pause pushbuttons, end of measurement
automatically controlled by the instrument when
preset time has elapsed).
Preset Time
00:00:01 to
24:00:00
Fixes the duration of a measurement from
start to automatic stop (in hours, minutes
and seconds). Any pauses made during the
measurement via the Start/Pause pushbutton are
not counted in the preset time.
Segment Order
16 combinations
Determines which segment to select for the next
measurement.
The segment is selected, when a measurement
has been saved.
Choose the combination that suits your
measurement sequence.
Automatic Save
Off
On
Choose On to save the measurement
automatically when the preset time has elapsed
and the measurement pauses.
The Segment Selector automatically increments to
point at next segment in accordance with
the Segment Order setting.
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A.5
Surface: Dimensions
Parameter
Values
Comment
Surface Type
Custom
Box
Choose Custom to set up a number of independent
surfaces.
Choose Box to set up a box with 5 surfaces
Number of Surfaces
1 to 25
Define the number of surfaces.
Select the surfaces one by one to define the segments
of the selected surface.
NOTE: The number of surfaces is doubled when using
ANSI S12.12.
Selected Surface
Plane1 to Plane25
Select the surface to be defined for Name, Height,
Width, Rows and Columns.
NOTE: Select the N/2 surfaces when using
ANSI S12.12
Surface Name
Text string
Use this parameter to specify a name for
the selected surface. The name is displayed in the
status panel.
Surface Height
0.01 to 500 m
Use this parameter to specify the total height
of the surface.
The area of the surface is used for calculating the Total
Sound Power from the Surface.
Surface Width
0.01 to 500 m
Use this parameter to specify the total width
of the surface.
The area of the surface is used for calculating the Total
Sound Power from the Surface.
Rows
1 to 15
Use this parameter to specify the number
of rows you want to divide the surface into.
Columns
1 to 15
Use this parameter to specify the number of
columns you want to divide the surface into.
Double no. of
Rows
Columns
Choose to double Rows or Columns.
ANSI S12.12 only.
Segment Height
0.01 to 500 m
Use this parameter to specify the height of a single
segment.
The area of the segment is used for calculating the
Sound Power from the Segment.
Segment Width
0.01 to 500 m
Use this parameter to specify the width of a
single segment.
The area of the segment is used for calculating the
Sound Power from the Segment.
APPENDIX A
Setup Parameters
A.6
Signal recording (requires license for
Signal Recording Option BZ-7226)
Parameter
Values
Comment
Recording Mode
Off
Automatic
Set to Automatic to start the recording when the
measurement is started and record throughout the
measurement
Recording Quality
High (20 kHz)
Medium (10 kHz)
Fair (6.6 kHz)
Low (3.3 kHz)
This setup determines the quality of the recording by
adjusting the sampling rate.
The amount of space required for the recording will
depend on the selected quality, please see details in the
specifications chapter
Resolution
16 bit
24 bit
Set Resolution to 24 bit to cover the full dynamic range.
Set Resolution to 16 bit to cover up to 96 dB from the
Input, Range Setting (High range or Low Range) and
down
NOTE: 24-bit at High (20 kHz) recording quality is not available for hardware versions 1 – 3.
A.7
Output Socket Signal
Parameter
Values
Comment
Source
Off
Intensity, AF
Intensity, CF
Intensity, ZF
Generator
Choose Generator to enable the generator output that is
specified in the Generator settings.
The source for the output socket can be set to the
Intensity, XF (X = A, C or Z frequency weighting,
F = Fast time weighting).
The intensity level is output as a DC voltage between
– 4.47 and 4.47 V.
Intensity levels with positive direction will output positive
voltages. Intensity levels with negative direction will
output negative voltages.
Set Lowest Level (= 0 V) to the level (and lower levels),
which will output 0 V.
Output Gain is 20 dB/V. The possible output range is
then 4.47 x 20 dB = 89.4 dB; however, the max. output
depends on the range setting (Low or High Range), the
sensitivity of the intensity probe, the Ambient Pressure
and the Ambient Temperature.
Hint: In Calibration, Details View you can read “Max.
Input Level Ch.1” – this is a good approximation of the
possible max. output.
NOTE: If output signal is not needed, set Source = Off,
to economise power use.
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
Lowest Level (= 0 V)
20 to 160 dB
The intensity level can be output as a DC voltage
between – 4.47 and 4.47 V.
Set Lowest Level (= 0 V) to the level (and lower levels)
which will output 0 V.
Output Gain is 20 dB/V.
APPENDIX A
Setup Parameters
A.8
Headphone Signal
Parameter
Values
Comment
Aural Feedback
Off
On
Determines whether the aural feedback is switched on
or not.
Notes on Aural Feedback:
While measuring you get a signal each second to assist
you in keeping a steady scanning pace. After 20 s all the
signals will be set one octave higher to indicate the
fulfilment of the minimum required scan time.
Overloads are indicated by two tones.
In the Compass display you will, each second, get a
signal with the high pitch for positive
direction (in front of the probe) and a low pitch for
negative direction (behind the probe) of
the selected frequency band.
Aural Feedback Gain
–70 to 10 dB
Use this parameter to specify the gain of the aural
feedback.
The aural feedback can be listened to together with the
signal, if “Listen to signal” is set in
Preferences, Headphone Settings.
A.9
Generator
Parameter
Values
Comment
Noise Type
Pink
White
The type of noise from the internal generator. The
bandwidth of the noise will be adjusted to the frequency
range from Bottom Frequency to Top Frequency
Level [re. 1 V]
–60.0 to 0.0 dB
This sets the internal noise generator attenuation in dB,
referenced to 1 V. This level stays at the set level
irrespective of the frequency range
Bottom Frequency
50 Hz to Top
Frequency
1/1-octave: 63 Hz – 8 kHz
1/3-octave: 50 Hz – 10 kHz
NOTE: The settings of Bottom and Top Frequency
control the bandwidth of the noise from the internal
noise generator
Top Frequency
Bottom
Frequency to
10 kHz
1/1-octave: 63 Hz – 8 kHz
1/3-octave: 50 Hz – 10 kHz
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117
Appendix B
Measurement and Calculated Parameters
B.1
Measurement Parameters
The following spectrum parameters are measured within Elapsed Time:
•
Mean Pressure, Z-weighted
•
Sound Intensity, Z-weighted
The following single value parameters are measured within Elapsed Time:
•
Start Time
•
Stop Time
•
Overload Percent
•
Time Remaining
The measurement parameters are saved on a segment together with the pressure-residual
intensity index.
Up to 15 × 15 segments can be saved within a surface.
Up to 25 surfaces can be saved with a project.
B.2
Calculated Parameters
The following spectrum parameters are calculated per segment:
•
Mean Pressure, A-weighted
•
Sound Intensity, A-weighted
•
Pressure-Intensity Index
•
Dynamic Capability
•
Sound Power, Z-weighted
•
Sound Power, A-weighted
•
Scan Difference (ISO 9614–2 and ECMA 160)
•
Repeatability Limit (ISO 9614–2 and ECMA 160 only)
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
The following single value parameters are calculated per segment from the frequency bands
(excluding frequency bands with “Excluded band” set):
•
Mean Pressure, Z-weighted
•
Mean Pressure, A-weighted
•
Sound Intensity, Z-weighted
•
Sound Intensity, A-weighted
•
Pressure-Intensity Index, Z-weighted
•
Pressure-Intensity Index, A-weighted
•
Sound Power, Z-weighted
•
Sound Power, A-weighted
The following spectrum parameters are calculated per surface (excluding “Excluded”
segments):
•
Surface Sound Power, Z-weighted
•
Surface Sound Power, A-weighted
•
Surface Intensity, Z-weighted
•
Surface Intensity, A-weighted
•
Surface Mean Pressure, Z-weighted
•
Surface Mean Pressure, A-weighted
•
Surface Pressure-Intensity Index
•
Surface Dynamic Capability
The following single value parameters are calculated per surface (excluding “Excluded”
segments):
•
Surface Sound Power, Z-weighted
•
Surface Sound Power, A-weighted
•
Surface Intensity, Z-weighted
•
Surface Intensity, A-weighted
•
Surface Mean Pressure, Z-weighted
•
Surface Mean Pressure, A-weighted
•
Surface Pressure-Intensity Index, Z-weighted
•
Surface Pressure-Intensity Index, A-weighted
The following Total spectrum parameters are calculated based on all surfaces (excluding
“Excluded” segments):
•
Total Sound Power, Z-weighted
•
Total Sound Power, A-weighted
•
Total Intensity, Z-weighted
•
Total Intensity, A-weighted
•
Total Mean Pressure, Z-weighted
•
Total Mean Pressure, A-weighted
APPENDIX B
Measurement and Calculated Parameters
•
Total Pressure-Intensity Index
•
Total Dynamic Capability
•
Extraneous Noise
•
Field unif. (Field non-uniformity indicator, F4; ISO 9614–1 only)
•
Fld.uni.lim(Limit for Field non-uniformity indicator; ISO 9614–1 only)
•
Convergence Index (ANSI S12.12 only)
•
Convergence Index Limit (ANSI S12.12 only)
119
The following Total single value parameters are calculated based on all the surfaces (excluding
“Excluded” segments):
•
Total Sound Power, Z-weighted
•
Total Sound Power, A-weighted
•
Total Intensity, Z-weighted
•
Total Intensity, A-weighted
•
Total Mean Pressure, Z-weighted
•
Total Mean Pressure, A-weighted
•
Total Pressure-Intensity Index, Z-weighted
•
Total Pressure-Intensity Index, A-weighted
•
Field Uniform, A-weighted (Field non-uniformity indicator; ISO 9614–1 only)
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Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233 – User Manual
INDEX
121
Index
A
Active sound fields.................................................... 69
Aural Feedback......................................................... 49
Auto range ....................................................... 11, 111
B
Back-erase Pushbutton ............................................ 40
Background noise ..................................................... 85
Broadband Values .................................................... 49
C
Calibrate ............................................................ 17, 19
Calibration................................................................. 13
Phase .................................................... 13, 17, 19
Sound Pressure ............................................ 13, 17
Compass................................................................... 48
Controlling
Measurements ..................................................... 39
Conventions Used in this Manual ............................... 1
D
Diffuse field ............................................................... 69
Directivity characteristics .......................................... 72
Dynamic range.......................................................... 80
E
Exclude/Include Bands ............................................. 41
Exclude/include Segments ....................................... 41
Extended high frequency .......................................... 76
Extension Stem...................................................... 8, 9
Extension Stem UA-1439 ........................................... 8
How to Use this Manual ............................................. 1
Beginners .............................................................. 2
Experienced Users ................................................ 2
I
IEC 61043 ................................................................ 79
Introduction................................................................. 1
M
Measurement limitations .......................................... 75
Measuring system .................................................... 71
Microphone Pair ....................................................... 11
Type 4197 ............................................................. 7
Microphone Type...................................................... 11
Mounting
Microphones onto Probe ....................................... 7
Probe onto Analyzer.............................................. 8
Mounting the Microphones on the Probe ................... 7
N
Navigation Pushbuttons and Stylus
Use of .................................................................. 41
Near field .................................................................. 70
O
On-screen Feedback................................................ 41
P
Grid .................................................................... 46, 47
Parameters............................................................... 48
Particle velocity ................................................. 70, 74
Post-processing and Reporting ................................ 65
Preamplifier ID No. ................................................... 11
Pressure gradient ..................................................... 71
Pressure-residual intensity index ............................. 80
Pressure-Residual Intensity Verification................... 16
Probe.......................................................................... 8
Remove from Handle ............................................ 9
Pushbuttons
Back-erase .......................................................... 40
Reset ................................................................... 39
Save .................................................................... 40
Start/Pause.......................................................... 40
H
Q
Handle ........................................................................ 9
Handle with Integral Cable UA-1440 .......................... 8
High frequency limit .................................................. 75
How to Change Parameter Values ........................... 41
Quality Indicator ....................................................... 51
F
Field Check............................................................... 21
Finite difference approximation................................. 71
Free field............................................................ 68, 74
Frequency Limit
Low ...................................................................... 79
Frequency range....................................................... 75
G
R
Range setting ......................................................... 111
INDEX
Reactive sound fields................................................ 69
Reference levels ....................................................... 73
Reset Pushbutton ..................................................... 39
S
Save Pushbutton ...................................................... 40
Scanning................................................................... 85
Segment Order ......................................................... 41
Selecting a microphone pair ..................................... 11
Serial No. .................................................................. 11
Setup ........................................................................ 10
Bandwidth ............................................................ 12
Generator ............................................................ 12
Headphone Signal ............................................... 12
Input..................................................................... 10
Measurement Control .......................................... 12
Microphone .......................................................... 11
Standard .............................................................. 11
Surface ................................................................ 12
Units .................................................................... 12
Smiley ....................................................................... 51
Sound fields .............................................................. 68
Sound intensity ........................................... 67, 70, 73
Sound Intensity Calibrator ........................................ 13
Sound power............................................... 67, 74, 84
Sound pressure ........................................................ 73
122
Sound Pressure Calibration .............................. 14, 17
Spatial averaging...................................................... 84
Spectrum .................................................................. 41
Spectrum Table ........................................................ 61
Start/Pause Pushbutton ........................................... 40
Status Code.............................................................. 51
Surface .............................................................. 45, 84
T
Transducers ............................................................. 11
Tutorials.................................................................... 21
Type 3541 ................................................................ 17
Type 4231 ................................................................ 19
Type 4297 ................................................................ 13
U
Use of
Stylus and Navigation Pushbuttons..................... 41
V
Verification
Phase .................................................................. 19
Verify ................................................................. 17, 19
Pressure-Residual Intensity Index....................... 16
W
Welcome .................................................................... 1
BE1841-14_Cover.fm Page 1 Wednesday, December 18, 2013 10:47 AM
Technical
Documentation
Sound Intensity Software BZ-7233
For use with
Hand-held Analyzer Type 2270
HEADQUARTERS: Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S · DK-2850 Nærum · Denmark
Telephone: +45 7741 2000 · Fax: +45 4580 1405 · www.bksv.com · [email protected]
Local representatives and service organisations worldwide
ËBE-1841---ÉÎ
User Manual
English BE 1841–14
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