WWHM3 User Manual - Riverside County Flood Control

WWHM3 User Manual - Riverside County Flood Control

Santa Margarita Region

Hydrology Model

Guidance Document

Clear Creek Solutions, Inc.

www.clearcreeksolutions.com

June 2013

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

To download the Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model and the electronic version of this document, please go to www.clearcreeksolutions.com/downloads

If you have questions about SMRHM or its use, please contact: Clear Creek Solutions, Inc.

360-943-0304 (8 AM – 5 PM Pacific time) ii

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

End User License Agreement

End User Software License Agreement (Agreement). By clicking on the "Accept" Button when installing the Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model (SMRHM) Software or by using the Santa

Margarita Region Hydrology Model Software following installation, you, your employer, client and associates (collectively, "End User") are consenting to be bound by the following terms and conditions. If you or User do not desire to be bound by the following conditions, click the "Decline"

Button, and do not continue the installation process or use of the Santa Margarita Region Hydrology

Model Software.

The Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Software is being provided to End User pursuant to a sublicense of a governmental licensee of Clear Creek Solutions, Inc. Pursuant to the terms and conditions of this Agreement, End User is permitted to use the Santa Margarita Region Hydrology

Model Software solely for purposes authorized by participating municipal, county or special district member agencies of signatory programs which are organized on a county-wide basis for implementation of stormwater discharge permits issued by the California Regional Water Quality

Control Board, under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. The End User is not permitted to use the Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Software for any other purpose than as described above.

End User shall not copy, distribute, alter, or modify the Santa Margarita Region Hydrology

Model Software.

The SMRHM incorporates data on soils, climate and geographical features to support its intended uses of identifying site-appropriate modeling parameters, incorporating user-defined inputs into longterm hydrologic simulation models of areas within the County of Riverside, and assisting design of facilities for flow duration control as described in the accompanying documentation. These data may not be adequate for other purposes such as those requiring precise location, measurement or description of geographical features, or engineering analyses other than those described in the documentation.

This program and accompanying documentation are provided 'as-is' without warranty of any kind.

The entire risk regarding the performance and results of this program is assumed by End User. Clear

Creek Solutions Inc. and the governmental licensee or sublicensees disclaim all warranties, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to implied warranties of program and accompanying documentation. In no event shall Clear Creek Solutions Inc., or authorized representatives be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation to damages for loss of business profits, loss of business information, business interruption, and the like) arising out of the use of, or inability to use this program even if Clear Creek Solutions Inc., has been advised of the possibility of such damages. Software Copyright © by Clear Creek Solutions, Inc. 2005-2013; All Rights Reserved. iii

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

FOREWORD

The Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model (SMRHM) is a tool for analyzing the hydromodification effects of land development projects and sizing solutions to mitigate the increased runoff from these projects. This section of the guidance documentation provides background information on the definition and effects of hydromodification and relevant findings from technical analyses conducted in response to regulatory requirements. It also summarizes the current Hydromodification Management Standard and general design approach for hydromodification control facilities, which led to the development of the

SMRHM.

Regulatory Context

The California Regional Water Quality Control Board (Water Board) requires stormwater programs to address the increases in runoff rate and volume from new and redevelopment projects where those increases could cause increased erosion of receiving streams. Phase

1 municipal stormwater permits in Riverside County contain requirements to develop and implement hydromodification management plans (HMPs) and to implement associated management measures.

Acknowledgements

The following individuals are acknowledged for their contributions to the development of

SMRHM and guidance documentation:

Doug Beyerlein, Joe Brascher, Gary Maxfield, and Shanon White of Clear Creek

Solutions, Inc., for development of WWHM, BAHM, and SMRHM and preparation of the

SMRHM guidance documentation.

Daniel Apt and Remi Candaele of RBF Consulting, a Company of Michael Baker

Corporation, for providing SMRHM meteorological data, maps, and technical specifications. iv

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS

End User License Agreement ............................................................................................iii

FOREWORD ...................................................................................................................... iv

Regulatory Context ............................................................................................................. iv

Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................ iv

INTRODUCTION TO SMRHM ........................................................................................ 1

QUICK START .................................................................................................................. 3

MAIN SCREENS ............................................................................................................. 35

MAP INFORMATION SCREEN ..................................................................................... 36

GENERAL PROJECT INFORMATION SCREEN ......................................................... 37

SCHEMATIC EDITOR .................................................................................................... 39

LAND USE BASIN ELEMENT ...................................................................................... 40

LATERAL BASIN ELEMENT (Pervious) ...................................................................... 43

LATERAL I BASIN ELEMENT (Impervious) ............................................................... 44

TRAPEZOIDAL POND ELEMENT ............................................................................... 45

VAULT ELEMENT ......................................................................................................... 49

TANK ELEMENT ............................................................................................................ 51

IRREGULAR POND ELEMENT .................................................................................... 53

PONDPAD INTERFACE ................................................................................................. 54

GRAVEL TRENCH BED ELEMENT ............................................................................. 56

SAND FILTER ELEMENT ............................................................................................. 58

OUTLET STRUCTURE CONFIGURATIONS ............................................................... 60

INFILTRATION ............................................................................................................... 66

AUTO POND .................................................................................................................... 67

CHANNEL ELEMENT ................................................................................................... 69

FLOW SPLITTER ELEMENT ........................................................................................ 71

TIME SERIES ELEMENT ............................................................................................... 73

STAGE-STORAGE-DISCHARGE TABLE ................................................................... 74

SSD TABLE ELEMENT .................................................................................................. 75

BIORETENTION ELEMENT .......................................................................................... 78

POINT OF COMPLIANCE .............................................................................................. 85

CONNECTING ELEMENTS ........................................................................................... 87

ANALYSIS SCREEN ...................................................................................................... 90

FLOW DURATION ......................................................................................................... 92

FLOW FREQUENCY ...................................................................................................... 94

DRAWDOWN .................................................................................................................. 95

HYDROGRAPHS ............................................................................................................. 96

LID BMP SIZING ............................................................................................................ 97

REPORTS SCREEN ....................................................................................................... 104 v

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

TOOLS SCREEN ........................................................................................................... 106

LID ANALYSIS SCREEN ............................................................................................. 110

OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................ 114

DURATION CRITERIA ................................................................................................ 115

SCALING FACTORS .................................................................................................... 116

TIPS AND TRICKS FOR LID PRACTICES AND FACILITIES ................................ 118

INFILTRATION BASIN/POND .................................................................................... 119

INFILTRATION TRENCH ........................................................................................... 122

PERMEABLE PAVEMENT .......................................................................................... 125

BIORETENTION (STANDARD DESIGN) .................................................................. 128

BIORETENTION (VERTICAL SIDESLOPES) ........................................................... 130

BIORETENTION (PLANTER BOX) ............................................................................ 132

SAND FILTER BASIN .................................................................................................. 134

EXTENDED DETENTION BASIN ............................................................................... 136

APPENDIX A: DEFAULT SMRHM HSPF PERVIOUS PARAMETER VALUES ... 140

APPENDIX B:DEFAULT SMRHM HSPF IMPERVIOUS PARAMETER VALUES. 157

APPENDIX C: ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE FOR USING SMRHM .......................... 161

Infiltration Reduction Factor ..................................................................................... 161

Flow Duration Outlet Structures – Practical Design Considerations ........................ 162

Drawdown time and treatment/vector considerations ............................................... 163

APPENDIX D: SMRHM REVIEWER CHECKLIST ................................................... 167

APPENDIX E: SMRHM BACKGROUND ................................................................... 169

Effects of Hydromodification ................................................................................... 169

Development of the Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model .............................. 169

SMRHM OVERVIEW ................................................................................................... 170

BIORETENTION MODELING METHODOLOGY .................................................... 172 vi

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

INTRODUCTION TO SMRHM

SMRHM is the Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model. SMRHM is based on the

WWHM (Western Washington Hydrology Model) stormwater modeling software platform.

WWHM was originally developed for the Washington State Department of Ecology. More information about WWHM can be found at www.clearcreeksolutions.com. More information can be found about the Washington State Department of Ecology's stormwater management program and manual at

http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/stormwater/manual.html.

Clear Creek Solutions is responsible for SMRHM and the SMRHM guidance documentation.

This guidance documentation is organized so as to provide the user an example of a standard application using SMRHM (described in Quick Start) followed by descriptions of the different components and options available in SMRHM. The Tips and Tricks section presents some ideas of how to incorporate LID (Low Impact Development) facilities and practices into the SMRHM analysis. Riverside County's Design Handbook for Low Impact

Development Best Management Practices (September 2011) has the most up-to-date

information regarding BMP standards and should be consulted prior to the start of any SMRHM LID BMP modeling.

Appendices A and B provide a full list of the HSPF parameter values used in SMRHM.

Appendix C contains additional guidance and recommendations by the stormwater programs that have sponsored the SMRHM development. Appendix D is a checklist for use by SMRHM project reviewers. Appendix E provides additional background information on SMRHM.

Throughout the guidance documentation notes using this font (sans-serif italic) alert the user to actions or design decisions for which guidance must be consulted that is external to the SMRHM software, either provided in Appendix C of this

guidance documentation or by the local municipal permitting agency.

Purpose

The purpose of SMRHM is to size hydromodification management or flow control facilities to mitigate the effects of increased runoff (peak discharge, duration, and volume) from proposed land use changes that impact natural streams, wetlands, and other water courses.

SMRHM provides:

A uniform methodology for Santa Margarita Region County

A more accurate methodology than single-event design storms

An easy-to-use software package

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

SMRHM is based on:

Continuous simulation hydrology (HSPF)

Actual long-term recorded precipitation data

Measured pan evaporation data

Existing vegetation (for predevelopment conditions)

Regional HSPF parameters

Computer Requirements

Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7/8 with 300 MB uncompressed hard drive space

Internet access (only required for downloading SMRHM, not required for executing SMRHM)

Pentium 3 or faster processor (desirable)

Color monitor (desirable)

It is important to know the following information prior to using SMRHM for a

project:

Knowledge of the site location and/or street address

Knowledge of the actual distribution of existing site soil by category (A, B, C, or

D)

Knowledge of the actual distribution of existing and proposed site land cover by category (forest, shrub, grass, or urban)

Knowledge of the actual distribution of existing and proposed site topography by category (flat, moderate, steep, or very steep)

Knowledge of the planned distribution of the proposed development (buildings, streets, sidewalks, parking, lawn areas) overlying the soil categories

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

QUICK START

Quick Start very briefly describes the steps to quickly size a stormwater detention pond using SMRHM. New users should read the descriptions of the SMRHM screens, elements, and analysis tools before going through the steps described below.

1. Open SMRHM.

SMRHM will open with a map of the Santa Margarita Region of Riverside County.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The map controls can be used to enlarge a specific area on the street map layer. This option helps to locate the specific project site.

When the street map layer is enlarged a sufficient amount the individual street names are shown on the map.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

2. Select the project site location.

Locate the project site on the map. Use the map controls to magnify a portion of the map, if needed. Select the project site by left clicking on the map location. A red circle will be placed on the map identifying the project site.

The model will then automatically select the appropriate rain gauge record for the project site. The Santa Margarita Region has four long-term 15-minute precipitation records:

Eastern Slopes, Temecula Valley, Western Plateau, and Wildomar/North Murrieta.

For this example we will use the Temecula Valley rain gauge.

The site name, address, and city information is optional. It is not used by SMRHM, but will be included in the project report summary.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

3. Use the tool bar (immediately above the map) to move to the

Scenario Editor. Click on the General Project Information button.

The General Project Information button will bring up the Schematic Editor.

The schematic editor screen contains two scenarios:

Predevelopment and Mitigated.

First set up the Predevelopment scenario and then the Mitigated scenario.

Left click on the Land use Basin element under the

Drainage Elements heading. The Land use Basin element represents a drainage management area

(DMA).

Select any grid cell (preferably near the top of the grid) and left click on that grid. The DMA will appear in that grid cell.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

To the right of the grid is the land use information associated with the DMA. Select the appropriate soil, land cover, and land slope for the Predevelopment scenario. Soils are based on NRCS general categories A, B, C, and D.

Land cover is based on the native vegetation for the Predevelopment project area and the planned vegetation for the planned development (Mitigated scenario). Non-urban land cover can be forest, shrub, and/or grass. In contrast, the developed landscape will consist of urban vegetation (lawns, flowers, planted shrubs and trees) and is regularly irrigated.

Land slope is divided into flat (0-5%), moderate (5-10%), steep (10-20%), and very steep

(>20%) land slopes.

HSPF parameter values in SMRHM have been adjusted for the different soil, land cover, and land slope categories.

For this example we will assume that the Predevelopment land use is:

D soil

• grass vegetation

• moderate slope (5-10%)

DMA equals 10 acres

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Note that the Predevelopment land use never includes man-made impervious areas. Existing impervious areas must be modeled as they were prior to any land use development on the project site.

The downstream discharge from this DMA will be selected as our point of compliance for the Predevelopment scenario. Right click on the DMA and highlight Connect to Point of

Compliance (the point of compliance is defined as the location at which the runoff from both the Predevelopment scenario and the Mitigated scenario are compared).

The Point of Compliance screen will be shown for Predevelopment DMA 1. The

POC (Point of Compliance) Outlet has been checked for both surface runoff and interflow (shallow subsurface flow). These are the two flow components of stormwater runoff. Do not check the groundwater box unless there is observed and documented base flow on the project site.

Click the Connect button in the low right corner to connect this point of compliance to the Predevelopment basin.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

After the point of compliance has been added to the DMA, the land use basin element will change. A small box with a bar chart graphic and a number will be shown in the lower right corner of the element. This small POC box identifies this DMA as a point of compliance. The number is the POC number (e.g., POC 1).

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

4. Set up the Mitigated scenario.

First, select the Mitigated scenario tab at the top of the grid. Place a land use basin element on the grid to represent the same DMA, as selected in the Predevelopment scenario.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

For the Mitigated scenario DMA we will input the following information:

Pervious area:

D soil

• urban vegetation moderate slope (5-10%)

4.5 acres

Impervious area:

Roads, moderate slope: 2.5 acres

Roof Area: 1.5 acres

Parking, flat slope: 1.5 acres

The impervious land category includes roads, roofs, sidewalks, parking, driveways, and any other impervious surfaces. All are modeled the same; the surface runoff produced from an impervious land surface only varies by land slope (steeper slopes produce more runoff than flatter slopes).

The next step is to add a mitigation facility downstream of the DMA. For this example we will use a trapezoidal stormwater pond (also known as a detention basin) to provide the required hydromod mitigation.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Place the trapezoidal pond element below the DMA in any cell on the grid. It doesn't have to be directly below the DMA, but it must be somewhere on a lower row in the grid.

Right click on the DMA and select Connect To Element. A green line will appear with one end connected to the DMA.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Pull the other end of the line down to the trapezoidal pond with the mouse pointer and click on the pond. This action will bring up the From Basin to Conveyance screen.

As with the Predevelopment scenario we want to only connect the surface flow and the interflow (shallow subsurface runoff) from the basin to the pond. Click OK.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

A line will then be shown connecting the DMA to the trapezoidal pond.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Right click on the trapezoidal pond element to connect the pond's outlet to the point of compliance. Highlight and click on Connect to Point Of Compliance.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The Point of Compliance screen will be shown for the pond. The pond has one outlet (by default). The outflow from the pond will be compared with the Predevelopment runoff. The point of compliance is designated as POC 1 (SMRHM allows for multiple points of compliance). Click on the Connect button.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The point of compliance is shown on the pond element as a small box with the letter "A" and number 1 in the bar chart symbol in the lower right corner.

NOTE: The letter "A" stands for Analysis and designates that this is an analysis location where flow and stage will be computed and the output flow and stage time

series will be made available to the user. The number 1 denotes that this is POC 1.

You can have an analysis location without having a point of compliance at the same location, but you cannot have a point of compliance that is also not an analysis

location.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

5. Sizing the trapezoidal pond.

A trapezoidal stormwater pond can be sized either manually or automatically (using the

Auto Pond feature). For this example Auto Pond will be used. (Go to page 48 to find more information about how to manually size a stormwater pond, detention basin, or other HMP facility.)

Click on the Auto Pond button and the Auto Pond screen will appear. The user can set the pond depth (default: 4 feet), pond length to width ratio (default: 1 to 1), pond sideslopes

(default: 3 to 1), and the outlet structure configuration (default: 1 orifice and riser with rectangular notch weir).

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

To optimize the pond design and create the smallest pond possible, move the Automatic

Pond Adjuster pointer from the left to the right.

The pond does not yet have any dimensions. Click the Create Pond button to create initial pond dimensions, which will be the starting point for Auto Pond's automated optimization process to calculate the pond size and outlet structure dimensions.

NOTE: Depending on the complexity of the project, the length of the precipitation record and the computational speed of the computer, Auto Pond may take 1 to 15

minutes to run.

Running Auto Pond automates the following SMRHM processes:

1. the 15-minute Predevelopment scenario runoff is computed for the 30-50 years of record (it varies depending on the rain gauge used),

2. the Predevelopment runoff flood frequency is calculated based on the partial duration peak flows,

3. the range of flows is selected for the flow duration (10% of the 2-year peak to the 10-year peak),

4. this flow range is divided into 100 increments, and

5. the number of 15-minute Predevelopment flow values that exceed each flow increment level (Predevelopment flow duration) are counted to create the flow duration curves and accompanying tabular results.

Next, SMRHM computes the post-development runoff (in the Mitigated scenario) and routes the runoff through the pond. But before the runoff can be routed through the pond the pond must be given dimensions and an outlet configuration. Auto Pond uses a set of rules based on the Predevelopment and Mitigated scenario land uses to give the pond an initial set of dimensions and an initial outlet orifice diameter and riser (the riser is given a default rectangular notch). This information allows SMRHM to compute a stage-storage- discharge table for the pond.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

With this initial pond stage-storage-discharge table SMRHM:

1. routes the 15-minute post-project runoff through the pond for the 30-50 years of record to create the Mitigated flow time series,

2. counts the number of 15-minute Mitigated flow values that exceed each flow increment level (this is the Mitigated flow duration), and

3. computes the ratio of Mitigated flow values to Predevelopment flow values for each flow increment level (comparing the Predevelopment and Mitigated flow duration results).

If any of the 100 individual ratio values is greater than allowed by the flow duration criteria then the pond fails to provide an appropriate amount of mitigation and needs to be resized.

Flow duration results are shown in the plots above. The vertical axis shows the range of flows from 10% of the 2-year flow (0.40 cfs) to the 10-year flow (8.66 cfs). The horizontal axis is the percent of time that flows exceed a flow value. Plotting positions on the horizontal axis typically range from 0.001% to 1%, as explained below.

For the entire 30- to 50-year simulation period (depending on the period of record of the precipitation station used) all of the 15-minute time steps are checked to see if the flow for that time step is greater than the minimum flow duration criteria value (0.40 cfs, in this example). For a 50-year simulation period there are approximately 1,600,000 15- minute values to check. Many of them are zero flows. The 10% of the Predevelopment2-year flow value is typically exceeded less than 1% of the total simulation period.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

This flow duration check is done for both the Predevelopment flows (shown in blue on the screen) and the Mitigated flows (shown in red).

If all of the Mitigated flow duration values (in red) are to the left of the Predevelopment flow duration values (in blue), then the number of occurrences decreases and the pond successfully mitigates the additional erosive flows produced by the development.

If the Mitigated flow duration values (in red) are far to the left of the Predevelopment flow duration values (in blue), then the pond can be made smaller and still meet the flow duration criteria.

Auto Pond goes through an iteration process by which it changes the pond dimensions and outlet configuration, then instructs SMRHM to again compute the resulting Mitigated runoff, compare flow durations, and decide if it has made the results better or worse. This iteration process continues until Auto Pond finally concludes that an optimum solution has been found and the Mitigated flow duration values (in red) are as close as possible to the

Predevelopment flow duration values (in blue). When this occurs the Auto Pond Finished message appears on the screen.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The user has the option to continue to manually optimize the pond by manually changing pond dimensions and/or the outlet structure configuration. (Manual optimization is explained in more detail on page 48.) After making these changes the user should click on the Optimize Pond button to check the results and see if Auto Pond can make further improvements.

The final pond dimensions (bottom length, bottom width, effective pond depth, and sideslopes) and outlet structure information (riser height, riser diameter, riser weir type, weir notch height and width, and orifice diameter and height) are shown on the trapezoidal pond screen to the right of the Schematic grid.

NOTE: If Auto Pond selects a bottom orifice diameter smaller than the smallest diameter allowed by the local municipal permitting agency then the user has the option of specifying a minimum allowable bottom orifice diameter even if this size diameter is too large to meet flow duration criteria for this element. Additional mitigating BMPs may be required to meet local hydromodification control requirements. Please see Appendix C or consult with local municipal permitting

agency for more details. For manual sizing information see page 48.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

6. Review analysis.

The Analysis tool bar button (third from the left) brings up the Analysis screen where the user can look at the results. Each time series dataset is listed in the Analyze Datasets box in the lower left corner.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

To review the flow duration analysis at the point of compliance select the POC 1 tab at the bottom and make sure that both the 501 POC 1 Predevelopment flow and 801 POC 1

Developed flow are highlighted.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The flow duration plot for both Predevelopment and Mitigated flows will be shown along with the specific flow values and number of times Predevelopment and Mitigated flows exceeded those flow values. The Pass/Fail on the right indicates whether or not at that flow level the flow control standard criteria were met and the pond passes at that flow level (in this example from 10% of the 2-year flow to the 10-year). If not, a Fail is shown.

NOTE: A single Fail fails the hydromod pond design criteria.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Pond drawdown/retention time is computed on the Analysis screen.

NOTE: This information is not required for basic sizing of the flow duration facility, but can assist the user in determining the overall suitability of the mitigated design in meeting additional, related requirements for treating stormwater runoff and minimizing risk of vector (mosquito) breeding problems. See page 98 for more descriptions of this SMRHM feature, and Appendix C for discussion and references

for these requirements.

Click on the Stage tab at the bottom to get the Mitigated pond stage time series.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Click on the tab labeled Drawdown. This is where the pond drawdown/retention time results will be shown.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Select the pond you want to analyze for drawdown/retention time (in this example there is only one pond: Trapezoidal Pond 1) by clicking on the dataset and highlighting it.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Click on the Analyze Stage button and the computed pond stages (pond water depths) are summarized and reported in terms of drain/retention time (in days).

For this example, the maximum stage computed during the entire 30-50 year simulation period is 3.40 feet. This maximum stage has a drawdown time of 1 day, 20 hours, 33 minutes, and 8 seconds.

Ponds may have drain times in excess of the allowed maximum of hours. This can occur when a pond has a small bottom orifice. If this is not acceptable then the user needs to change the pond outlet configuration, manually run the Mitigated scenario, and repeat the analyze stage computations. A situation may occur where it is not possible to have both an acceptable pond drawdown/retention time and meet the flow duration criteria.

NOTE: See Appendix C or the local municipal permitting agency for an overview of other requirements that may apply regarding drawdown time, and suggestions for addressing situations where it is not possible to meet all drawdown/retention time guidelines and also meet the flow duration criteria. The guidance documentation assumes that the flow duration criteria take precedence unless the user is

instructed otherwise by the local municipal permitting agency.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

7. Produce report.

Click on the Reports tool bar button (fourth from the left) to generate a project report with all of the project information and results.

The project report can be generated as either a Microsoft Word file or a PDF file.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Scroll down the Report screen to see all of the results.

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8. Save project.

To save the project click on File in the upper left corner and select Save As.

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Select a file name and save the SMRHM project file. The user can exit SMRHM and later reload the project file with all of its information by going to File, Open.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

9. Exit SMRHM.

To exit SMRHM click on File in the upper left corner and select Exit. Or click on the X in the red box in the upper right hand corner of the screen.

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MAIN SCREENS

SMRHM has six main screens. These main screens can be accessed through the buttons shown on the tool bar above or via the View menu.

The six main screens are:

• Map Information

• General Project Information

• Analysis

• Reports

• Tools

• LID (Low Impact Development) Analysis

Each is discussed in more detail in the following sections.

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MAP INFORMATION SCREEN

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The Map screen contains county information. The precipitation gauge and precip factor are shown to the right of the map. They are based on the project site location.

The user can provide site information (optional). The site name and address will help to identify the project on the Report screen and in the printed report provided to the local municipal permitting agency.

The user locates the project site on the map screen by using the mouse and left clicking at the project site location. Right clicking on the map re-centers the view. The + and – buttons zoom in and out, respectively. The cross hair button zooms out to the full county view. The arrow keys scroll the map view.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

GENERAL PROJECT INFORMATION SCREEN

The Project screen contains all of the information about the project site for the two land use scenarios: Predevelopment land use conditions and Mitigated (developed) land use conditions. To change from one scenario to another click on the tab containing the appropriate scenario name at the top of the grid.

Predevelopment is defined as the native land cover conditions prior to any land use development. Runoff from the Predevelopment scenario is used as the target for the

Mitigated scenario compliance. The model will accept any land use for this scenario.

Mitigated is defined as the developed land use with mitigation measures (as selected by the user). Mitigated is used for sizing stormwater control and water quality facilities. The runoff from the Mitigated scenario is compared with the Predevelopment scenario runoff to determine compliance with flow duration criteria.

The Run Scenario button executes the runoff calculations for the scenario shown on the screen.

Note: Any changes made by the user to the element dimensions and other input are

not analyzed by SMRHM until the Run Scenario button is clicked.

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Below the Run Scenario button are the Elements. Each element represents a specific stormwater-related feature (drainage elements, flow connections, BMPs, etc.) and is described in more detail in the following section.

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SCHEMATIC EDITOR

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The Project screen also contains the Schematic Editor. The Schematic Editor is the grid to the right of the elements. This grid is where each element is placed and linked together.

The grid, using the scroll bars on the left and bottom, expands as large as needed to contain all of the elements for the project. A maximum of 500 elements is allowed.

NOTE: All movement of water on the grid must be from the top of the grid down.

The space to the right of the grid will contain the appropriate element information.

To select and place an element on the grid, first left click on the specific element in the

Elements menu and then drag the element to the selected grid square. The selected element will appear in the grid square.

The entire grid can be moved up, down, left, or right using the Move Elements arrow buttons.

The grid coordinates from one project can be saved (Save x,y) and used for new projects

(Load x,y).

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

LAND USE BASIN ELEMENT

The Land use Basin element represents a DMA (Drainage Management Area) that can have any combination of soils, land cover, and land slopes. A DMA produces three types of runoff: (1) surface runoff, (2) interflow, and (3) groundwater.

Surface runoff is defined as the overland flow that quickly reaches a conveyance system.

Surface runoff mainly comes from impervious surfaces.

Interflow is shallow, subsurface flow produced by pervious land categories and varies based on soil characteristics and how these characteristics are altered by land development practices.

Groundwater is the subsurface flow that typically does not enter a stormwater conveyance system, but provides base flow directly to streams and rivers.

The user can specify where each of these three types of runoff should be directed. The default setting is for the surface runoff and interflow to go to the stormwater facility; groundwater should not be connected unless there is observed base flow occurring in the

DMA.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Table 1 shows the different pervious land types represented in the Land use Basin element.

Table 1. SMRHM Pervious Land Types

PERLND No.

Soil Type Land Cover Land Slope

24

25

26

27

18

19

20

21

22

23

14

15

16

17

10

11

12

13

5

6

7

8

9

1

2

3

4

40

41

42

43

36

37

38

39

32

33

34

35

28

29

30

31

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

A

A

A

B

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

B

B

B

B

B

C/D

C/D

C/D

Grass

Grass

Grass

Urban

Urban

Urban

Urban

Forest

Forest

Forest

Forest

Shrub

Shrub

Shrub

Shrub

Grass

Grass

Grass

Forest

Forest

Forest

Forest

Shrub

Shrub

Shrub

Shrub

Grass

Grass

Urban

Urban

Urban

Urban

Forest

Forest

Forest

Forest

Shrub

Shrub

Shrub

Shrub

Grass

Grass

Grass

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

44

45

46

47

48

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

Grass

Urban

Urban

Urban

Urban

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

The user does not need to know or keep track of the HSPF PERLND number. That number is used only for internal tracking purposes.

The user inputs the number of acres of appropriate basin land use information. Pervious land use information is in the form of soil, land cover, and land slope. For example, "A,

Grass, Flat" means NRCS soil type A, natural grass vegetative cover, and flat (0-5%) land slope.

There are four basic soil types: A (well infiltrating soils), B (moderate infiltrating soils), C

(poor infiltrating soils), and D (really poor infiltrating soils).

There are four basic land cover categories: forest, shrub, grass and urban landscaped vegetation.

Native land cover is assumed to be grass and refers to the natural (non-planted) vegetation.

In contrast, the developed landscape will consist of urban vegetation (lawns, flowers, planted shrubs and trees). Urban vegetation is irrigated in SMRHM.

Land slope is divided into flat (0-5%), moderate (5-10%), steep (10-20%), and very steep

(>20%) land slopes.

HSPF parameter values in SMRHM have been adjusted for the different soil, land cover, and land slope categories. SMRHM HSPF soil parameter values take into account the hydrologic effects of land development activities that result from soil compaction when

"Urban" is specified.

The impervious land category includes roads, roofs, sidewalks, parking, driveways, and any other impervious surfaces. All are modeled the same: the surface runoff produced from an impervious land surface only varies by land slope (steeper slopes produce more runoff than flatter slopes).

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

LATERAL BASIN ELEMENT (Pervious)

Runoff dispersion from impervious surfaces onto adjacent pervious land can be modeled using pervious and impervious lateral basins. For example, runoff from an impervious parking lot can sheet flow onto an adjacent lawn prior to draining into a stormwater conveyance system. This action slows the runoff and allows for some limited infiltration into the pervious lawn soil prior to discharging into a conveyance system.

The pervious lateral basin is similar to the standard land use basin except that the runoff from the lateral basin goes to another adjacent lateral basin (impervious or pervious) rather than directly to a conveyance system or stormwater facility. By definition, the pervious lateral basin contains only a single pervious land type. Impervious area is handled separately with the impervious lateral basin (Lateral I Basin).

The user selects the pervious lateral basin land type by checking the appropriate box on the

Available Soil Types (PERLNDs) screen. This information is automatically placed in the

Soil Types (PERLNDs) box above. Once entered, the land type can be changed by clicking on the Change button on the right.

The user enters the number of acres represented by the lateral basin land type.

If the lateral basin contains two or more pervious land use types then the user should create a separate lateral basin for each.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

LATERAL I BASIN ELEMENT (Impervious)

The impervious lateral basin is similar to the standard land use basin except that the surface runoff from the lateral impervious basin goes to another adjacent lateral basin (impervious or pervious) rather than directly to a conveyance system or stormwater facility. By definition, the impervious lateral basin contains only impervious land types. Pervious area is handled separately with the pervious lateral basin (Lateral Basin).

The user selects the impervious lateral basin land type by checking the appropriate box on the

Available Impervious Coverages (IMPLNDs) screen. This information is automatically placed in the Impervious Type (IMPLND) box above. Once entered, the land type can be changed by clicking on the Change button on the right.

The user enters the number of acres represented by the lateral impervious basin land type. To model parking lot runoff dispersion onto adjacent lawn connect the Lateral I Basin (the parking lot) to the downstream Lateral Basin (the lawn). In the model's calculations surface runoff from the parking lot is added to the surface of the lawn (urban vegetation). The total runoff will then be directed to a stormwater conveyance system selected by the user.

44

TRAPEZOIDAL POND ELEMENT

In SMRHM there is an individual pond (detention basin) element for each type of pond and stormwater control facility. The pond element shown above is for a trapezoidal pond. This is the most common type of stormwater pond.

A trapezoidal pond has dimensions

(bottom length and width, depth, and sideslopes) and an outlet structure consisting of a riser and one or more orifices to control the release of stormwater from the pond. A trapezoidal pond includes the option to infiltrate runoff, if the soils are appropriate and there is sufficient depth to the underlying groundwater table.

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The user has the option to specify that different outlets be directed to different downstream destinations, although usually all of the outlets go to a single downstream location.

Auto Pond will automatically size a trapezoidal pond to meet the required flow duration criteria.

NOTE: Auto Pond is available only in the Mitigated scenario.

Quick Pond can be used to instantly add pond dimensions and an outlet configuration without checking the pond for compliancy with flow duration criteria. Quick Pond is sometimes used to quickly create a scenario and check the model linkages prior to sizing the pond. Multiple clicks on the Quick Pond button incrementally increase the pond size.

The user can change the default name "Trapezoidal Pond 1" to another more appropriate name, if desired.

Precipitation and evaporation must be applied to the pond unless the pond is covered. The pond bottom elevation can be set to an elevation other than zero if the user wants to use actual elevations. All pond stage values are relative to the bottom elevation. Negative bottom elevations are not allowed.

The pond effective depth is the pond height (including freeboard) above the pond bottom.

It is not the actual elevation of the top of the pond.

Pond sideslopes are in terms of horizontal distance over vertical. A standard 3:1 (H:V) sideslope would be given a value of 3. A vertical sideslope has a value of 0.

The pond bottom is assumed to be flat.

The pond outlet structure consists of a riser and zero to three orifices. The riser has a height (typically one foot less than the effective depth) and a diameter. The riser can have either a flat top or a weir notch cut into the side of the top of the riser. The notch can be either rectangular, V-shaped, or a Sutro weir. More information on the riser weir shapes and orifices is provided later in this guidance document.

After the pond is given dimensions and outlet information the user can view the resulting stage-storage-discharge table by clicking on the Open Table arrow in the lower right corner of the pond information screen. This table hydraulically defines the pond's characteristics.

The user can use either Auto Pond to size a pond or can manually size a pond. Follow the steps below for manual sizing a pond using an outlet configuration with one orifice and a riser with rectangular notch (this is usually the most efficient design):

1. Input a bottom orifice diameter that allows a discharge equal to the lower threshold (e.g., 10% of 2-year) Predevelopment flow for a stage equal to 2/3 the height of the riser. This discharge can be checked by reviewing the pond's stage-storage-discharge table.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

2. Input a riser rectangular notch height equal to 1/3 of the height of the riser.

Initially set the riser notch width to 0.1 foot.

3. Run Predevelopment and Mitigated scenarios.

4. Go to Analysis screen and check flow duration results.

5. If pond passes flow duration criteria then decrease pond dimensions.

6. If pond fails flow duration criteria then change (in order of priority) bottom orifice diameter, riser notch width, pond dimensions.

7. Iterate until there is a good match between Predevelopment and Mitigated flow duration curves or fatigue sets in.

Pond input information:

Bottom Length (ft): Pond bottom length. Bottom Width (ft): Pond bottom width

Effective Depth (ft): Pond height from pond bottom to top of riser plus at least 0.5 foot extra

Left Sideslope (H/V): ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical pond sides

Bottom Sideslope (H/V): ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical pond sides

Right Sideslope (H/V): ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical pond sides

Top Sideslope (H/V): ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical pond sides

Riser Height (ft): Height of overflow pipe above pond bottom

Riser Diameter (in): Pond overflow pipe diameter

Riser Type (options): Flat or Notched

Notch Type: Rectangular, V-Notch, or Sutro.

For a rectangular notch:

Notch Height (feet): distance from the top of the weir to the bottom of the notch

Notch Width (feet): width of notch; cannot be larger than the riser circumference.

For more information on riser notch options and orifices see discussion in OUTLET

STRUCTURE CONFIGURATIONS section.

Infiltration: Yes (infiltration into the underlying native soil)

Measured Infiltration Rate (in/hr): Native soil infiltration rate

Infiltration Reduction Factor: 1/Native soil infiltration rate safety factor (see page 69)

Use Wetted Surface Area (sidewalls): Yes, if infiltration through the pond sideslopes is allowed

If infiltration is used then the user should consult the Infiltration discussion on page 69.

NOTE: See Appendix C or consult with the local municipal permitting agency for additional considerations regarding infiltration and determination of the appropriate

infiltration reduction factor.

A pond receives precipitation on and evaporation from the pond surface. The Precipitation

Applied to Facility and Evaporation Applied to Facility boxes should be checked.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

NOTE: The detention pond section diagram shows the general configuration used in designing

a

pond and its outlet structure. This diagram is from the

Washington State

Department of Ecology's 2005 Stormwater Management Manual for Western

Washington. Consult with your local municipal permitting agency on specific design

requirements for your project site.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

VAULT ELEMENT

The storage vault has all of the same characteristics of the trapezoidal pond, except that the user does not specify the sideslopes (by definition they are zero) and the vault is assumed to have a lid (no precipitation or evaporation).

Auto Vault and Quick Vault work the same way as Auto Pond and Quick Pond. Go to page

48 to find information on how to manually size a vault or other HMP facility.

NOTE: Auto Vault is available only in the Mitigated scenario.

Vault input information:

Bottom Length (ft): Vault bottom length

Bottom Width (ft): Vault bottom width

Effective Depth (ft): Vault height from vault bottom to top of riser plus at least 0.5 foot extra

Riser Height (ft): Height of overflow pipe above vault bottom

Riser Diameter (in): Vault overflow pipe diameter

Riser Type (options): Flat or Notched

Notch Type: Rectangular, V-Notch, or Sutro

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

For a rectangular notch:

Notch Height (ft): distance from the top of the weir to the bottom of the notch

Notch Width (ft): width of notch; cannot be larger than the riser circumference

For more information on riser notch options and orifices see discussion in OUTLET

STRUCTURE CONFIGURATIONS section.

Infiltration: Yes (infiltration into the underlying native soil) Measured Infiltration Rate

(in/hr): Native soil infiltration rate

Infiltration Reduction Factor: 1/Native soil infiltration rate safety factor (see page 69)

Use Wetted Surface Area (sidewalls): Yes, if infiltration through the vault sides is allowed

If infiltration is used then the user should consult the Infiltration discussion on page 69.

NOTE: See Appendix C or consult with the local municipal permitting agency for additional considerations regarding infiltration and determination of the appropriate

infiltration reduction factor.

A vault is usually covered and does not receive precipitation on and evaporation from the vault surface. The Precipitation Applied to Facility and Evaporation Applied to Facility boxes should not be checked unless the vault top is open to the atmosphere.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

TANK ELEMENT

A storage tank is a cylinder placed on its side. The user specifies the tank's diameter and length.

Auto Tank and Quick Tank work the same way as Auto Pond and Quick Pond. Go to page

48 to find information on how to manually size a vault or other HMP facility.

NOTE: Auto Tank is available only in the Mitigated scenario.

There is a Quick Tank option that creates a tank, but does not check for compliance with the flow duration criteria.

Tank input information:

Tank Type: Circular or Arched

For Circular:

Diameter (ft): Tank diameter

Length (ft): Tank length

For Arched:

Height (ft): Tank height

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Width (ft): Tank width (at widest point)

Length (ft): Tank length

Riser Height (ft): Height of overflow pipe above tank bottom; must be less than tank diameter or height

Riser Diameter (in): Tank overflow pipe diameter

Riser Type (options): Flat or Notched

Notch Type: Rectangular, V-Notch, or Sutro

For a rectangular notch:

Notch Height (feet): distance from the top of the weir to the bottom of the notch

Notch Width (feet): width of notch; cannot be larger than the riser circumference

For more information on riser notch options and orifices see discussion in OUTLET

STRUCTURE CONFIGURATIONS section.

Infiltration: Yes (infiltration into the underlying native soil)

Measured Infiltration Rate (in/hr): Native soil infiltration rate

Infiltration Reduction Factor: 1/Native soil infiltration rate safety factor (see page 69)

Use Wetted Surface Area (sidewalls): Yes, if infiltration through the tank sides is allowed

If infiltration is used then the user should consult the Infiltration discussion on page 69.

NOTE: See Appendix C or consult with the local municipal permitting agency for additional considerations regarding infiltration and determination of the appropriate

infiltration reduction factor.

A tank is covered and does not receive precipitation on and evaporation from the tank surface. The Precipitation Applied to Facility and Evaporation Applied to Facility boxes should not be checked.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

IRREGULAR POND ELEMENT

An irregular pond is any pond with a shape that differs from the rectangular top of a trapezoidal pond. An irregular pond has all of the same characteristics of a trapezoidal pond, but its shape must be defined by the user.

The Auto Pond option is not available for an irregular-shaped pond. Go to page 48 to find information on how to manually size an irregular pond or other HMP facility.

To create the shape of an irregular pond the user clicks on the Open PondPad button. This allows the user to access the PondPad interface (see below).

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

PondPad Interface

The PondPad interface is a grid on which the user can specify the outline of the top of the pond and the pond's sideslopes.

The user selects the Line button (second from the top on the upper left corner of the

PondPad screen). Once the Line button is turned on the user moves the mouse over the grid to locate the pond's corner points. The user does this in a clockwise direction to outline the pond's top perimeter. The user can select individual points by clicking on the point button immediately below the line button. Once selected, any individual point can be moved or repositioned.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The default sideslope value is 3 (3:1). The sideslopes can be individually changed by right clicking on the specific side (which changes the line color from black to red) and then entering the individual sideslope value in the slope text box.

The grid scale can be changed by entering a new value in the grid scale box. The default value is 200 feet.

PondPad Controls and Numbers

Clear: The Clear button clears all of the lines on the grid

Line:

Point:

The Line button allows the user to draw new lines with the mouse

The Point button allows the user to move individual points to alter the pond shape and size

Sq Ft: Converts the computed pond area from square feet to acres and back.

Grid Scale: Changes the length of a grid line. Default grid scale is 200 feet

Grid X: Horizontal location of the mouse pointer on the grid (0 is the upper left corner)

Vertical location of the mouse pointer on the grid (0 is the upper left corner) Grid Y:

Area:

Slope:

Top area of the pond (either in square feet or acres)

Sideslope of the selected line (side of the pond)

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

GRAVEL TRENCH BED ELEMENT

The gravel trench bed is used to spread and infiltrate runoff, but also can have one or more surface outlets represented by an outlet structure with a riser and multiple orifices.

The user specifies the trench length, bottom width, total depth, bottom slope, and left and right sideslopes.

The material layers represent the gravel/rock layers and their design characteristics (thickness and porosity).

Quick Trench will instantly create a gravel trench bed with default values without checking it for compliancy with flow duration criteria.

The gravel trench bed input information:

Trench Length (ft): Trench bed length.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Trench Bottom Width (ft): Trench bed bottom width

Effective Total Depth (ft): Height from bottom of trench bed to top of riser plus at least 0.5 feet extra

Bottom Slope of Trench (ft/ft): Must be non-zero

Left Sideslope (ft/ft): H/V ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical trench bed sides

Right Sideslope (ft/ft): H/V ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical trench bed sides

Infiltration Rate (in/hr): Trench bed gravel or other media infiltration rate

Layer 1 Thickness (ft): Trench top media layer depth

Layer 1 Porosity: Trench top media porosity.

Layer 2 Thickness (ft): Trench middle media layer depth (Layer 2 is optional)

Layer 2 Porosity: Trench middle media porosity

Layer 3 Thickness (ft): Trench bottom media layer depth (Layer 3 is optional)

Layer 3 Porosity: Trench bottom media porosity

Riser Height (ft): Height of trench overflow pipe above trench surface

Riser Diameter (in): Trench overflow pipe diameter

Riser Type (options): Flat or Notched

Notch Type: Rectangular, V-Notch, or Sutro

For a rectangular notch:

Notch Height (feet): distance from the top of the weir to the bottom of the notch

Notch Width (feet): width of notch; cannot be larger than the riser circumference

For more information on riser notch options and orifices see discussion in OUTLET

STRUCTURE CONFIGURATIONS section.

Native Infiltration: Yes (infiltration into the underlying native soil)

Measured Infiltration Rate (in/hr): Native soil infiltration rate

Infiltration Reduction Factor: 1/Native soil infiltration rate safety factor (see page 69)

Use Wetted Surface Area (sidewalls): Yes, if infiltration through the trench sideslopes is allowed.

If infiltration is used then the user should consult the Infiltration discussion on page 69.

NOTE: See Appendix C or consult with the local municipal permitting agency for additional considerations regarding infiltration and determination of the appropriate

infiltration reduction factor.

Gravel trench bed receives precipitation on and evaporation from the trench surface. The

Precipitation Applied to Facility and Evaporation Applied to Facility boxes should be checked.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

SAND FILTER ELEMENT

The sand filter is a water quality facility. It does not infiltrate runoff, but is used to filter runoff through a medium and send it downstream. It can also have one or more surface outlets represented by an outlet structure with a riser and multiple orifices.

The user must specify the facility dimensions (bottom length and width, effective depth, and sideslopes. The hydraulic conductivity of the sand filter and the filter material depth are also needed to size the sand filter (default values are 1.0 inch per hour and 1.5 feet, respectively).

NOTE: When using the sand filter element check with Appendix C or the local municipal permitting agency to determine the required treatment standard (percent of the total runoff

volume treated by the sand filter).

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The filter discharge is calculated using the equation Q = K*I*A, where Q is the discharge in cubic feet per second (cfs). K equals the hydraulic conductivity (inches per hour). For sand filters K = 1.0 in/hr. Sand is the default medium. If another filtration material is used then the design engineer should enter the appropriate K value supported by documentation and approval by the reviewing authority.

Design of a sand filter requires input of facility dimensions and outlet structure characteristics, running the sand filter scenario, and then checking the volume calculations to see if the Percent Filtered equals or exceeds the treatment standard percentage. If the value is less than the treatment standard percentage then the user should increase the size of the sand filter dimensions and/or change the outlet structure. The sand filter input information:

Bottom Length (ft): Sand filter bottom length

Bottom Width (ft): Sand filter bottom width

Effective Depth (ft): Height from bottom of sand filter to top of riser plus at least 0.5 feet extra

Left Sideslope (ft/ft): H/V ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical sand filter sides

Bottom Sideslope (ft/ft): H/V ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical sand filter sides

Right Sideslope (ft/ft): H/V ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical sand filter sides

Top Sideslope (ft/ft): H/V ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical sand filter sides

Riser Height (ft): Height of sand filter overflow pipe above sand filter surface

Riser Diameter (in): Sand filter overflow pipe diameter

Riser Type (options): Flat or Notched

Notch Type: Rectangular, V-Notch, or Sutro

For a rectangular notch:

Notch Height (feet): distance from the top of the weir to the bottom of the notch

Notch Width (feet): width of notch; cannot be larger than the riser circumference.

For more information on riser notch options and orifices see discussion in OUTLET

STRUCTURE CONFIGURATIONS section.

Infiltration: Yes (infiltration through the filter material)

Hydraulic Conductivity (in/hr): Filtration rate through the sand filter

Filter material depth (ft): Depth of sand filter material (for runoff filtration)

Sand filter receives precipitation on and evaporation from the sand filter surface. The

Precipitation Applied to Facility and Evaporation Applied to Facility boxes should be checked.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

OUTLET STRUCTURE CONFIGURATIONS

The trapezoidal pond, vault, tank, irregular pond, gravel trench bed, and sand filter all use a riser for the outlet structure to control discharge from the facility.

The riser is a vertical pipe with a height above pond bottom (typically one foot less than the effective depth). The user specifies the riser height and diameter.

The riser can have up to three round orifices. The bottom orifice is usually located at the bottom of the pond and/or above any dead storage in the facility. The user can set the diameter and height of each orifice.

The user specifies the riser type as either flat or notched. The weir notch can be either rectangular, V-notch, or a Sutro weir. The shape of each type of weir is shown below.

Rectangular Notch V-Notch Sutro

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

By selecting the appropriate notch type the user is then given the option to enter the appropriate notch type dimensions.

Riser and orifice equations used in SMRHM are provided below.

Headr = the water height over the notch/orifice bottom. q = discharge

Riser Head Discharge:

Head = water level above riser q = 9.739 * Riser Diameter * Head ^ 1.5

Orifice Equation: q = 3.782 * (Orifice Diameter) ^ 2 * SQRT(Headr)

Rectangular Notch: b = NotchWidth *- (1- 0.2 * Headr) where b >= 0.8

q = 3.33 * b * Headr ^ 1.5

Sutro:

Wh = Top Width + {(Bottom Width- Top Width)/Notch Height }* Headr

Wd = Bottom Width - Wh (the difference between the bottom and top widths)

Q1 = (rectangular notch q where Notch Width = Wh)

Q2 = (rectangular notch q where Notch Width = Wd) q = Q1 + Q2 / 2

V-Notch:

Notch Bottom = height from bottom of riser to bottom of notch

Theta = Notch Angle a = 2.664261 - 0.0018641 * Theta + 0.00005761 * Theta ^2

b = -0.48875 + 0.003843 * Theta - 0.000092124 * Theta ^2

c = 0.3392 - 0.0024318 * Theta + 0.00004715 * Theta ^2

YoverH = Headr / (NotchBottom + Headr)

Coef = a + b * Headr + c * Headr ^2 q = (Coef * Tan(Theta / 2)) * (Headr ^ (5 / 2))

These equations are provided from the Washington State Department of Ecology’s 2005

Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington. The outlet designs are shown

61

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013 below. They have been reproduced from Volume III of the Stormwater Management

Manual for Western Washington which has more information on the subject.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The physical configuration of the outlet structure should include protection for the riser and orifices to prevent clogging of the outlet from debris or sediment. Various outlet configurations are shown below. They have been reproduced from Volume III of the

Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington which has more information on the subject.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Riser protection structures. Diagrams courtesy of Washington State

Department of Ecology.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

INFILTRATION

Infiltration of stormwater runoff is a recommended solution if certain conditions are met. These conditions include: a soils report, testing, groundwater protection, pre-settling, and appropriate construction techniques.

NOTE: See Appendix C or consult with the local municipal permitting agency for additional considerations regarding infiltration and determination of the appropriate

infiltration reduction factor.

The user clicks on the Infiltration option arrow to change infiltration from NO to

YES. This activates the infiltration input options: measured infiltration rate, infiltration reduction factor, and whether or not to allow infiltration through the wetted sideslopes/walls.

The infiltration reduction factor is a multiplier for the measured infiltration rate and should have a value of 1.00 or less. It is the same as the inverse of a safety factor. For example, a safety factor of 2 is equal to a reduction factor of 0.50.

Infiltration occurs only through the bottom of the facility if the wetted surface area option is turned off. Otherwise the entire wetted surface area is used for infiltration.

After the model is run and flow is routed through the infiltration facility the total volume infiltrated, total volume through the riser, total volume through the facility, and percent infiltrated are reported on the screen. If the percent infiltrated is 100% then there is no surface discharge from the facility. The percent infiltrated can be less than 100% as long as the surface discharge does not exceed the flow duration criteria.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

AUTO POND

Auto Pond automatically creates a pond size and designs the outlet structure to meet the flow duration criteria. The user can either create a pond from scratch or optimize an existing pond design.

Auto Pond requires that the Predevelopment and Mitigated basins be defined prior to using

Auto Pond. Clicking on the Auto Pond button brings up the Auto Pond window and the associated Auto Pond controls.

Auto Pond controls:

Automatic Pond Adjuster: The slider at the top of the Auto Pond window allows the user to decide how thoroughly the pond will be designed for efficiency. The lowest setting (0-

1 min) at the left constructs an initial pond without checking the flow duration criteria. The second setting to the right creates and sizes a pond to pass the flow duration criteria; however, the pond is not necessarily optimized. The higher settings increase the amount of optimization. The highest setting (farthest right) will size the most efficient (smallest) pond, but will result in longer computational time.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Pond Depth: Pond depth is the total depth of the pond and should include at least one foot of freeboard (above the riser). The pond's original depth will be used when optimizing an existing pond; changing the value in the Pond Depth text box will override any previous set depth value. The default depth is 4 feet.

Pond Length to Width Ratio: This bottom length to width ratio will be maintained regardless of the pond size or orientation. The default ratio value is 1.0.

Pond Sideslopes: Auto Pond assumes that all of the pond's sides have the same sideslope.

The sideslope is defined as the horizontal distance divided by the vertical. A typical sideslope is 3 (3 feet horizontal to every 1 foot vertical). The default sideslope value is 3.

Choose Outlet Structure: The user has the choice of either one orifice and rectangular notch or three orifices. If the user wants to select another outlet structure option then the pond must be manually sized.

Create Pond: This button creates a pond when the user does not input any pond dimensions or outlet structure information. Any previously input pond information will be deleted.

Optimize Pond: This button optimizes an existing pond. It cannot be used if the user has not already created a pond.

Accept Pond: This button will stop the Auto Pond routine at the last pond size and discharge characteristics that produce a pond that passes the flow duration criteria. Auto

Pond will not stop immediately if the flow duration criteria have not yet been met.

The bottom length and width and volume at riser head will be computed by Auto Pond; they cannot be input by the user.

Auto Vault and Auto Tank operates the same way as Auto Pond.

There are some situations where Auto Pond will not work. These situations occur when complex routing conditions upstream of the pond make it difficult or impossible for Auto

Pond to determine which land use will be contributing runoff to the pond. For these situations the pond will have to be manually sized. Go to page 48 to find information on how to manually size a pond or other HMP facility.

NOTE: If Auto Pond selects a bottom orifice diameter smaller than the smallest diameter allowed by the local municipal permitting agency then additional mitigating

BMPs may be required to meet local hydromodification control requirements.

Please see Appendix C or consult with local municipal permitting agency for more

details. For manual sizing information see page 48.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

CHANNEL ELEMENT

The Channel element allows the user to route runoff from a land use basin or facility through an open channel to a downstream destination.

The channel cross section is represented by a trapezoid and is used with Manning's equation to calculate discharge from the channel. If a trapezoid does not accurately represent the cross section then the user should represent the channel with an independently calculated SSD Table element or use the Use X-Sections option.

The user inputs channel bottom width, channel length, channel bottom slope, channel left and right sideslopes, maximum channel depth, and the channel's roughness coefficient (Manning's n value). The user can select channel type and associated Manning's n from a table list directly above the Channel Dimension information or directly input the channel's Manning's n value.

The channel is used to represent a natural or artificial open channel through which water is routed. It can be used to connect a basin to a pond or a pond to a pond or multiple channels can linked together.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Channel input information:

Channel Bottom Width (ft): Open channel bottom width

Channel Length (ft): Open channel length

Manning's n coefficient: Open channel roughness coefficient (user menu selected or input)

Slope of Channel (ft/ft): Open channel bottom slope

Left Sideslope of Channel (ft/ft): H/V ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical channel sides

Right Sideslope of Channel (ft/ft): H/V ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical channel sides

Maximum Channel Depth (ft): Height from bottom of channel to top of channel bank.

Infiltration: Yes (infiltration into the underlying native soil)

Measured Infiltration Rate (in/hr): Native soil infiltration rate

Infiltration Reduction Factor: 1/Native soil infiltration rate safety factor (see page 69)

Use Wetted Surface Area (sidewalls): Yes, if infiltration through the channel sideslopes is allowed.

If infiltration is used then the user should consult the Infiltration discussion on page 69.

NOTE: See Appendix C or consult with the local municipal permitting agency for additional considerations regarding infiltration and determination of the appropriate

infiltration reduction factor.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

FLOW SPLITTER ELEMENT

The flow splitter divides the runoff and sends it to two different destinations. The splitter has a primary exit (exit 1) and a secondary exit (exit 2). The user defines how the flow is split between these two exits.

The user can define a flow control structure with a riser and from one to three orifices for each exit. The flow control structure works the same way as the pond outlet structure, with the user setting the riser height and diameter, the riser weir type (flat, rectangular notch, Vnotch, or Sutro), and the orifice diameter and height.

For more information on riser notch options and orifices see discussion in OUTLET

STRUCTURE CONFIGURATIONS section.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The second option is that the flow split can be based on a flow threshold. The user sets the flow threshold value (cfs) for exit 1 at which flows in excess of the threshold go to exit 2.

For example, if the flow threshold is set to 5 cfs then all flows less than or equal to 5 cfs go to exit 1. Exit 2 gets only the excess flow above the 5 cfs threshold (total flow minus exit 1 flow).

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

TIME SERIES ELEMENT

SMRHM uses time series of precipitation, evaporation, and runoff stored in its database

(HSPF WDM file). The user has the option to create or use a time series file external from

SMRHM in SMRHM. This may be a time series of flow values created by another HSPF model. An example is offsite runoff entering a project site. If this offsite runoff is in an existing WDM file and is the same period as SMRHM data and the same simulation time step (15-minute) then it can be linked to SMRHM model using the Time Series element.

To link the external time series to SMRHM the user clicks on the Choose WDM button and identifies the external WDM file. The external WDM's individual time series files are shown in the Time Series Out box. The selected input dataset is the time series that will be used by SMRHM.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

STAGE-STORAGE-DISCHARGE TABLE

The stage-storage-discharge table hydraulically represents any facility that requires stormwater routing. The table is automatically generated by SMRHM when the user inputs storage facility dimensions and outlet structure information. SMRHM generates 91 lines of stage, surface area, storage, surface discharge, and infiltration values starting at a stage value of zero (facility bottom height) and increasing in equal increments to the maximum stage value (facility effective depth).

When the user or SMRHM changes a facility dimension (for example, bottom length) or an orifice diameter or height, the model immediately recalculates the stage-storage- discharge table.

The user can input to SMRHM a stage-storage-discharge table created outside of SMRHM.

To use a stage-storage-discharge table created out of SMRHM the SSD Table element is required. See the SSD Table element description below for more information on how to load such a table to SMRHM program.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

SSD TABLE ELEMENT

The SSD Table is a stage-storage-discharge table externally produced by the user and is identical in format to the stage-storage-discharge tables generated internally by SMRHM for ponds, vaults, tanks, channels, etc.

The easiest way to create a SSD Table outside of SMRHM is to use a spreadsheet with a separate column for stage, surface area, storage, and discharge (in that order). Save the spreadsheet file as a comma-delimited file. A text file can also be created, if more convenient.

The SSD Table must use the following units: Stage: feet

Surface Area: acres

Storage: acre-feet

Discharge: cubic feet per second (cfs)

A fifth column can be used to create a second discharge (cfs). This second discharge can be infiltration or a second surface discharge.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Certain rules apply to the SSD Table whether it is created inside or outside of SMRHM.

These rules are:

1. Stage (feet) must start at zero and increase with each row. The incremental increase does not have to be consistent.

2. Storage (acre-feet) must start at zero and increase with each row. Storage values should be physically based on the corresponding depth and surface area, but

SMRHM does not check externally generated storage values.

3. Discharge (cfs) must start at zero. Discharge does not have to increase with each row. It can stay constant or even decrease. Discharge cannot be negative.

Discharge should be based on the outlet structure's physical dimensions and characteristics, but SMRHM does not check externally generated discharge values.

4. Surface area (acres) is only used if precipitation to and evaporation from the facility are applied.

To input an externally generated SSD Table, first create and save the table outside of

SMRHM. Use the Browse button to locate and load the file into SMRHM.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The first three columns (Stage, Area, Storage) will automatically show in the table. To use the additional columns (Column 4, 5, etc.) click on the Not Used at the head of the table and select the appropriate option. For externally calculated discharge (cfs) select Manual in Column 4. To have SMRHM calculate discharge based on outlet structure dimensions select Outlet Structure. If infiltration is included then click on Not Used in Column 5 and select the appropriate option.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

BIORETENTION ELEMENT

The Bioretention element represents a bioretention area or rain garden. In modeling shorthand terms SMRHM has abbreviated "bioretention" to the default name "bio swale".

This name can be changed by the user.

The bioretention element has two available outlet structure configurations:

(1) vertical orifice plus overflow

(2) riser outlet

The user is required to enter the following information about the bioretention:

Swale Length (ft): length dimension of swale surface bottom

Swale Bottom Width (ft): width dimension of swale surface bottom

Effective Total Depth (ft): computed by SMRHM

Bottom Slope of Swale (ft/ft): the slope of the swale length; must be greater than zero

Left Sideslope (ft/ft): H/V ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical swale sides

Right Sideslope (ft/ft): H/V ratio of horizontal distance to vertical; 0 (zero) for vertical swale sides

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

For the three amended soil material layers the user inputs:

Layer Thickness (feet): depth of amended soil

Type of amended soil: 24 different soil types are included; the user can also create their own soil type using the Edit Soil Type button

NOTE: Amended soil layers 2 and 3 are optional.

Infiltration to the native soil can be turned on by setting Native Infiltration to YES. The parameters for native soil infiltration are:

Measured Infiltration Rate (inches per hour): infiltration rate of the native soil

Infiltration Reduction Factor: between 0 and 1 (1/Native soil infiltration rate safety factor

(see page 69)

Use Wetted Surface Area (sidewalls): YES or NO; YES allows infiltration to the native soil through the sidewalls of the swale; otherwise all infiltration is through the bottom only

If infiltration is used then the user should consult the Infiltration discussion on page 69.

NOTE: See Appendix C or consult with the local municipal permitting agency for additional considerations regarding infiltration and determination of the appropriate

infiltration reduction factor.

The user has two bioretention surface outlet configuration choices: (1) Vertical Orifice +

Overflow or (2) Riser Outlet Structure.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The input information required for the vertical orifice plus overflow is:

Vertical Orifice Diameter (inches): diameter of vertical opening below the weir

Vertical Orifice Elevation (inches): vertical distance from the top of the amended soil surface to the bottom of the vertical orifice

Width of Over-road Flow (feet): weir/street length

Diagram of bioretention with vertical orifice plus overflow:

80

Native Soil

Underdrain

Width of Over-road Flow

Vertical Orifice Diameter

Vertical Orifice Elevation

Amended Soil

Layer 1

Riser outlet structure option:

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Over-road Flooding

Freeboard

Native Soil

Layer 2

Layer 3

Effective

Total

Native Soil

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The input information required for the riser outlet structure is:

Riser Height above Swale Surface (feet): depth of surface ponding before the riser is overtopped

Riser Diameter (inches): diameter of the stand pipe

Riser Type: Flat or Notched

Notch Type: Rectangular, V-Notch, or

Sutro

For a rectangular notch:

Notch Height (feet): distance from the top of the weir to the bottom of the notch

Notch Width (feet): width of notch; cannot be larger than the riser circumference

For more information on riser notch options and orifices see discussion in OUTLET

STRUCTURE CONFIGURATIONS section.

To use the underdrain click the Underdrain Used box and input an underdrain pipe diameter (feet), underdrain outlet orifice diameter (inches), and offset (inches). The offset defines the height of the bottom of the underdrain pipe above the bottom of the lowest amended soil layer.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The amended soil layer fills with stormwater from the top on down to where it can drain to the native soil (if Native Infiltration is set to YES) and/or the underdrain pipe (if

Underdrain Used box is checked).

Water enters the underdrain when the amended soil becomes saturated down to the top of the underdrain. The underdrain pipe fills and conveys water proportionally to the depth of amended soil saturation. When the amended soil is fully saturated the underdrain pipe is at full capacity. Discharge from the underdrain pipe is controlled by the underdrain orifice diameter.

If native infiltration is turned on then native infiltration will start when/if:

1. Water starts to fill the underdrain (if an underdrain is used).

2. Water enters the amended soil (if Use Wetted Surface Area (sidewalls) is set to

YES).

3. Water saturates the amended soil layer(s) to 2/3rds of the total amended soil depth (if there is no underdrain and Wetted Surface Area is set to NO).

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

There is a simple swale option. It is computationally much faster than the standard bioretention. Before using the simple swale option read the note on the screen and the information below to understand the limitations of the simple swale.

The standard bioretention routine uses HSPF Special Actions to check the available amended soil storage and compares it with the inflow rate. Because of the check done by

HSPF Special Actions simulations using bioretention take much longer than simulations not using bioretention. Simulations that normally take only seconds may take multiple minutes when one or more bioretention facilities are added, depending on the computational speed of the computer used.

One solution to this problem is to use the simple swale option (check the Use Simple Swale box). The simple swale does not include HSPF Special Actions. It is less accurate than the standard swale. Tests have shown that the simple swale option should only be used when the swale area (and volume) is relatively small compared to the contributing basin area. If in doubt, model the bioretention both ways and see how close the simple swale answer is to the standard swale method. The standard swale method will always be more accurate than the simple swale.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

POINT OF COMPLIANCE

SMRHM allows for multiple points of compliance (maximum of 59) in a single project. A point of compliance is defined as the location at which the Predevelopment and Mitigated flows will be analyzed for compliance with the flow control standard.

The point of compliance is selected by right clicking on the element at which the compliance analysis will be made. In the example above, the point of compliance analysis will be conducted at the outlet of the trapezoidal pond.

Additional points of compliance can be added by clicking on the ADD button and then highlighting the POC number to be used for the element. Once a POC number is added it cannot be removed, but if it is not used then it has no effect.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Once the point of compliance has been selected the element is modified on the

Schematic screen to include a small box with the letter "A" (for Analysis) in the lower right corner. This identifies the outlet from this element as a point of compliance.

The number 1 next to the letter "A" is the number of the POC (POC 1).

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CONNECTING ELEMENTS

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Elements are connected by right clicking on the upstream element (in this example DMA 1) and selecting and then left clicking on the Connect To Element option. By doing so

SMRHM extends a line from the upstream element to wherever the user wants to connect that element.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The user extends the connection line to the downstream element (in this example, a pond) and left clicks on the destination element. This action brings up the From Basin to

Conveyance box that allows the user to specify which runoff components to route to the downstream element.

Stormwater runoff is defined as surface flow plus interflow. Both boxes should be checked. Groundwater should not be checked for the standard land development mitigation analysis. Groundwater should only be checked when there is observed and documented base flow occurring from the upstream basin.

After the appropriate boxes have been checked click the OK button.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The final screen will look like the above screen. The basin information screen on the right will show that DMA 1 surface and interflow flows to Trapezoidal Pond 1 (groundwater is not connected).

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

ANALYSIS SCREEN

The Analysis tool bar button (third from the left) brings up the Analysis screen where the user can look at the results of the Predevelopment and Mitigated scenarios. The Analysis screen allows the user to analyze and compare flow durations, flow frequency, drawdown times, hydrographs, and LID BMP sizing by calculating V

BMP and Q

BMP using the Rational

Method.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The user can analyze all time series datasets or just flow, stage, precipitation, evaporation, or point of compliance flows by selecting the appropriate tab below the list of the different datasets available for analysis.

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FLOW DURATION

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Flow duration at the point of compliance (POC 1) is the most common analysis. A plot of the flow duration values is shown on the left, the flow values on the right.

The flow duration flow range is from the lower threshold flow frequency value (10% of the

2-year value) to the upper threshold flow frequency value (10-year value). As shown in the flow duration table to the right of the flow duration curves, this flow range is divided into approximately 100 levels (flow values).

The division of the flow range into a large number of levels is important to make sure that the erosive flows do not increase between the lower threshold (10% of the 2-year flow) and the 2-year flow frequency value and between increasing flow frequency levels (3-year, 4year, 5-year, etc.). The majority of the erosive flows occur between the 10% of the 2-year flow value and the 2-year flow frequency value. It is important to divide the flow levels in that range into multiple level steps to not miss any occasions when the mitigated flows exceed the predevelopment flows.

For each flow level/value SMRHM counts the number of times that the flow at the Point of

Compliance for the Predevelopment scenario (Predev) exceeds that specific flow level/value. It does the same count for the Mitigated scenario flow (Mit). The total number of counts is the number of simulated 15-minute time steps that the flow exceeds that specific flow level/value.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The Percentage column is the ratio of the Dev count to the Predev count. This ratio must be less than or equal to 100% for flow levels/values between the lower threshold (10% of the 2-year flow) and the 5-year flow and 110% for flow levels/values between the 5-year flow and the upper threshold value.

If the percentage value does not exceed this maximum ratio (100% for the lower threshold to the 5-year flow value and 110% for the 5-year flow value to the 10-year value) then the

Pass/Fail column shows a Pass for that flow level. If they are exceeded then a Fail is shown. A single Fail and the facility fails the flow duration criteria. The facility overall

Pass/Fail is listed at the top of the flow duration table.

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FLOW FREQUENCY

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Flow frequency plots are shown on the left and the 2-, 5-, 10-, and 25-year frequency values are on the right. Flow frequency calculations are based on selecting partial duration flow values and ranking them by their Cunnane Plotting Position.

The Cunnane Plotting Position formula is:

Tr = (N+a)/(m-b) where Tr = return period (years) m = rank (largest event, m = 1)

N = number of years a = 0.2 b = 0.4

Probability = 1/Tr

The return period value, Tr, is used in SMRHM to determine the 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, and 25-year peak flow values. If necessary, the 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, and 25-year values are interpolated from the Tr values generated by Cunnane.

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DRAWDOWN

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The drawdown screen is used to compute pond stages (water depths). These stages are summarized and reported in terms of drain/retention time (in days).

For this example, the maximum stage computed during the entire 30-50 year simulation period is 3.40 feet. This maximum stage has a drawdown time of 1 day, 20 hours, 33 minutes, 8 seconds (approximately 45 hours).

Ponds may have drain times in excess of the allowed maximum. This can occur when a pond has a small bottom orifice. If this is not acceptable then the user needs to change the pond outlet configuration, manually run the Mitigated scenario, and repeat the analyze stage computations. A situation may occur where it is not possible to have both an acceptable pond drawdown/ retention time and meet the flow duration criteria.

NOTE: The flow duration criteria take precedence unless the user is instructed

otherwise by Appendix C or the local municipal permitting agency.

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HYDROGRAPHS

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The user can graph/plot any or all time series data by selecting the Hydrograph tab. The

Create Graph screen is shown and the user can select the time series to plot, the time interval (yearly, monthly, daily, or 15-minute), and type of data (peaks, average, or volume).

The following numbering system is used for the flow time series:

500-599: Predevelopment flow (Predevelopment scenario)

700-799: Inflow to the POC (Mitigated runoff entering the BMP facility)

800-899: POC flow (Mitigated flow exiting the BMP facility)

The selected time series are shown. To graph the selected time series the user clicks on the

Graph button.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The hydrograph shows the yearly maximum/peak flow values for each time series for the entire simulation period (in this example, from 1974 through 2010).

The graph can be either saved or printed.

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LID BMP SIZING

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Riverside County and local municipalities use the Rational Method (Q = C*I*A) to calculate the LID BMP design volume, V

BMP

, and flow rate, Q

BMP

. These calculations are completely separate from the other runoff calculations produced by SMRHM using HSPF.

See Riverside County's Design Handbook for Low Impact Development Best Management

Practices (September 2011) for the most up-to-date information regarding BMP standards.

The handbook should be consulted prior to the start of any SMRHM LID BMP modeling.

The calculation of the BMP design volume V

BMP

, and flow rate Q

BMP is done on this screen.

The user first enters the 85 th percentile, 24-hour rainfall depth (D

85

).

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The 85 th percentile, 24-hour rainfall depth (D

85

) can be found for any location in the

Santa Margarita Region from the Isohyetal Map button on the SMRHM map screen.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The project site's 85 th percentile, 24-hour rainfall depth can be found on the isohyetal map based on the project's location. This is the value that is entered into Rational Method calculations as D

85

.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The effective impervious fraction is calculated in the model based on the tributary area (A

T

) for the post-development land cover. The user inputs the number of acres of each land cover and the model calculates the runoff coefficient, C.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Click on the Calculate button at the bottom of the screen to calculate the BMP design volume, V

BMP

, and flow rate, Q

BMP

.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

REPORTS SCREEN

The Reports tool bar button (fourth from the left) brings up the Report screen where the user can look at all of the project input and output. The project report can be saved or printed.

The project report contains the project input information provided by the user and a summary of the project output information produced by SMRHM. The project report can be generated as either a Microsoft Word file or a PDF file.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

This is an example of the project report in the format of a Microsoft Word file (RTF format).

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

TOOLS SCREEN

The Tools screen is accessed with the Tools tool bar (second from the right). The two purposes of the Tools screen are:

(1) To allow users to view SMRHM HSPF PERLND parameter values. See Appendix

A for a list of the SMRHM HSPF PERLND parameter values.

(2) To allow users to export time series datasets.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

To export a time series dataset click on the Export Dataset box. The list of available time series datasets will be shown. The user can select the start and end dates for the data they want to export.

The time step (15-minute, daily, monthly, yearly) can also be specified. If the user wants daily, monthly, or yearly data the user is given the choice of either selecting the maximum, minimum, or the sum of the 15-minute values.

Click the Export button.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The user provides a file name and the format or type of file. The file type can be ASCII text, comma delimited, Access database, recharge, SWMM, or WWHM. Click Save to save the exported time series file.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

LID ANALYSIS SCREEN

The LID tool bar button (farthest on the right) brings up the Low Impact Development

Scenario Generator screen.

The LID scenario generator can be used to compare the amount of runoff from different land types and combinations. The user can quickly see how changing the land use affects surface runoff, interflow, groundwater, and evapotranspiration.

NOTE: The LID scenario generator works only in the Mitigated scenario.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The easiest way to compare different land use scenarios is to place all of them on the same

Schematic Editor screen grid. Each DMA can then represent a different land use scenario.

Because the LID scenario generator only compares runoff volume there is no need to do any routing through a conveyance system or stormwater facility.

For this example the four DMAs are assigned the following land uses:

DMA 1: 1 acre A, Grass, Moderate (5-10%)

DMA 2: 1 acre C, Shrub, Moderate (5-10%)

DMA 3: 1 acre C, Grass, Moderate (5-10%)

DMA 4: 1 acre D, Urban, Moderate (5-10%)

Each basin is assigned a different POC (point of compliance) for the LID analysis.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Click on the Compute LID Base Data button to generate the LID analysis data and summarize the surface runoff, interflow, groundwater, precipitation, evaporation, and total runoff for all of the basins. The results will be shown for each basin in terms of its POC.

For DMA 1 (1 acre of A, Grass, Moderate slope) the distribution of the precipitation is:

Surface runoff = 0.242 inches per year

Interflow = 2.133 inches per year

Groundwater = 2.089 inches per year

Evaporation = 11.419 inches per year

The sum of the surface runoff + interflow + groundwater + evaporation equals 15.883 inches per year. The precipitation at this site equals 15.910 inches per year. The difference is because 2% of the groundwater goes to deep or inactive groundwater and is not included in the LID table.

To look at the other DMAs click on the Select POC To arrow and select the DMA of interest.

The LID analysis results can be presented in terms of either inches per year or acre-feet per year by checking the appropriate box in the lower right portion of the LID analysis screen.

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To compare the different POCs side-by-side as bar charts click on the Water Balance

Chart.

The water balance chart graphically displays the runoff distribution for all four POCs sideby-side. In the bar chart the bottom red is the surface runoff. Above in yellow is interflow; then green for groundwater and blue for evapotranspiration.

DMA 1 (POC 1) is an A soil with grass land cover on a moderate slope and produces the least amount of surface runoff and interflow (the sum of surface and interflow is the total stormwater runoff).

DMA 2 is a C soil with shrub land cover on a moderate slope; it produces more surface runoff and interflow than DMA 1.

DMA 3 is a C soil with grass land cover on a moderate slope; it produces more surface runoff and interflow than either DMA 1 or DMA 2.

DMA 4 is a D soil with urban land cover on a moderate slope. Urban land covers are irrigated. Urban produces the largest amount of surface runoff and interflow in addition to a large amount of evapotranspiration due to the addition of irrigation water.

A maximum of seven scenarios can be graphed at one time.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

OPTIONS

Options can be accessed by going to View, Options. This will bring up the Options screen and the ability to modify the built-in default duration criteria for flow duration matching and scaling factors for climate variables.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

DURATION CRITERIA

The flow duration criteria are:

1. If the post-development flow duration values exceed any of the predevelopment flow levels between the lower threshold (10% of the two-year) and five-year predevelopment peak flow values then the flow duration standard has not been met.

2. If the post-development flow duration values exceed any of the predevelopment flow levels between the 5-year and the upper threshold (100% of the 10-year) predevelopment peak flow values more than 10 percent of the time (110 Percent

Threshold) then the flow duration standard has not been met.

3. If more than 10 percent of the flow duration levels exceed the 100 percent threshold then the flow duration standard has not been met.

The duration criteria in SMRHM can be modified by the user if appropriate and the local municipal permitting agency allows (see NOTE below).

The user can conduct the duration analysis using either (1) durations based on

Predevelopment flow frequency, or (2) durations based on user defined flow values.

If using durations based on Predevelopment flow frequency, the percent of the lower limit can be changed from the default of the 10% of the 2-year flow event to a higher or lower percent value. The lower and upper flow frequency limits (2-year and 10-year) also can be changed.

If using durations based on user defined flow values, click on that option and input the lower and upper flow values.

The default pass/fail threshold is 100% for the flows between 10% of the 2-year and 5- year flow. This value cannot be changed by the user.

The default pass/fail threshold is 110% for the flows between the 5-year and 10-year flow.

This value can be changed by the user.

The duration criteria can be changed for a single point of compliance. Click on the Update button once all of the changes have been made. To return to the default values click on the

Restore Defaults button.

NOTE: Any change(s) to the default duration criteria must be approved by the

appropriate local municipal permitting agency or specified in Appendix C.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

SCALING FACTORS

The user can change the scaling factors for precipitation (minimum and maximum) and pan evaporation.

NOTE: Any change in default scaling factors requires approval by the local

municipal permitting agency or Appendix C.

Click on the Update button once all of the changes have been made. To return to the default values click on the Restore Defaults button.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

TIPS AND TRICKS FOR LID PRACTICES AND FACILITIES

There are many different tips and tricks that can be used to tailor SMRHM to solve different stormwater problems. This section presents only a fraction of the tricks that we and others have found and used, but it should give you a good idea of the options and flexibility built into SMRHM.

The tips and tricks show how different LID/BMPs (Low Impact Developments/Best

Management Practices) can be represented by SMRHM elements.

LID/BMP practices and facilities reduce the need for and the size of stormwater control facilities. LID/BMP practices and facilities typically try to mimic the natural environment and provide source control and storage of runoff.

Riverside County's Design Handbook for Low Impact Development Best Management

Practices (September 2011) include eight (8) practices that can be modeled using the

comparable SMRHM elements. This handbook has the most up-to-date information regarding BMP standards and should be consulted prior to the start of any SMRHM LID

BMP modeling.

The eight LID BMPs are:

1. Infiltration Basin

2. Infiltration Trench

3. Permeable Pavement

4. Bioretention (standard design)

5. Bioretention (vertical sideslopes)

6. Bioretention (planter box)

7. Sand Filter

8. Extended Detention Basin

Each of these eight LID BMPs are described below.

NOTE: Many of these LID/BMP practices and facilities rely on infiltration into native soils. See Appendix C or consult with the local municipal permitting agency for additional considerations regarding infiltration and determination of an infiltration

reduction factor, where appropriate.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

INFILTRATION BASIN/POND

Figure courtesy of Riverside County Flood Control and Water Conservation District

An infiltration basin allows stormwater to enter the basin above ground and then infiltrate through the bottom of the basin into the native soil beneath the basin. Overflow is controlled by an overflow outlet.

For the purpose of flow control the discharge from the overflow outlet should not exceed the predevelopment discharge from the project site for the flow duration range specified by the local jurisdiction.

In SMRHM the infiltration basin is represented by the trapezoidal or irregular-shaped pond element.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The pond dimensions and parameters to adjust to represent an infiltration basin are:

Bottom Length (ft): Infiltration basin length

Bottom Width (ft): Infiltration basin width

Effective Depth (ft): Infiltration basin height from basin bottom to top of riser plus at least

1.0 foot of freeboard

Left Sideslope (H/V): ratio of horizontal distance to vertical for infiltration basin sides

Bottom Sideslope (H/V): ratio of horizontal distance to vertical for infiltration basin sides

Right Sideslope (H/V): ratio of horizontal distance to vertical for infiltration basin sides

Top Sideslope (H/V): ratio of horizontal distance to vertical for infiltration basin sides

Riser Height (ft): Height of infiltration basin/pond overflow pipe above basin soil surface

Riser Diameter (in): Infiltration basin overflow pipe diameter

Riser Type: Flat

Infiltration: Yes (infiltration into the underlying native soil)

Measured Infiltration Rate (in/hr): Native soil infiltration rate

Infiltration Reduction Factor: 1/Native soil infiltration rate safety factor (see page 69)

Use Wetted Surface Area (sidewalls): Yes, if infiltration through the basin sideslopes is allowed.

If infiltration is used then the user should consult the Infiltration discussion on page 69.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Any changes made by the user to the element dimensions and other input are not analyzed by SMRHM until the Run Scenario button is reclicked.

The Riverside County Design Handbook for Low Impact Development Best Management

Practices specifies the following criteria for infiltration basins:

Maximum drawdown time: 72 hrs

Maximum tributary area: 50 ac

Maximum depth: 5 ft

Maximum sideslopes: 4 to 1

NOTE: See Appendix C or consult with the local municipal permitting agency for additional considerations regarding infiltration and determination of the appropriate

infiltration reduction factor.

An infiltration basin/pond receives precipitation on and evaporation from the basin surface area. The Precipitation Applied to Facility and Evaporation Applied to Facility boxes should be checked.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

INFILTRATION TRENCH

Figure courtesy of Riverside County Flood Control and Water Conservation District

An infiltration trench is similar to the infiltration basin. However, there is no bottom discharge pipe or underdrain. Water must infiltrate into the native soil underlying the gravel layer of the planter. Overflow is controlled by an overflow outlet.

For the purpose of flow control the discharge from the overflow outlet should not exceed the predevelopment discharge from the project site for the flow duration range specified by the local jurisdiction.

In SMRHM the infiltration trench is represented by the gravel trench bed element.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The gravel trench bed dimensions and parameters to adjust to represent an infiltration trench are:

Trench Length (ft): Infiltration trench length

Trench Bottom Width (ft): Infiltration trench width

Effective Total Depth (ft): Infiltration trench height from bottom of trench to top of riser plus at least 0.5 feet extra

Bottom Slope of Trench (ft/ft): Must be non-zero

Left Sideslope (ft/ft): 0 (zero) for vertical infiltration trench sides

Right Sideslope (ft/ft): 0 (zero) for vertical infiltration trench sides

Infiltration Rate (in/hr): Infiltration trench soil infiltration rate

Layer 1 Thickness (ft): Infiltration trench soil layer depth

Layer 1 Porosity: Infiltration trench soil porosity

Layer 2 Thickness (ft): Infiltration trench gravel layer depth

Layer 2 Porosity: Infiltration trench gravel porosity

Layer 3 Thickness (ft): Infiltration trench gravel layer depth

Layer 3 Porosity: Infiltration trench gravel porosity.

NOTE: Layers 2 and 3 are optional.

Riser Height (ft): Height of infiltration trench overflow pipe above trench bottom. If a weir is preferred instead of a riser, then set the riser height to the weir height and set the riser diameter to the weir length.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Riser Diameter (in): Infiltration trench overflow pipe diameter

Riser Type: Flat

Native Infiltration: Yes (infiltration into the underlying native soil)

Measured Infiltration Rate (in/hr): Native soil infiltration rate

Infiltration Reduction Factor: 1/Native soil infiltration rate safety factor (see page 69)

If infiltration is used then the user should consult the Infiltration discussion on page 69.

Any changes made by the user to the element dimensions and other input are not analyzed by SMRHM until the Run Scenario button is reclicked.

The Riverside County Design Handbook for Low Impact Development Best Management

Practices specifies the following criteria for infiltration trenches:

Max drawdown: 72 hrs

Max tributary area: 10 ac

Max depth: 8 ft

Sideslope: 0 to 1 (vertical)

Trench width must be greater than depth

NOTE: See Appendix C or consult with the local municipal permitting agency for additional considerations regarding infiltration and determination of the appropriate

infiltration reduction factor.

The infiltration trench receives precipitation on and evaporation from the trench surface.

The Precipitation Applied to Facility and Evaporation Applied to Facility boxes should be checked.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

PERMEABLE PAVEMENT

Figure courtesy of Riverside County Flood Control and Water Conservation District

Permeable pavement LID options include porous asphalt or concrete and grid/lattice systems (non-concrete) and paving blocks. The use of any of these LID options requires that certain minimum standards and requirements are met related to subgrade, geotextile material, separation or bottom filter layer, base material, wearing layer, drainage conveyance, acceptance testing, and surface maintenance.

NOTE: Permeable pavement can be used in place of conventional pavement for roadways, sidewalks, driveways, and parking lots. Check with Appendix C or the local municipal permitting agency to find out under what conditions permeable

pavement is allowed.

Permeable pavement can be represented by the permeable pavement element in SMRHM if the following three conditions are met:

1. The infiltration rate of the permeable pavement is greater than the peak rainfall rate.

2. The infiltration rate of the permeable pavement is greater than the underlying native soil.

3. There is subgrade layer of crushed rock/gravel between the permeable pavement and the native soil.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The permeable pavement dimensions and parameters are:

Pavement Length (ft): Roadway length

Pavement Bottom Width (ft): Roadway width

Effective Total Depth (ft): Height from bottom of permeable pavement subgrade to top of pavement plus at least 0.5 feet extra

Bottom Slope (ft/ft): Pavement slope or grade.

Effective Volume Factor: zero unless the bottom slope is greater than 2%.

The effective volume factor is a value between zero and 1.00. It is only used when the bottom slope is greater than 2%. The effective volume factor is the fraction ratio of the average maximum water depth behind a check dam in the gravel layer (Sublayer 1) compared to the maximum gravel layer depth (Sublayer 1). For example, if the average maximum water height is 6" and the gravel depth is 9" then the Effective Volume Factor

= 0.67 (6/9). The effective volume factor is multiplied by the Sublayer 1 storage volume to determine the actual maximum volume available for stormwater storage before the check dam is overtopped and the water in the gravel layer depth (Sublayer 1) proceeds to a downstream conveyance facility.

Pavement Thickness (ft): Permeable pavement layer depth

Pavement Porosity: Permeable pavement porosity

Sublayer 1 Thickness (ft): Subgrade gravel layer depth

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Sublayer 1 Porosity: Subgrade gravel porosity.

Sublayer 2 Thickness (ft): Sand layer depth (if appropriate)

Sublayer 2 Porosity: Sand porosity

Ponding Depth above Pavement (ft): Height at which surface runoff occurs

NOTE: Check with Appendix C or the local municipal permitting agency to find out

if ponding on the surface of the pavement is allowed.

Underdrain Diameter (inches) and Height (feet) above bottom layer-native soil interface.

The underdrain is optional.

Native Infiltration: Yes (infiltration into the underlying native soil)

Measured Infiltration Rate (in/hr): Native soil infiltration rate

Infiltration Reduction Factor: 1/Native soil infiltration rate safety factor (see page 69)

If infiltration is used then the user should consult the Infiltration discussion on page 69.

Any changes made by the user to the element dimensions and other input are not analyzed by SMRHM until the Run Scenario button is re-clicked.

The Riverside County Design Handbook for Low Impact Development Best Management

Practices specifies the following criteria for permeable pavement:

Max drawdown: 24 hrs

Max tributary area: 10 ac

Max reservoir (gravel subgrade) depth: 1 ft

Max pavement slope: 0.03

Permeable pavement bottom slope: zero

Aggregate porosity: 0.40

NOTE: See Appendix C or consult with the local municipal permitting agency for additional considerations regarding infiltration and determination of the appropriate

infiltration reduction factor.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

BIORETENTION (STANDARD DESIGN)

Figure courtesy of Riverside County Flood Control and Water Conservation District

Bioretention (standard design) allows stormwater to enter the bioretention facility above ground and then infiltrate through the mulch layer, engineered soil media, and gravel storage layers before exiting through a discharge pipe.

For the purpose of flow control the discharge from the pipe should not exceed the predevelopment discharge from the project site for the flow duration range specified by the local jurisdiction.

In SMRHM the bioretention (standard design) is represented by the bioretention element.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The bioretention dimensions and parameters to adjust to represent the bioretention standard design are discussed on page 81.

The Riverside County Design Handbook for Low Impact Development Best Management

Practices specifies the following criteria for bioretention (standard design):

Min width: 6 ft

Sideslope: 4 to 1

Max ponding depth: 0.5 ft

Mulch top layer: 2 to 3 inches deep (above amended soil layer)

Min amended soil layer depth: 1.5 ft

Max amended soil layer depth: 3 ft

Max amended soil porosity: 0.30

Max gravel layer: 1 ft (below amended soil layer)

Gravel layer porosity: 0.40

Min underdrain diameter: 0.5 ft

No infiltration to native soil

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

BIORETENTION (VERTICAL SIDESLOPES)

Figure courtesy of Riverside County Flood Control and Water Conservation District

Bioretention with vertical sideslopes allows stormwater to enter the bioretention facility above ground and then infiltrate through the mulch layer, engineered soil media, and gravel storage layers before exiting through a discharge pipe.

For the purpose of flow control the discharge from the pipe should not exceed the predevelopment discharge from the project site for the flow duration range specified by the local jurisdiction.

In SMRHM the bioretention (vertical sideslopes) is represented by the bioretention element.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The bioretention dimensions and parameters to adjust to represent the bioretention standard design are discussed on page 81.

The Riverside County Design Handbook for Low Impact Development Best Management

Practices specifies the following criteria for bioretention (vertical sideslopes):

Min width: 2 ft

Sideslope: 0 to 1

Max ponding depth: 0.5 ft

Mulch top layer: 2 to 3 inches deep (above amended soil layer)

Min amended soil layer depth: 1.5 ft

Max amended soil layer depth: 3 ft

Max amended soil porosity: 0.30

Max gravel layer: 1 ft (below amended soil layer)

Gravel layer porosity: 0.40

Min underdrain diameter: 0.5 ft

No infiltration to native soil

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

BIORETENTION (PLANTER BOX)

Bioretention in the form of a planter box allows stormwater to enter the bioretention facility above ground and then infiltrate through the mulch layer, engineered soil media, and gravel storage layers before exiting through a discharge pipe.

For the purpose of flow control, the discharge from the pipe should not exceed the predevelopment discharge from the project site for the flow duration range specified by the local jurisdiction.

In SMRHM the planter box bioretention is represented by the bioretention element.

The bioretention dimensions and parameters to adjust to represent the planter box bioretention are discussed on page 81.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The Riverside County Design Handbook for Low Impact Development Best Management

Practices specifies the following criteria for planter box bioretention:

• Min width: 2 ft

• Sideslope: 0 to 1

• Max ponding depth: 0.5 ft

• Mulch top layer: 2 to 3 inches deep (above amended soil layer)

• Min amended soil layer depth: 1.5 ft

• Max amended soil layer depth: 3 ft

• Max amended soil porosity: 0.30

• Max gravel layer: 1 ft (below amended soil layer)

• Gravel layer porosity: 0.40

• Min underdrain diameter: 0.5 ft

• No infiltration to native soil

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

SAND FILTER BASIN

Figure courtesy of Riverside County Flood Control and Water Conservation District

A sand filter basin allows stormwater to enter the sand filter above ground and then filtrate through the filter media before exiting through a discharge pipe.

In SMRHM the sand filter basin is represented by the sand filter element.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The sand filter dimensions and parameters to adjust to represent the sand filter basin are discussed on page 61.

The Riverside County Design Handbook for Low Impact Development Best Management

Practices specifies the following criteria for the sand filter basin:

Max tributary area: 25 ac

Max basin depth: 5 ft

Max Sideslope: 4 to 1

Sand filter top below bottom orifice: min 4 in

Sand filter top layer: min 18 in of sand

Sand filter bottom layer: min 10 in of gravel

Sand filter underdrain diameter: 6 in

Sand filter underdrain bottom: 1 in above bottom gravel layer

No infiltration to native soil

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

EXTENDED DETENTION BASIN

Figure courtesy of Riverside County Flood Control and Water Conservation District

The extended detention basin is a combination stormwater pond (forebay), gravel trench

(connector trench), and sand filter (filter drain). In SMRHM there is not a single element that represents this combination.

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

In SMRHM the extended detention basin is represented by treatment train connecting a trapezoidal pond (or irregular pond) element to a gravel trench element to a sand filter element, in that order.

There is also the option of creating the extended detention basin's stage-storage- discharge table outside of SMRHM and inputting it as a SSD Table element.

The trapezoidal pond dimensions and parameters to adjust to represent the forebay are discussed on page 46.

The irregular pond dimensions and parameters to adjust to represent the forebay are discussed on page 56.

The gravel trench dimensions and parameters to adjust to represent the connector trench are discussed on page 59.

The sand filter dimensions and parameters to adjust to represent the filter drain are discussed on page 61.

The SSD element is discussed on page 78.

The Riverside County Design Handbook for Low Impact Development Best Management

Practices specifies the following criteria for the extended detention basin:

137

• Min tributary area: 5 ac

• Max drawdown: 72 hrs

• Max Sideslope: 4 to 1

• Trench bottom slope: 1%

• Min filter drain depth: 2.33 ft

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

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Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

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139

Appendix A Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

APPENDIX A: DEFAULT SMRHM HSPF PERVIOUS

PARAMETER VALUES

The default SMRHM HSPF pervious parameter values are found in SMRHM file defaultpersp.uci.

HSPF parameter documentation is found in the document:

Bicknell, B.R., J.C. Imhoff, J.L. Kittle Jr, T.H. Jobes, and A.S. Donigian Jr. 2001.

Hydrological Simulation Program – Fortran, User's Manual for Version 12. AQUA

TERRA Consultants. Mountain View, CA.

140

Appendix A Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Table 1. SMRHM Pervious Land Types

37

38

39

40

41

33

34

35

36

42

43

44

29

30

31

32

25

26

27

28

21

22

23

24

17

18

19

20

12

13

14

15

16

8

9

10

11

4

5

6

7

PERLND No.

Soil Type Land Cover

1 A Forest

2

3

A

A

Forest

Forest

A

A

A

A

Forest

Shrub

Shrub

Shrub

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

Shrub

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Urban

Urban

Urban

Urban

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Urban

Urban

Urban

Urban

Forest

Forest

Forest

Forest

Shrub

Shrub

Shrub

Shrub

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

Forest

Forest

Forest

Forest

Shrub

Shrub

Shrub

Shrub

Grass

Grass

Grass

Grass

Land Slope

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

141

Appendix A

45

46

47

48

C/D

C/D

C/D

C/D

Urban

Urban

Urban

Urban

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

142

Appendix A Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Table 2. SMRHM HSPF Pervious Parameter Values – Part I

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

17

18

19

20

13

14

15

16

6

7

8

9

PERLND No.

1

2

3

4

5

10

11

12

4.20

4.00

4.80

4.50

4.20

4.00

4.80

4.50

4.20

4.00

4.60

4.10

4.80

4.40

4.00

3.60

4.80

4.50

5.00

4.70

4.40

4.10

5.00

4.70

4.40

5.00

4.60

4.20

3.80

5.00

4.70

4.40

4.10

LZSN INFILT LSUR SLSUR KVARY AGWRC

5.20

0.100

400 0.05

0.80

0.985

4.80

4.50

4.20

5.20

0.075

0.055

0.045

0.090

350

300

200

400

0.10

0.15

0.25

0.05

0.80

0.80

0.80

0.80

0.985

0.985

0.985

0.955

4.80

4.50

4.20

5.20

4.80

4.50

4.20

0.070

0.045

0.040

0.090

0.070

350

300

200

400

350

0.045

300

0.040

200

0.10

0.15

0.25

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.25

0.80

0.80

0.80

0.80

0.80

0.80

0.80

0.955

0.955

0.955

0.955

0.955

0.955

0.955

0.060

0.050

0.040

0.030

0.080

0.060

0.045

0.035

400

350

300

200

400

350

300

200

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.25

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.25

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

0.997

0.997

0.997

0.997

0.980

0.980

0.980

0.980

0.070

0.055

0.040

0.030

0.070

400

350

300

200

400

0.055

350

0.040

300

0.030

200

0.050

400

0.040

350

0.030

300

0.025

200

0.050

400

0.045

350

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.25

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.25

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.25

0.05

0.10

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.80

1.80

1.80

1.80

2.00

2.00

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.995

0.995

0.995

0.995

0.980

0.980

0.035

300

0.030

200

0.045

400

0.040

350

0.030

300

0.025

200

0.045

400

0.040

350

0.030

300

0.025

200

0.040

400

0.15

0.25

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.25

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.25

0.05

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

3.00

0.980

0.980

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.995

143

Appendix A Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

46

47

48

4.20

3.80

3.50

0.030

350

0.022

300

0.020

200

LZSN: Lower Zone Storage Nominal (inches)

0.10

0.15

0.25

INFILT: Infiltration (inches per hour)

LSUR: Length of surface flow path (feet)

SLSUR: Slope of surface flow path (feet/feet)

KVARY: Variable groundwater recession

AGWRC: Active Groundwater Recession Constant (per day)

3.00

3.00

3.00

0.995

0.995

0.995

144

Appendix A Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Table 3. SMRHM HSPF Pervious Parameter Values – Part II

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

17

18

19

20

13

14

15

16

6

7

8

9

PERLND No.

INFEXP INFILD DEEPFR BASETP AGWETP

1 2.00

2.00

0.02

0.03

0.00

2

3

4

5

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

10

11

12

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

3.00

3.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.15

0.15

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.15

0.15

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.45

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

145

Appendix A Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

46

47

48

3.00

3.00

3.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.00

0.00

0.00

INFEXP: Infiltration Exponent

INFILD: Infiltration ratio (maximum to mean)

DEEPFR: Fraction of groundwater to deep aquifer or inactive storage

BASETP: Base flow (from groundwater) Evapotranspiration fraction

AGWETP: Active Groundwater Evapotranspiration fraction

146

Appendix A Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Table 4. SMRHM HSPF Pervious Parameter Values – Part III

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

17

18

19

20

13

14

15

16

6

7

8

9

PERLND No.

CEPSC

1 see Table 6

UZSN

1.00

NSUR

0.35

INTFW

4.50

IRC

0.80

2

3

4

5 see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6

0.80

0.60

0.50

0.90

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.30

4.00

3.00

2.00

4.00

0.50

0.45

0.40

0.70

10

11

12 see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6

0.70

0.50

0.40

0.80

0.70

see Table 6 0.55

see Table 6 0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

3.20

2.60

1.80

4.00

3.20

2.60

1.80

0.45

0.40

0.35

0.70

0.45

0.40

0.35

see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6

0.70

0.50

0.35

0.30

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.50

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.35

3.00

2.40

1.60

1.00

4.00

3.00

2.00

0.80

0.40

0.35

0.30

0.30

0.80

0.50

0.45

0.40

see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6 see Table 6

0.90

0.70

0.50

0.40

0.80

see Table 6 0.70

see Table 6 0.55

see Table 6 0.30

see Table 6 0.70

see Table 6 0.50

see Table 6 0.35

see Table 6 0.30

see Table 6 1.00

see Table 6 0.80

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.35

0.35

3.00

2.40

1.60

0.60

3.00

2.40

1.60

0.60

2.00

1.20

0.80

0.60

2.00

1.50

0.35

0.40

0.35

0.30

0.30

0.80

0.50

0.70

0.45

0.40

0.35

0.70

0.45

0.40

see Table 6 0.60

see Table 6 0.50

see Table 6 0.90

see Table 6 0.70

see Table 6 0.50

see Table 6 0.40

see Table 6 0.80

see Table 6 0.70

see Table 6 0.55

see Table 6 0.30

see Table 6 0.70

0.35

0.35

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

1.00

0.40

2.00

1.20

0.80

0.40

2.00

1.20

0.80

0.40

1.00

0.45

0.40

0.70

0.45

0.40

0.35

0.70

0.45

0.40

0.35

0.40

LZETP

see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7

147

Appendix A Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

46

47

48 see Table 6 0.50

see Table 6 0.35

see Table 6 0.30

0.25

0.25

0.25

CEPSC: Interception storage (inches)

UZSN: Upper Zone Storage Nominal (inches)

NSUR: Surface roughness (Manning's n)

INTFW: Interflow index

IRC: Interflow Recession Constant (per day)

LZETP: Lower Zone Evapotranspiration fraction

0.70

0.50

0.35

0.35

0.30

0.30

see Table 7 see Table 7 see Table 7

148

Appendix A Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Table 5. SMRHM HSPF Pervious Parameter Values – Part VI

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

17

18

19

20

13

14

15

16

6

7

8

9

PERLND No.

CEPS SURS UZS

1 0.00

0.00

0.01

2

3

4

5

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

10

11

12

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

IFWS LZS

0.00

0.50

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

3.50

3.50

3.50

3.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

3.50

3.50

3.50

3.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

3.50

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

1.70

0.30

1.50

1.50

1.50

1.50

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

1.50

1.50

1.50

1.50

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

AGWS GWVS

0.30

0.01

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.10

149

Appendix A Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

46

47

48

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.01

0.01

CEPS: Initial interception storage (inches)

0.00

0.00

0.00

SURS: Initial surface runoff (inches)

UZS: Initial Upper Zone Storage (inches)

IFWS: Initial interflow (inches)

LZS: Initial Lower Zone Storage (inches)

AGWS: Initial Active Groundwater storage (inches)

GWVS: Initial Groundwater Vertical Slope (feet/feet)

3.50

3.50

3.50

1.70

1.70

1.70

0.10

0.10

0.10

150

Appendix A Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Table 6. SMRHM HSPF Pervious Parameter Values: Monthly Interception Storage (inches)

22

23

24

25

18

19

20

21

26

27

28

29

30

14

15

16

17

10

11

12

13

6

7

8

9

PERLND No.

JAN

1 0.15

2

3

4

5

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.15

FEB

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.12

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.15

MAR APR MAY JUN

0.15

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.13

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.14

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.12

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.11

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

JUL

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

AUG SEP

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

OCT NOV DEC

0.20

0.20

0.18

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.14

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.13

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.11

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.18

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.11

0.11

152

Appendix A

45

46

47

48

41

42

43

44

37

38

39

40

31

32

33

34

35

36

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

153

Appendix A Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Table 7. SMRHM HSPF Pervious Parameter Values: Monthly Lower Zone Evapotranspiration

22

23

24

25

18

19

20

21

26

27

28

29

30

14

15

16

17

10

11

12

13

6

7

8

9

PERLND No.

JAN

1 0.60

2

3

4

5

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.50

0.50

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.50

0.50

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.60

FEB

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.40

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.50

0.50

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.60

MAR APR

0.60

0.70

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.50

0.70

0.70

0.70

0.60

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.40

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.70

0.70

0.70

0.70

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.60

0.60

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.65

0.65

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.75

MAY JUN

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.50

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.75

JUL

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.75

AUG SEP

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.55

0.55

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

NOV DEC

0.65

0.60

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.50

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.45

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.50

0.50

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.75

OCT

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

154

Appendix A

45

46

47

48

41

42

43

44

37

38

39

40

31

32

33

34

35

36

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.70

0.70

0.70

0.70

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

155

Appendix A Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

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156

Appendix B Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

APPENDIX B: DEFAULT SMRHM HSPF IMPERVIOUS

PARAMETER VALUES

The default SMRHM HSPF impervious parameter values are found in SMRHM file defaultpersp.uci.

HSPF parameter documentation is found in the document:

Bicknell, B.R., J.C. Imhoff, J.L. Kittle Jr, T.H. Jobes, and A.S. Donigian Jr. 2001.

Hydrological Simulation Program – Fortran, User's Manual for Version 12. AQUA

TERRA Consultants. Mountain View, CA.

Table 1. SMRHM Impervious Land Types

13

14

15

16

17

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

IMPLND No.

IMPLND Name

1 Roads

2

3

Roads

Roads

Roads

Roof Area

Driveways

Driveways

Sidewalks

Sidewalks

Sidewalks

Driveways

Driveways

Sidewalks

Parking

Parking

Parking

Parking

Land Slope

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

All

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

Flat (0-5%)

Moderate (5-10%)

Steep (10-20%)

Very Steep (>20%)

157

Appendix B Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Table 2. SMRHM HSPF Impervious Parameter Values – Part I

IMPLND No.

LSUR SLSUR NSUR RETSC

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

1

2

3

4

5

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.25

0.05

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.25

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.25

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.25

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.09

0.08

0.06

0.10

0.10

0.09

0.08

0.06

0.10

0.09

0.08

0.06

0.10

0.09

0.08

0.06

LSUR: Length of surface flow path (feet) for impervious area

SLSUR: Slope of surface flow path (feet/feet) for impervious area

NSUR: Surface roughness (Manning's n) for impervious area

RETSC: Surface retention storage (inches) for impervious area

158

Appendix B Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Table 3. SMRHM HSPF Impervious Parameter Values – Part II

IMPLND No.

RETS SURS

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

1

2

3

4

5

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

RETS: Initial surface retention storage (inches) for impervious area

SURS: Initial surface runoff (inches) for impervious area

159

Appendix B Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

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160

Appendix C Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

APPENDIX C: ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE FOR USING

SMRHM

Scope and Purpose: This appendix includes guidance and background information that are not incorporated into the SMRHM software, but which the user needs to know in order to use SMRHM for designing projects in the participating jurisdictions. The three main topic areas in this appendix are flagged in the main guidance documentation text by specially formatted notes under the SMRHM elements or software features to which they are related:

Appendix C Topic

Infiltration Reduction Factor

Flow Duration Outlet Structures

(includes sizing of low-flow orifice and alternative configurations)

Drawdown (drain) time for flow duration facilities

Relevant Sections in Guidance documentation

Infiltration, page 69; applicable when specifying characteristics of a facility (pond, vault, tank, some

LID elements) if "yes" is selected as the Infiltration option.

Outlet Structure Configurations, pages 63-68; applicable when specifying characteristics of a flow duration facility.

Drawdown (Analysis screen), page 98.

This guidance was originally created by the stormwater programs of Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties. Please consult with the local municipal permitting agency for additional considerations.

Additional guidance and references are also discussed at the end of this appendix.

Infiltration Reduction Factor

The Western Washington Hydrology Model included this factor to reflect the requirement in the Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington (SMMWW), to incorporate a Correction Factor (CF) to determine long-term infiltration rates; the inverse of the CF is the Infiltration Reduction Factor in SMRHM. The SMMWW gives three methods for determining CF: 1) a table providing empirical correlations between long-term infiltration rates and USDA Soil Textural Classification; 2) ASTM gradation testing at fullscale infiltration facilities; or 3) In-situ infiltration tests, preferably using a Pilot Infiltration

Test specified in an appendix of the SMMWW.

Application of a CF or safety factor attempts to account for clogging and the reduction in infiltration over time, which might apply to the bottom of a flow duration pond or the top layer of a bioretention facility. However, a safety factor is also used to account for uncertainties in the available estimate of in-situ infiltration rates. The SMMWW notes that its suggested CF values, which range from 2 to 4, "represent an average degree of long-term facility maintenance, TSS reduction through pretreatment, and site variability in the subsurface conditions", and that increases or decreases to these factors should be considered for unusual situations.

161

Appendix C Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Suggested safety factors in other texts and guidance generally range from 1 to 4. Santa

Margarita Region County stormwater permits may require some form of tracking and verification for treatment and hydromodification facilities. In addition, designers should not be overly conservative in selecting a very high safety factor, since this might lead to over-controlled (lower) post-project flows and an increase risk of causing impacts from deposition or sedimentation in the receiving channels. In the absence of other guidance, it is suggested that the SMRHM Infiltration Reduction Factor not be less than 0.25 or greater than 0.5.

Note: Santa Margarita Region County stormwater programs may also restrict the use of infiltration for treatment purposes in certain conditions; since the flow duration facilities are also performing some treatment, designers should discuss treatment measure design with the applicable jurisdiction.

Flow Duration Outlet Structures – Practical Design

Considerations

Low-flow Orifice Sizing

The diameter of the low-flow (bottom) orifice is an important design parameter for flow duration facilities, since flows discharged through this outlet should be at or below the project threshold for controlled flows (Qcp). However maintenance and/or other practical considerations may dictate a practical limit to how small this orifice may be, which may be larger than the optimal theoretical diameter determined by Auto Pond. As an example,

Riverside County specifies a minimum orifice diameter of 1.0 inch.

While the user can manually set a minimum size for the low-flow orifice, doing so before running Auto Pond is not recommended as this may impair the program's ability to optimize the pond configuration. The following general approach is suggested for designing a pond when there is a small value for the low end of the flow matching range:

1. First estimate the minimum pond volume allowing Auto Pond to freely determine the diameter and placement of all orifices.

2. Then manually accept all of the pond settings except low-flow orifice diameter.

Set the low-flow orifice to the desired minimum size, after consulting the local municipal permitting agency.

3. Manually run the mitigated scenario as described on page 48 and review the

Analysis screen to check if the revised mitigated flow still passes the flow- duration criteria for curve matching. If so, proceed with the pond design using the revised outlet.

4. If the revised design shows Fail scoring at one or more flow levels, excess flow durations may be reduced somewhat by reducing the depth of the pond which lowers the head above the orifice. As an alternative, further mitigation can be applied to the low-flow orifice flow by adding an additional infiltration measure

162

Appendix C Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013 downstream. This can be sized either approximately by estimating an average excess flow from the orifice or with the help of SMRHM by returning to the screen for the pond characteristics and specifying a different Downstream

Connection for the bottom orifice, which is then connected to an additional element. With this revision to the post project scenario, the POC for the system would then be located at the downstream end of the additional low- flow mitigation.

Alternative Outlet Configurations

SMRHM has two default types of outlet configurations (multiple orifice or orifice plus weir notch) based on a standpipe riser structure detailed in the SMMWW. The entire standpipe is usually within a cylindrical enclosure or manhole to exclude trash and larger particles that could clog the outlet. The SMMWW notes that orifices can also be placed on a tee section or a vertical baffle within the same type of enclosure. An alternative configuration is a flat headwall with orifices and/or notches, protected by racks or gratings. This may be fabricated from a large steel plate, similar in construction to the extended detention outlets specified in the Denver (Colorado) manual referenced below. This alternative outlet can be simulated in the SMRHM as a very large diameter standpipe, where the width of the top notch is equal to the overflow width at the top of the plate between its supports.

Drawdown time and treatment/vector considerations

Flow duration control facilities are designed to detain stormwater onsite for an extended period of time. The drawdown time is a concern to designers in relation to three areas of design besides hydromodification management:

1. Standing water for extended periods provides a potential habitat in which mosquitoes can breed. Riverside stormwater programs work with their local mosquito abatement or vector control agencies to develop guidelines for stormwater facility design; these generally recommend that design detention times not exceed 96 hours. Provisions for access and inspection by vector control personnel are also required. Contact the local permitting agency for details of local vector control provisions, which apply to both treatment measures and flow duration facilities.

2. Stormwater that is detained also undergoes water quality treatment through settling and/or infiltration of pollutants. The focus of water quality management is reducing mean annual loads and typical concentrations of pollutants in receiving waters, so treatment design focuses on typical storms which contain the bulk of annual runoff volume. Stormwater permits and guidance documents describe the local design criteria for volume based treatment measures, which apply to a wider range of projects than the hydromodification management requirements. Recommended drawdown times for detention structures are typically at least 48 hours, but not to exceed 96 hours.

163

Appendix C Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

3. Flood control design is intended to control peak flows for large sized storms

(with expected recurrence intervals such as 25, 50 or 100 years). Flood control facilities typically require capture and detention of a specified volume of stormwater, which then is discharged out at flows that can be safely conveyed by downstream channels without undue risk of flooding. Flood control facilities usually are required to drain within 24 hours after the end of the design storm in order to be empty for the next storm event. This concern that flood control storage remains available for large events has led flood control agencies to require that any storage volume for water quality not be credited for flood control, a feature that is sometimes referred to as "dead storage".

Although many factors affect the drawdown time, the suggestions below may help

SMRHM users in evaluating these other requirements. If flow duration control is required for a project site, it is recommended that the design process start by using SMRHM to obtain a preliminary design for the flow duration pond, vault, or tank. Then check the performance of the facility for vector control concerns, and against treatment and/or flood control design criteria as appropriate. The latter are both based on the concept of a single empirical "design storm" which does not directly correspond to the flow duration approach using frequency analysis in a long-term simulation. Stormwater treatment design requires the use of volume-based runoff coefficients, which although similar in concept to runoff coefficients used for flood control, are determined differently. Runoff coefficients used for flood control were derived for large storms with some conservatism built-in to estimates of peak flow rates and water surface elevations. Runoff coefficients for stormwater treatment have been adjusted to reflect runoff from small storms where a greater percentage of the rainfall is held within the catchment.

Vector Management

If the maximum allowed drawdown is seldom or never exceeded over the simulation period, then likelihood of mosquito breeding in the facility is very low and the design for the pond, vault or tank does not need to be modified. If a maximum allowed drawdown time is exceeded then the system may need to be redesigned to reduce the drawdown time. The designer should consider additional reductions in impervious area and/or LID elements to help reduce the facility size.

To evaluate the frequency and distribution of larger events in more detail, use the

Hydrograph tool (page 99) to plot monthly peaks for several years at a time of the mitigated

(post-project) scenario to get an idea of how often the discharge that corresponds to the maximum allowed drain time would be exceeded during warmer months, when mosquito development times are shortest.

164

Appendix C Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Treatment Credit

Use the applicable design criteria to determine the minimum treatment volume for the postproject scenario. Look at the pond volume representing a 2-day drawdown in the

SMRHM's flow duration drawdown table. If this is larger than the calculated treatment volume, no further treatment design is needed. If the pond volume is less than the treatment volume, or always drains in less than 2 days, most or all of the water quality criteria may still be met if the combination of infiltration loss and detainment captures 80% of the runoff from the site. Infiltration loss for each pond stage is shown in the Stage-

Storage-Discharge table, accessed by selecting the "Open Table" option at the bottom of the main Pond screen.

Flood Control Detention

Local flood control design criteria must be obtained from the appropriate agency, as well as any other policies or restrictions that may apply to drainage design. A single design storm event can be imported as a time series (page 76) and applied to the post-project scenario instead of the simulated precipitation record. If additional live storage is needed, it may be added to upper levels of the same facility or provided elsewhere on the site.

Guidance by Other Agencies

Some agencies in other parts of the United States have developed extensive guidance for design of stormwater management measures. Two manuals are discussed below that provide detailed discussions or examples that may be helpful to users of SMRHM, although the suitability of these recommendations for Riverside County conditions has not been verified. These documents can help provide context and ideas for users for SMRHM, but adapting these ideas requires the exercise of professional engineering judgment. Mention

of the procedures and details in these documents does not imply any endorsement or guarantee that they will be appropriate for addressing the Hydromodification

Management Standards in Santa Margarita Region County jurisdictions.

Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington (SWMMWW) was prepared by

the Washington Department of Ecology for implementation in 19 counties of Western

Washington. The latest (2012) edition in 5 volumes is on the Web at: http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/stormwater/manual.html.

Design recommendations from this manual were the basis for many features of the WWHM that have been carried over into SMRHM. Portions of Volume 3 (Hydrology) that may be of interest to project designers include:

Pages 3-2 through 3-18 illustrate several types of roof downspout controls, simple pre-engineered designs for infiltrating and/or dispersing runoff from roof areas in order to reduce runoff volume and/or increase potential groundwater recharge.

Pages 3-50 to 3-63 discuss outlet control structures, their maintenance and source equations modeled into WWHM and SMRHM

165

Appendix C Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Pages 3-75 to 3-93 regarding Infiltration Reduction Factor

Urban Storm Drain Criteria Manual by the Denver Urban Drainage and Flood Control

District is on the Web at: http://www.udfcd.org/downloads/down_critmanual.htm

.

Volume 3 covers design of stormwater treatment measures, including extended detention basins on pages S-66 through S-77 and structural details shown on pages SD-1 to SD-16.

Although these designs are not presented for hydromodification management control, the perforated plate design concept allows fine-tuning of drawdown times and is adaptable for use in flow duration facilities.

166

Appendix D Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

APPENDIX D: SMRHM REVIEWER CHECKLIST

SMRHM Reviewer Checklist:

1. Received SMRHM project (WHM and WH2) files?

2. Received SMRHM WDM (WDM) file?

Yes No

3. Received SMRHM report (DOC) file?

4. Project (WHM) file loads okay?

5. Project location matches location on SMRHM screen?

6. Predevelopment scenario runs okay?

7. Mitigated scenario runs okay?

8. Compare SMRHM Report screen with report file: a. Project location descriptions match? b. Precipitation gauges match? c. Precipitation scales match? d. Flow frequency results match? e. All flow duration values PASS? f. Any pervious (PERLND) land use changes? g. Any impervious (IMPLND) land use changes? h. Any scaling factor changes? i. Any duration criteria changes? j. pond dimensions match? k. pond outlet structure info matches?

9. SMRHM pond dimensions match drawings?

10. Infiltration set to YES for infiltration pond?

11. Total SMRHM drainage area matches drainage maps/drawings?

12. Mitigated drainage area(s) match Predevelopment?

13. Predevelopment vegetation correct?

14. Mitigated land use areas correct?

15. Routing correct?

16. Check facility drawdown (if included): a. Used POC Mitigated stage? b. Drawdown times okay?

17. Options set to default values?

18. Other issues?

SMRHM submittal APPROVED?

167

Appendix D Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

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168

Appendix E Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

APPENDIX E: SMRHM BACKGROUND

Effects of Hydromodification

Urbanization of a watershed modifies natural watershed and stream processes by altering the terrain, modifying the vegetation and soil characteristics, introducing pavement and buildings, installing drainage and flood control infrastructure, and altering the condition of stream channels through straightening, deepening, and armoring. These changes affect hydrologic characteristics in the watershed (rainfall interception, infiltration, runoff and stream flows), and affect the supply and transport of sediment in the stream system. The change in runoff characteristics from a watershed caused by changes in land use conditions is called hydrograph modification, or simply hydromodification.

As the total area of impervious surfaces increases in previously undeveloped areas, infiltration of rainfall decreases, causing more water to run off the surface as overland flow at a faster rate. Storms that previously didn't produce runoff under rural conditions can produce erosive flows. The increase in the volume of runoff and the length of time that erosive flows occur ultimately intensify sediment transport, causing changes in sediment transport characteristics and the hydraulic geometry (width, depth, slope) of channels. The larger runoff durations and volumes and the intensified erosion of streams can impair the beneficial uses of the stream channels.

Development of the Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model

The concept of designing a flow duration control facility is relatively new and, as described above, requires the use of a continuous simulation hydrologic model. To facilitate this design approach, Clear Creek Solutions (CCS) has created a user-friendly, automated modeling and flow duration control facility sizing software tool adapted from its Western

Washington Hydrology Model (WWHM). The WWHM was developed in 2001 for the

Washington State Department of Ecology to support Ecology's Stormwater Management

Manual for Western Washington

1

and assist project proponents in complying with the

Western Washington hydromodification control requirements. The Santa Margarita Region

Hydrology Model (SMRHM) is adapted from WWHM Version 4, but has been modified to represent Riverside County hydrology and enhanced to be able to size other types of control measures and low impact development (LID) techniques for flow reduction as well.

SMRHM is a useful tool in the design process, but must be used in conjunction with local design guidance to ensure compliance for specific projects. The reader should refer to

Appendix C and local stormwater program guidance for additional information and suggestions for using the SMRHM.

1 Washington State Department of Ecology. 2001. Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington.

Volume III: Hydrologic Analysis and Flow Control Design/BMPs. Publication No. 99-13. Olympia, WA.

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Appendix E Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

SMRHM Overview

The SMRHM software architecture and methodology is the same as that developed for

BAHM (Bay Area Hydrology Model), SDHM (San Diego Hydrology Model), SOHM

(South Orange County Hydrology Model), and WWHM and uses HSPF as its computational engine

2

. Like BAHM, SDHM, and WWHM, SMRHM is a tool that generates flow duration curves for the pre- and post-project condition and then sizes a flow duration control pond/basin or vault and outlet structure to match the predevelopment curve. The software package consists of a user-friendly graphical interface with screens for input of predevelopment and post-project conditions; an engine that automatically loads appropriate parameters and meteorological data and runs continuous simulations of site runoff to generate flow duration curves; a module for sizing or checking the control measure to achieve the hydromodification control standard; and a reporting module.

The HSPF hydrology parameter values used in SMRHM are based on best professional judgment using our experience with calibrated watersheds in other parts of California.

SMRHM uses the Riverside County long-term 15-minute precipitation data records selected to represent Santa Margarita Region County rainfall patterns.

HSPF is the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continuous simulation hydrology software package maintained by AQUA TERRA Consultants. The

HSPF continuous simulation hydrology model is preferred over single- event hydrology models because of its ability to compute and keep track of all of the individual components of the hydrologic cycle including surface runoff, interflow, groundwater, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration. HSPF, since its introduction in 1980, has become the industry standard for hydrologic modeling.

One of the major advantages of continuous simulation hydrologic modeling is the ability to accurately determine soil moisture conditions immediately prior to storm events. Singleevent hydrologic models have to make assumptions about the antecedent soil moisture conditions – assumptions which are often not accurate or appropriate. This is an important distinction because antecedent soil moisture conditions play a major role in determining the amount and timing of runoff.

Not all continuous simulation hydrologic models handle the calculation of soil moisture conditions in the same level of detail. HSPF uses a potential evapotranspiration time series to compute actual evapotranspiration each time step. HSPF uses parameter values to determine the proportion of the actual evapotranspiration from interception storage, upper soil layer storage, lower soil zone layer storage, groundwater storage, and base flow. Other continuous simulation hydrologic models, SWMM included, use a much more simplified approach to determining soil moisture. Such simplified approaches do not accurately reflect the seasonal and daily variability of the actual evapotranspiration and its effects on soil moisture.

2

SMRHM is based on WWHM Version 4.

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Appendix E Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – May 2013

SMRHM computes stormwater runoff for a site selected by the user. SMRHM runs HSPF in the background to generate a 15-minute runoff time series from the available rain gauge data over a number of years. Stormwater runoff is computed for both predevelopment and post-project land use conditions. Then, another part of the SMRHM routes the post-project stormwater runoff through a stormwater control facility of the user's choice.

SMRHM uses the predevelopment peak flood values from a partial duration series of individual peak events to compute the predevelopment 2-year through 25-year flood frequency values

3

. The post-project runoff 2-year through 25-year flood frequency values are computed at the outlet of the proposed stormwater facility. The model routes the postproject runoff through the stormwater facility. As with the predevelopment peak flow values, partial duration post-project flow values are selected by the model to compute the developed 2-year through 25-year flood frequency.

The predevelopment 2-year peak flow is multiplied by a percentage (10 percent) to set the lower limit of the erosive flows, in accordance with the current HMP performance criteria.

The predevelopment 10-year peak flow is the upper limit. A comparison of the predevelopment and post-project flow duration curves is conducted for 100 flow levels between the lower limit and the upper limit. The model counts the number of 15-minute intervals that predevelopment flows exceed each of the flow levels during the entire simulation period. The model does the same analysis for the post-project mitigated flows.

Low impact development (LID)/best management practices (BMPs) have been recognized as opportunities to reduce and/or eliminate stormwater runoff at the source before it becomes a problem. They include compost-amended soils, bioretention, permeable pavement, green roofs, rain gardens, and vegetated swales. All of these approaches reduce stormwater runoff. SMRHM can be used to determine the magnitude of the reduction from each of these practices and the amount of stormwater detention storage still required to meet HMP requirements.

3

The actual flood frequency calculations are made using the Cunnane flood frequency equation.

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Appendix E Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Bioretention Modeling Methodology

The bioretention element is also known as a landscape swale or rain garden. The SMRHM bioretention element is a special conveyance feature with unique characteristics. The element uses the HSPF hydraulic algorithms to route runoff, but the HSPF routing is modified to represent the two different flow paths that runoff can take. The routing is dependent on the inflow to the swale and the swale soil capacity to absorb additional runoff. HSPF Special Actions is used to check the swale soil capacity to determine the appropriate routing option.

A bioretention facility is a swale in which the native soils have been excavated and replaced with amended soil. At the downstream end of the swale, a weir or riser controls the surface discharge from the swale and detains runoff, encouraging it to infiltrate into the amended soil. Infiltration from the amended soil to the native soil is also possible, depending on the properties of the native soil. Swales can include an underdrain pipe.

The amended soil placed in the swale is assumed to have storage capacity equal to its porosity and volume. Runoff infiltrates from the surface of the swale to the amended soil at an infiltration rate set by the user. The infiltration rate cannot exceed the available storage capacity of the amended soil. The available storage capacity is determined each time step by HSPF Special Actions. Once the amended soil is saturated then water has the opportunity to infiltrate into the underlying native soil at the native soil's infiltration rate.

The native soil infiltration is input by the user and is assumed to be constant throughout the year.

Inflow to the swale can exceed the amended soil infiltration rate. When this occurs, the extra water ponds on the surface of the swale. The extra water can then infiltrate into the soil during the next time step or can flow out of the swale through its surface outlet if the ponding exceeds the surface outlet's storage.

Runoff in both the surface storage and amended soil storage is available for evapotranspiration. Surface storage evapotranspiration is set to the potential evapotranspiration; the amended soil evapotranspiration pan evaporation factor is set to

0.50 to reflect reduced evapotranspiration from the amended soil.

In the amended soil water movement through the soil column is dependent on soil layer characteristics and saturation rates for different discharge conditions.

Consider a simple two-layered bioretention facility designed with two soil layers with different characteristics. As water enters the facility at the top, it infiltrates into the soil based on the modified Green Ampt equation (Equation 1). The water then moves through the top soil layer at the computed rate, determined by Darcy's and Van Genuchten's equations. As the soil approaches field capacity (i.e., gravity head is greater than matric head), we can determine when water will begin to infiltrate into the second layer (lower layer) of the soil column. This occurs when the matric head is less than the gravity head in the first layer (top layer).

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Appendix E Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Since the two layers have different soil characteristics, water will move through the two layers at different rates. Once both layers have achieved field capacity then the layer that first becomes saturated is determined by which layer is more restrictive. This is determined by using Darcy's equation to compute flux for each layer at the current level of saturation.

The layer with the more restrictive flux is the layer that becomes saturated for that time step. The next time step the same comparison is made.

The rate and location of water discharging from the soil layer is determined by the discharge conditions selected by the user.

There are four possible combinations of discharge conditions:

1. There is no discharge from the subsurface layers (except for evapotranspiration).

This means that there is no underdrain and there is no infiltration into the native soil. Although this discharge condition is unlikely, we still need to be able to model it.

2. There is an underdrain, but no native infiltration. Discharge from the underdrain is computed based on head conditions for the underdrain. The underdrain is configured to have an orifice. (It is possible for the orifice to be the same diameter as the underdrain.) With a maximum of three soil layers determining head conditions for the orifice is complicated. Each modeled layer must overcome matric head before flow through the underdrain can begin. Once matric head is overcome by gravity head for all of the layers then the underdrain begins to flow. The flow rate is determined based on the ability of the water to move through the soil layers and by the discharge from the orifice, whichever is smaller. Head conditions are determined by computing the saturation level of the lowest soil layer first. Once the lowest soil layer is saturated and flow begins, then the gravity head is considered to be at the saturation level of the lowest soil layer. Once the lowest soil layer is saturated completely then the head will include the gravity head from the next soil layer above until gravity head from all soil layers is included. Gravity head from ponding on the surface is included in the orifice calculations only if all of the intervening soil layers are saturated.

3. There is native infiltration but no underdrain. Discharge (infiltration) into the native soil is computed based on a user entered infiltration rate in units of inches per hour. Specific head conditions are not used in determining infiltration into the native soil. Any impact due to head on the infiltration rate is considered to be part of the determination of the native soil infiltration rate. Because it is possible to have a maximum of three soil layers, each modeled layer must overcome matric head before infiltration to the native soil can begin. Once matric head is overcome by gravity head for all modeled layers, then infiltration begins at a maximum rate determined either by the ability of the water to move through the soil layers or by the ability of the water to infiltrate into the native soil, whichever is limiting.

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Appendix E Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

4. There is both an underdrain and native infiltration. Underdrain flow and native infiltration are computed as discussed above. However, there is one other limitation to consider. In the case where the flow through the soil layer is less than the sum of the discharge through the underdrain and the native infiltration, then the flow through the soil layer becomes the limiting flow and must be divided between the native infiltration and the underdrain. This division is done based on the relative discharge rates of each.

Note that wetted surface area can be included in the discharge calculations by adding the infiltration through the wetted surface area to the lower soil layer and the upper surface layer individually. This is done by computing the portion of the wetted surface area that is part of the upper surface layer and computing the infiltration independently from the portion of the wetted surface area that is part of the lower soil layers.

There are several equations used to determine water movement from the surface of the bioretention facility, through the soil layers, and into an underdrain or native infiltration.

The water movement process can be divided into three different zones:

1. Surface ponding and infiltration into the top soil layer (soil layer 1)

2. Percolation through the subsurface layers

3. Underdrain flow and native infiltration

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Appendix E Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

The modified Green Ampt equation (Equation 1) controls the infiltration rate into the top soil layer:

f

=

K

1

+

(

φ

θ

)(

d

F

+

ϕ

)

(Equation 1)

f = soil surface infiltration rate (cm/hr)

φ

= soil porosity of top soil layer

θ

= soil moisture content of top soil layer ϕ

= suction head at the wetting front (cm)

F= soil moisture content of the top soil layer (cm)

d= surface ponding depth (cm)

K= hydraulic conductivity based on saturation of top soil layer (cm/hr)

K (relative hydraulic conductivity) can be computed using the following Van Genuchten approximation equation:

(Equation 2)

A few issues arise when dealing with multiple subsurface soil layers. The K value used in

Equation 1 must be computed from the top soil layer. Infiltration into the upper soil layer must not exceed the lesser of the maximum percolation rates for each of the soil layers.

Finally, the rate of percolation of the top layer may be reduced because the layer or layers beneath the top layer cannot accept the percolation flux because of existing saturation levels.

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Appendix E Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Water storage and movement through the three subsurface layers will be computed using

Darcy’s equation as shown below:

q

= −

K

h

z

(Equation 3)

Where:

q = Darcy flux (cm/hr)

K = hydraulic conductivity of the porous medium (cm/hr)

h = total hydraulic head (cm)

z = elevation (cm)

The total head, h, is the sum of the matric head,

ψ

, and the gravity head, z:

h

=

ψ

+

z

.

(Equation 4)

Substituting for h yields:

q

= −

K d

(

ψ

+

z

)

.

dz

(Equation 5)

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Appendix E Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Hydraulic conductivity and matric head vary with soil moisture content. These values can be computed by solving the Van Genuchten's equation (Equation 6) for both values. Note that

ψ = 0 when the soil is saturated.

(Equation 6)

Effective saturation (SE) can be computed using the following Van Genuchten equation:

(Equation 7)

Ignoring z (elevation head) results in h = hm (matric head).

Evapotranspiration is an important component of the bioretention facility's hydrologic processes. Evapotranspiration removes water from bioretention surface ponding and the soil column during non-storm periods. The routine will satisfy potential evapo- transpiration (PET) demands in the same sequence as implemented in HSPF:

1. Water available from vegetation interception storage

2. Water available from surface ponding

3. Water available from the bioretention soil layers (top layer first)

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Appendix E Santa Margarita Region Hydrology Model Guidance – June 2013

Water will be removed from vegetation interception storage and surface ponding and the bioretention soil layers (starting at the top layer) down to the rooting depth at the potential rate. Water is taken from the soil layers below the rooting depth based on a percentage factor to be determined. Without this factor there will be no way to remove water from below the rooting depth once it becomes completely saturated.

178

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