CAMEO® - DISASTER info DESASTRES

CAMEO® - DISASTER info DESASTRES
CAMEO
®
Computer-Aided
Management of
Emergency Operations
USER'S MANUAL/May 2002
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U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office
Washington, D.C.
NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC
ADMINISTRATION
Office of Response and Restoration/
Hazardous Materials Response Division
Seattle, Washington
This page intentionally left blank.
CAMEO User’s Manual
Developed by
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office
NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION
Hazardous Materials Response Division, Office of Response and
Restoration
May 2002
Terms and Conditions
The recipient of the CAMEO® software and documentation agrees to the following guidelines and
restrictions:
Use and Distribution Guidelines and Restrictions : CAMEO is available at no charge to those
organizations and individuals (recipients) responsible for the safe handling of chemicals.
The recipient may make sufficient backup copies to protect his or her site or organization against loss of
information. Temporary classroom installation is allowed for a period not to exceed the normal course of
instruction. The recipient shall not distribute, electronically or by any other means, any portion of
CAMEO.
Certain response information contained in CAMEO and marked AAR has been supplied by, and is the
property of, the Association of American Railroads. CAS registry numbers, CAS synonyms, and CAS
molecular formulas have been supplied by, and are the property of, the Chemical Abstracts Service. NFPA
ratings have been supplied by, and are the property of, the National Fire Protection Association. AAR,
CAS, and NFPA data contained in CAMEO shall not be duplicated by the recipient, except as indicated
above, without written permission from AAR, CAS, and NFPA.
The recipient shall honor all disclaimers and other limitations of liability associated with those
organizations that have provided data in the compilation of the CAMEO chemical database.
Limitation of Liability: The United States Government has used its best efforts to deliver complete
data incorporated into CAMEO. Nevertheless, the U.S. Government does not warrant accuracy or
completeness, is not responsible for errors and omissions, and is not liable for any direct, indirect or
consequential damages flowing from the recipient’s use of CAMEO. CAMEO software are being
distributed “as is” and the U.S. Government does not make any warranty claims, either expressed or
implied, with respect to the CAMEO software, its quality, accuracy, completeness, performance,
merchantability, or fitness for any intended purpose.
Indemnification: Non-governmental recipients shall indemnify and save harmless the United States
and its agents and employees against any and all loss, damage, claim, or liability whatsoever, due to
personal injury or death, or damage to property of others directly or indirectly due to the use of CAMEO
by the recipient, including failure to comply with the provisions of these terms and conditions.
Editing: Any unauthorized editing or alteration of CAMEO chemical data or information provided by
the U.S. government will result in the termination of the agreement between the recipient and the U.S.
Government. Upon receipt of notice of termination, the recipient shall immediately return all CAMEO
information to EPA/NOAA, including all documents and all copies of software containing CAMEO
information.
Maintenance: Recipients should keep EPA/NOAA informed of any address changes. This information
is necessary to notify users of any CAMEO program changes or if updated information becomes
available.
Trademarks: CAMEO®, ALOHA®, MARPLOT®, and LandView are registered trademarks of the
U.S. Government.
Contents
Terms and Conditions ii
CHAPTER 1
Welcome to CAMEO! 1
CAMEO in brief 1
Who uses CAMEO? 2
CAMEO’s three components 3
CAMEO supports EPCRA planning work
CAMEO and terrorism 5
5
Getting CAMEO 6
Getting training and staying informed 7
The CAMEO Website 7
The CAMEO News Service 8
Three other programs for CAMEO users 8
Tier2 Submit™ 8
LandView® 9
RMP*Comp 9
What’s new? 10
What’s been changed in this version of CAMEO? 10
Contents
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Contents
What’s been added to this version of CAMEO? 10
What’s been left out of this version of CAMEO? 10
If you’re a FileMaker user 11
CHAPTER 2
Installing CAMEO 13
System requirements 13
Windows 14
Macintosh 14
Installing the CAMEO modules 15
Before you install 15
Installation procedure 15
Finishing up 16
Getting and installing MARPLOT and ALOHA 17
Updating from an older version 18
Installing CAMEO on a network 19
CHAPTER 3
Getting Started 21
CAMEO’s components 21
CAMEO’s modules in brief 22
Basic CAMEO module operations 24
The Navigator 25
The Toolbar 26
List and Record views 26
Searching and browsing 27
Using the Show Related command 28
Editing records 29
Things to ignore 31
ALOHA and MARPLOT 31
ALOHA 32
MARPLOT 32
A CAMEO guided tour 33
Preparing for the tour 33
A potential chemical hazard 34
Starting CAMEO 36
Assessing chlorine’s hazards 36
Getting information about a facility 39
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Adding emergency contact information 42
Reviewing the facility’s chemical inventory 46
Viewing the site plan 48
Working with a map 50
Working with Screening and Scenarios 55
Working with a threat zone on a map 58
Making an advanced search 63
Predicting chemical reactivity 68
Finishing up and moving on 71
CHAPTER 4
Working with Chemical Records 77
The Chemical Library 77
Searching for a Chemical Record 78
Making a basic search for a chemical record 78
Making an advanced search for a chemical record 80
Understanding the information in the Chemical Library 83
Predicting potential chemical reactivity 94
How CAMEO predicts mixture reactivity 94
Making a reactivity prediction 96
Significant reactive hazards of some chemicals 98
Sources of CAMEO’s chemical data 100
CHAPTER 5
Working with Facility Records 105
Where facility information is kept 105
Tier II information and CAMEO 106
Accessing information about a facility 109
Making a basic search for a facility record 109
Making an advanced search for a facility record 111
Understanding the information in facility records 113
Making and printing reports on facilities 119
Creating and editing facility records 120
Keeping track of the chemicals in a facility’s inventory 123
Manually creating a Chemicals in Inventory record 123
Items in Chemicals in Inventory record 132
Adding contact information for a facility 136
Contents
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Contents
Adding records for incidents at a facility 137
Using Screening & Scenarios to assess hazards 137
Choosing between screening and scenarios calculations 139
About screening calculations 139
About scenarios calculations 142
Before estimating a threat zone 142
Estimating a screening zone 143
Making scenarios calculations 145
Plotting a threat zone on a map 148
Working with threat zones on maps 149
Choosing a stability class 150
What are the differences between Screening & Scenarios, ALOHA, and RMP endpoint
distances? 152
CHAPTER 6
Working With Other CAMEO Components 155
Working with other CAMEO modules 155
Special Locations 155
Checking for special locations within a footprint or threat zone 160
Contacts 162
Resources 165
Routes 168
Incidents 171
Using MARPLOT with CAMEO 177
The CAMEO Map 177
Map objects and links 179
Using links 181
Linking map objects to CAMEO records 183
Deleting a map link 188
Using ALOHA with MARPLOT and CAMEO 189
What ALOHA, CAMEO, and MARPLOT can accomplish together 190
CHAPTER 7
Importing and Exporting Data 193
Avoiding trouble 193
Possible data transfers 195
Difficult or impossible data transfers 195
Things to know before transferring data 197
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Zipped merge files: CAMEO’s standard file format 197
How CAMEO assigns and uses record IDs 198
Importing data from a previous version of CAMEO 201
In Windows 201
On a Macintosh 206
Importing data from Tier2 Submit 206
Things to know before importing Tier II data 207
Importing a Tier2 Submit data file 211
Transferring data between different copies of CAMEO 212
Exporting data from all CAMEO modules 213
Exporting data from all records in a CAMEO module 213
Exporting data from a subset of the records in a module 214
Exporting data from a single CAMEO record 215
Transferring map links and map objects 216
Transferring site plans 217
Importing data from another copy of CAMEO 218
Strategies for avoiding duplicate records 219
Exporting data to other programs 223
CHAPTER 8
Managing Your CAMEO System 225
A CAMEO management plan 225
Why make a CAMEO management plan? 226
Elements of a good CAMEO management plan 226
The CAMEO system manager 228
Preparing a plan for entering and updating data 229
Program security 230
Installing and running CAMEO on a network 232
Ensure security first 232
Possible configurations 233
Installing the runtime version on a network 233
Using FileMaker Pro to host runtime files 233
Using FileMaker Pro Server 240
Managing multiple users 240
Using CAMEO if you already have FileMaker 241
Contents
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Contents
CHAPTER 9
Reference Information 245
CAMEO’s menus 245
Searching 251
Making a basic search 251
Making an advanced search 253
Append searches and subset searches 254
Sorting records in CAMEO modules 255
Choosing sort criteria 255
Sorting records by a single criterion 259
Unsorting records 262
Sorting a subset of records in a module 262
Sorting by multiple criteria 263
Some example sorts 265
Overview of legislation 266
EPCRA 266
CAA 112(r) 275
Bibliography 276
APPENDIX A
Glossary
Index 301
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279
CHAPTER 1
Welcome to
CAMEO!
Welcome to CAMEO! This manual explains how to use the CAMEO®
(Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations) software. It
assumes that you already know how to use the Microsoft Windows or
Macintosh computer on which you’re using your copy of CAMEO.
Although it explains how to use the MARPLOT® and ALOHA® programs
with other CAMEO components for various planning and response projects,
it does not fully explain how to use these two programs (but it explains how
to obtain the ALOHA and MARPLOT user’s manuals).
This chapter explains what CAMEO is, its basic functions, who designed it,
and why and for whom it was developed. It explains how to get CAMEO
and where to find technical support and training. It also explains about
related software programs that might be useful to you.
CAMEO in brief
CAMEO is a suite of software programs you can use to plan for and
respond to chemical emergencies. It was developed for chemical emergency
planners and responders by the CAMEO team. That team includes the U.S.
Welcome to CAMEO!
1
Welcome to CAMEO!
Environmental Protection Agency’s Chemical Emergency Preparedness and
Prevention Office (EPA CEPPO, online at www.epa.gov/swercepp) and the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Office of Response
and Restoration (NOAA OR&R, online at response.restoration.noaa.gov).
CAMEO includes a set of databases, or modules, a toxic gas dispersion
model (“plume model”) called ALOHA, and an electronic mapping program called MARPLOT. CAMEO runs on Microsoft Windows and Apple
Macintosh computers.
You can use CAMEO in two main ways:
• To access, store, and evaluate information needed for emergency
response to hazardous materials incidents. Firefighters, police officers,
and other emergency workers know that a response can be hampered by
lack of accurate information about the substance spilled and safe
response actions. CAMEO is designed to help you quickly access just
such information, just when you need it at the scene of a response.
• To develop hazardous materials emergency plans for your community.
CAMEO is especially designed to help you meet the requirements of the
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, or EPCRA
(see “EPCRA” on page 266).
CAMEO was developed because NOAA recognized the need to assist first
responders with easily accessible and accurate response information. Since
1988, EPA CEPPO and NOAA OR&R have collaborated to further development of CAMEO. The Bureau of the Census and the U.S. Coast Guard
also have worked with EPA and NOAA to enhance CAMEO.
Who uses CAMEO?
Within the U.S., CAMEO’s primary users include firefighters, State Emergency Response Commissions (SERCs) and Tribal Emergency Response
Commissions (TERCs), Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs),
industry, schools, environmental organizations, and police departments.
Outside of the U.S., CAMEO is in use in many countries and has been
translated into French and Spanish (ALOHA has also been translated into
Swedish and Korean). CAMEO was selected by the United Nations Envi-
2
Welcome to CAMEO!
CAMEO in brief
ronment Programme (UNEP, www.unep.org) as a tool for helping developing nations prepare for and respond to chemical accidents, and is part of the
UNEP’s Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at the Local Level
(APELL) program. It has been demonstrated or taught in about 50 countries
as part of the APELL workshops on community preparedness for chemical
accidents.
CAMEO’s three components
CAMEO contains three integrated components:
The CAMEO modules. A set of
databases, or modules, contains
information for responders and
planners. You can quickly search
the Chemical Library module for
information and response recommendations for more than 6,000
hazardous substances. The Chemical Library contains information
and recommendations on fire and
explosive hazards, health hazards,
firefighting techniques, cleanup
procedures, and protective clothing recommendations (a view of a record in the Library is shown above).
You can use other CAMEO modules to maintain records on facilities that
store chemicals, the inventories of chemicals at those facilities (“Tier II
data”), emergency planning resources and contacts, and special locations
such as schools and hospitals that you might need to contact quickly during
an emergency. See “CAMEO’s modules in brief” on page 22 for descriptions of all of CAMEO’s modules.
Welcome to CAMEO!
3
Welcome to CAMEO!
MARPLOT. MARPLOT (Mapping
Applications for Response, PLanning, and Operational Tasks) is
CAMEO’s mapping program. You
can use it to view and print maps of
your community that show roads,
facilities, schools, response assets,
and other information useful for
response and planning tasks (like the
Seattle map shown at right). On your
maps, you also can overlay predicted
hazard zones—areas that could be contaminated by potential or actual
chemical releases—so you can assess potential impacts. MARPLOT maps
are created from U.S. Bureau of Census TIGER/Line files, and can be
downloaded at no cost from the Web. (See “Using MARPLOT with
CAMEO” on page 177 to learn how CAMEO and MARPLOT work
together; for a full, detailed explanation of how to use MARPLOT, download the MARPLOT user’s manual from www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/marplot.htm.).
ALOHA. ALOHA (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres)
is a gas dispersion model. You use
it to estimate how far downwind a
chemical cloud might disperse.
ALOHA’s predictions are based
on the characteristics of the
released chemical, atmospheric
conditions, and the circumstances
of the release. ALOHA displays a
“cloud footprint” that you can plot
on a map in MARPLOT (an ALOHA footprint is shown above). On the
same map, you also can check the locations of vulnerable locations such as
hospitals and schools to see which ones could be affected by a gas release.
You then can extract information such as emergency phone numbers for
these locations from CAMEO modules. (See “Using ALOHA with MARPLOT and CAMEO” on page 189 to learn how ALOHA works together
with CAMEO and MARPLOT; for a full detailed explanation of how to use
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Welcome to CAMEO!
CAMEO in brief
ALOHA, download the ALOHA user’s manual from www.epa.gov/ceppo/
cameo/aloha.htm.)
CAMEO supports EPCRA planning work
CAMEO was designed to help you to meet your responsibilities under
EPCRA, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of
1986. EPCRA establishes requirements for Federal, state, and local governments, and for industry for emergency planning and “community right-toknow” reporting on hazardous and toxic chemicals (see “EPCRA” on
page 266). You can use CAMEO for EPCRA-related tasks like:
• maintaining and reviewing Tier II information submitted by facilities in
your local area (see “Tier II information and CAMEO” on page 106).
• assessing the hazards to your community from accidental releases of
locally stored hazardous chemicals (see “Using Screening & Scenarios
to assess hazards” on page 137).
CAMEO and the Clean Air Act. Many CAMEO users, especially facility operators, also must meet certain responsibilities under Section 112(r) of
the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (see “CAA 112(r)” on
page 275). You may be able to use CAMEO for some of your CAA-related
projects. For example, you can check a substance’s Chemical Library
record to find out whether the substance is covered under Section 112(r),
and, if it is, to see the threshold quantity designated for it under Section
112(r). However, note that you cannot use CAMEO’s Screening & Scenarios module for the offsite consequence analyses required under Section
112(r). For more on this topic, see “What are the differences between
Screening & Scenarios, ALOHA, and RMP endpoint distances?” on
page 152.
CAMEO and terrorism
CAMEO’s Chemical Library and the ALOHA gas dispersion model were
designed to help people plan for and respond to accidents involving industrial chemicals, rather than deliberate releases of chemical or biological
warfare agents. For people concerned with planning for or responding to
terrorist attacks, the two programs can be most useful for planning for or
Welcome to CAMEO!
5
Welcome to CAMEO!
responding to terrorist actions that result in releases of industrial chemicals.
However, some substances that are considered as nerve agents rather than
industrial chemicals are included in the Chemical Library and in ALOHA’s
built-in chemical database. Examples of nerve agents in the Chemical
Library and/or ALOHA database include tabun, sarin, V agent, mustard gas,
lewisite, hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride, chlorine, phosgene, tear
gas, and mace® (chloroacetophenone).
Not all common nerve agents are included in ALOHA. Included are only
those expected to be volatile enough on their own (without use of explosives) to get into the air in high enough concentrations to pose a hazard to
people. Most nerve agents, in contrast, are oily liquids with very low vapor
pressures. If you’re considering using ALOHA in response or planning for
nerve agent attacks, we encourage you to carefully review the discussion of
ALOHA’s limitations in the ALOHA user’s manual and online at
response.restoration.noaa.gov/cameo/aloha.html. ALOHA can’t model
nerve agent scenarios that involve indoor releases, releases requiring an
explosive propellant, mixtures of chemicals, or nerve agents that exhibit
low volatility at ambient temperatures. If you need to do sophisticated modeling of realistic deliberate nerve agent release scenarios, we recommend
that you contact chemical warfare specialists for help, rather than relying on
CAMEO and ALOHA.1
Getting CAMEO
You can obtain a free copy of CAMEO by downloading it from the
CAMEO website, www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo. To install the software, follow the instructions in Chapter 2, “Installing CAMEO,” beginning on
page 13.
1. One source of brief advice for responders on chemical, biological, and nuclear agents is
the Operations Center of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, 703-325-2102.
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Welcome to CAMEO!
Getting training and staying informed
Getting training and staying informed
To learn CAMEO basics, work through “A CAMEO guided tour” on
page 33. Later, you may want to browse through the following sections of
this manual that describe how to complete key CAMEO tasks. If you’re
interested in
• reviewing CAMEO’s response recommendations and other information
about substances of concern, check “Searching for a Chemical Record”
on page 78 and “Understanding the information in the Chemical
Library” on page 83.
• adding records describing chemical facilities and their chemical inventories, check “Creating and editing facility records” on page 120.
• importing or exporting data to or from CAMEO, including Tier II data
importing, check Chapter 7, “Importing and Exporting Data,” beginning
on page 193.
• planning how you’ll use your CAMEO system, on or off a network,
check “A CAMEO management plan” on page 225.
The CAMEO Website
Check the CAMEO Website (www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo) for more
CAMEO-related resources. You can:
• view news items and download software updates and training materials.
• discuss problems, concerns, and questions with other CAMEO users in
the Technical Discussion section.
• troubleshoot CAMEO, ALOHA, or MARPLOT problems, using the
CAMEO Troubleshooter (www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/shoot.htm).
• check CAMEO training and events calendars (www.epa.gov/ceppo/
cameo/cam-evnt.htm). Trainers certified by NOAA and EPA run frequent CAMEO and ALOHA training events around the U.S., and sometimes in other countries as well.
Welcome to CAMEO!
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Welcome to CAMEO!
The CAMEO News Service
We encourage you to subscribe to the CAMEO News Service, an email
announcement list (one-way listserve) used by CAMEO managers and
developers to keep the CAMEO community informed. Bulletins are sent to
list subscribers on an approximately monthly basis. This manual describes
resources and information available to you as of spring 2002; subscribing to
the news service is a way to get access to updated information. Check the
CAMEO website to find out how to subscribe to the CAMEO News Service.
Three other programs for CAMEO
users
Tier2 Submit™
Each year, facilities covered by the Emergency Planning and Community
Right to Know Act (EPCRA) must submit an emergency and hazardous
chemical inventory form to their Local Emergency Planning Committee
(LEPC), State Emergency Response Commission (SERC), and local fire
department. Facilities provide either a Tier I or Tier II form. Most states
require the Tier II form. Tier II forms require basic facility identification
information, employee contact information, and information such as storage
amounts, storage conditions, and locations for chemicals stored or used at
the facility. (See “Sections 311 and 312: community right-to-know requirements” on page 270.)
Tier2 Submit is a free chemical inventory software program (new in 2002)
developed by the CAMEO development team for both reporting facilities
and for state and local emergency responders:
• Facilities can use Tier2 Submit to manage, print, and send electronic Tier
II reports.
• State and local emergency responders can import those facilities’ reports
directly into their copies of CAMEO. By importing facility reports,
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Welcome to CAMEO!
Three other programs for CAMEO users
responders can have current chemical inventory information available to
them if they need to respond to an incident at a reporting facility.
The reporting year 2001 is the first reporting year that Tier2 Submit has
become available. As of early 2002, not all states are accepting paper or
electronic reports from Tier2 Submit. Please check www.epa.gov/ceppo/
tier2.htm to find out whether your state is participating this year and/or to
download a copy of Tier2 Submit.
LandView®
LandView incorporates a database management system along with the
MARPLOT mapping program. You can use LandView not only to view
maps of U.S. counties or other geographic areas but also to work with environmental and census data describing those counties, contained in databases
from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Bureau of the Census,
and the U.S. Geological Survey. For example, you can estimate the population and number of housing units within a given radius from a location such
as a chemical facility. To learn more about LandView or to purchase a copy,
visit the LandView website at landview.census.gov or call the Census
Geography Division at (301) 457-1128.
RMP*Comp
RMP*Comp is a free program you can use to complete the offsite consequence analyses (both worst case scenarios and alternative scenarios)
required under the Risk Management Planning Rule, which implements
Section 112(r) of the 1990 Clean Air Act (see “CAA 112(r)” on page 275).
You can download RMP*Comp or obtain more information about Section
112(r) from www.epa.gov/ceppo/tools/rmp-comp/rmp-comp.html. Offsite
consequence analyses are like the hazards analyses required under EPCRA,
but they aren’t quite the same. If you’re confused by the apparent similarities and not sure what the differences are, review “What are the differences
between Screening & Scenarios, ALOHA, and RMP endpoint distances?”
on page 152.
Welcome to CAMEO!
9
Welcome to CAMEO!
What’s new?
What’s been changed in this version of CAMEO?
A new database program. This version of CAMEO runs in FileMaker,
a relational database program. The previous versions of CAMEO were
developed in HyperCard on the Macintosh and in FoxPro for Windows
computers. This version is identical on both Macintosh and Windows computers. The data file structure in this version is similar to that in the previous
version of CAMEO for Windows.
Searching. CAMEO now includes a single search module, which you’ll
use for all your searches. You can make either basic or advanced searches of
any CAMEO modules, and you can save advanced search criteria for later
reuse (see “Searching” on page 251).
Cross-platform look and feel. CAMEO now looks and acts nearly
identically on both Windows and Macintosh computers.
What’s been added to this version of CAMEO?
Chemical reactivity prediction. You now can use CAMEO to predict
potential reactivity between two or more chemicals, if they are mixed
together. This is the same functionality that’s also available in the Chemical
Reactivity Worksheet (response.restoration.noaa.gov/chemaids/react.html).
What’s been left out of this version of CAMEO?
Site Plan Viewer. Site Plan Viewer was a component of the previous version of CAMEO for Windows, and is not included in this version. In this
version of CAMEO, you can use any graphics program to create site plans,
save them in any standard graphic file formats, and then include them with
your facility records in CAMEO (see “Adding and editing site plans” on
page 121).
10
Welcome to CAMEO!
What’s new?
Census Data. The Census Data module has been removed from CAMEO
because you now can use LandView when you need to analyze demographic data.
TRI. The Toxic Release Inventory module has been removed from
CAMEO because you now can work with TRI data either in LandView or
online at the Toxics Release Inventory: Community Right-to-Know Home
Page, www.epa.gov/tri.2
Password protection. CAMEO no longer requires the use of passwords,
because the password protection implemented in earlier versions caused
difficulties for many users. However, you can use passwords with your
copy of CAMEO if you’d like to (see “Password protection” on page 230).
If you’re a FileMaker user
CAMEO was created in a “runtime” version of the FileMaker database program. You can run CAMEO without installing the full version of FileMaker
on your computer. If you’re already a FileMaker user, note that it’s possible
to damage CAMEO if you’re using FileMaker with it. To learn the details,
and how to avoid damaging your CAMEO system, review “Using CAMEO
if you already have FileMaker” on page 241.
2. EPA must maintain records of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities, and must
use this information in research and in preparation of guidelines and regulations. This
EPA module is called the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). Facilities subject to these
reporting requirements must submit annual reports of total amounts of chemicals released
to the environment (both routinely and accidentally) to the EPA and to state officials.
Welcome to CAMEO!
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Welcome to CAMEO!
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Welcome to CAMEO!
CHAPTER 2
Installing
CAMEO
In this chapter, you’ll find the system requirements and installation instructions for both the Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh versions of the
CAMEO modules, as well as explanations of how to install CAMEO on a
network and where to get the resources you need to install ALOHA and
MARPLOT.
To install all three CAMEO components—the CAMEO modules, ALOHA,
and MARPLOT—you need to
• Follow the instructions in this chapter to install the CAMEO modules.
• Follow the instructions in the ALOHA and MARPLOT manuals to
install those programs (see “Getting and installing MARPLOT and
ALOHA” on page 17).
System requirements
Below are the minimum system requirements for running CAMEO on
Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh computers. (These are the
requirements for installing and running all three CAMEO components:
CAMEO’s modules, ALOHA, and MARPLOT.)
Installing CAMEO
13
Installing CAMEO
Windows
Minimum hardware requirements. Intel-compatible 486/33 or later;
hard disk drive with 100 MB of free hard drive space, VGA color display;
sufficient RAM (depends on the version of Windows you’re using).
Software requirements. Any of the following versions of Windows:
•
•
•
•
Windows 95 (requires Internet Explorer 5.01 Service Pack 2 or later)
Windows 98
Windows Me
Windows NT 4.0 (requires Internet Explorer 5.01 Service Pack 2 or
later)
• Windows 2000
• Windows XP
Macintosh
Hardware requirements. Power Macintosh or Macintosh OS computer
with a PPC 601 or higher processor; hard disk drive with 100 MB of free
hard drive space; sufficient RAM (depends on the version of the Macintosh
operating system you’re using).
Software requirements. System 8.6 or later for the Macintosh OS.
Note: If you’re using OS X, you will need to run all three CAMEO components—the CAMEO modules, ALOHA, and MARPLOT—in Classic mode
(you can set Classic mode under System Preferences). You’ll also need to
run your web browser in Classic mode in order to use the CAMEO online
help system.
To install the CAMEO components on a Macintosh running OSX, you
install MARPLOT and ALOHA, then move the MARPLOT and ALOHA
folders into the “Applications (OS9)” folder. You either install CAMEO
into that folder or move it into that folder after installation.
14
Installing CAMEO
Installing the CAMEO modules
Installing the CAMEO modules
Before you install
If you haven’t already obtained the CAMEO installer for your operating
system, download it from www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/request.htm.
• The installer for the Windows version of CAMEO is
CAMEOfmInstaller.exe.
• The installer for the Macintosh version of CAMEO is CAMEOfm
Installer.
Before installing CAMEO on either a Macintosh or Windows computer,
disable your virus protection software and check that no other applications
are running.
Installation procedure
Follow the steps below to run the installer:
1. Download the installer to your hard drive, if you haven’t already.
2. Double-click the installer file to begin the installation process.
3. Follow the instructions in the installer window to complete the installa-
tion.
We recommend that you install CAMEO at the default location:
• C:\CAMEO, if you’re installing onto a Windows computer.
• at the top level of the hard drive on your Macintosh.
The installer automatically installs CAMEO at the default location unless
you choose a different place to put it. Installing CAMEO at the default
location makes it easier for the three CAMEO components to initially find
each other in order to share information.
Installing CAMEO
15
Installing CAMEO
Finishing up
Important: Once you’ve installed the CAMEO modules, don’t delete any of
the files or folders in your CAMEO folder, or move them out of the
CAMEO folder.
Here’s how your new CAMEO folder will look in Windows:
16
Installing CAMEO
Getting and installing MARPLOT and ALOHA
Here’s what your new CAMEO folder will contain on your Macintosh computer:
Getting and installing MARPLOT and
ALOHA
To install MARPLOT and ALOHA, you’ll need to obtain the installer for
each of these programs, along with the user’s manual:
• Download the MARPLOT installer and manual from www.epa.gov/
ceppo/cameo/marplot.htm.
• Download the ALOHA installer and manual from www.epa.gov/ceppo/
cameo/aloha.htm.
Follow the installation instructions in the ALOHA and MARPLOT manuals
to install these programs.
By default, the MARPLOT and ALOHA installers install those programs in
folders at either the top (root) level of the C: drive in Windows (i.e., at
C:\ALOHA and C:\MARPLOT) or the top level of the hard drive on a
Installing CAMEO
17
Installing CAMEO
Macintosh. We recommend that you install both programs at their default
locations (doing so makes it easier for the three CAMEO components to
initially find each other in order to share information).
Important: Don’t install MARPLOT if you intend to install LandView,
which includes MARPLOT. If you already have installed MARPLOT, and
decide to install LandView, first remove MARPLOT from your hard drive
by moving the MARPLOT folder into the recycle bin or trash and, in Windows, removing MARPLOT from the Start menu (from the Start menu,
select Settings, then select Taskbar and Start Menu; click the Advanced tab,
click Remove, then select and remove the MARPLOT folder).
However, before you uninstall MARPLOT, be sure to first save all the maps
you’d like to keep—they’ll work in LandView as well as MARPLOT.
Updating from an older version
To import your data from the previous FoxPro version of CAMEO for
Windows to your new copy of CAMEO, follow the steps in “Importing data
from a previous version of CAMEO” on page 201.
In the current version of CAMEO, there is no built-in procedure for importing data from the previous version of CAMEO for Macintosh. If you are a
Macintosh user and would like to import data from a previous version of
CAMEO into the new version, please contact [email protected] to
arrange for assistance with your data transfer.
Check to be sure that you have downloaded and installed the latest versions
of MARPLOT and ALOHA. At the time this manual was written, the latest
version of MARPLOT was 3.3 (released in spring 2002), and the latest version of ALOHA was 5.2.3 (released summer 1999).
18
Installing CAMEO
Installing CAMEO on a network
Installing CAMEO on a network
You can install and run CAMEO on a network. See “Installing and running
CAMEO on a network” on page 232.
Installing CAMEO
19
Installing CAMEO
20
Installing CAMEO
CHAPTER 3
Getting Started
This chapter contains an overview of the basic features of CAMEO and an
explanation of how you use them. It also includes a Guided Tour for learning how to use CAMEO to complete basic planning and response tasks.
CAMEO’s components
The complete CAMEO system consists of two kinds of components:
• Modules (or databases): the Chemical Library of response-related information about thousands of hazardous substances, and eight other modules you use for response and planning record-keeping.
• Programs: ALOHA, a model for predicting the dispersion of hazardous
gases, and MARPLOT, an electronic mapping program.
To complete various tasks, you’re likely to use two or three CAMEO components in sequence. For example, suppose you want to assess the potential
hazard posed to your community by a particular chemical in the inventory
of a local chemical processing plant. As part of your investigation, you
might (1) find the record for that plant in CAMEO’s Facilities module, then
(2) view the location of the plant on a map in MARPLOT. You then might
Getting Started
21
Getting Started
(3) check the record in CAMEO’s Chemicals in Inventory module for the
chemical of concern in the plant’s inventory. You then might (4) use
ALOHA and MARPLOT to predict the extent of the area that could be at
risk, if that chemical were to be released. Figure 1 shows this example
sequence.
1. Check Facilities.
3. Check chemical inventory.
2. View on map.
4. Plot ALOHA footprint.
MARPLOT - River County
MARPLOT - River County
Gr. Valley Water Fac.
Green Valley
Water Facility
Water Facility
CHLORINE
Elm St.
FIGURE 1. A sequence of tasks in CAMEO: viewing a facility’s record; viewing its map
location; viewing its chemical inventory; assessing a release scenario in ALOHA and
MARPLOT.
CAMEO’s modules in brief
The Chemical Library module contains records for more than 6,000 hazardous substances. Each record describes a chemical or substance, including its chemical name, trade names and other synonyms, identification
numbers, regulatory information, and labeling conventions. For emergency
responders and planners, the most important part of each chemical record is
the Response Information Data Sheets (RIDS) section, which contains a
general description of the chemical, its physical properties, fire and health
hazards, and recommendations for firefighting and non-fire response, first
aid, and protective clothing for response.
Use the Facilities module to store information about facilities where chemicals are maintained, including address, emergency contact information, and
site plans showing the layout of the facility. You can link any record in this
22
Getting Started
CAMEO’s modules in brief
module to an electronic map so that you can quickly see where a facility is
located in your community.
Use the Chemicals in Inventory module to maintain inventory records for
stored chemicals, including descriptions of each chemical’s physical state,
storage conditions and locations, and quantities routinely on site.
Use the Contacts module as a telephone and address directory of important
contacts, such as chemical experts, government agencies and organizations,
contacts for facilities, response resources, and other people who can help
you with emergency planning or response.
Use the Screening & Scenarios module to make hazards analyses for your
community, using procedures described in the guidebook, Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis (see “Bibliography” on page 276). In such a hazards analysis, you estimate the extent of the area around a facility, or other
potential spill site, that might be affected by the accidental release of a
chemical of concern. You then can plot this area (called a threat zone) on an
electronic map in MARPLOT.
Use the Routes module to compile information about routes commonly
used to transport chemicals. You also can maintain information about the
particular chemicals transported along a given route, and you can link
records in this module to routes shown on electronic maps, so that you can
quickly find a route on a map.
Use the Incidents module to track information about accidental spills of
hazardous chemicals, either at fixed facilities or along transport routes. You
can link records in this module to symbols shown on electronic maps, so
that you can quickly find the location of an incident on a map.
Use the Resources module to maintain information about resources, such as
supplies, experts, and contractors, that you may need to quickly access during a response, or that are useful to you in your planning activities. You can
link Resources records to symbols on an electronic map so that you can
quickly find resources on your map.
Getting Started
23
Getting Started
Use the Special Locations module to keep descriptions of schools, nursing
homes, hospitals, and other facilities that require special protection and consideration during emergencies. You can link records in this module to symbols shown on electronic maps, so that you can quickly find a special
location on a map.
Basic CAMEO module operations
The following explanations of basic operations and features apply to the
CAMEO modules only. ALOHA and MARPLOT look and work differently. Check their manuals to learn how to use them (download those manuals from the MARPLOT and ALOHA download pages at www.epa.gov/
ceppo/cameo/request.htm).
Anatomy of a CAMEO module. Each module in CAMEO is a database. A database is just an organized collection of information; CAMEO’s
modules are computer databases. Each CAMEO module includes the same
standard components as other computer databases. If you’ve worked with
any database program, you already know those components:
• records. A database is composed of records. Each record is a compilation of information about a particular entity. For example, in CAMEO’s
Facilities module, each record describes a particular facility (or division
of a large facility).
• data fields. Each record is composed of data fields, and each data field
contains a particular type of information. In the Facilities module, one
data field contains a facility’s address; another holds its zip code, and so
on.
CAMEO’s modules are interrelated. For example, in the Chemicals in
Inventory module, you can keep track of the chemical inventories of facilities described on records in your Facilities module. Likewise, in the Contacts module, you can keep information about contact people, such as
representatives of
• facilities (described on Facilities records).
• special locations (described on Special Locations records).
24
Getting Started
Basic CAMEO module operations
• response organizations (described on Resources records).
You can quickly access information in one module when you’re working
with a related record in another module (the Guided Tour shows how to do
this).
The Navigator
CAMEO’s Navigator is a small window containing buttons you use to
quickly navigate among CAMEO’s modules and programs, or to quickly
complete basic CAMEO tasks, like searching the Chemical Library for a
chemical (Figure 2).
Navigator.CAM
FIGURE 2. CAMEO’s Navigator.
To display the Navigator, either select Show Navigator from the File menu,
or click the Navigator button in the toolbar.
Getting Started
25
Getting Started
The Toolbar
CAMEO contains a simple toolbar that’s visible when any CAMEO module
is open (except when you’re searching the module or editing a record). It
contains:
• Buttons for common operations.
Click
to open the Navigator.
Click
or
to switch between List view, where you
see a list of records in the module, and Record view, where you see the
contents of a single record. See “List and Record views” on page 26.
Click
when you need to edit the record you’re currently
viewing (see “Editing records” on page 29). This button does not appear
in the Chemical Library, because you can’t edit the records in that module.
If you’ve run a search and found a set of records that matched the criteria
you used in your search, then in List view, you’ll see just the matching
records. You’ll also see a
button. Click this button to show all
the records in the module in List view (instead of just the matching
records).
• Navigation buttons. Click the four navigation buttons on the right side of
the Toolbar to move forwards or backwards through the records in a
module:
Click to see the first record in the module.
Click to see the previous record.
Click to see the next record.
Click to see the last record.
List and Record views
Whenever you have a CAMEO module open, you’re viewing that module
in either List or Record view. When you first open a module, you’re in List
26
Getting Started
Basic CAMEO module operations
view, where you see a list of all the records in that module. The example at
left shows part of the record list in the Facilities module. Records appear in
the list in the order in which you create them, unless you sort them into a
different order (see “Sorting records in CAMEO modules” on page 255). In
List view, you click on a record name to select that record. Once a record is
selected, a small black rectangle appears to the left of its name. In the example at left, General Hardware and Garden is selected.
In Record View, you see one or another of the records in that module. When
you’re in Record View, you can view the information contained in all the
individual fields on that record.
You can go back and forth between the two views by clicking the
and
buttons in the toolbar. If you’re in List view, you
also can double-click on the name of any record in the list to see that record
in Record view.
Searching and browsing
You can browse through the records in a CAMEO module in four ways:
• in List view, scan the list of records visually until you find the one you
want. Use the scrollbar to review the entire list if it’s too long to fit in the
window.
• in Record view, click the navigation buttons on the right side of the toolbar to navigate from record to record.
• click the pages of the book icon in the upper left corner of the module
window to page through the records in the module (the book icon is
shown at left).
• From the Record menu, select Go To, then select either First, Previous,
Next, or Last to navigate to the first, previous, next, or last record in the
module.
If you can’t find a record you need by browsing, search the module to find
that record:
1. Select Start Search from the Search menu.
Getting Started
27
Getting Started
2. For a quick, simple search, just type the word(s) or number(s) you’re
looking for—e.g., the name of a chemical in the Chemical Library—then
press Search.
To learn how to make more complicated searches, see “Searching” on
page 251.
Using the Show Related command
You can associate records in your CAMEO modules with other records to
which they’re logically related. For example, you can create a record for a
school in the Special Locations module, then create a Contacts record for
that school’s principal. That Contacts record for the principal is then automatically associated with the school’s record in Special Locations.
When you’re working with a record that’s associated with one or more other
records, select Show Related from the Record menu to quickly access the
records associated with that record (Figure 3). You’ll also need to indicate
the module of interest. For example, from the Facilities record for a local
chemical processing plant, select Show Related, and then Contact Records,
to view the Contacts records associated with the plant.
FIGURE 3. The Show Related command, used to find the Contact
records associated with the selected Facilities record.
28
Getting Started
Basic CAMEO module operations
Editing records
You can edit records in CAMEO’s modules in three ways:
• You can manually change records in any CAMEO module except the
Chemical Library. You can’t make any changes to the Chemical Library.
• You can import Tier II data (see “Importing data from Tier2 Submit” on
page 206).
• You can import data from someone else’s copy of CAMEO.
Whenever you start CAMEO, you’re in Browse mode. To make changes to
your CAMEO records, you must switch to Edit mode by pressing
in the toolbar.
On a CAMEO record in Edit mode, different data fields have different
appearances: one may be a text box (in which you’d type, say, the amount
of a stored chemical), while another might be a menu (from which you’d
choose amount units: e.g., pounds, tons, or kilograms). To tell the difference, click within the data field: a menu will drop down so you can select
from all the choices it contains; a text box will not (Figure 4).
FIGURE 4. Type is a menu that drops down when you click within
the data field (in Edit mode); Phone is a text box.
When you’re in Edit mode, you can edit some of the menus that appear in
CAMEO records. You can tell whether a menu can be edited by looking
Getting Started
29
Getting Started
through the choices in the menu. In an editable menu, “Edit” is at the bottom of the list of menu choices. To edit a menu,
1. Click the Edit button in the toolbar.
2. Click within the menu data field to drop down the menu.
3. Select Edit from the menu (as at left). A list of all the items in the menu
is displayed.
4. Add, remove, or edit items in the menu, then click OK.
5. Click Save Changes.
To delete a record from a CAMEO module, select that record, then select
Delete <module name> from the Record menu (e.g., in the Special Locations menu, select Delete Special Location; in the Facilities module, select
Delete Facility, as in Figure 5).
FIGURE 5. Deleting a Facility record.
Getting Help. Whenever CAMEO is running on your computer, you can
access its online help system, if you have installed a web browser such as
Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator on your computer.1 To view the
online help, click the Help button in the Navigator (shown at left) or select
CAMEO Help from the Help menu. Your web browser will start up and display the table of contents for the online help. Click on any topic title to read
about that topic. Whenever you want to return to the table of contents, click
1. If you’re running CAMEO in Classic Mode in OS X on a Macintosh, to avoid problems
accessing Help, be sure to run your web browser in Classic Mode as well, not in OSX.
30
Getting Started
ALOHA and MARPLOT
the TOC button in the upper right corner of the Help window. If you would
rather look up a topic in the help index, click the Index button.
Things to ignore
There are some items in CAMEO’s windows that you won’t need to use
directly to perform your work with CAMEO. However, these items are
needed in order for CAMEO to function normally. Just ignore the following
items—but please don’t try to remove them:
• the Scripts menu.
• the button just above the book icon in the upper left corner of CAMEO’s
windows (shown at left).
• the Window menu. This menu lists the file names of open modules,
along with the names of support files that CAMEO needs in order to
operate normally, but that you won’t ever need to work with directly.
Rather than using the Window menu when you need to navigate to a
module, use the Navigator, select Open from the File menu, or select
Show Related from the Record menu.
• in Windows, the minimized window buttons that appear along the bottom of your screen. CAMEO needs to keep certain files open in order to
complete its operations.
ALOHA and MARPLOT
ALOHA and MARPLOT aren’t modules, but are programs included in
CAMEO (you also can use either of them separately from CAMEO). To use
them in CAMEO, you use the Sharing menu, which you’ll find in the menu
bar of all CAMEO components (all the modules, as well as ALOHA and
MARPLOT).
Getting Started
31
Getting Started
ALOHA
You use the Areal Locations of
Hazardous Atmospheres
(ALOHA) air dispersion model to
estimate airborne pollutant concentrations downwind from the
source of a spill. Once you enter a
description of an accidental chemical release into the model,
ALOHA displays a “footprint”
diagram, like the one at right, representing the area at risk, as well
as graphs of indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations for locations that
you specify. ALOHA footprints can be plotted on electronic maps.
MARPLOT
Use the Mapping Application for
Response, PLanning, and Operational Tasks (MARPLOT) to display
and edit electronic maps (like the
one at right).
You can link CAMEO records for
facilities, special locations, transport routes, and other items of interest to symbols representing those
locations on maps in MARPLOT .
You also can plot Screening & Scenarios threat zones and ALOHA footprints on a map of your community.
32
Getting Started
A CAMEO guided tour
A CAMEO guided tour
Take this tour of a planning and response scenario for Prince William
County, Virginia, to learn how to use CAMEO along with MARPLOT to
complete common emergency planning and response tasks.2 We’ve entered
sample data into CAMEO for the purpose of this tour. When you’ve finished the tour, you can delete the sample data (we’ll explain how to do this
at the end of the tour).
Preparing for the tour
To complete the tour, you must already have installed CAMEO and MARPLOT. If you haven’t already done that,
• follow the instructions in Chapter 2, beginning on page 13, to install
CAMEO on your computer.
• follow the installation instructions in the MARPLOT manual (download
it from www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/marplot.htm) to install MARPLOT.
Note to users of LandView 5 or the LandView 5 demo: If you have installed
LandView or the LandView demo on your computer, you also have MARPLOT (which is a component of LandView). Do not install a second copy
of MARPLOT.
You also need two MARPLOT maps, which are automatically installed
when you install CAMEO and MARPLOT:
• a map of Prince William County, Virginia. This map is installed when
you install MARPLOT. (If you have installed the LandView 5 Demo,
you'll find the Prince William County map on your hard drive. If you
have purchased a copy of LandView 5 on a CD or DVD, and don’t have
the map, you can download a copy from www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/
marmaps: click Virginia, then click Prince William.)
2. This tour does not cover ALOHA. To learn to use ALOHA, take the guided tour in Chapter 3, “Learning the Basics,” of the ALOHA user’s manual (download it from
www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/aloha.htm).
Getting Started
33
Getting Started
• the CAMEO Map (when you install the CAMEO modules, this map is
installed into the “CAMEOMAP” folder inside the “CAMEO” folder).3
A potential chemical hazard
Imagine that you are a member of the Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) for Prince William County.4 At the committee’s most recent
meeting, you were asked to complete two projects:
• evaluate the potential hazard to the county posed by the Green Valley
Water Facility. You’ll use the hazards analysis procedures outlined in the
guidebook, Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis (see “Bibliography” on page 276 to find out how to obtain a copy).
• update the records describing this facility in CAMEO.
At its site in Prince William County, the Green Valley Water Facility stores
and uses chlorine in amounts exceeding the Threshold Planning Quantity
(TPQ) of 100 pounds (Figure 6). Chlorine is a designated Extremely Hazardous Substance (EHS) that’s frequently shipped to the facility along
James Madison Highway, a major route that passes through populated areas
within the county. Because the facility stores an EHS in quantities greater
than the TPQ, some of the requirements of EPCRA, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, come into play. In particular,
• the facility’s operator must submit a chemical inventory report (called a
Tier II form) annually to state and local emergency planning authorities
and the fire department.
3. If you’ve just updated from the previous (FoxPro) version of CAMEO for Windows,
check “Transferring your CAMEO Map” on page 203 to learn what to do with your existing CAMEO Map so that it will work with your new copy of CAMEO. Note that your
existing map may not contain the sample map symbols for the Green Valley Water Facility and the Central Elementary School used in this tour; however, this is the only problem
you should encounter. You can create the two symbol objects if you’d like (check your
MARPLOT manual to learn how to create symbols).
4. An LEPC’s role is to design, then regularly review and update a comprehensive emergency plan for a particular local emergency planning district. See “Section 301-303:
emergency planning” on page 268.
34
Getting Started
A CAMEO guided tour
• the LEPC must evaluate the potential hazard posed by the facility, as part
of its emergency response planning work.
FIGURE 6. The chlorine storage room in the Green Valley Water
Facility.
To begin your analysis,
• you obtained the facility’s most recent Tier II chemical inventory form,
indicating the amounts, locations, and storage conditions for the chlorine
stored at the facility (for more on Tier II reporting, see “Sections 311 and
312: community right-to-know requirements” on page 270).
• you talked with the facility’s senior manager, Ms. Angela Wong, to
familiarize yourself with daily operations at the plant.
Getting Started
35
Getting Started
Starting CAMEO
Begin the Guided Tour by starting CAMEO:
Navigator.CAM
• in Windows, in the Start menu, point to Programs, then CAMEOfm, then
CAMEO. CAMEO will start up, and the Navigator window will be displayed.
• on a Macintosh, open the CAMEO folder and double-click on
CAMEOfm to display the Navigator window.
The Navigator (shown at left) is the starting point for common CAMEO
tasks.
Assessing chlorine’s hazards
The first step in your assessment is to familiarize yourself with the hazards
posed by chlorine. The Chemical Library contains information about chlorine in a record for that chemical, so you’ll search the library for this record.
You can search the Chemical Library for many kinds of information about a
given substance: its chemical name (including trade names or synonyms),
formula, United Nations accession number, Chemical Abstract Service registry number, labeling requirements, or other identifying attributes.
To search the Chemical Library for the record for chlorine:
1. In the Navigator, click
. (If the Navigator
isn’t visible, from the File menu, choose Show Navigator.)
36
Getting Started
A CAMEO guided tour
2. In the Chemical Name box, type “chlorine” and then press Search (as
shown below).
CAMEO finds all the records in the Chemical Library for substances that
have “chlorine” in their name or in a name synonym. It displays an
alphabetical list of those records.
Tip: This particular search will work whether you choose to search for a
name that contains the characters “chlorine” or a name that contains a
word starting with those characters. (Searches for a word starting with
certain characters will typically find fewer records.)
Note: This list of records is an example of a found set. A found set is
created in a CAMEO module when you search that module. It includes
all the records meeting the criteria of your search (in this case, your criterion was “has ‘chlorine’ in the name or synonym”). While there’s a
found set in place within a module, you can see just those records. To see
all the records, you need to clear the found set by selecting either Clear
Search from the Search menu or Show All Records from the Record
menu.
3. Find and double-click “CHLORINE” in the list.
You’re now viewing the record for chlorine (shown below). It contains
information about chlorine under two main tabs:
Getting Started
37
Getting Started
Chemical Identification Information—this section contains (a) information used to identify the chemical and (b) regulatory information.
Response Information Data Sheets (RIDS)—the RIDS section contains emergency response recommendations and information for
responders and planners.
4. Under the Chemical Identification Information tab, click the smaller tabs
to review five kinds of identification and regulatory information about
chlorine:
Chemical Identification: common ID numbers, labels, and codes for
chlorine, as well as its formula.
Synonyms: common name synonyms for chlorine, in English and other
languages.
NFPA Codes: codes representing the hazards posed by chlorine (0 indicates little or no hazard; 4 indicates highest hazard).
Regulatory Information: designations and thresholds established for
chlorine under Federal laws.
Screening and Scenarios: information used for hazards analysis under
the Technical Guidance.
38
Getting Started
A CAMEO guided tour
5. Click the Response Information Data Sheets tab, then click the smaller
tabs in that section to see information about each of 10 emergency
response-related topics.
Each piece of information in RIDS is notated to indicate its source.
These notations appear as abbreviations in parentheses (check “Sources
of CAMEO’s chemical data” on page 100 to see more information about
each source).
In the example below, the general description of chlorine is from the
Association of American Railroads (AAR).
As you review the RIDS information about chlorine, consider the following questions, and note where you would check to find the kinds of
information you would need quickly during a response:
What are the main hazards of chlorine? Could it become an airborne
toxic gas hazard? Is it flammable? Is it reactive?
Getting information about a facility
You can keep a record in the Facilities module for each facility that reports
Tier II chemical inventory information to the LEPC. You then can crossreference any facility record to
• a symbol representing its location on a MARPLOT map.
Getting Started
39
Getting Started
• records in the Chemicals in Inventory, Contacts, Screening & Scenarios,
and Incidents modules, where you can maintain various kinds of information about facilities, including their chemical inventories, emergency
contacts, hazards analysis results, and details of past incidents at given
facilities.
You can search the Facilities module just as you searched the Chemical
Library. The Green Valley Water Facility is in the town of Haymarket. To
open the Facilities module and search for all the facilities in the town of
Haymarket:
1. From the File menu, select Open, then Facilities. The module will open
in List View (in List View, the names of all the records are shown in a
list).
2. From the Search menu, select Start Search.
3. Type “haymarket” in the City box, then click Search, as shown below (it
doesn’t matter whether you type letters in upper or lower-case).
40
Getting Started
A CAMEO guided tour
You’ll see a list of the three facilities located in Haymarket, including the
Green Valley Water Facility. You’ll work with the record for this facility.
4. In the list, double-click “Green Valley Water Facility (DEMO)” to open
this record in Record View. In Record View, you can view the entire
record and all the information in it.
5. Click the tabs on the record to review the information about this facility.
Check Table 1 on page 114 if you’d like to see definitions of all the
kinds of information on a Facilities record. Later, you’ll navigate to
related records in the Chemicals in Inventory and Contact modules to
look more closely at the chemical inventory and contacts information for
this facility.
6. From the File menu, select Make Report. You’re about to create a printable report describing this facility.
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Getting Started
7. Click the Current Record button if it isn’t already selected.
8. Either (a) click Select All to include all the information from the record
in the print report, or (b) click the box for each of the kinds of information you would like to include in the report.
9. Click Make Report. You’ll see a view of the printable report.
10. Click Print. The Print Setup window will be displayed. Adjust any set-
tings you’d like to change.
11. Click OK to display the Print window. Adjust any settings you’d like to
change, then click OK to print the report. The report will be printed, and
the view of the printable report will be displayed again.
12. Click Cancel to return to the Report setup window, then click Cancel
again to return to the Facilities record for the Green Valley Water Facility.
Adding emergency contact information
This facility record does not include any emergency contact information, so
you’ll add information about Angela Wong, the senior plant manager at the
Green Valley Water Facility. To add that information, you’ll need to enter
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A CAMEO guided tour
Edit Mode, in which you can make changes to the record. Right now,
you’re in Browse Mode: you can view records, but cannot change the information that you see.
Follow these steps to add the information about Ms. Wong:
1. Click the Contacts tab.
2. Click the Edit button in the toolbar.
3. Click Add Contact.
You’ll see a list of contacts in CAMEO, but the list doesn’t yet include a
record for Ms. Wong.
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Getting Started
4. Click Add New.
5. On the new, blank record, type the following information about Angela
Wong:
(1) click in the “First Name” box, then type “Angela.”
(2) press TAB to move your cursor to the “Last Name” box, then type
“Wong (DEMO).”
(3) press TAB again to move to the “Organization” box, then type “Green
Valley Water Facility.”
(4) TAB to the “Title” box, then type “Senior Plant Manager.” Next, press
TAB to drop down the first Contact Type menu, then choose “Corporate
Emergency Contact” from the menu.
6. Fill out the items under the Address tab as follows (press TAB to move
between boxes):
a. Type “U.S. Highway 15” in the top street address box.
b. Type “Haymarket” in the City box.
c. Select “VA” from the State menu.
d. Type “87530” in the Zip box.
e. Type “Prince William” in the County box.
f. Type “Haymarket” in the Fire District box.
g. Type “[email protected]” in the Email box.
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A CAMEO guided tour
7. Click the Phones tab, then click in the top Type box to drop down a
menu of phone types. From the menu, select Work.
a. In the next box, type “703-232-5667.”
b. Press TAB twice to drop down the next Type menu, select Emergency
from the menu, then type “703-232-7556” in the next box.
The new Contacts record displayed on your screen should look like the
one below.
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Getting Started
8. Press Save Changes. You’ll see the list of contacts for the water facility,
which now includes Ms. Wong.
9. Press Save Changes again to save the new record.
Reviewing the facility’s chemical inventory
CAMEO’s Chemicals in Inventory module is one of several modules in
which records related to facilities can be kept. In the Chemicals in Inventory
module, you can keep records on the hazardous substances stored or used at
facilities, or transported along routes in your community. From a Facilities
record for a facility, you can quickly jump to the Chemicals in Inventory
records for chemicals in that facility.
Under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
(EPCRA) of 1986, Tier II forms must be submitted each year by operators
of facilities that maintain certain hazardous materials in more than minimum threshold amounts. On a Tier II form, the facility provides information
about its inventory of hazardous materials (e.g., storage locations and
amounts). Tier II forms are submitted to each state’s State Emergency
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A CAMEO guided tour
Response Commission (SERC). Many SERCs then share the Tier II data
with county- and local-level response and planning organizations, such as
fire departments and LEPCs.
You can keep Tier II information in CAMEO’s Chemicals in Inventory
module. A Chemicals in Inventory record is similar to the actual Tier II
form, with some exceptions. In particular, you can describe only one chemical or mixture on each Chemicals in Inventory record.
Now, you’ll take a closer look at the chemical inventory information for
Green Valley Water Facility:
1. Click the Chemical Inventory tab on the Facilities record for Green Val-
ley Water Facility. You’ll see a space where stored chemicals are listed.
Just chlorine is listed on the Water Facility’s record, because it’s the only
hazardous substance stored at the facility.
When you see the name of a substance in the Chemical Inventory list on
a facility’s record, that means there’s a corresponding record in the
Chemicals in Inventory module.
2. Click the RIDS button to the right of “Chlorine” in the list. The
Response Information Data Sheet section of chlorine’s Chemical Library
record is displayed. This is the same set of response recommendations
you reviewed earlier. As you can see, clicking the RIDS button for a substance in a facility’s inventory is a quick way to access the response recommendations for that substance.
3. From the File menu, select Close. The Green Valley Water Facility
record is visible again.
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Getting Started
4. Double-click on the name “chlorine” (or on its CAS number). The
Chemicals in Inventory record for chlorine at Green Valley Water Facility should open (as shown below).
5. Click the tabs on this record to review the information it contains about
the storage amounts, storage locations, and hazards of chlorine at the
water facility. Refer to Table 3 on page 132 to see explanations of all the
information items on the record.
Viewing the site plan
You can store facility site plans in CAMEO along with other information
about facilities. To see the site plan for the Green Valley Water Facility,
1. From the Record menu in the Chemicals in Inventory record, select
Show Related, then Facility/Route. The Facility record for Green Valley
Water Facility will be displayed.
Note: Use Show Related when you need to quickly navigate among
related records in different modules.
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A CAMEO guided tour
2. Click the Site Plan tab. You’ll see a list of the two site plans for this facil-
ity.
3. Double-click grenval1.jpg. The site plan will be displayed (as below).
4. Click Back to return to the Facilities record.
5. Double-click grenval2.jpg, to see a plan of the chlorination building,
then Back to return to the record.
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You can create site plans like these in any graphics program, save them in
common graphic file formats, and then include them with your Facilities
records (see “Adding and editing site plans” on page 121).
Working with a map
MARPLOT is the electronic mapping program included in CAMEO. In this
section of the tour, you’ll learn how to display a map in MARPLOT, search
for a particular location on a map, and link symbols on a map to records in
CAMEO modules.
First, you’ll open the map of Prince William County in MARPLOT, and
then find and view the location of the Green Valley Water Facility:
1. To start MARPLOT, from CAMEO’s Sharing menu, select MARPLOT,
then select Go to MARPLOT.
MARPLOT will start up and be displayed. You might first be asked to
locate MARPLOT:
• Unless you have LandView installed, navigate through the files on
your hard drive to locate the MARPLOT folder (its default location in
Windows is C:/MARPLOT). Open the folder and select the “MARPLOT.EXE” file (in Windows) or the “MARPLOT” file (on a Macintosh) inside the MARPLOT folder.
• If you have LandView installed, locate the LandView folder (its
default location in Windows is C:/LV5). Open the folder, then select
the “MARPLOT.EXE” file.
2. MARPLOT displays a greeting window. Click OK (in Windows), or just
click within the window (on a Macintosh). A map showing Prince William County is then displayed, as shown below. (If you’ve used this map
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A CAMEO guided tour
before, the view you see may differ from the view below; the difference
will not cause problems.)
Next, you need to set up and run a search for the water facility, which is represented on the map by a symbol. In MARPLOT, you can search for roads,
intersections, street address ranges, symbols that represent facilities or other
locations, geographical features, and other kinds of map objects. The Green
Valley Water Facility is located near the intersection of Loudoun Drive and
James Madison Highway (also called U.S. Highway 15). Here’s one way to
search for this location:
3. To begin your search, choose Search from the List menu.
4. To set up the search,
a. Under the “Search for objects:” heading, be sure that “with names
that start with...” is selected in the search types menu.
b. In the box to the right of this menu, type in “Loudoun.”
c. Be sure that Individual Layer is selected in the “Layer(s) to search”
menu.
d. Immediately below, select Roads from the menu of layers.
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e. Be sure that Maps in view is selected in the “Map(s) to search:” menu.
f. When your search criteria look like those shown below, click Search.
Both “Loudoun Ave” and “Loudoun Dr” appear in the list of found
items.
5. Click just once on “Loudoun Dr” to select it, then click Intersections (as
shown below). MARPLOT will search for all intersections along Loudoun Drive.
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A CAMEO guided tour
There are seven intersections along Loudoun Drive; the Green Valley
Water Facility is located near the intersection with James Madison Highway (U.S. Highway 15).
6. Click just once on “James Madison Highway” to select it, then click
Show on Map & Zoom. (if you’re using an older version of the map,
click “U.S. Highway 15”).
You’ll see a view of the area around the intersection on your map (shown
below; names may not appear in your view). The intersection is in the
center of the view. To its left, you’ll see a symbol object, representing the
Green Valley Water Facility.
7. To give this view a name and save it, so that you can easily return to it
later, choose Save Current View... from the View menu.
8. In the “Save Current View” dialog box, type “View of Green Valley
Water Facility” and then click OK.
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Getting Started
Later, whenever you want to return to this or any other saved view, you
would select Go to View from the View menu, select the name of the
view (e.g., View of Green Valley Water Facility) from the list of saved
views, then click Go to View.
Next, you’ll link the Green Valley Water Facility symbol to the Green Valley Water Facility’s record in the Facilities module:
9. To create a link, first check to be sure that the arrow tool is selected in
MARPLOT’s tool palette, as it is in the example at left. If this tool is not
selected, click on it once.
10. Next, click on the symbol for the Green Valley Water Facility, to select
it.
When you select an object, you can see four small boxes around the
object, indicating that it is selected (as at left). MARPLOT displays
some basic information about the object along the lower map margin.
Also, the Focus Point, a small, flashing, target-shaped icon that marks
the most recent point of interest on the map, moves to the point of your
click.
11. While the symbol is still selected (is still surrounded by the four boxes),
from MARPLOT’s Sharing menu, select CAMEOfm, then Link Object.
You’ll be taken back to the Green Valley Water Facility’s record in the
Facilities module (if not, find and open that record).
12. While that record is visible, from the Link menu, select Link this
Record (as shown below).
Once you have created a link between a symbol and record, you can easily
move back and forth between them:
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13. To go from the Green Valley Water Facility record to the map symbol,
from the Sharing menu, select MARPLOT, then Show on Map.
You’ll be taken to MARPLOT. The Green Valley Water Facility symbol
will be selected, and the Focus Point will appear centered on the symbol.
Tip: If the map is more zoomed-in that you’d like, click the zoom-out
button in MARPLOT’s toolbar (shown at left), then click several times
on the water facility’s symbol.
When you select a linked symbol on a map, you can also quickly go to the
CAMEO record to which it is linked:
14. While the symbol remains selected, from MARPLOT’s Sharing menu,
select CAMEOfm, then Get Info. (If the symbol has become unselected,
click on the arrow tool button, then click in the symbol to reselect it.)
You’re taken back to the Green Valley Water Facility record in
CAMEO’s Facilities module.
Working with Screening and Scenarios
Next, you’ll try out using the Screening & Scenarios module to perform the
hazards analyses explained in the Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis (see “Bibliography” on page 276).
In a hazards analysis, you estimate the size of the area around a facility or
other potential spill site that could be affected by the accidental release of a
chemical of concern. That area is called the threat zone. You can use
MARPLOT to display threat zones on an electronic map of your community. Once you have an estimate of the radius of the threat zone, you can
plot the zone on a map in MARPLOT. You can choose to estimate the size
of the threat zone around a facility or along a transportation route either by:
• using EPA’s “credible worst case” assumptions to obtain a worst-case
threat zone estimate (a screening estimate).
• entering weather conditions and other information that you believe to be
more typical of the region and facility (a scenario estimate).
Now, you’ll review the results of a screening for the Green Valley Water
Facility:
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1. Return to CAMEO if you’re still working in MARPLOT. The Facilities
record for the Green Valley Water Facility should be visible on your
screen.
2. Click the Chemical Inventory tab. You’ll see that chlorine is the only
chemical included in this facility’s inventory.
3. From the Record menu, select Show Related, then Screening and Scenario Records. Use Show Related whenever you want to see records in
other CAMEO modules that are related to the record you’re working
with.
The Screening & Scenarios module will open in List View. You’ll see the
names of two records: “Screening” and “Scenario #1.”
4. Double-click on the “Screening” record in the list to open it in Record
View.
This record shows the results of a “credible worst-case” screening calculation for chlorine at the Green Valley Water Facility, made according to
the procedures described in the Technical Guidance. In a worst-case
screening, the entire contents of one of the facility’s chlorine tanks are
assumed to escape into the atmosphere over 10 minutes, forming a gas
cloud that would drift away from the plant in whatever direction the
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A CAMEO guided tour
wind is blowing. A worst-case screening assumes a low wind speed,
very little atmospheric turbulence to dilute the chlorine cloud, and a conservative estimate of the concentration of chlorine that might cause
adverse health effects in people.
In the Threat Zone Radius box, you’ll see the estimate of the threat zone
radius. You’ll see that under these worst-case conditions, the threat zone
—the area potentially at risk—is predicted to extend more than 10 miles
downwind. Depending on the wind direction, chlorine concentrations
within the zone could reach or exceed the level of concern shown on the
Screening & Scenarios record. Check the Technical Guidance or review
“Using Screening & Scenarios to assess hazards” on page 137 to learn
more about making screening calculations.
5. Click the right arrow button in the upper right corner of the “Screening”
record (shown at left), to view the next record in the module. This record
shows the threat zone estimate for a more likely scenario.
The highest-risk operation at the plant is the changing of chlorine tanks,
done only during daytime hours. This record shows the results of a hazards analysis calculation for a release of chlorine through the valve of a
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single 1-ton chlorine cylinder, which is sheared off while the cylinder is
being transferred by forklift from a transport vehicle to the facility.
In this scenario, the amount released is the same as before—the contents
of one tank—but the chlorine is expected to escape over 30 minutes
rather than 10 minutes. Local meteorologists were able to provide a
description of the most common weather conditions observed at Haymarket: instead of “worst case” weather conditions, wind speed is higher
and the atmosphere is more turbulent (so that air is more quickly mixed
into the chlorine cloud, diluting it to below hazardous concentrations).
This time, the threat zone is predicted to extend only 0.8 miles from the
accident site.
Working with a threat zone on a map
To plot this threat zone on the map,
1. click Show on Map. MARPLOT will come forward, and the zone will
automatically be plotted on the map, centered on the Green Valley Water
Facility symbol.
2. However, at the current map scale, it’s not possible to see the entire
threat zone at once. To adjust the map scale, choose Set Scale from
MARPLOT’s View menu.
3. In the “Set Scale” dialog box, next to the “1 in =” heading, type “0.50” to
change the map scale to 1 inch = 0.5 mile (as below). (Your “Current
Window Width” might not match the value shown in the diagram.)
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4. Click OK. You’ll see the entire threat zone on your screen (as shown
below).
Once you’ve plotted a threat zone on a map, you can check to see
whether any symbol objects representing especially vulnerable populations, such as schools or hospitals, are within the threat zone.
Tip: You can use the same procedure to check for special locations
within an ALOHA footprint that you have plotted on a map. See “Checking for special locations within a footprint or threat zone” on page 160.
To check for special locations in the threat zone,
1. While the threat zone object is still selected, select Search from the List
menu. (If it has become unselected, click on the zone’s outer boundary to
reselect it, then select Search.)
2. To set up the search,
a. Under the “Search for objects:” heading, select are inside of or
touched by... from the menu of object types.
b. Check to be sure that the currently selected object(s) is selected in
the next menu.
c. Under the “Layer(s) to search:” heading, choose Multiple layers...
from the popup menu.
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d. In the list of layers, click on the “CAMEO Hospitals” and “CAMEO
Schools” layers to place checkmarks next to the names of those layers
(the checkmarks indicate that MARPLOT will search these layers).
e. Click the names of any other layers that have checkmarks next to
them, to remove the checkmarks (MARPLOT will then not search
these layers).
When your search criteria look like the ones below, click Search.
3. The symbol object representing Central Elementary School is inside the
threat zone, so it appears in the search collection. While its name is highlighted, click Show on Map.
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Once the map is redrawn, the symbol for Central Elementary will be
selected, and the Focus Point will be centered on it (as below).
Note: If more than one school and or hospital symbol was within the
threat zone, you could click Show All on Map to see all the symbols
selected on the map.
4. While the symbol is still selected, from MARPLOT’s Sharing menu,
select CAMEOfm, then Get Info. (If the symbol becomes unselected,
click on it to reselect it.)
This symbol was previously linked to a record describing the school in
CAMEO’s Special Locations module. This record will be displayed on
your screen. (If more than one linked symbol had been selected, the
records linked to all those symbols would be shown to you in a list.)
You can use the Special Locations module to keep information describing
vulnerable locations in your community, including emergency phone numbers you could use to quickly contact the location during the response to an
incident.
In a real emergency, you might need to call a contact person at the Central
Elementary School. In CAMEO, there are two ways to quickly find an
emergency phone number for the school, as follows.
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1. First, click the Phones tab to see the emergency phone number for Cen-
tral Elementary School (shown below).
Tip: In an emergency, you can quickly print out a list of phone numbers
for one or more special locations to hand to a dispatcher. To do this, from
the File menu, you would select Make Report. You then would click the
Phones checkbox and the checkboxes for any other items you’d like
included, then Make Report, then Print.
2. Second, from the Record menu, select Show Related, then Contact
Records. A list of the Contacts records for the school, containing just one
name, will be displayed. Double-click that name (or click the Record
button in the toolbar) to open the Contacts record for Brenda Stephens,
the Central Elementary School Principal. Click the Phones tab to see her
telephone number (as below).
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A CAMEO guided tour
Making an advanced search
Having evaluated the hazard posed by the Green Valley Water Facility,
you’ll next check to see which other facilities in Haymarket store or use
chlorine. To find that out, you’ll run an advanced search of the Facilities
module.
1. From the File menu, select Open, then Facilities. Note that you can open
any CAMEO module via the Open command.
2. From the Search menu, select Start Search, then click Go to Advanced
Search (as shown below).
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3. Click Select Field (as shown below).
In the next steps, you’ll indicate
a. which module you want to search—you’re offered a choice whenever
you’re searching for facility records because information about facilities is stored in more than one module in CAMEO.
b. which data field you want to search, within that module.
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4. Make sure the Facilities button is highlighted, then, in the list of data
fields, click City to select that data field. Click Select (as shown below).
5. The Advanced Search window is displayed again; leave contains char-
acters selected in the popup menu of search types, then type “Haymarket” in the text box to the right of the menu.
6. Click Add a Choice. You need to add a second choice because you’re
searching for two criteria: facilities that (1) are located in Haymarket
and (2) have chlorine in their inventories.
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Getting Started
7. Click the Select Field button just above the lower, blank box (as shown
below).
8. In the left-hand list, click the Chemicals in Inventory button.
9. In the list of data fields, click Chemical Name, then click Select (as
shown below) to return to the Advanced Search window.
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10. Leave the lower menu set to contains characters, and to its right, type
“Chlorine” in the empty text box.
11. Click the Search for all of the following button (it’s in the upper left
part of the window).
12. When your Advanced Search window looks like the one below, click
Search.
You’ll see that two facilities located in Haymarket store or process chlorine: M & S Chemicals and the Green Valley Water Facility.
Note: Whether you click Search for any of the following (OR search) or
Search for all of the following (AND search) when you set up a search for
two or more criteria makes a big difference. When you click “Search for all
of the following (AND search),” you’re setting up a search for all facilities
that are located in the town of Haymarket and that also maintain chlorine on
site. When you click “Search for any of the following (OR search),” you’re
setting up a search for all facilities that are located in the town of Haymarket or that maintain chlorine on site. If you select Start Search from the
Search menu again, type the same search criteria again, then click “Search
for any of the following (OR search),” then click Search, you’ll discover
that the search collection contains three records instead of two: Adams
Petroleum Refinery now is included in the list because it meets one of your
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criteria—it’s located in Haymarket. But it doesn’t meet the other criterion: it
doesn’t include chlorine in its inventory.
Predicting chemical reactivity
Not only are you a member of Prince William County’s LEPC; you’re also a
member of Haymarket’s volunteer fire department. In that role, you receive
a call to head out along James Madison Highway to the scene of a new incident:
A train has collided with a truck at an intersection in the industrial section
of Haymarket. A tankcar and a flatbed car filled with containers have
derailed. Now the tankcar is lying in a ditch alongside the tracks, surrounded by some containers that have broken loose from the flatbed car
(Figure 7).
• The tankcar is labeled “hydrogen fluoride.”
• the UN/NA number shown on all the containers is 1806.
You want to know: What problems could occur if these chemicals were to
accidentally mix together when crews right the tankcar and collect the containers?
You can use CAMEO to answer this question. You'll “mix” the two chemicals by finding their Chemical Library records and then adding both chemicals to the Reactivity Worksheet. CAMEO will then predict the mixture's
potential reactivity.
Working the problem. First, you'll need to search the Chemical Library
for the two chemicals you want to add:
1. Click the Navigator button in the toolbar, then click Search for a Chemi-
cal.
2. Type “hydrogen fluoride” in the Chemical Name box, then press Search
(searching for either a name that “contains characters” or a “word starting with” hydrogen fluoride will work).
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FIGURE 7. Schematic overhead view of the accident scene.
In the list of found records, you should find “HYDROGEN FLUORIDE,
ANHYDROUS.” If it’s not there, repeat your search, this time checking
your spelling carefully: in “fluoride,” “u” comes before “o.”
3. In the list, double-click on HYDROGEN FLUORIDE, ANHYDROUS
to open that record, then click the Response Information Data Sheets tab.
4. Check the reactivity characteristics of hydrogen fluoride as follows:
a. Click the Reactive Hazards tab to see the especially acute hazards of
hydrogen fluoride. You’ll see that hydrogen fluoride is both waterand air-reactive.
b. Click the Reactivity tab to learn more about its reactions with air and/
or water and to view its Chemical Profile to review more details
about the reactivity of hydrogen fluoride.
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5. From the Record menu, select Add to Reactivity Worksheet (as at left).
6. When asked whether you want to view the Reactivity Worksheet, click
Later (as shown below).
7. Perform a search for chemicals with the UN/NA number of 1806: from
the Search menu, select Start Search; type “1806” in the UN/NA Number box, then press Search (searching for either a word that “contains
characters” or a “word starting with” 1806 will work).5
8. You'll find just one chemical, PHOSPHORUS PENTACHLORIDE.
Double-click on PHOSPHORUS PENTACHLORIDE to open the record
for this chemical. Again, click the Response Information Data Sheets
tab, then click the Reactive Hazards and Reactivity tabs to check its
characteristics, and then select Add to Reactivity Worksheet from the
Record menu. This time, when asked whether you want to view the
Reactivity Worksheet, click Yes.
Note: In many cases, more than one chemical have the same UN/NA
number. In such cases, you’ll need more information before you can be
sure of the identity of a given chemical. Even when you find just one
chemical, as in this case, carefully review the information in the
Response Information Data Sheets to verify that you’ve correctly identified the chemical at hand. In particular, check the General Description.
(It says that phosphorus pentachloride is a “greenish-yellow crystalline
solid with an irritating odor.”) If that description doesn’t fit the chemical
you find on scene, check for more information to help you be sure of its
identity.
9. Check the Reactivity Worksheet to see statements about the mixture's
potential reactivity (shown below):
5. To CAMEO, a “word” includes a series of letters or numbers, so an identification number
is a “word.”
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These statements tell you that the response team would need to be prepared for a possible explosion and release of a toxic gas if these two
chemicals were to accidentally mix. The toxic gas that would be
liberated in this reaction would be hydrogen chloride, but CAMEO
doesn't report this.
10. When you’ve finished reviewing the worksheet, click Done/Close Win-
dow.
Finishing up and moving on
You can choose either to keep the sample records, map symbols, and map
used in this Guided Tour, or to delete them. Keeping them will not interfere
with your other uses of CAMEO.
To delete the sample records, symbols, and map, follow the steps below.
To delete the sample records:
1. Click the Navigator button in the toolbar, then click the Facilities button.
Click the List button in the toolbar if you’re not in List view.
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2. From the Search menu, select Clear Search. This module still displays
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
just the found set of records that match your most recent search; clearing
the search allows you to access and work with all the records.
From the Record menu, select Delete All Records. The five sample
records in this module are deleted, along with all records related to the
deleted facilities in the Chemicals in Inventory, Screening & Scenarios,
and Contacts modules.
Important: Select Delete All Records in this and other modules only if
you have not yet entered any other data into the module that you’d like
to keep. If you have entered data, select each sample record (all have
“DEMO” in their names), then select Delete Facility from the Record
menu.
Click the Navigator button in the toolbar, then click the Contacts button.
From the Record menu, select Delete All Records to delete the sample
records in this module (or, if you have entered data you want to keep,
select each sample record, then select Delete Contact from the Record
menu).
Click the Navigator button in the toolbar, then click the Special Locations button.
From the Record menu, select Delete Special Location to delete the single sample record in this module.
Click the Navigator button in the toolbar, then click the Routes button.
From the Record menu, select Delete Route to delete the single sample
record in this module.
To delete the sample map symbols and map: Follow these steps to
delete the sample map symbols (which are located on your CAMEO Map)
and the sample Prince William County map from your hard drive.
1. Click the Navigator button in CAMEO’s toolbar, then click the MAR-
PLOT button to go to MARPLOT.
2. From MARPLOT’s List menu, select Layer List.
3. Click the lock icons next to CAMEO Facilities, CAMEO Hospitals, and
CAMEO Schools to unlock these layers (when clicked, the icons change
72
Getting Started
A CAMEO guided tour
to look like unlocked padlocks). The layer list should look like the one
below. Click OK.
4. From the List menu, select Search.
5. Under “Search for objects,” select “with names that contain.” In the text
box to the right, type “DEMO”.
6. Under “Layers to search,” select Multiple Layers.
7. Click on “CAMEO Facilities,” “CAMEO Hospitals,” and “CAMEO
Schools” to place checkmarks next to these layers. Click on any other
Getting Started
73
Getting Started
layers that are checked, to uncheck them. When you’ve finished, your
search criteria should look like the ones below.
8. Click Search. The eight sample symbols should appear in the search col-
lection (as shown below).
74
Getting Started
A CAMEO guided tour
9. Click Show All on Map. All six symbols will appear selected on the
map.
10. From the Edit menu, select Clear (as at left). The sample objects are
deleted from your CAMEO map.
11. Quit (Exit) from MARPLOT.
12. On your hard drive, find and open the “MARPLOT” folder.
13. Move the PWC_MAP folder to the Recycle Bin (in Windows) or Trash
(on a Macintosh).
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75
Getting Started
76
Getting Started
CHAPTER 4
Working with
Chemical
Records
In this chapter, you’ll find explanations of how to search for information
about chemicals in the Chemical Library and how to predict the potential
reactivity between chemicals, along with an explanation of the information
about chemicals included in the Library.
The Chemical Library
The Chemical Library module contains more than 6,000 records. Each
record describes a substance or mixture of substances, including its chemical name, trade names and other synonyms, identification numbers, regulatory information, and labeling conventions. For emergency responders and
planners, the most important part of each chemical record is the Response
Information Data Sheet (RIDS), which contains a general description of
the chemical, its physical properties, fire and health hazards, and recommendations for fire fighting and non-fire response, first aid, and protective
clothing for response. RIDS information was compiled from a variety of
source documents and databases (see “Sources of CAMEO’s chemical
data” on page 100).
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77
Working with Chemical Records
Searching for a Chemical Record
To view information about a chemical of concern, you first find the Chemical Library record describing that chemical. You can make either a basic
search or a more advanced search for a record.
Making a basic search for a chemical record
Make a basic search when you just need to look up a chemical by its name,
CHRIS code, UN number, CAS number, or other straightforward piece of
identifying information. Here’s how:
1. Begin the search in either of two ways:
a. While you’re working in the Chemical Library, from the Search menu,
select Start Search (as at left).
b. In the Navigator, click
. (To access the
Navigator, click the Navigator toolbar button or, from the File menu,
select Show Navigator.)
2. In the Basic Search dialog, fill out the information you have about the
chemical you’re looking for. Check Table 1 on page 80 to see explanations of all the choices in the dialog.
If you fill in two or more criteria, CAMEO will search for chemicals that
match all criteria. For example, if you type “slimicide” in the chemical
name box and select “poison” from the DOT Label pull-down menu (as
shown in Figure 1), the record for “ACROLEIN, INHIBITED” will be
found. Although two other chemicals also share the synonym “slimicide,” and almost 900 other CAMEO chemicals also are placarded as
“poison” when they are transported, only acrolein meets both criteria.
3. If you’ve typed text into a box (e.g., if you type “slimicide” in the chemical name box), then click the button for either
• Contains characters—to search for part of a word, phrase, code, or
number.
• Contains word starting with—to search either for the first part of or
for an entire word, phrase, code, or number.
Note: For many searches, either choice will work, but sometimes the
choice makes a big difference. For example, if you’re searching for 1-
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Working with Chemical Records
Searching for a Chemical Record
FIGURE 1. Searching for the poison, “slimicide.”
bromo 3-chloropropane, and you type “propane” in the Chemical Name
box, you’ll find the chemical only if you select “Contains characters,”
because this name contains the characters “propane,” but not at the
beginning of a word.
4. Click Search to run your search.
CAMEO will run the search and then display either a list of the chemicals that match your criteria, or a message, “No records found,” if no
chemicals in the Chemical Library match your criteria.
5. Double-click the name of any chemical in the Found Chemicals list to
view that chemical’s record.
Whenever you want to return to the Found Chemicals list, press the
“List” button in the toolbar. If you’d like to view the list of all CAMEO
chemicals again, in the Search menu, select Clear Search.
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Working with Chemical Records
TABLE 1. Criteria you can use in a basic search.
Name
Description
Operator for text fields
Choose “Contains characters” to search for part of a word,
phrase, code, or number; or “Contains word starting with”
to search either for the first part of or for an entire word,
phrase, code, or number.
Chemical Name
Type all or part of the name, synonym, or trade name for
the chemical.
CAS #
Type all or the first part of the Chemical Abstract Service
number for the chemical, including all hyphens.
DOT Label
Select the required DOT label for the chemical from the
pull-down menu (for example, “Flammable” or “Explosive”).
CHRIS Code
Type all or part of the U.S. Coast Guard’s three-letter code
for a chemical (as used in the CHRIS guide to chemical
hazards, www.chrismanual.com).
UN/NA Number
Type all or part of a chemical’s UN Number.
Reactive Hazards
Select a special reactive hazard of the chemical (e.g.,
“Water-Reactive” or “Strong Oxidizing Agent”) from the
pull-down menu.
General Description
Type a word or phrase describing the appearance, behavior,
or other attribute of the chemical, which you think might
be included in its general description. For example, a
search for “blue-green crystal” finds several chemicals
with that appearance.
Making an advanced search for a chemical record
You can make an advanced search whenever you need to use other criteria
than the ones available for a basic search. Here’s how:
1. Begin your search just as you would start a basic search: either
• click Search for a Chemical in the Navigator, or
• while you’re working in the Chemical Library, select Start Search
from the Search menu.
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Working with Chemical Records
Searching for a Chemical Record
2. Click Go to Advanced Search.
3. Click Select field to indicate which data field to search.
4. Click the radio button for either
•
Chemical ID and RIDS, to search for identifying information or
response recommendations.
• Properties, if you want to search for a physical property, such as boil5.
6.
7.
8.
ing point or lower explosive limit.
In the list of searchable fields, click the name of a field, then click Select.
Choose an operator from the popup menu (e.g., “contains characters,”
“is equal to,” or “is greater than”).
The operator to choose depends on the search you’re making.
Type the word, phrase, number, or code to search for in the box.
Leave the box empty if you don’t need to type something in—e.g., when
you choose an operator like “is empty” or “is not empty.”
Click Search to run your search.
Some advanced search examples:
• EPCRA EHS Chemical (is) “YES” finds all Extremely Hazardous Substances in the Chemical Library.
• Boiling Point is less than or equal to 60 finds chemicals that are gases
when unconfined at temperatures above 60°F.
• NFPA Flammability contains the character “4” finds all the substances
that pose the maximum flammability hazard under the NFPA system.1
Adding more choices. You can make an advanced search for records
that match more than one criterion. To add a second criterion to your search,
1. While you’re working in the Advanced Search dialog, press Add a
Choice to add a second criterion to search for.
1. Under the NFPA system, a chemical posing the highest possible flammability, reactivity,
or health hazard is given a ranking of 4, on a 0 to 4 scale. (See “Under the NFPA Codes
tab:” on page 87.)
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Working with Chemical Records
2. Follow steps 3 through 7 in “Making an advanced search for a chemical
record” on page 80 to set up the search for that criterion.
3. Indicate whether to search either for (a) records that meet both your criteria (click “Search for all of the following”) or (b) records that meet
either criterion (click “Search for any of the following”).
Here’s an example of the difference between these two kinds of searches:
To find out how many chemicals in the Chemical Library pose the most
severe flammability, reactivity, and health hazard, you would click “Search
for all of the following (AND search)” to search for values equal to “4” in
the NFPA Flammability, NFPA Health Hazard, AND NFPA Reactivity
boxes, as shown below.
You would find just four records that meet your criteria.
If, instead, you wanted to search for the chemicals that pose the most severe
of any one of those hazards, you would click “Search for any of the follow-
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Understanding the information in the Chemical Library
ing (OR search)” to search for values equal to “4” in the NFPA Flammability, NFPA Health Hazard, OR NFPA Reactivity boxes, as shown below.
You would find about 200 records meeting these criteria.
To add another choice, click Add a Choice again. You can add up to four
choices. If you need to search for more than four criteria, first run a search
for the first four of your criteria, then choose Append Search (to widen your
search) or Subset Search (to narrow your search) from the Search menu to
add additional criteria (see “Append searches and subset searches” on
page 254).
You can save any complex advanced search to reuse later. See “Saving
searches” on page 253 for instructions.
Understanding the information in the
Chemical Library
A chemical record contains two basic kinds of information, each represented by a main tab within the record: Chemical Identification Information (Figure 2) and a Response Information Data Sheets tab (Figure 3 on
page 85).
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Working with Chemical Records
FIGURE 2. View of the Chemical Information section of the record
for Hexachloroacetone.
Check the Chemical Identification information to make sure that you’re
working with the record for the correct chemical, and to quickly see what
legislation regulates uses of this chemical. Table 2 on page 86 includes
explanations of each kind of chemical identification information in Chemical Library records.
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Working with Chemical Records
Understanding the information in the Chemical Library
FIGURE 3. View of the Response Information Data Sheet for
Hexachloroacetone.
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85
Working with Chemical Records
TABLE 2. Chemical identification information in a Chemical
Library record.
Item
Description
Chemical
Name
Name of the substance. Most often, this is the name used for this substance in the DOT Emergency Response Guidebook (USDOT 2000;
see “Bibliography” on page 276). Otherwise, it’s usually the name for
this substance listed in the Title III List of Lists (USEPA 2001; see
“Bibliography” on page 276), or the name assigned by the U.S.
Department of Transportation (as listed in 49 CFR 172—Subpart B—
Table of Hazardous Materials and Special Provisions). In a few other
cases, names were taken from other sources (see “Sources of
CAMEO’s chemical data” on page 100).
Under the Chemical Information tab:
Formula
Chemical formula used by the American Chemical Society.
DOT Label
Required DOT label for the chemical. This label must be displayed on
shipped packages, railroad tank cars, and tank trucks according to
specifications described in 49 CFR § 172.
CAS#
Chemical Abstract Service registry number. Identification number
assigned to this chemical by the American Chemical Society.
UN/NA Number
The United Nations-North America number. This numbering system
was developed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, and then
became the UN standard system for classifying hazardous materials.
STCC#
Standard Transportation Commodity Code. Seven-digit chemical
identification code used by the Association of American Railroads.
CHRIS Code
Three-letter code used by the U.S. Coast Guard to identify individual
chemicals included in its CHRIS guide to chemical hazards
(www.chrismanual.com).
Under the Synonyms tab:
Synonyms
86
Names for this chemical, including trade names and other synonyms.
Working with Chemical Records
Understanding the information in the Chemical Library
TABLE 2. Chemical identification information in a Chemical
Library record. (Continued)
Under the NFPA Codes tab:
NFPA codes represent hazards posed by a chemical. A ranking of “0” in one of the fields
listed below represents little hazard to health, low flammability, or little reactivity. Higher
rankings represent increased hazard. A “4” represents the highest hazard in all three categories.
Flammability
NFPA code 0 - 4, representing flammability hazard of the chemical.
Health
NFPA code 0 - 4, representing health hazard of the chemical.
Reactivity
NFPA code 0 - 4, representing the chemical’s reactivity.
Special
Notations that alert you to especially significant hazards posed by a
few chemicals: “No water” means that the chemical is unusually reactive with water and “Oxidizer” means that the material is a strong oxidizer.
Under the Regulatory Information tab:
Names
Names under which this substance is regulated under Federal laws
such as CERCLA, EPCRA, RCRA, and the Clean Air Act of 1990.
CAA Section
112(r) chemical
Checkbox. If checked, this chemical has been listed as a toxic, flammable, or explosive hazardous substance under Section 112(r) of the
Clean Air Act.
CERCLA
Chemical
Checkbox. If checked, this chemical is listed as a hazardous substance
under CERCLA (40 CFR § 302).
EPCRA EHS
Chemical
Checkbox. If checked, this is an Extremely Hazardous Substance
(EHS), identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an
acute inhalation toxic threat, and listed under EPCRA.
ECPRA Section 313 chemical
Checkbox. If checked, this chemical has been included in a list of
toxic chemicals covered under Section 313 of EPCRA. Facilities storing or using Section 313 chemicals may be required to submit annual
reports of the amount of each chemical released into the environment,
either routinely or by accident (see 40 CFR § 372).
CAA Threshold Quantity
Threshold Quantity listed in the Clean Air Act. When stored quantities of this substance exceed this amount, a facility becomes subject
to the accidental release prevention provisions of the Act.
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Working with Chemical Records
TABLE 2. Chemical identification information in a Chemical
Library record. (Continued)
CERCLA
Reportable
Quantity
Reportable Quantity (RQ) listed in CERCLA. Threshold release size
established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A facility
must report spilled quantities in excess of the RQ to Federal, state,
and local governments.
EHS Threshold Planning
Quantity
Extremely Hazardous Substance Threshold Planning Quantity, listed
in 40 CFR § 355. When storage quantities of a hazardous chemical at
a facility exceed this threshold, the reporting, community right-toknow, and emergency planning requirements of EPCRA must be met.
RCRA Chemical Code
Four-character identification code assigned to this substance under
the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA).
Under the Screening and Scenarios tab:
Liquid Factor
(Ambient)
A factor required to calculate evaporation rate of a liquid at ambient
temperature, using methods described in Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis (USEPA, FEMA, and USDOT 1987; see “Bibliography” on page 276).
Liquid Factor
(Boiling)
A factor required to calculate evaporation rate of a liquid at or above
its boiling point, using methods in the Technical Guidance.
Liquid Factor
(Molten)
A factor required to calculate rate of release of a molten solid, using
methods in the Technical Guidance.
Level of Concern
LOC. The concentration of the chemical, in grams per cubic meter,
above which there may be serious, irreversible health effects as a
result of a single exposure for a relatively short period of time.
Defined in the Technical Guidance. Local authorities may establish
additional LOCs for their hazards analyses.
Ambient State
The physical state (solid, liquid, or gas) of the chemical at 68°F.
Refer to a chemical’s RIDS information when you need to see recommendations for response to releases of that chemical. Table 3 includes explanations of each of the kinds of information under the Response Information
Data Sheets tab in each chemical record. Table 4 on page 90 shows the full
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Working with Chemical Records
Understanding the information in the Chemical Library
names of protective materials listed under the Protective Clothing tab; these
names are shown abbreviated in CAMEO.
TABLE 3. Response Information Data Sheet information in a
Chemical Library record.
Tab Title
Tab Contents
General Description
General appearance, behavior, and toxicity of the chemical.
Properties
Physical properties, flammability limits, and toxic thresholds
(toxic exposure limits). Check “Glossary” on page 279 to view
a definition of each physical property.
Reactivity
Description of the potential reactivity between the chemical and
other chemicals, as well as its reactivity with air and water, and
any other intrinsic reactive hazards (e.g., polymerizability, peroxidizability). Also includes a list of the reactive groups to
which this chemical belongs.
Reactive Hazards
Special reactivity alerts for the chemical.
First Aid
Response recommendations.
Firefighting
Response recommendations for fire incidents in which the
chemical is involved.
Fire Hazards
Description of the chemical’s flammability, byproducts that
may evolve if the chemical is burned, and risk of explosion.
Non-Fire Response
Response recommendations for incidents not involving fire, in
which the chemical is involved.
Health Hazards
Description of the health hazards of the chemical, such as toxicity, flammability, and corrosivity.
Protective Clothing
Recommendations and table of breakthrough times for protective materials. See Table 4 for the full names of listed materials
(which are shown abbreviated on Chemical Library records).
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Working with Chemical Records
TABLE 4. Full names of protective materials listed under the
Protective Clothing tab on Chemical Library records.a
90
Abbreviation displayed in
CAMEO
Full name of the protective material
ACRYLIC
Same
AL PE
Aluminized Polyethylene
AL PE/PET
Aluminized Polyethylene/Polyethylene Terephthalate
AL PET
Aluminized Polyethylene Terephthalate
AL PET/PVC
Aluminized Polyethylene Terephthalate/Polyvinyl Chloride
AL PVF
Aluminized Polyvinyl Fluoride
BARRICADE
Plastic Laminate (Dupont Company)
BLUE MAX
Plastic Laminate (MSA Company)
BUTYL
Butyl Rubber
BUTYL/NAT RUB
Butyl Rubber/Natural Rubber
BUTYL/NEOP
Butyl Rubber/Chloroprene Rubber
CELLULOSE ACETATE
Same
CELLULOSE PROPIONATE
Same
CHECKMATE
Plastic Laminate (Lakeland Company)
CHEMREL
Plastic Laminate (Chemron Company)
CHEMREL MAX
Plastic Laminate (Chemron Company)
CHEMTUFF
Plastic Laminate (Chemron Company)
CHLOROBUTYL
Chlorobutyl Rubber
COMFORT-GARD II
Comfort-Gard II Fabric
CPE
Chlorinated Polyethylene
CPE/SARAN
Chlorinated Polyethylene/Polyvinylidene Chloride
CPE+HYPALON+PVC
Chlorinated Polyethylene + Hypalon + Polyvinyl Chloride
Working with Chemical Records
Understanding the information in the Chemical Library
TABLE 4. Full names of protective materials listed under the
Protective Clothing tab on Chemical Library records.a (Continued)
Abbreviation displayed in
CAMEO
Full name of the protective material
CPF III
Plastic Laminate (Kappler Company)
CR 39
CR 39
ECO/BUTYL
Epichlorohydrin/butyl Rubber
EMA
Ethylene - Methyl Acrylate
EPDM/BUTYL
Ethylenepropylene/butyl Rubber
EPDM+NAT RUB
Ethylenepropylene + Natural Rubber
EVAC
Ethylene Vinyl Acetate
FEP TEFLON
Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene
FEP/PTFE
Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene/Polytetrafluoroethylene
GORE-GARD
Gore-Gard Fabric
GORE-TEX
Gore-Tex Fabric
HYPALON
Same
HYPALON/NEOP
Hypalon/Chloroprene Rubber
INTERCEPTOR
Plastic Laminate (Lakeland Company)
MET PVF
Metallized Polyvinylfluoride
NAT RUB
Natural Rubber
NAT RUB+BAYPRENE
Natural Rubber + Bayprene
NAT RUB+NEOP
Natural Rubber + Chloroprene Rubber
NAT RUB+NEOP+NBR
Natural Rubber + Chloroprene Rubber + Nitrile-Butadiene
Rubber
NAT RUB+NITRILE
Natural Rubber + Nitrile Rubber
NAT RUB+NITRILE+SBR
Natural Rubber + Nitrile Rubber + Styrenebutadiene Rubber
NEOP
Chloroprene Rubber
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TABLE 4. Full names of protective materials listed under the
Protective Clothing tab on Chemical Library records.a (Continued)
92
Abbreviation displayed in
CAMEO
Full name of the protective material
NEOP/BUTYL
Chloroprene Rubber/Butyl Rubber
NEOP/NAT RUB
Chloroprene Rubber/Natural Rubber
NEOP+NAT RUB/NITRILE
Chloroprene Rubber + Natural Rubber/nitrile Rubber
NEOP+PVC
Chloroprene Rubber + Polyvinyl Chloride
NEOP+PVC
Chloroprene Rubber + Polyvinyl Chloride
NEOP+SBR
Chloroprene Rubber + Styrenebutadiene Rubber
NITRILE
Nitrile Rubber
NITRILE/NAT RUB
Nitrile Rubber/Natural Rubber
NITRILE+PVC
Nitrile Rubber + Polyvinyl Chloride
NONWOVEN FABRIC
Same
PCTFE
Polychlorinated trifluoroethylene
PE
Polyethylene
PE/EVAL/PE
Polyethylene/Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol/Polyethylene
PET
Polyethylene Terephthalate
PETG
Polyethylene Terephthalate, Modified
POLYCARBONATE
Same
POLYIMIDE
Same
POLYISOPRENE
Same
POLYSULFONE
Same
POLYURETHANE
Polyurethane Rubber
POLYURETHANE/NAT RUB
Polyurethane Rubber/Natural Rubber
POLYURETHANE/NIT+PVC
Polyurethane Rubber/Nitrile Rubber + Polyvinyl Chloride
Working with Chemical Records
Understanding the information in the Chemical Library
TABLE 4. Full names of protective materials listed under the
Protective Clothing tab on Chemical Library records.a (Continued)
Abbreviation displayed in
CAMEO
Full name of the protective material
POLYURETHANE+PVC
Polyurethane Rubber + Polyvinyl Chloride
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE
Same
PP
Polypropylene
PTFE TEFLON
Polytetrafluoroethylene Teflon
PVAC
Polyvinyl Acetate
PVAL
Polyvinyl Alcohol
PVAL/PE
Polyvinyl Alcohol/Polyethylene
PVC
Polyvinyl Chloride
PVDC
Polyvinylidene Chloride
RESPONDER
Plastic Laminate (Life-Guard Company)
SARANEX23P
Polyethylene/Polyvinylidene Chloride/Polyethylene/Tyvek
SBR
Styrenebutadiene Rubber
SBR/NEOP
Styrenebutadiene Rubber/Chloroprene Rubber
SILICONE RUB
Silicone Rubber
SILVER SHIELD
Same
TRELLCHEM HPS
Plastic Laminate (Trellchem Company)
TYVEK QC SUPRA
Polyethylene/Tyvek
VELOSTAT
Microporous Polyolefin
VITON
Fluoroelastomer
VITON/BUTYL
Fluoroelastomer/Butyl Rubber
VITON/BUTYL/NEOP
Fluoroelastomer/Butyl Rubber/Chloroprene Rubber
VITON/CHLOROBUTYL
Fluoroelastomer/Chlorobutyl Rubber
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Working with Chemical Records
TABLE 4. Full names of protective materials listed under the
Protective Clothing tab on Chemical Library records.a (Continued)
Abbreviation displayed in
CAMEO
Full name of the protective material
VITON/NEOP
Fluoroelastomer/Chloroprene Rubber
VITON/NITRILE
Fluoroelastomer/Nitrile Rubber
a. In abbreviations, “+” indicates a blend of two or more materials; “/” indicates that two or
more materials are layered.
Predicting potential chemical
reactivity
Reactivity is the tendency of substances to undergo chemical change. You
can use CAMEO to find out about the reactivity of substances or predict the
reactivity of mixtures of substances. You can
• Check any chemical’s intrinsic reactive properties, such as peroxidizability, polymerizability, and radioactivity.
• “Virtually mix” chemicals to find out what dangers could arise if they
were accidentally mixed together. To make reactivity predictions, you
select chemicals from the Chemical Library module, and add them to a
“mixture.” CAMEO then predicts the reactivity of this mixture
How CAMEO predicts mixture reactivity
Each substance in the Chemical Library was assigned to one or more reactive groups, based on the known chemistry of that substance.2 Reactive
groups are categories of chemicals that react in similar ways because they
are similar in their chemical structure.3
2. CAMEO’s reactivity prediction method was inspired by earlier work by the Hazardous
Materials Management Section of the California Department of Health Services, and by
the U.S. Coast Guard. To develop CAMEO’s method, the CAMEO team was substantially aided by Dr. Wade Freeman and Dr. Mike Krumpolc of the University of Illinois.
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Working with Chemical Records
Predicting potential chemical reactivity
To find out which reactive groups a particular chemical belongs to, find that
chemical’s record in the Chemical Library, click the Response Information
Data Sheets tab, and then click the Reactivity tab. Under the REACTIVE
GROUPS heading, you’ll see the reactive group(s) to which the chemical
belongs (as shown in Figure 4).
FIGURE 4. Acrolein belongs to the “Aldehydes” reactive group.
3. Each substance in the Chemical Library has been assigned to one or more of the following reactive groups (these are structurally distinctive chemical groups, within which the
members behave similarly): acid halides; acids, inorganic nonoxidizing; acids, inorganic
oxidizing; alcohols; aldehydes; amides; amines; anhydrides; azo, diazo, azido; bases,
cfcs, hcfcs; carbamates; chlorosilanes; cyanides, inorganic; epoxides; esters; ethers; halogenated organics; halogenating agents, strong; hydrocarbons, aliphatic saturated and
unsaturated; hydrocarbons aromatic; inorganic compounds/neither oxidizing or reducing;
inorganic oxidizing agents; inorganic reducing agents; isocyanates; ketones; metal
hydrides; metals, alkali; metals, elemental; metals, less reactive; nitrides; phosphides;
carbides; silicides; nitriles; nitrites; nitrates; organometallics; peroxides; phenols; phosphates, thiophosphates; acidic salts; basic salts; inorganic sulfides; organic sulfides, thiocarbamate salts, dithiocarbamate salts.
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Working with Chemical Records
To see detailed descriptions of all the reactive groups used in CAMEO,
check CAMEO’s online help.
To predict the reactivity of a mixture of chemicals, CAMEO first identifies
the reactive groups to which each of the chemicals belongs, and then predicts the kinds of chemical reactions likely to occur when members of these
groups are mixed together.
Reactivity predictions are pairwise. CAMEO only predicts the reactivity between two chemicals at a time. If you virtually “mix” three or more
chemicals, it will predict the reactivity between each of the possible pairings of those chemicals.
Be aware that:
• sometimes, three or more chemicals can react in ways CAMEO can't
predict. For example, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and glycerine react to
produce nitroglycerine. CAMEO recognizes that this mixture would be
very reactive, but does not predict that nitroglycerine would be produced.
• sometimes, one chemical can catalyze (speed up) the reaction between
other chemicals. For example, nickel carbonyl catalyzes many polymerization reactions and other kinds of synthetic organic reactions. CAMEO
cannot predict when a reaction between two chemicals could be speeded
up by another chemical.
However, reactions among more than two chemicals are relatively uncommon in nature (except for the catalyzed reactions that are common components of the metabolic processes of living organisms).
Making a reactivity prediction
Here are the steps for predicting the potential chemical reactions between
two or more chemicals:
1. Find and open the Chemical Library record for one of the chemicals (see
“Searching for a Chemical Record” on page 78).
2. From the Record menu, select Add to Reactivity Worksheet.
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Working with Chemical Records
Predicting potential chemical reactivity
3. When asked whether you’d like to view the Worksheet, click Later.
4. Find and open the record for one of the other chemicals.
5. From the Record menu, select Add to Reactivity Worksheet.
6. When asked whether you’d like to view the Worksheet, click either
• Later, if you have more chemicals to add. In this case, repeat steps 1
and 2 until you’ve added all the chemicals, then click Yes.
• Yes, if you have finished adding chemicals.
The Reactivity Worksheet will be displayed. In the Worksheet, you’ll see
a list of the chemicals you’ve “mixed,” followed by a listing of the
potential hazards from reactivity between those chemicals (as shown in
Figure 5). If you have mixed more than two chemicals, you’ll see a summary of the hazards of all possible pairings of the chemicals, followed
by a list of the hazards from each possible pairing.
FIGURE 5. The Reactivity Worksheet.
7. Click Make Report if you’d like to print your results. Once you’ve com-
pleted your work, you can click Remove All to clear all the chemicals
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Working with Chemical Records
from the Reactivity Worksheet (the Worksheet will be cleared when you
quit from CAMEO).
Note: In CAMEO, you can “mix” only individual chemicals. Using the
Chemical Reactivity Worksheet program, you also can mix reactive groups
along with chemicals. You might want to do this if you know the chemical
class of a substance, but not its exact name or CAS number, or if you know
a substance’s chemical class (e.g., its MSDS may state its class), and the
substance is not in the Chemical Library. You also can use the Chemical
Reactivity Worksheet program to create compatibility charts for use in laboratories or other locations where many chemicals are stored close together
(CAMEO cannot produce compatibility charts). You can obtain the Worksheet program or learn more about it at response.restoration.noaa.gov/chemaids/react.html.
Significant reactive hazards of some chemicals
Substances that pose certain special or acute reactivity-related hazards are
categorized not only into reactivity groups, but also into nine Reactive
Hazard classes shown in Table 5. To check whether a chemical poses any
of these acute reactive hazards,
1. Find that chemical’s record in the Chemical Library,
2. Click the Response Information Data Sheets tab, then click the Reactive
Hazards tab to see the acute reactive hazards of that chemical (as in
Figure 6).
FIGURE 6. The acute reactive hazards of calcium carbide.
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Working with Chemical Records
Predicting potential chemical reactivity
You also can search the Chemical Library to find all the chemicals that pose
a particular reactive hazard. For example, to find all the water-reactive
chemicals in the Library,
1. From the Search menu, select Start Search.
2. From the Reactive Hazards pull-down menu, select “Water-Reactive.”
Click Search. You’ll see a list of the more than 500 water-reactive chemicals in the Chemical Library.
TABLE 5. CAMEO’s Reactive Hazard classes.
Reactive Hazard class
Definition
Highly flammable
Substances having a flash point of less than 100°F and mixtures that include substances with flash points of less than
100°F.
Explosive
A material synthesized or mixed deliberately to allow the
very rapid release of chemical energy. Also, a chemical substance that is intrinsically unstable and liable to detonate
under conditions that might reasonably be encountered.
Polymerizable
Capable of undergoing self-reactions that release energy.
Some polymerization reactions generate a great deal of heat.
The products of polymerization reactions are generally less
reactive than the starting materials.
Strong oxidizing agent
Oxidizing agents gain electrons from other substances and
are themselves thereby chemically reduced. Strong oxidizing agents accept electrons particularly well from a large
range of other substances. The ensuing oxidation-reduction
reactions may be vigorous or violent and may release new
substances that may take part in further additional reactions.
Strong oxidizing agents should be kept well separated from
strong reducing agents. In some cases, the presence of a
strong oxidizing agent can greatly enhance the progress of a
fire.
Strong reducing agent
Reducing agents give up electrons to other substances. They
are themselves thereby oxidized. Strong reducing agents
donate electrons particularly well to a large range of other
substances. The ensuing oxidation-reduction reactions may
be vigorous or violent and may generate new substances
that take part in further additional reactions.
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TABLE 5. CAMEO’s Reactive Hazard classes. (Continued)
Reactive Hazard class
Definition
Water-reactive
Substances that may react rapidly or violently with liquid
water and steam, producing heat (or fire) and often toxic
reaction products.
Air-reactive
Likely to react rapidly or violently with dry air or moist air.
May generate toxic and corrosive fumes upon exposure to
air, or may catch fire.
Peroxidizable Compound
Apt to undergo spontaneous reaction with oxygen (a component of air) at room temperature, to form peroxides and
other products. Most such autooxidations are accelerated by
light or by trace impurities. Many peroxides are explosive,
which makes peroxidizable compounds a particular hazard.
Ethers and aldehydes are particularly subject to peroxide
formation (the peroxides generally form slowly after evaporation of the solvent in which a peroxidizable material had
been stored).
Radioactive Material
Spontaneously and continuously emitting ions or ionizing
radiation. Radioactivity is not a chemical property, but an
additional hazard that exists in addition to the chemical
properties of a material.
Sources of CAMEO’s chemical data
Information displayed in the Chemical Library was compiled from a variety
of documents and databases, each prepared by a different organization, such
as the American Association of Railroads or the EPA. Information sources
are identified in two ways:
• Following each piece of information displayed in a Response Information Data Sheets field is the abbreviation for the source from which that
information was taken and that source’s date of release, shown in parentheses: for example, “(USCG, 1999).”4
4. The sole exception to this rule is Reactive Hazards; this information was generated by
NOAA during the development of the Chemical Reactivity Worksheet.
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Working with Chemical Records
Sources of CAMEO’s chemical data
• Table 6 on page 102 shows the sources of the chemical identification
information included in each record in the Chemical Library, and Table 7
on page 103 shows the sources of the RIDS information for each chemical.
For a description of each source document or database, see “Bibliography”
on page 276. In the Bibliography, a notation in brackets (such as “[EPA]”)
appearing within a citation indicates that the cited reference is one of the
sources of CAMEO’s chemical data.
In both Table 6 and Table 7, the numbers in the table cells indicate the priority of the various databases used for each data field in a Chemical Library
record. Smaller numbers indicate higher priority: “1” in a table cell indicates the highest-priority source for a particular piece of information. For
example, Table 6 shows how the names for the chemicals in the Chemical
Library were chosen. When different names for a particular chemical
appeared in different databases, our preference was to adopt the name for
that chemical used in the Emergency Response Guidebook (U.S. Department of Transportation 2000), our second preference was to use the name
for that chemical listed in the Title III List of Lists (EPA 1999), our third
preference was to use the name shown in 49 Code of Federal Regulations,
and so on. In the case of synonyms for each chemical name, we included all
the synonyms for a given chemical from the indicated sources.
Some of the information in the Chemical Library was edited by the
CAMEO Team after it was extracted from the original source. In Table 6,
chemical names shown in the Name field were taken from the sources
shown and then further edited. Information in the Formula, CAS Registry
Number, and Label fields was extracted from the sources shown, then
lightly edited. In Table 7, texts shown in the General Description field were
taken from the sources shown and then further edited; molecular weights
were extracted from the sources shown, then lightly edited.
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TABLE 6. Sources of chemical identification information in
Chemical Library records. (See “Bibliography” on page 276.)
49 CFR
DOT
AAR
USCG
Name
3
1
6
4
UN/NA Number
1
2
4
LIST
NTP
2
5
1
5
CAS #
EPA
TECH
1
2
4
3
2
1
STCC #
1
2
1
CHRIS Code
Synonyms
NIOSH
3
Formula
DOT Label
CAS
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Regulatory
Informationa
1
Screening &
Scenariosb
a. Items under the Regulatory Information tab, including regulated names, threshold quantities, and other information established by one or more Federal laws: the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
Liability Act (CERCLA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), EPCRA (Sections 302 and
313), and the Clean Air Act (Section 112r).
b. Items under the Screening & Scenarios tab, including liquid factors, level of concern, and physical state at ambient temperature. All these items are used for hazards analysis. See “Using Screening & Scenarios to assess hazards” on page 137.
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Working with Chemical Records
Sources of CAMEO’s chemical data
TABLE 7. Sources of RIDS data in Chemical Library records.
NFPA AAR EPA USCG DOT Little
General
Description
1
Fire Hazards
1
2
3
4
4
5
1
3
Protective
Clothing summary text
4
2
3
1
1
Protective
Clothing ratings table
1
Health Hazards
First Aid
6
NTP
3
2
5
ACGIH
2
Firefighting
Non-fire
Response
NIOSH
CAS
AIHA
DOE
Reacta
4
5
2
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
4
5
3
2
Reactivity
1
Reactive Hazards
1
1
3
4
2
Lower Explosive Limit
(LEL)
1
3
4
2
Upper Explosive Limit
(UEL)
1
3
4
2
Flash Point
5
Autoignition
Temperature
3
Melting Point
5
1
3
4
2
Vapor Pressure
5
1
3
4
2
1
3
1
2
Vapor Density
Specific Gravity
4
LIST
1
2
2
5
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3
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Working with Chemical Records
TABLE 7. Sources of RIDS data in Chemical Library records.
NFPA AAR EPA USCG DOT Little
Boiling Point
Molecular
Weight
IDLH
5
NIOSH
ACGIH
NTP
1
3
4
2
2
4
5
3
AIHA
DOE
Reacta
LIST
1
TLV-TWA
1
TLV-STEL
1
1
ERPG
1
TEEL
Water Solubility
CAS
2
1
a. This source is the Chemical Reactivity Worksheet, which contains a database of reactivity data and other
chemical information compiled by NOAA and EPA (online at response.restoration.noaa.gov/chemaids/
react.html).
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Working with Chemical Records
CHAPTER 5
Working with
Facility Records
This chapter explains how to use CAMEO to keep track of information
about facilities where hazardous materials are maintained. It explains how
to access and use facility information already stored in CAMEO, how to
create new CAMEO records for facilities, and how to use CAMEO to maintain Tier II information submitted by facilities in your area.
Where facility information is kept
You keep information about facilities in five related CAMEO modules. You
can access all the information about a given facility from the facility’s
record in the Facilities module, which acts as a sort of central hub for information about that facility.
• In the Facilities module, you create a record containing the basic information about a given facility, such as its location, its owner, and the type
of business it is. If you have created a site plan for the facility in a graphics program, you can link that plan to this facility record. You can also
keep track of reports relating to each facility that have been submitted
under the reporting requirements of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA). And you can link any
Working with Facility Records
105
Working with Facility Records
facility’s record to a symbol for that facility that you place on a MARPLOT map, so that you can quickly see the facility’s location in your
community or use Screening & Scenarios or ALOHA to assess the
potential hazard to the community posed by chemicals at the facility (see
either “Using Screening & Scenarios to assess hazards” on page 137 or
“Using ALOHA with MARPLOT and CAMEO” on page 189).
• In the Chemicals in Inventory module, you can create a record for each
of the hazardous substances stored at a facility (mixtures as well as pure
substances). Each Chemicals in Inventory record contains information
such as the quantity of the substance stored at the facility, the conditions
of storage, and the location in the facility where the substance is stored.
• In the Contacts module, you can create a record for each of the contact
people for the facility, such as the emergency manager and owner.
• In the Screening & Scenarios module, you can use simple, automated
methods to assess the hazards to the surrounding community from accidental releases from that facility, following the procedures described in
the guidebook, Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis (see “Bibliography” on page 276 to learn how to obtain a copy).
• In the Incidents module, you can keep records describing past accidental
releases of hazardous substances from that facility. This information can
be used for risk analysis.
Tier II information and CAMEO
You can store information submitted on Tier II reports in the Facilities,
Chemicals in Inventory, and Contacts modules.1 If you’re familiar with Tier
II forms, you’ll notice that many of the data fields in the Facilities, Chemicals in Inventory, and Contacts modules are identical to data fields on Tier II
forms.
1. Under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA),
facilities that maintain more than threshold amounts of certain hazardous materials must
submit an annual chemical inventory report, called a Tier II form, to their state’s State
Emergency Response Commission (SERC), Local Emergency Planning Committee
(LEPC), and local fire department. See “Sections 311 and 312: community right-to-know
requirements” on page 270.
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Working with Facility Records
Where facility information is kept
You can put Tier II data in CAMEO in either of two ways:
Manually entering data from print Tier II forms into CAMEO. To
do this,
1. Create a new Facilities record for each submitting facility (see “Creating
and editing facility records” on page 120).
2. Create a new Chemicals in Inventory record for each chemical or mixture maintained at that facility (see “Keeping track of the chemicals in a
facility’s inventory” on page 123). Figure 1 on page 108 shows the process.
3. Create new Contacts records for the contacts listed for each facility.
4. For each annual update, either:
a. Edit the facility, inventory, and contacts records to update them as
needed (to edit a CAMEO record, open the record, click the Edit button in the toolbar, make the needed changes, then press Save
Changes), or
b. Add new records for the new reporting year, if you would rather keep
a set of records for each reporting year.
Importing a Tier2 Submit data file. To import a Tier2 Submit file, follow the procedure described in “Importing data from Tier2 Submit” on
page 206. When you import a Tier2 Submit file, new Chemicals in Inventory records are created automatically for all the chemicals in each facility’s
inventory. Each such record contains all the imported data about the given
chemical. New Contacts records are created automatically for the contacts
listed in the Tier II form submitted by each facility.
Note: In the current version of CAMEO, it isn’t possible for a facility manager to maintain records for that facility’s Tier II chemicals in CAMEO, and
then, at reporting time, export that information to Tier2 Submit in order to
generate the submittable data file.
State fields in the Facilities module. Records in both the Facilities
and Chemicals in Inventory modules contain a State Fields tab. This section
is designed to support the emergency planning work of U.S. states that have
developed their own reporting requirements in addition to the Tier II
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Working with Facility Records
CAMEO modules:
Facilities
M&S Chemical Co.
Tier II form:
TIER II
pg. 1 of 1
M&S Chemical Co.
Contacts
Owner/Operator
Mary Doe
Emergency Contact
Luis Garcia
Mary Doe
Contacts
Luis Garcia
Ammonia
Chems. in Inv.
Ammonia
Chlorine
Chems. in Inv.
Chlorine
Benzene
Chems. in Inv.
Benzene
FIGURE 1. From a printed Tier II form, facility information is
entered into a Facilities record; each contact person for the facility
is represented by a Contacts record, and each chemical in the
facility’s inventory is represented by a Chemicals in Inventory
record.
requirements specified in EPCRA, which apply to all 50 states. In these
states, Tier II forms contain additional data fields, called state fields in
CAMEO. CAMEO’s state fields, located under the State Fields tab, represent those state-required fields, providing a place where people working in
these states can maintain their reporting information.
As of early 2002, CAMEO contains the state fields required for the 2001
reporting year, for all states that have provided such fields to the CAMEO
development team. If you work in a state that requires state fields, note that
the state labels file will be updated each reporting year with the latest state
fields information. Each year, you should
1. Download a new copy of this file (“StateLabels.CAM”) from
www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/.
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Working with Facility Records
Accessing information about a facility
2. Replace the existing StateLabels.CAM file in your CAMEOfm folder
with the new file. This updates your copy of CAMEO with the latest
state fields information.
Tier2 Submit supports state fields, so when you import Tier2 Submit files
containing state field data for any state that has designated state fields, the
state fields on your Facility records will be filled in. Be sure to update your
state labels file before importing Tier2 Submit files. (See “Tier2 Submit™”
on page 8 for more information about this software program.)
You also can manually add information to state fields on CAMEO records.
Accessing information about a
facility
To see the information in CAMEO on a particular facility, you first search
the Facilities module to find the record describing that facility. Once you’ve
found that record, you then can review:
• that record itself, for basic information about the facility.
• records in the related modules, for additional information about the facility.
You can make either a basic search or a more advanced search to find a
facility record.
Making a basic search for a facility record
Make a basic search when you just need to look up a facility by its name,
address, or other straightforward piece of identifying information. Here’s
how:
1. Start the search in either of two ways:
• While you’re working in the Facilities module, from the Search
menu, select Start Search.
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109
Working with Facility Records
• In the Navigator, click Search for a Facility. (To access the Navigator,
click the Navigator toolbar button or, from the File menu, select
Show Navigator.)
2. In the Basic Search dialog, fill out the information you have about the
facility you’re looking for.
For your “Operator for text fields,” choose “Contains characters” to
search for part of a word, phrase, code, or number; or “Contains word
starting with” to search either for the first part or all of a word, phrase,
code, or number.
Check Table 1 on page 114 to see explanations of the other choices in
the dialog.
If you fill in two or more criteria, CAMEO will search for facilities that
match all criteria. For example, if you type “Haymarket” in the City field
and choose “Yes” from the Has EHS Chemical in Inventory menu (as
shown in Figure 2), you’ll see a list of all the facilities in Haymarket that
store or use Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHSs).
FIGURE 2. Searching for the facilities in Haymarket that maintain
EHSs.
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Working with Facility Records
Accessing information about a facility
3. Click Search to start your search.
CAMEO will run the search and then display either a list of the facilities
that match your criteria or a message, “No records found,” if no facilities
match your criteria.
4. Double-click the name of any facility in the Found Facilities list to view
that facility’s record in Record view.
Whenever you want to return to the Found Facilities list, press the List
button in the toolbar. If you’d like to view the list of all facilities again
(as opposed to just the ones that met your search criteria), from the
Search menu, select Clear Search.
Some basic search examples:
• To find the most recent records for facilities in a particular zip code, type
that zip code in the Zip Code box, then for Report Year, choose the “is
equal to” operator, and type the most recent report year in the box.
• To find the facilities in a particular county that store EHS chemicals
(Extremely Hazardous Substances), from the Has EHS Chemical in
Inventory menu, choose “Yes,” and then type all or part of the name of
the county in the County box.
Making an advanced search for a facility record
You can make an advanced search whenever you need to use other criteria
than the ones available for a basic search. Here’s how:
1. Start your search just as you would start a basic search, by either
(a) clicking Search for a Facility in the Navigator.
(b) while you’re working in the Facilities module, selecting Start Search
from the Search menu.
2. Click Go to Advanced Search.
3. Click Select field.
4. Click the radio button for:
• Facilities—to search for a facility by basic information about it, such
as its name or address.
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Working with Facility Records
• Chemicals in Inventory—to search for a facility that stores or uses a
particular chemical.
• Contacts—to search for a facility for which a particular person is a
contact (e.g., an emergency contact or the facility’s owner).
• Incidents—to search for a facility where a particular incident
occurred.
• Mixture Components—to search for a facility storing a mixture made
up of particular components.
• Screening and Scenarios—to search for a facility for which you have
prepared hazards analysis screenings or scenarios, using the Screening & Scenarios module.
• Storage Locations—to search for a facility where a chemical is stored
5.
6.
7.
8.
at a particular location (e.g., “Warehouse 43”).
In the list of searchable data fields, click the name of a field, then click
Select.
Choose an operator from the popup menu (e.g., “contains characters,”
“is equal to,” or “is greater than”).
Your choices for operator depend on the kind of data you’re searching
for: whether it’s text, a number, or a date, or either/or information (for
which your choices are “yes” or “no”).
Type the word, phrase, number, or code to search for in the box.
Leave the box empty if you don’t need to type something in—e.g., when
you choose an operator like “is empty” or “is not empty.”
Press Search to start your search.
Adding more choices. You can make an advanced search for records
that match more than one criterion. To add a second criterion to your search,
1. While you’re working in the Advanced Search dialog, press Add a
Choice to add a second criterion to search for.
2. Follow steps 3 through 7 in “Making an advanced search for a facility
record” on page 111 to set up the search for that criterion.
3. Indicate whether to search either for (a) records that meet both your criteria (click “Search for all of the following”) or (b) records that meet
either criterion (click “Search for any of the following”).
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Working with Facility Records
Understanding the information in facility records
4. If you want to add another choice, press Add a Choice again. You can
add up to three more choices, for a total of four choices. If you need to
search for more than four criteria, first run a search for the first four of
your criteria, then choose either Append Search (for a search for any of
the criteria) or Subset Search (for a search for all your criteria) from the
Search menu to add additional criteria (see “Append searches and subset
searches” on page 254).
5. Press Search to start your search.
You can save any set of advanced search criteria to reuse later. See “Saving
searches” on page 253 for instructions.
Some advanced search examples:
• To find all the facilities that store or use chemicals that pose a fire hazard, search Chemicals in Inventory for Fire Hazard (is) “YES.”
• To find all the facilities in Haymarket that store or use chlorine, search
Facilities for City contains characters “Haymarket” AND search Chemicals in Inventory for Chemical Name contains characters “chlorine.”
• To find facilities owned by a particular person, search Contacts for Contact Type contains characters “owner” AND Last Name contains characters “<last name of that person>” (and if necessary) AND First Name
contains characters “<first name of that person>.”
• To find all the facilities in Haymarket that store chlorine in quantities
averaging 500 pounds or more, search Facilities for City contains characters “Haymarket” AND search Chemicals in Inventory for Chemical
Name contains characters “chlorine” AND search Chemicals in Inventory for Average Amount on Site is greater than or equal to “500.”
Understanding the information in
facility records
Once you’ve found the record for a facility in the Facilities module, you can
view the information about it in either of two ways:
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113
Working with Facility Records
• Click tabs on the facility’s record to review most of the information
about that facility.
• Select Show Related from the Record menu to access Chemicals in
Inventory, Contacts, Incidents, and Screening & Scenarios records for
the facility.
Check Table 1 for definitions of the various kinds of information shown on
each Facilities record and to see how to access each kind of information
about a facility.
TABLE 1. Items in Facilities records.
Item
Description
Shipper
Check this box if this facility is a shipper of chemicals.
Report Year
The reporting year in which the Tier II information contained in
the record was submitted by the facility. See “Sections 311 and
312: community right-to-know requirements” on page 270.
Facility Name
Name of the facility.
Department
Complete if the record is for a particular department of a facility, rather than for the entire facility.
Site
Complete these boxes if the facility has more than one physical
site location.
Under the Address tab:
Street Address
Street address of the facility, as well as the county (or borough
or parish), fire district, and country where it’s located, and the
closest cross street to the facility.
Mailing Address
Mailing address for the facility.
Email
Email address for the facility or a contact person for the facility.
Under the Facility Phones tab:
114
Type
Type of phone number (e.g., 24-hour, emergency, office). Pulldown menu in Edit mode.
Phone
Phone number.
Working with Facility Records
Understanding the information in facility records
TABLE 1. Items in Facilities records. (Continued)
Item
Description
Under the Contacts tab:
Last/First Name
Name(s) of the contact.
Title
Title of the contact.
Organization
Organization represented by the contact (if different from the
facility).
Under the Chemical Inventory tab:
CAS
CAS number of the chemical in the facility’s inventory.
Chemical Name
Name of a chemical in the facility’s inventory.
RIDS
Click this button to see the response recommendations in the
matching Chemical Library record, if either the name for the
substance in the Chemical Name box or the CAS number in the
CAS box matches the name or CAS number of a chemical in
the Chemical Library, or you’ve linked the name of this chemical to a Chemical Library record. (If the name or CAS number
matches multiple chemicals, you’ll see a list of matching chemicals to choose from; double-click any name to see this chemical’s record).
Under the Checklist tab:
Submitted general
site plan...
Click this box if the facility has submitted a general site plan to
state and local emergency planners (see “Section 301-303:
emergency planning” on page 268).
MSDS received with
Tier II forms
Click this box if a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) has been
received from this facility along with a Tier II form.
Is facility subject to
the Clean Air Act
(112r)?
Click if facility is subject to CAA 112(r). See “CAA 112(r)” on
page 275.
Does facility store
EHS chemicals...?
Click if facility uses or stores EHS chemicals and is subject to
the requirements of EPCRA Section 302 (40 CFR § 355). See
“Section 301-303: emergency planning” on page 268.
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Working with Facility Records
TABLE 1. Items in Facilities records. (Continued)
Item
Description
Are dikes or other
safeguard measures
employed?
Click if passive safeguards such as dikes, berms, enclosures, or
drains are used to mitigate accidental hazardous releases in the
facility.
Site coordinate
abbreviations submitted
Click if a list of site coordinate abbreviations were submitted
that correspond to buildings, lots, areas, etc., located throughout the facility. See EPCRA 312 Tier II Reporting instructions
(www.epa.gov/ceppo/pubs/t2-instr.pdf).
Date Tier II signed
Date when the Tier II form submitted by this facility was
signed. See “Sections 311 and 312: community right-to-know
requirements” on page 270.
Date Tier II received
Date when the Tier II form submitted by this facility was
received. See “Sections 311 and 312: community right-to-know
requirements” on page 270.
Signature
Name of owner/operator or authorized representative who
signed the Tier II Chemical Inventory Form.
Checked automatically if items present
in CAMEO
Boxes are automatically checked if there are records for this
facility in the Chemicals in Inventory, Screening & Scenarios,
and/or Incidents modules, and/or if the record for this facility is
linked to a symbol on a MARPLOT map.
Under the ID Codes tab:
116
Number of employees on site
The maximum number of employees on site at any time.
State Fees Total
Total fees (if any) collected by the state for Tier II reporting.
Type
Type of ID Code (e.g., Dun and Bradstreet, SIC, NAICS). Pulldown menu in Edit mode.
ID
ID code number. (In Edit mode, either type a number or choose
a code number from the ID menu in the cases of codes such as
SIC, for which a specific set of code numbers has been
defined.)
Working with Facility Records
Understanding the information in facility records
TABLE 1. Items in Facilities records. (Continued)
Item
Description
Description
Description of the kind of facility represented by this ID code.
(In Edit mode, type a description or, if this is a SIC or NAICS
code, select a description from the pull-down menu.)
Under the State Fields tab:
State Fields
On annual Tier II reports submitted by facilities, some states
require additional data fields beyond those fields required on
all Tier II forms. Once you have entered the 2-letter abbreviation for a state under the Address tab, CAMEO automatically
displays all fields required by that state, as well as any optional
fields also used on Tier II reports in that state. See “State fields
in the Facilities module” on page 107.
Under the Map Data tab:
Latitude/Longitude
Latitude and longitude of the facility, expressed as decimal values.
Method for determining latitude and
longitude
Code and description of the method by which latitude and longitude were measured. Pull-down menu in Edit mode.
Description of location identified by latitude and longitude
Code and description of the location for which latitude and longitude were measured. Pull-down menu in Edit mode.
Record is linked to
MARPLOT object
This box is checked if this record is linked to an object on a
MARPLOT map (see “Linking map objects to CAMEO
records” on page 183).
Under the Site Plan tab:
Site Plan names
A list of the names of site plan files associated with this facility.
Double-click the name of any site plan file to display that site
plan in another view. (To add or edit site plans, see “Adding
and editing site plans” on page 121.)
Under the Notes tab:
Notes
Keep your own notes about this facility here.
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Working with Facility Records
Viewing a facility’s map location. A Facilities record in CAMEO can
be linked to a symbol that represents the facility’s location on a MARPLOT
map (for instructions, see “Linking map objects to CAMEO records” on
page 183). To find out whether a facility record has been linked to a map
symbol, click the Map Data tab, and check whether the Record is linked to
MARPLOT object box is checked (as at left). If it is checked, the record is
linked.
If a facility record has been linked to a map symbol, you can view that symbol and map, as follows:
1. Either find and select the facility’s record or open the record in Record
view.
2. From the Sharing menu, select MARPLOT, then Show on Map.
MARPLOT will come forward, and will display the map, centered on
the symbol (a facility symbol on a map is shown in Figure 3).
FIGURE 3. A facility symbol on a MARPLOT map.
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Working with Facility Records
Understanding the information in facility records
Making and printing reports on facilities
You can make three kinds of print reports from the Facilities module:
• a report on a single facility.
• a report on multiple facilities.
• a set of mailing labels for a given set of facilities.
Making a report for a single facility. To create and print a report for
just one facility:
1. Working in the Facilities module, either (a) in the list of facilities in List
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
view, click on the name of the facility, or (b) double-click on that facility
name to open its record in Record view.
From the File menu, select Make Report.
Check to be sure that the Current Record button is selected.
Click the checkbox for each kind of data to be included in the report.
Click Make Report. You’ll see a preview of the report.
Click Print, if you’re satisfied with the preview. Otherwise, click Cancel,
make any changes you’d like to the data, then click Make Report again.
Making and printing a report for multiple facilities. To include
more than a single facility in your report:
1. First, open the Facilities module and then choose either option below:
• To include all your Facilities records in the report, choose Show All
Records from the Record menu to clear any existing found set.
• To include just certain records in the report, run a search, choosing
your search criteria so that just the records you want in your report
will be included in the found set. See “Accessing information about a
facility” on page 109 for more information about searching for facility records.
2. From the File menu, select Make Report.
3. Check to be sure that the Found Set button is selected.
4. Click the checkbox for each kind of data to be included in the report.
(Some of the information about a facility is in records in related modules. For example, if you click the Contacts checkbox, information from
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Working with Facility Records
records in the Contacts module for this facility will be included in the
report.)
5. Click Make Report. You’ll see a preview of the report.
6. Click Print if you’re satisfied with the preview. (Otherwise, click Cancel,
make any changes you’d like to the data and records to be included in
the report, then click Make Report again.).
Making and printing a set of mailing labels. To make a set of 1-inch
by 2 5/8-inch mailing labels for some or all of the facilities in your Facilities
module:
1. First, follow steps 1 through 3 in “Making and printing a report for mul-
tiple facilities” on page 119.
2. Click Mailing Labels. You’ll see a preview of your mailing labels. From
the File menu, select Print Report to print the labels.
Creating and editing facility records
As you add information about a facility to CAMEO, you can create records
in the five facility-related modules: Facilities, Chemicals in Inventory, Contacts, Incidents, and Screening & Scenarios. Below are the procedures for
adding and editing records in these modules.
Adding a new facility record and data. You add a new facility record
in any of three ways:
• creating the new facility record manually, working in the Facilities module and following the instructions below.
• importing a Tier2 Submit data file. When you import a Tier2 Submit data
file, CAMEO automatically creates a new record for each facility in that
file, along with new Chemicals in Inventory and Contacts records for
that facility. See “Importing data from Tier2 Submit” on page 206 for
more details and instructions for importing a file.
• transferring data from someone else’s copy of CAMEO. See “Transferring data between different copies of CAMEO” on page 212.
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Working with Facility Records
Creating and editing facility records
To create a new facility record manually:
1. In the Facilities module, from the Record menu, select New Facility.
You’ll see a new, blank Facilities record, automatically in Edit mode.
Fill out the record with the information you have on the facility. See
Table 1 on page 114 for the definitions of all the data fields in a Facilities
record.
• To add a contact for the facility, follow the steps in “Adding contact
information for a facility” on page 136.
• To add a Chemical in Inventory record, follow the steps in “Keeping
track of the chemicals in a facility’s inventory” on page 123.
• To add a Screening & Scenarios record for a chemical in the facility’s
inventory, follow the instructions in “Using Screening & Scenarios to
assess hazards” on page 137.
• To add a phone number for the facility, click the Facility Phones tab
(click Edit if you aren’t in Edit mode), then click within the uppermost blank table row directly below the “Type” heading. In the menu
of phone number types, click to select a type. Type the phone number
to the right of the menu in the same table row.
• To add an Incidents record for an incident at the facility, follow the
steps in “Adding and editing Incidents records” on page 171.
2. When you’ve added all your information about the facility, click Save
Changes.
You can edit the facility record, or any related record in the Contacts,
Chemicals in Inventory, Screening & Scenarios, or Incidents modules
later, whenever you need to, by either selecting the record in List view or
opening it in Record View, then clicking the Edit button in the toolbar.
Make the needed changes, then click Save Changes.
Linking a facility record to a map symbol. To link a facility record
to a symbol representing that facility on a map in MARPLOT, follow the
steps in “Linking map objects to CAMEO records” on page 183.
Adding and editing site plans. If you have created a site plan for a
facility in a graphics program, you can link that plan to the record for that
facility in the Facilities module, as follows:
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1. Draw the site plan in a graphics program of your choice, then save it in
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
any of the following graphic file formats: JPEG, TIFF, and GIF, which
work in both the Macintosh and Windows versions of CAMEO, as well
as BMP and PCX, which work only in the Windows version of CAMEO.
Both on a Macintosh and in Windows, the name of the site plan file must
include a 3-character extension denoting the file type: .jpg (not .jpeg) for
JPEG files, .tif for TIFF files, .gif for GIF file, .bmp for BMP files, .pcx
for PCX files.
Place the site plan file in the SitePlans folder on your hard drive (site
plan files must be kept in this folder). On a Macintosh, you’ll find that
folder inside the CAMEO folder. In Microsoft Windows, you’ll find it
inside the CAMEO folder on the drive where you installed CAMEO
(usually the C: drive).
On your Facilities record, click the Site Plan tab, then click the Edit button in the toolbar.
Type or paste the file name of the site plan file into the box to the left of
the Add button. Include the file name extension (.jpg, .bmp, or .gif).
Press Add.
You’ll see the name of the plan in the list of site plans under the Site Plan
tab.
Click Save Changes. Now you can open and view the site plan whenever
you need to, by double-clicking its name.
To edit an existing site plan, reopen it in the graphics program you used to
create it, make the needed changes, then save the file under the same name
you used before.
To delete a site plan from a Facilities record,
1. Open the record in Record view, click the Site Plan tab, click the Edit
button in the toolbar,
2. Click on the name of that site plan, click Remove, then click Save
Changes.
3. Delete the site plan file from your SitePlans folder if you have no more
need of the file. Deleting a site plan from a record does not delete the site
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Keeping track of the chemicals in a facility’s inventory
plan file itself; it remains within the SitePlans folder inside the CAMEO
folder unless you remove it.
Tip: You can keep photos of facilities in the SitePlans folder, as well as site
plan files. Photos should be in JPEG format.
Keeping track of the chemicals in a
facility’s inventory
Keep records describing the hazardous chemicals stored or used at a given
facility in the Chemicals in Inventory module. A Chemicals in Inventory
record can include descriptions of each chemical’s physical state, storage
conditions and locations, and quantities routinely on site. You can create
records both for single substances or for mixtures. (You also can create
Chemicals in Inventory records for routes along which hazardous materials
are transported; see “Keeping track of chemicals transported along a route”
on page 168.
When you follow the steps in this section to add a chemical to a facility’s
inventory record, you’re actually adding a new record to the Chemicals in
Inventory module; information about that chemical also will be displayed in
the Facilities record.
Chemicals in Inventory and Tier II data. You can use the Chemicals
in Inventory module to maintain information about hazardous substances in
facility inventories that was submitted to you on Tier II forms. See “Tier II
information and CAMEO” on page 106.
Manually creating a Chemicals in Inventory record
Whenever you create a new Chemicals in Inventory record for a chemical,
you need to decide whether to use a name or synonym2 for the chemical that
matches an name or synonym shown on either a record in the Chemical
Library or on one or more other Chemicals in Inventory records.
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To check for a match, you can use the Look Up Chemical button. In the
Name box of your new record, you type either a whole name or synonym,
or as many of the first few characters of the name or synonym as you’re
sure of (more details are explained in “Guidelines for looking up chemicals” on page 127). You then click Look Up Chemical, and you see two
lists, each under a separate tab (Figure 4 on page 125). One shows the
names and synonyms on Chemical Library records that match what you’ve
typed. The second list shows matching names and synonyms on your existing Chemicals in Inventory records. If you select any of the names or synonyms in either list, it will replace what you’ve typed, and you can be sure
that you have a match. (You can click Cancel to avoid replacing what
you’ve typed.). You can use the Look Up Component button the same way
when you add mixture components to your Chemicals in Inventory records.
Generally, we recommend that you use Look Up Chemical or Look Up
Component to ensure that the names or synonyms you use match Chemical
Library records. For one thing, using matching names or synonyms ensures
that you’ll be able to quickly access the response recommendations for
inventory chemicals when you need to (via the RIDS or View RIDS buttons, discussed below).
However, you might not always want to use matching names or synonyms,
and CAMEO doesn’t require you to. If you simply don’t click Look Up
Chemical (or Look Up Component in the case of a mixture component),
CAMEO will accept whatever name you type on your new record. You
might want to avoid looking up a chemical if you’re creating a Chemicals in
Inventory record to contain information from a Tier II form. If you want the
name shown on that record to match the name shown on the Tier II form,
even if the name on the form is misspelled or is an unusual synonym or
trade name that doesn’t appear in the Chemical Library, don’t click Look
Up Chemical.
2. CAMEO distinguishes between the name for a chemical shown in the Chemical Name
box—which is unique for each substance in the Chemical Library—and the synonyms for
that name listed under the Synonyms tab on each Chemical Library record. Many synonyms are shared by multiple chemicals. The name in the Chemical Name box was called
the “preferred name” in the previous version of CAMEO.
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Working with Facility Records
Keeping track of the chemicals in a facility’s inventory
FIGURE 4. List of chemical names from Chemical Library records
that match “Ammonia.” (Clicking the Chemicals in Inventory or
Mixture Components tab displays matching names for chemicals or
mixture components shown on Chemicals in Inventory records.)
To manually create a new Chemicals in Inventory record for a substance in
a facility’s inventory:
1. In the Facilities module, open the record for the facility in Record view.
2. Click the Chemical Inventory tab, then click the Edit button in the Tool-
bar.
3. Click New Chemical in Inventory.
4. If you’re adding a single substance (as opposed to a mixture), then
a. Type either the chemical’s name or its CAS number in the Chemical
Name or CAS # box. When you type a CAS number, you must type
the entire CAS number (either with or without hyphens; CAMEO
will put the hyphens in if you leave them out).
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If you plan to check for a name or synonym match, then type either
the whole name (or synonym) or, if you aren’t sure of the exact spelling, as many of the first few letters of the name as you’re sure of.
Check “Guidelines for looking up chemicals” on page 127 for tips.
b. If you want to check for a name match, click Look Up Chemical. Otherwise, skip down to step c.
You’ll see a list of all the names and name synonyms in the Chemical
Library that match what you’ve typed (Figure 4 on page 125). For
example, if you type “ammonia,” the list will include “ammonia,”
“ammonia, anhydrous,” “ammonia, aqua,” and all other names and
synonyms that start with the word “ammonia.” Under separate tabs,
you’ll also see all matching names for substances and mixture components in other Chemicals in Inventory records. Double-click the
name that matches your chemical. The name that you select replaces
any text you typed in the Chemical Name box (the CAS # box is
unaffected). Click Cancel to avoid replacing what you’ve typed in the
box
c. Click the EHS Substance checkbox if this is an Extremely Hazardous
Substance (EHS) and the checkbox is not checked. (The checkbox is
automatically checked only if you type the CAS number of an EHS,
click Look Up Chemical, and then select the chemical’s name.)
If you’re adding a mixture of two or more substances, then
a. Type the name of the mixture in the Chemical Name box.
b. Click the Components tab.
c. In the topmost blank row under the Components tab, type either the
first component’s name or its entire CAS number. If you plan to
check for a name or synonym match, then type either the whole name
(or synonym) or, if you aren’t sure of the exact spelling, as many of
the first few letters of the name as you’re sure of. Check “Guidelines
for looking up chemicals” on page 127 for tips on entering names.
d. If you want to check for a name or synonym match, click Look Up
Component. Otherwise, skip this step. You’ll see a list of the names
and name synonyms in the Chemical Library that match what you’ve
typed. Under separate tabs, you’ll also see all matching names of substances and mixture components in other Chemicals in Inventory
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Working with Facility Records
Keeping track of the chemicals in a facility’s inventory
records. Double-click the name that is the best match for your chemical. The name that you select replaces any text you typed in the
Chemical Name box (the CAS # box is unaffected). Click Cancel to
avoid replacing what you’ve typed in the box.
e. Click the EHS checkbox if this is an Extremely Hazardous Substance
(EHS) and this checkbox is not checked. The checkbox is automatically checked only if you type the CAS number of an EHS, click
Look Up Component, and then select the chemical’s name.
f. In the % box, type either the percentage by weight or by volume of this
component in the mixture, then, from the percentage units menu
(under the “Wt/Vol” heading), choose either Weight or Volume.
g. Repeat steps c through g for each component of the mixture.
5. Fill out the information about the storage conditions and locations of the
substance or mixture. Refer to Table 3 on page 132 for the definitions of
each of the fields on a Chemicals in Inventory record.
6. Click Save Changes to save your changes to the Chemicals in Inventory
record. You’ll be returned to the Facilities record that you started from.
7. Click Save Changes again, to save the changes to the Facilities record.
Once you’ve created the record, if you’d like to create a link from the name
and/or CAS number on the new Chemicals in Inventory record to a specific
Chemical Library record, follow the directions in “Using the Adjust Link
button” on page 128.
Guidelines for looking up chemicals. When you click Look Up
Chemical or Look Up Component, CAMEO checks through the Chemical
Library records to find chemical names matching the text you enter. It also
checks through the names in all your existing Chemicals in Inventory
records. However,
• Only the first 10 characters are considered, both in the text you enter and
in the chemical names. Entering “PROPYLTRICHLOROSILANE” will
provide the same matches as entering “PROPYLTRIC”.
• The lookup attempts to find only chemical names that begin with the text
you enter. To find “BORIC ACID” you cannot enter “ACID”; instead,
enter “BORIC” or “BORIC ACID”.
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• If your search text contains characters like “,” or “)” or spaces, names
may be displayed that do not exactly match in the position of those characters. Suppose you want to find “1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE”. If
you enter “1,2,4”, the list will include “12418 RED”. To avoid this, type
a longer string of characters like “1,2,4-TRI”.
• On the other hand, if your lookup fails to locate the desired name, try
entering fewer characters. Entering “1-BETA-D2'” results in no matches,
but “1-BETA-D” results in several, including “1-BETA-D-2'-DEOXYRIBOFURANOSYL-5-FLUOROURACIL”, possibly the desired
name.
• If all else fails, click Cancel to leave the Chemicals In Inventory editing
window, open the Chemical Library, and search for the chemical name,
specifying “Contains characters.” Once you find the desired name (in the
Synonyms tab), note precisely its first 10 characters. Return to Chemicals In Inventory, click Edit, enter those 10 characters, then click Look
Up Chemical.
Using the Adjust Link button. This button is visible on a Chemicals in
Inventory record once you have saved your editing changes. You can use it
to link a particular Chemical Library record with either (a) a chemical name
or (b) a combination of a chemical name and a CAS number that you’ve
typed in one or more of your Chemicals in Inventory records. You would
use this button only when you’re sure that a particular Chemical Library
record matches the name or combination of name-and-CAS number on a
Chemicals in Inventory record. Generally, a link is useful in either of two
circumstances:
• You want to be sure that you’ll be able to readily access the response recommendations and other information about a chemical from its Chemicals in Inventory record (you would do this by clicking the View RIDS
button on that record) or from a Facilities or Routes record (you would
click the RIDS button next to the name of the chemical in the inventory).
• You want to use the Screening & Scenarios module to predict a hazard
zone for the chemical shown on the Chemicals in Inventory record (see
“Using Screening & Scenarios to assess hazards” on page 137). You
would not need to make a link if the name shown on the Chemicals in
Inventory record matches just one Chemical Library record. That name
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Keeping track of the chemicals in a facility’s inventory
must match either (a) the name shown in the Chemical Name box on
only one Chemical Library record, or (b) an official EHS name (in a few
cases, this name differs from the name in the Chemical Name box). To
find out the number of matching Chemical Library records, click the
View RIDS button on the Chemicals in Inventory record of concern. If
there are multiple matching Chemical Library records, then you would
need to make a link. (Also, The Chemical Library record must be for an
EHS. If the EPCRA EHS Chemical box is checked, it is.)
Important: Because you make a link not between two records, but between
either a name or name/CAS number and a record, the links you make can
affect multiple Chemicals in Inventory records. For example, if you link
“Nitric Acid” on one of your Chemicals in Inventory records to the Chemical Library record for “NITRIC ACID, FUMING,” then any other Chemicals in Inventory records for “Nitric Acid” also will automatically be linked
to the Chemical Library record for “NITRIC ACID, FUMING”.
Inadvertently linking to the wrong Chemical Library record associates the
wrong response recommendations with a chemical in an inventory. To avoid
inadvertent links, when you plan to link names to Chemical Library records,
choose relatively specific chemical names, such as “Nitric Acid, 40%,”
rather than more general names like “Nitric Acid.”3 We also recommend not
making a link if you aren’t sure that a particular Chemical Library record
matches the chemical name or name and CAS number combination that
you’ve included on your Chemicals in Inventory record(s).
An alternative to using Adjust Link is to use Look Up Chemical to be sure
that you’ve chosen a correctly spelled name for the chemical. Once you’ve
done that, clicking View RIDS will display a list of all the Chemical Library
records that match that chemical name.
Before you make a link, click View RIDS on the Chemicals in Inventory
record (or the RIDS button next to the chemical’s name under the Chemical
Inventory tab on the related Facilities record). There is no need to make a
3. You also could choose to use a unique name, such as “Nitric Acid in Process 7,” on the
linked Chemicals in Inventory record to ensure that the link will not affect other Chemicals in Inventory records for nitric acid.
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link if you’re satisfied with the results you obtain. (See Table 2 on page 131
for more help in making this determination.)
Otherwise, to make a link,
1. Open the Chemicals in Inventory record in Record mode.
2. Click Adjust Link.
3. When asked whether you wish to create a link, click Yes. The Chemical
Library module will be displayed.
4. Find and select the Chemical Library record you want to link to. See
“Searching for a Chemical Record” on page 78 for instructions for
searching the Chemical Library for a record.
5. From the Link menu, select Link this Record.
Tip: You can first search the Chemical Library to find the record you want
to link to, and then follow the steps above to create the link.
To remove a link that you made in error, click Adjust Link, then click
Remove Link.
Whether you want to use Look Up Chemical and/or Adjust Link in a particular situation depends on your project at hand and your goals for it. Table 2
on page 131 is a quick-reference decision aid showing when you might
want to use one or the other of the buttons, and when you might not.
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Keeping track of the chemicals in a facility’s inventory
TABLE 2. Decision table for looking up names and linking to
records.
If you need to...
Then do this:
Make sure a chemical name
matches a name or synonym in the
Chemical Library.
Type the name, then click Look Up Chemical to
check for names and synonyms in the Chemical
Library that match what you’ve typed.
Retain a name on a Chemicals in
Inventory record that doesn’t
match CAMEO’s name for the
chemical (for example, a name on
a submitted Tier II form).
Type the name and don’t click Look Up Chemical.
(You can use Adjust Link if you know which
Chemical Library record matches the name you’re
using.)
Use Screening & Scenarios to plot
hazard zones for a chemical.
Use Adjust Link unless the name on the Chemicals
in Inventory record matches just one Chemical
Library record (either the name in the Chemical
Name box or the official EHS name). The Chemical Library record must be for an EHS (if the
EPCRA EHS Chemical box is checked, it is).
Ensure you can quickly access the
right response recommendations
during an incident response.
Use Adjust Link unless the name and/or CAS
number on the Chemicals in Inventory record
matches only the Chemical Library record(s) that
correctly describe the chemical (in some cases—
for example, a chemical sometimes stored at different solution strengths—you might want more
than one Chemical Library record to match the
Chemicals in Inventory record).
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Items in Chemicals in Inventory record
Table 3 explains the items shown on Chemicals in Inventory record.
TABLE 3. Items on a Chemicals in Inventory record.
132
Item
Description
Facility/Route
Filled in automatically with either the name of the facility
that maintains this substance or the name of the transportation route along which this substance is transported.
Dept.
Filled in automatically with the department or division of
a facility.
City
Filled in automatically with the city where the facility or
route is located.
State
Filled in automatically with the state where the facility or
route is located.
In Inventory
Automatically checked if this is an inventory record for a
facility.
In Transit
Automatically checked if this record is for a chemical
associated with a transportation route.
EHS Substance
Click this checkbox if the chemical (or one of the components of the mixture) is one of the Extremely Hazardous
Substances identified by EPA.
Trade Secret
Click this checkbox if the formula for this substance is a
trade secret.
Report Year
Filled in automatically with the report year shown on the
related Facilities, if this is an inventory record for a facility. Should be the year for which this chemical inventory
information applies (typically, the reporting year in which
the Tier II form or data file was submitted). Not editable.
MSDS
MSDS number for chemical (provided by manufacturer).
Chemical Name
The name of the chemical.
CAS #
The Chemical Abstract Service number for the substance.
Working with Facility Records
Keeping track of the chemicals in a facility’s inventory
TABLE 3. Items on a Chemicals in Inventory record. (Continued)
Item
Description
View RIDS
Click this button to see the RIDS record for the chemical
shown on this record. If you do not see a RIDS record, see
“Manually creating a Chemicals in Inventory record” on
page 123.
Adjust Link
Click this button to make or change the link between a
Chemicals in Inventory record and a Chemical Library
record. See “Using the Adjust Link button” on page 128.
Under the Location tab:
Amount
The amount of the substance stored or transported.
Unit
Amount units (mass or volume). Pull-down menu in Edit
view.
Type
The letter code for type of storage (click Type to see a list
of type code definitions). Pull-down menu in Edit view.
Press
The number code for storage pressure (click Press to see a
list of pressure code definitions). Pull-down menu in Edit
view.
Temp
The number code for storage temperature (click Temp to
see a list of temperature code definitions). Pull-down
menu in Edit view.
Location
Short description of the location of the stored (or transported) substance.
Under the Physical State & Quantity tab:
Pure/Mixture
Click Pure if the substance is in pure form; Mixture if it is
a mixture.
Solid/Liquid/Gas
Click these checkboxes to indicate the physical state(s) of
the stored or transported substance.
Fire
Click this checkbox if the substance is a fire hazard (e.g.,
flammables, combustible liquids, and oxidizers).
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TABLE 3. Items on a Chemicals in Inventory record. (Continued)
134
Item
Description
Pressure
Click this checkbox if the substance is a “sudden release
of pressure” hazard (e.g., explosives and compressed
gases).
Reactive
Click this checkbox if the substance is a reactive hazard
(e.g., water reactives, unstable reactives, and organic peroxides).
Acute/Chronic
Click one or both of these checkboxes if the substance
poses either acute (immediate) or chronic (delayed)
health risks. Examples of acute health hazards include
toxics, corrosives, irritants, and sensitizers; chronic health
hazards include carcinogens.
Max Daily Amount/Max
Code
Type the maximum amount of the substance stored or
transported, then select the appropriate code for maximum amount. This is the same as the reporting range code
used on Tier II forms.
Average Daily Amount/
Ave Code
Type the average amount of the substance stored or transported, then select the appropriate code for average
amount. This is the same as the reporting range code used
on Tier II forms.
Max. amount in largest
container
Type the maximum amount (in pounds) of the substance
stored or transported in a single container. or in interconnected vessels.
Working with Facility Records
Keeping track of the chemicals in a facility’s inventory
TABLE 3. Items on a Chemicals in Inventory record. (Continued)
Item
Description
Under the Components tab:
Each component of a mixture is described in a table row under this tab. All rows should
be blank in the case of a pure substance.
EHS/CAS/Component/
%/Wt/Vol
Working from left to right in Edit mode, filling out one
row for each mixture component: click the EHS checkbox
if the component is an Extremely Hazardous Substance;
type the component’s CAS number; type the name of the
component (click Look Up Component to check for a
name match with a Chemical Library record or other
Chemicals in Inventory record); type the percentage by
weight or volume of the component within the mixture,
then select either Weight or Volume as percentage units.
Under the Dates tab:
Report Year from January 1 to December 31
Filled in automatically with the report year shown on the
related Facilities, if this is an inventory record for a facility. Should be the year for which this chemical inventory
information applies (typically, the reporting year in which
the Tier II form or data file was submitted). Not editable.
Chemical identical to previous year
Click this checkbox if the information about this substance is identical to the information submitted during the
previous year.
Days on Site
The number of days during the reporting year that the
substance was found at this site.
Date Tier II Signed
Date when the Tier II form was signed by the facility
owner or operator. Filled in automatically with the date
shown on the related Facilities record; not editable.
Date Tier II Received
Date when the Tier II form was received. Filled in automatically with the date shown on the related Facilities
record; not editable.
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TABLE 3. Items on a Chemicals in Inventory record. (Continued)
Item
Description
Under the State Fields tab:
State Fields
On annual reports submitted by facilities, some states
require additional data fields beyond those fields required
on all Tier II forms. CAMEO automatically displays all
state-required fields under this tab, along with any
optional fields used on annual facility reports in that state.
Under the Notes tab:
Notes
Keep your own notes about this substance here.
Adding contact information for a
facility
You can create records in the Contacts module that contain contact information for people representing a facility or other kind of organization or business. When you add a contact for a facility, you’re actually adding a new
record to the Contacts module. Information about that contact will also be
displayed in the facility’s record in the Facilities module.
To add a record for a contact for a facility (to add other kinds of contacts to
the Contacts module, see “Contacts” on page 162):
1. Find and open the Facilities record for the facility for which you want to
add a contact record.
2. Click the Contacts tab, then click the Edit button in the Toolbar.
3. Click Add Contact.
You’ll see a list of all contacts in the Contacts module.
4. Either
•
136
Click on the name of a contact already in the list, then click Select.
You would do this if a contact for the facility is already in the list,
because you already added a Contacts record for that person (perhaps
because he or she is a contact for more than one facility).
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Adding records for incidents at a facility
Note: You can associate the same contact record with more than one
facility by repeating steps 1 through 4 for each of the facilities for
which this person is a contact.
•
Click Add New to add a new Contacts record. You would do this if
the contact is not already in the list (because you haven’t previously
created a Contacts record for that person). You’ll see a new, blank
contacts record. Fill in the information about the new contact (refer to
Table 2 on page 164 for the definitions of each of the fields on a Contacts record), then click Save Changes.
Note: A new Contacts record that you create by clicking New Contact from
a Facilities record will be associated with that Facilities record, even if you
don’t type the name of the facility, or other identifying information about
the facility, on the contact record.
Note: New Contacts records for facility contacts will automatically be
added to your copy of CAMEO whenever you import a Tier2 Submit data
file that contains contact information. See “Importing data from Tier2 Submit” on page 206.
Adding records for incidents at a
facility
Use the Incidents module to record incidents, such as accidental spills and
releases, at given facilities (or routes). To create a record in the Incidents
module that’s associated with a particular facility, follow the steps in “Adding and editing Incidents records” on page 171.
Using Screening & Scenarios to
assess hazards
You can use CAMEO’s Screening & Scenarios module to assess the hazards
to your community from accidental releases of locally stored hazardous
chemicals. Such an assessment is called a hazards analysis. You can use
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the results of your hazards analysis to prepare emergency response plans for
your community. The basic procedures for hazards analysis are described in
Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis: Emergency Planning for
Extremely Hazardous Substances (1987). This guidebook was prepared by
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Federal Emergency
Management Agency (FEMA), and the U.S. Department of Transportation
(DOT), and is available online at www.epa.gov/swercepp/p-tech.htm. The
procedures described in the Technical Guidance were developed to help
community planners, especially members of Local Emergency Planning
Committees (LEPCs), meet the provisions of the Emergency Planning and
Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA; see “EPCRA” on
page 266).
The Technical Guidance describes calculations you can make to estimate
the size of the area around a chemical storage facility or along a transportation route that could be affected by an accidental release of a hazardous
chemical. This area is called the threat zone. It may also be called the vulnerable zone or the screening zone, to reflect the particular type of hazards
analysis you perform (as discussed below).
MARPLOT - River County
Threat Zone Radius
Screening & Scenarios is essentially a calculator you use to estimate the
radius of a threat zone (a threat zone radius is shown at left). To do this,
you enter a set of simple conditions to describe an accidental chemical
release at a chemical facility or along a transportation route. Screening &
Scenarios then estimates the radius of the threat zone around the facility or
along the route, using the Technical Guidance calculations. If you have a
MARPLOT map of your area, you also can plot threat zones on your map.
You can estimate a threat zone radius only for Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHSs), chemicals that have been identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as acute inhalation toxic threats and that have
been listed under EPCRA. There are 356 EHSs. Find more EHS information at www.epa.gov/ceppo/ep-chda.htm#ehs. To check whether a chemical
of concern is an EHS, find its record in the Chemical Library, then click the
Regulatory Information tab. If the EHS checkbox is checked, the chemical
is an EHS (see Figure 5 on page 141).4
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Important: Never use Screening & Scenarios as an emergency response tool
or for meeting the requirements of Section 112(r) of the 1990 Clean Air Act.
See “What are the differences between Screening & Scenarios, ALOHA,
and RMP endpoint distances?” on page 152.
Choosing between screening and scenarios
calculations
When you use Screening & Scenarios, you need to choose whether to estimate the threat zone using either:
1. EPA’s “credible worst case assumptions” to make screening calculations,
or
2. atmospheric and chemical information that you judge to be more typical
of the region and facility, in order to make scenarios calculations.
About screening calculations
When you use EPA’s worst-case assumptions (shown in Table 4), you’re
performing a screening, and the threat zone is typically called a screening
zone. In a screening, you estimate screening zones for all EHSs that are
either
• stored above their specified Threshold Planning Quantity (TPQ) at
chemical facilities within a community.
• transported along a local route in quantities greater than the TPQ.
To see the TPQ for any EHS, find the Chemical Library record for that
EHS, click the Regulatory Information tab, then check the EHS Threshold
Planning Quantity box (see Figure 5 on page 141). If a facility in your area
4. There are more than 356 records for EHSs in the Chemical Library, because there are
multiple records for some EHSs that occur in different solution strengths or mixtures.
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stores more than the TPQ quantity of an EHS, it should be included in your
screening project.
TABLE 4. Worst-case assumptions used for screening zone
estimation.
140
Atmospheric stability class = F
Indicates very stable, nighttime atmospheric
conditions. See Table 6 on page 151.
Wind speed = 3.35 miles per hour
On average, a chemical cloud can travel the farthest downwind at this relatively low wind
speed.
Wind direction = any direction
Wind direction can’t be predicted in advance.
Because an escaping chemical cloud could
potentially travel in any direction away from its
point of release, the screening zone forms a circle around the potential release point. The zone
therefore does not represent the area that could
be affected during a release; the part of the zone
that is affected would depend on the wind
direction during the release.
Ground roughness = Open Country
The chemical cloud travels across flat, rural terrain that presents no obstacles to air movement.
Level of concern = the value listed in
the Technical Guidance for the EHS
of concern
This is a conservative estimate of the chemical
concentration that might cause adverse health
effects. A screening zone encompasses the area
around the potential release point within which
ground-level concentrations of pollutant could
reach or exceed your level of concern.
Amount released = maximum quantity in vessel or interconnected vessels
The maximum quantity of a chemical that can
be contained in a single storage vessel or in a
group of interconnected vessels within the
facility under examination. Release is from
ground level.
Release duration = 10 minutes, or
depends on evaporation or volatilization rate
Depends on the chemical’s state. Solids in powder or solution form and gases are expected to
be released within 10 minutes. The duration of
a liquid or molten solid’s release depends on its
rate of evaporation or volatilization.
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Using Screening & Scenarios to assess hazards
FIGURE 5. This Chemical Library record shows that acrolein is an
Extremely Hazardous Substance (EHS), with a Threshold Planning
Quantity (TPQ) of 500 pounds.
Once you have estimated your screening zones, the Technical Guidance
describes in detail the remaining steps of a hazards analysis. Briefly, those
steps are:
1. use your estimated screening zones as an aid in identifying the popula-
tions and critical facilities that might be placed at risk by a worst-case,
accidental release. This gives you a way to estimate the greatest possible
severity of the consequences of a release.
2. estimate the likelihood of a given release.
3. use your estimates of the greatest possible severity of release consequences and the likelihood that the release will occur to estimate the
overall risk associated with a particular chemical for each facility and
transportation route.
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4. differentiate between high-priority and low-priority risks to your com-
munity. You might choose to focus first on high-priority risks when preparing emergency plans.
About scenarios calculations
If you change at least one of the screening assumptions, you are making a
scenario calculation instead of a screening calculation. You might choose to
make a scenario calculation if you thought that one or more of the worstcase assumptions for weather, release amount, level of concern, and/or
other circumstances of a release did not represent likely release circumstances for a facility. For example, you might change wind speed and stability class to fit historical weather data (check with the National Climatic
Data Center, lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html, to obtain historical data for
your area). You can then find the size of a threat zone under more typical
weather conditions rather than the worst-case conditions. When you make
scenarios instead of screening calculations, the threat zone is typically
termed the vulnerable zone to distinguish it from a screening zone.
You can use both the screening and scenarios features in Screening & Scenarios. Use the screening assumptions to compare the relative risks to your
community from the worst possible releases of all chemicals of concern,
both at fixed facilities and along transportation routes. Once you have completed your initial screening, you can construct scenarios to explore how
changing your release assumptions might influence the size of the vulnerable zone. (You also could use ALOHA to further investigate potential
release scenarios; see “Using ALOHA with MARPLOT and CAMEO” on
page 189.)
Before estimating a threat zone
Before you begin, you need to make the following preparations:
1. Create a Facilities or Routes record, and link it to a map object, follow-
ing the instructions in either “Linking symbol objects to records” on
page 184 for a Facilities record, or “Linking transportation routes to
CAMEO records” on page 185 for a Routes record. Any Screening &
Scenarios records you create for the facility or route will become indi-
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Using Screening & Scenarios to assess hazards
rectly linked to the same map object, and you’ll then be able to plot a
threat zone for that facility or route on the map.
2. Create a Chemicals in Inventory record for a chemical that’s either maintained at the facility (follow the steps in “Keeping track of the chemicals
in a facility’s inventory” on page 123), or routinely transported along the
route (follow the steps in “Keeping track of chemicals transported along
a route” on page 168).
To run a screening calculation, you must enter a value for Max amount
in largest container.
3. Check that the chemical is an EHS, if you don’t already know: open its
Chemical Library record in Record view, click the Regulatory Information tab, then check whether the EPCRA EHS Chemical box is checked.
If it is checked, the chemical is an EHS.
Estimating a screening zone
Once you’ve made the preparations shown above, follow the steps below to
estimate the radius of a screening zone for a particular EHS at a facility or
along a route:
1. Select the Chemicals in Inventory record for the chemical for which you
want to estimate a threat zone, then select New Screening/Scenario
Record from the Record menu. If you are then told...
• ...that the record is not linked to a Chemical Library record, then link
the chemical name on the Chemicals in Inventory record to the
Chemical Library record for that chemical (see “Manually creating a
Chemicals in Inventory record” on page 123).
• ...that you first must enter the maximum amount in the largest container, then click OK, open the Chemicals in Inventory record in
Record view, click the Edit toolbar button, click the Physical State &
Quantity tab, type an amount in pounds in the Max amount in largest
container box, then click Save Changes.
• ...that there is not enough information on the Chemical Library
record, then the chemical is not an EHS, and you can’t create a
Screening & Scenarios record for it.
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2. Click Screening when asked whether you want to create a screening
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
record or alternative scenario.
Information about the stored chemical and the facility or route where it’s
stored or transported will be copied onto a new Screening & Scenarios
record, which will be displayed in Edit mode.5
Note: For each Chemicals in Inventory record, you can create just one
screening record (which you can edit whenever you like). You can create
as many alternate scenario records as you like.
Type a name for the screening in the Screening Name box.
The chemical’s physical state at 68°F—solid, liquid, or gas—is automatically filled in. If the chemical is a liquid stored at or above its boiling
point, select Near-Boiling from menu to the right of the Liquid button. If
it is a liquid stored below its boiling point, select Ambient from the
menu. If it is a solid, select Solution if it’s in solution, Powder if it’s in
powdered form, or Molten if it’s in molten form. Your choice influences
how CAMEO makes threat zone calculations (see the Technical Guidance for more details about how the calculations are made).
Type a diked area in square feet if the chemical’s container is surrounded
by a dike.
Click Estimate Threat Zone Radius. The radius estimate will be displayed.
You also can fill in the risks and consequences of the release. Consult the
Technical Guidance for help with this step.
Once you have completed your radius calculation, click Save Changes to
save this record. See “Plotting a threat zone on a map” on page 148 for
the directions for plotting the screening zone on a map.
5. On the new record, the Amount Released box will be filled in with the maximum amount
in largest container shown on the Chemicals in Inventory record. Concentration is set to
100 percent, and physical state at 68°F and LOC (level of concern) are filled in with the
information shown under the Screening & Scenarios tab on the Chemical Library record
for the substance. Weather conditions and release duration are set to the values shown in
Table 4 on page 140.
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Making scenarios calculations
To make scenarios calculations rather than screening calculations,
1. Select the Chemicals in Inventory record for the chemical for which you
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
want to estimate a threat zone, then select New Screening/Scenarios
Record from the Record menu.
Click Scenario if you are asked whether you want to create a screening
record or alternative scenario. If you have already created a Screening
record for this chemical, a new Scenario record will automatically be
created for you, because there can be only a single Screening record for
each chemical in an inventory.
Type a name for the screening in the Screening Name box.
The chemical’s physical state at 68°F—solid, liquid, or gas—is automatically filled in. If the chemical is a liquid stored at or above its boiling
point, select Near-Boiling from the menu to the right of the Liquid button. If it is a liquid stored below its boiling point, select Ambient from
the menu. If it is a solid, select Solution if it’s in solution, Powder if it’s
in powdered form, or Molten if it’s in molten form. Your choice influences how CAMEO makes threat zone calculations (see the Technical
Guidance for more details about how the calculations are made).
Adjust any storage and release conditions that need to be changed. Refer
to Table 5 on page 146 to make your choices.
Click Estimate Threat Zone Radius. The radius estimate will be displayed.
You also can fill in the risks and consequences of the release. Consult the
Technical Guidance for help with this step.
Once you’ve completed your radius calculation, click Save Changes to
save this record. See “Plotting a threat zone on a map” on page 148 for
the directions for plotting the threat zone on a map.
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TABLE 5. Items in Screening & Scenarios recordsa.
Item
Description
Facility/Route Name
The name of the facility or route where this
chemical is maintained or transported. Not editable.
Chemical
Name of the chemical. Not editable.
CAS
Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) number for
this chemical. Not editable.
Screening Name (Scenario Name)
Name of this screening or scenario.
In Inventory
Checked automatically if this Screening & Scenarios record is associated with a facility. Not
editable.
In Transit
Checked automatically if this if this Screening &
Scenarios record is associated with a transportation route. Not editable.
Shipper
Checked automatically if the facility that maintains this chemical is a shipper (as indicated on
its Facilities record). Not editable.
Under the Screening (Scenario) Description tab:
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Amount Released
Amount of chemical released, in pounds. For
screening calculations, this is the maximum
amount stored in one vessel or in connected vessels; you can use other values for alternative scenarios.
Concentration
Concentration of the chemical, in weight percent.
Release Duration
Release duration in minutes.
Physical State
Chemical’s physical state (solid, liquid, or gas)
at 68°F. Automatically filled in when you select
a chemical from the list of EHS chemicals.
If stored in a container with a
dike, enter surface area within
dike:
If the container in which the chemical is stored
is diked, type the area within the dike, in square
feet.
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Using Screening & Scenarios to assess hazards
TABLE 5. Items in Screening & Scenarios recordsa. (Continued)
Item
Description
Atmospheric Concentration Level
of Concern
Or LOC. Atmospheric concentration of the
chemical on which to base threat zone calculations, in grams per cubic meter. The value listed
in the Technical Guidance is automatically filled
in; you can type a different value if you’re running a scenario rather than a screening.
LOC Description
Either “Greenbook LOC,” if this is the Technical
Guidance value, or “Other,” if this is a different
LOC.
Wind Speed
Wind speed in miles per hour (mph). For screening calculations, wind speed is set to 3.4 miles
per hour. Your value for wind speed must be
appropriate for the stability class that you
selected (see Table 6 on page 151).
Wind From
Direction from which the wind is blowing, in
degrees true north. This field remains blank
when you perform screening calculations,
because you can’t predict wind direction in
advance of a release.
Ground Roughness
A measure of the size of the obstacles on the
ground that a dispersing chemical cloud must
pass over. For screening calculations, ground
roughness is set to Open Country. For a scenario, choose either Open Country (relatively
smaller and fewer obstacles) or Urban or Forest
(relatively more and larger obstacles) from this
menu.
Stability Class
Atmospheric stability category that depends on
wind speed and cloud cover. For screening calculations, stability class is set to F. For scenarios, see Table 6 on page 151 to choose a class.
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TABLE 5. Items in Screening & Scenarios recordsa. (Continued)
Item
Description
Risk/Consequences/Overall Risk
Using the information you entered for the
Screening/Scenarios calculations, you can rank
the likelihood, consequences, and overall risk of
a release of a chemical. Select “high,”
“medium,” or “low” from each menu. (Refer to
the Technical Guidance for more on risk assessment.)
Threat Zone Radius
Distance from the release point beyond which
the predicted concentration of the airborne pollutant is expected to be below the LOC. At locations closer to the release point and directly
downwind, concentrations are predicted to
exceed the LOC. Because wind direction is not
taken into account when this distance is calculated, a threat zone around a release point always
forms a circle.
Estimate Threat Zone Radius
Visible only in Edit mode. Click this button to
estimate the threat zone radius.
Under the Notes tab:
Notes
Keep your own notes about a screening or scenario here.
a. You’ll notice that there is no data field for ambient temperature. For all Screening &
Scenarios calculations, temperature is assumed to be 68°F (20°C).
Plotting a threat zone on a map
To plot a threat zone on a MARPLOT map from a Screening & Scenarios
record,
• Click
(or, from the Sharing menu, select MARPLOT, then
Show on Map). If you’ve linked the facility or route record for which
you’re making this threat zone to a map object, MARPLOT will start up
and will display the map, with the threat zone on it.
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In the case of a facility, the threat zone will appear as a shaded circle
around the facility, with a radius equal to the threat zone radius shown on
the Screening & Scenarios record (Figure 6). A threat zone for a scenario
FIGURE 6. A threat zone plotted around a facility map symbol.
also includes a small oval area, representing the area that could potentially be affected if the wind blows from the direction you indicated
when you entered the information about that scenario on its Screening &
Scenarios record. Threat zones for screenings don’t include an oval area
because wind direction isn’t specified in screenings.
In the case of a route, the threat zone will appear as a shaded corridor
along the full length of the route, twice as wide at every point along the
route as the calculated threat zone radius (Figure 7).
Working with threat zones on maps
You can find out which special locations could be at risk during a potential
incident by using Special Locations along with MARPLOT and Screening
& Scenarios. For instructions, check “Checking for special locations within
a footprint or threat zone” on page 160.
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FIGURE 7. A threat zone plotted along a route.
All your threat zones will automatically be removed from the map when
you quit (exit) MARPLOT. To delete a threat zone from your map without
quitting (exiting) from MARPLOT, return to the Screening & Scenarios
record from which you plotted the threat zone, and select MARPLOT, then
Delete Scenario Object from CAMEO’s Sharing menu. If you’ve plotted
multiple threat zones on your map and would like to remove them all, while
Screening & Scenarios is open, select MARPLOT, then Delete All Scenario
Objects from the Sharing menu.
Choosing a stability class
Atmospheric stability class is one of the conditions you can adjust when
making scenarios rather than screening calculations. The atmosphere is
more or less turbulent at any given time, depending on the amount of
incoming solar radiation as well as other factors. Meteorologists have
defined six atmospheric stability classes, each representing a different
degree of turbulence in the atmosphere. When moderate to strong incoming
solar radiation heats air near the ground, causing it to rise and generating
large eddies, the atmosphere is considered “unstable,” or relatively turbu-
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lent. Unstable conditions are associated with atmospheric stability classes A
and B. When solar radiation is relatively weak, air near the surface has less
of a tendency to rise and less turbulence develops. In this case, the atmosphere is considered “stable,” or less turbulent, the wind is weak, and the
stability class would be E or F. Stability classes D and C represent conditions of more neutral stability, or moderate turbulence. Neutral conditions
are associated with relatively strong wind speeds and moderate solar radiation.
Use Table 6 to choose the stability class that best fits a given combination of
wind speed and solar radiation strength:
TABLE 6. Stability class choices for day and nighttime (adapted
from Turner 1994).
DAYTIME
Surface Wind Speed
NIGHTTIME*
Incoming solar radiation:
Cloud cover:
Strong
Moderate
Slight
> 5/10
< 5/10
Miles per hour
Meters per
second
<4
<2
A
A–B
B
E
F
4 to 7
2 to 3
A–B
B
C
E
F
7 to 11
3 to 5
B
B–C
C
D
E
11 to 13
5 to 6
C
C–D
D
D
D
> 13
>6
C
D
D
D
D
Choose D for completely overcast conditions during day or night.
*Nighttime is the period from 1 hour before sunset to 1 hour after sunrise.
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What are the differences between Screening &
Scenarios, ALOHA, and RMP endpoint distances?
Three kinds of hazard prediction can seem very similar on first encounter:
• the threat zone you estimate using Screening & Scenarios.
• the footprint produced by ALOHA, CAMEO’s gas dispersion model.
ALOHA’s footprint is defined as the area downwind of an accidental
release where chemical concentrations in the air at about ground level
may be high enough to be of concern.
• the endpoint distance you estimate when you perform an offsite consequence analysis under the Risk Management Planning Rule (or RMP
Rule; see “CAA 112(r)” on page 275). An endpoint distance represents
the distance to a particular level of hazard, such as a toxic gas concentration or heat radiation intensity. You may have used the RMP*Comp program (see “RMP*Comp” on page 9) or similar software to estimate
endpoint distances.
First, what’s the difference between a threat zone from Screening & Scenarios and ALOHA’s footprint? Screening & Scenarios makes the simplified
threat zone calculations described in the Technical Guidance. ALOHA
makes a footprint estimate by taking into account many factors—such as
additional properties of the chemical, weather conditions, and the specific
characteristics of the release source—that are not included in Screening &
Scenarios calculations. ALOHA calculations are more complex, and often
may more accurately predict the effects of a release.
Second, an endpoint distance for an offsite consequence analysis is similar
in concept to a threat zone radius—so how are they different? At first
glance, the hazard analysis procedures described in the Technical Guidance
and implemented in Screening and Scenarios look similar to the RMP consequence analysis procedures specified by the RMP Rule. For example,
both the RMP Rule and the Technical Guidance specify F stability and 3.4
miles per hour (1.5 meters per second) wind speed conditions for worst-case
scenarios. But there are key differences between the two procedures:
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• For many substances, the toxic endpoints specified in the RMP Rule differ from the LOCs (“Levels of Concern”) specified in the Technical
Guidance.
• Screening & Scenarios makes only Gaussian dispersion calculations, but
the RMP Rule specifies that you must “appropriately account for gas
density.” That is, you must use another technique to model heavy gases
(Gaussian calculations are designed for neutrally buoyant gases).
• While the Technical Guidance mandates rural terrain for all worst-case
scenarios, the RMP Rule specifies that you should choose either urban or
rural terrain conditions, depending on which choice best describes the
terrain around the facility.
• Both the Technical Guidance and the RMP Rule specify that toxic gases
should be assumed to be released over a 10-minute period. But the Technical Guidance specifies that the dispersion distance then be estimated
by treating the release as a steady-state (infinite-duration) emission, at
the rate that would result in the release of the entire quantity of the substance in 10 minutes. In contrast, the RMP Rule specifies that the distance be estimated by treating the release as an emission lasting only 10
minutes. This difference in method may seem obscure, but it can make a
big difference. Distances estimated using the Technical Guidance
method can be substantially longer than distances estimated using the
RMP Rule method.
Here are the key points to remember:
• For emergency response, use ALOHA, not Screening & Scenarios.
• Don’t use Screening & Scenarios to estimate endpoint distances for the
offsite consequence analyses required under the RMP Rule. You can use
ALOHA or RMP*Comp for this task.
• Use Screening & Scenarios only for the hazards analyses described in
the Technical Guidance, to meet requirements of EPCRA.
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CHAPTER 6
Working With
Other CAMEO
Components
In this chapter, you’ll find descriptions of the Special Locations, Contacts,
Resources, Routes, and Incidents modules, and explanations of how you
can use the ALOHA and MARPLOT programs along with CAMEO’s modules.
Working with other CAMEO modules
Special Locations
Use the Special Locations module to keep track of the locations of highdensity, confined, or sensitive populations that might need special attention
during an emergency (e.g., schools, nursing homes, hospitals, medical clinics, and community locations where people congregate). Create a Special
Locations record describing each special location in your area of jurisdiction or concern. If you have a map of your area, you also can link each Special Locations record to a symbol marking its location on the map.
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Adding and editing special location records. To create a new
record,
1. Open the Special Locations module.
2. Select New Special Location from the Record menu. A new, blank
record will be created.
3. Fill out the new Special Locations record. Check Table 1 for explanations of all the items.
To add phone numbers or information about contact people, follow the
steps in “Adding contact information for special locations” on page 158.
4. Click Save Changes to save your new record.
To edit an existing Special Locations record, click the Edit button in the
toolbar (see “Editing records” on page 29).
Mapping a special location. To link your new record to a symbol on a
MARPLOT map, follow the steps in “Linking map objects to CAMEO
records” on page 183.
TABLE 1. Items in Special Locations records.
Item
Description
Location Name
Name of the special location.
Location Type
Editable menu of special location types (e.g., “Elementary
School”).
Building Type
Editable menu of building types (e.g., Single Family, Tower).
Under the Address tab:
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Street Address
Street address for this special location, as well as the county (or
borough or parish), fire district, and country where it’s located.
Mailing Address
Mailing address for this special location
Email
Email address for this special location.
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TABLE 1. Items in Special Locations records. (Continued)
Item
Description
Under the Population tab:
Hours of Operation
Time periods during the day when people are present at this location (e.g., “8:00 am - 5:00 pm”).
Peak Season
Season of the year when the largest number of people are present
at this location (e.g., “School Year” for an elementary school;
“Summer” for a resort hotel).
Average Population
Average number of people at this location during its hours of
operation on typical days.
Average Age
Average age of the people at this location.
Daily Population,
Min/Max
Minimum and maximum number of people at this location during
the course of a day.
Seasonal Population, Min/Max
Minimum and maximum number of people at this location during
a season. (Minimum is the number present during the slowest season; maximum the number during the peak season.)
Under the Phones tab:
Type
Type of phone number (e.g., 24-hour, emergency, office). Pulldown menu in Edit mode.
Phone
Phone number.
Under the Contacts tab:
Double-click any contact to see the record for that contact.
Last/First Name
Name(s) of the contact.
Title
Title of the contact.
Organization
Organization represented by the contact.
Under the Map Data tab:
Latitude/Longitude
Latitude and longitude of the special location, expressed as decimal values.
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TABLE 1. Items in Special Locations records. (Continued)
Item
Description
Method for determining latitude
and longitude
Code and description of the method by which latitude and longitude were measured.
Description of
location identified
by latitude and
longitude
Code and description of the location for which latitude and longitude were measured.
Record is linked to
MARPLOT object
This box is checked if this record is linked to a symbol object on a
MARPLOT map (see “Linking map objects to CAMEO records”
on page 183).
Under the Notes tab:
Notes
Keep your own notes about this special location here.
Adding contact information for special locations. You can add
contact information for special locations in two ways:
• Including telephone numbers in Special Locations records themselves
(e.g., the emergency phone number for a school or hospital). Generally
speaking, you should do this if you foresee referring to CAMEO in order
to contact special locations during an emergency response, to be able to
most quickly access the phone numbers. For an example of how you
might use phone numbers in Special Locations records during a
response, see “Checking for special locations within a footprint or threat
zone” on page 160.
• Adding Contacts records containing contact information for people representing particular special locations (such as a school principal or a
facility emergency manager). In Contacts records, you can keep
addresses and phone numbers for your contacts as well as notes about
each contact, such as notes from meetings or phone conversations. When
you add a contact for a special location, you’re actually adding a new
record to the Contacts module. Information about that contact will also
be displayed under that Contacts tab in the related Special Locations
record.
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To add a phone number to a Special Locations record,
1. Open the record in Record View.
2. Click the Phones tab, then click the Edit button in the toolbar.
3. Click within the first blank table row below the “Type” heading. In the
menu of phone number types, click to select a type (e.g., “24-hour,”
“emergency”). If you need to add or modify a type, select Edit from the
menu.
4. Type the phone number to the right of the menu in the same table row.
5. Click Save Changes.
To add a record for a contact person for a special location,
1. Select the Special Locations record for that special location; open the
record in Record View.
2. Click the Contacts tab, then click the Edit button in the Toolbar.
3. Click Add Contact. You’ll see a list of all contacts in the Contacts module.
4. Either
•
Click on the name of a contact already in the list, then click Select.
You would do this if a person representing the special location is
already in your Contacts module (perhaps because they are a contact
for more than one special location).
Note: You can associate the same contact record with more than one
special location by repeating steps 1 through 4 for each special location for which this person is a contact.
•
Click Add New to add a new Contacts record. You would do this if
the contact is not already in the list. You’ll see a new, blank Contacts
record. Fill in the information about the new contact (refer to Table 2
on page 164 for the definitions of the items on a Contacts record),
then click Save Changes.
Note: A new Contacts record that you create by clicking New Contact
from a Special Locations record will be associated with that Special
Locations record, even if you don’t type the name of the special location or other identifying information about the special location, on the
contact record.
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Checking for special locations within a footprint or
threat zone
Special locations...
...within a footprint:
MARPLOT - River County
To find out which special locations could be at risk during a real or planning incident, you can use Special Locations along with MARPLOT and
either
• ALOHA, during an emergency response to a toxic gas release (or for
...within a threat zone:
MARPLOT - River County
planning projects). In this case, you would be most concerned about special locations located within ALOHA’s footprint (like the ones represented by the hospital symbols at left). The footprint represents the area
where gas concentrations are predicted to be high enough to be hazardous (see the discussion of ALOHA in “CAMEO’s three components” on
page 3).
• Screening & Scenarios, when you’re planning for emergencies. In this
case, you’d be most concerned about special locations located within a
threat zone you plotted from Screening & Scenarios (like the hospital
symbols at left). A threat zone represents the area that could be affected
by an accidental release of a hazardous chemical (for an explanation of
threat zones and how they differ from ALOHA footprints, see “Using
Screening & Scenarios to assess hazards” on page 137).
You first need to make the following preparations:
1. Create a Special Locations record for each special location of concern to
you. To create a new record, open Special Locations, then select New
Special Location from the Record menu; fill in the information about the
special location, then click Save Changes to save your new record.
2. In MARPLOT, place a symbol on the CAMEO Map at the location of
each of these special locations, then link each special location symbol to
the corresponding record. (To create and link symbols, follow the steps
in “Linking map objects to CAMEO records” on page 183.)
Once you’ve made these necessary preparations, then whenever you use
ALOHA to create a footprint or Screening & Scenarios to create a threat
zone on the map, you can quickly check for the special locations located
inside that footprint or threat zone.
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Here are the steps:
1. In MARPLOT, click directly on the footprint or threat zone object to
select it. Check to be sure that you’ve selected only that object.
2. From MARPLOT’s List menu, select Search.
3. Set up a search for objects that are “inside of or touched by...” “the currently selected object(s)” on the map layer(s) where you have placed
your special location symbols, then press Search (check the MARPLOT
manual for more on setting up searches; you can download the manual
from www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/marplot.htm). Below is an example of
such a search for hospitals shown on a MARPLOT map.
4. Click Show All on Map. The map will be displayed at a scale that makes
all the symbols on the layer that are within the threat zone visible; all the
symbols will be selected.
5. From MARPLOT’s Sharing menu, select CAMEOfm, then Get Info (as
at left).1 The Special Locations module will be displayed, showing a list
1. If a previous version of CAMEO is still installed on your computer, you will see both
“CAMEO” and “CAMEOfm” in MARPLOT’s Sharing menu. Always select from the
CAMEOfm commands when you’re working with the current version of CAMEO. See
“When you start from MARPLOT...” on page 182 for instructions for removing the
“CAMEO” items from the Sharing menu.
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of all the records linked to the selected map objects (if there are multiple
records, they’re placed in a found set, just as though you had found them
by running a search for them). Double-click any record in the list to view
that record in Record View.
Once you have a set of Special Locations records representing the special
locations within a threat zone, you can make and print a report containing
the contact phone numbers for those locations:
1. From the File menu in the Special Locations module, select Make
Report.
2. Click the Found Set button, so that the report will include information
about all the special locations within the threat zone (each is represented
by a record in the set of found records).
3. Click the Phones checkbox, as well as any other checkboxes you’d like
to include. Clicking Phones includes the phone numbers for all the special locations in the report.
4. Click Make Report, review the report, then click Print.
You or a dispatcher now can use the report to call the locations to alert
them to the emergency.
Note: You can use variations of this method for other planning and response
purposes. For example, you could draw a circle on your MARPLOT map to
represent the area within hearing range of an emergency siren, then search
within it to find those special populations that would be able to hear the
siren. In MARPLOT, it also is possible to search for special locations that
are outside of the circle (and not able to hear the siren).
Contacts
Use the Contacts module as a directory of people and organizations
involved in hazardous materials emergency response and/or planning. You
can associate a given Contacts record with the record for a specific facility,
special location, incident, or response resource (such as a media outlet or
contractor).
Check Table 2 on page 164 to see explanations of the various kinds of information shown on a Contacts record.
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Adding and editing Contacts records. When you add a new record
to the Contacts module, you can choose whether to associate it with a facility, special location, incident, or response resource. The advantage of associating a Contacts record with a facility, special location, incident, or
resource is that you then can use the Show Related command in the Record
menu to quickly move between the related records (see “Using the Show
Related command” on page 28).
• To add a record for a contact person for a particular facility, follow the
instructions in “Adding contact information for a facility” on page 136.
• To add a record for a contact person for a particular special location, follow the instructions in “Adding contact information for special locations” on page 158.
• To add a record for a contact person for a particular incident (either the
reporter of the incident or the discharger), follow the instructions in
“Adding Reporter/Discharger contact information” on page 172.
• To add a record for a contact person representing a response resource,
follow the instructions in “Adding and editing Resources records” on
page 165.
To add a new contact record not associated with a facility, special location,
or other record elsewhere,
1. Open the Contacts module.
2. Choose New Contact from the Record menu. A new, blank record will be
created.
3. Fill out the new Contacts record. Refer to Table 2 on page 164 for explanations of all the items.
4. Click Save Changes to save the new record.
To add a phone number to a Contacts record,
1. Open the record in Record View.
2. Click the Phones tab, then click the Edit button in the toolbar.
3. Click within the first blank table row below the “Type” heading. In the
menu of phone number types, click to select a type (e.g., “24-hour,”
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“emergency”). If you need to add or modify a type, select Edit from the
menu.
4. Type the phone number to the right of the menu in the same table row,
then click Save Changes.
To edit any Contacts record, open that record, then click the Edit button in
the toolbar (see “Editing records” on page 29).
TABLE 2. Items in Contacts records.
Item
Description
First/Last Name
First and last names of the contact person.
Organization
Organization with which contact is affiliated.
Title
The contact’s job title or position.
Contact Type
Choose items from one or more of the four identical
contact type menus to describe the primary functions of
this contact person.
Under the Address tab:
Street Address
Street address of this contact person, as well as the
county (or borough or parish), fire district, and country
where he or she is located.
Mailing Address
Mailing address of this contact person.
Email
Email address of this contact person.
Under the Phones tab:
Type
Type of phone number (e.g., 24-hour, emergency, work).
Pull-down menu in Edit view.
Phone
Phone number.
Under the Notes tab:
Notes
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Keep your own notes about this contact person here.
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Resources
Use the Resources module to keep information about companies, people, or
organizations that supply resources for emergency response or planning.
Examples of resource suppliers you might want to track in the Resources
module include media outlets, cleanup contractors, medical clinics and hospitals, heavy equipment operators, and equipment rental companies.
Adding and editing Resources records. To add a new Resources
record,
1. Open the Resources module.
2. Choose New Resource from the Record menu. A new, blank record will
be created.
3. Fill out the new Resources record. Refer to Table 3 on page 166 for
explanations of all the items.
4. Click Save Changes to save the new record.
To add a phone number to a Resources record,
1. Open the record in Record View.
2. Click the Supplier Phones tab, then click the Edit button in the toolbar.
3. Click within the first blank table row below the “Type” heading. In the
menu of phone number types, click to select a type (e.g., “24-hour,”
“emergency”). If you need to add or modify a type, select Edit from the
menu.
4. Type the phone number to the right of the menu in the same table row,
then click Save Changes.
To edit a Resources record, click the Edit button in the toolbar (see “Editing
records” on page 29).
Adding contact information for resource suppliers. To add a
record for a contact person for a resource,
1. Open the Resources record in Record View.
2. Click the Contacts tab, then click the Edit button in the Toolbar.
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3. Click Add Contact. You’ll see a list of all contacts in the Contacts mod-
ule.
4. Either
•
Click on the name of a contact already in the list, then click Select.
You would do this if a person representing the resource is already in
your Contacts module (perhaps because they are a contact for more
than one resource).
Note: You can associate the same contact record with more than one
resource by repeating steps 1 through 4 for each resource for which
this person is a contact.
•
Click Add New to add a new Contacts record. You would do this if
the contact is not already in the list. You’ll see a new, blank Contacts
record. Fill in the information about the new contact (refer to Table 2
on page 164 for the definitions of the items on a Contacts record),
then click Save Changes.
Note: A new Contacts record that you create by clicking New Contact
from a Resources record will be associated with that Resources
record, even if you don’t type the name of the resource, or other identifying information about the resource, on the contact record.
TABLE 3. Items in Resources records.
Item
Description
Supplier Name
Name of the company, person, or organization that can supply
response resources.
Type
Brief description of the supplier (e.g., “911 Center” or “Bomb
Disposal”). Editable pull-down menu.
Under the Address tab:
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Street Address
Street address of this supplier, as well as the county (or borough or parish), fire district, and country where it’s located.
Mailing Address
Mailing address for this supplier.
Email
Email address for this supplier.
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TABLE 3. Items in Resources records. (Continued)
Item
Description
Under the Supplier Phones tab:
Type
Type of phone number (e.g., 24-hour, emergency, work). Pulldown menu in Edit view.
Phone
Phone number.
Under the Items tab:
ID
Model number or other ID number for an item supplied by this
resource.
Item
Name or short description of the item supplied.
Amount
Number or quantity of items available (e.g., “4” for number of
respirators, or “30” for gallons of a chemical neutralizer).
Under the Contacts tab:
Double-click on any contact to see the record for that contact.
First/Last Name
Name(s) of this contact person.
Title
Job title or position of this contact person.
Organization
Organization with which this contact person is affiliated.
Under the Map Data tab:
Latitude/Longitude
Latitude and longitude of the location of the resource.
Method for obtaining latitude and longitude
Code and description of the method by which latitude and longitude were measured. Pull-down menu in Edit view.
Description of location identified by latitude and longitude
Code and description of the location for which latitude and longitude were measured.
Record is linked to
MARPLOT object
This box is checked if this record is linked to an object on a
MARPLOT map (see “Linking map objects to CAMEO
records” on page 183).
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TABLE 3. Items in Resources records. (Continued)
Item
Description
Under the Notes tab:
Notes
Keep your own notes about this resource supplier here.
Routes
Use the Routes module to maintain information about routes, such as railroads or highways, used to transport hazardous materials. Route types can
include air, water, or land routes. You can link records in this module to
routes depicted on a map in MARPLOT.
Adding and editing Routes records. To add a new route record,
1. Open the Routes module.
2. Choose New Route from the Record menu. A new, blank record will be
created.
3. Fill out the new route record. Refer to Table 4 on page 169 for explanations of all the items.
4. Click Save Changes to save the new record.
To edit a route record, open that record, then click the Edit button in the
toolbar (see “Editing records” on page 29).
Mapping a route. To link any Routes record to a line object on a MARPLOT map representing that route, follow the procedure described in
“Linking transportation routes to CAMEO records” on page 185.
Keeping track of chemicals transported along a route. You can
add Chemicals in Inventory records for a route record. You would do this if
you need to track hazardous materials that are regularly transported along
the route (such as regular shipments of a particular hazardous material from
a facility located along the route).To create a Chemicals in Inventory record
associated with the record for a particular route,
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1. In the Routes module, open the route record in Record View.
2. Turn to “Manually creating a Chemicals in Inventory record” on
page 123. Beginning at step 2 in that section, follow the procedure to
create the new Chemicals in Inventory record.
Investigating hazards along a route. Once you have created a Chemicals in Inventory record for a hazardous material shipped along a particular
route, you then can use the Screening & Scenarios module to investigate
potential hazards posed by an accidental release of that substance. Follow
the instructions in “Using Screening & Scenarios to assess hazards” on
page 137.
Tracking incidents on a route. Use the Incidents module to record
incidents, such as accidental spills and releases, that have occurred along a
particular route. To create a record in the Incidents module that’s associated
with a particular route, follow the steps in “Adding and editing Incidents
records” on page 171.
TABLE 4. Items in the Routes module.
Item
Description
Route Name
Name of this route.
Route Type
County road, railroad, river, canal, or other type. Pull-down
menu in Edit view.
Types of Vehicles
Types of vehicles common on this route or used to transport
hazardous materials along this route.
Evacuation
Check if this is a designated route for evacuation during
chemical emergencies.
Snow
Check if this is a designated snow emergency route.
School
Check if this is a designated route for school-related transportation.
HAZMAT
Check if this is a designated route for vehicles carrying hazardous materials (HAZMAT).
Mass Transit
Check if this is a designated mass transit route (e.g., a bus
route).
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TABLE 4. Items in the Routes module. (Continued)
Item
Description
Start/End Point
Starting and ending points of the route or route segment of
concern.
County
County or other political unit through which the route passes.
Fire District
Fire district through which the route passes.
Vehicles Per Day
Average number of vehicles traveling the route each day.
Route plotted in
MARPLOT
This box is automatically checked if this record is linked to a
line object on a MARPLOT map (see “Linking map objects to
CAMEO records” on page 183). Not editable.
Under the Intersections tab:
Order
Use this box to keep track of the order of the intersections
along a route (e.g., assign the order number “1” to the first
intersection in a sequence, “2” to the second intersection, and
so on).
Intersection
An intersection name or milepost number identifying a specific location on a highway that is of particular concern —
either because of congestion and accident risks, or because of
high volumes of hazardous materials moving through the area.
Under the Chemical Inventory tab:
CAS
CAS number of the chemical transported along the route.
Chemical Name
Name of the transported chemical.
RIDS
Click this button to see the RIDS record for the chemical
shown on this record. If you do not see a RIDS record, see
“Manually creating a Chemicals in Inventory record” on
page 123.
Under the Notes tab:
Notes
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Keep your own notes about this route here.
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Incidents
You can use the Incidents module to keep track of releases of chemicals at
facilities described in the Facilities records or along transport routes
described in Routes records. You can link Incidents records to symbols
marking release locations on maps in MARPLOT.
The Incidents module contains data fields (boxes) for information that,
under Section 304 of EPCRA, facility operators must report for accidental
releases of
• “Extremely Hazardous Substances” (also known as EHS chemicals, and
defined in EPCRA).
• “Hazardous Substances” (also known as CERCLA chemicals, and
defined in CERCLA).
For more details about these reporting requirements, see “Section 304:
emergency notification” on page 270.
Also included on Incidents records are some of the data fields recommended for use in reporting incidents by the National Fire Information
Council (NFIC) and the Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS).
A source of historical incident data. You can find information about
past incidents at facilities in your area, which you can include on Incidents
records, by querying the National Response Center’s incident database at
www.nrc.uscg.mil (click Query Data).
Adding and editing Incidents records. When you create a new Incidents record, you can choose to associate it with a particular facility or route
where the incident occurred. To create a new record for an incident,
1. Skip to step 2 if you do not plan to associate the new record with a facil-
ity or route. Otherwise—if you haven’t already done so—create either a
Facilities record describing the facility or a Routes record describing the
route where the incident occurred.
2. Open the Incidents module and choose New Incident from the Record
menu.
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3. When asked whether you’d like to associate the new record with a route
or facility, click Route to associate it with a route, or Facility to associate
it with a facility. If you don’t want to associate the new record with a
facility or route, click Neither and skip to step 5 (note that you can’t later
associate the record with a facility or route record).
4. In the list of routes or facilities, click on the name of a route or facility,
then click Select. A new Incidents record will be created for this route or
facility.
5. Fill out the new Incidents record (check Table 5 on page 173 for explanations of all the items), then click Save Changes to save the record.
To edit an Incidents record, click the Edit button in the toolbar (see “Editing
records” on page 29).
Adding Reporter/Discharger contact information. You can create
records in the Contacts module that contain contact information for incident
reporters or dischargers who are associated with incidents. When you add a
contact for an incident, you’re actually adding a new record to the Contacts
module, but information about that contact will also be displayed in the
Reporter/Discharger section under the Notification tab in the record for that
incident.
To add a record for a reporter or discharger associated with a particular incident,
1. Open the incident record in Record View.
2. Click the Notification tab, then click the Edit button in the toolbar.
3. Click Add Contact.
You’ll then see a list of all contacts currently in the Contacts module.
4. Either
•
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Click on the name of a contact already in the list, then click Select.
You would do this if the reporter or discharger is already in your Contacts module (perhaps because they are associated with more than one
incident).
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Note: You can associate the same contact record with more than one
incident by repeating steps 1 through 4 for each of the incidents for
which this person is a contact.
•
Click Add New to add a new Contacts record. You would do this if
the reporter/discharger is not already in the list. You’ll see a new,
blank contacts record. Fill in the record (refer to Table 2 on page 164
for explanations of all the items), then click Save Changes.
Note: A new Contacts record that you create by clicking New Contact
from an Incidents record will be associated with that Incidents record,
even if you don’t type the name of the incident or other identifying
information about the incident on the contact record.
Mapping an incident. You can link any Incident record to a symbol on a
MARPLOT map representing the location of that incident. To make a link,
follow the procedure described in “Linking map objects to CAMEO
records” on page 183.
TABLE 5. Items on an Incidents record.
Item
Description
Name of facility or
route
Name of facility or route where the incident took place. If this
record is not associated with a facility or route, this box is blank.
Not editable.
Route type or facility department
Type of route or department/division of facility where the incident took place. If this record is not associated with a facility or
route, this box is blank. Not editable.
Incident
Name of the incident.
Under the Location/Date tab:
Location
Description of the location of an incident, including the county
and fire district, route or waterway, and milepost where the incident occurred.
Date/Time Spilled
Date and time when the incident happened.
Date/Time Discovered
Date and time when the incident was discovered.
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TABLE 5. Items on an Incidents record. (Continued)
Item
Description
Date/Time
Reported
Date and time when the incident was reported to the authorities.
Under the Source tab:
Source checkboxes
Click the checkbox for any of the 11 source categories to indicate
the source(s) of the spill.
Vehicle ID
Identification or license number, if a vehicle was the source of the
spill.
# of Tanks
Number of tanks involved in the release.
Tank Capacity/
Units
Capacity, in weight or volume, of each tank, and a pull-down
menu of capacity units.
Material Type
Click any of the four checkboxes to indicate the type of material
that has been released.
Chemical
The name of the spilled chemical. If a mixture spilled, use a separate line to describe each hazardous component of the mixture.
Quantity/Units
The amount of the chemical that was released into the environment, and a pull-down menu of amount units.
Qty in Water/Units
The amount of the chemical that was released into water, and a
pull-down menu of amount units.
Under the Cause tab:
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Medium
Click any of the eight checkboxes to indicate the medium or
media into which the chemical was released.
Cause
Click any of the seven checkboxes to indicate the cause(s) of the
incident.
Cause Description
Short description of the cause(s) of the incident.
Action Taken
Short description of the initial action taken to respond to the incident.
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Working with other CAMEO modules
TABLE 5. Items on an Incidents record. (Continued)
Item
Description
Under the Notification tab:
Notified
Click any of the six checkboxes to indicate the agencies notified
and the means of notification used. Click Multiple Reports if
more than one agency was notified.
Agency Notified
If you clicked the Other checkbox (under the Notified heading),
type the name of the agency notified about this incident.
Reporter/Discharger
Names and titles of the people who either reported this incident or
are responsible for the discharge. Double-click on a contact name
or title to see the full Contacts record for that person.
Confidentiality
Click this checkbox if the reporter information in this record or in
the associated Contacts record is confidential.
Through NRC
Click this checkbox if this incident was reported to the National
Response Center
Location/Report
Click this checkbox if a known location was reported.
SSI Report
Click this checkbox if a report on a statistically significant
increase (SSI) in a continuous release has been filed.
Incident/Discharge
Click this checkbox if this is a single incident or discharge rather
than a continuous release.
Case ID/Regional
Case ID
Case ID number assigned to this incident by the regional EPA or
U.S. Coast Guard office.
Case ID/NRC
Case ID number assigned to this incident by the National
Response Center.
Case ID/Discharger
Case ID number assigned to this incident by the discharger.
Case ID/CR
Case ID number assigned to this incident by the EPA, if this is a
continuous release.
Under the Response & Evaluation tab:
Response Agency/
Type
List of the agencies involved in the response to this incident, and
the type of each agency.
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TABLE 5. Items on an Incidents record. (Continued)
Item
Description
Evacuation
Required
Click this checkbox if people were evacuated in response to this
incident.
Followup Required
Click this checkbox if a report describing this spill is required to
be submitted by the discharger to the U.S. Department of Transportation, EPA, or the Chemical Safety Board.
Followup Received
Click this checkbox if a followup report describing this incident
has been submitted by the discharger to the U.S. Department of
Transportation, EPA, or the Chemical Safety Board.
Response & Evaluation
Brief description of the response to this incident, and the evaluation of the incident.
Injuries
Number of people injured by this incident.
Deaths
Number of people killed by this incident.
Property Damage
> $50,000
Click this checkbox if the incident caused more than $50,000 in
property damages.
Under the Map Data tab:
Latitude/Longitude
Latitude and longitude of the incident location.
Method for determining latitude
and longitude
Code and description of the method by which latitude and longitude were measured. Pull-down menu in Edit view.
Description of
location identified
by latitude and
longitude
Code and description of the location for which latitude and longitude were measured.
Record is linked to
MARPLOT object
This box is checked if this record is linked to an object on a
MARPLOT map (see “Linking map objects to CAMEO records”
on page 183).
Under the Notes tab:
Notes
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Keep your own notes about this incident in this space.
Working With Other CAMEO Components
Using MARPLOT with CAMEO
Using MARPLOT with CAMEO
You use MARPLOT, the electronic mapping program, whenever you use a
map with CAMEO. You use a map when you link the CAMEO record for a
chemical facility, location of a hazardous chemical incident, special population, or transportation route to its symbol on a map in MARPLOT, and
whenever you plot a Screening & Scenarios threat zone. You also use
MARPLOT and ALOHA together when you plot an ALOHA footprint on a
map.
MARPLOT was primarily designed to display maps of U.S. counties generated from TIGER/Line files developed by the Bureau of the Census (download MARPLOT maps from www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/marmaps/ or learn
more about TIGER/Line files at www.census.gov/geo/www/tiger/). This
manual explains the procedures for using CAMEO and MARPLOT
together for some basic projects, but doesn’t provide detailed explanations
of TIGER/Line files, and doesn’t fully explain how to use MARPLOT.
You’ll find all that information in the MARPLOT user’s manual (download
it from www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/marplot.htm).
A point of potential confusion is that, although MARPLOT is the mapping
component of CAMEO, MARPLOT and CAMEO’s collection of modules
are actually two separate programs communicating with each other. For the
two programs to share information, they must both be running on your computer at the same time. Whenever you do something in a CAMEO module
that requires communication with MARPLOT, or vice versa, if one of the
two programs isn’t yet running, the other will automatically start it.
The CAMEO Map
The CAMEO Map is a special MARPLOT map that you use as an overlay
on other maps, such as the sample map of Prince William County that is
included with your copy of MARPLOT. Use the CAMEO Map, not maps
like the Prince William County map, as the location for all CAMEO-related
map objects that you create (such as symbols marking the locations of facilities and special locations).
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The CAMEO Map comes with CAMEO and is automatically installed
when you install CAMEO. It is itself invisible, but on it, you can include
layers on which you can place different kinds of visible, CAMEO-related
map objects, such as symbols for facilities and special locations.
To check whether the CAMEO Map is installed in your copy of
MARPLOT, open MARPLOT and choose Map List from the List menu. If
the CAMEO Map is installed, you’ll see it in the list of maps in use. You
also can select Layer List from the List menu to see the various layers that
are used in the CAMEO Map (as in Figure 1 on page 178), along with map
layers of other maps in view. The names of layers used on the CAMEO Map
start with the word “CAMEO”—e.g., “CAMEO Facilities,” “CAMEO Hospitals,” and “CAMEO Schools.”
FIGURE 1. The seven standard layers used in the CAMEO Map
appear at the top of this list of MARPLOT map layers.
You can add a new layer to the CAMEO map, as follows:
1. Choose Layer List from MARPLOT’s List menu, then click New.
2. Type a name for the layer that starts with “CAMEO” (e.g., “CAMEO
Community Centers”).
3. Check that the create layer button is selected, then click OK.
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Using MARPLOT with CAMEO
Map objects and links
You can place map objects on layers of the CAMEO Map and then link
them to CAMEO records, as explained below. A link is a two-way connection between a particular map object and a related CAMEO record (an
example is shown in Figure 2 on page 179). Once you link a record to an
object, you can use the link to quickly move back and forth between a map
in MARPLOT and record(s) in CAMEO in the following ways:
• If you’re working with one or more records for locations or routes that
are linked to map object(s), you can view those locations or routes on a
map.
• If you’re working with a map in MARPLOT and have selected one or
more object(s) on it, you can see the records linked to those objects.
Facilities record linked
to map object:
Symbol object on CAMEO Map:
MARPLOT - River County
Green Valley
Water Facility
Water Facility
Elm St.
FIGURE 2. The link between a record in the Facilities module and
an object on the CAMEO Map is represented by an arrow in this
diagram.
Two types of map objects are most commonly linked to CAMEO records
(Figure 3 on page 180):
• symbol objects that mark the locations of facilities (such as chemical
processing plants), special locations (such as schools or hospitals),
response/planning resources (such as equipment stockpiles), and past
incidents.
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• polyline objects that represent routes (along roads, rivers, railroads, or
combinations of these) used to transport hazardous substances.
MARPLOT - River County
symbol object
polyline object
Elm St.
FIGURE 3. Polyline and symbol objects on a map.
You also can create polygon objects on maps to represent very large facilities, and link those objects to facility records. Check the MARPLOT user’s
manual for more details about symbol, polyline, and polygon objects.
CAMEO modules and linking. In terms of linking to MARPLOT map
objects, there are three kinds of CAMEO modules (Table 6):
1. Records in the Facilities, Special Locations, Routes, Incidents, and
Resources modules can be linked directly to map objects.
2. Records in the Chemical Library, Contacts, and Chemicals in Inventory
modules can’t be linked to map objects.
3. Screening & Scenarios records can’t be linked directly to map objects.
But you can plot threat zones on maps from any Screening & Scenarios
records that you have indirectly linked to map objects by creating a
linked Facilities or Routes record, a Chemicals in Inventory record, and
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Using MARPLOT with CAMEO
a Screening & Scenarios record, following the steps in “Plotting a threat
zone on a map” on page 148.
Table 6: Linkability of CAMEO modules.
1. Can be
linked.
Chemical Library
Facilities
2. Can’t be
linked.
3. Can be
indirectly
linked.
√
√
Chemicals in Inventory
√
Routes
√
Special Locations
√
Contacts
√
Resources
√
Incidents
√
Screening & Scenarios
√
Using links
You use links to move back and forth between CAMEO and MARPLOT, as
follows.
Checking whether a record is linked. To tell whether a CAMEO
record is linked to a map object, either
• With the record selected or in Record view, from CAMEO’s Sharing
menu, select MARPLOT, then Show on Map (you’ll be alerted if the
record is not linked).
or
1. Open the record in Record view.
2. Click the Map Data tab (as at left). There is no Map Data tab in the
Routes module.
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The “Record is linked to MARPLOT object” box is checked if the
record is linked to a map object (as at left). Records in modules that can’t
be linked to map objects don’t contain this checkbox.
When you start from CAMEO... If you’re viewing a record for a facility, special location, incident, resource, or route, to see that location or route
on a map,
• From CAMEO’s Sharing menu, select MARPLOT, then Show on Map
(as at left). MARPLOT will come forward, and the map object linked to
the record will be displayed. You’ll be alerted if the record is not linked
to a map object; follow the steps in “Linking map objects to CAMEO
records” on page 183 if you’d like to create a map object and link.)
If you’re working with a Screening & Scenarios record and want to view
the threat zone on a map, follow the instructions in “Plotting a threat zone
on a map” on page 148.
If you have run a search in a CAMEO module and have found multiple
records linked to map objects, to see all those objects on the map:
• While that module is open, from CAMEO’s Sharing menu, select
MARPLOT, then Show All on Map. MARPLOT will come forward, and
all the objects will be displayed (they also will be selected).
When you start from MARPLOT... While you’re working with a
MARPLOT map, to see the record linked to a map object,
1. Click on the map object to select it. When an object is selected, four
small squares surround it (like the squares around the facility symbol at
left).
2. From MARPLOT’s Sharing menu, select CAMEOfm, then Get Info (as
at left). CAMEO will come forward, and will display the linked record.
Note: If a previous version of CAMEO is installed on your computer, you
will see both “CAMEO” and “CAMEOfm” in MARPLOT’s Sharing menu.
Always select from the CAMEOfm commands when you’re working with
the current version of CAMEO (“fm” stands for the FileMaker database
program in which this version was developed). Select from the CAMEO
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Using MARPLOT with CAMEO
commands only when you want to work with the previous version of
CAMEO.2
While you’re working with a map, to see multiple records in CAMEO that
are linked to multiple objects on the map:
1. Select the linked objects, either by shift-clicking on them or by making a
search for them (check the MARPLOT user’s manual to learn how to
search for map objects).
2. From MARPLOT’s Sharing menu, select CAMEOfm, then Get Info.
CAMEO comes forward and puts the linked records into a found set3
(just as if you had found the linked records by making a search in
CAMEO). Use the navigation buttons in the toolbar to browse through
the linked records in the collection.
Select Show All Records from the Record menu when you’re ready to
clear the found set and return to normal browsing.
Linking map objects to CAMEO records
You need to run CAMEO and MARPLOT simultaneously in order to establish map links. You can confirm that the programs are communicating correctly with each other in either of two ways:
• In MARPLOT, from the Sharing menu, selecting CAMEOfm, then Go
to CAMEOfm (this should transfer you from MARPLOT to CAMEO).
• In CAMEO’s Navigator, clicking the MARPLOT button (this should
take you from CAMEO to MARPLOT).
2. If you have uninstalled your previous version of CAMEO from your computer and would
like to remove the CAMEO commands from MARPLOT’s Sharing menu, open the
FRIENDS folder in your MARPLOT folder, and then find and delete the
CAMEO.MNUand CAMEO.VWR files.
3. Or more than one found set, if the map objects are linked to records in more than one
CAMEO module. In this case, a found set is created in each of the modules; when you
select Get Info, you’ll be asked which module you would like to view. After viewing the
linked records in one module, to pick a different module to view, return to MARPLOT,
and choose Get Info again.
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To link or not to link. Consider the uses you plan to make of your map
and your CAMEO records as you choose whether to link a given CAMEO
record to a map object. Don’t create a map object and link unless you know
that it will be useful to you to move back and forth between MARPLOT and
CAMEO to see the map object representing a CAMEO record and/or vice
versa to see the record linked to a map object. You’re likely to find that the
advantage of keeping your map uncluttered outweighs the advantage of
linking some of your CAMEO records to map objects. On the other hand,
other linked map objects can be very handy. For example, see “Checking
for special locations within a footprint or threat zone” on page 160.
Linking symbol objects to records. To link a symbol object on a
MARPLOT map to a record in the Facilities, Special Locations, Incidents,
or Resources module,
1. Create and save the record in CAMEO, if you haven’t already.
2. Open your map in MARPLOT so that the location where you’d like to
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
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place the symbol is visible.
In MARPLOT, from the List menu, select Layer List.
You’re about to place a new symbol on a map layer. You should place
any symbol that you’ll link to a CAMEO record on one of the CAMEO
layers (which are on the CAMEO Map). For example, place symbols for
facilities on the CAMEO Facilities layer, hospital symbols on the
CAMEO Hospitals layer, and so on. You can create new CAMEO layers
if needed; check the MARPLOT user’s manual for instructions.
Click on the lock icon for the CAMEO layer on which you want to place
the symbol. This unlocks the layer (at left, the CAMEO Facilities layer
has just been unlocked). Click OK.
In MARPLOT’s toolbar, click the symbol tool to select it (as at left).
On the map, click on the location where you’d like to place the symbol.
The Object Settings dialog box will appear.
Check that the new symbol object has been placed on the unlocked
CAMEO layer of the CAMEO Map (placement is correct in the example
Working With Other CAMEO Components
Using MARPLOT with CAMEO
below). If it has been placed on a different layer and/or map, click Set to
move the object to the correct layer and/or map.
untitled
No need to name the object; it will automatically be given the name of
the record you’re linking it to.
8. Adjust the symbol’s color and other characteristics as you’d like. Click
OK.
9. From the List menu, select Layer List, then click again on the lock icon
for the CAMEO layer. This relocks the layer so you won’t accidentally
move or delete the symbol. Click OK.
10.In MARPLOT, find and select the new symbol object (it’s selected when
four small squares surround it).
11. In the Sharing menu, select CAMEOfm, then Link Object (as at left).
CAMEO will come forward.
12.In CAMEO, find and select the record you want to link to the object.
13.From CAMEO’s Link menu, select Link this Record (as at left).
To check that the link has been made, click the Map Data tab. If the link
was established, the “Record is linked to MARPLOT object” box is
checked (and the Link menu will disappear).
Linking transportation routes to CAMEO records. Roads, rail
lines, and waterways are represented on MARPLOT maps by polylines, like
the polylines on the map shown in Figure 4, which represent neighborhood
roads and a creek.
It’s likely to seem logical at first to link records in the Routes module
directly to polyline objects on the Roads, Railroads, or Water layers of your
MARPLOT map. However, there are drawbacks to doing this:
• Only rarely will a transportation route of concern to you correspond to a
single Road, Railroad, or Water object in MARPLOT. That’s because
routes on MARPLOT maps typically include either pieces of several
roads, or just part of a railroad or river object.
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185
Working With Other CAMEO Components
FIGURE 4. On this MARPLOT map, roads are shown as black
polylines (Catharpin Creek appears as a blue polyline on a color
printout).
• Objects on the Roads, Railroads, and Water layers, which are derived
from the nationwide TIGER/Line database, typically exhibit idiosyncrasies, such as missing or misnamed segments.
• For purposes of using maps with CAMEO, it’s easiest to always link
CAMEO records to objects on the CAMEO Map, because then you’ll
always know where to find those objects. Other kinds of objects, such as
Roads, Railroads, and Water objects, are on particular county maps, not
on the CAMEO Map.
To avoid these drawbacks, when you want to link a record in the Routes
module to a map object, follow the steps below to create a polyline object
on the CAMEO Map that overlays the route of interest. You then link this
object to your CAMEO record. Figure 5 shows an example of such a route
object.To create a route object in MARPLOT and link it to a Routes record,
1. Open your map in MARPLOT so that the entire route of interest is visi-
ble (zoom out if necessary).
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Working With Other CAMEO Components
Using MARPLOT with CAMEO
FIGURE 5. This polyline object (in red on color printouts), tracing a
hazmat transportation route between two chemical facilities, can be
selected and linked to a Routes record.
2. In MARPLOT, from the List menu, select Layer List.
3. Click on the lock icon for the CAMEO Transportation layer, to unlock
this layer (as at left), then click OK.
4. In MARPLOT’s toolbar, click the polyline tool to select it (as at left).
You’ll use the tool to create a polyline that traces the path of a road, railroad, or waterway that is itself an object on the underlying map. You’ll
place the polyline on the CAMEO Transportation layer of the CAMEO
Map.
5. Click on one endpoint of the route, then trace the route by clicking on
each vertex (that is, on each place where the route bends), doubleclicking on the final endpoint.
Once you’ve double-clicked the final endpoint, the Object Settings dialog box will be displayed.
6. Check that the new route object has been placed on the CAMEO Transportation layer of the CAMEO Map (placement is correct in the example
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Working With Other CAMEO Components
below). If it has not, click Set to move the object to the correct layer or
map.
No need to name the object; it will be given the name of the record it’s
linked to.
7. Adjust the route’s line width, color, and other characteristics as you’d
like. Click OK.
8. From the List menu, select Layer List, then click again on the lock icon
for the CAMEO Transportation layer (to relock this layer so you won’t
accidentally move or delete the route object). Click OK.
9. From MARPLOT’s Sharing menu, select CAMEOfm, then Link Object
(as at left). CAMEO will come forward.
10. Find and select the Routes record that you want to link to your new
route object.
11. From CAMEO’s Link menu, select Link this Record to make the link.
Deleting a map link
For any of various reasons, you might decide to delete, or “break” a link
between a CAMEO record and a map object. For instance, you might discover that you’ve linked a record to the wrong object. Or you might want to
remove an object from your map or a record from a CAMEO module altogether.
To delete a link between a CAMEO record and an object on a map,
1. Open MARPLOT, then find and select the linked object.
2. From MARPLOT’s Sharing menu, select CAMEOfm, then Unlink
Objects. All the information about the link will be deleted from both
MARPLOT and CAMEO.
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Working With Other CAMEO Components
Using ALOHA with MARPLOT and CAMEO
To delete a record linked to an object on a map, select Delete <Module
Name> from the Record menu in CAMEO (that is, select “Delete Special
Location” in the Special Locations module, “Delete Facility” in the Facilities module, and so on). There’s no need to delete the link before deleting
the record; it is automatically deleted when you delete the record. The map
object, now unlinked, will remain on the map unless you also delete it.
Screening & Scenarios threat zones are automatically removed from the
map when you quit (exit) MARPLOT. To delete a threat zone from your
map without quitting (exiting) from MARPLOT, return to the Screening &
Scenarios record from which you plotted the threat zone, and select
MARPLOT, then Delete Scenario Object from CAMEO’s Sharing menu (or
Delete All Scenario Objects to delete multiple threat zones).
Using ALOHA with MARPLOT and
CAMEO
You use ALOHA, CAMEO’s air dispersion model, to estimate the potential
airborne concentrations of a toxic gas downwind from the location of a
chemical release. Once you enter a description of that accidental chemical
release into ALOHA, it displays a “footprint” diagram, like the one below,
that represents the potential area at risk. Within this area, gas concentrations
are predicted to exceed a hazardous level (the level of concern). You can
plot ALOHA footprints on maps in MARPLOT.
This manual explains only how you
can use ALOHA along with
CAMEO and MARPLOT. For a
full explanation of how to use
ALOHA and a “crash course” in
the basics of air dispersion modeling, download the ALOHA user’s
manual from www.epa.gov/ceppo/
cameo/aloha.htm.
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Working With Other CAMEO Components
You can use ALOHA on its own, without using CAMEO and MARPLOT
along with it. But, like MARPLOT, ALOHA is a component of CAMEO
that can communicate both with CAMEO modules and MARPLOT. For
ALOHA, MARPLOT, and CAMEO to share information, they must be running on your computer at the same time. Whenever you do something in
CAMEO or MARPLOT that requires communication with ALOHA, or vice
versa, if one of the two programs isn’t yet running, the other will automatically start it (as long as there is enough free memory on your computer).
ALOHA contains a hazardous chemicals database, which includes a subset
of the chemicals in CAMEO’s Chemical Library. A
Note: Many people wonder about the difference between the footprints that
ALOHA plots and the threat zones plotted by the Screening & Scenarios
module. For an explanation, see “What are the differences between Screening & Scenarios, ALOHA, and RMP endpoint distances?” on page 152.
What ALOHA, CAMEO, and MARPLOT can
accomplish together
Using ALOHA with MARPLOT and/or CAMEO modules makes it possible to accomplish some tasks that you couldn’t do otherwise. For example,
• You can create a footprint plot in ALOHA (like the one above), then
place the footprint on a map in MARPLOT, so that you can see the area
that might be affected by the release.
• You can create Chemicals in Inventory records in CAMEO for chemicals stored in the inventories of local facilities. Later, from any of those
records, you can start ALOHA with the chemical selected so that you
can plot a footprint for a potential release of that chemical from that
facility.
Tip: To simplify your work with ALOHA, keep notes in your chemical
inventory records on storage container dimensions, dike dimensions,
storage temperature, and other information you’d need for ALOHA scenarios. You then can refer to those notes next time you need to run
ALOHA. To find out just what information you’d need, either check the
ALOHA manual or just experiment with ALOHA.
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Using ALOHA with MARPLOT and CAMEO
An ALOHA modeling example. Imagine that a local facility in your
area stores a chemical such as chlorine or ammonia, which would pose a
serious toxic gas hazard if accidentally released. For an emergency planning
project, you might want to investigate the possible hazard to your community from a potential release of that chemical at the facility. Here’s how you
could use the three CAMEO components to accomplish this planning task:
1. Create a Facilities record describing that facility, and link it to a symbol
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
object representing the facility on a MARPLOT map of your community. Also create a Chemical Inventory record describing the hazardous
chemical at that facility. (Follow the procedures in “Working with Facility Records” on page 105, to create these records and link.)
Create Special Locations records for each of the locations in your community, such as schools, hospitals, and community centers, that would
need special attention in the event of a toxic gas release. Link each of
those records to symbols representing those special locations on your
MARPLOT map. (Follow the procedures in “Special Locations” on
page 155 to create these records and links.)
Open the Chemical Inventory record, then, from the Sharing menu,
select ALOHA, then Select this Chemical in ALOHA. This starts
ALOHA with the chemical selected.
Run a release scenario for this chemical in ALOHA and plot a footprint
in ALOHA. (Refer to your ALOHA manual to learn how to do this.) The
footprint represents the area where the toxic gas might pose a hazard to
people, given the circumstances in your release scenario.
In MARPLOT, find the location of the release on the map of your community, click on that location with the arrow tool, then, from the Sharing
menu, select ALOHA, then Set Source Point. The footprint will be
drawn on the map.
Search within the footprint for the symbols for special locations, such as
schools and hospitals. Use the map links to quickly collect together all
Special Locations records linked to those symbols. During a real incident, you could quickly make and print out a list of contact phone numbers for those locations (for detailed instructions, see “Checking for
special locations within a footprint or threat zone” on page 160).
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CHAPTER 7
Importing and
Exporting Data
In this chapter, you’ll find explanations of the kinds of data transfers that
can be made to or from CAMEO, and instructions for completing each kind
of transfer. You’ll also find background information you’ll need to know to
avoid problems when you transfer data.
Avoiding trouble
To avoid trouble when you transfer data to and from CAMEO, we recommend that you
• always back up your existing data before importing new data into
CAMEO. It’s easy to do: just export all the data from the affected module(s) into an archive file (see “Exporting data from all CAMEO modules” on page 213 and “Exporting data from all records in a CAMEO
module” on page 213).
• follow the CAMEO Data Ownership Rule.
The Ownership Rule says that the CAMEO user with the most intimate
knowledge of the data on a CAMEO record should be considered the owner
of that record. The owner of a record should be the only person who makes
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Importing and Exporting Data
changes to it (or directs others to change it). To implement the Ownership
Rule, first, establish who owns which data. Then, import data only from its
owner, and export data only if you own it.
Here’s an example of how the Ownership Rule works in practice: Suppose
that you work for a fire district that has a mutual aid agreement with neighboring districts. Also suppose that each district has agreed to be responsible
for collecting information about the facilities in their district and creating
CAMEO records describing those facilities.
To prepare for mutual aid calls, you might want to import the other districts’
facility records into your copy of CAMEO. The other districts likewise
might ask you to export your facility records to them, for use in their copies
of CAMEO. You can avoid causing problems for yourselves by agreeing to
the following rules:
• each district is the owner of the data describing the facilities in its own
fire district.
• each district will export only the records that it owns.
• each district will import records only from their owner.
To export your facility records to the other districts, you would follow the
steps in “Exporting data from a subset of the records in a module” on
page 214 to export just the data for the facilities in your district.
What if your fire district, and the neighboring districts, instead receive your
facility data from the SERC, which compiled that data from submitted Tier
II reports? You would then consider the SERC to be the owner of the facility data for all your districts. Each district would import data only from the
SERC. Districts would never export facility records.
Why following the Ownership Rule can save you time and trouble has to do
with the way CAMEO keeps track of records. See “How CAMEO assigns
and uses record IDs” on page 198 for details.
For suggested strategies for avoiding inadvertent record duplication, see
“Strategies for avoiding duplicate records” on page 219.
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Possible data transfers
Important: Do not delete either the ImportFiles or ExportFiles folder from
your CAMEO folder. Without them, CAMEO cannot import or export data.
Possible data transfers
You can transfer data to and from CAMEO in four ways (Figure 1):
• from a previous version of CAMEO to the current version. You can do
this yourself in Windows. We can make the update for you, or help you
with it, if you use CAMEO on a Macintosh. See “Importing data from a
previous version of CAMEO” on page 201.
• from Tier2 Submit to CAMEO. Tier2 Submit is a program (new in 2002)
used by facilities for preparing and submitting Tier II chemical inventory
reports. See “Importing data from Tier2 Submit” on page 206.
• between two copies of CAMEO. See “Transferring data between different copies of CAMEO” on page 212.
• from CAMEO to a data file that can be imported into a spreadsheet,
database, or other program. See “Exporting data to other programs” on
page 223.
Difficult or impossible data transfers
Two kinds of data transfers can’t be made, or can be made only with difficulty:
• Data can’t be exported from CAMEO to Tier2 Submit.1
• It would be difficult, though not impossible, to import data created in
non-CAMEO programs into CAMEO. A file using CAMEO’s field
order and format could be imported into CAMEO, but you would need
to carefully consider assignment of record IDs (see “How CAMEO
assigns and uses record IDs” on page 198).
1. Data can be transferred between different copies of Tier2 Submit. See the Tier2 Submit
manual for details.
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Importing and Exporting Data
CAMEO
(current version)
Green Valley
Water Facility
CAMEO
(current version)
Tier2 Submit
Green Valley
Water Facility
Previous versions
of CAMEO
Databases &
spreadsheets
Green Valley
Water Facility
Green Valley
Water Facility
FIGURE 1. Possible data transfers that can be made to and from
CAMEO.
If you want to try creating an import file, first open and inspect in a database or spreadsheet program a file exported from any CAMEO module,
so that you can see the field order and format used by CAMEO. The first
record within any file exported from CAMEO provides data field names
and field order; import files must be in zipped merge format (see
“Zipped merge files: CAMEO’s standard file format” on page 197).
CAMEO does not include a feature for importing data directly from any
previous Macintosh (Hypercard) versions of CAMEO. If you need to
import data from a previous Macintosh version of CAMEO into the current
version, contact us at [email protected] for help with that data
transfer.
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Importing and Exporting Data
Things to know before transferring data
Things to know before transferring
data
Before beginning data transfers, it’s helpful to understand
• the format of the zipped merge files CAMEO uses in data import and
export operations.
• the behind-the-scenes record ID method CAMEO uses to keep track of
relationships among records in related modules.
Zipped merge files: CAMEO’s standard file format
To import and export data, CAMEO uses a standard type of data file called
a merge file. When you export data from CAMEO, a merge file is created
for each module from which data is exported (merge files are also created
for behind-the-scenes supporting files). Merge files exported from CAMEO
contain the data exported from the corresponding modules and/or supporting files.
A merge file is a text file in which data fields are separated by commas,
records are separated by carriage returns, and the contents of each data field
are enclosed in quotation marks. A merge file has a file extension of .mer
(for example, “export.mer”).
With each data export, the merge files exported from CAMEO are automatically compressed together into a single zipped file, which has a file extension of .zip (for example, “export.zip”). Depending on the nature of the data
you’re exporting from CAMEO, the zipped file created by CAMEO may
contain a single merge file or multiple merge files.
Once you’ve exported merge files from CAMEO and have uncompressed
(unzipped) them, you can open and work with them in standard database
and spreadsheet programs, and in text editing programs.
The format of Tier2 Submit files. You might receive Tier2 Submit data
files either directly from facilities reporting their chemical inventory data or
from colleagues. Tier2 Submit data files contain the Tier II information sub-
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197
Importing and Exporting Data
mitted by those facilities, and can be imported into CAMEO (see “Importing data from Tier2 Submit” on page 206). A data file generated from Tier2
Submit is a collection of individual merge files compressed together into a
single zipped file. CAMEO can automatically uncompress a Tier2 Submit
file and import the data from the merge files.
How CAMEO assigns and uses record IDs
CAMEO uses record ID numbers, or record IDs, to keep track of the
records in its modules and the relationships between records.
Each new record is assigned a unique 20-character record ID at the moment
it’s created. In the case of CAMEO’s facility records, a record ID is
assigned to a given facility in either of two ways:
• When you first create a facility record in CAMEO, a record ID is automatically generated for that record.
• When a file is created for a facility in Tier2 Submit, a record ID is creÒParentÓ module:
Facilities
ÒChildÓ modules:
Chemicals in
Inventory
ated for that facility. The file exported from Tier2 Submit contains that
record ID, which is imported into your copy of CAMEO when you
import that Tier2 Submit file into CAMEO.
Parent and child modules and record IDs. Record IDs are used in
CAMEO to track relationships among records stored in different modules,
particularly relationships between records in “parent” and “child” modules.
In CAMEO, as with other kinds of databases, some modules are related to
each other in somewhat the same way that parents and children are related:
child modules are subordinate to parent modules. For purposes of tracking
relationships among records in CAMEO,
• The Facilities and Routes modules are parent modules, as are the Special
Locations, Chemical Library, and Resources modules.
Contacts
• The Chemicals in Inventory, Contacts, and Incidents modules are child
modules, because the main purpose of these modules is to store information that helps to describe facilities, routes, and special locations.
Incidents
For example:
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Importing and Exporting Data
Things to know before transferring data
• Chemicals in Inventory records describe either chemicals in a facility’s
inventory or chemicals routinely transported along a given route.
• Incidents records typically describe incidents that have happened at
facilities or along routes.
• Contacts records describe contact people for facilities and special locations. Other Contacts records may describe people involved in incidents,
such as the discharger or the notified agency, and/or contact people for
companies that provide response resources (records on such companies
can be kept in the Resources module).
Green Valley Water Facility
CHLORINE
recordID: CV0000000MU2PB00ENG4
parent recordID: FACW1JUJ001000000161
In the Facilities and Routes modules, each new facility or route record is
assigned a record ID when it is created. From then on, when a new Chemicals in Inventory record is created to describe a chemical (or mixture) stored
at a given facility or transported on a given route, the new record is given its
own unique record ID and also a parent record ID that matches the facility
or route’s record ID, as in the example Chemicals in Inventory record at
left. CAMEO uses the parent record ID to track the facilities or routes associated with the Chemicals in Inventory record.
Screening & Scenarios can be considered a “grandchild” module because it
is subordinate to the Chemicals in Inventory module, just as the Chemicals
in Inventory module is subordinate to the Facilities and Routes modules.
For that reason, any Screening & Scenarios record contains (a) its own
Green Valley Water Facility
unique record ID, (b) the parent record ID for the related Chemicals in
Screening for CHLORINE
Inventory record, and (c) the grandparent record ID for the facility or
route record that is related to the Chemicals in Inventory record, as in the
example Screening & Scenarios record at left. CAMEO uses the parent
record ID to associate the Screening & Scenarios record with the Chemicals
recordID: SS0000000MU6B7003UC1
in Inventory record, allowing information about the chemical to be used in
parent recordID: CV0000000MU2PB00ENG4
hazard zone estimation. It uses the grandparent record ID when you choose
grandparent recordID: FACW1JUJ001000000161 to plot a hazard zone on a map (the hazard zone is plotted either around the
facility or along the route that has a record ID matching the grandparent
record ID).
Data transfers and record IDs. For each record in a data file exported
from one copy of CAMEO into another copy of CAMEO, one of two things
happens:
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Importing and Exporting Data
• a new record is created in the target copy of CAMEO to hold the newly
imported data.
• an existing record is updated.
What determines the outcome—whether a new record is created or an existing record is updated—is the record ID for that record, which is included in
the file and imported along with the rest of the data in that record. The
record ID for each imported record is compared with the record IDs for the
existing records in a given target module:
• If no match is found, a new record containing the imported data is added
to the target module, and the record ID for the new record is set to match
the record ID of the imported record.
• if a match is found, the corresponding record in the target module is
updated with the imported data. During the update, all the data in the target record is replaced by the data in the matching imported record.
Records in CAMEO, especially records describing facilities, can be duplicated when you might not necessarily expect it, because of how CAMEO
uses record IDs. For example,
• a duplicate record for a facility is created if a record for that facility
exists in your Facilities module and you import a Tier2 Submit file containing information about that facility. That’s because both CAMEO and
Tier2 Submit assigned different record IDs to that facility.
• records can be duplicated when you transfer data between two copies of
CAMEO, if the source and target modules each contain a record for the
same entity, such as a facility, and if those records came from different
sources, and hence have different record IDs.
The best way to avoid unintended record duplication is to follow the
CAMEO Data Ownership Rule. Also see “Strategies for avoiding duplicate
records” on page 219 for other strategies for avoiding or troubleshooting
unintended record duplication.
Viewing record IDs. Record ID numbers are not displayed directly in
CAMEO’s windows, and you generally don’t need to see the record IDs for
the records in your copy of CAMEO, but you can view them if you need to.
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Importing data from a previous version of CAMEO
You might want to view the record IDs in a particular module if you suspect
that the module contains unwanted duplicates of some records.
To see the record IDs in any of your CAMEO modules,
1. Export the data from that module, following the steps in “Exporting data
from all records in a CAMEO module” on page 213.
2. Open the exported file in a spreadsheet program, following the steps in
“Exporting data to other programs” on page 223.
In the exported file, you can recognize record IDs by their distinctive
format. Each is 20 characters long, and the record IDs for each CAMEO
module can be identified by their unique two-letter prefix. For example,
the first two characters of any facility record ID are “FA.”
Importing data from a previous
version of CAMEO
In Windows
To import your data from your CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1 program to your
new version of CAMEO, use the CAMEO Transfer Utility. It transfers your
CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1 data into a file that you import into your new
copy of CAMEO (like CAMEO export files, this transfer file is a zipped file
containing one or more merge files).
Important: If your version of CAMEO for Windows is older than version
1.2.1, you must update to version 1.2.1 before you can use the Transfer Utility. You can find CAMEO updaters at www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/
request.htm.
Installing the Transfer Utility. You first need to download and install
the Transfer Utility:
1. Download a copy of the CAMEO Transfer Utility installer (TransferUtil-
ityInstaller.exe) from www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/request.htm to your
hard drive.
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2. Double-click on TransferUtilityInstaller.exe to start the Transfer Utility
installer.
3. Follow the instructions you’ll see on your screen to install the CAMEO
Transfer Utility into a new Transfer folder inside your CAMEOWIN
folder.
The installer is set up to install the utility into C\:CAMEOWIN. If your
CAMEOWIN folder is somewhere else, be sure to indicate its location.
Don’t move the Transfer folder once you’ve installed it. Moving it
would break the link from the Start menu to the utility.
Transferring your data. Follow the steps below to transfer the data from
your CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1 records into your new copy of CAMEO.
When you follow the procedure below, information stored in data fields and
records in your copy of CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1 is automatically copied
into corresponding data fields and records in your new copy of CAMEO.
All the notes that you’ve typed in the User Fields on records in your previous copy of CAMEO are placed in the Notes fields in corresponding new
records in your new copy of CAMEO (each note is labeled by the name of
the user field it was stored in). Links from facility records to site plans also
are transferred, along with links between map symbols and facility, route,
special location, incident, and resource records:
4. From the Start menu, select Programs, then CAMEO Transfer Utility,
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
202
then Transfer Utility.
Click Start Transfer.
The utility displays the progress of the data extraction as a log in its main
window. The extraction process is complete when “Done with ExportCAMEOWinData” appears as the last line of the log.
When prompted, type a name for the export file, then choose a location
for it (which can be anywhere on your hard drive).
Exit from the Transfer Utility.
Copy the export file onto another storage device, to serve as a backup
file.
If you have entered new data into your new copy of CAMEO, back that
data up before proceeding further (follow the steps in “Exporting data
Importing and Exporting Data
Importing data from a previous version of CAMEO
from all CAMEO modules” on page 213 or “Exporting data from all
records in a CAMEO module” on page 213).
10. Start your new copy of CAMEO.
11. From CAMEO’s File menu, select Import/Export.
12. Click Import.
13. Click Import again.
14. Locate and select the export file you just created, then click Open. The
data from your file will be transferred into your new copy of CAMEO.
The progress of the data import will be shown in a log in CAMEO’s
main import window. The process is complete when “IMPORT IS COMPLETE” appears as the last line of the log and you see an alert message,
“Import of records is complete.”
15. After you’re told that the transfer has been completed, click OK, then
click Done.
16. Turn to “Transferring your CAMEO Map”, below, for instructions on
what to do with your CAMEO Map.
17. If you have facility site plans you’d like to transfer, follow the steps in
“Transferring your site plans” on page 205.
Important: If you plan to continue to add or edit records in CAMEO for
Windows 1.2.1 while you try out your new copy of CAMEO, leave the
Transfer folder in place inside your CAMEOWIN folder. Once you’re ready
to completely shift your files to your new copy of CAMEO (and add no
more data to CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1), then run the Transfer Utility to
transfer your CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1 data one last time. As long as you
haven’t moved the folder, your records will be updated with the new information you entered in CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1 (if you move the folder,
records can be inadvertently duplicated).
Transferring your CAMEO Map. You should keep just one copy of
your CAMEO Map on your hard drive. Otherwise, you’ll encounter problems when you work with both the CAMEO modules and MARPLOT.
When you install your new copy of CAMEO, a new copy of the CAMEO
Map is installed along with it. You need to decide whether to keep the new
copy or the older copy that came with CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1. The
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new copy is in the CAMEO folder; the old copy is in the CAMEOWIN
folder.
If you decide to keep the old copy, you’ll need to move it from the
CAMEOWIN folder to the CAMEO folder. You need to decide when to do
that. Here’s a decision guide:
1. Decide whether to keep your old copy of the CAMEO Map:
You should keep it if you made changes to it that you want to keep. For
example, you may have added map objects like symbols for facilities,
routes, and special populations while you were using CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1. You also may have linked map symbols to records in
CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1.
a. Did you decide to keep the old map? If so, skip down to step 2 now.
b. Did you decide not to keep the old map? Then delete it: open your
CAMEOWIN folder and drag the CAMEOMAP folder to the Recycle Bin. That’s all you need to do—skip all the remaining steps in this
guide!
2. To keep your old map, delete the new copy of the map: open your
CAMEO folder, and drag the CAMEOMAP folder to the Recycle Bin.
3. Decide whether you’re ready to discontinue your use of CAMEO for
Windows 1.2.1. You might want to keep using it while you try out your
new copy of CAMEO. Or you might be ready to completely stop using it
and to change to your new CAMEO.
a. If you’re not ready to discontinue using CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1,
then leave your CAMEO Map in your CAMEOWIN folder until you
are ready to completely switch all your work and data to your new
copy of CAMEO. Once you’re ready to switch over, go to step b.
b. If you are ready to switch completely to your new copy of CAMEO,
then move the CAMEOMAP folder from your CAMEOWIN folder
into your CAMEO folder. Once you move the folder, you will no
longer be able to work with both CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1 and the
CAMEO Map together. But you’ll be ready to work with both the
CAMEO Map and your new copy of CAMEO.
After you’ve transferred your CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1 data, then while
the CAMEO Map remains in the CAMEOWIN folder,
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Importing data from a previous version of CAMEO
• In your new copy of CAMEO, you’ll be able to use any links between
records and map objects that you made up to the time you transferred
your data. Those links transferred along with your data when you followed the steps in “Transferring your data” on page 202. You’ll be able
to move back and forth readily between records in CAMEO and symbols
on your map.
• Unless CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1 is running, you won’t be able to
delete any objects you placed on your map before you transferred your
data. Once you move the map to the CAMEO folder, you’ll be able to
delete objects without running CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1.
• You should not add any links from map objects to records in your new
copy of CAMEO. Add links only while working with CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1. Then, once you’re ready to completely switch to your new
CAMEO, (a) follow the steps in “Transferring your data” on page 202 to
transfer any data you’ve added to CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1, then (b)
move your CAMEO Map into your CAMEO folder. Your new links will
transfer to the new CAMEO.
Transferring your site plans. If you created site plans in Site Plan
Viewer, you’ll need to move them from your CAMEOWIN folder into your
new CAMEO folder in order to use them in your new copy of CAMEO.
Here’s how:
1. Open your CAMEOWIN folder, then open the SPLNBMPS folder. You
should see your site plan files.
2. Move or copy your site plan files from the SPLNBMPS folder into the
SitePlans folder inside your new CAMEO folder.
Links between your CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1 facility records and
your site plans are transferred when you run the CAMEO Transfer Utility. Once you’ve moved your site plan files to the SitePlans folder, your
site plans are automatically linked to the corresponding facilities records
in your new copy of CAMEO. If you observe that any links are missing
after you’ve completed your transfers, check “Adding and editing site
plans” on page 121 to see instructions for remaking or revising links to
site plans.
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On a Macintosh
In the current version of CAMEO, there is no built-in procedure for importing data from the previous version of CAMEO for Macintosh. If you are a
Macintosh user and would like to import data from a previous version of
CAMEO into the new version, please contact [email protected] to
arrange for assistance with your data transfer.
If you have made changes to your CAMEO Map that you’d like to keep,
then, once you install your new copy of CAMEO,
1. Open your new CAMEO folder, and drag the CAMEOMAP folder into
the trash.
2. Move the CAMEO Map folder from your old CAMEO™ folder into the
new CAMEO folder. Rename the map folder from “CAMEO Map” to
“CAMEOMAP.”
Importing data from Tier2 Submit
Under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of
1986 (EPCRA), facilities that maintain more than threshold amounts of certain hazardous materials must submit an annual chemical inventory report,
called a Tier II form, to their state’s State Emergency Response Commission (SERC), Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC), and local fire
department. Operators of facilities covered by EPCRA who must submit an
annual Tier II report can use Tier2 Submit to prepare and submit that report
as an electronic data file (see “Tier2 Submit™” on page 8).2
You might receive such Tier2 Submit files if you are
2. If you receive any data files exported from the older Tier II program (which Tier2 Submit
has superseded), you’ll need to use the following two-step procedure to import the data
into your new copy of CAMEO. First, import the data file into CAMEO for Windows
1.2.1. Second, use the CAMEO Transfer Utility to export the data from CAMEO for Windows 1.2.1, and then import it into your new CAMEO, following the steps in “Importing
data from a previous version of CAMEO” on page 201.
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Importing data from Tier2 Submit
• a member of a SERC, LEPC, or local fire department to whom facilities
submit their reports.
• a local responder or planner who receives, from your SERC or LEPC, a
Tier2 Submit file of data for facilities in your area.
You can import Tier2 Submit data files into CAMEO. When you import a
Tier2 Submit file into CAMEO, data from that file will be imported into the
Facilities, Chemicals in Inventory, and Contacts modules, as follows
(Figure 2 on page 208):
• a new Facilities record will be created for each facility described in the
Tier2 Submit file. It will be assigned the record ID generated for that
facility by Tier2 Submit.
• a new Chemicals in Inventory record will be created for each chemical
(or mixture) in a given facility’s inventory that’s listed in the Tier2 Submit data file. The parent record ID assigned to this record will match the
facility’s record ID.
• a new Contacts record will be created for each contact person listed in
the Tier2 Submit data file. The parent record ID assigned to this record
will match the facility’s record ID.
Note: The procedure for importing a Tier2 Submit file is unaffected by how
many facilities are represented in the file. A Tier2 Submit file submitted by
the operator of a reporting facility would generally contain information for
just a single facility. In contrast, a Tier2 Submit file generated by a SERC to
share with local planners and responders would contain data on multiple
facilities.
Things to know before importing Tier II data
If your copy of CAMEO already contains records for some of the facilities,
chemicals in inventory, and/or facility contacts included in the Tier2 Submit
file (either because you created those records manually or because you
imported a Tier2 Submit data file in a previous reporting year), new records
for all those facilities, chemicals, and contacts will be created when you
import the Tier2 Submit file. The existing records will not be updated.
That’s because Tier2 Submit generates its own record IDs when someone
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207
Importing and Exporting Data
CONTACTS
Gr. Valley Water Fac.
Tier2 Submit
data file
Green Valley
Water Facility - - Chlorine - Senior Manager
Angela Wong - -
Sen. Mgr. A. Wong
FACILITIES
Green Valley
Water Facility
CHEMICALS IN
INVENTORY
Gr. Valley Water Fac.
CHLORINE
FIGURE 2. Destinations of Tier II data in CAMEO. Data from a
Tier2 Submit file is imported into the Facilities, Chemicals in
Inventory, and Contacts modules.
enters information in that program. Those record IDs are imported into
CAMEO when the Tier2 Submit file is imported, and they will not match
the record IDs that CAMEO has assigned to the corresponding Facilities,
Chemicals in Inventory, or Contacts records.
Given CAMEO’s record-keeping method, there are two ways for you to
manage your Tier II data in CAMEO, each with advantages and drawbacks:
First, you can simply import new Tier2 Submit data file(s) for the facilities
of interest to you each year, following the steps in “Importing a Tier2 Submit data file” on page 211. Then, for each reporting facility, for each reporting year, there will be one record in your Facilities module, one Chemicals
in Inventory record for each chemical (or mixture) in the facility’s inventory, and a new Contacts record for each facility contact. Note that there
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Importing data from Tier2 Submit
will be multiple Contacts records for the same contact person if multiple
facilities have reported the same contact person.
Because reporting year is shown in the Report Year box on records in the
Facilities and Chemicals in Inventory modules, you can differentiate among
records that were created in different reporting years in these modules.
If you have facility records from multiple reporting years, and want to work
with your Facilities records for just the current reporting year,
1. Open the Facilities module and then, from the Search menu, select Start
Search.
2. Type the current reporting year in the Report Year box, then click
Search.
The found set for this search will contain just the Facilities records for
the current reporting year.
You can use the same procedure in the Chemicals in Inventory module to
find just the Chemicals in Inventory records for the current reporting
year.
If you want to see the record for a particular facility for the current reporting
year,
1. Open the Facilities module and then, from the Search menu, select Start
Search.
2. Type the facility’s name in the Facility Name box.
3. Type the current reporting year in the Report Year box, then click
Search.
Only the record for the given facility for the current reporting year will
be found.
If instead you want to view the data for a particular facility from all consecutive reporting years,
1. Open the Facilities module and then, from the Search menu, select
Search.
2. Type the name of the facility in the Facility Name box, then click Search.
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The found set for this search will contain only the records for the given
facility, for all reporting years.
To sort these records by date, follow the instructions in “Sorting records
by a single criterion” on page 259 to sort the found set by Record Year.
Reporting year is not shown on Contacts records. To access the most recent
Contacts record for a facility contact person, begin in the Facilities module
rather than the Contacts module:
1. Open the most recent Facilities record for that facility in Record view.
2. Click the Contacts tab.
3. Double-click on the name of the contact person. The most recent Con-
tacts record for that contact will be displayed.
Note: An alternative procedure is to select or open the most recent Facilities
record for the facility, then, from the Record menu, select Show Related,
then Contact Records.
An alternative way to manage your Tier II data is as follows: Rather than
keeping data from multiple reporting years in your copy of CAMEO, you
could delete all the records for previous reporting years and then import the
current year’s Tier2 Submit file(s). When you then import Tier2 Submit
data file(s) for facilities of interest submitted in the current reporting year,
then for each reporting facility, there would be just one record in your Facilities module, just one Chemicals in Inventory record for each chemical (or
mixture) in the facility’s inventory, and just one Contacts record for each
contact person for that facility (unless multiple facilities have listed the
same contact person).
Important: Do not choose this approach if you foresee needing facilityrelated data from previous reporting years in any of the following modules:
Facilities, Contacts, Chemicals in Inventory, Incidents, and Screening &
Scenarios. For example, if you want to keep Incidents records for accidents
at a particular facility over a period of years, avoid this approach.
If you choose this approach and want to back up your Tier II data from previous year(s) and then delete those records from CAMEO, before you
import Tier2 Submit data file(s) for the current reporting year:
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Importing and Exporting Data
Importing data from Tier2 Submit
1. Start CAMEO if it isn’t already running, and open the Facilities module.
2. From the File menu, select Import\Export, then click Export.
3. Click Export Data for Entire Module.
When you export data from the Facilities module, data also is exported
from related records in Contacts, Chemicals in Inventory, Incidents, and
Screening & Scenarios. The result of the export is a single zipped file
containing a set of merge files.
4. When prompted, choose a location for the export file. A zipped file containing your exported data will be created at that location. We recommend that you make a second copy of the archive file on another storage
device.
5. While the Facilities module is still open, select Show All Records from
the Record menu.
6. From the Record menu, select Delete All Records.
This deletes all records from the Facilities module. Records related to
the deleted facilities in the Chemicals in Inventory, Contacts, Incidents,
and Screening & Scenarios modules are also deleted (except for any
Contacts records that are also related to other entities that are not
deleted, such as Resources records).
Importing a Tier2 Submit data file
Follow the steps below to import a Tier2 Submit file:
1. Start CAMEO.
2. Back up your facilities-related data, following the procedure in “Export-
ing data from all records in a CAMEO module” on page 213.
3. From the File menu, select Import\Export.
4. Click Import, then click Import again when reminded to back up your
data.
5. Find and open the Tier2 Submit file. The import will start immediately.
Check Figure 2 on page 208 to see the kinds of new records created in
CAMEO when you import a Tier2 Submit file, and the modules where they
will be located.
Importing and Exporting Data
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Importing and Exporting Data
Note: If you accidently import the same Tier2 Submit data file more than
once, don’t worry. Each of the newly imported records will simply be overwritten, rather than duplicated.
Transferring data between different
copies of CAMEO
In some situations, you might need to transfer data between your own copy
of CAMEO—the source copy—and someone else’s—the target copy.
CAMEO #1
Green Valley
Water Facility
To transfer data from your copy of CAMEO to someone else’s, you export
the data from your own records into an export file. Your colleague then
imports the data from that file into her copy of CAMEO, as at left. If instead
you receive data from your colleague, you would import her export file.
You can export data
• from all your CAMEO modules at once, except for the Chemical
export.mer.zip
Library. It’s the only CAMEO module from which you can’t export data;
you also can’t import data into the Chemical Library.
• from a single CAMEO module. Data also will be exported from related
records in child and grandchild modules. For example, when you export
Facilities records, related records in Chemicals in Inventory, Contacts,
and Screening & Scenarios also are exported.
• from a found set of records in a single CAMEO module (that is, a set of
CAMEO #2
Green Valley
Water Facility
records found during a search). Data also will be exported from related
records in child and grandchild modules (for example, from Chemicals
in Inventory, Contacts, and Screening & Scenarios along with Facilities).
• from a single CAMEO record (as well as from related records in child
and grandchild modules).
When you transfer data between two copies of CAMEO, it’s possible to
unintentionally duplicate records. Before transferring data, review “Data
transfers and record IDs” on page 199.
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Transferring data between different copies of CAMEO
Exporting data from all CAMEO modules
You sometimes might want to export all the data from all your CAMEO
modules into a single export file. This procedure is an easy way to create a
backup archive file of all your CAMEO data.
To export all the data from all your CAMEO modules except the Chemical
Library, follow the steps below:
1. From the File menu, select Import\Export, then click Export.
2. Click Export ALL CAMEO Data.
3. Select a location for your export file, then click Save. All the data from
all the records in all your CAMEO modules except the Chemical Library
will be exported to a single zipped file at that location.
If some of the exported records are linked to map objects that you want to
export, follow the procedure in “Transferring map links and map objects”
on page 216.
If some of the exported Facilities records are linked to site plans that you
want to export, follow the procedure in “Transferring site plans” on
page 217.
Exporting data from all records in a CAMEO module
Sometimes, you might need to transfer all the data from just one module,
along with data from related records in any child or grandchild modules.
You might want to do this, for example, if you represent a fire district that
has just entered into a mutual aid agreement with neighboring districts. If
each district has in its copy of CAMEO only records for facilities in that
district, then each district could export all its facility data, and share that
export file with neighboring districts. Under the CAMEO Data Ownership
Rule, each district would “own” the data for facilities in that district. Note,
though, that if each district has records for facilities not only in its own district but also in neighboring districts, each district would instead export just
the subset of its records containing only the facilities in its own district (see
“Exporting data from a subset of the records in a module” on page 214).
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Importing and Exporting Data
To export all the data from a CAMEO module:
1. Open the module from which you want to export data.
If you want to export facility data, open the Facilities module. To export
transportation routes data, open Routes. Whenever you export data from
either of these modules, related data in the Chemicals in Inventory, Contacts, Incidents, and Screening & Scenarios modules also is exported.
2. From the File menu, select Import/Export, then click Export.
3. Click Export Data for Entire Module.
4. Select a location for your export file, then click Save. All the data from
all the records in the open module, along with all data from related
records in child and grandchild modules, will be exported to a single
zipped file at that location.
If some of the exported records are linked to map objects that you want to
export, follow the procedure in “Transferring map links and map objects”
on page 216.
If you are exporting Facilities records that are linked to site plans that you
also want to export, follow the procedure in “Transferring site plans” on
page 217.
Exporting data from a subset of the records in a
module
Sometimes, you might need to transfer data from only certain records in a
CAMEO module, along with data from related records in any child or
grandchild modules. Here’s an example: Tier II data is particularly useful to
emergency responders. So if you’re a member of a SERC that has received
Tier II data, you might want to share that data with county- and tribal-level
response organizations and/or with fire departments. You might want to
export only certain records to each receiving organization: for example, just
the records for King County to that county’s emergency management organizations.
Exporting from a subset of records can be a way to honor the CAMEO Data
Ownership Rule. When you need to export records, you can search a
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Transferring data between different copies of CAMEO
module to create a found set containing just the records you “own”—for
example, just your fire district’s records, rather than all your facility
records. You then export just the found set.
To export only a subset of records from a CAMEO module:
1. In the module, create a found set containing just the records you want to
export.
To do this, search the module in such a way that only the records you
want will be found. For example, to create a found set in the Facilities
module that contains just the records for facilities in Johnson County,
choose Start Search from the Search menu, type “Johnson” in the
County box, then press Search. (For more details about setting up
searches, see “Searching” on page 251).
If you want to export facility data, open the Facilities module. To export
transportation routes data, open Routes. Whenever you export data from
either of these modules, related data in the Chemicals in Inventory, Contacts, Incidents, and Screening & Scenarios modules also is exported.
2. From the File menu, select Import\Export, then click Export.
3. Click Export Data for Found Set.
4. Select a location for your export file, then click Save. All the data from
all the records in the found set, along with all data from related records
in child and grandchild module, will be exported to a single zipped file at
that location.
If some of the exported records are linked to map objects that you want to
export, follow the procedure in “Transferring map links and map objects”
on page 216.
If some of the exported records are Facilities records that are linked to site
plans that you also want to export, follow the procedure in “Transferring
site plans” on page 217.
Exporting data from a single CAMEO record
You can export the data from just a single CAMEO record, along with data
from related records in child and grandchild modules:
Importing and Exporting Data
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Importing and Exporting Data
1. Select the record from which you want to export data.
2. From the File menu, select Import/Export, then click Export.
3. Click Export Data for Current Record.
4. Select a location for your export file, then click Save. The data from the
record, along with all data from any related records in child and grandchild modules, will be exported to a single zipped file at that location.
Transferring map links and map objects
Sometimes, you might need to export records that are linked to objects on
your CAMEO map. You might need to share with a colleague not only the
data from those records, but the map objects as well.
To export all the records, map links, and map objects linked to records in a
CAMEO module,
1. Export the records, following the instructions in “Exporting data from all
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
records in a CAMEO module” on page 213. The exported file contains
the data from your records, including the map links from linked records,
but not the linked map objects themselves.
Open the module (if it isn’t already).
From the Sharing menu, select MARPLOT, then Show All on Map.
The map objects linked to records in this module will be selected and
displayed.
While the objects remain selected, from MARPLOT’s File menu, select
Export.
Set up the export by clicking “selected objects” and “MARPLOT
Import/Export (MIE),” then click Export. An MIE file containing all the
selected objects is created. MIE files are a kind of text file that
MARPLOT uses for importing and exporting data.
Give your colleague both the file you exported from CAMEO and the
MIE file.
If you need to export just a subset of the records in a CAMEO module (for
example, just the records you own under the CAMEO Data Ownership
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Importing and Exporting Data
Transferring data between different copies of CAMEO
Rule, not the records you obtained from someone else) along with related
map links and map objects, then
1. Follow the steps in “Exporting data from a subset of the records in a
module” on page 214.
2. While the found set is still in place, from the Sharing menu, select MARPLOT, then Show All on Map. Map objects linked to the found records
will be selected in MARPLOT.
3. Follow steps 4 to 7 of the preceding procedure.
To import your data, your colleague should do the following:
1. Back up the data in her copy of CAMEO, following the instructions in
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
either “Exporting data from all CAMEO modules” on page 213,
“Exporting data from all records in a CAMEO module” on page 213, or
“Exporting data from a subset of the records in a module” on page 214.
The exported file serves as an archive file.
Put the CAMEO file and MIE file that you exported anywhere on her
hard drive.
From CAMEO’s File menu, select Import\Export, then Import.
Click on the name of the exported CAMEO file, then click Open. The
data from the file will be imported into her copy of CAMEO.
Start MARPLOT.
In MARPLOT, from the File menu, select Import.
Find the MIE file, click on it to select it, then click Open. The map
objects are then added to her CAMEO Map (if she does not have the
map layer for the objects, a layer will be created). Map links between the
imported records and map objects will now be functional in her copy of
CAMEO.
Important: Follow the CAMEO Data Ownership Rule when you transfer
map objects (see “Avoiding trouble” on page 193).
Transferring site plans
To share Facilities records that contain links to site plans with a colleague,
along with the site plans themselves,
Importing and Exporting Data
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Importing and Exporting Data
1. Export the records, following the instructions in either “Exporting data
from all records in a CAMEO module” on page 213 or “Exporting data
from a subset of the records in a module” on page 214.
The exported file contains the data from your records, including the links
to site plans, but not the site plans themselves. The site plans are files
stored inside the SitePlans folder.
2. Give your colleague both the exported file of facility data and your site
plan files.
To import your data and site plans, your colleague should do the following:
1. Back up his facilities-related data, following the instructions in either
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
“Exporting data from all records in a CAMEO module” on page 213 or
“Exporting data from a subset of the records in a module” on page 214.
The exported file serves as an archive file.
Back up the SitePlans folder (in case any of the new site plan files have
the same names as files already in the folder).
Put the exported CAMEO file anywhere on his hard drive.
From CAMEO’s File menu, select Import\Export, then Import.
Click on the name of the exported file, then click Open. The file then
will be imported into his copy of CAMEO.
Place your site plan files inside his SitePlans folder. The links from
Facilities records to site plans will now be functional.
Important: Follow the CAMEO Data Ownership Rule when you transfer
site plan files (see “Avoiding trouble” on page 193). One possible way to
keep track of the owner of a particular site plan file is to include a code in
the file name to indicate the owner. For example, you could use “FW1_” as
the prefix in the names of all site plan files owned by Fire District 1.
Importing data from another copy of CAMEO
To import a data file exported from someone else’s copy of CAMEO, first
check to be sure that the CAMEO Data Ownership Rule is being followed
(see “Avoiding trouble” on page 193). That is, be sure that the exporter of
the data is its “owner.” Then,
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Importing and Exporting Data
Transferring data between different copies of CAMEO
1. Back up the data in all of the CAMEO modules into which you will
import data: if you are importing data into multiple CAMEO modules,
follow the instructions in “Exporting data from all CAMEO modules” on
page 213. To back up a single module, follow the instructions in
“Exporting data from all records in a CAMEO module” on page 213.
Your exported file serves as an archive file.
2. Place the export file anywhere on your hard drive.
3. From CAMEO’s File menu, select Import\Export, then Import.
4. Click on the name of the export file, then click Open. The file then will
be imported into your copy of CAMEO.
If you need to import map objects, follow the procedure described for the
data recipient in “Transferring map links and map objects” on page 216.
If you need to import site plans, follow the procedure described for the data
recipient in “Transferring site plans” on page 217.
Strategies for avoiding duplicate records
The key to successfully exchanging data between two copies of CAMEO—
so that all parties obtain just the data they want and no data they don’t
want—is to honor the CAMEO Data Ownership Rule (see “Avoiding trouble” on page 193). Below are additional troubleshooting suggestions, in
case a procedure goes awry despite your best efforts at honoring the rule.
Things to do before importing data. The following two strategies,
which you can adopt before you import data, can help you to avoid unintended duplicate records.
You sometimes might know or suspect that duplicate records will be generated when you import data from a colleague. For example, you might have
obtained facility data from one colleague, but later realize that a different
colleague is the actual owner of that data. Your records and the owner’s
records for the same facilities then are likely to have different record IDs, so
if you import the owner’s data for those facilities, you’re likely to obtain
duplicate records (see “How CAMEO assigns and uses record IDs” on
page 198).
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219
Importing and Exporting Data
A solution that you might choose is to delete all the records from your module before you import the owner’s data. Do this only if it’s acceptable to you
to replace the entire contents of one of your CAMEO modules (along with
related records in child and grandchild modules) with new, imported data.
When you import the new file, new records will automatically be created.
Important: Do not choose this approach if you foresee needing any of your
existing facility-related data in any of the following modules: Facilities,
Contacts, Chemicals in Inventory, Incidents, and Screening & Scenarios.
For example, if you have created Incidents records for accidents at a
particular facility over a period of years, avoid this approach.
To delete all the records from a CAMEO module in preparation for importing data,
1. Follow the directions in “Exporting data from all records in a CAMEO
module” on page 213 to back up the data in that module as an export file.
We recommend that you also make a copy of the export file on another
storage device.
2. From the Record menu, select Delete All Records to delete all the
records in the open module (along with related records in child and
grandchild modules).
Once you’ve completed these steps, you’re ready to import the new data.
Follow the procedure in “Importing data from another copy of CAMEO” on
page 218.
Sometimes, you might need to replace only certain records in a module,
rather than all the records in a module. For example, you might have
obtained facility records for Fire District 20 from a colleague, but then realized that another colleague is the actual owner of the facility data for Fire
District 20. Your records and the owner’s records for the facilities in Fire
District 20 then are likely to have different record IDs, so if you import the
owner’s data for those facilities, you’re likely to obtain duplicate records.
A solution that you might choose only if it’s acceptable to you to replace all
your records for facilities in Fire District 20 with new, imported data is to
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Importing and Exporting Data
Transferring data between different copies of CAMEO
delete those records from your module before you import the owner’s data.
When you import the new file, new records will automatically be created.
Important: Do not choose this approach if you foresee needing any of your
existing facility-related data in any of the following modules: Facilities,
Contacts, Chemicals in Inventory, Incidents, and Screening & Scenarios.
You could simply browse through your Facilities records, deleting those
that are to be replaced (related records in child and grandchild modules also
will be deleted). To delete a record, select it or open it in Record view, then
select Delete Record from the Record menu.
However, whenever you can, run a search that finds just the records that you
need to delete, and then delete them, as follows:
1. Open the module in which you want to delete and then replace records.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
If you need to delete and replace facilities data, open the Facilities module.
From the Search menu, select Start Search. Set up and run a search that
will find only the records to be replaced. In the case of the example
above, you would make an Advanced Search for facility records with
“20” in the Fire District field. For help with setting up and running
searches, see “Searching” on page 251.
Check over the set of found records to be sure that it contains only the
records to be replaced. When a found set has been created, you can
browse through only the records in that found set. So if you see any
records that you don’t intend to delete, you’ll know that you need to
refine your search.
From the File menu, select Import\Export, then click Export.
Click Export Data for Found Set. Before deleting the found records,
you’ll back up the data from them into an archive file.
Choose a location for the new archive file. A zipped file of your exported
data will be created at that location. We recommend that you also make a
copy of the archive file on another storage device.
From the Record menu, select Delete All Found Records. Selecting this
command while a found set exists in the module deletes only the found
records, leaving the other records in the module untouched.
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Importing and Exporting Data
Once you’ve deleted the records to be replaced, you’re ready to import your
new data. Follow the procedure in “Importing data from another copy of
CAMEO” on page 218.
Things to do after importing data. If you’ve already imported data
into a CAMEO module, and now realize that you’ve inadvertently duplicated some records, you may be able to remove unwanted duplicates in one
of the following ways. These methods will work only if you can tell by
visual inspection which duplicates to keep and which to delete.
• Follow the instructions in “Sorting records in CAMEO modules” on
page 255 to sort the records in the module so that duplicate records
appear next to each other in List view. For example, sort the Facilities
module alphabetically by the “FacilityName” data field in order for
duplicate records for the same facility to appear adjacent to each other in
the list. Browse through the list to find duplicates. Inspect the duplicate
records for a given facility or other entity to identify the record to keep.
To delete an unwanted duplicate record, select it, then select Delete
Record from the Record menu.
• If possible, before you look for duplicates, first run a search to create a
found set of just the records likely to be duplicates. For example, you
may have realized that you’ve inadvertently duplicated just the records
for contact people in Haymarket. In this case, you would search the Contacts module for records in which the City field contains “Haymarket.”
Once you’ve completed the search, from the Record menu, sort the
found records as above, then select View List. You then can most quickly
browse through the names of all the records found in the search to identify duplicates.
Important: Before beginning either procedure, back up the data in the module by following the procedure in “Exporting data from all records in a
CAMEO module” on page 213.
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Importing and Exporting Data
Exporting data to other programs
Exporting data to other programs
You can open and view a data file exported from CAMEO in any spreadsheet or database program that supports merge files.
To do this,
1. Uncompress (unzip) the export file. This file contains one or more merge
files (one for each CAMEO module from which data was exported,
along with a merge file for any supporting files from which data also was
exported).
2. Open any of the merge files in your spreadsheet or database program. In
merge files, data fields are separated by commas, records are separated
by carriage returns, and the contents of each data field are enclosed in
quotation marks. A merge file has a file extension of .mer (for example,
“export.mer”).
For more information about CAMEO’s export file format, see “Zipped
merge files: CAMEO’s standard file format” on page 197.
Tip: To open a merge file in some database or spreadsheet programs, you
may need to rename it so that its file extension is .txt rather than .mer.
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223
Importing and Exporting Data
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Importing and Exporting Data
CHAPTER 8
Managing Your
CAMEO System
This chapter describes how to create a management plan for your CAMEO
system, and proposes elements to include in that plan. It also explains how
to implement CAMEO on a network, how to protect your CAMEO files,
and what to do when multiple people use the same CAMEO system.
A CAMEO management plan
Before you begin to use CAMEO, consider how you intend to manage and
use your new system. In this section, we describe some of the issues to consider and guidelines to follow as you prepare a CAMEO management plan
for your workplace.
As you plan how you’ll manage your CAMEO system, consider your
intended uses of all three CAMEO components: the CAMEO modules,
MARPLOT, and ALOHA.
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225
Managing Your CAMEO System
Why make a CAMEO management plan?
It’s important to plan how you intend to manage and use your CAMEO system before you dedicate resources to implementing your CAMEO,
ALOHA, and MARPLOT programs, because
• A good management plan can help you to address issues before they
become a problem.
• Your plan can prepare you for requesting additional resources as you
require them, developing a training program, and handling future software and hardware developments.
• You can use your plan as a guide for implementing CAMEO.
Elements of a good CAMEO management plan
An effective CAMEO implementation goes beyond installing the programs,
flipping through the manuals, searching for a few chemical records, and
placing a few symbol objects on a MARPLOT map. To effectively implement CAMEO, you’ll need to plan in advance your procedures for entering,
maintaining, and using information, protecting and backing up both data
and programs, training personnel, and customizing your CAMEO system.
Your management plan should also address your equipment and personnel
needs. An effective management plan can make CAMEO and your computer more useful tools.
Address the topics discussed below as you draft your CAMEO management
plan.
Proposed uses of CAMEO. Describe your planning and response
duties, and any other intended uses of your computer system.
Hardware and software. Describe your hardware inventory, including
computer models, operating systems (e.g., Windows 98, Windows 2000,
Macintosh System 9 or OS X, and so on), hard drive sizes and available
memory (RAM), and other hardware, such as modems, storage devices, and
printers. Describe your local network if you have one.
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Managing Your CAMEO System
A CAMEO management plan
Describe your software inventory. List the word-processing, graphics,
spreadsheets, database and other programs that you intend to use with your
CAMEO system.
Describe your inventory of MARPLOT maps, including areas of coverage.
If you’re connected to the Internet, list the addresses of websites where you
can obtain resources and information you plan to use with your CAMEO
system (such as the MARPLOT maps page at www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo/
marmaps).
CAMEO system manager. Describe the position and responsibilities of
the system manager. Include his or her name, telephone number(s), and
email address.
CAMEO information management. Outline the procedures you’ll use
to enter information into CAMEO and onto the maps you’ll use with
CAMEO. Describe procedures for making data linkages both within
CAMEO and between CAMEO and MARPLOT, and information-tracking
procedures. Propose data element standards, such as acceptable common
abbreviations (e.g., “St.” for Street).
Describe your strategies for maintaining, tracking, and updating information. Describe your method for backing up your CAMEO system, and
include a schedule (see “Implementing a CAMEO backup program” on
page 231).
If you plan to import Tier II data into your CAMEO system, review
“Importing data from Tier2 Submit” on page 206.
Training. Describe who will be trained and the purposes and goals of your
CAMEO training program. Discuss word processing, graphics, and other
skills required of trainees. Outline your proposed training program and list
the subjects that you intend to cover. Describe the resources that you need
to conduct your program. Include a training schedule.
CAMEO changes. Describe any modifications that you propose to make
to your CAMEO system. For example, you might add items to some of the
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Managing Your CAMEO System
editable pull-down menus in CAMEO modules. Plan how you’ll keep track
of the changes you make to CAMEO, so you’ll be able to update future versions of the program.
Program security. Describe your method of ensuring program security
and any procedures that you intend to use to restrict access to the program.
The CAMEO system manager
An important decision affecting your CAMEO system will be selection of
the system manager. Designate one person as the system manager. This person should be experienced in using CAMEO as well as computer operating
system and office software.
The responsibilities of the system manager include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
receiving and installing program updates
troubleshooting
directing the training program
ensuring that backups are made
supervising modifications to CAMEO
directing data entry
ensuring program security
developing data element standards
Some components of these tasks may be delegated to others. In essence, the
system manager should be responsible for maintaining your CAMEO system and ensuring that it is used as effectively as possible. The importance of
this position cannot be over-emphasized. If your system manager is not in
tune with the CAMEO system, its needs, and your needs, then CAMEO
may never prove to be a useful tool for you.
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Managing Your CAMEO System
Preparing a plan for entering and updating data
Preparing a plan for entering and
updating data
The quality of your CAMEO system depends on the quality of the data that
you enter into your system. Before you enter data, develop a data entry
plan. As you develop your plan, try to answer the following questions:
a. What information do you intend to enter into CAMEO? Identify the
information that can help you to perform your emergency planning
and response duties.
b. How will you keep track of the information that you enter? We recommend that you bear the CAMEO Data Ownership Rule in mind as
you consider this topic (see “Avoiding trouble” on page 193).
c. Do you need to develop data standards? You may want to standardize
information such as facility identification numbers, abbreviations, the
symbols placed in MARPLOT, and other information.
d. Do you need to develop step-by-step procedures for entering information into CAMEO? An advantage of preparing written, step-bystep procedures for entering and maintaining information is that you
then can refer to these procedures during training sessions and when
entering, maintaining, and verifying CAMEO information. The more
you can standardize your data entry system, the better the quality of
your CAMEO data, and the lower the risk of errors associated with
entering multiple records for the same facility, organization, or other
entity.
e. Who will be responsible for entering information? Assign data entry
and maintenance responsibilities only to trained and responsible staff
members. They should follow the procedures that you develop. If
several people will enter and maintain your CAMEO data, be sure to
develop and use an effective tracking system to minimize errors.
f. How and how often do you plan to verify or update the information in
your CAMEO system? Plan to verify and update your CAMEO information regularly. Establish a schedule for verifying and updating data
and stick to it (you might want to schedule data verification and
updating tasks around regular fire department inspections or important EPCRA-related dates, such as reporting deadlines).
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If you plan to import data into CAMEO (including Tier II data) or transfer
data between copies of CAMEO, review Chapter 7, “Importing and Exporting Data,” beginning on page 193.
Finally, consider how you might enhance CAMEO to better meet your data
entry and management needs.
Program security
The success of your CAMEO program will depend on your ability to ensure
the security of your CAMEO system.
Your CAMEO system, and the information that it contains, can easily be
modified or damaged. When program security is inadequate, a novice user
or failed hard drive can jeopardize your entire CAMEO system. Only welltrained, authorized users should have full access to CAMEO. You may want
to limit access by other users. Such access restrictions can help to prevent
unacceptable CAMEO system modifications.
There are two kinds of security concerns:
• program access.
• program backup.
As you address program security in your management plan, ask yourself:
• Who should have access to my CAMEO system?
• What methods for restricting access to CAMEO should I use (if any)?
• How will I back up my system? Who will perform backups, how, and
how often? (Backing up your CAMEO data is easy and quick; see
“Implementing a CAMEO backup program” on page 231.)
Password protection. One way to restrict access to your CAMEO files
is to implement password protection.
All of the CAMEO files are already password-protected, but because the
passwords for these files are set as defaults, users are not asked for a pass-
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Program security
word when they work with CAMEO. You can change CAMEO’s passwording so that people would need to enter a password to work with your
CAMEO modules. To do this, you would need to purchase a copy of FileMaker Pro.
Especially before you share your CAMEO files over a network, we recommend that you change the password(s) for your CAMEO files. Change the
passwords both for the administrator and for normal users, and delete the
default passwords. Once you change the password(s), people would need to
enter a password to use the passworded CAMEO files. To learn how to
modify passwords and delete default passwords in FileMaker files, including CAMEO, check the FileMaker Pro user’s manual.
Once you make this change, any CAMEO user would need to enter a password before being able to access the data or change CAMEO records.
Other ways to use passwording to restrict access to CAMEO include
• requiring a password to log onto the computer where CAMEO is
installed.
• using a password screensaver on that computer.
Implementing a CAMEO backup program. You can quickly and
easily create backup archive files containing all your CAMEO data (except
for the Chemical Library data), or just data from selected modules. Follow
the procedures for creating export files in “Transferring data between different copies of CAMEO” on page 212: the files that you export serve as your
backup files. We recommend that you
• Export all your CAMEO data into an archive file on a regular basis.
• Keep at least the two most recent archive files on physically separate
storage media. Consider keeping older backups in case problems remain
undiscovered until after one or more backup cycles.
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Installing and running CAMEO on a
network
You can install and run the CAMEO modules on a network, as explained
below. You might want to do so if multiple people in your workplace need
to use a single copy of CAMEO as a reference.
We recommend that MARPLOT and ALOHA be installed and run on individual users’ local computers, rather than on the network. However, MARPLOT map files can be shared over a network. Check your MARPLOT
manual to learn how to do this.
You can choose to network CAMEO in either of two main ways:
• From a dedicated server computer, to which every user connects over the
network. This is your best choice if multiple people need to routinely use
the same copy of CAMEO.
• From one user’s computer, to which others on the network connect from
time to time.
While we’ve completed some testing of CAMEO on networks, we could
not emulate all possible network configurations. If you encounter problems
installing or running CAMEO on your particular network, please check the
CAMEO website (www.epa.gov/ceppo/cameo) for troubleshooting help
and resources. More user support resources are available on the FileMaker
website (www.filemaker.com/support). The comments below are provided
as guidelines only.
Ensure security first
Carefully consider file security before you install CAMEO on a network
and especially before you share sensitive CAMEO data, such as Tier II data,
over a network. Above all, check to be sure that your network is secure, so
that unauthorized people can’t access your data. Consider password-protecting your CAMEO files to prevent unwanted access (see “Password protection” on page 230).
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Possible configurations
You can network CAMEO and support multiple users in three ways. Which
is most appropriate for you depends mainly on the number of concurrent
CAMEO users you need to support. You can
• Install the runtime version of CAMEO on a network (this is the version
of CAMEO that you can download and install). This configuration
allows you to support just one CAMEO user at a time.
• Purchase and install a copy of FileMaker Pro, which you use to host the
CAMEO files. This configuration allows you to support a limited number of concurrent users, each of whom also must have a licensed copy of
FileMaker Pro. The number of users who can work with CAMEO concurrently depends on how many files each has open at the same time;
fewer people can use the program when each has more files open. With
this configuration, about two or three people can use CAMEO if each
has all or nearly all CAMEO files open at the same time.
• Use FileMaker Pro Server for the fastest-possible CAMEO networking.
This configuration allows you to support up to 100 concurrent CAMEO
users, each of whom must have a licensed copy of FileMaker Pro.
Installing the runtime version on a network
You can install the runtime version of CAMEO either on a network server
or in a shared directory on a networked workstation without purchasing and
installing any additional software. Just one person at a time can work with
the runtime version of CAMEO over a network.
To do this, just follow the instructions in “Installing the CAMEO modules”
on page 15 in your CAMEO manual to install the files on your server or in a
shared directory.
Using FileMaker Pro to host runtime files
The CAMEO files can be modified so that multiple people can work with
them concurrently.
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When FileMaker databases (such as the CAMEO modules) are set to be
shared over a network, whoever first opens a particular database file (such
as a CAMEO module) becomes the host of that file, and their computer
becomes the server of the file. Other users can modify the file by connecting to the host computer.
From the CAMEO perspective, the main advantage of hosting files is that
you can serve multiple concurrent users. The runtime version of CAMEO
cannot host files, but you can use FileMaker Pro to host the CAMEO files
on your network so that multiple people can work with them. To accomplish
this, you would install both FileMaker Pro and the CAMEO modules either
in a shared directory on a networked workstation or on your network server
computer. Others on the network who also have installed FileMaker Pro
then can work concurrently with the shared copy of CAMEO (they do not
need to have installed CAMEO on their computers).
In our own tests of FileMaker Pro hosting of CAMEO on local networks,
we observed the following:
• Multiple users can view the same record in Browse mode at the same
time.
• Multiple people also can open the same record in Edit mode. However,
as soon as one person clicks his or her cursor within an editable field, the
others are locked out of Edit mode; they see an explanatory message
when this happens.
• Multiple people can perform basic searches of the same CAMEO module at the same time. Multiple people also can view the advanced search
dialog at the same time. However, as soon as one person selects a field to
use as a search criterion, saves a set of search criteria, or opens a saved
set of search criteria, the others are locked out (and are shown an explanatory message).
Important: A key to trouble-free networking of CAMEO is to be sure that
only one computer hosts all the CAMEO files. We recommend that you use
a dedicated computer to host CAMEO, and that you keep the CAMEO files
open on that computer all the time, to prevent other users from accidentally
hosting any of those files.
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Follow all the procedures below to set up CAMEO for FileMaker Pro hosting.
Relocate plug-in files and indicate the directory path. Once you
have installed CAMEO and FileMaker Pro on the computer that will host
CAMEO, you must move some files from the locations where they were
installed when you ran the CAMEO installer. You also must create a base
directory file that FileMaker Pro will reference, as follows:
In Windows:
1. Copy the following files from the System folder inside the CAMEO
folder into the System folder inside the folder containing FileMaker
(e.g., C:\Program Files\FileMaker\FileMaker Pro 5\System):
• fmbmp32.flt
• fmpcx32.flt
• fmtiff32.flt
• Cameo.fmx
• Marplot.fmx
• Menu.fmx
2. Copy the NOAA_32.DLL file from the CAMEO folder into the folder
containing FileMaker (e.g., C:\Program Files\FileMaker\FileMaker Pro
5).
3. Using a text editor such as WordPad, create a new text file called
“BaseDirectoryList.txt” that contains (on one line) the full path of the
cameo directory For example, if you installed CAMEO at the default
location on the host computer, the file should contain just one line with
the following text:
C:\CAMEO
4. Place the “BaseDirectoryList.txt” file in the folder containing FileMaker.
On a Macintosh:
1. Copy the following files out of the FileMaker Extensions folder inside
the CAMEO folder into the FileMaker Extensions folder inside the
folder containing CAMEO (e.g., Macintosh HD:Applications:FileMaker
Pro 5 Folder:FileMaker Extensions):
• Cameo.fmx
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• Marplot.fmx
• Menu.fmx
2. Using a text editor such as SimpleText, create a new text file called
“BaseDirectoryList.txt” that contains (on one line) the full path of the
cameo directory. For example, if you installed CAMEO at the default
location on the host computer, the file would contain just one line with
the following text (if the name of your hard drive is “Macintosh HD”;
otherwise, the name of your hard drive would be the first item in the line
of text):
Macintosh HD:CAMEO
3. Place the “BaseDirectoryList.txt” file in the folder containing FileMaker.
Prepare the CAMEO files to be shared. Once you have installed the
software, then follow the steps below to prepare your CAMEO files to be
shared by multiple, networked users. You’ll only need to complete these
steps once.
1. From FileMaker Pro’s File menu, select Open.
2. If you’re working in Windows, select “All Files” from the “Files of
3.
4.
5.
6.
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Type” list.
Hold down either the Shift key in Windows or the Option key on a Macintosh as you select Navigator.CAM (inside the CAMEO folder) and
click Open.
When prompted for a password, type “admin” and then click OK.
From the Scripts menu, select ScriptMaker.
In the list of scripts, select “Change All Files to Multi-User for Hosting,”
then click Perform to run the script (as shown below).
Managing Your CAMEO System
Installing and running CAMEO on a network
7. Click in the box next to “Open All Files for Hosting” (to check this box).
8. Click Done to close the ScriptMaker dialog.
9. From the Edit menu, Select Preferences, then Application. Set your net-
work protocol, then click OK.
10.Quit or Exit from FileMaker.
Prepare users’ computers. You’ll need to make the following changes
to the computer of each colleague who will work with the hosted copy of
CAMEO:
1. Create a new text file called “BaseDirectoryList.txt” that contains (on
one line) the full path of the CAMEO directory, as seen from the guest
computer. The path may be different for each user, and may be described
differently on different kinds of networks:
• On a Windows network, you must map the network drive to a specific
drive letter (e.g., “F”). Once you’ve done that, if CAMEO is installed
in the default location (C:\CAMEO) on a host computer, the path
would look like:
F:\CAMEO
• if CAMEO is installed at the top level of the host computer named
“server” on a Macintosh network, the path would look like
server:CAMEO
2. Place the “BaseDirectoryList.txt” file in the folder containing FileMaker
Pro on your colleague’s computer.
Next, copy the needed supporting files onto the computer:
In Windows:
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Managing Your CAMEO System
1. Copy the following files into the System folder inside the folder contain-
ing FileMaker (e.g., C:\Program Files\FileMaker\FileMaker Pro 5\System):
• fmbmp32.flt
• fmpcx32.flt
• fmtiff32.flt
• Cameo.fmx
• Marplot.fmx
• Menu.fmx
2. Copy the NOAA_32.DLL file from the CAMEO folder into the folder
containing FileMaker (e.g., C:\Program Files\FileMaker\FileMaker Pro
5).
On a Macintosh:
1. Copy the following files from the CAMEO folder into the FileMaker
Extensions folder inside the folder containing FileMaker (e.g., Macintosh HD:Applications:FileMaker Pro 5 Folder:FileMaker Extensions):
• Cameo.fmx
• Marplot.fmx
• Menu.fmx
2. Copy the “MacZip(FAT)” file from the CAMEO folder into the folder
containing FileMaker (e.g., Macintosh HD:Applications:FileMaker Pro
5 Folder).
Begin hosting CAMEO. To begin hosting the CAMEO files over your
network, follow the steps below. You must complete these six steps each
time you want to start hosting the CAMEO files from a computer:
1. On the computer that will be used to host the CAMEO files, start File-
Maker Pro.
2. From the File menu, select Open.
3. Click Hosts. A list of all the files that are being hosted over your network
will be displayed.
4. Review the list to be sure that Navigator.CAM does not appear in the
list. If it appears in the list, another computer is hosting this file. If so,
ask that user to quit from FileMaker.
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5. If you’re working in Windows, select “All Files” from the “Files of
Type” list.
6. Open Navigator.CAM. You’ll be alerted that this file is being opened in
multi-user mode for sharing.
7. From the Scripts menu, select Open All Files for Hosting.” As each file
is opened, you’ll see a brief message telling you that the file is being
opened for hosting.
Opening ChemicalLibrary.CAM as
multiuser to allow guest access over
the network.
Accessing the hosted CAMEO. Once the CAMEO files are being
hosted by a computer on your network, those colleagues on the network
now can access CAMEO, as follows:
1. Start FileMaker Pro (on their computer).
2. From the File menu, select Open, then click Hosts.
3. If Navigator.CAM doesn’t appear in the list of hosts, select Specify
Host, type the host name or IP address of the computer hosting CAMEO,
and then click Open.1
4. Once Navigator.CAM appears in the list of Local Hosts, select it, then
click Open.
Important: Your colleagues should open only the copy of Navigator.CAM
on the host computer. If they see that Navigator.CAM is being hosted on
any other computer, you or they should ask that user to quit or exit from
FileMaker pro.
1. If you’ll always use the same computer to host the CAMEO files, each CAMEO user can
click “Permanently add entry to Hosts list” to add the CAMEO host’s address to his or
her Hosts list, before clicking Open.
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239
Managing Your CAMEO System
Using FileMaker Pro Server
You can use FileMaker Pro Server rather than FileMaker Pro to host your
CAMEO files. The advantages of this choice are that you can support many
more concurrent users—up to 100 at a time—and CAMEO operations will
proceed substantially faster.
If you choose this approach, you will need to install FileMaker Pro Server
and the CAMEO files on a networked workstation or on a dedicated server
computer. Others on the network who also have installed FileMaker Pro
(but not CAMEO) then can work with the shared copy of CAMEO, concurrently. For more details on FileMaker Pro server, check the FileMaker website, www.filemaker.com.
Note: We did not specifically test CAMEO hosting via FileMaker Pro
Server, but our best understanding is that if you choose this approach, you
will need to prepare your files as explained in “Using FileMaker Pro to host
runtime files” on page 233.
Managing multiple users
We recommend that you plan your CAMEO projects so that multiple people
do not routinely use CAMEO on your network at the same time. We especially recommend that you manage your workflow to avoid having multiple
people working concurrently over a network to edit records and/or perform
CAMEO operations that require the most computer power, such as searching the Chemical Library or adding records. The program needs time to
complete scripts and respond to user commands, and CAMEO operations
are slower over a network.
We recommend that you avoid importing and exporting data to or from a
hosted copy of CAMEO via client computers over your network. Instead,
whenever you or your colleagues need to import or export data, work either
on the host computer or on a copy of CAMEO that is not networked.
Managing data entry by multiple people. You sometimes may need
to have multiple people entering CAMEO data. For example, if you receive
Tier II data from many facilities, you may need to give a stack of Tier II
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Managing Your CAMEO System
Using CAMEO if you already have FileMaker
forms to each of several data entry operators who then would create new
Facilities records to contain that Tier II data.
When you need to have multiple people entering data concurrently, we suggest that each person be given a copy of the runtime version of CAMEO2,
into which he or she adds records, rather than having everyone making editing changes to a single, networked copy of CAMEO.
When each data entry operator has completed adding records, he or she
should export a file containing those records, by following the procedure in
either “Exporting data from all records in a CAMEO module” on page 213
if records have been added to just one module, or “Exporting data from all
CAMEO modules” on page 213 if records have been added to multiple
modules.
The data file exported by each data entry operator can then be imported into
a central, networked copy of CAMEO (as shown in Figure 1), by following
the procedure in “Importing data from another copy of CAMEO” on
page 218.
Using CAMEO if you already have
FileMaker
When you follow the instructions in Chapter 2, “Installing CAMEO,”
beginning on page 13, you install the runtime version of CAMEO.
We recommend that as you work with CAMEO, you use the runtime version of CAMEO even if you already have a copy of FileMaker Pro, unless
you are hosting CAMEO on a network (see “Installing and running
CAMEO on a network” on page 232).
If you aren’t hosting the CAMEO files, there is no advantage to running
CAMEO in FileMaker Pro rather than as a runtime program, because all of
CAMEO’s features are available in the runtime version. Using the runtime
2. That is, a copy of CAMEO that has not been modified for multiuser hosting.
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241
Managing Your CAMEO System
Data Entry Operator #1
Green Valley
Water Facility
Data Entry Operator #2
M & S Chemicals
Data Entry Operator #3
General Hardware
& Garden
export3.mer.zip
export1.mer.zip
export2.mer.zip
Central copy of CAMEO
Green Valley
Water Facility
FIGURE 1. Managing data entry by multiple people: each operator
exports a file of data that is imported into a central copy of
CAMEO.
version avoids two potential problems that you could encounter if you were
to run CAMEO in FileMaker Pro:
• If you run CAMEO in FileMaker Pro, you can inadvertently change
internal parts of the program and damage CAMEO features. For example, if you use FileMaker’s New Record menu command to create a new
record in a CAMEO module, rather than using CAMEO’s corresponding
command, the data fields in the new record may not be set correctly.
• When you install the runtime version as described in Chapter 2, the
installer ensures that all needed files and plug-ins are installed into the
correct directories, so that CAMEO will function correctly. Before you
can run CAMEO in FileMaker Pro, you would need to relocate some
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Managing Your CAMEO System
Using CAMEO if you already have FileMaker
supporting files (as explained in “Using FileMaker Pro to host runtime
files” on page 233).
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243
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244
Managing Your CAMEO System
CHAPTER 9
Reference
Information
This chapter contains basic reference information about CAMEO: explanations of the functions of CAMEO’s menu commands, explanations of how
to search for and sort records in CAMEO modules, an overview of the legislation on which CAMEO is based, and a bibliography.
CAMEO’s menus
Below are explanations of the functions of each of CAMEO’s menu commands.
TABLE 1. CAMEO’s Menus and Menu Commands.
File menu commands:
Show Navigator
Opens the Navigator (which contains buttons to open
CAMEO’s modules and perform common tasks). See “The
Navigator” on page 25.
Open
Select Open, then point to any module name to open that module.
Close
Close the current window.
Reference Information
245
Reference Information
TABLE 1. CAMEO’s Menus and Menu Commands. (Continued)
Import\Export
Displays controls you use to import or export data to or from
CAMEO. See “Importing and Exporting Data” on page 193.
Make Report
Displays controls you use to create reports.
Quit (Macintosh) or
Exit (Windows)
Quits or exits from CAMEO.
Edit menu commands:
The Edit menu contains standard FileMaker commands, most of which work in some but
not all places in CAMEO (e.g., text-editing commands work within text boxes in
CAMEO, but not within lists of records).
Undo
Undoes your most recent text-editing action.
Cut
Removes selected text from a text box, and places it in the
Clipboard. Available in Edit mode only.
Copy
Copies selected text into the Clipboard. Always available.
Paste
Pastes the contents of the Clipboard into the currently selected
text box. Available in Edit mode only.
Clear
Deletes selected text from a text box. Available in Edit mode
only.
Select All
Selects all the text with in a text box in which you have clicked.
Always available.
Spelling
Checks the spelling of text in text boxes and Notes fields:
select the text, then select Spelling, then Check Selection, from
the Edit menu. You can check spelling in either Browse or Edit
mode, but you can replace misspelled words only in Edit mode.
Preferences
Not functional in CAMEO.
Record menu commands:
View List
246
Displays a list of the records in the current module, in List
view. See “List and Record views” on page 26. Available in
Record view.
Reference Information
CAMEO’s menus
TABLE 1. CAMEO’s Menus and Menu Commands. (Continued)
View Record
Displays the selected record in Record view (in List view, click
on a record to select it; you’ll then see a small black rectangle
next to its name). See “List and Record views” on page 26.
Available in List view.
Next Tab
Brings the next tab forward. Available in Record view only.
Show Related
Displays a submenu listing all modules that could be related to
the current record. Choose a module name to view all the
records in that module that are related to the current record, in
List view. See “Using the Show Related command” on
page 28. Available in all modules except the Chemical Library.
Sort
Choose to sort the records in the current module (or found set)
alphabetically, numerically, or chronologically, by one or more
data fields. See “Sorting records in CAMEO modules” on
page 255.
Show All Records
Choose to view all the records in the current module, rather
than just the found set of records collected during your most
recent search or other activity. You would choose this command after you had finished working with a search.
New <module
name>
Creates a new record in the current module. (E.g., in the Facilities module, choosing New Facility creates a new Facility
record.) Available in all modules except the Chemical Library.
Edit <module
name>
Allows you to edit the current record. (E.g., while you’re viewing a record in the Incidents module, choose Edit Incident in
order to edit that record.) Available in all modules except the
Chemical Library.
Delete <module
name>
Deletes the current record, along with subordinate (“child”)
records in other modules. (E.g., when a Facility record is the
current record, choosing Delete Facility deletes not only that
record but also all Chemicals in Inventory, Screening and Scenarios, and Incidents records for that facility, as well as all
Contacts records for that facility that aren’t also associated
with another facility or organization.) Available in all modules
except the Chemical Library.
Delete All Records
Deletes all the records from the current module. Available in all
modules except the Chemical Library.
Reference Information
247
Reference Information
TABLE 1. CAMEO’s Menus and Menu Commands. (Continued)
Delete All Found
Records
Deletes all the records from the current found set. Available in
all modules except the Chemical Library, when a found set
exists.
Add to Reactivity
Worksheet
Adds the substance from the current Chemical Library record
to the Chemical Reactivity Worksheet. See “Predicting potential chemical reactivity” on page 94. Available only in the
Chemical Library.
View Reactivity
Worksheet
Displays the Chemical Reactivity Worksheet. See “Predicting
potential chemical reactivity” on page 94. Available only in the
Chemical Library.
Go to
Displays a submenu of navigation commands: choose First to
view the first record in the current module (or set of found
records), Previous to view the record preceding the current
one, Next to view the record immediately after the current
record, and Last to view the last record in the module.
Search menu commands:
248
Start Search
Initiates a search of the current module. (E.g., in the Chemical
Library, choose Start Search to find the record for a particular
chemical.) See “Searching” on page 251.
Append Search
Choose when you want to broaden a search; that is, to search
for more records than you found in a previous search. Any
records found in an append search that aren’t in the existing set
of records found in your previous search will be added to that
set of found records. See “Append searches and subset
searches” on page 254.
Subset Search
Choose when you want to narrow your search; that is, to search
through a set of records you found in a previous search, in
order to find those that meet more restrictive criteria. See
“Append searches and subset searches” on page 254.
Clear Search
Allows you to view all the records in the current module, rather
than just the found set of records collected during your most
recent search.
Reference Information
CAMEO’s menus
TABLE 1. CAMEO’s Menus and Menu Commands. (Continued)
Sharing menu commands:
ALOHA/Help on
ALOHA
Displays an explanation of ALOHA and how it works with
CAMEO. For more on ALOHA, see “Using ALOHA with
MARPLOT and CAMEO” on page 189.
ALOHA/Select This
Chemical in
ALOHA
Available only in the Chemical Library. Starts ALOHA if it
isn’t already running, then loads the chemical from the current
record into ALOHA if the chemical is in ALOHA’s chemical
library.
ALOHA/Go to
ALOHA
Starts ALOHA if it isn’t already running, and brings it forward.
MARPLOT/Help on
MARPLOT
Displays an explanation of MARPLOT and how it works with
CAMEO. For more on MARPLOT, see “Using MARPLOT
with CAMEO” on page 177.
MARPLOT/Show
on Map
If the current record is linked to a map object, brings MARPLOT forward with that object visible and selected. In Screening & Scenarios, displays the threat zone (if the associated
facility or route is linked to a map object; see “Plotting a threat
zone on a map” on page 148).
MARPLOT/Show
All on Map
If multiple records in the current module or found set are linked
to map objects, brings MARPLOT forward with those objects
visible and selected.
MARPLOT/Unlink
If the current record is linked to a map object, unlinks that
record and object. Always unlinks just one record at a time,
even if multiple records have been found in a search. See
“Deleting a map link” on page 188.
MARPLOT/Delete
Scenario Object
Available only in Screening & Scenarios. Deletes the threat
zone map object linked to the current or selected Screening and
Scenarios record. See “Working with threat zones on maps” on
page 149.
MARPLOT/Delete
All Scenario Objects
Available only in Screening & Scenarios. Deletes all objects on
the Scenarios layer in MARPLOT. See “Working with threat
zones on maps” on page 149.
MARPLOT/Go to
MARPLOT
Starts MARPLOT if it isn’t already running, and brings it forward. The current or most recent map view is displayed.
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TABLE 1. CAMEO’s Menus and Menu Commands. (Continued)
LandView/Help on
LandView
Choose this submenu command to read an explanation of
LandView and how it works with CAMEO. See “LandView®”
on page 9.
LandView/Go to
LandView
Starts LandView if it’s installed on your computer and isn’t
already running, and brings it forward.
Scripts menu commands:
Custom Menus
Restores CAMEO’s normal menus if they fail to display properly.
***
This command must appear in the menu for CAMEO to function normally, but choosing it doesn’t initiate any actions.
Window menu:
This menu lists the file names of open modules, along with the names of support files
that CAMEO needs in order to operate normally, but you won’t ever need to work with
them directly. Rather than using the Window menu when you need to navigate to a
module, use the Navigator, select Open from the File menu, or select Show Related from
the Record menu.
Help menu commands:
About Balloon Help
Displayed on Macintosh computers only.
Show Balloons
Displayed on Macintosh computers only.
CAMEO Help
Opens and displays the CAMEO help table of contents in your
web browser.
About FileMaker
Pro Runtime
Displayed in Windows only. Displays brief explanation of the
runtime database program in which CAMEO was created.
Link menu commands:
This is a temporary menu that is only visible when you have (a) begun linking a MARPLOT map object to a CAMEO record (see “Linking map objects to CAMEO records”
on page 183), or (b) chosen to adjust the link from a chemical inventory name to a
Chemical Library record (see “Using the Adjust Link button” on page 128).
250
Link this record
Links the selected map object to the current CAMEO record.
Cancel
Cancels the link in progress.
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Searching
Searching
You can make either a basic search or a more advanced search for the
records you want to see in any CAMEO module, as explained below. You
also can save the criteria you used for particularly complex searches so that
you can rerun them again later.
You’ll find more specific instructions about searching the Chemical Library
in “Searching for a Chemical Record” on page 78, and about searching for
records on particular facilities in “Accessing information about a facility”
on page 109.
Making a basic search
Choose to make a basic search when you just need to look up records by
name, address, or other straightforward piece of identifying information.
Here’s how to do a basic search:
1. To start your search, first open the module you want to search, then,
from the Search menu, select Start Search.
2. In the Basic Search dialog, fill out the information you have about the
record you’re looking for.
For your “Operator for text fields,” choose “Contains characters” to
search for part of a word, phrase, or code; or “Contains word starting
with” to search either for the first part of a word, phrase, or code, or for
an entire word, phrase, or code.
If you fill in multiple criteria, CAMEO will search for records that match
all your criteria.
3. Click Search to start your search.
CAMEO will run the search and then display either a list of the records
that match your criteria or a message, “No records found,” if no records
match your criteria.
4. Double-click the name of any record in the list to view that record.
Whenever you want to return to the list, click the “List” button in the
toolbar. If you’d like to view the list of all records in the module again,
from the Search menu, select Clear Search.
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Searching State Fields. Both Facilities and Chemicals in Inventory
records contain a State Fields tab to support the emergency planning work
of U.S. states that have developed their own reporting requirements in addition to the Tier II requirements specified in EPCRA (which apply to all 50
states). Tier II forms submitted in those states contain additional data fields,
which are called “State Fields” in CAMEO. CAMEO’s State Fields provide
a place where people working in these states can maintain their reporting
information.
You can search for records for facilities or chemicals in inventories that
contain particular information in one or more State Fields. For example, the
State of Arizona requires facilities to report whether they are located on
Tribal land. To search State Fields,
1. From the Search menu, select Start Search.
2. Click Search State Fields. You’ll see the window for basic state field
searches.
3. If the report year and state shown in the window are different from the
report year and state you want to search for, click Choose State and
Report Year, change the report year and/or the state, then click Select.
You can only search for records with a particular report year and state at
one time. If you need to search for records for more than one report year
(e.g., for facilities on Tribal lands for which records were created in
report years 2000, 2001, and 2002), run a search for one of those years,
then run successive Append searches, one for each of the other years. If
you need to search for records for more than one state, run a search for
one of those states, then successive Append searches, one for each of the
other states.
4. Fill out the information you have about the records you’re looking for.
For example, if you’re searching for Arizona facilities located on Tribal
Lands, search for records for which “Is the facility on Tribal Land?” is
“Yes.”
If you fill in multiple criteria, CAMEO will search for records that match
all your criteria.
5. Click Search to run the search.
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Searching
Making an advanced search
You can make an advanced search whenever you need to use other criteria
than the ones available for a basic search. Here’s how:
1. Start your search just as you would start a basic search, by selecting Start
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Search from the Search menu of the module you want to search.
Click Go to Advanced Search.
Click Select field to indicate which data field to search. In some modules, you’ll need to click a button to indicate what kind of information
you’re searching for.
In the list of searchable fields, click the name of a field, then click Select.
Choose an operator from the popup menu (e.g., “contains characters,”
“is equal to,” or “is greater than”).
The operator to choose depends on the search you’re making.
Type the word, phrase, number, or code to search for in the box.
Leave the box empty if you don’t need to type something in—e.g., when
you choose an operator like “is empty” or “is not empty.”
click Search to start your search.
Adding more choices. You can make an advanced search for records
that match more than one criterion. To add a second criterion to your search,
1. While you’re working in the Advanced Search dialog, click Add a
Choice.
2. Follow steps 3 through 6 in “Making an advanced search” to set up the
search for that criterion.
3. Indicate whether to search either for
• records that meet both your criteria—click “Search for all of the following (AND search).”
• records that meet either criterion—click “Search for any of the following (OR search).”
Saving searches. You can save any advanced search to reuse later. To
save a search, first fill out the Advanced Search dialog with the criteria
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choices you’d like to save, and then click Save This Search. Type a name
for the saved search, then click Save This Search.
If you’ve just set up and run an advanced search, your criteria will be saved
in the Advanced Search dialog. You then can save that search which you’ve
just completed by returning to the Advanced Search dialog and clicking
Save This Search. (To return to the Advanced Search dialog at any time,
select Start Search from the Search menu, then click Go to Advanced
Search.)
To open and reuse a saved search, in the Advanced Search dialog, click
Open Saved Search. From the popup menu of search names, choose a
search name, then click Select This Search. The Advanced Search dialog
will be filled in with the criteria for this search. You then can click Search to
run this reopened search.
Append searches and subset searches
Two commands in CAMEO’s Search menu allow you to refine either a
basic or advanced search. Once you have run a search and collected a set of
found records, there are two ways to continue your search.
In the Search menu, run a second search by selecting either:
• Append Search. This widens your search. Records found during an
append search will be added to the existing set of found records. You
might choose to append a search if your first search did not turn up all
the records you needed to work with. For example, you might have run a
search of the Chemical Library for chemicals with a particular CAS
number, then realized that you also wanted to work with the records for
chemicals with another CAS number. You would run an append search
for the second CAS number in order to obtain a set of records for chemicals with either CAS number.
• Subset Search. This narrows your search. Only records that were found
in the first search and that also are found during your second search will
be included in the set of records found in any subset search. You might
choose a subset search if your first search turned up too many records,
and you needed to narrow down the number of found records. For exam-
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ple, if you search the Chemical Library for chemicals that have “Poison”
on their DOT placard label, you would find almost 900 records. If you
then ran a subset search for chemicals that also have “Oxidizer” on their
placard label, you would find just 40 records, all for chemicals that have
both “Poison” and “Oxidizer” on their placard.
Sorting records in CAMEO modules
By default, in the Chemical Library, records are shown in List view in
alphabetical order by chemical name. In all other CAMEO modules,
records are listed in the order in which they were added to the module.
You can change the order of the records in any module by sorting them into
a new order. When you do this, the new sort order is retained until you
resort the module or unsort it to put the records back in default order (or
perform an action such as a search).
You can sort either all the records in a module or just a found set of records
(those records that you found by running a search of a module). When you
sort just a found set, the sort order of those records is lost when you quit
(exit) from CAMEO.
Choosing sort criteria
To sort records, you must choose one or more sort criteria. For example, to
sort your Facilities records alphabetically by facility name, you would use
facility name as your sort criterion.
You set up a sort and choose your criteria using the Sort dialog (Figure 1).
In the Sort dialog, you see a list of the names of data fields that you can use
as sort criteria. These names generally are similar to the data field names
shown on your CAMEO records, although they don’t correspond exactly,
because the names you see in the Sort dialog are internal names used by
CAMEO. The names appearing at the top of the list are usually the most
useful for sorting records. Many of these names begin with a one- or twoletter prefix indicating the module they are in (for example, “CoFireDistrict” is the Fire District field in Contacts records). Most fields with an
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FIGURE 1. CAMEO’s Sort dialog. From the left-hand list of sort
criteria, you select and move the criteria you want to use into the
Sort Order box.
underscore at the beginning of the name (for example, “_Formula”) aren’t
useful for sorting records (however, a few are), and field names in gray text
can’t be used as sort criteria.
Table 2 shows the names of some of the sort criteria you may find most useful for sorting each CAMEO module.
Note that choosing some sort criteria may not produce the results you would
expect. Here are two examples:
• A given Chemical Library record may contain multiple CAS numbers,
stored as a return-delimited list (a list of numbers separated by return
characters). Sorting the Chemical Library by CAS number amounts to
sorting on the first number in the list, which may not be a particularly
meaningful operation.
• Physical properties are stored in the Chemical Library as a combination
of several data fields. For example, melting point information is kept in
three fields: MeltingPointNote, MeltingPointRange, and MeltingPointValue. For some chemicals, a specific value for the melting point is
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stored in the MeltingPointValue data field, while for others, a range is
stored in the MeltingPointRange field. If you sort the Chemical Library
by MeltingPointValue, making an “ascending” sort so that the smallest
values appear first, all records with no MeltingPointValue will appear at
the beginning of your sorted list. Among these records would be some
for chemicals which in fact have high melting points, stored as ranges.
Table 2: Some CAMEO sort criteria.
Item to sort
Name of the corresponding sort
criterion
Chemical Library items:
Chemical Name
OfficialChemicalName
DOT Label
DOTLabel
EPCRA EHS Chemical
EpcraEhsChemical
Chemicals in Inventory items:
Facility/Route Name
_CFacilityRouteName
Chemical Name
EnteredChemName
Facility Dept.
_CFacilityDepartment
Contacts items:
Last Name
LastName
First Name
FirstName
Organization
Organization
Facilities items:
Facility Name
FacilityName
Report Year
ReportYear
Department
FacilityDept
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Table 2: Some CAMEO sort criteria. (Continued)
Item to sort
Name of the corresponding sort
criterion
Incidents items:
Facility/Route Name
_FacRouteName
Incident Name
IncidentName
Spilled Date
SpillDate
Resources items:
Supplier Name
ResourceName
Type
ResourceType
Routes items:
Route Name
RouteName
Route Type
RouteType
Screening & Scenarios items:
Facility/Route Name
_scFacilityName
Chemical
EnteredChemNamea
Threat Zone Radius
_RadiusValue
Screening
Screening
Special Locations items:
Location Name
LocationName
Location Type
LocationType
a. To choose EnteredChemName as your sort criterion, first change the file setting in the
upper left-hand corner of the Sort dialog from “Current File (‘ScreeningAndScenarios’)” to “ChemicalsInInv,” select “EnteredChemName” in the data field list, then
click >>Move>>.
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Sorting records by a single criterion
To sort all the records in a module using a single data field—such as chemical name or reporting year—as your sort criterion,
1. Open the module to be sorted.
2. From the Record menu, select Show All Records to clear any existing
found set (there will be a found set if you ran a search in the module,
unless you cleared your search results).
3. From the Record menu, select Sort. The Sort dialog will be displayed.
4. Choose the data field to use as your sort criterion, as follows:
• The names of some of the data fields in the module may be listed as
sort criteria in the Sort Order box (the box on the right side of the dialog). If you don’t want to sort by any of these, click Clear All. In the
example below, three Chemicals in Inventory criteria are being
cleared.
• If one of the criteria in the Sort Order box is the criterion you want to
sort by, then click on the name of each other criterion, then click
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Clear, until just the criterion you want is listed in the box. In the
example below, one criterion is being cleared.
• If the criterion you want to sort by does not appear in the Sort Order
box, then, in the list of data field names on the left, click on its name,
then click >>Move>> to move it into the Sort Order box. In the
example below, the Chemicals in Inventory box will be sorted by
Chemical Name (“EnteredChemName”), so this criterion is being
moved into the Sort Order box.
5. Once the Sort Order box contains just the criterion of your choice, then
click on the name of your criterion in the Sort Order box to select it and
then click either
• Ascending order, to sort the records alphabetically from A to Z, in
numerical order from smallest to largest number, or in date or time
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Sorting records in CAMEO modules
order from earliest to latest date or time. In the example below, the
Chemicals in Inventory module is being sorted alphabetically by
chemical name (“EnteredChemName”).
• Descending order, to sort the records alphabetically from Z to A, in
numerical order from largest to smallest number, or in date or time
order from latest to earliest date or time. In the example below, the
Chemicals in Inventory module is being sorted by Maximum amount
in the largest container (“MaxAmtContainer”), so that larger amounts
appear higher in the list than smaller amounts.
6. Click Sort to sort the records (or Done if you decide not to sort the
records).
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Unsorting records
You can unsort the records in any CAMEO module to return them to their
original, default order1, as follows:
1. Open the module to be unsorted.
2. From the Record menu, select Sort. The Sort dialog will be displayed.
3. Click Unsort (or Done if you decide not to unsort the records).
Sorting a subset of records in a module
Sometimes, you might want to sort just some of the records in a module.
For example, in the Facilities module, you might need to sort just the
records for facilities in the town of Haymarket without sorting the records
for facilities elsewhere.
To sort just some records, first search the module to find just the records
you want to sort, then sort those records, as follows:
1. From the Search menu, select Start Search.
2. Choose the criteria for your search, making an Advanced Search if
necessary, then click Search. (For help setting up searches, see “Searching” on page 251.) When you run a search, a found set of records that
meet your criteria is established within the module you’ve searched. You
can access and sort only those records until you clear your search.
3. From the Record menu, select Sort.
4. Choose the criteria for your sort, then click Sort. Only the records in the
found set will be sorted. In List view, you’ll see just the names of those
records, sorted in the order you chose.
5. When you’ve finished working with your sorted records, if you want to
clear your search so you can work with all the records in the module,
select Clear Search from the Search menu (or Show All Records from
the Record menu).
1. In the Chemical Library, the default record order is alphabetical by chemical name. In all
other modules, the default is the order in which records were created.
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The found set will be cleared, and the found records will revert to their
original, default order among the other records in the module.
Sorting by multiple criteria
Sometimes, you might find it useful to use more than one criterion to sort a
module. For example, you might want to sort the records in the Contacts
module alphabetically by last name. If some of your contacts have the same
last names, you also might want to sort the records alphabetically by first
name. If you sort this way, “Abe Johnson” would appear in your sorted list
ahead of “Sarah Johnson.”
When you use more than one criterion in a sort, arrange your criteria so that
the most important criterion appears first in the Sort Order box. In the
example above, last name would appear before first name. In that case, your
Contacts records will be sorted first by last name and then, within each last
name, by first name.
To sort the records in a module using more than one criterion:
1. Open the module to be sorted.
2. From the Record menu, select Show All Records to clear any existing
found set (unless you want to sort the found set; a found set exists if you
ran a search in the module, and haven’t cleared your search results).
3. From the Record menu, select Sort. The Sort dialog will be displayed.
4. Choose the data fields to use as your sort criteria, as follows:
• The names of some of the data fields in the module may be listed as
sort criteria in the Sort Order box (the box on the right side of the dialog). If you don’t want to sort by any of these, click Clear All.
• If one or more of the criteria in the Sort Order box are criteria you
want to sort by, then click on the name of each other criterion, then
click Clear, until just the criteria you want to use are listed in the box.
• If any of the criteria you want to sort by does not appear in the Sort
Order box, then, in the list of data field names on the left, click on the
name of each of those criteria, then click >>Move>> to move it into
the Sort Order box.
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In the Sort dialog, names of data fields generally are similar to the data
field names shown on your CAMEO records, although they don’t correspond exactly.
5. Order your sort criteria by their importance: move the most important
criterion to the top of the Sort Order list (in the example above, last name
is the most important criterion), the next most important to the position
just below it, and so on. To move a criterion, click the move button, ,
to the left of the criterion’s name in the list, then drag the button up or
down to move the criterion up or down in the list.
For example, you might sort your Contacts records first by Organization
(the most important criterion) and then by last name (the less-important
criterion), as in the example below (in which “Organization” is above
“LastName” in the Sort Order box). Your contacts then will be sorted by
organization, with contacts for the same organization listed alphabetically.
6. Once the Sort Order box contains just the criteria of your choice, then
click on the name of each criterion in the Sort Order box to select it, and
then click either
• Ascending order, to sort the records by that criterion alphabetically
from A to Z, in numerical order from smallest to largest number, or in
date or time order from earliest to latest date or time. In the example
above, Contacts records will be sorted alphabetically by last name.
• Descending order, to sort the records by that criterion alphabetically
from Z to A, in numerical order from largest to smallest number, or in
date or time order from latest to earliest date or time.
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Sorting records in CAMEO modules
For example, you might sort your Facilities records (a) in ascending
order by city, which orders the list alphabetically by city, (b) in ascending order by facility name, which orders records within cities alphabetically by facility name, and then (c) in descending order by report year,
which orders the records for any given facility with the most recent
records listed before less recent records. For this example, the Sort dialog would look like the one below.
7. Click Sort to sort the records (or Done if you decide not to sort the
records).
Some example sorts
• To sort your Screening & Scenarios records alphabetically by facility/
route name, choose “_scFacilityName” as your sort criterion, and sort in
ascending order.
• To sort the Chemical Library records so that records for EHSs appear
first in the list, with EHSs with the smallest Levels of Concern (LOCs)
listed first (a smaller LOC indicates greater toxicity, so the most toxic
EHSs would then be listed first): sort first by EpcraEhsChemical, in
descending order, and then by LevelofConcern in ascending order.
• To sort the Chemical Library so that you see just the records for EHSs,
with those with smaller LOCs listed first: make an advanced search of
the Chemical Library for “EPCRA EHS Chemical” is “Yes,” then sort
this found set by LevelofConcern in ascending order.
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Overview of legislation
CAMEO is designed not only to be an emergency response tool, but to be
useful for people who must meet the provisions of the Emergency Planning
and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986.
EPCRA
EPCRA, also known as Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), establishes requirements for Federal, state,
and local governments and for industry for emergency planning and “community right-to-know” reporting on hazardous and toxic chemicals. The
community right-to-know provisions of EPCRA are intended to increase
public knowledge of and access to information about the presence of hazardous chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into
the environment.
EPCRA includes four major sections: emergency planning (Section 301303), emergency release notification (Section 304), community right-toknow reporting requirements (Sections 311 and 312), and toxic release
inventory requirements (Section 313). Under EPCRA, manufacturers and
other facilities are required to report accidental releases of hazardous
chemicals to state and local officials, and to local fire departments. State
and local officials are required to prepare contingency plans for communities where hazardous materials are manufactured, stored, or processed.
Records of chemical inventories at facilities, and of accidental and routine
chemical spills must be readily available to interested citizens, local and
state governments, and local fire departments.
You can learn more about the reporting and planning requirements of
EPCRA at www.epa.gov/swercepp/crtk.html or by contacting the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Information Hotline, 800535-0202 (in the Washington, D.C. area, dial 703-920-9877), or the nearest
regional office of the EPA. You can also review parts of the Code of Federal
Regulations (CFR) describing these requirements. The relevant parts are 40
CFR § 300 and 355 (describing Sections 301 to 303 and Section 304 of
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Overview of legislation
EPCRA); 40 CFR § 370 (describing Sections 311 to 312); and 40 CFR §
372 (describing Section 313).
TABLE 3. A snapshot of EPCRA’s major sections.
Sections
Summary
Sections 301 to 303: Emergency Planning
Local governments are required to prepare chemical
emergency response plans, and to review plans at least
annually. State governments are required to oversee
and coordinate local planning efforts. Facilities that
maintain EHSs (Extremely Hazardous Substances)
on-site in quantities greater than corresponding
Threshold Planning Quantities (TPQs) must cooperate
in emergency plan preparation.
Section 304: Emergency
Notification
Facilities must immediately report accidental releases
of EHS chemicals and “hazardous substances” in
quantities greater than corresponding Reportable
Quantities (RQs) defined under CERCLA (the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,
and Liability Act) to state and local officials. Information about accidental chemical releases must be available to the public.
Sections 311 and 312: Community Right-to-Know
Requirements
Facilities manufacturing, processing, or storing designated hazardous chemicals must make Material Safety
Data Sheets (MSDSs) describing the properties and
health effects of these chemicals available to state and
local officials and local fire departments. Facilities
must also report, to state and local officials and local
fire departments, inventories of all on-site chemicals
for which MSDSs exist. Information about chemical
inventories at facilities and MSDSs must be available
to the public.
Section 313: Toxic Chemical
Release Reporting
The EPA must maintain records of toxic chemical
emissions from certain facilities, and must use this
information in research and in preparation of guidelines and regulations. This EPA module is called the
Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). Facilities subject to
these reporting requirements must submit annual
reports of total amounts of chemicals released to the
environment (both routinely and accidentally) to the
EPA and to state officials.
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Section 301-303: emergency planning. The emergency planning sections of the law are designed to develop state and Federal emergency
response and preparedness capabilities through improved coordination and
planning, especially within local communities. EPCRA, when enacted,
required the governor of each state to designate a State Emergency
Response Commission or SERC. Each SERC then designated local emergency planning districts and appointed a Local Emergency Planning Committee, or LEPC, for each district. SERCs have so far designated about
4,000 districts nationwide. Each SERC is responsible for supervising and
coordinating the activities of LEPCs, establishing procedures for receiving
and processing public requests for information collected in order to meet
other provisions of EPCRA, and reviewing local emergency plans.
Each LEPC includes, at a minimum, elected state and local officials, police,
fire, civil defense, and public health professionals, environment, hospital,
and transportation officials, as well as representatives of facilities subject to
the reporting requirements, community groups, and the media. As soon as
facilities become subject to the emergency planning requirements, they
must designate representatives to participate in the EPCRA planning process.
The LEPC’s primary responsibility is to develop a chemical emergency
response plan, and to review it at least annually thereafter. In developing a
response plan, each LEPC evaluates available resources for preparing for
and responding to a potential chemical accident.
Each plan:
• identifies facilities and transportation routes of extremely hazardous substances.
• describes on- and off-site emergency response procedures.
• designates a community emergency response coordinator and facility
coordinator(s) to implement the plan.
• outlines emergency procedures.
• describes methods for determining the occurrence of a release and the
possible affected area and population.
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• describes community and industry emergency equipment and facilities
and identifies the people responsible for them.
• outlines evacuation plans.
• describes a training program (including schedules) for emergency
response personnel.
• presents methods and schedules for exercising emergency response
plans.
To assist LEPCs in preparing and reviewing plans, the National Response
Team (NRT), composed of fourteen Federal agencies with emergency
response responsibilities, published guidance on emergency response planning. This guidance, the Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide,
was published by the NRT in March 1987 and is online at www.epa.gov/
swercepp/p-tech.htm#nrt-1.
Each emergency response plan must initially be reviewed by the SERC and
then must be reviewed at least annually by the LEPC. Regional Response
Teams (RRT), composed of Federal regional officials and state government
representatives, may also review the plans and provide assistance to LEPCs
upon request. Planning activities of LEPCs and facilities were to be initially
focused on, but not limited to, the 360 extremely hazardous substances (also
known as EHS chemicals, or EHSs). However, plans were to be comprehensive, addressing all hazardous materials of concern within each community and covering transportation routes as well as fixed facilities.
Any facility where any of the extremely hazardous substances (EHSs) are
present in quantities equal to or greater than threshold planning quantities
(TPQs) are subject to these emergency planning requirements. In addition,
each state governor or SERC, after a period of public comment, can designate other facilities to be subject to these requirements. A facility must
notify the appropriate SERC and LEPC that it has become subject to
EPCRA planning requirements within 60 days after beginning to keep on
site any EHS chemical in quantities equal to or greater than its TPQ. In
addition, the SERC must notify the nearest regional office of the EPA of all
facilities subject to these emergency planning requirements, including any
facilities designated by either the SERC or governor.
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Section 304: emergency notification. Facilities must immediately
notify any LEPCs and SERCs likely to be affected by a release into the
environment of a listed hazardous substance in an amount exceeding the
reportable quantity (RQ) of that substance. Substances subject to this
requirement include both the 360 extremely hazardous substances (listed in
40 CFR § 355), or the 725 hazardous substances subject to the emergency
notification provisions of Section 103(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (listed in 40
CFR § 302.4). Initial notification can be made by telephone, radio, or in
person. Emergency notification requirements for transportation incidents
can be met by dialing the 911 emergency number, if possible, or otherwise
by calling the operator. Releases of CERCLA hazardous substances must
also be reported to the National Response Center (800-424-8802).
Sections 311 and 312: community right-to-know requirements.
Two community right-to-know requirements are included in EPCRA. Section 311 requires each facility that must prepare material safety data sheets
(MSDSs) under Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
regulations to submit either copies of its MSDSs or a list of all on-site
MSDS chemicals to the LEPC, the SERC, and the local fire department
with jurisdiction over the facility.
If the facility owner or operator chooses to submit a list of MSDS chemicals, that list must include the common or chemical name of each substance
and must identify the applicable hazard categories into which each substance falls. These categories are:
•
•
•
•
•
immediate (acute) health hazard
delayed (chronic) health hazard
fire hazard
sudden release of pressure hazard
reactive hazard
If a list is submitted, the facility must submit a copy of the MSDS for any
chemical on the list if requested by the LEPC or SERC.
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Overview of legislation
Also, the EPA has established threshold quantities for hazardous chemicals.
A facility is not required to report hazardous chemicals existing on site in
quantities below the appropriate threshold. The current Section 311 thresholds are:
• for extremely hazardous substances: either 500 pounds, or the TPQ,
whichever is lower.
• for all other hazardous chemicals: 10,000 pounds.
OSHA regulations require all facility owner/operators to maintain or prepare MSDSs for on-site hazardous chemicals, and therefore all existing
facilities with hazardous chemicals on site should by now have submitted
either lists or MSDSs. Under EPCRA, facilities not previously covered by
the OSHA regulations must submit either MSDSs or a list of MSDS chemicals within three months after becoming covered. That is, whenever a facility becomes subject to the right-to-know requirements, it must submit either
MSDSs or a list within three months after being required to prepare or have
available MSDSs, under OSHA regulations.
Facilities must submit either an MSDS or revised list once they store new,
previously unreported hazardous chemicals on site in quantities at or above
the established threshold levels. Whenever significant new information
about a hazardous chemical becomes available, if MSDSs rather than a list
were submitted, an updated MSDS must be submitted.
Under Section 312, each subject facility must submit an annual emergency
and hazardous chemical inventory form to the LEPC, the SERC, and the
local fire department with jurisdiction over the facility. Hazardous chemicals covered by Section 312 are those for which facilities are required to
prepare or have available an MSDS, under OSHA’s Hazard Communication
Standard, and that were present at the facility in quantities equaling or
exceeding threshold quantities at any time during the previous year. These
are the same chemicals covered under Section 311.
The EPA has established threshold quantities for hazardous chemicals covered under Section 312. A facility is not required to report hazardous chemicals on site in quantities below the thresholds established for those
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chemicals. The current Section 312 thresholds, which are identical to the
Section 311 threshold quantities, are:
• for extremely hazardous substances: either 500 pounds or the TPQ,
whichever is lower.
• for all other hazardous chemicals: 10,000 pounds.
The inventory form incorporates a “two-tier” approach. Under Tier I, facilities must submit the following aggregate information about chemicals
within each applicable hazard category:
• an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amount of chemicals in each
category present at the facility at any time during the preceding calendar
year.
• an estimate (in ranges) of the average daily amount of hazardous chemicals in each category present on site during the preceding calendar year.
• the approximate location of hazardous chemicals in each category.
If requested by a LEPC, SERC, or local fire department, a facility also must
provide the following Tier II information for each requested substance:
• the common or chemical name of the substance, as indicated on the
MSDS.
• an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amount of the chemical present
at the facility at any time during the preceding calendar year.
• a brief description of the manner in which the chemical is stored.
• the location of the chemical at the facility.
• an indication of whether the owner/operator elects to withhold location
information from public disclosure.
Since many states impose additional requirements or have incorporated the
Federal reporting provisions on their own forms, Tier I/II forms should be
obtained from SERCs.
Facilities may choose to submit Tier II rather than Tier I forms, and some
states require that Tier II forms be submitted. Individual citizens may also
request copies of completed Tier II forms from either a SERC or LEPC. In
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Overview of legislation
such a case, if a Tier II form is not available, it must be requested from the
facility. Information submitted by facilities under Sections 311 and 312
generally must be available for public inspection during normal working
hours. Facilities must provide Section 311 and 312 information whenever
requested, regardless of whether on-site quantities of hazardous chemicals
equal or exceed threshold quantities. Completed forms must be submitted
by subject facilities on or before March 1 of each year.
Section 313: toxic chemical release reporting. Section 313 of
EPCRA requires the EPA to establish and maintain an inventory of toxic
chemical emissions from certain facilities. Facilities subject to this reporting requirement must complete a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Form
(commonly known as Form R) for specified chemicals. Toxic Chemical
Release Inventory Forms must be submitted to the EPA and to state officials
designated by the governor on or before July 1 of each year.
These reports should include descriptions of both routine and accidental
releases of hazardous chemicals from subject facilities during the preceding
calendar year. The purpose of this reporting requirement is to inform the
public about routine releases of toxic chemicals to the environment. The
information is also intended for use in research and in the development of
regulations, guidelines, and standards.
The Section 313 reporting requirement applies to owners and operators of
facilities with at least ten full-time employees, that are in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39, and that manufacture,
import, process, or otherwise use at least one listed toxic chemical in excess
of specified threshold quantities.
Facilities that manufacture or process any listed toxic chemical in quantities
exceeding 25,000 pounds must submit a completed Form R by July 1 each
year, describing all releases that took place during the previous calendar
year. Facilities using listed toxic chemicals in any other way in quantities
greater than 10,000 pounds during a calendar year must submit inventory
forms by July 1 of the following calendar year. The EPA has the authority to
revise these threshold quantities and to change the SIC codes covered by
Section 313.
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More than 700 chemicals in more than 20 categories are now included on
the list. EPA, through its rule-making authority, can add or remove chemicals from this list. The EPA has so far deleted six toxic chemicals from the
Toxic Chemical List.
Inventory reports from facilities must be submitted both to the EPA and to
designated state agencies. The EPA has established and maintains a national
toxic chemical inventory, called the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) database, containing the submitted inventory information. Individuals may
access this national module electronically, or may obtain included information by several other means.
Other EPCRA provisions. Section 322 of EPCRA addresses the effect
of trade secrets on emergency planning, community right-to-know, and
toxic chemical release reporting.
Section 325 of EPCRA describes the penalties for failure to comply with
the requirements of this law. Civil and administrative penalties ranging
from up to $10,000 to $75,000 per violation or per day per violation can be
assessed facilities that fail to comply with the emergency planning (Section
302), emergency notification (Section 304), community right-to-know (Sections 311 and 312), toxic chemical release (Section 313), and trade secret
(Sections 322 and 323) reporting requirements. Criminal penalties of up to
$50,000 or five years in prison may also be assessed any individual who
knowingly and willingly fails to provide emergency notification of a hazardous chemical release. Penalties of up to $20,000 and/or up to one year in
prison may be assessed any person who knowingly and willfully discloses
any information entitled to protection as a trade secret.
In addition, Section 326 includes provisions allowing citizens to initiate
civil actions against the EPA, SERCs, or the owner or operator of a facility
for failure to meet the requirements of the emergency planning and community right-to-know provisions of EPCRA. A SERC, LEPC, or state or local
government may initiate actions against facility owners or operators for
failure to comply with EPCRA requirements. Finally, states may file suit
against the EPA for failure to provide trade secret information.
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Overview of legislation
CAA 112(r)
Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 requires
EPA to publish regulations focusing on preventing chemical accidents.
These new regulations build on the chemical safety work begun under
EPCRA, as well as the Process Safety Management regulations of the
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). While EPCRA
requires communities to develop emergency response plans using information on hazardous chemicals provided by local industries, under CAA
112(r), facilities must identify and assess their chemical hazards and carry
out certain activities designed to reduce the likelihood and severity of accidental chemical releases. Once information about chemicals is shared
among industry, government, and the community, those entities can work to
reduce the risks to public health and the environment.
In 1996, EPA published the final rule for CAA 112(r), called the Risk Management Plan Rule (“RMP Rule”) (40 CFR Part 68). A facility owner or
operator is subject to the RMP Rule if, in any process at the facility, there is
more than a threshold quantity of any of the more than 100 hazardous substances regulated under the rule. If a facility is subject to the RMP Rule, it
must perform an offsite consequence analysis to check whether its process
puts nearby populations at risk. If it does, the facility must take some steps
to manage that risk (these steps are described in the rule).
You can view the text of CAA 112(r) and the RMP Rule, see the list of regulated substances and their threshold quantities, and obtain factsheets and
other information related to CAA 112(r), at www.epa.gov/ceppo.
The similarity between the offsite consequence analyses required by the
RMP Rule and the hazards analysis procedures required under EPCRA has
confused some CAMEO users. The main point to understand is that
CAMEO’s Screening & Scenarios module is designed to implement the
hazards analysis procedures described in an EPCRA guidance document
(Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis: Emergency Planning for
Extremely Hazardous Substances), and not for offsite consequence analyses
(see “What are the differences between Screening & Scenarios, ALOHA,
and RMP endpoint distances?” on page 152). For offsite consequence analyses, you can use the RMP*Comp software program, which can be down-
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loaded at no cost from www.epa.gov/ceppo/tools/rmp-comp/rmpcomp.html.
Bibliography
Note: In this Bibliography, a notation in brackets (such as “[ACGIH]”)
appearing within a citation indicates that the cited reference served as one
of the sources of the chemical data in CAMEO’s Chemical Library (see
“Sources of CAMEO’s chemical data” on page 100).
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists [ACGIH].
2001. 2001 TLVs and BEIs [Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices]. Cincinnati: ACGIH (can be ordered from www.acgih.org).
American Industrial Hygiene Association [AIHA]. 2001. Emergency
Response Planning Guidelines and Workplace Environmental Exposure
Level Guides Handbook. Fairfax, Virginia: AIHA Press. (can be ordered
from www.aiha.org)
Arthur D. Little [Little]. 1992. Update of Chemical Protective Clothing Ratings for CAMEO. Seattle: Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Association of American Railroads [AAR]. 1999. Emergency Handling of
Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, D.C:
Bureau of Explosives.
Chemical Abstract Service [CAS]. 2001. Formulas and CAS numbers. Electronic file. Seattle: Hazardous Materials Response Division, National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29. Labor. 2001. Washington, D.C: U.S.
Government Printing Office.
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40. Protection of Environment. 2001.
Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office.
276
Reference Information
Bibliography
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49 [49 CFR]. Transportation. 2001.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Craig, D.K., J.S. Davis, and D.J. Hansen, et al. [DOE]. 2000. Derivation of
temporary emergency exposure limits (TEELS). Journal of Applied Toxicology 20:11-20.
National Fire Protection Association [NFPA]. 2001. Hazardous Chemicals
Data. In: Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials, 12th Ed. NFPA
49-1991. Quincy, Massachusetts: NFPA (can be ordered from
www.nfpa.org).
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH]. 1997.
Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government
Printing Office. Online at www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/pgintrod.html.
National Response Team. 1987. Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning
Guide. NRT-1. Washington, D.C: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Federal Emergency Management Agency, and U.S. Department of Transportation. Online at www.epa.gov/swercepp/p-tech.htm#nrt-1.
National Toxicology Program, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,
National Institutes of Health [NTP]. 1992. National Toxicology Program
Chemical Repository Database. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina:
NTP.
Turner, D. Bruce. 1994. Workbook of Atmospheric Dispersion Estimates: an
Introduction to Dispersion Modeling. 2nd Ed. Boca Raton, Florida:
Lewis Publishers.
U.S. Coast Guard [USCG]. 1999. Chemical Hazard Response Information
System (CHRIS) - Hazardous Chemical Data. Computer tape. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office. Online version at www.chrismanual.com/.
U.S. Department of Transportation [DOT]. 2000 Emergency Response
Guidebook. Neenah, Wisconsin: J. J. Keller & Associates. Online at
hazmat.dot.gov/gydebook.htm.
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Reference Information
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]. 1998. Extremely Hazardous
Substances (EHS) Chemical Profiles and Emergency First Aid Guides.
Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office. Online at
www.epa.gov/ceppo/ep-chda.htm#ehs. Source of some of the first aid
and physical property information (for EHS chemicals) in the Chemical
Library.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [LIST]. October 1998. Title III List
of Lists. Consolidated List of Chemicals Subject to Reporting Under the
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act and Section
112(r) of the Clean Air Act. EPA 550-8-01-003. Washington, D.C: U.S.
Government Printing Office. Download from: www.epa.gov/swercepp/ptech.htm#title3. Source of many chemical names in the Chemical
Library.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Emergency Management
Agency, and U.S. Department of Transportation [TECH]. 1987. Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis. Emergency Planning for Extremely
Hazardous Substances. Washington, D.C: U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and U.S. Department
of Transportation. Download from www.epa.gov/swercepp/ptech.htm#tech.
278
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Glossary
APPENDIX A
A
Acaricide. A chemical agent used to control tick populations.
Acid. A substance that donates hydrogen ions that can
be accepted by a base. Contrast with Base.
Aerobic. Living, growing, and reproducing in an
environment with air or oxygen present. E.g., aerobic bacteria. Contrast with Anaerobic.
Air-reactive. Likely to react rapidly or violently with
dry or moist air. May apply to the toxic and corrosive fumes generated when a chemical is exposed
to air.
Alicyclic compound. An alkane with one or more
rings of carbon atoms. The properties of alicyclic
compounds closely resemble the properties of
alkanes.
Alkali. A general description given to strong bases,
including the hydroxides and carbonates of the
“alkali metal” or group 1A of the Periodic Table.
Examples include sodium hydroxide, potassium
hydroxide, etc. A synonym for the strong alkalis is
caustics.
Alkali metal. The univalent metals of Group 1A of
the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium,
rubidium, cesium, and francium), which are all
strongly corrosive in the presence of moisture.
Alkaline. Having a high concentration of hydroxide
ions in aqueous solution (i.e., a high pH). Strongly
alkaline aqueous solutions are very corrosive to
skin, metal, and other materials. See also Base.
Alkaline-earth. Any of the three divalent elements of
Group IIA of the periodic table (barium, calcium,
and strontium).
Alkane. An organic compound that contains only
hydrogen and carbon and has only single bonds.
Alkene. A hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon double bond. See also Hydrocarbon.
279
Alkyne. Hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. See also Hydrocarbon.
Allotrope. An element that can exist in different
physical forms, depending on the conditions under
which it forms. For instance, oxygen is an allotrope
that can be either diatomic (O2) or triatomic (O3).
The triatomic form requires high energy. Carbon is
also an allotrope that, under intense pressure and
heat, forms diamond, but in less energetic environments, forms graphite and carbon black.
Alloy. Metals formed as mixtures or solutions (either
liquid or solid). Some alloys include nonmetal substances in order to improve particular physical
characteristics of that alloy. For instance, hardened
steel includes a small percentage of carbon.
ALOHA. Areal Locations Of Hazardous Atmospheres. CAMEO’s toxic gas dispersion model,
used to estimate the extent of the area downwind of
a chemical release within which chemical concentrations at or near ground level might be dangerously high.
Amalgam. An alloy of mercury, usually in combination with another metal, e.g., zinc, but sometimes
with a nonmetal. Amalgams are used very commonly in dentistry.
Amorphous. Lit. “without shape.” A substance that
lacks structure. Generally, amorphous solids lack
three-dimensional crystal structure. Most liquids
are amorphous, with exceptions such as liquid
water, which is highly structured.
Anaerobic. Living, growing, and reproducing in an
environment without air or oxygen. E.g., anaerobic
bacteria. Contrast with Aerobic.
ANFO. Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil mixtures used in
commercial explosives.
280
Anhydrous . Lit. “without water.” A substance that
has no water associated with it in the form of
hydrate or water of crystallization. Examples
include anhydrous ammonia and aluminum chloride.
Anion. An atom or group of atoms having a negative
net charge. Contrast with Cation.
Antioxidant. A chemical substance that reduces the
tendency of oxygen to chemically combine with
hydrocarbons in commercial products such as vegetable oils, rubber, petroleum products, and animal
fats. These antioxidants are organic compounds
added to mixtures in low concentrations.
Aphidicide. A chemical agent used to control aphid
populations.
Aqueous. Consisting largely of water or dissolved in
water.
Aromatic compound. An unsaturated organic compound containing one or more rings of carbon
atoms in which single and double bonds alternate.
Asphalt. Usually considered the residual of petroleum distillation, asphalt forms a thick, black, viscous mixture of heavy hydrocarbons. Used on road
surfaces, for roofing, and in waterproofing sealants
and other products.
Asphixiant. A gas that is non-toxic but may kill if it
accumulates in a confined space and is breathed at
high concentrations, because it drives out oxygencontaining air.
Autoignition temperature. Or ignition point. At
some minimum temperature, a substance will catch
fire in the absence of an ignition source such as a
flame or spark. That temperature is the substance’s
autoignition temperature.
Autoxidation. The tendency of oxygen to chemically
combine with hydrocarbons in commercial products such as vegetable oils, rubber, petroleum products, and animal fats.
Azo dye. A group of dye stuffs widely used for dyeing natural and synthetic fibers as well as nontextile materials. The dye molecule always contains
double-bonded nitrogen atoms in the color-imparting portion of the molecule.
B
Base. A substance that accepts hydrogen ions donated
by an acid. Contrast with Acid.
Bile. Or bile acids. A complex mixture of organic
compounds secreted by the liver primarily to emulsify fats and oils for their ultimate digestion.
Binary reaction. A reaction between two chemicals.
CAMEO predicts the results of binary reactions
only. When more than two chemicals are mixed,
CAMEO predicts reactions between all possible
pairs of those chemicals (but not the reaction of all
chemicals together).
Blowing agent. A compound employed in the production of foamed plastics, food products, or rubber, which produces or evolves an inert gas such as
carbon dioxide or nitrogen during production. A
prime example is sodium bicarbonate, which is
used in sponged rubber, plastics, and bread, and
other baked food products.
Boiling point. The maximum temperature at which
the liquid phase of a substance exists in equilibrium
with its vapor phase. Above the boiling point, a liquid vaporizes completely. At its boiling point, the
vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure on it.
Brass. An alloy containing copper and zinc in various
proportions.
Bronze. An alloy containing copper and tin in various
proportions. Various bronze mixtures also include
small percentages of aluminum, silicon, and phosphorus.
C
CAMEO. See Computer-Aided Management of
Emergency Operations (CAMEO).
CAMEO Map. A MARPLOT map designed to hold
all CAMEO-related objects, such as (a) symbol
objects representing chemical facilities or special
locations, and (b) polyline objects representing
routes along which hazardous materials are transported.
Camphor. A natural product derived from the distillation of a wood found chiefly in Taiwan. It is a
ketone that has a very characteristic pungent, penetrating odor. Camphor also is synthesized by reaction of pinene in a sequence of chemical reactions.
Carbohydrate. A large class of organic compounds
that comprise the basic components of plant tissues. They include single sugar molecules and the
more important polymers, starches and cellulose.
Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen,
and oxygen.
Carbon black . An amorphous form of carbon.
Carcinogen. Capable of causing cancer.
CAS number. (CAS #) Chemical Abstract Service
Registry number. This chemical identification
number, in the format XXX-XX-X, is assigned by
the American Chemical Society.
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Catalyst. A substance that speeds up (catalyzes) a
chemical reaction between other substances without itself being chemically changed or consumed.
Catalysts are widely used in the chemical industry.
For example, an iron/aluminum catalyst is used to
synthesize ammonia and a platinum catalyst is used
to manufacture nitric acid. Compare with Initiator.
Contrast with Inhibitor.
Catalyze. To act as a catalyst.
Cation. An atom or group of atoms having a positive
net charge. Contrast with Anion.
Caustic. Strongly basic, with high pH. Very corrosive. See also Base.
Cellophane. A form of the polymer cellulose, altered
to have a clear appearance, and used in packaging.
Cellulose. A carbohydrate polymer that is the abundant cellular matrix found in all plant tissues. Cellulose is a complex polysaccharide.
Ceramics. Any of various substances derived from
earthen materials such as clays, silicates, and sand.
Ceramics are used in great quantity in industrial
applications, such as household structural products,
pottery, and so on.
CERCLA. The Comprehensive Environmental
Recovery, Compensation, and Liability Act of
1980. This law authorized the “Superfund” trust
fund to provide funding for hazardous substance
cleanup and for emergency response.
Chelate. The organic portion of a complex composed
of a metal atom bonded to nonmetal atoms on the
organic portion. Such complexes are extremely
important because they form the essential active
site in enzymatic or catalytic reactions in nature
and in synthetic reactions.
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Child module. A module that is below another,
related module in CAMEO’s file heirarchy. Chemicals in Inventory is a child module relative to the
Facilities and Routes modules.
Chronic. Of long duration, or frequently recurring.
Chronic health effects become apparent and/or
continue for some time after exposure to hazardous
chemicals. See also Delayed.
Combustible. Having a flash point above 143° F
(62°C). Substances are considered combustible
unless they are stated to be non-combustible.
Combustion. Also burning. A chemical reaction
between oxygen and another element or compound
that is rapid and exothermic enough to generate
heat and light.
Commission. The State Emergency Response Commission, or the Governor if there is no commission,
for the State in which a facility is located. See State
Emergency Response Commission (SERC).
Committee. The Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) for the emergency planning district
in which a facility is located. See Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC).
Compound. The combination of two or more elements into a distinct chemical material.
Computer-Aided Management of Emergency
Operations (CAMEO). A software program developed by NOAA and EPA. CAMEO supports a
number of information management functions,
including retrieval of chemical specific information
to support emergency response activities, threat
zone calculation and plotting for risk assessment,
organization and management of EPCRA information, and storage and computer display of area
maps.
Concentration. The amount of any substance present
in a specified weight or volume of a mixture. In the
CAMEO context, concentrations usually relate to
the amount of a substance mixed in air or water.
Condensation. A reaction in which two molecules
combine to form a larger molecule as a small molecule is split out. The condensation polymerization
of amino acids into proteins occurs with the splitting out of water. Also, the change of water or other
substances from vapor to liquid phase.
Contaminant. The presence of a foreign and perhaps
deleterious material in an otherwise pure material.
Often synonymous with pollutant. In small quantities, may raise the rates of normal chemical reactions very rapidly, sometimes causing harmful
effects. Compare with Impurity.
Copolymer. Or polyblend. A polymer generated
when two or more different monomers join to form
a macromolecule. The copolymerization process is
often employed to produce elastomers with very
specific physical properties.
Corrosive. Having the quality of eating away or consuming by chemical action.
Covalent bond. A chemical bond in which atoms of
either like or unlike elements link by sharing electrons.
Cryogenic. Matter at extremely low temperatures,
usually approaching absolute zero (obtainable only
by employing the liquefied gases hydrogen,
helium, oxygen, and nitrogen).
Cyclic compounds. An organic compound that contains one or more closed carbon ring structures.
D
Database. An organized collection of information,
usually in an electronic format. Each of CAMEO’s
modules is a database. Each record in a database
describes an important element of information.
E.g., each record in the Chemical Library describes
a particular substance. Each database record is
composed of datafields, each of which stores a particular kind of information (e.g., Chemical Name is
a data field on a Chemical Library record). See also
Module.
Data field. Or Field. An area within a record in a
CAMEO module where a specific kind of information is stored (e.g., the name of a facility, or a
phone number). See also Database.
Deflagration. Rapid, sharp combustion with sudden
evolution of flame.
Delayed. A hazard category that includes carcinogens
and other hazardous chemicals, defined in 29 CFR
§ 1910.1200, that adversely affect a target organ.
Such effects generally result from long-term exposure and are of long duration. See also Chronic.
Deliquescent. The property of becoming liquid by
absorbing moisture from the air.
Denature. The addition of a toxic material such as
benzene or methyl alcohol (a denaturant) to ethyl
alcohol to inhibit or prevent its use for human consumption.
Density. The ratio of weight to volume of any substance. Assume any density value shown in
CAMEO was measured at 77°F (25°C), unless
stated otherwise.
Detergent. A natural or synthetic agent that suspends
emulsified oils, greases, and fats in solution and, by
doing this, acts as a cleaning agent. Examples of
detergents include soaps and various alcohols, sulfonated organics like dodecylbenzene, and various
alkylates.
283
Detonation. The very rapid decomposition of an
explosive material, which produces a rapidly-propagating, high-pressure wave traveling at supersonic
speeds.
Dialog box. Or dialog. A window that a computer
program presents to you, in which you enter information or choose options. For example, you set up
a search in CAMEO’s search dialog box.
Dispersion. The movement of molecules or finely
divided particles through a gaseous or liquid
medium. For example, the distribution of a toxic
chemical cloud in the atmosphere.
Distillation. The process of separating a mixture of
materials by heating and then condensing the
resulting vapors. The separation is made possible
by the inherent differences in boiling point among
the individual mixture components (each can be
distilled out of the mixture at a particular temperature).
E
Efflorescent. Tending to lose moisture to the air as
shown by the formation of a powder on the surface.
EHS. See Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHS).
Elastomer. Any of a group of rubber-like polymers
that have essentially the same properties as natural
rubbers.
Electrolyte. In a battery, the material that acts as a
conductor of electric current between the dissimilar
metal electrodes. These are ionically-bonded, inorganic salts that form ions in solution and thus
increase electrical conductivity.
Electrons. Negatively-charged elementary particles
that have a very small mass. Electrons are components of all atoms; they are readily lost or gained
by atoms. (See Ion.) The transfer and sharing
284
(redistribution) of electrons among atoms is the
basis of chemical change.
Electrophile. A chemical reactant that tends to react
at centers of negative charge.
Electroplating. For corrosion protection or decorative purposes, an electrodeposition process that
coats a surface with a thin film of metal (or plastic),
by creating an electrolytic cell in which metal
atoms are deposited on the cathode and the anode
acts as the reservoir of ions in solution.
Emergency Planning and Community Right-toKnow Act of 1986 (EPCRA). Also known as Title
III of SARA (the Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act of 1986). EPCRA establishes
requirements for Federal, state, and local governments, and for industry for emergency planning
and “community right-to-know” reporting on hazardous and toxic chemicals. See “EPCRA” on
page 266.
Emergency Planning and Community Right-toKnow Information Hotline. Operated by the EPA to
provide communities with help in preparing for
accidental releases of toxic chemicals. The hotline
number is 1-800-535-0202.
Emergency Response Planning Guideline. See
ERPG.
Emulsification. Generally, either the dispersion of oil
particles in water or water in oil. The emulsification process is relatively permanent, and may proceed with the help of an emulsification agent.
Endothermic. A chemical reaction that must absorb
heat from its surroundings in order to proceed.
Contrast with exothermic, in which heat is produced by the forward reaction.
Enzyme. Any of a number of complex proteins that
act in extremely specific chemical reactions to
accelerate reactions or catalyze a specific reaction.
The rates of reaction are often many orders of magnitude faster than the rates for the same reaction at
standard temperature and pressure conditions. All
metabolic processes in living organisms are governed by enzymes.
EPA. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. (website: www.epa.gov)
EPCRA. See Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA).
ERPG. Emergency Response Planning Guideline.
Three-tiered public exposure guidelines developed
by a committee of the American Industrial Hygiene
Association. The ERPGs were developed as planning guidelines, to anticipate adverse human health
effects caused by exposure to toxic chemicals. See
also TEELs.
ERPG-1. The maximum airborne concentration [of a
toxic gas] below which it is believed that nearly all
individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hour without experiencing other than mild transient adverse
health effects or perceiving a clearly defined,
objectionable odor. See ERPG.
ERPG-2. The maximum airborne concentration [of a
toxic gas] below which it is believed that nearly all
individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hour without experiencing or developing irreversible or other
serious health effects or symptoms which could
impair an individual's ability to take protective
action. See ERPG.
ERPG-3. The maximum airborne concentration [of a
toxic gas] below which it is believed that nearly all
individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hour without experiencing or developing life-threatening
health effects. See ERPG.
Exothermic. A term used to describe the generation
of heat from a chemical reaction. Contrast with
endothermic, in which heat is taken in from the
surroundings.
Explosion. A chemical or physical process in which
the rate at which energy is being generated exceeds
its ability to escape to its surrounding environment.
The hazards of an explosion can include a shock
wave, especially near the point of explosion, and
projectiles generated by the shock wave.
Explosion limits. See Flammability limits.
Explosive. A material synthesized or mixed deliberately to allow the very rapid release of chemical
energy. Also, a chemical substance that is intrinsically unstable and liable to detonate under conditions that might reasonably be encountered.
Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHS). EHS
chemicals have been identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as particular toxic
threats. They are listed under EPCRA in the appendices to 40 CFR § 355, Emergency Planning and
Notification.
F
Facility. Defined in Section 302 of EPCRA as all
buildings, equipment, structures, and other stationary items located on a single site or on contiguous
or adjacent sites and which are owned or operated
by the same person (or by any person who controls,
is controlled by, or under common control with,
such person). For purposes of emergency release
notification, the term also includes motor vehicles,
rolling stock, and aircraft.
Fermentation. An energy-yielding reaction carried
out in an anaerobic environment (without oxygen),
catalyzed by enzymes (biochemical catalysts) and
involving the decomposition of carbohydrates (sug-
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ars and starch) to form alcohols, carboxylic acids,
and carbon dioxide.
Field. See Data field.
Fire hazard. A hazard category that includes chemicals described as flammable, combustible liquid,
pyrophoric, or oxidizers (as defined by 29 CFR §
1910.1200).
Flammability. A substance’s tendency to ignite or
take flame. Flammability is closely related to the
volatility of a substance (and is not its relative ability to burn in the presence of oxygen with the evolution of heat). See Flammability limits and Flash
point.
Flammability limits. Or explosive limits. The lower
flammability limit is the lowest concentration of a
vapor in air that catches fire when exposed to a
source of ignition. The upper flammability limit
is the highest concentration of the vapor in air that
catches fire when exposed to a source of ignition.
The flash point and lower and upper flammability
limits of a substance are often used as measures of
its flammability hazard in a given situation.
Flammable. Having a flash point lower than 143° F
(62°C) and greater than 100°F (38°C).
Flash point. The lowest temperature to which a substance must be heated before the vapor-air mixture
above it will be ignited by a free flame in the open
air.
Fluorescence. A luminescent (light-emitting) quality
of an organic dye or inorganic substance. In fluorescent substances, light emission continues only
as long as the excitation energy lasts. Differs from
phosphorescence, in which light emission lasts for
many seconds or even hours after excitation
occurs. Also, in fluorescence, excitation generally
is immediately followed by emission of energy,
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while in phosphorescence, energy emission may be
delayed.
Footprint. Or cloud footprint. The area downwind of
a chemical release point where ALOHA predicts
that the level of concern (LOC) will be reached or
exceeded at some time during the hour after the
release begins. ALOHA’s footprints can be displayed on MARPLOT maps. See also Level of
Concern.
Found set. A found set is created in a CAMEO module in one of three ways: (1) when you search the
module, records that meet your search criteria are
placed in a type of found set also called a search
collection; (2) when you choose a command from
the Show Related submenu of the Record menu,
the records related to the current record are placed
in a found set in the related module; (3) when you
select map objects, then select Get Info, records
linked to those objects are placed in a found set.
Whenever a found set exists in a CAMEO module,
only the records in the found set are shown in List
view. To clear a found set, select Show All Records
from the Record menu. See also Search collection.
Free radical. A molecule in which a portion is highly
reactive because chemical bonds have been ruptured by thermal radiation from combustion or ionizing radiation. Conceptually, a free radical
molecule contains sites with an unpaired electron
available to attack other molecules. Free radicals
often are involved in chain reaction-type mechanisms, such as combustion processes and the industrial processes used to make polymers.
Friedel-Crafts Reaction. A chemical reaction in
which anhydrous aluminum chloride or a similar
metallic halide acts as a catalyst to promote either
the condensation reaction between ethyl chloride
and benzene to form ethyl benzene, or the manu-
facture of products such as acetophenone from
acetyl chloride and benzene.
Fumigant. A liquid, gas, or solid pesticide applied as
a vapor or gas indoors or in a restricted area. Some
typical fumigants are sulfur dioxide (protects
grains), chlorine dioxide (kills anthrax), and hydrogen cyanide (protects tree crops).
Fuming. Describes the release of fumes by highly
active inorganic liquids such as nitric acid; the
fumes form a noxious vapor cloud. Nitric, sulfuric,
and hydrofluoric acids and similar acids produce
very dangerous levels of fumes when they are in
their pure state. The presence of water somewhat
reduces the production of fumes.
Fungicide. A substance that kills or inhibits the
growth of spores and fungi.
G
Glacial. A term used for certain acids, such as acetic
or phosphoric acid, indicating a very pure form of
the acid with a freezing point just below room temperature.
H
Hazard category. Five categories of hazardous
chemicals are defined in 29 CFR § 1910.1200.
They include immediate (acute) and delayed
(chronic) health hazards, as well as fire, sudden
release of pressure, and reactive hazards.
CAMEO’s Chemicals in Inventory records contain
checkboxes for all of these hazard categories.
Hazardous chemical. Any chemical that is a physical
or health hazard as defined in 29 CFR §
1910.1200(c).
Hazardous material. Any substance or material in a
quantity or form that may be harmful to humans,
animals, crops, water systems, or other elements of
the environment, if accidentally released. Hazardous materials include: explosives, gases (compressed, liquefied, or dissolved), flammable and
combustible liquids, flammable solids or substances, oxidizing substances, poisonous and infectious substances, radioactive materials, and
corrosives.
Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide.
Informally known as the “orange book” or “NRT1.” A publication of the National Response Team;
describes a comprehensive approach to planning
for hazardous material incidents. See “Bibliography” on page 276.
Hazardous substances. Substances designated as
hazardous under CERCLA. CERCLA includes
substances listed under the Clean Water Act, the
Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances
Control Act (TSCA) Section 7. See also CERCLA.
Hazards analysis. A systematic method for evaluating the potential hazard to a community from accidental airborne releases of hazardous chemicals
stored, transported, manufactured, or used within
that community. See also Technical Guidance.
Heat of combustion. The heat generated when a substance is completely oxidized to product gases such
as sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen
dioxide.
Heat of crystallization. The heat evolved when a
crystal is formed from a saturated solution of a substance.
Heat of dilution. The heat evolved when a solution is
diluted from one concentration to a lower concentration.
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Heat of hydration. The heat evolved when ions in
solution are hydrated. That is, the heat produced
when the hydrate of a substance is formed. See also
Hydration.
Heat of reaction. The heat evolved during a chemical
reaction.
Hemoglobin. An iron-containing protein molecule.
Hemoglobin is a characteristic component of red
blood cells, which carries oxygen to the tissues of
the body.
Herbicide. A chemical agent used to control weeds or
nuisance plants.
Heterocyclic. A cyclic organic compound that is
unsaturated and contains one or more atoms other
than carbon as part of its ring structure. Oxygen
and nitrogen are most often the elements that
occupy the positions within the ring structure. See
also Unsaturated.
High explosive. Or primary explosive. An explosive
that is readily detonated by heat, friction, or shock.
High explosives vary widely in their sensitivity to
these forms of initiating energy.
Highly flammable. Designation applying to (a) substances with flash points below 100°F, and (b) mixtures that include substances with flash points
below 100°F. Materials designated as highly flammable include pyrophoric solids and substances
that present an exceptional flammability hazard, in
that they may suddenly and dangerously increase
the intensity of a fire.
Humidity. The ratio of the amount of water vapor
being held in the air at any given temperature to the
maximum that can be held in the air at that temperature.
Hydration. Or solvation. The association of molecules of water with inorganic substances, usually
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salts, to form hydrates. Also refers to the strong
affinity of water molecules for ions in aqueous
solution.
Hydrocarbon. An organic compound containing only
hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen ion. A hydrogen atom that has lost its single electron and consequently has a positive
charge. Water (H2O) can be thought of as a combination of hydrogen ion (H+) and hydroxide ion
(OH-).
Hydrolysis. A chemical reaction in which a bond is
broken by the agency of water. A hydrogen ion and
hydroxide ion from the water become independently attached to the two atoms previously linked.
Hydrolyze. To break down by means of reaction with
water.
Hydronium ion. An ion with the formula H3O+,
formed by the transfer of a hydrogen ion from one
water molecule to another.
Hydrophilic. Lit. “Water-loving.” Refers to substances that attract and retain water, and to wettable
solids whose surfaces readily attract water.
Hydrophobic. Lit. “Water hating.” Refers to substances that repel water and are not easily wetted or
emulsified (fats, waxes, oils, metal powders, and
many inorganic compounds).
Hydroxide ion. An ion with an overall negative
charge, composed of a single oxygen and a single
hydrogen atom. Water (H2O) can be thought of as a
combination of hydrogen ion (H+) and hydroxide
ion (OH-).
Hygroscopic. Capable of readily absorbing moisture
from the air, so as to swell up, contract in length, or
change form or consistency.
Hypergolic. Igniting spontaneously on contact with
another substance, which is typically an oxidizing
agent.
I
IDLH. The Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health
(IDLH) value represents the maximum airborne
concentration of a chemical to which a healthy
adult worker can be exposed and escape without
suffering irreversible health effects or symptoms
that impair escape (ranging from runny eyes that
temporarily impair eyesight to a coma). IDLH values are derived primarily from mammalian toxicity
studies.
Ignition point. See Autoignition temperature.
Immediate (acute) hazard. A hazard category that
includes highly toxic, toxic, irritant, sensitizer, corrosive (as defined by 29 CFR § 1910.1200), and
other hazardous chemicals that cause an adverse
effect to a target organ. Such effects usually
develop rapidly, result from short-term exposure,
and are of short duration.
Immiscible. Substances of the same phase (liquid or
solid) that cannot be mixed in any proportion with
one another. Contrast with Miscible.
Impurity. Usually, a very small amount of a foreign
or extraneous substance that naturally or by accident exists in a substance. Many cases have been
documented in which unintended impurities caused
severe consequences during a chemical reaction
process (often, processes such as polymerization
reactions in which a small amount of impurity
acted as a catalyst to initiate a runaway reaction).
See also Contaminant.
Inert. Non-reactive in nature. Refers to substances
that have little or no chemical activity or affinity.
Some of the best-known inert substances are the
noble gases such as helium and neon.
Ingestion. A route of chemical exposure in which a
toxic material is brought into the bloodstream by
entering the digestive tract.
Inhalation. A route of chemical exposure in which a
toxic material is brought into the bloodstream as
particles or volatile compounds breathed into the
lungs and nasal passages.
Inhibitor. Substance that acts to retard or slow the
rate of a chemical reaction. Probably the most
important inhibitors are the antioxidants, which
slow the oxidation of many types of materials such
as rubber and food products. Contrast with Catalyst.
Initiating explosive. Primary explosives that are
shock sensitive and cause the detonation of less
sensitive explosives. Examples include the metal
azides and mercury fulminate, along with many
others.
Initiator. A substance that, because of its unusual
chemical activity, may induce chemical reaction in
other substances. Reactions such as polymerization, oxidation (formation of peroxides), and detonation (rapid combustion) are aided by initiators.
Compare with Catalyst.
Inorganic. Compounds that do not contain the element carbon, as well as the following carbon-containing compounds: the carbon oxides, the
carbides, carbon disulfide, phosgene, cyanides of
metals, and carbonyl sulfide. Contrast with
Organic.
Insecticide. A chemical substance that is lethal to various insects, generally by ingestion or body contact.
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Inventory form. The Tier I and Tier II emergency
and hazardous chemical inventory forms described
in 40 CFR § 370.4. (See “Sections 311 and 312:
community right-to-know requirements” on
page 270.) Data fields on records in CAMEO’s
Chemicals in Inventory module resemble the data
fields on Tier II forms. See also Tier II.
Ion. An atom or group of atoms that has an overall
non-zero electric charge (which may be either negative or positive).
Irradiation. The impingement of radiation of a specific wavelength on a substance to initiate a chemical change.
Isomer. Compounds sharing the same molecular
weight and molecular formula, but having different
chemical structures. The difference in structure
often causes differences in chemical and physical
properties such as boiling point, melting point, and
water solubility. Property differences among isomers produce differences in their reactivity and
toxicity.
Isotope. Elements that are otherwise identical but that
have different weights because they have different
numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The simplest
example is the isotopes of hydrogen, including H1,
normal hydrogen, and H2, or deuterium, which has
an additional neutron.
L
Lachrymator. Irritating to the eyes in a way that
induces tears. Tear gas is a lachrymator.
Lacquer. A fast-drying, organic coating material.
LEPC. See Local Emergency Planning Committee
(LEPC).
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Level of Concern. See LOC.
Lignin. An amorphous organic polymer that helps
bind cellulose fibers together in plant tissue.
Link. Either a connection between a CAMEO record
and a related object on a MARPLOT map, or a
connection between a chemical name shown on
Chemicals in Inventory record(s) and a Chemical
Library record.
Liquor. Any one or more compound mixtures in
aqueous phase.
List view. View of a CAMEO module in which
records in the module are displayed as a list. Double-clicking any record in the list displays that
record in Record view. Contrast with Record view.
Litmus. A substance or material that, on contact with
another substance, indicates that substance’s pH or
hydrogen ion concentration. Examples include litmus paper and pH indicator solutions. See also pH.
LOC. Level of Concern. A threshold concentration
used for estimating the extent of the threat zone
from a potential chemical release. A threat zone
encloses the area within which concentrations
reach or exceed a specified LOC. See also Threat
zone.
Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC). A
committee appointed by the State Emergency
Response Commission (SERC), as required by
EPCRA, first to design, then to regularly review
and update a comprehensive emergency plan for an
emergency planning district. See “Section 301-303:
emergency planning” on page 268.
Lower explosive limit (LEL). Or lower flammability limit. The lowest concentration of a flammable
vapor in air at which explosion or combustion can
occur. See also Upper Explosive Limit (UEL).
Luminescence. The phenomenon in which a substance that has absorbed radiant excitation energy
emits radiation on return from some excitation state
to its ground state energy.
M
MARPLOT. Mapping Application for Response,
PLanning, and Operational Tasks. MARPLOT is
the electronic mapping program included in
CAMEO.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). A worksheet
containing information about a hazardous chemical
in the workplace. MSDSs are submitted by facility
owner/operators to meet the chemical inventory
reporting requirements of EPCRA. Under 29 CFR
§1910.1200, facilities must develop an MSDS for
each hazardous chemical present on site. See “Sections 311 and 312: community right-to-know
requirements” on page 270.
Melting point. Also freezing point. The temperature
at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance
exist in equilibrium. Depends on chemical composition and applied pressure.
Metallurgy. The scientific study of the process of
obtaining metals (mining), and the properties and
uses of metals.
Mineral. The inorganic constituents of the earth’s
crust. Most minerals have a definite internal structure and chemical composition.
Miscible. The degree to which one substance can be
mixed with another (usually, related to the degree
to which a solute may mix in a particular solvent).
Some materials, such as gases generally as well as
ethyl alcohol in water, are completely miscible with
one another in any proportion. Contrast with
Immiscible.
Mixture. A uniform or nonuniform blend of two or
more substances. Examples include blood, milk,
petroleum products, and alloys.
Module. Any of the databases included in CAMEO.
E.g., Facilities, Chemical Library, Contacts. See
also Database.
Molar. A concentration expressed as the number of
gram molecular weights of a solute mixed into one
liter of solvent, usually water. A 1-molar solution
of sodium hydroxide contains 40 grams of sodium
hydroxide in each liter of water.
Molecular Weight. The sum of the weights of all the
atoms in a molecule.
Molecule. A chemical entity composed of one or
more elements in the form of atoms.
Molluscicide. A chemical agent used to control snail
populations.
Monomer. One of the molecules that link together to
make a polymer. For example, the monomer of natural rubber is isoprene. Monomers may be naturally occurring or synthetic. See also
Polymerization.
MSDS. See Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).
Mutagen. A chemical or radiation source that alters
an organism’s DNA, affecting transmission of
inherited characteristics from one generation to the
next.
N
NAICS. North American Industry Classification System. An industry classification system. See
www.library.georgetown.edu/swr/business/naicslin.htm. Compare with SIC.
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National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH). The Federal agency responsible for
conducting research and making recommendations
for the prevention of work-related disease and
injury. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC). (website:
www.cdc.gov/niosh)
National Response Center (NRC). The central Federal clearinghouse for information on hazardous
chemical spills and other oil or hazardous substance releases. Responsible parties should contact
the NRC in order to fulfill reporting requirements
for spills of oil and hazardous substances (hotline:
1-800-424-8802; NRC website:
www.nrc.uscg.mil).
National Response Team (NRT). A planning, policy,
and coordinating body consisting of representatives
from 16 federal agencies with interest and expertise
in aspects of emergency response to pollution incidents. The NRT provides national level policy
guidance prior to an incident and can provide assistance during an incident. (website: www.nrt.org)
Navigator. The small window accessible from any
CAMEO module (click the “Navigator” toolbar
button). Click buttons on the Navigator to display
any CAMEO module, ALOHA, or MARPLOT, or
to search for a chemical or facility record.
Nematicide. A pesticide employed to kill nematodes
(a type of worm common in soil and water).
Neutralization/Neutralize. The reaction between an
acid and base to form a salt and water. Neutralization is often rapid, vigorous, and exothermic (heatproducing).
NIOSH. See NAICS.
NOAA. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (website: www.noaa.gov)
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Noble gases. A group of six elements (helium, neon,
argon, krypton, xenon, and radon) exhibiting little
or no chemical reactivity.
Non-combustible. Non-reactive with air, even at very
high temperatures.
Nonoxidizing. Completely or nearly lacking the ability to oxidize (to transfer oxygen to other groups or
lose electrons to other groups).
NOx. The oxides of nitrogen, taken as a group. Nitrogen forms several distinct compounds with oxygen;
some of these compounds convert back and forth
readily under ordinary conditions.
NRC. See National Response Center (NRC).
NRT. See National Response Team (NRT).
NRT-1. See Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide.
Nucleophile. A chemical reactant that tends to react
at centers of positive charge.
O
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA). Federal agency within the U. S. Department of Labor with the responsibility of ensuring
worker safety and health. (website: www.osha.gov)
Olefin. An alkene. See also Alkene.
Oleum. Or fuming sulfuric acid. The mixture of sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide.
Organic. Generally, compounds that contain the element carbon, except for some carbon-containing
compounds that are considered to be inorganic
(carbon oxides, carbides, carbon disulfide, phosgene, the cyanides of the metals, and carbonyl sulfide). Contrast with Inorganic.
OSHA. See Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA)..
Oxidation. A chemical reaction in which oxygen
bonds to an element or compound. By extension, a
reaction in which one element or compound rises to
a higher oxidation state while another drops to a
lower oxidation state (the term is used in this sense
even when no oxygen whatever is present). Contrast with Reduction.
Oxidation number. An arbitrary number assigned to
an atom in a compound. Oxidation increases the
total oxidation number of the atoms in a compound; reduction reduces it.
Oxidizing agent. A material capable of bringing
about oxidation (the loss of electrons) in other
materials, while it is itself reduced (gains electrons). Contrast with Oxidizing agent.
P
Parent module. A CAMEO module located above
another, related module in CAMEO’s file hierarchy. Facilities and Routes are parent modules relative to the Chemicals in Inventory module.
Peroxidizable. Apt to react spontaneously with oxygen at room temperature, to form peroxides and
other products. Most such autooxidations are accelerated by light or by trace impurities. Because
many peroxides are explosive, peroxidizable compounds are especially hazardous. Ethers and aldehydes are particularly peroxidizable.
Person. In the context of EPCRA, any individual,
trust, firm, joint stock company, corporation
(including a government corporation), partnership,
association, State, municipality, commission, political subdivision of State, or interstate body.
pH. A number indicating the acidity or alkalinity of
an aqueous solution, defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in moles
per liter. At room temperature, a solution having a
pH of 7 is neutral (neither acidic nor basic). Solutions with pHs greater than 7 are basic (alkaline);
solutions with pHs below 7 are acidic.
Phosphorescence. A luminescent (light-emitting)
quality of many substances and living organisms
(such as fireflies and sea pansies). Compare with
Fluorescence.
Polycyclic. Compounds having structures with two or
more carbon-containing rings.
Polymer. The product of polymerization. Proteins,
starches, cellulose and natural rubber are naturally
occurring polymers; polystyrene, nylon, Teflon,
and synthetic rubber are synthetic polymers. See
also Polymerization.
Polymerizable. Capable of undergoing polymerization, an energy-releasing self-reaction. The products of polymerization reactions are generally less
reactive than the starting materials. See also Polymerization.
Polymerization. A chemical reaction in which a large
number of smaller molecules (monomer units) join
together by chemically linking into chains or networks (polymers). Energy is released during polymerization reactions. See also Polymer.
ppb. Parts per billion. Units used to express the concentration of a gas or vapor in air (as molecules of
chemical per billion molecules of air).
ppm. Parts per million. Units used to express the concentration of a gas or vapor in air (as molecules of
chemical per million molecules of air).
Prill. Small spherical or cylindrical pellets used in the
fertilizer and explosive industry, because they are
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convenient to handle. An example is ammonium
nitrate prills, which are often coated with a wax
because this salt has a tendency to cake when
hydrated.
Pyrophoric. Any substance that ignites in the presence of air at or below ambient temperatures. Many
pyrophoric materials react with moisture in the air
to generate flammable hydrogen gas and enough
heat to ignite the hydrogen. These are extremely
dangerous fire hazards that are generally stored
under an inert atmosphere or in a solvent like ether
or kerosene that excludes air.
Pyrotechnics. The manufacture of fireworks, signal
flares, and so on, involving the mixture of different
chemicals to achieve various visual and auditory
effects. Chemicals used in pyrotechnics include
many explosive inorganic compounds such as
potassium nitrate, metal perchlorates, dichromate,
powdered metals, and phosphorus.
Q
Quaternary ammonium salt. Ammonia derivatives
in which four alkyl or aryl groups are attached to a
nitrogen atom. When ionized in aqueous solution,
acts as an antibacterial, antistatic agent, and an
accelerant in photographic development.
R
Radiation. Electromagnetic energy or light, depending on the wavelength, which imparts energy to
molecules and atoms. Radiation absorption causes
ionization and bond-breaking.
Radical. In inorganic chemistry, refers to an aqueous,
dissociated ionized group. In organic chemistry,
refers to an uncharged alkyl, aryl, or other group
that acts as a fragmented, highly reactive, shortlived substance. Free radical generation is a very
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important reaction that can initiate polymerization
and other kinds of reactions.
Radioactive. Spontaneously and continuously emitting ions or ionizing radiation. Radioactivity is not
a chemical property, but an additional hazard apart
from other properties of a material.
Radius of a threat zone. The maximum distance
away from the point of release of a hazardous substance at which its airborne concentration could
reach the LOC (level of concern), under specified
weather conditions. See also LOC, Threat zone.
Rapid reaction. A reaction in which chemical change
becomes evident within minutes to hours after the
mixing of incompatible chemicals. That evidence
can be dramatic change such as fire or explosion,
or more subtle effects, such as chemical heat production, evolution of gases, or deposition/disappearance of solids.
Rare. Can refer either to the noble gases (helium,
neon, and argon), the rare-earth elements (or lanthanide series, starting with lantanum), or rare metals such as gold, silver, cadmium, and platinum.
Reactive. A hazard category that includes chemicals
described as unstable, reactive, organic peroxide,
or water-reactive (described in 29 CFR §
1910.1200).
Reactive group. Reactive groups are categories of
chemicals that react in similar ways because they
are similar in their chemical structure. For purposes
of predicting reactivity between mixed chemicals,
each substance in the Chemical Library has been
assigned to one or more reactive groups, based on
the known chemistry of that substance. (See “How
CAMEO predicts mixture reactivity” on page 94).
Reactive hazard. Some chemicals pose special or
acute reactivity-related hazards that are intrinsic to
those chemicals because of their structures and
known physical characteristics. Those hazards are
listed under the Reactive Hazards tab on the Chemical Library record for any substance in CAMEO.
Such special reactive hazards include a chemical’s
tendency to be flammable, explosive (either by
itself or when mixed with other materials), peroxidizable, polymerizable, air- and or water- reactive,
radioactive, or a strong oxidizer or reducer.
Reactivity. The tendency of a substance to take part
in chemical change. The reactivity of most kinds of
substances depends on the temperature and pressure of the surroundings, and on the identity and
physical form of other chemicals with which a
given substance is in contact. In contrast, innately
reactive substances include those that react rapidly
with water, air, and other common components of
the environment under ordinary conditions, as well
as substances that self-react (decompose or polymerize) under ordinary conditions.
Reagent. Any chemical substance used in chemical
analysis.
Record. In any CAMEO module, each record
describes an important entity or element of information. E.g., each record in the Chemical Library
describes a particular substance; each Facilities
record describes a single facility (or department
within a large facility). Each record contains
datafields, each of which stores a particular kind of
information (e.g., Chemical Name is a data field on
a Chemical Library record). See also Database.
Record view. View of a single record within a
CAMEO module, in which you can access all the
information contained in that record (typically, you
clicks tabs to see different kinds of information in a
record). Contrast with List view.
from a reducing agent to an oxidizing agent, are a
major category of chemical change.
Reducing agent. A substance that can bring about
reduction (gaining of electrons) in other substances, while it is itself oxidized (loses electrons).
Contrast with Oxidizing agent.
Reduction. A reaction in which either oxygen is
removed from a substance or, in a more general
sense, one or more electrons is accepted from
another substance. (Can also mean a process in
metallurgy by which materials are separated into
their wanted and unwanted components from an
ore body.) Contrast with Oxidation.
Reportable quantity (RQ). The quantity of a hazardous substance or extremely hazardous substance
that, if released, must be reported to the National
Response Center, the State Emergency Response
Commission, and the community emergency coordinator for areas likely to be affected by the release.
See “Section 304: emergency notification” on
page 270.
Resins. Naturally-occurring “essential oils” that are
water-insoluble and extracted from natural sources,
such as trees and shrubs. Also, synthetic polymers
such as polystyrene or polyethylene, even though
such materials are not complex mixtures of compounds like other resins, but instead are long, complex polymers.
Response Information Data Sheets (RIDS). In a
Chemical Library record, a set of detailed descriptions of chemical properties, hazards, and emergency response information.
RIDS. See Response Information Data Sheets
(RIDS).
Redox. A contraction for “oxidation-reduction.”
Redox reactions, in which electrons are transferred
295
Risk analysis. A systematic method of assessing the
damage that could be caused to a community by a
hazardous substance release.
RQ. See Reportable quantity (RQ).
S
Salt. An ionic compound derived from the combination of cations (positively-charged ions) with
anions (negatively-charged ions). Sodium chloride
(common table salt) is an example.
SARA. See Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA).
Saturated. Refers to organic compounds that contain
the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
per carbon atom. Also used to describe a solution
of a solute that is at its solubility limit in a given
solvent system at a specified temperature. Contrast
with Unsaturated.
Screening zone. Threat zone for screening calculations.
Search collection. A type of found set. When you
perform a search or request information on linked
MARPLOT objects, CAMEO collects together the
records in the given module that meet your criteria.
You then can browse through the collected records.
While a search collection exists, you can move
among only the collected records. Before you can
work with other records in the module, you must
clear the search collection (choose Clear Search
from the Search menu). See also Found set.
Search criteria. The criteria, or conditions, that you
set when you search a CAMEO module for a specific piece of information, such as the record for a
particular chemical in the Chemical Library.
SERC. See State Emergency Response Commission (SERC).
296
Sharing. The process by which CAMEO, ALOHA,
and MARPLOT share information in order to
establish and use links between module records,
map objects, and ALOHA footprints.
Shock wave. A pressure wave generated by an explosion.
SIC. Standard Industrial Classification. SIC codes are
assigned to U.S. industries. Facilities with SIC
codes 20 to 39 (manufacturers) may be subject to
the hazardous chemical inventory reporting
requirements of EPCRA.
Skin absorption. Chemical exposure through the
skin. Because the skin does not act as a reliable
barrier to hazardous chemicals, it can be a route of
acute poisoning. Compounds such as dimethyl sulfoxide are known to be directly absorbed into the
bloodstream through the skin.
Sludge. A thick or viscous mixture of solids in aqueous solution, such as sewage sludge.
Slurry. A dilute mixture or suspension of solid particles in water, such as clay, fiber, or metal powders.
Soda ash. Sodium carbonate.
Solute/Solvent. A solute is a gas, liquid, or solid substance that is uniformly dispersed in a liquid solvent substance, forming a solution. The solvent
molecules act to break the solute molecules’ attraction for one another, and also the solvent’s natural
structure. For instance, water is a highly-structured
substance, in the absence of any solutes. See also
Solution.
Solution. A molecularly uniform mixture of one or
more solutes in a solvent. Sometimes, one or more
of the solutes are ionized in solution. See also Solute/Solvent.
Special locations. Locations of people who may be
more susceptible to the toxic effects of an accidental release than the general population, because of
pre-existing health conditions, age, or other factors.
Schools, day-care centers, and nursing homes are
examples of special locations.
Specific gravity. The ratio of the density of a substance at a given temperature to the density of
water at the same temperature. A substance with a
specific gravity greater than 1.0 will sink rather
than float in water. See also Density.
Spectroscopy. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of emitted and absorbed energy, done by subjecting a substance to electromagnetic energy. The
wavelength of this excitation energy can vary from
gamma and x-ray to radio frequency.
Stabilizer. Any substance that, when added to
another, acts to prevent or retard chemical or physical change in the latter. Examples include antioxidants, inhibitors, and emulsifying agents.
Starch. A carbohydrate or polysaccharide polymer
composed of amylose and amylpectin. Starch
occurs in plant tissues such as potatoes, tapioca,
and rice, and is used as a thickening agent in foods.
State. Any State of the United States, as well as the
District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto
Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the United States
Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and
any other territory or possession over which the
United States has jurisdiction.
State Emergency Response Commission (SERC).
A commission appointed by each State governor
under EPCRA. A SERC designates emergency
planning districts, appoints local emergency planning committees (LEPCs), supervises and coordinates the activities of planning committees, reviews
emergency plans, receives chemical release notifications, and establishes procedures for receiving
and processing requests from the public for information. See also Local Emergency Planning
Committee (LEPC).
State Fields. Records in the Facilities and Chemicals
in Inventory modules contain a State Fields section,
designed to support the emergency planning work
of U.S. states that have developed their own reporting requirements, in addition to the Tier II requirements specified in EPCRA (which apply to all 50
states). In these states, Tier II forms contain additional data fields, called “State Fields” in CAMEO.
CAMEO’s State Fields, located under the State
Fields tab, provide a place where people working in
these states can maintain their reporting information.
STCC. Standard Transportation Commodity Code.
Seven-digit code used to identify chemicals by the
Association of American Railroads.
Strong oxidizing agent. Oxidizing agents gain electrons from other substances and are themselves
thereby chemically reduced. Strong oxidizing
agents accept electrons particularly readily from
many other substances. The ensuing redox reactions may be vigorous or violent and may release
new substances that may take part in further additional reactions. Keep strong oxidizing agents well
separated from strong reducing agents.
Strong reducing agent. Reducing agents give up
electrons to other substances, and are themselves
thereby oxidized. Strong reducing agents donate
electrons particularly readily to many other substances. The ensuing redox reactions may be vigorous or violent and may generate new substances
that take part in further additional reactions. Keep
strong reducing agents well away from strong oxidizing agents.
297
Sublime. The change of a substance from the solid
state to the vapor state, without passing through the
liquid intermediate state. Substances that sublime
include solid carbon dioxide, sulfur, camphor, and
naphthalene.
Sudden release of pressure. A hazard category that
includes explosives and compressed gases
(described in 29 CFR § 1910.1200).
Superfund. The trust fund established under CERCLA to provide funding for cleanup of hazardous
substances.
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
of 1986 (SARA). Title III of SARA is also known as
the Emergency Planning and Community Right-toKnow Act of 1986 (EPCRA). See also Emergency
Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of
1986 (EPCRA).
Surfactant. A substance that reduces surface tension
of liquids. Nearly synonymous with detergent
(which reduces the surface tension of water), wetting agent, and emulsifier.
Suspension. A uniformly-dispersed mixture of fine
particles in a liquid.
Synonyms. In CAMEO, a single chemical may have
many names. The synonyms by which a chemical
is named can include common names in different
languages, trade names, and other names.
T
Technical grade. Term applied to substances that are
unrefined, impure, and/or less than 100% pure
grade.
Technical Guidance. Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis: Emergency Planning for Extremely
Hazardous Substances. A guidebook for use by
members of Local Emergency Planning Commit-
298
tees (LEPCs) in assessing the potential risks to a
community from accidental airborne releases of
extremely hazardous substances. See “Bibliography” on page 276.
TEELs. Temporary Emergency Exposure Limits.
TEELs are temporary levels of concern, defined by
the U.S. Department of Energy for use when
ERPGs aren't available. See also ERPG.
TEEL-1. The maximum airborne concentration [of a
toxic gas] below which it is believed that nearly all
individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hour without experiencing other than mild transient adverse
health effects or perceiving a clearly defined,
objectionable odor. See TEELs.
TEEL-2. The maximum airborne concentration [of a
toxic gas] below which it is believed that nearly all
individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hour without experiencing or developing irreversible or other
serious health effects or symptoms which could
impair an individual's ability to take protective
action. See TEELs.
TEEL-3. The maximum airborne concentration [of a
toxic gas] below which it is believed that nearly all
individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hour without experiencing or developing life-threatening
health effects. See TEELs.
Thermoplastic. Any substance that is solid or semisolid at room temperature, but becomes liquid
when heated. Thermoplastic substances can be
molded or shaped and hold their shape until heated.
Examples include butter, waxes, and certain polymers.
Threat zone. A threat zone encloses the area around
the location of a hazardous chemical release,
within which concentrations of the chemical could
reach or exceed a specified LOC (level of concern).
See also LOC.
Threshold Planning Quantity (TPQ). The amount
of an extremely hazardous substance present at a
facility, above which the facility’s owner/operator
must give emergency planning notification to both
the appropriate SERC and LEPC. TPQs are defined
in 40 CFR § 355. See “Section 301-303: emergency planning” on page 268.
Tier II. Facilities covered by EPCRA must submit a
hazardous chemical inventory form to the LEPC,
the SERC, and the local fire department annually.
Facilities provide either a Tier I or Tier II form.
Most States require the Tier II form. See “Sections
311 and 312: community right-to-know requirements” on page 270.
Title III. Title III of the Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA Title III) is
also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA). See
Emergency Planning and Community Right-toKnow Act of 1986 (EPCRA).
TPQ. See Threshold Planning Quantity.
U
Unlink. A command which breaks a link previously
established between a CAMEO record and an
object on a MARPLOT map. Contrast with Link.
UN/NA number. Or UN number. A chemical identification number, assigned under a numbering system developed by the U.S. Department of
Transportation. This system has since become the
United Nations standard system for classifying hazardous materials.
Unsaturated. Refers to organic compounds that contain fewer than the maximum possible number of
hydrogen atoms per carbon atom. Contrast with
Saturated.
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL). The highest concentration of a flammable vapor in air at which explosion or combustion can occur. Above this
concentration, the vapor-air mixture is too rich to
combust. See also Lower explosive limit (LEL).
UV. Abbreviation for Ultraviolet radiation.
V
Vapor density. The ratio of the density of a gas to the
density of air at the same temperature. A gas with a
vapor density greater than 1.0 is heavier than air
and will sink in the atmosphere. See also Density.
Vapor pressure. In a closed system containing an
evaporating liquid and its vapor, the equilibrium at
which the number of vapor molecules reentering
the liquid equals the number going from the liquid
to the vapor phase. Vapor pressure is commonly
expressed in pressure units of either millimeters of
mercury (mm Hg), pounds per square inch (psi), or
atmospheres (atm).
Viscosity. The tendency of a liquid substance to resist
movement or flow due to an external force applied
to it.
Volatile/Volatility. Refers to the ease with which a
substance goes from liquid or solid phase to the
vapor phase (via evaporation or sublimation). The
volatility of a given substance increases with temperature.
Vulcanization. The industrial process by which rubber is allowed to “cross-link” to form disulfide
bonds between molecules. Vulcanization improves
the durability of the rubber product.
Vulnerable zone. Threat zone for scenarios calculations. See also Threat zone.
299
W
Water of crystallization. Water chemically combined within a crystalline substance.
Water-reactive. Substances that may react rapidly or
violently with liquid water and steam, typically
forming toxic and/or flammable products and heat.
Water solubility. Mixing of gas, liquid, or solid
materials in water. The highest amount of a particular material that can be mixed in water is its water
solubility. Water solubility ranges shown in Chemical Library records are as follows: Water insoluble:
<1 mg/ml; Slightly water soluble: 1-10mg/ml;
Water soluble: >10 mg/ml.
Wettable powder. A solid material whose surface is
hydrophilic, and therefore attracts water.
300
Index
A
Add to Reactivity Worksheet menu command 248
see also Reactivity Worksheet
Adjust Link button 128–131
guidelines for use 130–131
Advanced searches 253–254
saving searches 253–254
see also Searching
ALOHA 32, 189–191
a modeling example 191
ALOHA commands in Sharing menu 249
ALOHA’s chemical database 190
checking for special locations inside a footprint 59–62,
160–162
installing ALOHA 17–18
latest version 18
on a network 232
Append Search menu command 248
Append searches 254
Atmospheric stability class 150–151
B
Backing up CAMEO data 231
Index
Basic searches 251–252
see also Searching
Basics of CAMEO use 21–75
Bibliography 276–278
Browsing 27
C
CAA 112(r) 275–276
CAA Threshold Quantity 87
CAMEO 3
and EPCRA 5
and Federal legislation 266–276
and terrorism 5
and the Clean Air Act 5
basic operations 21–75
CAMEO’s components 3–5, 21
CAMEO’s modules 22–24
CAMEO’s users 2
changes to CAMEO 10–11
data management 229–230
difficult or impossible data transfers 195–196
email news updates 8
features that have been removed 10
features to ignore 31
301
Index
importing and exporting data 193–223
installing CAMEO 13–17
managing your system 225–243
menu commands 245–250
new features 10
not for offsite consequence analysis 275
on a network 232–241
possible data transfers 195
program security 230–231
starting CAMEO 36
system requirements 13
CAMEO Data Ownership Rule 193–194, 219
CAMEO Map 177–178
adding new layers 178
CAMEO News Service 8
CAMEO system manager 228
CAMEO Transfer Utility 201–203
CAMEO Website 7
CAS# 86
Census Data 11
Chemical Abstract Service registry number 86
Chemical Library module 22, 77–104
data field definitions 84–94
data sources 100–104
searching 78–83
understanding information in records 83–94
Chemical Name 86
Chemical Reactivity Worksheet 68–71, 94–100
see also Reactivity
Chemicals in Inventory module 23, 106
adding a mixture component 126–127
adding and editing records 123–136
data field definitions 132–136
manually adding records 123–136
Chemicals, searching for 78–83
Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 275–276
Clear Search menu command 248
Contacts for facilities, adding 42–45, 136–137
Contacts module 23, 106, 162–164
adding and editing records 163–164
data field definitions 164
D
Data fields in CAMEO 24, 29
text boxes vs. menus 29
Data importing and exporting
see Importing and exporting data
Data sources for Chemical Library 100–104
302
Index
Delete All Found Records menu command 248
Delete All Records menu command 247
Deleting records 30
DOT Label 86
E
Edit button 26
Editing menus 29
Editing records 26
deleting a record 30
facility records 120–123
EHSs 138, 171, 269
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
see EPCRA
EPCRA 266–274
and CAMEO 5
and Tier II reporting 272–273
EPCRA Hotline 266
in Code of Federal Regulations 266
LEPCs and SERCs 268
Section 301-303, emergency planning 268–269
Section 304, emergency notification 270
Section 313, toxic chemical release reporting 273–274
Sections 311 and 312, community right-to-know
requirements 270–273
EPCRA EHS Chemical checkbox 87
Export files 197–198
ExportFiles folder 195
Exporting data
from a single record 215–216
from a subset of records in a module 214–215
from all CAMEO modules 213
from all records in a module 213–214
See also Importing and exporting data
to other programs 223
Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHSs) 138, 171, 269
F
Facilities
getting information about 39–41, 109–113
viewing on a map 182
where facility information is kept 105–106
Facilities module 22, 105
adding and editing site plans 121–123
adding contact information 42–45, 136–137
creating and editing records 120–123
data field definitions 114–117
Index
making facility reports 119–120
tracking chemicals in inventories 123–136
understanding information in records 113–118
File menu
Make Report command 41–42
Open command 245
Show Navigator command 245
FileMaker and CAMEO 241–243
Finding chemicals 78–83
Finding facilities 109–113
Found sets 37
G
Glossary of CAMEO terms 279–300
Guided tour for new users 21–75
H
Hazards analysis 55–62, 137–153
only for EHSs 138
see also Threat zones, Screening & Scenarios module
Help in CAMEO 30
Help menu commands 250
I
Import/Export
See Importing and exporting data
ImportFiles folder 195
Importing and exporting data 193–223
avoiding duplicate records 219–222
avoiding trouble 193–195
CAMEO Data Ownership Rule 193–194, 219
difficult or impossible data transfers 195–196
exporting data to other programs 223
exporting from a single record 215–216
exporting from a subset of records in a module 214–215
exporting from all modules 213
exporting from all records in a module 213–214
from older Tier II program 206
from Tier2 Submit 206–212
importing from a previous version 201–206
importing from another copy of CAMEO 218–219
merge files as standard file format 197–198
possible data transfers 195, 212
record ID numbers 198–201
transferring map links and objects 216–217
transferring site plans 217–218
Index
Incidents module 23, 106, 171–176
adding and editing data 171–173
adding Reporter/Discharger information 172
data field definitions 173–176
historical incident data source 171
mapping incidents 173
Installing CAMEO 13–17
choosing a location 15
installing MARPLOT and ALOHA 17–18
Macintosh hardware requirements 14
Macintosh software requirements 14
obtaining the installer 15
Windows hardware requirements 14
Windows software requirements 14
L
LandView 9
installing instead of MARPLOT 18
LandView commands in Sharing menu 250
using with the Guided Tour 33
Legislation 266–276
LEPCs 268
Level of concern 140
Link menu commands 250
Linking
Chemicals in Inventory and Chemical Library
records 128–131
map objects to records 54–55, 183–188
modules that can be linked to maps 180
via Adjust Link button 128–131
Links
checking whether a record is linked to a map 181
deleting map links 188
working with map links 181–183
List button 26
List view 26, 26–27
browsing in 27
Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) 268
Look Up Chemical button 124
guidelines for use 127–128, 130–131
M
Make Report menu command 41–42
making facility reports 119–120
Management plan for CAMEO 225–243
data backup 231
elements of a plan 226–228
303
Index
password protection 230–231
planning data management 229–230
program security 230–231
reasons to plan 226
role of system manager 228
Mapping routes 180
Maps 177–189
CAMEO Map 177–178
deleting map links 188
exporting map links and objects 216–217
plotting threat zones 58–62
polyline objects 180
see also MARPLOT
symbol objects 179
viewing a facility on a map 118
viewing records linked to map objects 182–183
working with a map 50–55
working with links 181–183
MARPLOT 32, 177–189
CAMEO Map 177–178
CAMEO vs. CAMEOfm commands in Sharing
menu 182
installing MARPLOT 17–18
latest version 18
links, about 179–189
map objects, about 179–189
MARPLOT commands in Sharing menu 249
on a network 232
removing when you install LandView 18
searching for map objects 51–54
see also Maps
menu commands defined 245–250
Menus
editing menus 29
Merge files 197–198
compression as zipped files 197
file format 197
Modules
basic anatomy 24
brief descriptions of all CAMEO modules 22–24
interrelationships among 24, 198–199
N
National Response Center incident database 171
Navigator 25
Navigator button 26
Networking CAMEO 232–241
data entry by multiple people 240–241
304
Index
hosting in FileMaker Pro 233–239
managing multiple users 240–241
networking the runtime version 233
possible configurations 233
security concerns 232
using FileMaker Pro Server 240
News about CAMEO 8
NFPA Codes 87
O
Offsite consequence analysis 275
Online Help in CAMEO 30
P
Parent and child modules 198–199
Password protection in CAMEO 230–231
Predicting chemical reactivity 94–100
Protective clothing recommendations
full names for abbreviations 90–94
R
Reactive Hazards 89, 98–100
Reactivity
CAMEO’s prediction method 94–96
instructions for predicting 96–98
pairwise predictions 96
prediction 68–71, 94–100
reactive groups 94–96
Reactivity Worksheet 68–71, 94–100
see also Reactivity
Record button 26
Record ID numbers 198–201
and Tier2 Submit data 207–209
viewing record IDs 200–201
Record menu
Add to Reactivity Worksheet 248
Delete All Found Records command 248
Delete All Records command 247
Delete command 247
Go To command 27
Show All Records command 247
Show Related command 28, 247
Sort command 247
View List command 246
View Reactivity Worksheet menu command 248
View Record command 247
Index
Record view 26, 26–27
navigating in 27
Report-making 41–42
Resources module 23, 165–168
adding and editing records 165
adding contact information 165–166
data field definitions 166–168
Response Information Data Sheet (RIDS) 77
data field definitions 89–94
RIDS 77, 89–94
Risk Management Plan Rule 275
RMP Rule 275
RMP*Comp 9, 152
Routes module 23, 168–170
adding and editing records 168
and Screening & Scenarios 169
data field definitions 169–170
mapping routes 185–188
tracking incidents along routes 169
tracking transported chemicals 168
viewing routes on a map 182
S
SARA Title III
see EPCRA
Screening & Scenarios module 23, 55–62, 106, 137–153
and the Technical Guidance 138
choosing between screening & scenarios 139–142
data field definitions 146–148
difference from ALOHA 152–153
estimating screening zones 143–144
estimating vulnerable zones 145
making scenarios calculations 142
making screening calculations 139–142
not for emergency response 139, 152–153
not for RMP planning 139, 152–153
only for EHSs 138
see also Hazards analysis, Threat zones
worst-case screening assumptions 140
Scripts menu 31, 250
Search menu
Append search command 248
Clear Search command 248
see also Searching
Start Search command 248
Subset Search command 248
Searching 27, 251–255
advanced chemical search 80–83
Index
advanced facility search 111–113
advanced searches 63–68, 253–254
append searches and subset searches 254–255
basic chemical search 78–79
basic facility search 109–111
basic searches 251–252
choosing between AND and OR searches 67, 82–83
contains characters vs. word starting with 78–79
for chemicals 78–83
for facility records 109–113
found sets 37
saving searches 253–254
searching state fields 252
Section 112(r) 275–276
Select This Chemical in ALOHA menu command 249
Sharing menu
ALOHA commands 249
LandView commands 250
MARPLOT commands 249
Show All button 26
Show All on Map menu command 249
Show All Records menu command 247
Show on Map menu command 249
Show Related menu command 28, 247
Site plans
acceptable file formats 122
adding and editing 121–123
deleting a site plan 122
importing and exporting 217–218
including photos 123
location on hard drive 122
viewing plans 48
Sort menu command 247
see also Sorting records
Sorting records 255–265
by a single criterion 259–261
by multiple criteria 263–265
choosing criteria 255–258
example sorts 265
sorting a subset of records 262–263
unsorting 262
Sources of chemical data 100–104
Special Locations module 24, 155–162
adding and editing records 156
adding contact information 158–159
checking for special locations inside a threat zone or
footprint 160–162
data field definitions 156–158
mapping special locations 156
305
Index
Special locations module
viewing special locations on a map 182
Stability class 150–151
Start Search menu command 248
Starting CAMEO 36
State fields 107–109, 252
updating 108–109
State labels file 108
Subset Search menu command 248
Subset searches 254
System requirements for CAMEO 13
U
UN/NA Number 86
Unsorting records 262
Updating from an older version of CAMEO 18, 201–206
CAMEO Transfer Utility 201–203
in Windows 201–205
on a Macintosh 206
Site plans 205
the CAMEO Map 203–205
transferring data 202–203
T
V
Terrorism and CAMEO 5
Threat zones 55–62
checking for special locations ??–62
checking for special locations inside a threat zone 59–??,
160–162
deleting from a map 150
estimating a screening zone 143–144
estimating a vulnerable zone 145
plotting on maps 58–62, 148–150
preparations before estimating 142
radius diagram 138
see also Screening & Scenarios module, Hazards analysis
Tier II data in CAMEO 46–47, 106–109
manual data entry 107
state fields 107–109
Tier II forms 46–47, 106–109
and EPCRA 272–273
Tier2 Submit 8, 195
file format 197
importing data from 206–212
importing data into CAMEO 107–109
Title III
see EPCRA
Toolbar 26
Edit button 26
List button 26
Navigator button 26
Record button 26
Show All button 26
Toxic Release Inventory 11
Transfer Utility 201–203
Tutorial for new users 21–75
View List menu command 246
see also List view
View Reactivity Worksheet menu command 248
see also Reactivity Worksheet
View Record menu command 247
View RIDS button 128, 129, 133
306
Index
W
Website for CAMEO 7
Window menu 31, 250
Worst-case screening assumptions 140
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