User`s Manual
NARDA
Safety
Test
Solutions
S.r.l. Socio Unico
Sales & Support:
Via Leonardo da Vinci, 21/23
20090 Segrate (MI) - ITALY
Tel.: +39 02 2699871
Fax: +39 02 26998700
Manufacturing Plant:
Via Benessea, 29/B
17035 Cisano sul Neva (SV)
Tel.: +39 0182 58641
Fax: +39 0182 586400
http://www.narda-sts.it
User’s Manual
PMM
EMISSION SUITE
SOFTWARE UTILITY FOR
PMM EMI RECEIVERS &
ANCILLARY EQUIPMENTS
SOFTWARE RELEASE NUMBER
You can find the Release Number on the top title bar of main window.
Version Number is in the form: Rel. X.XX (“month” “year”).
Document PMMESEN-40906-2.20 – Copyright © NARDA 2008 - 2014
applicable to
PMM Emission Suite starting from Rel. 1.30 (October 2008)
PMM 9010 EMI Receivers starting from FW Rel. 1.85
PMM 9030 EMI Receivers starting from FW Rel. 1.16
PMM 9060 EMI Receivers starting from FW Rel. 1.00
PMM 9180 EMI Receivers starting from FW Rel. 1.00
PMM 9010/30P EMI Receivers starting from FW Rel. 2.00
PMM 9010/03P EMI Receivers starting from FW Rel. 2.28
PMM 9010F EMI Receivers starting from FW Rel. 1.00
NOTE:
If the instrument is used in any other way than as described in this User’s Manual, it may become unsafe
Before using this product, the related documentation must be read with great care and fully understood to
familiarize with all the safety prescriptions.
To ensure the correct use and the maximum safety level, the User shall know all the instructions
and recommendations contained in this document.
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
KEY TO THE SYMBOLS USED IN THIS DOCUMENT:
The DANGER sign draws attention to a potential risk to a person’s
DANGER safety. All the precautions must be fully understood and applied before
proceeding.
WARNING
The WARNING sign draws attention to a potential risk of damage to the
apparatus or loss of data. All the precautions must be fully understood
and applied before proceeding.
CAUTION
The CAUTION sign draws attention against unsafe practices for the
apparatus functionality.
NOTE:
II
The NOTE draw attention to important information.
Note and symbols
Contents
Key to the symbols used in this document………......
Page
II
1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose of this manual……………………….…...……
1.2 Manual changes………………………………………….
1.3 PC System requirements……………………………….
1.4 Introduction……………………………………………….
Page
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1-2
1-2
2 Installation
2.1 Software installation……………………………………..
2.2 Guided Hardware installation………..…………………
2.3 Manual Hardware Installation…………………………..
2.4 Running PMM Emission Suite………………………….
2.5 Guided USB-RS232 Serial converter installation…....
2.6 Manual USB-RS232 Serial converter installation…….
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3 General Functions
3.1 Screen set-up………………………………………….…
3.2 Tool Bar…………………………………………………..
3.2.1 Menu File……………………………………………….
Save Panel……………………………………………………
Save Image……………………………………………….…..
Save Clipboard……………………………………………….
Save as Text………………………………………………….
Save as PDF……………………………………………….…
Import………………………………………………………….
Export………………………………………………………….
Report…………………………………………………………
Open Panel……………………………………………………
3.2.2 Menu Options………………………………………….
Aspect…………………………………………………………
Colors……………………………………………………….…
Remote USB……………………………………………….…
Remote RS232…………………………………………….…
Export settings ……………………………………………...
Scroll size………………………………………………….….
Insertion Loss………………………………………………...
Zoom Mode A………………………………………………..
Zoom Mode B………………………………………………..
Overwrite Warning .………………………………………....
Sort by date…………………………………………………..
Check Sweep Archive Size…………………………………
3.2.3 Menu Tools…………………………………………….
Limits…………………………………………………………..
Factors…………………………………………………………
Using Conversion Factors with Current Probes …………
Frequencies…………………………………………………..
Table-Mast ……………………………………………………
Prescan ……………………………………………………….
Measuring …………………………………………………….
Manual and Analyzer Mode ………………………………..
Antenna polarization ………………………………………..
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Contents
III
Test IEC 62493 ………………………………………….…...
Example of test head: PMM VDH-01 ……………………..
How to make the measurement ……………………………
Header Title…………………………………………………...
Test comment………………………………………………...
Retrieve…………………………………………………….….
Correlation………………………………………………….…
Basic………………………………….…………………….….
PMM Function……………………….………………………..
Open Waterfall………………………………………………..
Enabled receivers…………………………………………….
Description…………………………………………………….
Applications…………………………………………………...
Operation………………………………………………………
Real time acquisition…………………………………………
Data recording………………………………………………...
Data displaying………………………………………………..
Reporting……………………………………………………….
Display examples……………………………………………..
Display controls……………………………………………….
PES release……………………………………………………
3.3 Graph area…………………………………………….….
3.4 Sweep section……………………………………………
3.5 Global Test Settings…………...………………………..
Generator Settings…………………………………………..
Display settings………………………………………………
Measure Unit Settings……………………………………….
Front End Settings……………………………………….…..
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4 Operation Modes
4.1 Sweeps Archive………...……………………………….
4.1.1 Zooming………………………………………………..
4.1.2 Marker…………..……………………………………...
4.1.3 Multi Marker…………………………………....……...
4.2 Sweep Mode ……….……………………………………
4.2.1 Sweep Tab Settings…………………………………..
4.2.2 Sweep Global Test Settings………………………….
4.3 Analyzer Mode…………...………………………………
4.3.1 Analyzer Settings…….………………………………..
4.3.2 Analyzer Global Test Settings……………………….
4.4 Manual Mode………………………………………….….
4.4.1 Manual Mode Tab Settings ………………………….
4.4.2 Manual Mode Global Test Settings ………………..
4.5 Click Mode…………………………………………….….
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4-21
5 Uninstalling
5.1 Uninstalling PMM Emission Suite software…………..
5.2 Uninstalling driver for PMM Receiver……………….…
5.3 Uninstalling driver for USB-RS232…………………..…
Page
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5-3
5-5
IV
Contents
Figures
Figure
1-1
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3-1
3-2
3-3
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4-8
5-1
5-2
5-3
Page
Main Software Window .…………………...………….…
PMM Emission Suite Software installation…..………...
Remote link Selection………………………………….…
Main software window………………………………….…
Tool bar menus…………………………………………....
GTEM Cell Fundamentals…………………………….….
EUT Orientations during Radiated Emission Test…....
9030 GTEM Correlation Window……………………..…
GTEM Vertical section at EUT Position………………..
Correlation File Creation………………………………....
Spectrogram……………………………………………….
Waterfall……………………………………………………
Main Software Window………………………………..….
Zoom & Marker Functions…………………………….…
Multi Marker Function………………………………….…
Highest Peaks Table………………………………….….
Sweep Mode window....………………………………....
Analyzer Mode window……………………………….….
Manual Mode window………………………………….…
Click Mode window……………………………………….
Uninstalling PMM Emission Suite software…………..
Uninstalling driver for PMM Receiver……………….…
Uninstalling driver for USB-RS232…………………..…
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Contents
V
This page has been left blank intentionally
VI
1 – Introduction
1.1 Purpose of this
manual
Present manual is just an auxiliary help to installation and usage of PMM
Emission Suite (sometime shortened as PMM ES) software package,
which is already a user friendly tool, whose functions are all easily
accessible from the main window.
1.2 Manual changes
Due to the continuous addition of function and useful tools in such a Suite,
just following requirements of applicable EMC Standards or simply adding
items which could be of further help in daily EMC testing, this manual will
be regularly updated and its release number will be changed and
referenced to the related software package version in the front cover, so
please check about such a correspondence before contacting PMMNARDA for further support.
Instruments manufactured after the printing of this manual, whose usage in
conjunction with the software is mentioned here in after, may have a FW
(firmware) Release Number different or not listed on the front cover, but
this doesn’t necessarily mean they cannot be properly operated anyway.
In case of any malfunction please check at first our Web Site
http://www.narda-sts.it for a newer software or firmware release or contact
the closest PMM-NARDA dealer’s office or NARDA STS Italian office
directly.
Document PMMESEN-40906-2.20 - © NARDA 2008-2014
Introduction
1-1
1.3 PC System
requirements
PMM Emission Suite has been developed in full compliance with Windows
Operating Systems Win 2000, XP, Vista, Win7.
PC minimum requirements are:
• CPU Processor Pentium III
• 256MB RAM
• 50MB free space on HD
• USB or RS232 port (or Bluetooth with an optional adapter)
• minimum resolution display 1024x768
The User might have the need of administrator privileges to install
and run the software in Windows 7; for further information see the
paragraphs in Chapter 2.
1.4 Introduction
PMM Emission Suite is a very powerful software tool specifically designed
to operate a wide range of PMM EMI Receivers, which could differ in
frequency range coverage or full/pre-compliant features referred to CISPR
16-1-1, then some time it could happen some features will appear as
disabled, depending on the model of PMM connected device, or inactive
options..
In following pages of this manual you’ll find screen dumps clearly showing
various testing procedures step-by-step.
Software structure has been designed to offer all necessary info and
commands at first glance.
As you can see in Fig.1.1 below, main window is divided in 3 sections,
related to Graph, Operating Modes and Global Settings.
All accessory functions, like Save/Open Panel, Remote Communication
selection and Factors/Limits creation, are located close to the top left
corner, where easily accessible drop-down menus provide full control of
those functions which don’t require continuous access by the operator.
1-2
Introduction
As a result, a comfortable and powerful testing environment is provided to
fully control EMC Emission testing with PMM equipments.
Fig. 1-1 Main software window
Introduction
1-3
This page has been left blank intentionally
1-4
Introduction
2 – Installation
2.1 Software installation
PMM Emission Suite software is normally included in the CD-ROM
delivered with the EMI Receiver, but the latest release will always be
available in the Support section of PMM-NARDA Web Site at following link:
http://www.narda-sts.it/narda/software_en.asp.
Before installation, be sure USB cable coming from the EMI Receiver is
disconnected or at least the receiver is switched OFF.
Insert the PMM Emission Suite CD into the driver of your PC and run the
file “PMM Emission Suite Setup.exe”.
The User must have administrator privileges to install the PMM
Emission Suite in Windows 7; right click on the program .exe file and
click on “Run as administrator” to temporarily run the program as an
administrator until close it (Windows 7 also allows to mark an
application so that it always runs with administrator rights).
Follow setup program instructions
Fig. 2-1 PMM Emission Suite installation
Document PMMESEN-40906-2.20 - © NARDA 2008-2014
Installation
2-1
2-2
Installation
PMM Emission Suite software is now installed in your PC, you can remove
it, if needed, simply running the “Uninstall PMM Emission Suite” application
(see chapter 5).
2.2 Guided
Hardware
installation
When the PMM Emission Suite software is installed, connect PMM EMI
Receiver to PC using the USB interface; the first time two messages inform
that new hardware has been found and a guided installation will start.
Sometimes It might happen that the two messages don’t appear in
Windows 7 and the “new hardware installation” procedure will not
start; in this case you must install the driver manually (for further
information see the next paragraph).
The following provides, as an example, the guided installation of the
PMM Receiver driver in Windows XP. The procedure to select location
of the driver directory will be different in case of different operating
systems.
Do not allow connection to Windows Update but select “No, not now” and
click “Next”.
Installation
2-3
Select “Install from a list or specific path”and “Next”.
The Windows system asks to specify the path where to look for the USB
driver.
At such occurrence please select (as default installation path)
“C:\Programs\PMM Emission Suite\”, select the folder and click “OK”
where the file “ftd2xx.inf” is located.
- WIN-7 for Windows 7 driver.
- WIN-98 for Windows 98 driver.
- “WIN-XP for Windows XP and Vista driver.
2-4
Installation
Select “Next” to proceed with driver installation, confirming selection even
in case of “Not Microsoft Certified” warning.
It may happen that a more recent version of a requested file is already
present in your system.
In this case do not replace it but answer “No” to the confirmation request:
Installation
2-5
Click “Finish” to complete driver installation, the new hardware is now ready
to be used.
The PMM Receiver’s driver are installed in your PC; you can remove it, if
needed, following instructions in chap.5.
2.3 Manual
Hardware
installation
Apply this method if the two messages don’t appear and the “new
hardware installation” procedure will not start.
In Windows 7 select Start > Control Panel > Device Manager or right
click My computer to access Properties
Select Hardware and Device Manager.
You will find the 9010/9030 Device with yellow triangle with an exclamation
mark under Others Devices; this is mostly due to a missing driver.
Right-click the 9010/9030 device and in the popup menu select Update
driver Software; a guided installation will start and select browse my
computer for driver software..
The Windows system asks to specify the path where to look for the driver;
select Browse (tick the box include sub-folder).
At such occurrence please select (as default installation path)
“C:\Programs\PMM Emission Suite\”, select the folder WIN-7 and click
“OK”.
The entire procedure could be executed twice as two different drivers
will be installed. Same steps as above should be followed and same
path C:\Programs\PMM Emission Suite must be selected.
2-6
Installation
2.4 Running
PMM Emission Suite
At the end of the Software installation, an icon named “PMM Emission
Suite” will then appear on your desktop.
Double clicking on such a program icon will start the PMM Emission Suite
with the main window appearing as in Fig. 1-1, but with an empty Graph at
first.
The User might have the need of administrator privileges to run the
PMM Emission Suite in Windows 7; right click on program shortcut
and click on “Run as administrator” to temporarily run the program as
an administrator until close it (Windows 7 also allows to mark an
application so that it always runs with administrator rights).
Connect the RS232 or USB cable between the EMI Receiver and the PC,
select related communication port from the “Options” drop-down menu in
PMM ES (Fig. 2-2) then switch ON the receiver; to make sure that the
connection is established enter in Analyzer Mode.
As some PCs are equipped with various USB ports which sometime could
behave differently, just try a different one in case of any trouble.
Fig. 2-2 Remote Link Selection
Installation
2-7
2.5 Guided
USB-RS232
Serial converter
installation
In case of using RS232 port connection on PMM 9010 for the first time,
connect the USB-RS232 Serial converter to the PC USB port; the drivers
are supplied with the adapter on CD-ROM.
Sometimes It might happen that a message doesn’t appear in
Windows 7 and the “new hardware installation” procedure will not
start; in this case you must install the driver manually (for further
information see the next paragraph).
The following provides, as an example, USB/RS232 Serial converter
installation instructions for Windows XP. The procedure to select
location of the driver directory will be different in case of different
operating systems
A message informing that new hardware has been found will be shown and
a guided installation will start:
Do not allow connection to Windows Update but select “No, not now” and
click “Next”
2-8
Installation
Insert the CD-ROM delivered with the Serial converter.
If the Autorun is enabled, Windows automatically launches the program
included on the CD; select “Product Driver” to display the driver screen
which
presents
a
separate
folder
for
different
operating
systems, choose the corresponding folder and run the executable Driver
Installer; at the end of the driver installation unplug and plug the serial
Converter.
Otherwise you could exit from it and continue with the Windows guided
procedure; select “Install from a list or specific path” and “Browse”.
Select the folder that corresponds to your operating system; “OK” to
confirm.
Select “Next” to continue.
Installation
2-9
It may happen that a more recent version of a requested file is already
present in your system.
In this case do not replace it but answer “No” to the confirmation request:
Click “Finish” to complete driver installation, the new hardware is now ready
to be used.
USB-OC converter driver is now installed in your PC, you can remove it, if
needed, following instructions in chap.5.
2-10
Installation
Make sure to check proper COMM Port Number in Windows OS Device
Manager at first.
In Windows XP, for example, select Start in the Windows Taskbar and
then “Settings” -> “Control Panel” -> “System” -> “Hardware” -> “Device
Manager” to access the following window:
Check the value “COMx” mentioned between brackets at “USB-to-Serial
Comm Port” items in the Communication Port tree and select
corresponding “x” number in the Remote Link drop-down menu of PMM ES
(Fig. 1-2).
In case of doubt between several “USB-to-Serial Comm Port” items, like in
the picture above, simply disconnect and re-connect the cable at PC side to
identify the affected item.
For different supported Windows OS please refer to Microsoft specific
literature and retrieve similar Device Manager window.
Be sure to use RS232 Cable provided with PMM Receivers for Serial
Communication with PC COMM Port.
rd
A 3 party communication cable could damage the receiver, due to a
possible wiring difference.
Contact closest PMM distributor to ask for a replacement or further
details, if needed !
ANY DAMAGE DUE TO IMPROPER CONNECTION BETWEEN PMM
RECEIVERS AND PC WILL BE CONSIDERED AT EXCLUSIVE CHARGE
OF THE OWNER AND WILL VOID WARRANTY COVERAGE OF PMM
PRODUCTS.
Installation
2-11
2.6 Manual
USB-RS232
Hardware
installation
Apply this method if the two messages don’t appear and the “new
hardware installation” procedure will not start.
In Windows 7 select Start > Control Panel > Device Manager or right
click My computer to access Properties
Select Hardware and Device Manager.
You will find the USB Serial Converter Device with yellow triangle with an
exclamation mark under Others Devices; this is mostly due to a missing
driver.
Right-click the USB Serial Converter device and in the popup menu select
Update driver Software; a guided installation will start and select browse
my computer for driver software..
The Windows system asks to specify the path where to look for the driver;
select Browse (tick the box include sub-folder).
At such occurrence please select “E:\205146\174947\Windows\Win
7~Vista 32bit~64bit_V3.0.1.0” and click “OK”.
USB-OC converter driver is now installed in your PC, you can remove it, if
needed, following instructions in chap.5.
2-12
Installation
3 – General Functions
3.1 Screen set-up
The Main Window appears divided in a Tool Bar at the top left of the
screen, a Graph Area in the middle, Operating Modes Tabs at the bottom
and Global Test Settings to the right.
Fig. 3-1 Main software window
Document PMMESEN-40906-2.20 -  NARDA 2008-2014
General Functions
3-1
This bar hosts functions for general operations, options and tools, which
can be selected through Windows-like drop-down menus.
3.2 Tool Bar
The Tool Bar is present in every Operation Mode, but some functions will
appear disabled (light grey coloured) depending on their usefulness in each
specific Mode or inactive options.
Main drop-down menus are named “File”, “Options” and “Tools”, as
showed in Fig.3-2 below.
Fig. 3-2 Tool Bar Menus
3.2.1 Menu File
3-2
In this menu all saving, importing and exporting functions are included, as
for the following description.
General Functions
The Save Panel function allows saving of
Global Test Settings specified in the top right
column of main screen, where same values
are in common to the various Operating
Modes;
in “Sweeps Archives” Mode is not possible to
save some of the parameters’ settings, as
they remain fixed to those values set during
the measurement;
select “Sweep Mode” at first to be able and
save Global Test Settings for future recalling.
The Save Image function generates a file containing the Graph actually
displayed in the main screen; saving can be performed in two different
graphic formats, i.e. BMP or JPG;
quality of resulting image can be defined in the Options Menu (see later
explanation), through the function “Export Settings”, which will also provide a
better balance between file size and image quality.
General Functions
3-3
Selecting Save Clipboard provides a copy of the Graph actually displayed
in the main screen to be stored in the Windows OS temporary memory,
named “Clipboard”; the image will be available for “Paste” operation in
another file, for example in a DOC file containing the final Report or details
about the EUT (Equipment Under Test).
Please note that Markers or other overlapping objects appearing in the main
screen will not be saved with this function, just to maintain the graph as
much clean as possible for proper reference.
To get overlapping object as well, simply push the “Print” key on the PC
keyboard and then paste into a DOC file or wherever you prefer.
3-4
General Functions
With Save As Text function all measured data can be exported in TXT
rd
format for later reference or for importing in 3 party softwares.
Text separator character for generated file can also be selected in the
Options Menu (see later explanation), through the function “Export Settings”,
between “TAB”, “,” or “;” .
Before using the function you can add an header in the Report selecting
Title Header in the Tools Menu (see later explanation) or opening the file
“Header.txt” in the default path “C:\Programmi\PMM Emission Suite”.
With Save As PDF function all measured data can be exported in PDF
rd
format for later reference or for importing in 3 party softwares;
Text separator character for generated file can also be selected in the
Options Menu (see later explanation), through the function “Export Settings”,
between “TAB”, “,” or “;” .
Before using the function you can add an header in the Report selecting
Title Header in the Tools Menu (see later explanation) or opening the file
“Header.txt” in the default path “C:\Programmi\PMM Emission Suite”.
General Functions
3-5
The Import function allows to copy the folder of all measured data from a
specific location to the default Sweeps Archive
If the option Clear has been enabled ( √ ) the folder will be cancelled from
his own location.
The Export function allows to copy the folder of all measured data from the
default Sweeps Archive to another location;
If the option Clear has been enabled ( √ ) the folder will be cancelled from
the default Sweeps Archive.
3-6
General Functions
The Report functions are the best way to get values of only those
measurement points exceeding a specific Limit and generate a list which
can be saved in a TXT format file.
The Report 1 detector 2 limits: this function allows for obtaining a report
with 2 limits, referred to a single detector. The limits must be enabled in the
Scan Table before starting the test.
The Report 2 detector 2 limits: this function allows for obtaining a report
with 2 limits, each referred to a different detector, e.g. QPeak and AVG.
The limits must be enabled in the Scan Table before starting the test.
The Limit referenced to is the one selected in the Global Test Settings
panel before accessing the Report function, then a proper Limit must be
chosen for each specific Detector before accessing this function.
This Report will provide a complete collection of exactly those points
overcoming the Limit threshold path.
A Margin can be defined to consider a safety level offset below defined
Limit: a “positive” value for the Margin in dB will correspond to a Limit path
lowered accordingly.
One between the several Detectors available can be selected for
comparison with selected Limit and resulting points can be also saved in a
specific TXT file, just pushing the button “Save as Text” in the Report
window.
See example below for quick reference.
General Functions
3-7
Detector to be
used for Limit
comparison
Measured
values for
specified
Detector
Limit Margin in dB:
positive value for a
lower Limit
Limit level
at each
measured
point
Difference
between
measured
level and Limit
Save Report
as TXT file
3-8
General Functions
The Open Panel function provides recalling of previously stored Global
Test Settings, in order to be able and repeat a test using a well defined set
of parameters.
Please note that this function is not available when Sweeps Archive or Click
modes are selected, as it’s not useful for them.
General Functions
3-9
3.2.2 Menu Options
From Options menu all general software settings are accessible, like
aspect and colours of buttons and labels, remote control port, export
settings and others, allowing operator to customize such environment
according to his wishes.
The Aspect function allows changes in Style and Colors of Labels and
Buttons, which can be freely redefined in a wide range of combinations.
Shape of such objects can be changed as well through the Style options in
related drop-down menus.
Default settings can be recalled anytime by respective buttons.
3-10
General Functions
All other Colors settings can be adjusted through a more powerful function,
just providing complete colors patterns for every item related to graphical
effects.
Default settings can always be resumed through related button.
Modified settings can be saved by the Save button and recalled later when
needed, so providing every operator with his own specific settings to be
used when sharing same working desktop.
General Functions
3-11
USB
Communication between PMM 9010 Receiver and PMM Emission Suite
can be mainly established in two ways: USB or RS232 interface.
To select one on them the Remote function must be used, which will open
the following window:
USB is the default setting after installation.
Icon of this function in the Options menu is case sensitive, with the
meaning that a different image will be displayed, depending on
selected communication port; operator can then easily identify
connection even without opening the Remote window.
RS232
Selecting RS232 will enable the COMM Port selection menu, where proper
number will have to be selected (see note at Paragraph 2.4 of this manual)
The Icon of the function will be changed accordingly.
3-12
General Functions
The Export Settings allows to define the quality of the image copied in the
graph area and to set the separator character between each column in the
TXT and PDF reports.
In the Factor Quality window drag the slider arrow left or right to change the
balance between size and quality; you can also use the box to set the exact
percentage.
Use the Text file separator window to set the separator character: TAB,
comma (,) or semicolon (;)
Default settings can always be resumed through related button.
After using Zoom Mode A or B function(see later explanation), a scroll bar
will be activated below the sweep; through the scroll arrow keys the graph
can be moved to left and right according to the step chosen (x1 or x10 or
x100). The symbol √ shows which Scroll Size is active.
Alternatively the “TAB” key button can be pressed on your PC to
highlight the scroll box (so activating the scroll bar) and LEFT and
RIGHT keys will then provide corresponding movement of the scroll
arrow keys.
General Functions
3-13
Insertion Loss measurement function is specifically required by Standard
CISPR 15 or equivalent EN 55015 for Luminaries, where a Reference
Voltage U1 is measured at first between either of the input terminals of the
measuring network (LISN) and the earth, what should substantially provide
the same value.
The maximum Tolerance in dB between these two values can be set
through the window appearing soon after launching and activating the
Insertion Loss function.
In case such a Tolerance would be overcome, the following Report window
will be displayed, providing the possibility of checking about failures and
then aborting the test or proceeding anyway with the following step:
When the function is active, an Insertion Loss flag appears below the Redo
Sweep button.
Once the scan starts, the user is warned by the following message to
remind that Insertion Loss function is active and that it would be necessary
to deactivate it in case of performing a standard Sweep measurement.
3-14
General Functions
Confirm Yes to proceed with Insertion Loss testing and push OK button at
following window to measure U1 with Reference Setup.
Where:
- TRF-1 is the PMM Balanced to Unbalanced Transformer
- L2-16B is the PMM LISN with 2 Lines and 16A max Current
- DL is one of the several Dummy Lamps required by CIPSR 15.
General Functions
3-15
Once the first step will be completed, the software will warn to modify the
setup and proceed with the U2 Voltage measurement to get the final “20
log U1/U2” Insertion Loss evaluation to compare with related Limit curve.
It will be always possible to check about every measured curve simply
selecting it from the bottom right list as usual.
3-16
General Functions
Enable the function Zoom Mode A and push the scroll wheel of the mouse
(the pointer will turn into
); move the cursor on the area of the graph that
you want to zoom and scroll up or down the wheel to extend or reduce the
view.
Anytime the Zoom Mode A can be turned OFF or ON simply pushing the
scroll wheel, providing the possibility of fully exploring the sweep.
To return to the acquired sweep, scroll down the wheel quickly until
displaying the full graph.
Alternatively the “Z” key button can be pressed on your PC keyboard
to activate this function and UP and DOWN keys will then provide
corresponding movement of the wheel.
Press “Z” key again to deactivate the function.
Enable the function Zoom Mode B; holding down the scroll wheel drag the
cursor horizontally to define the limits of the interval that you want to zoom;
release the scroll wheel (the pointer will turn into
) and push the left
mouse button within selected area to zoom-in or the right button to undo.
At the end of this operation, there is always the possibility to use markers
and play with the sweep.
Such interval itself can be recursively zoomed in the same way, as for
instructions above.
To return to the full view of the acquired sweep, simply push the right
mouse button.
General Functions
3-17
The Overwrite Warning check box provides, when enabled (), a
Warning Message to prevent from accidental overwriting of data when
attempting a new measurement in Sweep Mode (see related paragraph at
the next chapter).
To enable/disable this function simply move mouse pointer on related
check box from Options Menu and click once with left button on the mouse.
There are two possible situations which could cause such accidental sweep
overwriting:
- pushing Redo Sweep button from Sweep Archive Mode;
- pushing Execute button in Sweep Mode without changing Name of Test
at first.
Keeping this function always enabled is strongly suggested, while it
could be deactivated only in case of preliminary trials to be
overwritten one after the other.
The typical Warning Message is shown in the following picture, where
operator is asked to chose between “YES” or “NO” to automatically
Rename the file with the first available sequential number
If you select NO, a message will ask to overwrite the existing
measurements.
Select YES to confirm or NO to undo.
3-18
General Functions
To easily retrieve a specific measurement file between all those previously
stored in the Sweep Archive (see related paragraph at Chapter 3), sorting
by Date/Time of creation or Name could be a really useful tool.
To enable/disable this function simply move mouse pointer on related
check box from Options Menu and click once with left button on the mouse.
The Sort by date check box allows then sorting of files as Ascending (),
i.e. the most recent on top:
When the box is “unchecked”, instead, the sorting is performed based on
Names of files, with first letters of alphabet on top of the list.
When the function Check Sweep Archive Size is active, the user is
warned by a message when a quite huge amount of measurements have
been stored in the Sweep Archive, slowing down the software.
It is suggestible to use Export function to move the folders of all measured
data from the default archive to another location.
General Functions
3-19
3.2.3 Menu Tools
The Tools Menu offers several functions for preparation of Limits and
Correction Factors useful during testing in accordance to the various EMC
Standards, plus some additional and powerful tools.
The Limits function allows creation of arbitrary custom Limits with a very
intuitive method.
A table appears showing 2 columns for Frequency (MHz) and Level
(dBμV) respectively, to be filled up with desired values.
Simply type the value and push “Return” key on PC keyboard for fast data
entry; the following cell will be selected automatically for a new entry.
The result will be a linearly interpolated curve.
Frequency values must all be input in MHz for data field uniformity, but a
simple Converter Keyboard can also be used when double-clicking in the
data field, so that a value in Hz or kHz can be automatically converted in
MHz at last.
It’s possible to delete the row where the cursor is located, in case of
mistakes, pushing “Remove row X” button.
To insert a new row, just input the new frequency value in the first empty
cell at the bottom of the table and the row will be automatically inserted in
the proper place; complete then the related Level field.
Once the table has been filled up, it can be saved in a proprietary format
file through the Save button, as well as recalled later through the Load
command.
The Load from text button used for leading limits from external text files;
the separator character between each column must be “SPACE” or “TAB”
or “,” or “;” and the maximum number of rows allowed is 202.
Pushing Exit button anytime will result in closing the Limits windows,
without saving changes performed after the last Save command.
3-20
General Functions
To take into account attenuation of cables, antennas and other devices
connected in the measurement chain, Correction Factors must be defined
all over the frequency range of interest.
That’s what the Factors function is devoted to, allowing creation of a table
where several attenuation coefficients will be specified at each frequency
step, so defining a linearly interpolated curve.
Resulting signal levels in both Sweep, Analyzer and Manual Modes will be
automatically compensated with the addition of the corresponding factors,
frequency by frequency all over the range.
Correction factors are always intended “positive” for devices providing
attenuation effect, but negative values could also be used in case of
amplification effect (what’s rarely happening).
Operations to input data, save and recall tables are exactly identical to
those explained before for Limits function, so please refer to that for further
details.
Up to 4 Factors can be added in Sweep, Analyzer and Manual Modes (see
later description about Global Test Settings panel), where each one of them
must be created through Factors function at first.
Simple External Attenuators connected to the receiver input, even when
having a constant attenuation factor in the whole frequency range, must be
taken into account creating a Factor with the same attenuation value at two
or three frequency points in the range (like in the sample picture above).
Once a Factor has been created, it can also be stored in the receiver
internal memory, to be selected and used even when the receiver is
operated as stand-alone (i.e. without connection to a PC).
To do that, simply push the Save button in the Factors window and assign
a name for the corresponding key on the receiver, inserting max 9
characters between letters, numbers and main symbols (avoiding really
special characters like “£”, “§”, etc.) in the field “Name on key” of the “Save
Factor As” window below:
General Functions
3-21
List of
Factors at
PC memory
Name of
selected
Factor
Save Factor
in PC memory
only
Buttons
corresponding
to keys on the
receiver
Name of
Factor
appearing at
receiver’s key
Select one between the four buttons in the field “Store On 9010” to
automatically store the Factor at corresponding button on 9010.
A progress bar will show status during storing and a pop-up window will
confirm success of operation, resuming Name and Button assigned.
3-22
General Functions
Using Conversion
Factors with Current
Probes
In some cases current probes are provided with insertion loss given in dBΩ.
To take into account the right conversion factors and have the correct label
on the graph (dBμA) the user should load two Factors:
- one made of the insertion loss values coming with the probe,
- the second filled with 33.98 that is the default conversion
parameter for transforming the measured dBμV into dBμA
assuming a standard impedance of 50 Ω.
If, for example, at a certain frequency the insertion loss of the probe would
be - 15.00 dBΩ, the first factor would be just -15.00 and the second +33.98.
The software automatically converts the reading of the receiver, adding the
two factors, to transform the measurement in dBμA.
Going back to the example, supposed a level of +10.00 dBμV at the
receiver, the final reading would be:
+10.00 + (-15.00) + 33.98 = 28.98 dBμA
Measured voltage
insertion loss
Ohm’s law conversion factor
The result on 9010 receiver LCD display will appear as follows:
Please refer to the specific User’s Manual for operating such a function with
stand-alone receiver.
General Functions
3-23
The Frequencies tool can be used to define a frequency table for later
application with Sweep Mode at Step parameter of Scan Table, providing
measurement at only those specified discrete frequency values.
It’s also possible to open a table previously automatically generated by the
“Multi Marker” function available in the Global Test Settings panel, modify
and save it (see forward Global Test Settings panel description).
To input, modify and save values in such a table same operations
explained for Limits and Factors above can be used, but only the
Frequency column will have to be filled up in this case, like in the example
below:
This table can be modified anytime, but can be used in Sweep Mode only.
3-24
General Functions
The Table – Mast tool can be used to operate the receiver together with a
rotary table or a pole for controlled elevation (option available at extra cost).
To activate the Option enter the Key code obtained from your local
Narda distributor (see par. 3.2 Tool bar, Tools/Activate options); the
function will appear as enabled in the same drop-down menu.
When entering this menu the following page of settings appears:
The same window can be
opened by clicking onto
Table-Mast in the Tools
menu or in the ancillary
cell of the Scantable if
T.-Mast
has
been
selected in the Ancillary
column on the right.
The Table-Mast tool can
be
used
with
the
controllers EMCO 2090,
INNCO
CO2000
and
CO3000, Maturo MCU
and a “MOCK” model for
dummy testing.
On the top of the windows it is possible to choose which model of the
device is to be controlled.
On the left there are the settings for the Table and on the Right the ones for
the Mast.
For both of them it is necessary to introduce the GPIB address.
The model named MOCK is a dummy unit useful for simulation purposes.
It is possible to enter the prescan start and stop (Min Max) angle for table
rotation, expressed in degrees in the range 0 - 360.
Concerning the Mast the operator can introduce the values in cm for the
minimum and maximum height of excursion, again for prescan. Also the
antenna polarization can be chosen between Horizontal and Vertical.
The test begins with a prescan and the parameters, in addition to those
already described, are also the steps for the angle of rotation and for the
raising of the mast.
In this way it is possible, for example, to run a prescan in which the table
rotates for the complete 360° turnament with a detection every 10°, so that
a total of 36 measurements are collected.
General Functions
3-25
Please check the minimum and maximum range extension available for the
device in use, for both angle of rotation and height, before entering the
parameters in the software. Improper use could cause system damages.
When the Table-Mast ancillary is activated, the scantable and its data
assume a different meaning from that of a normal sweep.
Prescan (1st step)
The parameters used for the prescan step (Sweep Mode) are the
followings:
Scan stepping
– Table [deg] is the angle step in degree for the table rotation
– Mast [cm] is the movement step in cm for the heigh variation
Detector
- Detector are the detector used for the prescan
- Hold Time is the weighting time for each prescan detection
For everything not specifically indicated in this menu, the parameters of the
scantable are applied.
Table Priority selected means the table is rotated at first and then
eventually the mast.
Mast Priority selected means that the mast is variated at first and then the
table rotates.
In the Table-Mast function the scantable can be made up of one row only,
otherwise a warning message will appear.
The Smart Detector function is disabled when using the Table-Mast tool.
3-26
General Functions
Measuring (2nd step)
The parameters used for the main measurement (Manual Mode) are the
followings:
Scan
-
-
Manual: useful to move manually the position of Table and Mast by
entering the values of deg or cm or pressing the corresponding + or
– buttons
Automatic: selecting this choice the rotation and height for Table
and Mast are controlled automatically by the software, using the
settings of the Table (Automatic) and Mast (Automatic) frames.
The measurements are carried out tuning the receiver at the
frequencies of the Frequencies Table frame.
The Mast movement can be enabled or disabled. If disabled the height of
the antenna is kept at a fixed position.
Frequencies Table
- Highest Peaks: with this option at the end of the Prescan a
Frequency Mast Table is created with the specified number of
points, related to the highest detections.
- Above Limits: at the end of the Prescan a Frequency Mast Table is
created with the number of points for which the measured level was
over the specified limit + margin.
- Tune Step: this option allows the system to make measurements in
the neighborhood of the detected signals. Setting, for example, a
value of 2 for this parameter, the final measurement will consist in
5 detections for each signal (example: Freq = 100 MHz, step = 100
kHz, the measured frequencies will be 99.8, 99.9, 100.0, 100.1 and
100.2 MHz).
- Manual Table Revision: this option shows the Frequency Mast
Table resulting from the Prescan and allows the user to see the
frequencies matched to their levels and Table and Mast positions.
It is also possible to save the table in TXT or PDF format, add and
edit the data. The test goes on by pressing the Continue button.
General Functions
3-27
Table (Automatic)
-
-
Max Swing: it specifies the minimum ( - Max Swing / 2 ) and
maximum ( + Max Swing / 2 ) angle for table rotation at which the
final measurement will be performed (Manual Mode).
Swing Step: this parameter is the step in degrees for angle rotation.
Mast (Automatic)
-
-
Max Swing: it specifies the minimum ( - Max Swing / 2 ) and
maximum ( + Max Swing / 2 ) height for Mast elevation at which the
final measurement will be performed (Manual Mode).
Swing Step: this parameter is the step in cm for height variation.
Save frame allows to store the complete Table Mast parameters with the
name entered in the text box. The file is saved when exiting the parameters
window pressing the OK button.
Press the delete button to remove the selected file.
Load frame allows to select and load the parameters already previously
saved.
Cancel
Pressing this soft key the parameters are restored to the ones before the
latest modification.
When Mast-Table feature is running the following screen is shown.
In the Table-Mast small pop-up window, the rotation and height of the table
and mast are depicted in a an intuitive and convenient graphical way
In the example above the red arrows indicate that the mast heigh is being
augmented. The elevation range is between 0 and 55 cm.
The meaning of the indication “Mast: 28 / 45 cm” is that at the moment of
the screenshot the height is 28cm and the next target step is 45cm.
3-28
General Functions
Above is another example in which the table is rotating counterclockwise.
The bold blue radius indicates the actual angle of 149 degrees while the thin
one shows the 190° end target.
The numeric value are written in red in the small text box under the sketch.
The yellow sector of the table indicates the range in which the measurement
will be performed.
The red area will not be covered by the rotation.
Manual and Analyzer
mode
For debugging purposes the Table and Mast position can be controlled
manually also in Manual and Analyzer mode.
Example of Manual Mode operation.
General Functions
3-29
Example of Analyzer mode operation.
Antenna polarization
In this example the green icon
indicates that the antenna
polarization is horizontal.
In this example, instead, the green
icon indicates that the antenna
polarization is vertical.
If the user tries to make a real measurement and the PC is not equipped
with a GPIB interface, or the EMCO 2090 is not connected, a warning
message will appear and the test could not be continued.
In a similar way in Analyzer and Manual mode the warning message will
pop up and the ancillary T.-Mast will be swtiched automatically to General.
3-30
General Functions
Test IEC 62493
IEC 62493 international standard refers to ”Assessment of lighting
equipment related to human exposure to electromagnetic fields”.
Lighting equipment for general lighting fall under this rule, except for those
used in transportation vehicles.
Limits are set (ICNIRP/IEEE) in the range of the Short Waves for the
currents density allowed.
The objective of the EMF radiation tests discussed here is to define the
amplitude of current Ic and Voltage Vc induced by the Device Under Test
(DUT) onto a kind of phantom simulating what would happen if a human
being was there.
PMM’s Antenna VDH-01 is an example of Van der Hoofden test-head
designed to meet the specification of the IEC 62493 standard for the EMF
assessment of lighting products.
Example of test head:
PMM VHD-01
An EMI Receiver according to CISPR-1-1 is needed to run the test,
operated with the settings defined by the rule. PMM 9010 family of EMI
Receivers are well suited to do the job.
The Test IEC 62493 tool is suited to perform measurements on induced
currents in the frequency range from 20 kHz to 10 MHz and its output
complies with IEC 62493 regulation.
The main functions performed by the Van Der Hoofden transducer are:
• Simulate the presence of a human being as close to the DUT as the
standard requires;
• Convert the induced currents into readable RF signals;
• Protect the input of the EMI Receiver from high induced voltages;
• route the EMI (Electro Magnetic Interference) of the DUT to the receiver,
matching the impedance to the standard 50 Ohm nominal value.
The test location must be an Anechoic Chamber.
It is recommended that the DUT is operated with a prescribed stabilization
time prior to the test. It must be positioned in accordance with the
requirements of the standard.
The distance of the DUT from any metallic part may affect the
measurement of the induced current values; IEC exactly define the
dimensions and distances for the test configurations, by means of the
following drawing:
Please refer to the IEC 62493 Standard for all information concerning the
test setup, measurements, Factor F calculation, results and reports.
General Functions
3-31
How to make the
measurement
When a IEC 62493 test is to be run, the software must be operated in
Sweep Mode.
In the scantable the parameters must at least fulfill the ones imposed by
the standard or eventually go further. It is also possible to select the
preloaded IEC 62493 values and then simply run the sweep after having
properly prepared the test setup.
When the sweep ends, the tool allows to make automatically the calculation
of the F Factor, also showing if the DUT passes the test (it is under the limit
for the standard) or not.
In Sweep archive, select Tools from the toolbar, then click on Test IEC
62493.
In this way the software will automatically make a precise calculation, using
the measurements of the active sweep, and the result will be shown, after a
while, in a pop up window, like in the examples below.
Example of passed IEC 62493 standard test.
3-32
General Functions
Example of failed IEC 62493 standard test.
General Functions
3-33
As already mentioned, the Header Title function allows to add an header in
the Report. The format is highly user-friendly and clearly presents all of the
information about testing environment: the ambient data, equipment
under test, general company information and instrumentation used.
The Test Comment tool can be used to make a comment about the test in
progress.
rd
It is saved in TXT format for later reference or for importing in 3 party
softwares; you can overwrite the original file Test Comment.txt in the
default path “C:\Programmi\PMM Emission Suite” or save in a specific TXT
file.
The last notes saved in the Test Comment.txt before closing the program
will always be displayed when re-opening it.
3-34
General Functions
The Retrieve function allows download of Sweeps previously stored in the
internal memory of the receiver, which can then be saved in any mass
storage device of connected PC.
As soon as the function is selected, the Remote Load window is opened,
providing a single or cumulative measurements’ download.
All sweeps are automatically identified by Band and Detectors used:
A label at the top shows the FW Release actually installed in the receiver.
After selecting the sweep and confirming with “OK”, a new window is
opened, showing the sweeps already stored in the PC and proposing a
default File Name “Auto_01” for the sweep to be downloaded, which could
be changed with a custom name:
Pressing Save button will definitely copy the sweep in the PC at default
directory path C:\Programs\PMM Emission Suite\Sweep.
If “Load All Sweeps” is selected instead, all the sweeps present in the
receiver’s memory will be automatically saved with default names “Auto_1”,
“Auto_2”, …”Auto_n”.
A warning message will be displayed, of course, in case a file with the
same name would have been previously saved, to prevent accidental
overwriting.
The last downloaded sweep will be always displayed on PC screen after
few seconds, at data transfer completion.
General Functions
3-35
The Correlation function is something very useful for those performing
Radiated Emission Testing in a TEM or GTEM Cell environment, whatever
size this Cell would have.
Basics
Fig. 3-3 GTEM Cell Fundamentals
(Fig. A.7 from the Standard EN 61000-4-20)
Based on the EMC Standard EN 61000-4-20 (Testing and measurement
techniques - Emission and immunity testing in transverse electromagnetic
(TEM) waveguides ), a correlation to an OATS (Open Area Test Site), i.e.
to a full compliant EMC test site, is possible under certain specific
conditions.
This Standard provides, in fact, well defined algorithms “to estimate
equivalent OATS field strengths”, specifying that: “These field strengths,
along with test results from the EUT type validation procedure, may
then be compared to the requirements in normative standards”.
To get a final measurement curve to compare with specific Limits defined
by each Product Standard, the EUT inserted in the Cell must be rotated in 3
different directions, with one of its axis of symmetry parallel to X, Y and Z
respectively, and an RF Emission Sweep must be performed in each one of
these orientations.
3-36
General Functions
Fig. 3-4 EUT Orientations during Radiated Emission Test
Applying one of the algorithm specified by EN 61000-4-20 to these three
sweeps, a single curve in frequency can be obtained at the end, taking into
account all possible contribution.
Resulting measurement curve commonly appears very similar to the one
that could be obtained in a real OATS or in a SAC (Semi-Anechoic
Chamber), so providing a very reliable result to be compared with specific
Limits for EUT validation.
Anyway, a higher confidence about results can be reached once tests
performed in a GTEM Cell are compared with those executed in a real
OATS or SAC for a specific range of products; in fact every EUT belonging
to a certain product family can behave similarly, in a way that a more
precise level of confidence can be defined for all products of each family
tested in a GTEM Cell.
Please refer to Standard EN 61000-4-20 directly for further details.
General Functions
3-37
PMM Function
The algorithm adopted in Correlation function of PMM ES follows the
approach of the ”total radiated power method” algorithm described in EN
61000-4-20, which has showed very good matching with experimental
results in Semi-Anechoic Chambers.
Selecting the Correlation function from the Tools Menu will open then the
“9030 GTEM correlation” window, where the 3 sweep files and other
relevant parameters can be specified for further calculation.
Of course 9030 extension module will always be needed to perform early
sweeps for X, Y and Z orientations of EUT, as the frequency range for EMC
Radiated Emissions testing starts from 30MHz at least.
Fig. 3-5 9030 GTEM Correlation Window
The first step is to input proper Sweep files for measurements taken along
the three different directions X, Y and Z, which can be easily searched
through each drop-down menu:
Full details about pointed sweep files are always displayed at right side, just
to be sure selected measurement is the right one.
Then the name of the output file must be specified in the “OUT” field and all
other parameters below have to be input as well, according to the desired
correlation result:
3-38
General Functions
√ Antenna Height
-
√ Correlated Distance √ EUT Height
-
√ Septum Height
-
“1 to 4” or “1 to 6” meters can be selected,
defining antenna scan in height (used in
OATS or SAC) to match specific requirements
of each Product Standard;
3, 10 or 30 m distance between antenna and
EUT (used in OATS or SAC) to match specific
requirements of each Product Standard;
distance from EUT bottom plane to GTEM
bottom conductive plate (see “h EUT ” in
previous Fig. 2-3), which will depend on “quite
zone” (zone to host EUT) dimensions defined
for each specific GTEM Cell;
distance from bottom to inner conductor of
GTEM Cell waveguide (see “h” in previous
Fig. 2-3) at vertical section of the Cell where
the EUT is positioned during measurement.
Fig. 3-6 GTEM Vertical section at EUT Position
Pushing the Start button at the end of parameters’ input will initiate the
calculation process.
A progress bar at bottom left side of the window will show the on-going
status of the process and resulting Sweep will be displayed at the end.
General Functions
3-39
Fig. 3-7 Correlation File Creation
3-40
General Functions
The Waterfall is an option available at extra cost.
To activate the Option enter the Key code obtained from your local
Narda distributor (see par. 3.2 Tool bar, Tools/Activate options); the
function will appear as enabled in the same drop-down menu.
Enabled receivers
All models that work with the PES can be operated in Spectrogram &
Waterfall modes:
- 9010, 9010F and relevant high-frequency modules
- 9010/03P, 9010/30P and 9010/60P
- 7010
Description
Spectrogram and Waterfall are two different ways of showing a sequence
of frequency spectra acquired during a period of time. Here are two
examples:
a.
Spectrogram
The horizontal axis represents the
frequency band under analysis; the vertical
axis represents the time elapsed from the
moment the test has been started, up to its
end.
The signal amplitude is represented in a
scale of arbitrary colours, usually the darker
the lower and the brighter the higher levels,
like in thermography.
Fig. 3-8 Spectrogram
b.
Waterfall
The spectra are represented in a “3D-like”
view; single spectra can be evidenced on
different trace colour along the time axis,
while the signal amplitude is measured by
scrolling left-right a conventional cursor.
Fig. 3-9 Waterfall
General Functions
3-41
Applications
These two ways of representing the time history of a set frequency band
find their best application during development and debugging of such
equipment that may show emission variations – in frequency and/or level –
during start-up and operation cycles: machinery, tools, appliances, power
electronics etc.
In fact, although EMI qualification tests prescribe the disturbances to be
measured in stabilized conditions, in its final application a device might
generate severe disturbances just in a limited time, however enough to
create problems to other nearby components or subassemblies.
Automotive is a field rich of examples of such cases.
Operation
The option 9010/WF is started from the Sweep Archive main window.
Tools -> Open waterfall.
The last acquisition is displayed.
Enter the name of the new acquisition in the box “Name” then exit.
Go in Analyzer mode and set the commands as required.
From Tools, click on Start Waterfall; after the first sweep is completed, the
spectrogram window will appear and the acquisition of the sweeps in
sequence will be started.
For graphic speed optimization only 10 spectra are displayed live, in
sequence from top to down screen, and all the sweeps are stored
automatically in the HD for successive analysis. During this phase the
commands Ref. Level and Dynamic are active and can be modified to
optimize the displaying.
Click on Exit to end the test.
To analyse the whole test go to Sweep Archive main window and Tools ->
Open waterfall.
Real time acquisition
(1)
The spectra are acquired in Analyzer mode , one after the other in a
continuous sequence until the function is stopped by the operator.
The sweep time is in function of the RBW and hold time that shall be set
according to the signal characteristics and to the desired resolution; in
general it’s preferred to keep the sweep time as short as possible by setting
the RBW larger than what one would set normally.
Example: when using the function with the FFT-based receiver 9010F, the
whole spectrum of 150 kHz – 30 MHz will be acquired in real time in a
single block by setting the RBW = 300 kHz; the sweep time shall be equal
to the set hold time, e.g. 0,1 or 2 milliseconds for Peak and Average
detectors respectively, thus allowing an extremely detailed analysis along
the time axis.
Sweeping receivers like the 9010 (9030, 9060, 9180) and 7010, although
not working in real time, when in Analyzer mode are fast enough to provide
excellent results too.
(1) In Sweep Receiver mode it’s already possible to store and scroll up to
100 scans. Representing logarithmic frequency scale spectra in 3D
gives badly if not unreadable results.
3-42
General Functions
Data recording
The subsequent spectra are automatically recorded and saved in a single
file *.WFA localized in the folder Waterfall in the program root, inclusive of
all the receiver settings. The stored files can be recalled when in Sweep
Archive mode, Tools window.
The filename is set by the operator prior to starting the test.
The maximum number of spectra that can be recorded is of 30.000.
Data displaying
In function of the set frequency span, RBW and number of sweeps, the
measurement data may consist in several millions of data, thus resulting in
very large files.
The program automatically optimizes the viewing, and up to 100 spectra
(traces) can be displayed at once; scroll, zoom and marker functions allow
for detailed analysis of time history portions.
Reporting
A single spectrum (trace) evidenced by the marker can be saved as report
(pdf) file containing all the usual details of the test, the image and the list of
all frequency-level points.
Alternatively, a single frequency-level point corresponding to the marker
position can be saved as report (pdf) too.
General Functions
3-43
Display examples
Marker
3-44
General Functions
Display controls
In some conditions – huge amount of data, very noisy signals etc. - 2D and
3D displays may be difficult to read, so it is necessary to modify the viewing
parameters at user’s convenience.
The controls available for this purpose are:
-
Point of track: decreases the nr. of frequency
points (of each spectrum) to be displayed,
providing a simpler but cleaner view.
-
N° track: sets the nr. of traces to display in the
window (max. 100). Especially useful in 3D
mode to focus on specific portions only.
-
Center Color: sets the “reference plane” of the
image. Useful to isolate the interesting peaks
from the background noise.
-
Dynamics Color: sets the 3 axis displayed
dynamic range with reference to the abovementioned reference plane.
-
Events Horizon: scrolls the time window of (up
to) 100 traces along the time axis.
rd
Referring to the pictures in the previous page, here are two examples of
simplifying the view and extracting only the data of interest:
It must be remarked that at first time the operation of these controls may
result not of immediate understanding: please remember that we’re in a 3D
domain - recorded time, frequency and amplitude data – and so the
controls move the display views. Just a bit of practice and getting the
optimal view will become easy indeed.
PES release
The option 9010/WF is available from the release 2.03 (October 2012); if
you own a previous release please download the current one from our web
page.
General Functions
3-45
In the Sweep Archive, Sweep, Analyzer, and Manual mode, all the relevant
information are reported in graph form.
3.3 Graph area
In the Click mode all measurements acquired by the PMM Receiver during
the test are displayed in several rows of data; they are confined in a
rectangular area
3.4 Sweep section
When the program is started, the “Sweeps Archive” tab is soon activated by
default, providing the possibility to select and play with previously acquired
sweeps (the last sweep active before closing the program will always be
displayed when re-opening it).
To switch into the really operating Mode, simply select the proper Tab and
define all required parameters (see proper section in the next chapter);
3-46
General Functions
3.5 Global Test Settings
At the right end of the Main Window there is a section named Global Test
Settings, where parameters common to every Operation Mode can be set.
Settings related to the various functions are here appearing enabled or
disabled (light grey coloured) depending on what is possible to change
when selecting Sweep Archive or Sweep or Analyzer or Manual Mode
respectively.
Usage of such parameters is very intuitive and user-friendly, so that
operator can easily identify and always keep them under control during
every phase of EMI analysis. Nevertheless a deeper explanation on some
of these settings will be provided later in the next chapter.
Looking to sections appearing from top left down it’s possible to identify the
RF Internal Generator Output settings area, the Dynamic and Reference
Level settings for the Graphical window, the Measurement Unit used for
the Sweep Curves, the Front End section settings for embedded PreSelector, Pre-Amplifier and Pulse Limiter devices.
In the middle area Correction Factors and Ancillary Equipments settings
take place, together with up to 2 Limits Curves.
Last section at the bottom is dedicated to special settings for Graphs
instead, where is possible to activate a Multi Marker for Highest Peaks
based on a selectable Detector Curve and enable/disable Traces for
various Curves and Detectors defined in Sweep Mode.
Following is a detailed description of common settings, even if some of
them will be more extensively covered in the next chapter, also because
they will appear in such Global Test Settings section only when activating a
specific Operation Mode, like IF RBW and Internal Attenuators adjustments
which will appear in Analyzer and Manual Modes only.
Generator Settings
PMM 9010 and PMM 9010/30P receivers are equipped with an embedded
RF Generator which can be activated for some checks about RF Input
features or about cables’ losses and band-pass behaviour of external filters
and attenuators.
To use such function don’t forget to close the loop between the RF Output
BNC connector (located on front panel in PMM 9010 and on rear panel in
PMM 9010/30P) and the RF Input BNC, simply by a coaxial cable or
through a filter or attenuator.
Input desired Level (60 to 90 dBμV allowed range, 0.1dB step) and
Frequency value (0.00001 to 50 MHz), then enable “RF Out” tick box to
get RF Generator Output operating; this will provide a single peak on the
screen (Sweep, Analyzer or Manual Mode).
General Functions
3-47
Tick the “Tracking” box function instead to get a synchronous sweep by
both RF Generator and Receiver; if no external filters or attenuators are
connected between RF Output and Input BNC connectors an almost
Straight Line should be observed in the whole frequency range.
If a Band-Pass Filter will be inserted instead, the resulting curve will look
like the following:
Don’t forget to switch off the RF Output function, simply deactivating
the related “RF Out” tick bow, before performing any other standard
measurement with the receiver, just to avoid any additional signal to
be detected together with the noise coming from the EUT.
With 9010F the tracking function of the generator is not available.
Display Settings
Through the “Dynamics” and “Ref Level” settings it’s possible to
comfortably adjust the position of the measurements curves into the Graph
Window.
In particular, changing the “Dynamics” value will affect the compression of
the graph in the vertical scale, where the upper scale limit will remain
unchanged while the lower will change accordingly to the selected 80, 100
or 120 dB total vertical extension.
3-48
General Functions
Changing the “Ref Level” by the “+” or “-“ buttons will affect the whole
vertical axis position instead, with the meaning that compression of the
Graph along vertical axis will not change while the relative position of the
Graph itself into the screen will be moved “up” or “down” when clicking on ““ or “+” button respectively.
In practice, pushing the “+” button will correspond in an increase of both
upper and lower scale limits by 5dB each step.
pushing 4 times
Measure Unit Settings
Several Measurement Units are available through the related drop-down
menu, making it possible to select a specific unit required by each specific
test.
The available units are dBm, dBμV, dBμA, dBpW, dBμV/m, dBμA/m and
dBμT.
Selecting a different unit even after having performed a test will provide an
automatic conversion in the Graph.
Care should be applied when using Correction Factors as for previous
Paragraph 2.2.3, because in this case the correct units will have to be selected
for proper matching before performing the test.
Front End Settings
To provide proper investigation tools in Analyzer and Manual Modes some
additional tick boxes are provided for enabling/disabling internal Front End
devices.
As a matter of fact, it’s very well known that a CISPR 16-1-1 full-compliant
receiver cannot miss Pre-Selector Filters at RF Input, in order to properly
measure sources of noise with low Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) from
about 100Hz down to 1Hz.
Therefore an effective investigation even out of Sweep Mode, i.e. in
Analyzer and Manual Modes, can be performed with PMM 9010 or PMM
9010/30P and eventual additional extension modules PMM 9030 and PMM
9060 simply enabling the corresponding tick box of the Front End section.
Please refer to PMM 9010 User Manual for further references about this
function.
Automatic deactivation of Pre-Selector tick box is normal in Analyzer Mode
when the selected Frequency Span overlaps the switching zone between
two or more Pre-Selector Filters, just avoiding any possible
misinterpretation of results.
To be able and properly use such a function in Analyzer Mode be sure to
set an appropriate frequency span falling within the range of one of the
several Pre-Selector Filters.
The Preselector function is not available for model 9010/30P in the
upper frequency range (30 MHz - 3 GHz).
In the model 9180 the Preselector is always ON when in Analyzer,
Sweep and Manual modes.
General Functions
3-49
The Pre-Amplifier selection is available in every Operation Mode, but in
particular for the Sweep Mode it has been included in the Table settings
below the Graph screen, to be more flexibly selected in each row according
to each specific frequency slice.
Pre-Amplifier function provides 20dB gain feature in the frequency range up
to 30MHz (PMM 9010, 9010/03P or 9010/30P), 10dB gain from 30MHz to
6GHz (PMM 9060 or PMM 9030 up to 3GHz only) and 10dB gain from 6 to
18 GHz with PMM 9180.
Such a function is helpful to increase Signal to Noise (S/N) Ratio in
particular when environmental noise is almost comparable to noise level
produced by the EUT; in such a case enabling the Pre-Amplifier provides
background noise to decrease by the same amount of additional gain (20 or
10 dB) introduced by this function, while relevant signals will maintain the
same level and become more recognisable.
The Pulse Limiter is a very useful device to protect the input of the
receiver from transient overvoltages. Doing conducted emission tests, quite
often there are conducted disturbances (usually associated to switching
operations in the EUT or along the line under test) which are too high and
that propagates through the LISN up to the receiver. Sometime these
disturbances cannot be seen on the receiver because they are out of
measurement bandwidth, nevertheless the associate energy is high enough
to damage the input attenuator and/or the Analog-to-Digital Converter of
the PMM Receiver (the first mixer in a traditional receiver).
This pulse limiter has an integrated 10dB attenuator and a 30 MHz lowpass filter.
When the Pulse Limiter is selected the reading on the receiver is
automatically corrected for the attenuation factor of the Pulse Limiter.
3-50
General Functions
4 – Operation Modes
4.1
Sweeps Archive
When opening PMM ES, the Sweeps Archive Mode is soon automatically
selected, just showing the last performed measurement result.
In this mode all off-line operations can be performed on previously stored
sweeps (Zooming, Markers selection, Factors and Limits creation, selecting
one between the various Limits to display on the screen, generating a
Report, etc.), even when 9010 data cable is disconnected.
To switch into the really operating Sweep Mode, simply select the proper
“Sweep” Tab and define all required parameters (see proper section in this
chapter); alternatively you could quickly repeat the Sweep test with actual
selected parameters by pushing the “Redo Sweep” button from the Sweeps
Archive Tab directly.
Fig. 4-1 Main software window
Document PMMESEN-40906-2.20 - © NARDA 2008-2014
Operating Mode
4-1
4.1.1 Zooming
To activate the Zoom function into the Sweeps Archive mode, simply push
the switch contact on your Mouse wheel, then rotate the wheel to magnify
or reduce the scale in correspondence of the pointer lens.
In picture below both Zoom and Marker functions have been used, where
all 6 available detectors can be showed at every single frequency value (of
course when such detectors were selected during the sweep at first).
For a step-by-step zooming operation at selected central frequency, it’s
also possible to use the UP and DOWN Arrows Keys on the PC keyboard.
Fig. 4-2 Zoom & Marker Functions
Please consider a PC Mouse with a switch on the wheel is required to
activate/deactivate the Zoom function, so be sure to have a Mouse
like this connected to your PC before attempting in using such a
function.
In case your wheel’s switch should not work properly, please check
your Mouse settings in the Control Panel of Windows OS and enable
the related checkbox.
Alternatively the “Z” key button can be pressed on your PC keyboard
to activate this function and “Left” or “Right” keys will then provide
corresponding movement of the cursor.
Press “Z” key again to deactivate the function.
4-2
Operating Mode
4.1.2 Marker
The Marker function visible in fig. 2-2 is soon available when pushing once
on the Left Button of your Mouse.
To move the Marker along the curve simply Click & Hold the Left Mouse
Button while moving to the right or to the left.
To more precisely select measured values step-by-step in frequency, a
movement by Right and Left Arrows Keys on the PC keyboard are also
available (where the Steps are defined exactly as specified during the
sweep).
Push the Right Mouse Button to disable the Marker.
Fig. 4-3 Multi Marker Function
Operating Mode
4-3
4.1.3 Multi Marker
The Multi Marker function visible in fig. 2-3 can be used to highlight
Highest Peaks detected in the graph window, in terms of a definable
number of points for a specific Detector.
Once such points appear on the selected curve it’s possible to select one of
them and perform several assisted operations:
- automatically switching to Analyzer Mode at selected frequency by
pushing on Left Mouse button.
- automatically switching to Manual Mode at selected frequency by pushing
on Right Mouse button;
- save all identified Highest Peaks in a File Table for subsequent sweep
focused exactly on these points, by selection of such a File Table in the
Step field of Sweep Parameters, eventually with a definable Span
Result is like in the picture below.
Fig. 4-4 Highest Peaks Table
4-4
Operating Mode
4.2
Sweep Mode
In Sweep Mode the receiver works as a powerful scanning EMI receiver
and the graph area shows the sweep at a certain frequency band.
To switch into the Sweep Mode simply select the proper “Sweep” Tab.
Entering in the new operating mode, the main screen will look like the
following:
Fig. 4-5 Sweep mode window
There are three different way to start a new work section:
- Highlight the name of the Sweep
, enter a new name and
confirm by pressing ENTER.
- Select one of the rows with the “right mouse click” (the selected line will
be highlighted and the Scan Tab window will appear), select Clear Table to
delete all the settings and confirm with OK, then right click on the mouse to
start selecting the default bands for each new row according to CISPR and
Military (Mil Scan) standard requirements.
Operating Mode
4-5
- You could also quickly use the same parameters of a previous Sweep test
stored in the Sweeps Archive Tab and eventually change some of them; to
modify the existing Sweep Test, enable the Scan Tab of the selected row
and set a new band or make a copy of the row or delete the row self or
delete all table).
- Alternatively you could define manually each Sweep Test settings; to
modify the value of each function select the corresponding box:
4.2.1 Sweep Tab Settings
Start - Stop
The Start and Stop frequency (expressed in MHz) can be used to set any
frequency interval for the measurement.
Using the default settings, the Start and Stop frequency are set
automatically according to CISPR standard requirements:
The Step function is used to set the steps of the Sweep; it includes:
Step
- Step Hz: if AUTO is active the frequency steps are set automatically for
best matching with RBW filters in the selected frequency range. Otherwise
the step can be changed manually (in Stand Alone PMM Receiver
operating mode you can’t do that because it is managed automatically !);
the Steps specified will correspond to the movements of the Marker along
the curve during the Zoom modes.
Be sure manually set Step will not be larger than selected RBW filter’s
width to not lose a meaningful part of the measured signal.
- Frequency Table: the sweep can be focused exactly on the points
entered in the Frequency Table; eventually you can also set a definable
Span typing the numbers of steps around each frequency point in the table
where to perform the measurement. .
4-6
Operating Mode
Detector – Hold time Limit
Detectors
The Detector box allows the operator to select the most appropriate
detectors for the test; in Sweep mode the Smart Detector(S), Peak(P),
Qpeak(Q), RMS(R), Average(A), Rms-Avg(N), and C-Avg(C) detectors are
available.
The Smart Detector is an innovative special function implemented in the
PMM Receiver with the purpose of reducing the test time and increasing
the productivity of the lab.
This function works only when at least one limit is loaded, therefore
remember to enable a limit to run the Smart Detector function.
Selecting the Smart Detector the receiver will execute the scan using
mainly the Peak detector (with its Peak Scan Hold Time) and, if a peak
value is found over the selected limit minus a Margin (set with the specific
box), the measurement is performed with the others (up to 2 at max)
chosen detectors and the corresponding Hold time (typically 1000ms).
Obviously this way of operation results in a much faster scan sweep and
moreover it immediately draws the attention of the test Engineer to the
most critical points.
Hold time
The Hold Time (expressed in milliseconds) represents the time the receiver
uses to “take a snapshot” of the incoming signal and to measure it with the
chosen detector at each tuned frequency. When selecting a detector, the
default hold time value is automatically loaded, but in some cases this time
is not appropriate, e.g. when the interference signals have a low repetition
rate. In this case the PMM Receiver sees a high input signal and therefore
tries to set the proper attenuation automatically increasing the value or the
input attenuators. However, when the input attenuation is set the signal is
gone, so the receiver lowers the attenuation, but then a new peak arrives,
and so on and so forth.
On the other hand, if the Hold Time is too short the receiver cannot properly
follow the signals.
In this situation the Hold Time value should be manually set to find a
correct value.
To set the Hold Time to the lowest possible value (this value dynamically
depends on the measurement conditions) enter 0; if a value lower than the
allowed is entered, the lowest possible value is automatically selected.
The max. Hold Time that can be set is 30 sec (30.000 ms).
The default setting of QP is 1000 ms; of C-AVG is 1500 ms. These
settings guarantee the optimal operation of the said detectors as
requested by the CISPR standards: lower values would provide less
accurate or in some cases wrong results. Anyway it is possible to set
shorter Hold Time values down to 500 ms for QP and 1000 ms for CAVG to speed up the tests in pre-evaluation.
The Smart Detector function is not available with PMM 9010F since it
is already fast enough to perform the full measurement.
Operating Mode
4-7
Limit
Each emission standard has one or more limits the User shall comply with.
The box allows to load and activate one limit with the simple click of the
mouse; the preloaded standard limits refer to the most popular EMC
emission standards.
Other limits – or any custom designed limit – can be created and managed
through the Limits Tool in the tool menu (see General functions chapter).
These additional custom limits cannot be stored in the memory of the
Receiver, but only in the one of the PC where the Software is running.
The limit is displayed as a colorful horizontal bold line on the graph area.
RBW
The Resolution Bandwidth is used to select the bandwidth of the
measuring filter. Several bandwidth filters are available for specific
applications, e.g. to cover Military Standards requirements
Thanks to its digital architecture and to the clever design, the PMM
Receiver can make very fast measurements in the lower CISPR band
using the 200 Hz filter, yet maintaining full compliance to the
standards even in this very difficult condition.
Min Att
The Min Att is used to set the minimum attenuation at the input. The
minimum attenuation that can be selected is 10 dB.
When the input attenuation is 0dB in the PMM Receiver (condition that can
be achieved only if the Minimum Attenuation is set to 0 dB as well), the
yellow led to the left of the input BNC connector that rapidly blinking
indicates a warning status.
Unless specifically required by the test conditions, do not remove the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB.
Preamp
With the Preamp is possible to insert or exclude the built-in low noise
preamplification of 20 dB.
The internal 20 dB preamplifier can be used when very weak signals have
to be investigated. As already mentioned, with the preamplifier ON the
receiver takes automatically care of the 20 dB gain when measuring the
signals.
Preselector
The aim of the Preselector is to reduce the amount of out-of-band energy
entering in the receiver, thus helping a lot in reducing intermodulation
problems and similar undesired behaviors; normally it should be always
enabled.
Prompt star
With the Prompt start you can assign a label to the sweep; a message will
be displayed at the start of each; only the first 8 characters will be shown in
the setting box.
4-8
Operating Mode
Ancillary
Through the Ancillary box it is possible to select the lines or the axes of the
accessory activated in the Global Test Settings and show on the graph all
the responses.
The lines and axis of the PMM apparatus will be switched automatically at
the end of the sweep.
For the others apparatus it is important not forget to manually change
BNC cable connection at LISN device’s Line or switch the Antenna
axis before starting the next sweep; a message will be displayed at
the start of each sweep.
For Antennas the resulting action will be only the addition of an
Horizontal or Vertical notice stored with measurement settings, i.e. no
control of rotation will be output for each antenna polarization,
Worst
In the Worst box you can define the number of sweeps for each line or axis
to be performed automatically one after the other; at the end of the test the
software retains and displays the maximum measured level at each
frequency as Envelope, while every sweep will always be maintained for
deeper investigation on the most noisy conditions.
During the test it will be shown the date and the time of the sweep in
progress just above the Sweep Tab Setting.
At the end of the test, all the sweeps will be stored and displayed in
chronological sequence below the Envelope.
With the left mouse click you can select the single line/axis or the envelope
to be showed on the graph area; for each sweep date and time of creation
will be shown..
You can also use the right mouse click to flexibly select and manage stored
sweeps.
Undo
Once the Sweep settings are defined, they can always be resumed through
UNDO button.
Operating Mode
4-9
4.2.2 Sweep Global Test
Settings
Once the Sweep Table parameters are set, always remember to change
the Global Test Settings if needed.
Factors
When you use one or more devices added externally to the receiver
(Antennas, LISNs, Cable, Attenuator, Amplifier, near field probes, etc), you
may take proper account of losses; in the Factors box you can load the
correction factors defined in the Factor tool (see General functions
chapter). In this way the Software will correct the absolute measurement
adding or subtracting the correction factors frequency by frequency.
The typical PMM Antenna Factors of the RA-01, BC-01, and LP-02 are
already pre-loaded in the software; simply load the appropriate model and
active the box.
When you use two or more devices at the same time you can activate each
factor for every one of them; the software will make the sum of the factors.
Ancillary
In the Ancillary window it is possible to select the transducer connected to
the PMM Receiver, in order to control when possible automatic switch
between the lines of a PMM LISN or the axes of a Van Veen Loop Antenna
through the PMM SBRF4 Switching Box.
Later every single contribution will be selectable in the Sweep Tab Settings
and each measurement will be shown on the graph.
Start Sweep Delay
The Start Sweep Delay is a function useful for those tests where a
stabilization time shall be observed before performing the measurement
(for example in Lighting Test Equipment).
When the Start Sweep Delay is activated the Sweep starts with a delay
assigned in the box (expressed in seconds).
The max. Start Sweep Delay that can be set is 1800 sec.
Trigger Sweep
The function Trigger Sweep allows to trigger the start of the Sweep with
the change of the logical status of the pin 10 (IN0) on the User Port
connector, managed in case by an external device. Once the Execute
button is pressed, the software will wait for such external command to start
the scan.
After having chosen the frequency band and set all the other parameters it
is possible to run the measurement with button Execute.
Once the scan starts, the button Execute toggles on a Battery status box.
When the battery is charging the status Charging is shown on the inside of
the battery symbol and a yellow bar runs along it. Instead, when the battery
is not under charge, the actual voltage value is displayed and the length of
the bar filling the symbol indicates the remaining available autonomy.
Select Stop and Pause to interrupt or suspend the Sweep at any time
during the execution.
Select Exit to close the program.
4-10
Operating Mode
4.2.3 IEC 62493 Standard
Settings example
To show how to recall a pre-stored Scan Table, the example of the IEC
62493 Annex E standard will be explained.
Pre-stored settings
In the Scan function, blank the table settings, then right click onto the first
line, numbered as 1.
In the Scan Tab sliding menu, select the IEC 62493 Annex E pre-stored
settings.
Please check also that all the other parameters, such as correction factors,
internal generator, display, unit, sweep trigger and delay, are set as
preferred.
Recall Scan Tab
By recalling the Scan Tab, the software automatically loads all the stored
settings required by the standard.
Press “Set band IEC…to row 1” button to recall the Scan Tab.
For the present edition of the IEC 62493 standard, at least the following
parameters are mandatory for the swept measurement:
-
Start frequency from 20 kHz maximum
Stop frequency at 10 MHz minimum
Detector: peak (CISPR standard definition, with Preselector)
Resolution Bandwidth according to CISPR-16 standard (200 Hz
under 150 kHz tuning and 9 kHz above)
Measuring Time (Hold Time): 100 ms minimum under 150 kHz
tuning and 20 ms minimum above.
Frequency step: 220 Hz minimum under 150 kHz and 10 kHz
minimum above.
Operating Mode
4-11
Analyzer Mode
4.3
In this mode the receiver works as a powerful Spectrum Analyzer.
The analysis is done at the selected span frequency.
Using the Marker facility the User can accomplish a very accurate
measurement of the signals either in frequency as well as in level.
Entering Analyzer Mode the main screen will look like the following:
Fig. 4-6 Analyzer mode window
To switch into the Analyzer Mode, simply select the proper “Analyzer” Tab.
After that you can start defining the settings included in the Analyzer Tab and
in the Global Test Settings:
4-12
Operating Mode
4.3.1 Analyzer Mode
Tab Settings
Detector
Detector
This menu allows the Operator to select the most appropriate detector for
the test.
In Analyzer mode the Peak, Average and RMS (Root Mean Square)
detectors are available and can be selected via the appropriate box.
Hold time
The Hold Time (expressed in milliseconds) represents the time the receiver
uses to “take a snapshot” of the incoming signal and to measure it with the
chosen detector. When selecting a detector, the last hold time value set is
automatically loaded, but in some cases this time is not appropriate, e.g.
when the interference signals have a low repetition rate. In this case the
PMM Receiver sees a high input signal and therefore tries to set the proper
attenuation automatically increasing the value or the input attenuators.
However, when the input attenuation is set the signal is gone, so the
receiver lowers the attenuation, but then a new peak arrives, and so on and
so forth. On the other hand, if the Hold Time is too high the PMM Receiver
cannot properly follow the signals.
In this situation the Hold Time value should be set to find a correct
compromise.
To set the Hold Time to the lowest possible value enter 1.9; the max. Hold
Time that can be set is 1 sec (1.000 ms).
Frequency
Allows the User to set the tuning frequency and also the Span.
Using the Start and Stop it is possible to select any start and stop value in
the frequency range.
If the User sets the PMM 9010/30P with a Stop frequency value greater
than 30.1 MHz, a message will ask to switch the Receiver in Radiated.
Once the Start frequency is set to 27.9 MHz or lower a message will be
shown to switch the Receiver in Conducted.
Another method for setting the frequency is to enter the Center frequency
and the appropriate Span.
The Full Span button shows the "spectrum analysis" in the whole
frequency domain.
Marker
With this box the Marker function can be enabled.
When actived it appears on the area graph as a small pointing down arrow;
simultaneously two small windows appears in the Marker box showing the
actual frequency and level read by the marker.
Pressing the Peak button the marker will automatically move to the highest
signal found in the span range in that given moment, and with the help of
the Center button the frequency selected by the marker becomes the
center frequency on the screen, making very easy any signal analysis.
Operating Mode
4-13
Max Hold
Hold When Done
Max Hold: the maximum level of each frequency step is retained and
displayed since the Max Hold function has been activated. Every spectral
line or axis is therefore updated only if the new value is greater than the
previously displayed one showing thus the Maximum of each spectral line
or axis since the Max hold function was activated.
Hold When Done: stops acquisition to allow data analysis as soon as the
line or axis has been measured. When this function is active it’s also
possible to save the final graph in a picture through the File/Save Image
menu.
Tune Manual @
To deeply investigate and control the center Frequency, select the Tune
Manual @ button (the value of the frequency shown depends on the center
frequency set), you will then enter the Manual Mode where the levels
corresponding to the detectors (Peak, AVG, and RMS) in use will be
displayed both in analogue and in digital format; a similar button will allow to
go back to the Analyzer Mode.
For further information see Manual Mode paragraph included in this
chapter.
4.3.2 Analyzer Mode
Global Test Settings
BW IF
The Resolution Bandwidth command is used to select the bandwidth of
the measuring filter. Several bandwidth filters are available:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
10 Hz with 9010, 30P, 03P (MIL STD option)
100 Hz with 9010, 30P, 03P (MIL STD option)
200 Hz CISPR 16 shaped at -6dB
9 kHz CISPR 16 shaped at -6dB
120 kHz CISPR 16 shaped at -6dB with 30P, 03P, 9030, 9060
1 kHz with 9010F and 9010, 30P, 03P (MIL STD option) and with 7010
3 kHz with 9010, 30P, 03P, 9010F, 9030, 9060, 9180, 7010
10 kHz with 9010, 30P, 03P, 9010F, 9030, 9060, 9180, 7010
30 kHz with 9010, 30P, 03P, 9010F, 9030, 9060, 9180, 7010
100 kHz with 9010, 30P, 03P, 9010F, 9030, 9060, 9180, 7010
300 kHz with 9010, 30P, 03P, 9010F, 9030, 9060, 9180, 7010
1 MHz with 30P, 03P, 9030, 9060, 9180, 7010
If Coupled is active the Resolution Bandwidth will be set automatically in
order to the Span.
For the 7010 family the RBW availability can be dependent on the model.
4-14
Operating Mode
The attenuator Att. is used to increase or decrease the attenuation at the
input; it cannot be lowered than the value of the minimum attenuation Min.
Att. selected.
When the input attenuation is 0dB (condition that can be achieved only if
the Minimum Attenuation is set to 0 dB as well), the yellow led to the left of
the input BNC connector rapidly blinking indicates a warning status.
Unless specifically required by the test conditions, do not remove the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB.
The Att AUTO is used to switch from the two conditions of manual or
automatic attenuation setting.
Please note that the switching of the attenuators is relatively noisy and you
can perceive it distinctly with a “click” for each switch operation.
To avoid continuous switching between two attenuators in case of
highly variable signals it’s strongly recommended to manually select
the highest of the two attenuation values.
Ancillary
In the Ancillary window it is possible to select the accessory connected to
the PMM Receiver; in order to the apparatus chosen you can select the line
or the axis to show on the graph.
The lines and axis of the PMM apparatus will be switched automatically
during the analysis.
For the others apparatus it is important not forget to manually change
BNC cable connection at LISN device’s Line or switch the antenna
axis before starting the next analysis.
Factors
When you use one or more devices added externally to the receiver
(Antennas, LISNs, Cable, Attenuator, Amplifier, near field probes, etc), you
may take proper account of losses; in the Factors box you can load the
correction factors defined in the Factor tool (see General functions
chapter). In this way the Software will correct the absolute measurement
adding or subtracting the correction factors frequency by frequency.
The typical antenna factors of the PMM RA-01, BC-01, and LP-02 are
already pre-loaded in the software; simply load the appropriate model and
activate the box.
When you use two or more devices at the same time you can activate each
factor for every one of them; the software will take into account the effect of
the sum of those factors.
Operating Mode
4-15
Limits
Each emission standard has one or more Limits the User shall comply with.
The box allows to load and activate one limit with the simple click of the
mouse; the preloaded standard limits refer to the most popular EMC
emission standards.
Other limits – or any custom designed limit – can be created and managed
through the Limits Tool in the tool menu (see General functions chapter).
These additional custom limits cannot be stored in the memory of the
Receiver, but only in the one of the PC where the Software is running.
The limit is displayed as a colorful horizontal bold line on the graph area.
Battery
The status of the battery is displayed on the Battery box.
When the battery is charging the status Charging is shown on the inside of
the battery symbol and a yellow bar runs along it.
When the battery is not under charge, the actual voltage value is displayed
and the length of the bar filling the symbol indicates the remaining
autonomy.
Select Exit to close the program.
4-16
Operating Mode
4.4
Manual Mode
The MANUAL mode is a very useful feature to manually control the
parameters of receiver exactly as per the needs of the Test Engineer and
deeply investigate signals.
It is possible, for example, to observe the signals exceeding the limits
frequency by frequency, evaluating their levels measured simultaneously
with different detectors (Peak, QuasiPeak, RMS-Avg, C-Avg, RMS,
Average) and listening to them after a demodulation, etc.
Entering in Manual Mode, the main screen will look like the following:
Fig. 4-7 Manual mode window
In manual mode the levels corresponding to the detectors in use are
displayed both in analogue and in digital format, and exactly as for the other
operating modes, all the relevant information are reported on the graph
area.
The three or four vertical bars represent the detectors and indicate in
analogue and digital the level measured; on top of the bars the relevant
detector and the unit in use; the numerical levels are shown below each of
them. The analogue scale of the analogue bars is set automatically by the
software.
To switch into the operating Manual Mode, simply select the proper
“Manual” Tab.
After that you can start to define the settings included in the Manual Tab and
in the Global Test Settings:
Operating Mode
4-17
4.4.1 Manual Mode
Tab Settings
Parameter
After having fixed the Step size (max. value 30.1), press the left and the
right arrow keys to decrease or increase the frequency by the selected
step. The center Frequency of the reading can also be directly edited into
the Frequency window. The default unit is MHz.
Hold time (ms)
The Hold Time (expressed in milliseconds) represents the time the receiver
uses to “take a snapshot” of the incoming signal and to measure it with the
chosen detector. When the detector is selected, the last hold time value set
is automatically loaded, but in some cases this time is not appropriate, e.g.
when the interference signals have a low repetition rate. In this case the
PMM Receiver sees a high input signal and therefore tries to set the proper
attenuation automatically increasing the value or the input attenuators.
However, when the input attenuation is set the signal is gone, so the
receiver lowers the attenuation, but then a new peak arrives, and so on and
so forth. On the other hand, if the Hold Time is too high the PMM Receiver
cannot properly follow the signals.
In this situation the Hold Time value should be set to find a correct
compromise.
To set the Hold Time to the lowest possible value enter 1; the max. Hold
Time that can be set is 20 sec (20.000 ms).
Max. Hold (ms)
The Max. Hold (expressed in milliseconds) represents the time the software
uses to display the maximum level measured in the Hold Time set.
The max. Hold that can be set is 20 sec (20.000 ms).
Max. Hold Infinite
If the Max. Hold. Infinitive is activated the software shows the maximum
level until a bigger value is measured; in this case the Max. Hold is
disabled.
Volume - Demodulator
Select AM to switch on the built-in AM demodulator; drag the slider arrow
left or right to decrease or increase the volume.
The demodulated signals can be heard with headphones or earphones
connected to the front panel of the PMM Receiver, or amplified and/or
recorded by any suitable device.
An FM demodulator – or other demodulators - is not available for the time
being in the frequency band covered by the PMM Receiver.
Insert the headphones jack connector only before switching on the
Demodulator or when the receiver power is off.
4-18
Operating Mode
Tune Analyzer @
To display the "spectrum analysis" with the tuned signal at the center of the
span, select the Tune Analyzer @ button (the value of the frequency
shown depends on the center frequency set); you will then enter the
Analyzer mode where using the marker facility the User can accomplish a
very accurate measurement of the signals either in frequency as well as in
level; a similar button will allow to return to the Manual Mode.
For further information see Manual mode paragraph included in this
chapter.
Detector
In the Detector window you can choose the most useful couple of
detectors to add to the default Peak and QPeak Detector; it will be disabled
when a non-CISPR filter is selected.
4.4.2 Manual Mode
Global Test Settings
BW IF
The Resolution Bandwidth command is used to select the bandwidth of
the measuring filter. Several bandwidth filters are available:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
AUTO CISPR
10 Hz with 9010, 30P, 03P (MIL STD option)
100 Hz with 9010, 30P, 03P (MIL STD option)
200 Hz CISPR 16 shaped at -6dB
9 kHz CISPR 16 shaped at -6dB
120 kHz CISPR 16 shaped at -6dB with 30P, 03P, 9030, 9060
1 kHz with 9010F and 9010, 30P, 03P (MIL STD option) and with 7010
3 kHz with 9010, 30P, 03P, 9010F, 9030, 9060, 9180, 7010
10 kHz with 9010, 30P, 03P, 9010F, 9030, 9060, 9180, 7010
30 kHz with 9010, 30P, 03P, 9010F, 9030, 9060, 9180, 7010
100 kHz with 9010, 30P, 03P, 9010F, 9030, 9060, 9180, 7010
300 kHz with 9010, 30P, 03P, 9010F, 9030, 9060, 9180, 7010
1 MHz with 30P, 03P, 9030, 9060, 9180, 7010
With the AUTO CISPR function, the filter will be automatically selected,
according to CISPR standard, depending on the tuned frequency.
When a non-CISPR filter is selected, the Peak, RMS, and AVG detector
are only enabled; the Detector window will be disabled.
In the AM modulation the 30 kHz, 10 kHz, 3 kHz, and 9 kHz CISPR 16
are available only.
Att. - Min. Att
The attenuator Att. is used to increase or decrease the attenuation at the
input; it cannot be lowered than the value of the minimum attenuation Min.
Att. selected; the value selected will be shown next to Att. label.
When the input attenuation is 0dB (condition that can be achieved only if
the Minimum Attenuation is set to 0 dB as well), the yellow led to the left of
the input BNC connector rapidly blinking indicates a warning status.
Unless specifically required by the test conditions, do not remove the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB.
The Att AUTO is used to switch from the two conditions of manual or
automatic attenuation setting.
Please note that the switching of the attenuators is relatively noisy and you
can perceive it distinctly with a “click” for each switch operation.
Operating Mode
4-19
An Over Range indication will automatically appear on the graph area to
inform the User that the levels of the measured signals in the manual
window is too high; to avoid measuring errors and even damages to the
receiver a higher attenuation shall be set.
Ancillary
In the Ancillary window it is possible to select the accessory connected to
the PMM Receiver; in order to the apparatus chosen you can select the line
or the axis to show on the graph.
The lines and axis of the PMM apparatus will be switched automatically
during the analysis.
For the others apparatus it is important not forget to manually change
BNC cable connection at LISN device’s Line or switch the antenna
axis before starting the next analysis.
Factors
4-20
When you use one or more devices added externally to the receiver
(Antennas, LISNs, Cable, Attenuator, Amplifier, near field probes, etc), you
may take proper account of losses; in the Factors box you can load the
correction factors defined in the Factor tool (see General functions
chapter). In this way the Software will correct the absolute measurement
adding or subtracting the correction factors frequency by frequency.
The typical antenna factors of the RA-01, BC-01, and LP-02 are already
pre-loaded in the software; simply load the appropriate model and active
the box.
When you use two or more devices you can active each factor for every
one of them (the compensation value of each device will be displayed in the
corresponding box); the software will also make the sum of the factors and
the total will be shown in the Global box; the global factor can be disabled
at any time to exclude all devices connected in just one click.
Operating Mode
Limits
Each emission standard has one or more limits the User shall comply with.
The box allows to load and activate one limit with the simple click of the
mouse; the preloaded standard limits refer to the most popular EMC
emission standards.
Other limits – or any custom designed limit – can be created and managed
through the Limits Tool in the tool menu (see General functions chapter).
These additional custom limits cannot be stored in the memory of the
Receiver, but only in the one of the PC where the Software is running.
The limit is displayed as a colorful vertical thick line that appears on the top
of the analogic bar just below the detectors label.
Battery
The status of the battery is displayed on the Battery box.
When the battery is charging the status Charging is shown on the inside of
the battery symbol and a yellow bar runs along it.
When the battery is not under charge, the actual voltage value is displayed
and the length of the bar filling the symbol indicates the available
autonomy.
Exit
Select Exit to close the program.
Operating Mode
4-21
Click Mode
4.5
The CLICK mode allows to download the data acquired by the PMM
Receiver during a difficult test like the Discontinuous Disturbances
measurement as defined by current CISPR 14-1 (or equivalent EN 550141) Standard and generate a report in table format.
For further information on Click Test Operating Instructions refer to
the 9010 manual.
To switch into the operating Click Mode, simply select the proper “Click”
Tab.
In the Click operating mode, if the PMM Receiver is switched ON the
software automatically establishes the connection with the apparatus; the
PMM ES starts to download all the relevant data from the internal memory
of the Receiver and a bar displays the progress of the operation.
Once all the data have been downloaded, they will be displayed in a
window where to save all data in the default path C:\Programs\PMM
Emission Suite\Click.
In this way the PMM ES allows to save the test immediately without the risk
of overwriting the data in a future test.
If the communication between the PMM Emission Suite and PMM Receiver
is not established (the Receiver is switched off or is not connected to any
serial/USB port on the PC), the software will display the Load File as
window to load a previous test click:
In both cases you can select Cancel and manually download all the
relevant data with Retrieve 9010 Report or recall a previous click test with
Open Click Report.
4-22
Operating Mode
In case of connection error the following message will be display:
Once all the data have been downloaded or a previous click test is loaded,
the software will look like the following:
Fig. 4-8 Click Mode window
Here an example of a report for a test done on the defined frequencies;
move the mouse cursor on a row (the line will be highlighted) to display the
Click Details in the Global tab with all the relevant information.
Due to the complexity of the test and to the various conditions that
may happen during the measurement, several reports may be issued.
Operating Mode
4-23
The several function buttons in the Click Mode Tab allow to save and
properly generate the report in different format for later reference or for
rd
importing in 3 party softwares.
Through the Save TXT window the Report can be exported in TXT or PDF
format.
In the Report the Click Details will be included below the Lq Calculation
Table if the Include Click Details is actived.
A single table (Worst Line Search, Lq Calculation, Final Test Report) or the
Graph actually displayed in the main screen can be:
- Stored in the Windows OS temporary memory; named “Clipboard”; the
bitmap image will be available for “Paste” operation in another file, for
example in a DOC file containing the final Report or details about the EUT
(Save BMP to Clipboard);
- Saved in two different graphic formats, BMP or JPG (Save As BMP or
JPG File).
At any time you can close the program with Exit.
4-24
Operating Mode
5 – Uninstalling
It is possible to remove the PMM Emission Suite software from the PC
5.1 Uninstalling
PMM Emission Suite according to the following procedure:
Software
Run the Uninstall PMM Emission Suite utility.
Follow the uninstaller instructions.
Fig. 5-1 Uninstalling PMM Emission Suite
Before removing any shared system file, the uninstaller will ask for a
confirmation.
Answer “NO” in case you are not sure whether the showed system file is
required for other applications.
1
Document PMMESEN-40906-2.20 - © NARDA 2008-2014
Uninstalling Software
5-1
PMM Emission Suite software is now removed from the system, click
“Finish” to close uninstaller utility
5-2
Uninstalling Software
5.2 Uninstalling driver for It is possible to remove the PMM Receiver driver from the PC according to
the following procedure:
PMM Receiver
The following procedure shows how to remove the driver in Windows
XP environment. It may be different depending on the operating
system in use.
Open the Windows Control Panel.
Double click “Application Installation”.
Uninstalling Software
5-3
From the application list select “FTDI USB Serial Converter Drivers” and
click “Change/Remove”.
Fig. 5-2 Uninstalling driver for PMM Receiver
Unplug the PMM Receiver, if connected, and click “Continue”.
Click “finish” to exit the uninstaller, PMM Receiver driver is now removed
from your system.
5-4
Uninstalling Software
5.3 Uninstalling driver for It is possible to remove the USB-RS232 driver from the PC according to the
following procedure:
USB-RS232
The following procedure shows how to remove the driver in Windows
XP environment. It may be different depending on the operating
system in use.
Insert the CD-ROM; if the Autorun is enabled, Windows automatically
launches the program included on the CD; select Product Driver to display
the driver screen which presents a separate folder for different operating
systems.
Select the corresponding folder and run the executable DRemover.
Select OK to confirm.
Fig. 5-3 Uninstalling USB-RS232 Serial converter
Uninstalling Software
5-5
Click Exit to exit from the uninstaller; USB driver is now removed from your
system.
As you can see in the picture below, you must restart the PC to install a
new driver.
5-6
Uninstalling Software
NARDA
Safety
Test
Solutions
S.r.l. Socio Unico
Sales & Support:
Via Leonardo da Vinci, 21/23
20090 Segrate (MI) - ITALY
Tel.: +39 02 2699871
Fax: +39 02 26998700
Manufacturing Plant:
Via Benessea, 29/B
17035 Cisano sul Neva (SV)
Tel.: +39 0182 58641
Fax: +39 0182 586400
http://www.narda-sts.it
Mod. 18-1
Caro cliente
grazie per aver acquistato un prodotto NARDA! Sei in possesso di uno strumento che per molti anni ti garantirà un’alta qualità di servizio. NARDA riconosce
l'importanza del Cliente come ragione di esistenza; ciascun commento e suggerimento, sottoposto all'attenzione della nostra organizzazione, è tenuto in grande
considerazione. La nostra qualità è alla ricerca del miglioramento continuo. Se uno dei Suoi strumenti NARDA necessita di riparazione o calibrazione, può
aiutarci a servirla più efficacemente compilando questa scheda e accludendola all’apparecchio.
Tuttavia, anche questo prodotto diventerà obsoleto. In questo caso, ti ricordiamo che lo smaltimento dell'apparecchiatura deve essere fatto in conformità con i
regolamenti locali. Questo prodotto è conforme alle direttive WEEE dell’Unione Europea (2002/96/EC) ed appartiene alla categoria 9 (strumenti di controllo). Lo
smaltimento, in un ambiente adeguato, può avvenire anche attraverso la restituzione del prodotto alla NARDA senza sostenere alcuna spesa. Può ottenere
ulteriori informazioni contattando i venditori NARDA o visitando il nostro sito Web www.narda-sts.it.
Dear Customer
thank you for purchasing a NARDA product! You now own a high-quality instrument that will give you many years of reliable service. NARDA recognizes the
importance of the Customer as reason of existence; in this view, any comment and suggestion you would like to submit to the attention of our service
organization is kept in great consideration. Moreover, we are continuously improving our quality, but we know this is a never ending process. We would be glad if
our present efforts are pleasing you. Should one of your pieces of NARDA equipment need servicing you can help us serve you more effectively filling out this
card and enclosing it with the product.
Nevertheless, even this product will eventually become obsolete. When that time comes, please remember that electronic equipment must be disposed of in
accordance with local regulations. This product conforms to the WEEE Directive of the European Union
(2002/96/EC) and belongs to Category 9 (Monitoring and Control Instruments). You can return the instrument to us free of charge for proper environment friendly
disposal. You can obtain further information from your local NARDA Sales Partner or by visiting our website at www.narda-sts.it.
 Servizio richiesto:  Service needed:
 Solo taratura
 Calibration only
 Riparazione
 Repair
 Riparazione & Taratura
 Repair & Calibration
 Taratura SIT
 Certified Calibration
 Altro:
 Other:
Ditta:
Company:
Indirizzo:
Address:
Persona da contattare:
Technical contact person:
Telefono:
Phone n.
Modello:
Equipment model:
Numero di serie:
Serial n.
 Accessori ritornati con l’apparecchiatura:  Nessuno  Cavo(i)
 Cavo di alimentazione
 Accessories returned with unit:
 None
 Cable(s)  Power cable
Altro:
Other:
 Sintomi o problemi osservati:  Observed symptoms / problems:
 Guasto:  Fisso
 Intermittente
 Failure:  Continuous  Intermittent
Sensibile a :  Freddo
Sensitive to:
 Cold
 Caldo
 Heat
Descrizione del guasto/condizioni di funzionamento:
Failure symptoms/special control settings description:
Se l’unità è parte di un sistema descriverne la configurazione:
If unit is part of system please list other interconnected equipment and system set up:
 Vibrazioni  Altro
 Vibration
 Other
Suggerimenti / Commenti / Note:
Suggestions / Comments / Note:
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