Software Engineering

Software Engineering
Software Engineering
Tutorial
Simply Easy Learning
About the tutorial
Software Engineering Tutorial
This tutorial provides you the basic understanding of software product, software
design and development process, software project management and design
complexities. At the end of the tutorial you should be equipped with well
understanding of software engineering concepts.
Audience
This tutorial is designed for the readers pursuing education in software development
domain and all enthusiastic readers.
Prerequisites
This tutorial is designed and developed for absolute beginners. Though, awareness
about
software
systems,
software
development
process
and
computer
fundamentals would be beneficial.
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Ltd. provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of our
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Table of Contents
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING TUTORIAL ............................................................................................. I
AUDIENCE ..................................................................................................................................... I
PREREQUISITES ............................................................................................................................. I
COPYRIGHT & DISCLAIMER ............................................................................................................ I
SOFTWARE OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................. 1
DEFINITIONS ........................................................................................................................................... 1
SOFTWARE EVOLUTION ............................................................................................................................ 2
SOFTWARE EVOLUTION LAWS .................................................................................................................... 3
E-TYPE SOFTWARE EVOLUTION .................................................................................................................. 3
SOFTWARE PARADIGMS ............................................................................................................................ 4
Software Development Paradigm ................................................................................................... 4
Software Design Paradigm ............................................................................................................. 5
Programming Paradigm .................................................................................................................. 5
NEED OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING............................................................................................................. 5
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD SOFTWARE ....................................................................................................... 6
Operational ..................................................................................................................................... 6
Transitional ..................................................................................................................................... 6
Maintenance ................................................................................................................................... 6
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE.......................................................................................... 8
SDLC ACTIVITIES ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Communication ............................................................................................................................... 8
Requirement Gathering................................................................................................................... 8
Feasibility Study .............................................................................................................................. 9
System Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 9
Software Design .............................................................................................................................. 9
Coding ............................................................................................................................................. 9
Testing ............................................................................................................................................. 9
Integration .................................................................................................................................... 10
Implementation............................................................................................................................. 10
Operation and Maintenance ......................................................................................................... 10
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM ...................................................................................................... 10
Waterfall Model ............................................................................................................................ 10
Iterative Model.............................................................................................................................. 11
Spiral Model .................................................................................................................................. 12
V – model ...................................................................................................................................... 12
Big Bang Model ............................................................................................................................. 14
SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT .......................................................................................... 15
SOFTWARE PROJECT............................................................................................................................... 15
NEED OF SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................. 15
SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGER ............................................................................................................... 16
Managing People .......................................................................................................................... 16
i
Managing Project.......................................................................................................................... 17
SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES ...................................................................................................... 17
PROJECT PLANNING ............................................................................................................................... 17
SCOPE MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 17
PROJECT ESTIMATION............................................................................................................................. 18
PROJECT ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES .......................................................................................................... 19
Decomposition Technique ............................................................................................................. 19
Empirical Estimation Technique .................................................................................................... 19
PROJECT SCHEDULING ............................................................................................................................ 20
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ....................................................................................................................... 20
PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................. 21
Risk Management Process ............................................................................................................ 21
PROJECT EXECUTION AND MONITORING.................................................................................................... 21
PROJECT COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................... 22
CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................. 23
Baseline ......................................................................................................................................... 23
Change Control.............................................................................................................................. 23
PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS ............................................................................................................... 24
Gantt Chart ................................................................................................................................... 24
PERT Chart..................................................................................................................................... 25
Resource Histogram ...................................................................................................................... 25
Critical Path Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 26
SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................................................... 27
REQUIREMENT ENGINEERING .................................................................................................................. 27
REQUIREMENT ENGINEERING PROCESS ..................................................................................................... 27
Feasibility study............................................................................................................................. 27
Requirement Gathering................................................................................................................. 28
Software Requirement Specification (SRS) .................................................................................... 28
Software Requirement Validation ................................................................................................. 28
REQUIREMENT ELICITATION PROCESS ....................................................................................................... 29
REQUIREMENT ELICITATION TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................. 29
Interviews ...................................................................................................................................... 30
Surveys .......................................................................................................................................... 30
Questionnaires .............................................................................................................................. 30
Task analysis ................................................................................................................................. 30
Domain Analysis ............................................................................................................................ 30
Brainstorming ............................................................................................................................... 30
Prototyping ................................................................................................................................... 31
Observation ................................................................................................................................... 31
SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS CHARACTERISTICS............................................................................................ 31
SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS ..................................................................................................................... 31
Functional Requirements .............................................................................................................. 32
Non-Functional Requirements ...................................................................................................... 32
USER INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................................................. 33
SOFTWARE SYSTEM ANALYST .................................................................................................................. 33
SOFTWARE METRICS AND MEASURES ....................................................................................................... 34
ii
SOFTWARE DESIGN BASICS......................................................................................................... 36
SOFTWARE DESIGN LEVELS...................................................................................................................... 36
MODULARIZATION ................................................................................................................................. 37
CONCURRENCY...................................................................................................................................... 37
Example ......................................................................................................................................... 37
COUPLING AND COHESION ...................................................................................................................... 38
COHESION ............................................................................................................................................ 38
COUPLING ............................................................................................................................................ 39
DESIGN VERIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 39
SOFTWARE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN TOOLS .................................................................................. 41
DATA FLOW DIAGRAM ........................................................................................................................... 41
Types of DFD ................................................................................................................................. 41
DFD Components........................................................................................................................... 41
Levels of DFD ................................................................................................................................. 42
STRUCTURE CHARTS ............................................................................................................................... 43
HIPO DIAGRAM .................................................................................................................................... 45
Example ......................................................................................................................................... 46
STRUCTURED ENGLISH ............................................................................................................................ 47
Example ......................................................................................................................................... 47
PSEUDO-CODE ...................................................................................................................................... 48
Example ......................................................................................................................................... 49
DECISION TABLES .................................................................................................................................. 49
Creating Decision Table................................................................................................................. 49
Example ......................................................................................................................................... 50
ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP MODEL................................................................................................................. 50
DATA DICTIONARY ................................................................................................................................. 51
Requirement of Data Dictionary ................................................................................................... 51
Contents ........................................................................................................................................ 52
Example ......................................................................................................................................... 52
Data Elements ............................................................................................................................... 52
Data Store ..................................................................................................................................... 53
Data Processing............................................................................................................................. 53
SOFTWARE DESIGN STRATEGIES ................................................................................................. 54
STRUCTURED DESIGN ............................................................................................................................. 54
FUNCTION ORIENTED DESIGN .................................................................................................................. 55
Design Process............................................................................................................................... 55
OBJECT ORIENTED DESIGN ...................................................................................................................... 55
Design Process............................................................................................................................... 56
SOFTWARE DESIGN APPROACHES ............................................................................................................. 57
Top Down Design .......................................................................................................................... 57
Bottom-up Design ......................................................................................................................... 57
SOFTWARE USER INTERFACE DESIGN .......................................................................................... 58
COMMAND LINE INTERFACE (CLI) ............................................................................................................ 58
CLI Elements .................................................................................................................................. 59
iii
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE ................................................................................................................... 60
GUI Elements ................................................................................................................................. 60
Application specific GUI components ............................................................................................ 61
USER INTERFACE DESIGN ACTIVITIES ......................................................................................................... 62
GUI IMPLEMENTATION TOOLS ................................................................................................................. 64
Example ......................................................................................................................................... 64
USER INTERFACE GOLDEN RULES .............................................................................................................. 64
SOFTWARE DESIGN COMPLEXITY................................................................................................ 67
HALSTEAD'S COMPLEXITY MEASURES........................................................................................................ 67
CYCLOMATIC COMPLEXITY MEASURES ...................................................................................................... 68
FUNCTION POINT................................................................................................................................... 70
External Input ................................................................................................................................ 70
External Output ............................................................................................................................. 71
Logical Internal Files...................................................................................................................... 71
External Interface Files .................................................................................................................. 71
External Inquiry ............................................................................................................................. 71
SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................... 74
STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING ................................................................................................................. 74
FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING .................................................................................................................. 75
PROGRAMMING STYLE ............................................................................................................................ 76
Coding Guidelines.......................................................................................................................... 76
SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION ................................................................................................................. 77
SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES ............................................................................................... 78
SOFTWARE TESTING OVERVIEW ................................................................................................. 80
SOFTWARE VALIDATION.......................................................................................................................... 80
SOFTWARE VERIFICATION ....................................................................................................................... 80
MANUAL VS AUTOMATED TESTING .......................................................................................................... 81
TESTING APPROACHES ............................................................................................................................ 81
Black-box testing ........................................................................................................................... 82
White-box testing.......................................................................................................................... 82
TESTING LEVELS..................................................................................................................................... 83
Unit Testing ................................................................................................................................... 83
Integration Testing ........................................................................................................................ 83
System Testing .............................................................................................................................. 84
Acceptance Testing ....................................................................................................................... 84
Regression Testing ........................................................................................................................ 84
TESTING DOCUMENTATION ..................................................................................................................... 84
Before Testing ............................................................................................................................... 85
While Being Tested........................................................................................................................ 85
After Testing .................................................................................................................................. 85
TESTING VS. QUALITY CONTROL & ASSURANCE AND AUDIT .......................................................................... 86
SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE OVERVIEW ....................................................................................... 87
TYPES OF MAINTENANCE ......................................................................................................................... 87
COST OF MAINTENANCE ......................................................................................................................... 88
iv
Real-world factors affecting Maintenance Cost ........................................................................... 88
Software-end factors affecting Maintenance Cost ....................................................................... 89
MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES ...................................................................................................................... 89
SOFTWARE RE-ENGINEERING ................................................................................................................... 90
Re-Engineering Process ................................................................................................................. 91
Reverse Engineering ...................................................................................................................... 92
Program Restructuring .................................................................................................................. 92
Forward Engineering ..................................................................................................................... 92
COMPONENT REUSABILITY....................................................................................................................... 93
Example ......................................................................................................................................... 93
Reuse Process ................................................................................................................................ 93
SOFTWARE CASE TOOLS OVERVIEW ......................................................................................... 100
CASE TOOLS ...................................................................................................................................... 100
COMPONENTS OF CASE TOOLS ............................................................................................................. 100
SCOPE OF CASE TOOLS ......................................................................................................................... 101
Diagram tools.............................................................................................................................. 101
Process Modeling Tools ............................................................................................................... 101
Project Management Tools ......................................................................................................... 102
Documentation Tools .................................................................................................................. 102
Analysis Tools .............................................................................................................................. 102
Design Tools ................................................................................................................................ 102
Configuration Management Tools .............................................................................................. 102
Change Control Tools .................................................................................................................. 103
Programming Tools ..................................................................................................................... 103
Prototyping Tools ........................................................................................................................ 103
Web Development Tools ............................................................................................................. 103
Quality Assurance Tools .............................................................................................................. 103
Maintenance Tools ...................................................................................................................... 103
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Software Engineering Tutorial
Software Overview
1
Let us understand what Software Engineering stands for. The term is made of two
words, software and engineering.
Software is more than just a program code. A program is an executable code,
which serves some computational purpose. Software is considered to be collection
of executable programming code, associated libraries and documentations.
Software, when made for a specific requirement is called software product.
Engineering on the other hand, is all about developing products, using welldefined, scientific principles and methods.
Software engineering is an engineering branch associated with development of
software product using well-defined scientific principles, methods and procedures.
The outcome of software engineering is an efficient and reliable software product.
Definitions
IEEE defines software engineering as:
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Software Engineering Tutorial
(1) The application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to
the development, operation, and maintenance of software; that is, the
application of engineering to software.
(2) The study of approaches as in the above statement.
Fritz Bauer, a German computer scientist, defines software engineering as:
“Software engineering is the establishment and use of sound engineering
principles in order to obtain economically software that is reliable and work
efficiently on real machines.”
Software Evolution
The process of developing a software product using software engineering
principles and methods is referred to as Software Evolution. This includes the
initial development of software and its maintenance and updates, till desired
software product is developed, which satisfies the expected requirements.
Evolution starts from the requirement gathering process. After which developers
create a prototype of the intended software and show it to the users to get their
feedback at the early stage of the software product development. The users
suggest changes, on which several consecutive updates and maintenance keep on
changing too. This process changes to the original software, till the desired
software is accomplished.
Even after the user has the desired software in hand, the advancing technology
and the changing requirements force the software product to change accordingly.
Re-creating software from scratch and to go one-on-one with the requirement is
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not feasible. The only feasible and economical solution is to update the existing
software so that it matches the latest requirements.
Software Evolution Laws
Lehman has given laws for software evolution. He divided the software into three
different categories:
1. Static-type (S-type) - This is a software, which works strictly according
to defined specifications and solutions. The solution and the method to
achieve it, both are immediately understood before coding. The s-type
software is least subjected to changes hence this is the simplest of all. For
example, calculator program for mathematical computation.
2. Practical-type
(P-type)
-
This
is
a
software
with
a
collection
of procedures.This is defined by exactly what procedures can do. In this
software, the specifications can be described but the solution is not
obviously instant. For example, gaming software.
3. Embedded-type
(E-type)
-
This
software
works
closely
as
the
requirement of real-world environment. This software has a high degree of
evolution as there are various changes in laws, taxes etc. in the real world
situations. For example, Online trading software.
E-Type software evolution
Lehman has given eight laws for E-Type software evolution 1. Continuing change - An E-type software system must continue to adapt
to the real world changes, else it becomes progressively less useful.
2. Increasing complexity - As an E-type software system evolves, its
complexity tends to increase unless work is done to maintain or reduce it.
3. Conservation of familiarity - The familiarity with the software or the
knowledge about how it was developed, why was it developed in that
particular manner etc., must be retained at any cost, to implement the
changes in the system.
4. Continuing growth- In order for an E-type system intended to resolve
some business problem, its size of implementing the changes grows
according to the lifestyle changes of the business.
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5. Reducing quality - An E-type software system declines in quality unless
rigorously maintained and adapted to a changing operational environment.
6. Feedback systems- The E-type software systems constitute multi-loop,
multi-level feedback systems and must be treated as such to be successfully
modified or improved.
7. Self-regulation - E-type system evolution processes are self-regulating
with the distribution of product and process measures close to normal.
8. Organizational stability - The average effective global activity rate in an
evolving E-type system is invariant over the lifetime of the product.
Software Paradigms
Software paradigms refer to the methods and steps, which are taken while
designing the software. There are many methods proposed and are implemented.
But, we need to see where in the software engineering concept, these paradigms
stand. These can be combined into various categories, though each of them is
contained in one another:
Programming paradigm is a subset of Software design paradigm which is further
a subset of Software development paradigm.
Software Development Paradigm
This paradigm is known as software engineering paradigms; where all the
engineering concepts pertaining to the development of software are applied. It
includes various researches and requirement gathering which helps the software
product to build. It consists of –
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Software Engineering Tutorial

Requirement gathering

Software design

Programming
Software Design Paradigm
This paradigm is a part of Software Development and includes –

Design

Maintenance

Programming
Programming Paradigm
This paradigm is related closely to programming aspect of software development.
This includes –

Coding

Testing

Integration
Need of Software Engineering
The need of software engineering arises because of higher rate of change in user
requirements and environment on which the software is working. Following are
some of the needs stated:

Large software - It is easier to build a wall than a house or building,
likewise, as the size of the software becomes large, engineering has to step
to give it a scientific process.

Scalability- If the software process were not based on scientific and
engineering concepts, it would be easier to re-create new software than to
scale an existing one.

Cost- As hardware industry has shown its skills and huge manufacturing
has lower down the price of computer and electronic hardware. But, cost of
the software remains high if proper process is not adapted.

Dynamic Nature- Always growing and adapting nature of the software
hugely depends upon the environment in which the user works. If the
nature of software is always changing, new enhancements need to be done
in the existing one. This is where the software engineering plays a good
role.

Quality Management- Better process of software development provides
better and quality software product.
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Characteristics of good software
A software product can be judged by what it offers and how well it can be used.
This software must satisfy on the following grounds:

Operational

Transitional

Maintenance
Well-engineered and crafted software is expected to have the following
characteristics:
Operational
This tells us how well the software works in operations. It can be measured on:

Budget

Usability

Efficiency

Correctness

Functionality

Dependability

Security

Safety
Transitional
This aspect is important when the software is moved from one platform to
another:

Portability

Interoperability

Reusability

Adaptability
Maintenance
This aspect briefs about how well the software has the capabilities to maintain
itself in the ever-changing environment:

Modularity

Maintainability

Flexibility

Scalability
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Software Engineering Tutorial
In short, Software engineering is a branch of computer science, which uses welldefined engineering concepts required to produce efficient, durable, scalable, inbudget, and on-time software products.
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Software Engineering Tutorial
Software Development Life Cycle
2
Software Development Life Cycle, SDLC for short, is a well-defined, structured
sequence of stages in software engineering to develop the intended software
product.
SDLC Activities
SDLC provides a series of steps to be followed to design and develop a software
product efficiently. SDLC framework includes the following steps:
Communication
This is the first step where the user initiates the request for a desired software
product. The user contacts the service provider and tries to negotiate the terms,
submits the request to the service providing organization in writing.
Requirement Gathering
This step onwards the software development team works to carry on the project.
The team holds discussions with various stakeholders from problem domain and
tries to bring out as much information as possible on their requirements. The
requirements are contemplated and segregated into user requirements, system
requirements and functional requirements. The requirements are collected using
a number of practices as given 8
Software Engineering Tutorial

studying the existing or obsolete system and software,

conducting interviews of users and developers,

referring to the database or

collecting answers from the questionnaires.
Feasibility Study
After requirement gathering, the team comes up with a rough plan of software
process. At this step the team analyzes if a software can be designed to fulfill all
requirements of the user, and if there is any possibility of software being no more
useful. It is also analyzed if the project is financially, practically, and
technologically feasible for the organization to take up. There are many algorithms
available, which help the developers to conclude the feasibility of a software
project.
System Analysis
At this step the developers decide a roadmap of their plan and try to bring up the
best software model suitable for the project. System analysis includes
understanding of software product limitations, learning system related problems
or changes to be done in existing systems beforehand, identifying and addressing
the impact of project on organization and personnel etc. The project team analyzes
the scope of the project and plans the schedule and resources accordingly.
Software Design
Next step is to bring down whole knowledge of requirements and analysis on the
desk and design the software product. The inputs from users and information
gathered in requirement gathering phase are the inputs of this step. The output
of this step comes in the form of two designs; logical design, and physical design.
Engineers produce meta-data and data dictionaries, logical diagrams, data-flow
diagrams, and in some cases pseudo codes.
Coding
This step is also known as programming phase. The implementation of software
design starts in terms of writing program code in the suitable programming
language and developing error-free executable programs efficiently.
Testing
An estimate says that 50% of whole software development process should be
tested. Errors may ruin the software from critical level to its own removal.
Software testing is done while coding by the developers and thorough testing is
conducted by testing experts at various levels of code such as module testing,
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Software Engineering Tutorial
program testing, product testing, in-house testing, and testing the product at
user’s end. Early discovery of errors and their remedy is the key to reliable
software.
Integration
Software may need to be integrated with the libraries, databases, and other
program(s). This stage of SDLC is involved in the integration of software with
outer world entities.
Implementation
This means installing the software on user machines. At times, software needs
post-installation configurations at user end. Software is tested for portability and
adaptability and integration related issues are solved during implementation.
Operation and Maintenance
This phase confirms the software operation in terms of more efficiency and less
errors. If required, the users are trained on, or aided with the documentation on
how to operate the software and how to keep the software operational. The
software is maintained timely by updating the code according to the changes
taking place in user end environment or technology. This phase may face
challenges from hidden bugs and real-world unidentified problems.
Software Development Paradigm
The software development paradigm helps a developer to select a strategy to
develop the software. A software development paradigm has its own set of tools,
methods, and procedures, which are expressed clearly and defines software
development life cycle. A few of software development paradigms or process
models are defined as follows:
Waterfall Model
Waterfall model is the simplest model of software development paradigm. All the
phases of SDLC will function one after another in linear manner. That is, when the
first phase is finished then only the second phase will start and so on.
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Software Engineering Tutorial
This model assumes that everything is carried out and taken place perfectly as
planned in the previous stage and there is no need to think about the past issues
that may arise in the next phase. This model does not work smoothly if there are
some issues left at the previous step. The sequential nature of model does not
allow us to go back and undo or redo our actions.
This model is best suited when developers already have designed and developed
similar software in the past and are aware of all its domains.
Iterative Model
This model leads the software development process in iterations. It projects the
process of development in cyclic manner repeating every step after every cycle of
SDLC process.
The software is first developed on very small scale and all the steps are followed
which are taken into consideration. Then, on every next iteration, more features
and modules are designed, coded, tested, and added to the software. Every cycle
produces a software, which is complete in itself and has more features and
capabilities than that of the previous one.
After each iteration, the management team can do work on risk management and
prepare for the next iteration. Because a cycle includes small portion of whole
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Software Engineering Tutorial
software process, it is easier to manage the development process but it consumes
more resources.
Spiral Model
Spiral model is a combination of both, iterative model and one of the SDLC model.
It can be seen as if you choose one SDLC model and combined it with cyclic
process (iterative model).
This model considers risk, which often goes un-noticed by most other models. The
model starts with determining objectives and constraints of the software at the
start of one iteration. Next phase is of prototyping the software. This includes risk
analysis. Then one standard SDLC model is used to build the software. In the
fourth phase of the plan of next iteration is prepared.
V – model
The major drawback of waterfall model is we move to the next stage only when
the previous one is finished and there was no chance to go back if something is
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Software Engineering Tutorial
found wrong in later stages. V-Model provides means of testing of software at
each stage in reverse manner.
At every stage, test plans and test cases are created to verify and validate the
product according to the requirement of that stage. For example, in requirement
gathering stage the test team prepares all the test cases in correspondence to the
requirements. Later, when the product is developed and is ready for testing, test
cases of this stage verify the software against its validity towards requirements at
this stage.
This makes both verification and validation go in parallel. This model is also known
as verification and validation model.
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Software Engineering Tutorial
Big Bang Model
This model is the simplest model in its form. It requires little planning, lots of
programming and lots of funds. This model is conceptualized around the big bang
of universe. As scientists say that after big bang lots of galaxies, planets, and
stars evolved just as an event. Likewise, if we put together lots of programming
and funds, you may achieve the best software product.
For this model, very small amount of planning is required. It does not follow any
process, or at times the customer is not sure about the requirements and future
needs. So the input requirements are arbitrary.
This model is not suitable for large software projects but good one for learning
and experimenting.
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Software Engineering Tutorial
Software Project Management
3
The job pattern of an IT company engaged in software development can be seen
split in two parts:

Software Creation

Software Project Management
A project is well-defined task, which is a collection of several operations done in
order to achieve a goal (for example, software development and delivery). A
Project can be characterized as:

Every project may have a unique and distinct goal.

Project is not a routine activity or day-to-day operation.

Project comes with a start and end time.

Project ends when its goal is achieved. Hence, it is a temporary phase in
the lifetime of an organization.

Project needs adequate resources in terms of time, manpower, finance,
material, and knowledge-bank.
Software Project
A Software Project is the complete procedure of software development from
requirement gathering to testing and maintenance, carried out according to the
execution methodologies, in a specified period of time to achieve intended
software product.
Need of software project management
Software is said to be an intangible product. Software development is a kind of all
new stream in world business and there is very little experience in building
software products. Most software products are tailor made to fit client’s
requirements. The most important is that the underlying technology changes and
advances so frequently and rapidly that the experience of one product may not be
applied to the other one. All such business and environmental constraints bring
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Software Engineering Tutorial
risk in software development hence it is essential to manage software projects
efficiently.
The image above shows triple constraints for software projects. It is an essential
part of software organization to deliver quality product, keeping the cost within
client’s budget constrain and deliver the project as per scheduled. There are
several factors, both internal and external, which may impact this triple constrain
triangle. Any of the three factors can severely impact the other two.
Therefore, software project management is essential to incorporate user
requirements along with budget and time constraints.
Software Project Manager
A software project manager is a person who undertakes the responsibility of
executing the software project. Software project manager is thoroughly aware of
all the phases of SDLC that the software would go through. The project manager
may never directly involve in producing the end product but he controls and
manages the activities involved in production.
A project manager closely monitors the development process, prepares and
executes various plans, arranges necessary and adequate resources, maintains
communication among all team members in order to address issues of cost,
budget, resources, time, quality and customer satisfaction.
Let us see few responsibilities that a project manager shoulders -
Managing People

Act as project leader

Lesion with stakeholders

Managing human resources

Setting up reporting hierarchy etc.
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Software Engineering Tutorial
Managing Project

Defining and setting up project scope

Managing project management activities

Monitoring progress and performance

Risk analysis at every phase

Take necessary step to avoid or come out of problems

Act as project spokesperson
Software Management Activities
Software project management comprises of a number of activities, which contains
planning of project, deciding scope of software product, estimation of cost in
various terms, scheduling of tasks and events, and resource management. Project
management activities may include:

Project Planning

Scope Management

Project Estimation
Project Planning
Software project planning is task, which is performed before the production of
software actually starts. It is there for the software production but involves no
concrete activity that has any direct connection with the software production;
rather it is a set of multiple processes, which facilitates software production.
Project planning may include the following:
Scope Management
It defines scope of the project; this includes all the activities, process need to be
done in order to make a deliverable software product. Scope management is
essential because it creates boundaries of the project by clearly defining what
would be done in the project and what would not be done. This makes project to
contain limited and quantifiable tasks, which can easily be documented and in turn
avoids cost and time overrun.
During Project Scope management, it is necessary to 
Define the scope

Decide its verification and control

Divide the project into various smaller parts for ease of management.
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
Verify the scope

Control the scope by incorporating changes to the scope
Project Estimation
For an effective management, accurate estimation of various measures is a must.
With the correct estimation, managers can manage and control the project more
efficiently and effectively.
Project estimation may involve the following:

Software size estimation
Software size may be estimated either in terms of KLOC (Kilo Line of Code)
or by calculating number of function points in the software. Lines of code
depend upon coding practices. Function points vary according to the user
or software requirement.

Effort estimation
The manager estimates efforts in terms of personnel requirement and
man-hour required to produce the software. For effort estimation software
size should be known. This can either be derived by manager’s experience,
historical data of organization, or software size can be converted into
efforts by using some standard formulae.

Time estimation
Once size and efforts are estimated, the time required to produce the
software can be estimated. Efforts required is segregated into sub
categories as per the requirement specifications and interdependency of
various components of software. Software tasks are divided into smaller
tasks, activities or events by Work Breakthrough Structure (WBS). The
tasks are scheduled on day-to-day basis or in calendar months.
The sum of time required to complete all tasks in hours or days is the total
time invested to complete the project.

Cost estimation
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This might be considered as the most difficult of all because it depends on
more elements than any of the previous ones. For estimating project cost,
it is required to consider 
Size of the software

Software quality

Hardware

Additional software or tools, licenses etc.

Skilled personnel with task-specific skills

Travel involved

Communication

Training and support
Project Estimation Techniques
We discussed various parameters involving project estimation such as size, effort,
time and cost.
Project manager can estimate the listed factors using two broadly recognized
techniques –
Decomposition Technique
This technique assumes the software as a product of various compositions.
There are two main models 
Line of Code: Here the estimation is done on behalf of number of line of
codes in the software product.

Function Points: Here the estimation is done on behalf of number of
function points in the software product.
Empirical Estimation Technique
This technique uses empirically derived formulae to make estimation.These
formulae are based on LOC or FPs.

Putnam Model
This model is made by Lawrence H. Putnam, which is based on Norden’s
frequency distribution (Rayleigh curve). Putnam model maps time and
efforts required with software size.

COCOMO
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COCOMO stands for Constructive Cost Model, developed by Barry W.
Boehm. It divides the software product into three categories of software:
organic, semi-detached, and embedded.
Project Scheduling
Project Scheduling in a project refers to roadmap of all activities to be done with
specified order and within time slot allotted to each activity. Project managers
tend to define various tasks, and project milestones and then arrange them
keeping various factors in mind. They look for tasks like in critical path in the
schedule, which are necessary to complete in specific manner (because of task
interdependency) and strictly within the time allocated. Arrangement of tasks
which lies out of critical path are less likely to impact over all schedule of the
project.
For scheduling a project, it is necessary to 
Break down the project tasks into smaller, manageable form

Find out various tasks and correlate them

Estimate time frame required for each task

Divide time into work-units

Assign adequate number of work-units for each task

Calculate total time required for the project from start to finish
Resource management
All elements used to develop a software product may be assumed as resource for
that project. This may include human resource, productive tools, and software
libraries.
The resources are available in limited quantity and stay in the organization as a
pool of assets. The shortage of resources hampers development of the project and
it can lag behind the schedule. Allocating extra resources increases development
cost in the end. It is therefore necessary to estimate and allocate adequate
resources for the project.
Resource management includes 
Defining proper organization project by creating a project team and
allocating responsibilities to each team member

Determining resources required at a particular stage and their availability
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
Manage Resources by generating resource request when they are required
and de-allocating them when they are no more needed.
Project Risk Management
Risk management involves all activities pertaining to identification, analyzing and
making provision for predictable and non-predictable risks in the project. Risk
may include the following:

Experienced staff leaving the project and new staff coming in.

Change in organizational management.

Requirement change or misinterpreting requirement.

Under-estimation of required time and resources.

Technological changes, environmental changes, business competition.
Risk Management Process
There are following activities involved in risk management process:

Identification - Make note of all possible risks, which may occur in the
project.

Categorize - Categorize known risks into high, medium and low risk
intensity as per their possible impact on the project.

Manage - Analyze the probability of occurrence of risks at various phases.
Make plan to avoid or face risks. Attempt to minimize their side-effects.

Monitor - Closely monitor the potential risks and their early symptoms.
Also monitor the effective steps taken to mitigate or avoid them.
Project Execution and Monitoring
In this phase, the tasks described in project plans are executed according to their
schedules.
Execution needs monitoring in order to check whether everything is going
according to the plan. Monitoring is observing to check the probability of risk and
taking measures to address the risk or report the status of various tasks.
These measures include -
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
Activity Monitoring - All activities scheduled within some task can be
monitored on day-to-day basis. When all activities in a task are completed,
it is considered as complete.

Status Reports - The reports contain status of activities and tasks
completed within a given time frame, generally a week. Status can be
marked as finished, pending or work-in-progress etc.

Milestones Checklist - Every project is divided into multiple phases where
major tasks are performed (milestones) based on the phases of SDLC. This
milestone checklist is prepared once every few weeks and reports the status
of milestones.
Project Communication Management
Effective communication plays vital role in the success of a project. It bridges
gaps between client and the organization, among the team members as well as
other stake holders in the project such as hardware suppliers.
Communication can be oral or written. Communication management process may
have the following steps:

Planning - This step includes the identifications of all the stakeholders in
the project and the mode of communication among them. It also considers
if any additional communication facilities are required.

Sharing - After determining various aspects of planning, manager focuses
on sharing correct information with the correct person at the correct time.
This keeps every one involved in the project up-to-date with project
progress and its status.

Feedback - Project managers use various measures and feedback
mechanism and create status and performance reports. This mechanism
ensures that input from various stakeholders is coming to the project
manager as their feedback.

Closure - At the end of each major event, end of a phase of SDLC or end
of the project itself, administrative closure is formally announced to update
every stakeholder by sending email, by distributing a hardcopy of document
or by other mean of effective communication.
After closure, the team moves to next phase or project.
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Configuration Management
Configuration management is a process of tracking and controlling the changes in
software in terms of the requirements, design, functions and development of the
product.
IEEE defines it as “the process of identifying and defining the items in the system,
controlling the change of these items throughout their life cycle, recording and
reporting the status of items and change requests, and verifying the completeness
and correctness of items”.
Generally, once the SRS is finalized there is less chance of requirement of changes
from user. If they occur, the changes are addressed only with prior approval of
higher management, as there is a possibility of cost and time overrun.
Baseline
A phase of SDLC is assumed over if it baselined, i.e. baseline is a measurement
that defines completeness of a phase. A phase is baselined when all activities
pertaining to it are finished and well documented. If it was not the final phase, its
output would be used in next immediate phase.
Configuration management is a discipline of organization administration, which
takes care of occurrence of any changes (process, requirement, technological,
strategical etc.) after a phase is baselined. CM keeps check on any changes done
in software.
Change Control
Change control is function of configuration management, which ensures that all
changes made to software system are consistent and made as per organizational
rules and regulations.
A change in the configuration of product goes through following steps 
Identification - A change request arrives from either internal or external
source. When change request is identified formally, it is properly
documented.

Validation - Validity of the change request is checked and its handling
procedure is confirmed.

Analysis - The impact of change request is analyzed in terms of schedule,
cost and required efforts. Overall impact of the prospective change on
system is analyzed.
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
Control - If the prospective change either impacts too many entities in the
system or it is unavoidable, it is mandatory to take approval of high
authorities before change is incorporated into the system. It is decided if
the change is worth incorporation or not. If it is not, change request is
refused formally.

Execution - If the previous phase determines to execute the change
request, this phase takes appropriate actions to execute the change,
through a thorough revision if necessary.

Close request - The change is verified for correct implementation and
merging with the rest of the system. This newly incorporated change in the
software is documented properly and the request is formally closed.
Project Management Tools
The risk and uncertainty rises multifold with respect to the size of the project,
even when the project is developed according to set methodologies.
There are tools available, which aid for effective project management. A few
described are:-
Gantt Chart
Gantt chart was devised by Henry Gantt (1917). It represents project schedule
with respect to time periods. It is a horizontal bar chart with bars representing
activities and time scheduled for the project activities.
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PERT Chart
Program Evaluation & Review Technique) (PERT) chart is a tool that depicts project
as network diagram. It is capable of graphically representing main events of
project in both parallel and consecutive ways. Events, which occur one after
another, show dependency of the later event over the previous one.
Events are shown as numbered nodes. They are connected by labeled arrows
depicting the sequence of tasks in the project.
Resource Histogram
This is a graphical tool that contains bar or chart representing number of resources
(usually skilled staff) required over time for a project event (or phase). Resource
Histogram is an effective tool for staff planning and coordination.
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Critical Path Analysis
This tools is useful in recognizing interdependent tasks in the project. It also helps
to find out the shortest path or critical path to complete the project successfully.
Like PERT diagram, each event is allotted a specific time frame. This tool shows
dependency of event assuming an event can proceed to next only if the previous
one is completed.
The events are arranged according to their earliest possible start time. Path
between start and end node is critical path which cannot be further reduced and
all events require to be executed in same order.
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Software Requirements
4
The software requirements are description of features and functionalities of the
target system. Requirements convey the expectations of users from the software
product. The requirements can be obvious or hidden, known or unknown,
expected or unexpected from client’s point of view.
Requirement Engineering
The process to gather the software requirements from client, analyze, and
document them is known as requirement engineering.
The goal of requirement engineering is to develop and maintain sophisticated and
descriptive ‘System Requirements Specification’ document.
Requirement Engineering Process
It is a four step process, which includes –

Feasibility Study

Requirement Gathering

Software Requirement Specification

Software Requirement Validation
Let us see the process briefly -
Feasibility study
When the client approaches the organization for getting the desired product
developed, it comes up with a rough idea about what all functions the software
must perform and which all features are expected from the software.
Referencing to this information, the analysts do a detailed study about whether
the desired system and its functionality are feasible to develop.
This feasibility study is focused towards goal of the organization. This study
analyzes whether the software product can be practically materialized in terms of
implementation, contribution of project to organization, cost constraints, and as
per values and objectives of the organization. It explores technical aspects of the
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project and product such as usability, maintainability, productivity, and integration
ability.
The output of this phase should be a feasibility study report that should contain
adequate comments and recommendations for management about whether or not
the project should be undertaken.
Requirement Gathering
If the feasibility report is positive towards undertaking the project, next phase
starts with gathering requirements from the user. Analysts and engineers
communicate with the client and end-users to know their ideas on what the
software should provide and which features they want the software to include.
Software Requirement Specification (SRS)
SRS is a document created by system analyst after the requirements are collected
from various stakeholders.
SRS defines how the intended software will interact with hardware, external
interfaces, speed of operation, response time of system, portability of software
across various platforms, maintainability, speed of recovery after crashing,
Security, Quality, Limitations etc.
The requirements received from client are written in natural language. It is the
responsibility of the system analyst to document the requirements in technical
language so that they can be comprehended and used by the software
development team.
SRS should come up with the following features:

User Requirements are expressed in natural language.

Technical requirements are expressed in structured language, which is used
inside the organization.

Design description should be written in Pseudo code.

Format of Forms and GUI screen prints.

Conditional and mathematical notations for DFDs etc.
Software Requirement Validation
After requirement specifications are developed, the requirements mentioned in
this document are validated. User might ask for illegal, impractical solution or
experts may interpret the requirements inaccurately. This results in huge increase
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in cost if not nipped in the bud. Requirements can be checked against following
conditions 
If they can be practically implemented

If they are valid and as per functionality and domain of software

If there are any ambiguities

If they are complete

If they can be demonstrated
Requirement Elicitation Process
Requirement elicitation process can be depicted using the folloiwng diagram:

Requirements gathering - The developers discuss with the client and end
users and know their expectations from the software.

Organizing Requirements - The developers prioritize and arrange the
requirements in order of importance, urgency and convenience.

Negotiation & discussion - If requirements are ambiguous or there are
some conflicts in requirements of various stakeholders, it is then negotiated
and discussed with the stakeholders. Requirements may then be prioritized
and reasonably compromised.
The requirements come from various stakeholders. To remove the
ambiguity and conflicts, they are discussed for clarity and correctness.
Unrealistic requirements are compromised reasonably.

Documentation - All formal and informal, functional and non-functional
requirements are documented and made available for next phase
processing.
Requirement Elicitation Techniques
Requirements Elicitation is the process to find out the requirements for an
intended software system by communicating with client, end users, system users,
and others who have a stake in the software system development.
There are various ways to discover requirements. Some of them are explained
below:
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Interviews
Interviews are strong medium to collect requirements. Organization may conduct
several types of interviews such as:

Structured (closed) interviews, where every single information to gather is
decided in advance, they follow pattern and matter of discussion firmly.

Non-structured (open) interviews, where information to gather is not
decided in advance, more flexible and less biased.

Oral interviews

Written interviews

One-to-one interviews which are held between two persons across the
table.

Group interviews which are held between groups of participants. They help
to uncover any missing requirement as numerous people are involved.
Surveys
Organization may conduct surveys among various stakeholders by querying about
their expectation and requirements from the upcoming system.
Questionnaires
A document with pre-defined set of objective questions and respective options is
handed over to all stakeholders to answer, which are collected and compiled.
A shortcoming of this technique is, if an option for some issue is not mentioned in
the questionnaire, the issue might be left unattended.
Task analysis
Team of engineers and developers may analyze the operation for which the new
system is required. If the client already has some software to perform certain
operation, it is studied and requirements of proposed system are collected.
Domain Analysis
Every software falls into some domain category. The expert people in the domain
can be a great help to analyze general and specific requirements.
Brainstorming
An informal debate is held among various stakeholders and all their inputs are
recorded for further requirements analysis.
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Prototyping
Prototyping is building user interface without adding detail functionality for user
to interpret the features of intended software product. It helps giving better idea
of requirements. If there is no software installed at client’s end for developer’s
reference and the client is not aware of its own requirements, the developer
creates a prototype based on initially mentioned requirements. The prototype is
shown to the client and the feedback is noted. The client feedback serves as an
input for requirement gathering.
Observation
Team of experts visit the client’s organization or workplace. They observe the
actual working of the existing installed systems. They observe the workflow at the
client’s end and how execution problems are dealt. The team itself draws some
conclusions which aid to form requirements expected from the software.
Software Requirements Characteristics
Gathering software requirements is the foundation of the entire software
development project. Hence they must be clear, correct, and well-defined.
A complete Software Requirement Specifications must be:

Clear

Correct

Consistent

Coherent

Comprehensible

Modifiable

Verifiable

Prioritized

Unambiguous

Traceable

Credible source
Software Requirements
We should try to understand what sort of requirements may arise in the
requirement elicitation phase and what kinds of requirement are expected from
the software system.
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Broadly software requirements should be categorized in two categories:
Functional Requirements
Requirements, which are related to functional aspect of software fall into this
category.
They define functions and functionality within and from the software system.
EXAMPLES 
Search option given to user to search from various invoices.

User should be able to mail any report to management.

Users can be divided into groups and groups can be given separate rights.

Should comply business rules and administrative functions.

Software is developed keeping downward compatibility intact.
Non-Functional Requirements
Requirements, which are not related to functional aspect of software, fall into this
category. They are implicit or expected characteristics of software, which users
make assumption of.
Non-functional requirements include 
Security

Logging

Storage

Configuration

Performance

Cost

Interoperability

Flexibility

Disaster recovery

Accessibility
Requirements are categorized logically as:

Must Have : Software cannot be said operational without them.

Should have : Enhancing the functionality of software.

Could have : Software can still properly function with these requirements.

Wish list : These requirements do not map to any objectives of software.
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While developing software, ‘Must have’ must be implemented, ‘Should have’ is a
matter of debate with stakeholders and negation, whereas ‘Could have’ and ‘Wish
list’ can be kept for software updates.
User Interface requirements
User Interface (UI) is an important part of any software or hardware or hybrid
system. A software is widely accepted if it is –

easy to operate

quick in response

effectively handling operational errors

providing simple yet consistent user interface
User acceptance majorly depends upon how user can use the software. UI is the
only way for users to perceive the system. A well performing software system
must also be equipped with attractive, clear, consistent, and responsive user
interface. Otherwise the functionalities of software system can not be used in
convenient way. A system is said to be good if it provides means to use it
efficiently. User interface requirements are briefly mentioned below –

Content presentation

Easy Navigation

Simple interface

Responsive

Consistent UI elements

Feedback mechanism

Default settings

Purposeful layout

Strategical use of color and texture.

Provide help information

User centric approach

Group based view settings.
Software System Analyst
System analyst in an IT organization is a person, who analyzes the requirement
of proposed system and ensures that requirements are conceived and documented
properly and acuurately. Role of an analyst starts during Software Analysis Phase
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of SDLC. It is the responsibility of analyst to make sure that the developed
software meets the requirements of the client.
System Analysts have the following responsibilities:

Analyzing and understanding requirements of intended software

Understanding how the project will contribute to the organizational
objectives

Identify sources of requirement

Validation of requirement

Develop and implement requirement management plan

Documentation of business, technical, process, and product requirements

Coordination with clients to prioritize requirements and remove ambiguity

Finalizing acceptance criteria with client and other stakeholders
Software Metrics and Measures
Software Measures can be understood as a process of quantifying and symbolizing
various attributes and aspects of software.
Software Metrics provide measures for various aspects of software process and
software product.
Software measures are fundamental requirements of software engineering. They
not only help to control the software development process but also aid to keep the
quality of ultimate product excellent.
According to Tom DeMarco, a (Software Engineer), “You cannot control what you
cannot measure.” By his saying, it is very clear how important software measures
are.
Let us see some software metrics:

Size Metrics - Lines of Code (LOC) (), mostly calculated in thousands of
delivered source code lines, denoted as KLOC.

Function Point Count is measure of the functionality provided by the
software. Function Point count defines the size of functional aspect of the
software.

Complexity Metrics - McCabe’s Cyclomatic complexity quantifies the
upper bound of the number of independent paths in a program, which is
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perceived as complexity of the program or its modules. It is represented in
terms of graph theory concepts by using control flow graph.

Quality Metrics - Defects, their types and causes, consequence, intensity
of severity and their implications define the quality of the product.

The number of defects found in development process and number of defects
reported by the client after the product is installed or delivered at clientend, define quality of the product.

Process Metrics - In various phases of SDLC, the methods and tools used,
the company standards and the performance of development are software
process metrics.

Resource Metrics - Effort, time, and various resources used, represents
metrics for resource measurement.
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Software Design Basics
5
Software design is a process to transform user requirements into some suitable
form, which helps the programmer in software coding and implementation.
For assessing user requirements, an SRS (Software Requirement Specification)
document is created whereas for coding and implementation, there is a need of
more specific and detailed requirements in software terms. The output of this
process can directly be used into implementation in programming languages.
Software design is the first step in SDLC (Software Design Life Cycle), which
moves the concentration from problem domain to solution domain. It tries to
specify how to fulfill the requirements mentioned in SRS.
Software Design Levels
Software design yields three levels of results:

Architectural Design - The architectural design is the highest abstract
version of the system. It identifies the software as a system with many
components interacting with each other. At this level, the designers get the
idea of proposed solution domain.

High-level Design - The high-level design breaks the ‘single entitymultiple component’ concept of architectural design into less-abstracted
view of sub-systems and modules and depicts their interaction with each
other. High-level design focuses on how the system along with all of its
components can be implemented in forms of modules. It recognizes
modular structure of each sub-system and their relation and interaction
among each other.

Detailed Design- Detailed design deals with the implementation part of
what is seen as a system and its sub-systems in the previous two designs.
It is more detailed towards modules and their implementations. It defines
logical structure of each module and their interfaces to communicate with
other modules.
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Modularization
Modularization is a technique to divide a software system into multiple discrete
and independent modules, which are expected to be capable of carrying out
task(s) independently. These modules may work as basic constructs for the entire
software. Designers tend to design modules such that they can be executed and/or
compiled separately and independently.
Modular design unintentionally follows the rule of ‘divide and conquer’ problemsolving strategy, this is because there are many other benefits attached with the
modular design of a software.
Advantage of modularization:

Smaller components are easier to maintain

Program can be divided based on functional aspects

Desired level of abstraction can be brought in the program

Components with high cohesion can be re-used again

Concurrent execution can be made possible

Desired from security aspect
Concurrency
Back in time, all software are meant to be executed sequentially. By sequential
execution, we mean that the coded instruction will be executed one after another
implying only one portion of program being activated at any given time. Say, a
software has multiple modules, then only one of all the modules can be found
active at any time of execution.
In software design, concurrency is implemented by splitting the software into
multiple independent units of execution, like modules and executing them in
parallel. In other words, concurrency provides capability to the software to
execute more than one part of code in parallel to each other.
It is necessary for the programmers and designers to recognize those modules,
which can be made parallel execution.
Example
The spell check feature in word processor is a module of software, which runs
along side the word processor itself.
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Coupling and Cohesion
When a software program is modularized, its tasks are divided into several
modules based on some characteristics. As we know, modules are set of
instructions put together in order to achieve some tasks. They are though,
considered as a single entity but, may refer to each other to work together. There
are measures by which the quality of a design of modules and their interaction
among them can be measured. These measures are called coupling and cohesion.
Cohesion
Cohesion is a measure that defines the degree of intra-dependability within
elements of a module. The greater the cohesion, the better is the program design.
There are seven types of cohesion, namely –

Co-incidental cohesion - It is unplanned and random cohesion, which
might be the result of breaking the program into smaller modules for the
sake of modularization. Because it is unplanned, it may serve confusion to
the programmers and is generally not-accepted.

Logical cohesion - When logically categorized elements are put together
into a module, it is called logical cohesion.

Emporal Cohesion - When elements of module are organized such that
they are processed at a similar point of time, it is called temporal cohesion.

Procedural cohesion - When elements of module are grouped together,
which are executed sequentially in order to perform a task, it is called
procedural cohesion.

Communicational cohesion - When elements of module are grouped
together, which are executed sequentially and work on same data
(information), it is called communicational cohesion.

Sequential cohesion - When elements of module are grouped because
the output of one element serves as input to another and so on, it is called
sequential cohesion.

Functional cohesion - It is considered to be the highest degree of
cohesion, and it is highly expected. Elements of module in functional
cohesion are grouped because they all contribute to a single well-defined
function. It can also be reused.
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Coupling
Coupling is a measure that defines the level of inter-dependability among modules
of a program. It tells at what level the modules interfere and interact with each
other. The lower the coupling, the better the program.
There are five levels of coupling, namely 
Content coupling - When a module can directly access or modify or refer
to the content of another module, it is called content level coupling.

Common coupling- When multiple modules have read and write access to
some global data, it is called common or global coupling.

Control coupling- Two modules are called control-coupled if one of them
decides the function of the other module or changes its flow of execution.

Stamp coupling- When multiple modules share common data structure
and work on different part of it, it is called stamp coupling.

Data coupling- Data coupling is when two modules interact with each
other by means of passing data (as parameter). If a module passes data
structure as parameter, then the receiving module should use all its
components.
Ideally, no coupling is considered to be the best.
Design Verification
The output of software design process is design documentation, pseudo codes,
detailed logic diagrams, process diagrams, and detailed description of all
functional or non-functional requirements.
The next phase, which is the implementation of software, depends on all outputs
mentioned above.
It is then becomes necessary to verify the output before proceeding to the next
phase. The early any mistake is detected, the better it is or it might not be
detected until testing of the product. If the outputs of design phase are in formal
notation form, then their associated tools for verification should be used otherwise
a thorough design review can be used for verification and validation.
By structured verification approach, reviewers can detect defects that might be
caused by overlooking some conditions. A good design review is important for
good software design, accuracy, and quality.
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6
Software Analysis and
Design Tools
Software analysis and design includes all activities, which help the transformation
of requirement specification into implementation. Requirement specifications
specify all functional and non-functional expectations from the software. These
requirement
specifications
come
in
the
shape
of
human
readable
and
understandable documents, to which a computer has nothing to do.
Software analysis and design is the intermediate stage, which helps humanreadable requirements to be transformed into actual code.
Let us see few analysis and design tools used by software designers:
Data Flow Diagram
Data Flow Diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of flow of data in an
information system. It is capable of depicting incoming data flow, outgoing data
flow, and stored data. The DFD does not mention anything about how data flows
through the system.
There is a prominent difference between DFD and Flowchart. The flowchart depicts
flow of control in program modules. DFDs depict flow of data in the system at
various levels. It does not contain any control or branch elements.
Types of DFD
Data Flow Diagrams are either Logical or Physical.

Logical DFD - This type of DFD concentrates on the system process, and
flow of data in the system. For example in a banking software system, how
data is moved between different entities.

Physical DFD - This type of DFD shows how the data flow is actually
implemented in the system. It is more specific and close to the
implementation.
DFD Components
DFD can represent source, destination, storage, and flow of data using the
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
Entities - Entities are sources and destinations of information data. Entities
are represented by rectangles with their respective names.

Process - Activities and action taken on the data are represented by Circle
or Round-edged rectangles.

Data Storage - There are two variants of data storage - it can either be
represented as a rectangle with absence of both smaller sides or as an
open-sided rectangle with only one side missing.

Data Flow - Movement of data is shown by pointed arrows. Data
movement is shown from the base of arrow as its source towards head of
the arrow as destination.
Levels of DFD

Level 0 - Highest abstraction level DFD is known as Level 0 DFD, which
depicts the entire information system as one diagram concealing all the
underlying details. Level 0 DFDs are also known as context level DFDs.

Level 1 - The Level 0 DFD is broken down into more specific, Level 1 DFD.
Level 1 DFD depicts basic modules in the system and flow of data among
various modules. Level 1 DFD also mentions basic processes and sources
of information.
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
Level 2 - At this level, DFD shows how data flows inside the modules
mentioned in Level 1.
Higher level DFDs can be transformed into more specific lower level DFDs
with deeper level of understanding unless the desired level of specification
is achieved.
Structure Charts
Structure chart is a chart derived from Data Flow Diagram. It represents the
system in more detail than DFD. It breaks down the entire system into lowest
functional modules, describes functions and sub-functions of each module of the
system to a greater detail than DFD.
Structure chart represents hierarchical structure of modules. At each layer a
specific task is performed.
Here are the symbols used in construction of structure charts 
Module - It represents process or subroutine or task. A control module
branches to more than one sub-module. Library Modules are re-usable and
invokable from any module.
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
Condition - It is represented by small diamond at base of the module. It
depicts that control module can select any of sub-routine based on some
condition.

Jump - An arrow is shown pointing inside the module to depict that the
control will jump in the middle of the sub-module.

Loop - A curved arrow represents loop in the module. All sub-modules
covered by loop repeat execution of module.
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
Data flow - A directed arrow with empty circle at the end represents data
flow.

Control flow - A directed arrow with filled circle at the end represents
control flow.
HIPO Diagram
Hierarchical Input Process Output (HIPO) diagram is a combination of two
organized
methods
to
analyze
the
system
and
provide
the
means
of
documentation. HIPO model was developed by IBM in year 1970.
HIPO diagram represents the hierarchy of modules in the software system. Analyst
uses HIPO diagram in order to obtain high-level view of system functions. It
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decomposes functions into sub-functions in a hierarchical manner. It depicts the
functions performed by system.
HIPO
diagrams
are
good
for
documentation
purpose.
Their
graphical
representation makes it easier for designers and managers to get the pictorial idea
of the system structure.
In contrast to Input Process Output (IPO) diagram, which depicts the flow of
control and data in a module, HIPO does not provide any information about data
flow or control flow.
Example
Both parts of HIPO diagram, Hierarchical presentation, and IPO Chart are used for
structure designing of software program as well as documentation of the same.
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Structured English
Most programmers are unaware of the large picture of software so they only rely
on what their managers tell them to do. It is the responsibility of higher software
management to provide accurate information to the programmers to develop
accurate yet fast code.
Different methods, which use graphs or diagrams, at times might be interpreted
in a different way by different people.
Hence, analysts and designers of the software come up with tools such as
Structured English. It is nothing but the description of what is required to code
and how to code it. Structured English helps the programmer to write error-free
code. Here, both Structured English and Pseudo-Code tries to mitigate that
understanding gap.
Structured English uses plain English words in structured programming paradigm.
It is not the ultimate code but a kind of description what is required to code and
how to code it. The following are some tokens of structured programming:
IF-THEN-ELSE,
DO-WHILE-UNTIL
Analyst uses the same variable and data name, which are stored in Data
Dictionary, making it much simpler to write and understand the code.
Example
We take the same example of Customer Authentication in the online shopping
environment. This procedure to authenticate customer can be written in
Structured English as:
Enter Customer_Name
SEEK Customer_Name in Customer_Name_DB file
IF Customer_Name found THEN
Call procedure USER_PASSWORD_AUTHENTICATE()
ELSE
PRINT error message
Call procedure NEW_CUSTOMER_REQUEST()
ENDIF
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The code written in Structured English is more like day-to-day spoken English. It
can not be implemented directly as a code of software. Structured English is
independent of programming language.
Pseudo-Code
Pseudo code is written more close to programming language. It may be considered
as augmented programming language, full of comments, and descriptions.
Pseudo code avoids variable declaration but they are written using some actual
programming language’s constructs, like C, Fortran, Pascal, etc.
Pseudo code contains more programming details than Structured English. It
provides a method to perform the task, as if a computer is executing the code.
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Example
Program to print Fibonacci up to n numbers.
void function Fibonacci
Get value of n;
Set value of a to 1;
Set value of b to 1;
Initialize I to 0
for (i=0; i< n; i++)
{
if a greater than b
{
Increase b by a;
Print b;
}
else if b greater than a
{
increase a by b;
print a;
}
}
Decision Tables
A Decision table represents conditions and the respective actions to be taken to
address them, in a structured tabular format.
It is a powerful tool to debug and prevent errors. It helps group similar information
into a single table and then by combining tables it delivers easy and convenient
decision-making.
Creating Decision Table
To create the decision table, the developer must follow basic four steps:

Identify all possible conditions to be addressed

Determine actions for all identified conditions

Create Maximum possible rules
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
Define action for each rule
Decision Tables should be verified by end-users and can lately be simplified by
eliminating duplicate rules and actions.
Example
Let us take a simple example of day-to-day problem with our Internet
connectivity. We begin by identifying all problems that can arise while starting the
internet and their respective possible solutions.
We list all possible problems under column conditions and the prospective actions
under column Actions.
Conditions
Actions
Conditions/Actions
Rules
Shows Connected
N
N
N
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Ping is Working
N
N
Y
Y
N
N
Y
Y
Opens Website
Y
N
Y
N
Y
N
Y
N
Check network cable
X
Check internet router
X
X
X
X
Restart Web Browser
Contact Service provider
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Do no action
Table : Decision Table – In-house Internet Troubleshooting
Entity-Relationship Model
Entity-Relationship model is a type of database model based on the notion of real
world entities and relationship among them. We can map real world scenario onto
ER database model. ER Model creates a set of entities with their attributes, a set
of constraints and relation among them.
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ER Model is best used for the conceptual design of database. ER Model can be
represented as follows :

Entity - An entity in ER Model is a real world being, which has some
properties called attributes. Every attribute is defined by its corresponding
set of values, called domain.
For example, Consider a school database. Here, a student is an entity.
Student has various attributes like name, id, age and class etc.

Relationship -
The
logical
association
among
entities
is
called
relationship. Relationships are mapped with entities in various ways.
Mapping cardinalities define the number of associations between two
entities.
Mapping cardinalities:

one to one

one to many

many to one

many to many
Data Dictionary
Data dictionary is the centralized collection of information about data. It stores
meaning and origin of data, its relationship with other data, data format for usage,
etc. Data dictionary has rigorous definitions of all names in order to facilitate user
and software designers.
Data dictionary is often referenced as meta-data (data about data) repository. It
is created along with DFD (Data Flow Diagram) model of software program and is
expected to be updated whenever DFD is changed or updated.
Requirement of Data Dictionary
The data is referenced via data dictionary while designing and implementing
software. Data dictionary removes any chances of ambiguity. It helps keeping
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work of programmers and designers synchronized while using same object
reference everywhere in the program.
Data dictionary provides a way of documentation for the complete database
system in one place. Validation of DFD is carried out using data dictionary.
Contents
Data dictionary should contain information about the following:

Data Flow

Data Structure

Data Elements

Data Stores

Data Processing
Data Flow is described by means of DFDs as studied earlier and represented in
algebraic form as described.
=
Composed of
{}
Repetition
()
Optional
+
And
[/]
Or
Example
Address = House No + (Street / Area) + City + State
Course ID = Course Number + Course Name + Course Level + Course Grades
Data Elements
Data elements consist of Name and descriptions of Data and Control Items,
Internal or External data stores etc. with the following details:

Primary Name

Secondary Name (Alias)

Use-case (How and where to use)
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
Content Description (Notation etc. )

Supplementary Information (preset values, constraints etc.)
Data Store
It stores the information from where the data enters into the system and exists
out of the system. The Data Store may include 

Files
o
Internal to software.
o
External to software but on the same machine.
o
External to software and system, located on different machine.
Tables
o
Naming convention
o
Indexing property
Data Processing
There are two types of Data Processing:

Logical: As user sees it

Physical: As software sees it
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Software Design Strategies
7
Software design is a process to conceptualize the software requirements into
software implementation. Software design takes the user requirements as
challenges and tries to find optimum solution. While the software is being
conceptualized, a plan is chalked out to find the best possible design for
implementing the intended solution.
There are multiple variants of software design. Let us study them briefly:
Structured Design
Structured design is a conceptualization of problem into several well-organized
elements of solution. It is basically concerned with the solution design. Benefit of
structured design is, it gives better understanding of how the problem is being
solved. Structured design also makes it simpler for designer to concentrate on the
problem more accurately.
Structured design is mostly based on ‘divide and conquer’ strategy where a
problem is broken into several small problems and each small problem is
individually solved until the whole problem is solved.
The small pieces of problem are solved by means of solution modules. Structured
design emphasis that these modules be well organized in order to achieve precise
solution.
These modules are arranged in hierarchy. They communicate with each other. A
good structured design always follows some rules for communication among
multiple modules, namely 
Cohesion - grouping of all functionally related elements.

Coupling - communication between different modules.
A good structured design has high cohesion and low coupling arrangements.
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Function Oriented Design
In function-oriented design, the system comprises of many smaller sub-systems
known as functions. These functions are capable of performing significant task in
the system. The system is considered as top view of all functions.
Function oriented design inherits some properties of structured design where
divide and conquer methodology is used.
This design mechanism divides the whole system into smaller functions, which
provides means of abstraction by concealing the information and their operation.
These functional modules can share information among themselves by means of
information passing and using information available globally.
Another characteristic of functions is that when a program calls a function, the
function changes the state of the program, which sometimes is not acceptable by
other modules. Function oriented design works well where the system state does
not matter and program/functions work on input rather than on a state.
Design Process

The whole system is seen as how data flows in the system by means of data
flow diagram.

DFD depicts how functions change data and state of the entire system.

The entire system is logically broken down into smaller units known as
functions on the basis of their operation in the system.

Each function is then described at large.
Object Oriented Design
Object Oriented Design (OOD) works around the entities and their characteristics
instead of functions involved in the software system. This design strategies
focuses on entities and its characteristics. The whole concept of software solution
revolves around the engaged entities.
Let us see the important concepts of Object Oriented Design:

Objects - All entities involved in the solution design are known as objects.
For example, person, banks, company, and customers are treated as
objects. Every entity has some attributes associated to it and has some
methods to perform on the attributes.
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
Classes - A class is a generalized description of an object. An object is an
instance of a class. Class defines all the attributes, which an object can have
and methods, which defines the functionality of the object.
In the solution design, attributes are stored as variables and functionalities
are defined by means of methods or procedures.

Encapsulation - In OOD, the attributes (data variables) and methods
(operation on the data) are bundled together is called encapsulation.
Encapsulation not only bundles important information of an object together,
but also restricts access of the data and methods from the outside world.
This is called information hiding.

Inheritance - OOD allows similar classes to stack up in hierarchical
manner where the lower or sub-classes can import, implement and re-use
allowed variables and methods from their immediate super classes. This
property of OOD is known as inheritance. This makes it easier to define
specific class and to create generalized classes from specific ones.

Polymorphism - OOD languages provide a mechanism where methods
performing similar tasks but vary in arguments, can be assigned same
name. This is called polymorphism, which allows a single interface
performing tasks for different types. Depending upon how the function is
invoked, respective portion of the code gets executed.
Design Process
Software design process can be perceived as series of well-defined steps. Though
it varies according to design approach (function oriented or object oriented, yet It
may have the following steps involved:

A solution design is created from requirement or previous used system
and/or system sequence diagram.

Objects are identified and grouped into classes on behalf of similarity in
attribute characteristics.

Class hierarchy and relation among them is defined.

Application framework is defined.
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Software Design Approaches
Here are two generic approaches for software designing:
Top Down Design
We know that a system is composed of more than one sub-systems and it contains
a number of components. Further, these sub-systems and components may have
their own set of sub-systems and components, and creates hierarchical structure
in the system.
Top-down design takes the whole software system as one entity and then
decomposes it to achieve more than one sub-system or component based on some
characteristics. Each sub-system or component is then treated as a system and
decomposed further. This process keeps on running until the lowest level of
system in the top-down hierarchy is achieved.
Top-down design starts with a generalized model of system and keeps on defining
the more specific part of it. When all the components are composed the whole
system comes into existence.
Top-down design is more suitable when the software solution needs to be designed
from scratch and specific details are unknown.
Bottom-up Design
The bottom up design model starts with most specific and basic components. It
proceeds with composing higher level of components by using basic or lower level
components. It keeps creating higher level components until the desired system
is not evolved as one single component. With each higher level, the amount of
abstraction is increased.
Bottom-up strategy is more suitable when a system needs to be created from
some existing system, where the basic primitives can be used in the newer
system.
Both, top-down and bottom-up approaches are not practical individually. Instead,
a good combination of both is used.
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Software User Interface Design
8
User interface is the front-end application view to which user interacts in order to
use the software. User can manipulate and control the software as well as
hardware by means of user interface. Today, user interface is found at almost
every place where digital technology exists, right from computers, mobile phones,
cars, music players, airplanes, ships etc.
User interface is part of software and is designed in such a way that it is expected
to provide the user insight of the software. UI provides fundamental platform for
human-computer interaction.
UI can be graphical, text-based, audio-video based, depending upon the
underlying hardware and software combination. UI can be hardware or software
or a combination of both.
The software becomes more popular if its user interface is:

Attractive

Simple to use

Responsive in short time

Clear to understand

Consistent on all interfacing screens
UI is broadly divided into two categories:

Command Line Interface

Graphical User Interface
Command Line Interface (CLI)
CLI has been a great tool of interaction with computers until the video display
monitors came into existence. CLI is first choice of many technical users and
programmers. It is the minimum interface a software can provide to its users.
CLI provides a command prompt, the place where the user types the command
and feeds to the system. The user needs to remember the syntax of command
and its use. Earlier CLI were not programmed to handle the user errors effectively.
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A command is a text-based reference to set of instructions, which are expected to
be executed by the system. There are methods like macros, scripts that make it
easy for the user to operate.
CLI uses less amount of computer resource as compared to GUI.
CLI Elements
A text-based command line interface can have the following elements:

Command Prompt - It is text-based notifier that is mostly shows the
context in which the user is working. It is generated by the software system.

Cursor - It is a small horizontal line or a vertical bar of the height of line,
to represent position of character while typing. Cursor is mostly found in
blinking state. It moves as the user writes or deletes something.

Command - A command is an executable instruction. It may have one or
more parameters. Output on command execution is shown inline on the
screen. When output is produced, command prompt is displayed on the next
line.
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Graphical User Interface
Graphical User Interface (GUI) provides the user graphical means to interact with
the system. GUI can be combination of both hardware and software. Using GUI,
user interprets the software.
Typically, GUI is more resource consuming than that of CLI. With advancing
technology, the programmers and designers create complex GUI designs that
work with more efficiency, accuracy, and speed.
GUI Elements
GUI provides a set of components to interact with software or hardware.
Every graphical component provides a way to work with the system. A GUI system
has following elements such as:
Window - An area where contents of application are displayed. Contents in a
window can be displayed in the form of icons or lists, if the window represents file
structure. It is easier for a user to navigate in the file system in an exploring
window. Windows can be minimized, resized or maximized to the size of screen.
They can be moved anywhere on the screen. A window may contain another
window of the same application, called child window.

Tabs - If an application allows executing multiple instances of itself, they
appear on the screen as separate windows. Tabbed Document Interface
has come up to open multiple documents in the same window. This interface
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also helps in viewing preference panel in application. All modern webbrowsers use this feature.

Menu - Menu is an array of standard commands, grouped together and
placed at a visible place (usually top) inside the application window. The
menu can be programmed to appear or hide on mouse clicks.

Icon - An icon is small picture representing an associated application. When
these icons are clicked or double clicked, the application window is opened.
Icon displays application and programs installed on a system in the form of
small pictures.

Cursor - Interacting devices such as mouse, touch pad, digital pen are
represented in GUI as cursors. On screen cursor follows the instructions
from hardware in almost real-time. Cursors are also named pointers in GUI
systems. They are used to select menus, windows and other application
features.
Application specific GUI components
A GUI of an application contains one or more of the listed GUI elements:

Application Window - Most application windows uses the constructs
supplied by operating systems but many use their own customer created
windows to contain the contents of application.

Dialogue Box - It is a child window that contains message for the user and
request for some action to be taken. For Example: Application generate a
dialogue to get confirmation from user to delete a file.

Text-Box - Provides an area for user to type and enter text-based data.

Buttons - They imitate real life buttons and are used to submit inputs to
the software.
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
Radio-button - Displays available options for selection. Only one can be
selected among all offered.

Check-box - Functions similar to list-box. When an option is selected, the
box is marked as checked. Multiple options represented by check boxes can
be selected.

List-box - Provides list of available items for selection. More than one item
can be selected.
Other impressive GUI components are:

Sliders

Combo-box

Data-grid

Drop-down list
User Interface Design Activities
There are a number of activities performed for designing user interface. The
process of GUI design and implementation is alike SDLC. Any model can be used
for GUI implementation among Waterfall, Iterative or Spiral Model.
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A model used for GUI design and development should fulfill these GUI specific
steps.

GUI Requirement Gathering - The designers may like to have list of all
functional and non-functional requirements of GUI. This can be taken from
user and their existing software solution.

User Analysis - The designer studies who is going to use the software GUI.
The target audience matters as the design details change according to the
knowledge and competency level of the user. If user is technical savvy,
advanced and complex GUI can be incorporated. For a novice user, more
information is included on how-to of software.

Task Analysis - Designers have to analyze what task is to be done by the
software solution. Here in GUI, it does not matter how it will be done. Tasks
can be represented in hierarchical manner taking one major task and
dividing it further into smaller sub-tasks. Tasks provide goals for GUI
presentation. Flow of information among sub-tasks determines the flow of
GUI contents in the software.

GUI Design and implementation - Designers after having information
about requirements, tasks and user environment, design the GUI and
implements into code and embed the GUI with working or dummy software
in the background. It is then self-tested by the developers.
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
Testing - GUI testing can be done in various ways. Organization can have
in-house inspection, direct involvement of users and release of beta version
are few of them. Testing may include usability, compatibility, user
acceptance etc.
GUI Implementation Tools
There are several tools available using which the designers can create entire GUI
on a mouse click. Some tools can be embedded into the software environment
(IDE).
GUI implementation tools provide powerful array of GUI controls. For software
customization, designers can change the code accordingly.
There are different segments of GUI tools according to their different use and
platform.
Example
Mobile GUI, Computer GUI, Touch-Screen GUI etc. Here is a list of few tools which
come handy to build GUI:

FLUID

AppInventor (Android)

LucidChart

Wavemaker

Visual Studio
User Interface Golden rules
The following rules are mentioned to be the golden rules for GUI design, described
by Shneiderman and Plaisant in their book (Designing the User Interface).

Strive for consistency - Consistent sequences of actions should be
required in similar situations. Identical terminology should be used in
prompts, menus, and help screens. Consistent commands should be
employed throughout.

Enable frequent users to use short-cuts - The user’s desire to reduce
the number of interactions increases with the frequency of use.
Abbreviations, function keys, hidden commands, and macro facilities are
very helpful to an expert user.
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
Offer informative feedback - For every operator action, there should be
some system feedback. For frequent and minor actions, the response must
be modest, while for infrequent and major actions, the response must be
more substantial.

Design dialog to yield closure - Sequences of actions should be
organized into groups with a beginning, middle, and end. The informative
feedback at the completion of a group of actions gives the operators the
satisfaction of accomplishment, a sense of relief, the signal to drop
contingency plans and options from their minds, and this indicates that the
way ahead is clear to prepare for the next group of actions.

Offer simple error handling - As much as possible, design the system so
the user will not make a serious error. If an error is made, the system
should be able to detect it and offer simple, comprehensible mechanisms
for handling the error.

Permit easy reversal of actions - This feature relieves anxiety, since the
user knows that errors can be undone. Easy reversal of actions encourages
exploration of unfamiliar options. The units of reversibility may be a single
action, a data entry, or a complete group of actions.
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
Support internal locus of control - Experienced operators strongly
desire the sense that they are in charge of the system and that the system
responds to their actions. Design the system to make users the initiators of
actions rather than the responders.

Reduce short-term memory load - The limitation of human information
processing in short-term memory requires the displays to be kept simple,
multiple page displays to be consolidated, window-motion frequency be
reduced, and sufficient training time be allotted for codes, mnemonics, and
sequences of actions.
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Software Design Complexity
9
The term complexity stands for state of events or things, which have multiple
interconnected links and highly complicated structures. In software programming,
as the design of software is realized, the number of elements and their
interconnections gradually emerge to be huge, which becomes too difficult to
understand at once.
Software design complexity is difficult to assess without using complexity metrics
and measures. Let us see three important software complexity measures.
Halstead's Complexity Measures
In 1977, Mr. Maurice Howard Halstead introduced metrics to measure software
complexity. Halstead’s metrics depends upon the actual implementation of
program and its measures, which are computed directly from the operators and
operands from source code, in static manner. It allows to evaluate testing time,
vocabulary, size, difficulty, errors, and efforts for C/C++/Java source code.
According to Halstead, “A computer program is an implementation of an algorithm
considered to be a collection of tokens which can be classified as either operators
or operands”. Halstead metrics think a program as sequence of operators and
their associated operands.
He defines various indicators to check complexity of module. Following table
states the parameters and the meanings:
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Parameter
Meaning
n1
Number of unique operators
n2
Number of unique operands
N1
Number of total occurrence of operators
N2
Number of total occurrence of operands
When we select source file to view its complexity details in Metric Viewer, the
following result is seen in Metric Report:
Metric Meaning
Mathematical Representation
n
Vocabulary
n1 + n2
N
Size
N1 + N2
V
Volume
Length * Log2 Vocabulary
D
Difficulty
(n1/2) * (N1/n2)
E
Efforts
Difficulty * Volume
B
Errors
Volume / 3000
T
Testing time
Time = Efforts / S, where S=18 seconds.
Cyclomatic Complexity Measures
Every program encompasses statements to execute in order to perform some task
and other decision-making statements that decide, what statements need to be
executed. These decision-making constructs change the flow of the program.
If we compare two programs of same size, the one with more decision-making
statements will be more complex as the control of program jumps frequently.
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McCabe, in 1976, proposed Cyclomatic Complexity Measure to quantify complexity
of a given software. It is graph driven model that is based on decision-making
constructs of program such as if-else, do-while, repeat-until, switch-case and goto
statements.
Process to make flow control graph:

Break program in smaller blocks, delimited by decision-making constructs.

Create nodes representing each of these nodes.

Connect nodes as follows:
o
If control can branch from block i to block j
Draw an arc
o
From exit node to entry node
Draw an arc.
To calculate Cyclomatic complexity of a program module, we use the formula V(G) = e – n + 2
Where:
e is total number of edges
n is total number of nodes
The Cyclomatic complexity of the above module is
e = 10
n=8
Cyclomatic Complexity = 10 - 8 + 2
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=4
According to P. Jorgensen, Cyclomatic Complexity of a module should not exceed
10.
Function Point
It is widely used to measure the size of software. Function Point concentrates on
functionality provided by the system. Features and functionality of the system are
used to measure the software complexity.
Function point counts on five parameters, named as External Input, External
Output, Logical Internal Files, External Interface Files, and External Inquiry. To
consider the complexity of software each parameter is further categorized as
simple, average or complex.
Let us see parameters of function point:
External Input
Every unique input to the system, from outside, is considered as external input.
Uniqueness of input is measured, as no two inputs should have same formats.
These inputs can either be data or control parameters.

Simple - if input count is low and affects less internal files

Complex - if input count is high and affects more internal files
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
Average - in-between simple and complex.
External Output
All output types provided by the system are counted in this category. Output is
considered unique if their output format and/or processing are unique.

Simple - if output count is low

Complex - if output count is high

Average - in between simple and complex.
Logical Internal Files
Every software system maintains internal files in order to maintain its functional
information and to function properly. These files hold logical data of the system.
This logical data may contain both functional data and control data.

Simple - if number of record types are low

Complex - if number of record types are high

Average - in between simple and complex.
External Interface Files
Software system may need to share its files with some external software or it may
need to pass the file for processing or as parameter to some function. All these
files are counted as external interface files.

Simple - if number of record types in shared file are low

Complex - if number of record types in shared file are high

Average - in between simple and complex.
External Inquiry
An inquiry is a combination of input and output, where user sends some data to
inquire about as input and the system responds to the user with the output of
inquiry processed. The complexity of a query is more than External Input and
External Output. Query is said to be unique if its input and output are unique in
terms of format and data.

Simple - if query needs low processing and yields small amount of output
data

Complex - if query needs high process and yields large amount of output
data
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
Average - in between simple and complex.
Each of these parameters in the system is given weightage according to their class
and complexity. The table below mentions the weightage given to each parameter:
Parameter
Simple
Average
Complex
Inputs
3
4
6
Outputs
4
5
7
Enquiry
3
4
6
Files
7
10
15
Interfaces
5
7
10
The table above yields raw Function Points. These function points are adjusted
according to the environment complexity. System is described using fourteen
different characteristics:

Data communications

Distributed processing

Performance objectives

Operation configuration load

Transaction rate

Online data entry,

End user efficiency

Online update

Complex processing logic

Re-usability

Installation ease

Operational ease

Multiple sites

Desire to facilitate changes
These characteristics factors are then rated from 0 to 5, as mentioned below:

No influence
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
Incidental

Moderate

Average

Significant

Essential
All ratings are then summed up as N. The value of N ranges from 0 to 70 (14
types of characteristics x 5 types of ratings). It is used to calculate Complexity
Adjustment Factors (CAF), using the following formulae:
CAF = 0.65 + 0.01N
Then,
Delivered Function Points (FP)= CAF x Raw FP
This FP can then be used in various metrics, such as:

Cost = $ / FP

Quality = Errors / FP

Productivity = FP / person-month
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Software Implementation
10
In this chapter, we will study about programming methods, documentation and
challenges in software implementation.
Structured Programming
In the process of coding, the lines of code keep multiplying, thus, size of the
software increases. Gradually, it becomes next to impossible to remember the
flow of program. If one forgets how software and its underlying programs, files,
procedures are constructed, it then becomes very difficult to share, debug, and
modify the program. The solution to this is structured programming. It encourages
the developer to use subroutines and loops instead of using simple jumps in the
code, thereby bringing clarity in the code and improving its efficiency Structured
programming also helps programmer to reduce coding time and organize code
properly.
Structured programming states how the program shall be coded. It uses three
main concepts:
1. Top-down analysis - A software is always made to perform some rational
work. This rational work is known as problem in the software parlance. Thus
it is very important that we understand how to solve the problem. Under
top-down analysis, the problem is broken down into small pieces where
each one has some significance. Each problem is individually solved and
steps are clearly stated about how to solve the problem.
2. Modular Programming - While programming, the code is broken down
into smaller group of instructions. These groups are known as modules,
subprograms, or subroutines. Modular programming based on the
understanding of top-down analysis. It discourages jumps using ‘goto’
statements in the program, which often makes the program flow nontraceable. Jumps are prohibited and modular format is encouraged in
structured programming.
3. Structured Coding - In reference with top-down analysis, structured
coding sub-divides the modules into further smaller units of code in the
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order of their execution. Structured programming uses control structure,
which controls the flow of the program, whereas structured coding uses
control structure to organize its instructions in definable patterns.
Functional Programming
Functional programming is style of programming language, which uses the
concepts of mathematical functions. A function in mathematics should always
produce the same result on receiving the same argument. In procedural
languages, the flow of the program runs through procedures, i.e. the control of
program is transferred to the called procedure. While control flow is transferring
from one procedure to another, the program changes its state.
In procedural programming, it is possible for a procedure to produce different
results when it is called with the same argument, as the program itself can be in
different state while calling it. This is a property as well as a drawback of
procedural programming, in which the sequence or timing of the procedure
execution becomes important.
Functional programming provides means of computation as mathematical
functions, which produces results irrespective of program state. This makes it
possible to predict the behavior of the program.
Functional programming uses the following concepts:
First class and High-order functions - These functions have capability to
accept another function as argument or they return other functions as results.

Pure functions - These functions do not include destructive updates, that
is, they do not affect any I/O or memory and if they are not in use, they
can easily be removed without hampering the rest of the program.

Recursion - Recursion is a programming technique where a function calls
itself and repeats the program code in it unless some pre-defined condition
matches. Recursion is the way of creating loops in functional programming.

Strict evaluation - It is a method of evaluating the expression passed to
a function as an argument. Functional programming has two types of
evaluation methods, strict (eager) or non-strict (lazy). Strict evaluation
always evaluates the expression before invoking the function. Non-strict
evaluation does not evaluate the expression unless it is needed.

λ-calculus - Most functional programming languages use λ-calculus as
their type systems. λ-expressions are executed by evaluating them as they
occur.
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Common Lisp, Scala, Haskell, Erlang, and F# are some examples of functional
programming languages.
Programming style
Programming style is set of coding rules followed by all the programmers to write
the code. When multiple programmers work on the same software project, they
frequently need to work with the program code written by some other developer.
This becomes tedious or at times impossible, if all developers do not follow some
standard programming style to code the program.
An appropriate programming style includes using function and variable names
relevant to the intended task, using well-placed indentation, commenting code for
the convenience of reader and overall presentation of code. This makes the
program code readable and understandable by all, which in turn makes debugging
and error solving easier. Also, proper coding style helps ease the documentation
and updation.
Coding Guidelines
Practice of coding style varies with organizations, operating systems and language
of coding itself.
The following coding elements may be defined under coding guidelines of an
organization:

Naming conventions - This section defines how to name functions,
variables, constants and global variables.

Indenting - This is the space left at the beginning of line, usually 2-8
whitespace or single tab.

Whitespace - It is generally omitted at the end of line.

Operators - Defines the rules of writing mathematical, assignment and
logical operators. For example, assignment operator ‘=’ should have space
before and after it, as in “x = 2”.

Control Structures - The rules of writing if-then-else, case-switch, whileuntil and for control flow statements solely and in nested fashion.

Line length and wrapping - Defines how many characters should be there
in one line, mostly a line is 80 characters long. Wrapping defines how a line
should be wrapped, if is too long.
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
Functions - This defines how functions should be declared and invoked,
with and without parameters.

Variables - This mentions how variables of different data types are
declared and defined.

Comments - This is one of the important coding components, as the
comments included in the code describe what the code actually does and
all other associated descriptions. This section also helps creating help
documentations for other developers.
Software Documentation
Software documentation is an important part of software process. A well written
document provides a great tool and means of information repository necessary to
know about software process. Software documentation also provides information
about how to use the product.
A well-maintained documentation should involve the following documents:

Requirement documentation - This documentation works as key tool for
software designer, developer, and the test team to carry out their
respective tasks. This document contains all the functional, non-functional
and behavioral description of the intended software.
Source of this document can be previously stored data about the software,
already
running
software
at
the
client’s
end,
client’s
interview,
questionnaires, and research. Generally it is stored in the form of
spreadsheet or word processing document with the high-end software
management team.
This documentation works as foundation for the software to be developed
and is majorly used in verification and validation phases. Most test-cases
are built directly from requirement documentation.

Software Design documentation - These documentations contain all the
necessary information, which are needed to build the software. It
contains: (a) High-level
software
architecture, (b) Software
design
details, (c) Data flow diagrams, (d) Database design
These documents work as repository for developers to implement the
software. Though these documents do not give any details on how to code
the program, they give all necessary information that is required for coding
and implementation.
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
Technical documentation - These documentations are maintained by the
developers and actual coders. These documents, as a whole, represent
information about the code. While writing the code, the programmers also
mention objective of the code, who wrote it, where will it be required, what
it does and how it does, what other resources the code uses, etc.
The technical documentation increases the understanding between various
programmers working on the same code. It enhances re-use capability of
the code. It makes debugging easy and traceable.
There are various automated tools available and some comes with the
programming language itself. For example java comes JavaDoc tool to
generate technical documentation of code.

User documentation - This documentation is different from all the above
explained.
All previous
documentations
are
maintained
to
provide
information about the software and its development process. But user
documentation explains how the software product should work and how it
should be used to get the desired results.
These documentations may include, software installation procedures, howto guides, user-guides, uninstallation method and special references to get
more information like license updation etc.
Software Implementation Challenges
There are some challenges faced by the development team while implementing
the software. Some of them are mentioned below:

Code-reuse - Programming interfaces of present-day languages are very
sophisticated and are equipped huge library functions. Still, to bring the
cost down of end product, the organization management prefers to re-use
the code, which was created earlier for some other software. There are huge
issues faced by programmers for compatibility checks and deciding how
much code to re-use.

Version Management - Every time a new software is issued to the
customer, developers have to maintain version and configuration related
documentation. This documentation needs to be highly accurate and
available on time.

Target-Host - The software program, which is being developed in the
organization, needs to be designed for host machines at the customers end.
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But at times, it is impossible to design a software that works on the target
machines.
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Software Testing Overview
11
Software Testing is evaluation of the software against requirements gathered from
users and system specifications. Testing is conducted at the phase level in
software development life cycle or at module level in program code. Software
testing comprises of Validation and Verification.
Software Validation
Validation is process of examining whether or not the software satisfies the user
requirements. It is carried out at the end of the SDLC. If the software matches
requirements for which it was made, it is validated.

Validation ensures the product under development is as per the user
requirements.

Validation answers the question – "Are we developing the product which
attempts all that user needs from this software ?".

Validation emphasizes on user requirements.
Software Verification
Verification is the process of confirming if the software is meeting the business
requirements, and is developed adhering to the proper specifications and
methodologies.

Verification ensures the product being developed is according to design
specifications.

Verification answers the question– "Are we developing this product by firmly
following all design specifications ?"

Verifications concentrates on the design and system specifications.
Target of the test are 
Errors - These are actual coding mistakes made by developers. In addition,
there is a difference in output of software and desired output, is considered
as an error.
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
Fault - When error exists fault occurs. A fault, also known as a bug, is a
result of an error which can cause system to fail.

Failure - failure is said to be the inability of the system to perform the
desired task. Failure occurs when fault exists in the system.
Manual Vs Automated Testing
Testing can either be done manually or using an automated testing tool:

Manual - This testing is performed without taking help of automated
testing tools. The software tester prepares test cases for different sections
and levels of the code, executes the tests and reports the result to the
manager.
Manual testing is time and resource consuming. The tester needs to confirm
whether or not right test cases are used. Major portion of testing involves
manual testing.

Automated This testing is a testing procedure done with aid of automated
testing tools. The limitations with manual testing can be overcome using
automated test tools.
A test needs to check if a webpage can be opened in Internet Explorer. This can
be easily done with manual testing. But to check if the web-server can take the
load of 1 million users, it is quite impossible to test manually.
There are software and hardware tools which helps tester in conducting load
testing, stress testing, regression testing.
Testing Approaches
Tests can be conducted based on two approaches –
1. Functionality testing
2. Implementation testing
When functionality is being tested without taking the actual implementation in
concern it is known as black-box testing. The other side is known as white-box
testing where not only functionality is tested but the way it is implemented is also
analyzed.
Exhaustive tests are the best-desired method for a perfect testing. Every single
possible value in the range of the input and output values is tested. It is not
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possible to test each and every value in real world scenario if the range of values
is large.
Black-box testing
It is carried out to test functionality of the program and also called ‘Behavioral’
testing. The tester in this case, has a set of input values and respective desired
results. On providing input, if the output matches with the desired results, the
program is tested ‘ok’, and problematic otherwise.
In this testing method, the design and structure of the code are not known to the
tester, and testing engineers and end users conduct this test on the software.
Black-box testing techniques:

Equivalence class - The input is divided into similar classes. If one
element of a class passes the test, it is assumed that all the class is passed.

Boundary values - The input is divided into higher and lower end values.
If these values pass the test, it is assumed that all values in between may
pass too.

Cause-effect graphing - In both previous methods, only one input value
at a time is tested. Cause (input) – Effect (output) is a testing technique
where combinations of input values are tested in a systematic way.

Pair-wise Testing - The behavior of software depends on multiple
parameters. In pairwise testing, the multiple parameters are tested pairwise for their different values.

State-based testing - The system changes state on provision of input.
These systems are tested based on their states and input.
White-box testing
It is conducted to test program and its implementation, in order to improve code
efficiency or structure. It is also known as ‘Structural’ testing.
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In this testing method, the design and structure of the code are known to the
tester. Programmers of the code conduct this test on the code.
The below are some White-box testing techniques:

Control-flow testing - The purpose of the control-flow testing to set up
test cases which covers all statements and branch conditions. The branch
conditions are tested for both being true and false, so that all statements
can be covered.

Data-flow testing - This testing technique emphasis to cover all the data
variables included in the program. It tests where the variables were
declared and defined and where they were used or changed.
Testing Levels
Testing itself may be defined at various levels of SDLC. The testing process runs
parallel to software development. Before jumping on the next stage, a stage is
tested, validated and verified.
Testing separately is done just to make sure that there are no hidden bugs or
issues left in the software. Software is tested on various levels -
Unit Testing
While coding, the programmer performs some tests on that unit of program to
know if it is error free. Testing is performed under white-box testing approach.
Unit testing helps developers decide that individual units of the program are
working as per requirement and are error free.
Integration Testing
Even if the units of software are working fine individually, there is a need to find
out if the units if integrated together would also work without errors. For example,
argument passing and data updation etc.
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System Testing
The software is compiled as product and then it is tested as a whole. This can be
accomplished using one or more of the following tests:

Functionality testing - Tests all functionalities of the software against the
requirement.

Performance testing - This test proves how efficient the software is. It
tests the effectiveness and average time taken by the software to do desired
task. Performance testing is done by means of load testing and stress
testing where the software is put under high user and data load under
various environment conditions.

Security & Portability - These tests are done when the software is meant
to work on various platforms and accessed by number of persons.
Acceptance Testing
When the software is ready to hand over to the customer it has to go through last
phase of testing where it is tested for user-interaction and response. This is
important because even if the software matches all user requirements and if user
does not like the way it appears or works, it may be rejected.

Alpha testing - The team of developer themselves perform alpha testing
by using the system as if it is being used in work environment. They try to
find out how user would react to some action in software and how the
system should respond to inputs.

Beta testing - After the software is tested internally, it is handed over to
the users to use it under their production environment only for testing
purpose. This is not as yet the delivered product. Developers expect that
users at this stage will bring minute problems, which were skipped to
attend.
Regression Testing
Whenever a software product is updated with new code, feature or functionality,
it is tested thoroughly to detect if there is any negative impact of the added code.
This is known as regression testing.
Testing Documentation
Testing documents are prepared at different stages -
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Before Testing
Testing starts with test cases generation. Following documents are needed for
reference –

SRS document - Functional Requirements document

Test Policy document - This describes how far testing should take place
before releasing the product.

Test Strategy document - This mentions detail aspects of test team,
responsibility matrix and rights/responsibility of test manager and test
engineer.

Traceability Matrix document - This is SDLC document, which is related
to requirement gathering process. As new requirements come, they are
added to this matrix. These matrices help testers know the source of
requirement. They can be traced forward and backward.
While Being Tested
The following documents may be required while testing is started and is being
done:

Test Case document - This document contains list of tests required to be
conducted. It includes Unit test plan, Integration test plan, System test plan
and Acceptance test plan.

Test description - This document is a detailed description of all test cases
and procedures to execute them.

Test case report - This document contains test case report as a result of
the test.

Test logs - This document contains test logs for every test case report.
After Testing
The following documents may be generated after testing :

Test summary - This test summary is collective analysis of all test reports
and logs. It summarizes and concludes if the software is ready to be
launched. The software is released under version control system if it is
ready to launch.
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Testing vs. Quality Control & Assurance and Audit
We need to understand that software testing is different from software quality
assurance, software quality control and software auditing.

Software quality assurance - These are software development process
monitoring means, by which it is assured that all the measures are taken
as per the standards of organization. This monitoring is done to make sure
that proper software development methods were followed.

Software quality control - This is a system to maintain the quality of
software product. It may include functional and non-functional aspects of
software product, which enhance the goodwill of the organization. This
system makes sure that the customer is receiving quality product for their
requirement and the product certified as ‘fit for use’.

Software audit - This is a review of procedure used by the organization to
develop the software. A team of auditors, independent of development team
examines the software process, procedure, requirements and other aspects
of SDLC. The purpose of software audit is to check that software and its
development process, both conform standards, rules and regulations.
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Software Maintenance Overview
12
Software maintenance is widely accepted part of SDLC now a days. It stands for
all the modifications and updations done after the delivery of software product.
There are number of reasons, why modifications are required, some of them are
briefly mentioned below:

Market Conditions - Policies, which changes over the time, such as
taxation
and
newly
introduced
constraints
like,
how
to
maintain
bookkeeping, may trigger need for modification.

Client Requirements - Over the time, customer may ask for new features
or functions in the software.

Host Modifications - If any of the hardware and/or platform (such as
operating system) of the target host changes, software changes are needed
to keep adaptability.

Organization Changes - If there is any business level change at client
end, such as reduction of organization strength, acquiring another
company, organization venturing into new business, need to modify in the
original software may arise.
Types of maintenance
In a software lifetime, type of maintenance may vary based on its nature. It may
be just a routine maintenance tasks as some bug discovered by some user or it
may be a large event in itself based on maintenance size or nature. Following are
some types of maintenance based on their characteristics:

Corrective Maintenance - This includes modifications and updations done
in order to correct or fix problems, which are either discovered by user or
concluded by user error reports.

Adaptive Maintenance - This includes modifications and updations
applied to keep the software product up-to date and tuned to the ever
changing world of technology and business environment.
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
Perfective Maintenance - This includes modifications and updates done
in order to keep the software usable over long period of time. It includes
new features, new user requirements for refining the software and improve
its reliability and performance.

Preventive Maintenance - This includes modifications and updations to
prevent future problems of the software. It aims to attend problems, which
are not significant at this moment but may cause serious issues in future.
Cost of Maintenance
Reports suggest that the cost of maintenance is high. A study on estimating
software maintenance found that the cost of maintenance is as high as 67% of
the cost of entire software process cycle.
On an average, the cost of software maintenance is more than 50% of all SDLC
phases. There are various factors, which trigger maintenance cost go high, such
as:
Real-world factors affecting Maintenance Cost

The standard age of any software is considered up to 10 to 15 years.

Older softwares, which were meant to work on slow machines with less
memory and storage capacity cannot keep themselves challenging against
newly coming enhanced softwares on modern hardware.
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
As technology advances, it becomes costly to maintain old software.

Most maintenance engineers are newbie and use trial and error method to
rectify problem.

Often, changes made can easily hurt the original structure of the software,
making it hard for any subsequent changes.

Changes are often left undocumented which may cause more conflicts in
future.
Software-end factors affecting Maintenance Cost

Structure of Software Program

Programming Language

Dependence on external environment

Staff reliability and availability
Maintenance Activities
IEEE provides a framework for sequential maintenance process activities. It can
be used in iterative manner and can be extended so that customized items and
processes can be included.
These activities go hand-in-hand with each of the following phase:

Identification & Tracing - It involves activities pertaining to identification
of requirement of modification or maintenance. It is generated by user or
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system may itself report via logs or error messages.Here, the maintenance
type is classified also.

Analysis - The modification is analyzed for its impact on the system
including safety and security implications. If probable impact is severe,
alternative solution is looked for. A set of required modifications is then
materialized
into
requirement
specifications.
The
cost
of
modification/maintenance is analyzed and estimation is concluded.

Design - New modules, which need to be replaced or modified, are
designed against requirement specifications set in the previous stage. Test
cases are created for validation and verification.

Implementation - The new modules are coded with the help of structured
design created in the design step.Every programmer is expected to do unit
testing in parallel.

System Testing - Integration testing is done among newly created
modules. Integration testing is also carried out between new modules and
the system. Finally the system is tested as a whole, following regressive
testing procedures.

Acceptance Testing - After testing the system internally, it is tested for
acceptance with the help of users. If at this state, user complaints some
issues they are addressed or noted to address in next iteration.

Delivery - After acceptance test, the system is deployed all over the
organization either by small update package or fresh installation of the
system. The final testing takes place at client end after the software is
delivered.
Training facility is provided if required, in addition to the hard copy of user
manual.

Maintenance management - Configuration management is an essential
part of system maintenance. It is aided with version control tools to control
versions, semi-version or patch management.
Software Re-engineering
When we need to update the software to keep it to the current market, without
impacting its functionality, it is called software re-engineering. It is a thorough
process where the design of software is changed and programs are re-written.
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Legacy software cannot keep tuning with the latest technology available in the
market. As the hardware become obsolete, updating of software becomes a
headache. Even if software grows old with time, its functionality does not.
For example, initially Unix was developed in assembly language. When language
C came into existence, Unix was re-engineered in C, because working in assembly
language was difficult.
Other than this, sometimes programmers notice that few parts of software need
more maintenance than others and they also need re-engineering.
Re-Engineering Process

Decide what to re-engineer. Is it whole software or a part of it?

Perform Reverse Engineering, in order to obtain specifications of existing
software.

Restructure Program if required. For example, changing functionoriented programs into object-oriented programs.

Re-structure data as required.

Apply Forward engineering concepts in order to get re-engineered
software.
There are few important terms used in Software re-engineering
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Reverse Engineering
It is a process to achieve system specification by thoroughly analyzing,
understanding the existing system. This process can be seen as reverse SDLC
model, i.e. we try to get higher abstraction level by analyzing lower abstraction
levels.
An existing system is previously implemented design, about which we know
nothing. Designers then do reverse engineering by looking at the code and try to
get the design. With design in hand, they try to conclude the specifications. Thus,
going in reverse from code to system specification.
Program Restructuring
It is a process to re-structure and re-construct the existing software. It is all about
re-arranging the source code, either in same programming language or from one
programming language to a different one. Restructuring can have either source
code-restructuring and data-restructuring or both.
Re-structuring does not impact the functionality of the software but enhance
reliability and maintainability. Program components, which cause errors very
frequently can be changed, or updated with re-structuring.
The dependability of software on obsolete hardware platform can be removed via
re-structuring.
Forward Engineering
Forward engineering is a process of obtaining desired software from the
specifications in hand which were brought down by means of reverse engineering.
It assumes that there was some software engineering already done in the past.
Forward engineering is same as software engineering process with only one
difference – it is carried out always after reverse engineering.
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Component reusability
A component is a part of software program code, which executes an independent
task in the system. It can be a small module or sub-system itself.
Example
The login procedures used on the web can be considered as components, printing
system in software can be seen as a component of the software.
Components have high cohesion of functionality and lower rate of coupling, i.e.
they work independently and can perform tasks without depending on other
modules.
In OOP, the objects are designed are very specific to their concern and have fewer
chances to be used in some other software.
In modular programming, the modules are coded to perform specific tasks which
can be used across number of other software programs.
There is a whole new vertical, which is based on re-use of software component,
and is known as Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE).
Re-use can be done at various levels

Application level - Where an entire application is used as sub-system of
new software.

Component level - Where sub-system of an application is used.

Modules level - Where functional modules are re-used.
Software components provide interfaces, which can be used to establish
communication among different components.
Reuse Process
Two kinds of method that can be adopted: either by keeping requirements same
and adjusting components or by keeping components same and modifying
requirements.
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
Requirement
Specification -
The
functional
and
non-functional
requirements are specified, which a software product must comply to, with
the help of existing system, user input or both.

Design - This is also a standard SDLC process step, where requirements
are defined in terms of software parlance. Basic architecture of system as
a whole and its sub-systems are created.

Specify Components - By studying the software design, the designers
segregate the entire system into smaller components or sub-systems. One
complete software design turns into a collection of a huge set of
components working together.

Search Suitable Components - The software component repository is
referred by designers to search for the matching component, on the basis
of functionality and intended software requirements..

Incorporate Components - All matched components are packed together
to shape them as complete software.
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Software CASE Tools Overview
13
CASE stands for Computer Aided Software Engineering. It means, development
and maintenance of software projects with help of various automated software
tools.
CASE Tools
CASE tools are set of software application programs, which are used to automate
SDLC activities. CASE tools are used by software project managers, analysts and
engineers to develop software system.
There are number of CASE tools available to simplify various stages of Software
Development Life Cycle such as Analysis tools, Design tools, Project management
tools, Database Management tools, Documentation tools are to name a few.
Use of CASE tools accelerates the development of project to produce desired result
and helps to uncover flaws before moving ahead with next stage in software
development.
Components of CASE Tools
CASE tools can be broadly divided into the following parts based on their use at a
particular SDLC stage:

Central Repository - CASE tools require a central repository, which can
serve as a source of common, integrated and consistent information.
Central repository is a central place of storage where product specifications,
requirement documents, related reports and diagrams, other useful
information regarding management is stored. Central repository also serves
as data dictionary.
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
Upper Case Tools - Upper CASE tools are used in planning, analysis and
design stages of SDLC.

Lower Case Tools - Lower CASE tools are used in implementation, testing
and maintenance.

Integrated Case Tools - Integrated CASE tools are helpful in all the stages
of SDLC, from Requirement gathering to Testing and documentation.
CASE tools can be grouped together if they have similar functionality, process
activities and capability of getting integrated with other tools.
Scope of Case Tools
The scope of CASE tools goes throughout the SDLC. Now we briefly go through
various CASE tools
Diagram tools
These tools are used to represent system components, data and control flow
among various software components and system structure in a graphical form.
For example, Flow Chart Maker tool for creating state-of-the-art flowcharts.
Process Modeling Tools
Process modeling is method to create software process model, which is used to
develop the software. Process modeling tools help the managers to choose a
process model or modify it as per the requirement of software product. For
example, EPF Composer
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Project Management Tools
These tools are used for project planning, cost and effort estimation, project
scheduling and resource planning. Managers have to strictly comply project
execution with every mentioned step in software project management. Project
management tools help in storing and sharing project information in real-time
throughout the organization. For example, Creative Pro Office, Trac Project,
Basecamp.
Documentation Tools
Documentation in a software project starts prior to the software process, goes
throughout all phases of SDLC and after the completion of the project.
Documentation tools generate documents for technical users and end users.
Technical users are mostly in-house professionals of the development team who
refer to system manual, reference manual, training manual, installation manuals
etc. The end user documents describe the functioning and how-to of the system
such as user manual. For example, Doxygen, DrExplain, Adobe RoboHelp for
documentation.
Analysis Tools
These
tools
help
to
gather
requirements,
automatically
check
for
any
inconsistency, inaccuracy in the diagrams, data redundancies or erroneous
omissions. For example, Accept 360, Accompa, CaseComplete for requirement
analysis, Visible Analyst for total analysis.
Design Tools
These tools help software designers to design the block structure of the software,
which may further be broken down in smaller modules using refinement
techniques. These tools provides detailing of each module and interconnections
among modules. For example, Animated Software Design.
Configuration Management Tools
An instance of software is released under one version. Configuration Management
tools deal with –

Version and revision management

Baseline configuration management

Change control management
CASE tools help in this by automatic tracking, version management and release
management. For example, Fossil, Git, Accu REV.
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Change Control Tools
These tools are considered as a part of configuration management tools. They deal
with changes made to the software after its baseline is fixed or when the software
is first released. CASE tools automate change tracking, file management, code
management and more. It also helps in enforcing change policy of the
organization.
Programming Tools
These
tools
consist
of
programming
environments
like
IDE
(Integrated
Development Environment), in-built modules library and simulation tools. These
tools provide comprehensive aid in building software product and include features
for simulation and testing. For example, Cscope to search code in C, Eclipse.
Prototyping Tools
Software prototype is simulated version of the intended software product.
Prototype provides initial look and feel of the product and simulates few aspect of
actual product.
Prototyping CASE tools essentially come with graphical libraries. They can create
hardware independent user interfaces and design. These tools help us to build
rapid prototypes based on existing information. In addition, they provide
simulation of software prototype. For example, Serena prototype composer,
Mockup Builder.
Web Development Tools
These tools assist in designing web pages with all allied elements like forms, text,
script, graphic and so on. Web tools also provide live preview of what is being
developed and how will it look after completion. For example, Fontello, Adobe
Edge Inspect, Foundation 3, Brackets.
Quality Assurance Tools
Quality assurance in a software organization is monitoring the engineering process
and methods adopted to develop the software product in order to ensure
conformance of quality as per organization standards. QA tools consist of
configuration and change control tools and software testing tools. For example,
SoapTest, AppsWatch, JMeter.
Maintenance Tools
Software maintenance includes modifications in the software product after it is
delivered. Automatic logging and error reporting techniques, automatic error
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ticket generation and root cause Analysis are few CASE tools, which help software
organization in maintenance phase of SDLC. For example, Bugzilla for defect
tracking, HP Quality Center.
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