Operation - SPX Corporation
o p e r at i o n m a n ua l
P o r ta b l e G r o u n d P e n e t r at i n g R a da r Sys t e m
9 0 / RD 1 K- O P MAN - EN G / 0 3
Before you begin
Thank you for your interest in Radiodetection’s RD1000 ground
penetrating radar system.
Please read this operation manual before attempting to use the
RD1000 system.
Radiodetection products, including this manual, are under
continuous development. The information contained within is
accurate at time of publication; however the RD1000, this manual
and all its contents are subject to change.
Radiodetection Limited reserves the right to modify the product
without notice and some product changes may have taken place
after this user manual was published.
Contact your local Radiodetection dealer or visit
www.radiodetection.com for the latest information about the
RD1000, including this manual and other product literature.
2 RD1000™ Operation Manual
Important notices
This instrument, or family of instruments, will not be permanently
damaged by reasonable electrostatic discharge and has been
tested in accordance with IEC 801-2. However, in extreme cases
temporary malfunction may occur. If this happens, switch off, wait
and switch on again. If the instrument still malfunctions, disconnect
the batteries for a few seconds.
This equipment should be used by fully qualified and trained
personnel only.
This equipment is NOT approved for use in areas where hazardous
gases may be present.
Radiodetection provides training services for most Radiodetection
products. Our qualified instructors will train equipment operators
or other personnel at your preferred location or at Radiodetection
For more information go to www.radiodetection.com or contact your
local Radiodetection representative.
Copyright Statement
Copyright 2012 Radiodetection Ltd - SPX Corporation. All rights
reserved. Radiodetection is a subsidiary of SPX Corporation. SPX,
the green “>” and “X” are trademarks of SPX Corporation, Inc.
Radiodetection and RD1000 are trademarks of Radiodetection Ltd.
and SPX Corporation. Due to a policy of continued development,
we reserve the right to alter or amend any published specification
without notice. This document may not be copied, reproduced,
transmitted, modified or used, in whole or in part, without the prior
written consent of Radiodetection Ltd.
RD1000™ Operation Manual 3
Table of contents
Before you begin
Important notices
Copyright Statement
Section 1 Introduction
1.1 About this manual
1.2 About the RD1000
Section 2 System Assembly
Section 3 Getting Started
3.1 Using the Display Unit
3.2 System Settings Screen
3.2.1 Scan
3.2.2 Language
3.2.3 Units
3.2.4 Scale
3.2.5 Date
3.2.6 Time
3.2.7 Power Off
3.2.8 System Information
3.3 Scanning Screen
3.4 Locating screen
3.4.1 Locating Cursor
3.4.2 Soil Type
3.4.3 Identifying Air Wave Reflections
3.5 Image Settings Screen
3.5.1 Scan
3.5.2 Clear Image
3.5.3 Color
3.5.4 Gain
3.5.5 Filter
3.5.6 Depth
3.5.7 Quit
3.6 Changing the Date and Time
3.7 Screen icons
3.7.1 Systems settings menu
3.7.2 Locating screen menu
3.7.4 Date and time menus
Section 4 Surveying Techniques
4.1 Cross and mark
4.2 Limitations
Section 5 Troubleshooting
5.1 Power
5.2 System Communications
5.3 System Overheating
5.4 Display Unit Problem
5.5 Test Line
5.6 Contacting the Vendor for Service
Section 6 Care and Maintenance
6.1 Battery Care
6.2 Cable Care
6.3 Skid Pad
6.4 Odometer
6.5 Wheels
Appendix A
GPR Emissions, Interference and Regulations
FCC Regulations
Part 15 – User Information
Operating Restrictions
FCC Interpretation of Operation Restrictions issued July 12, 2002
FCC Permitted Mode of Usage
GPR Use Coordination
FCC Ground Penetrating Radar Coordination Notice
ETSI Regulations for the EC
Section 1 Introduction
1.1 About this manual
This manual provides cable and pipe locators with basic operating
instructions for the RD1000 ground penetrating radar system.
Before operating the RD1000 system it is very important that you
read this manual, noting all safety warnings and procedures.
Following is an overview of the RD1000 System and a brief
introduction to RD1000 and ground penetrating radar technology.
In the rest of this manual you will find assembly instructions
(Section 2), a getting started guide (Section 3) and an introductory
guide to cable and pipe surveying techniques (Section 4). Also
included is a troubleshooting guide in Section 5.
1.2 About the RD1000
The RD1000 is a ground penetrating radar system that allows the
user to see many underground features. Unlike a traditional locator,
the RD1000 uses radar technology (specifically in the UHF/VHF
frequencies) and produces a visual map with characteristic coneshaped images. The main advantage of this technology is that the
RD1000 can see non-conductive materials including plastic pipes.
The integrated digital signal processor (DSP) analyzes the resulting
image map to give the operator information on depth. The unique
ability to see a pipe or cable in its topographical context makes the
RD1000 ideal for locating and excavating utilities.
Please note that many factors can affect the
accuracy of the RD1000, including, without
limitation, soil and other environmental
conditions, electronic and radio signal
interference, surface depth of pipe or cable
to be located and operator error. As such,
Radiodetection assumes no liability for the
overall accuracy of the RD1000 and/or any maps
prepared using the RD1000.
6 RD1000™ Operation Manual
Section 2 System Assembly
1. Open the main box; remove the Accessory Box, Cart
Base, and Sensor Box. Open each box and lay out all the
Heavy object: Additional care must be taken when lifting.
23kg (51lb).
Figure 2.1: system components
2. Attach the Cart Handle to Cart Base using the Handle Pins.
Ensure the Display Unit Mount is facing upwards.
Figure 2.2: cart
RD1000™ Operation Manual 7
3. Attach the Sensor to the Cart using the Sensor Support
Straps. Ensure the Sensor is oriented the correct way with the
connections toward the back of the Cart. Using the Sensor
Support Straps, adjust the height of the Sensor so it’s 1-2 cm
(½ – ¾ inch) above the ground.
Figure 2.3: sensor
box installed
8 RD1000™ Operation Manual
4. Attach the Display Unit to the Display Unit Mount on the
Cart. Depress the flexible clip and slide the Display Unit
back far enough so the clip catches and secures it firmly in
place. Adjust the angle of the Display Unit by loosening the
hand-screws underneath the Display Unit Mount, rotating the
Display Unit to the desired angle and tightening the handscrews. This ensures the Display Unit does not rotate and
damage the Display Cable.
Figure 2.4: display
unit installed
RD1000™ Operation Manual 9
5. Attach the Display Cable to the back of the Display Unit with
the jackscrews. Connect the other end of the cable to the
Sensor. Ensure the cable is routed correctly; above the lower
cross arm on the Cart Handle and under the Battery tray.
Figure 2.5: installing the
battery cable
6. Attach the Odometer cable to the Sensor. It connects to the
closest receptacle on the Sensor.
Figure 2.6: installing the
odometer cable
10 RD1000™ Operation Manual
7. Attach the Battery Cable to the Sensor and the Battery. The
upper red light on the Display Unit will illuminate indicating
that there is power available for the system.
Figure 2.7: powering
the sensor box
The system is now ready to use. Please be sure to read the
remainder of this Operation Manual before using the system.
RD1000™ Operation Manual 11
Section 3 Getting Started
3.1 Using the Display Unit
The Display Unit has 8 buttons numbered 1 to 8, larger Pause and
Camera buttons as well as buttons to increase and decrease the
screen Contrast and Brightness.
Turn on the system by pressing any button on front of the Display
Unit. Both red lights will illuminate and after few seconds, the
splash screen and menu will appear.
The menu option on the screen
above the button indicates its
To operate the system:
1. The first screen displayed
when the system is
powered on is the System
Settings Screen. It has
Figure 3.1: display unit
options to start scanning
or change settings such
as language, measurement
units, date and time (see
Section 3.2).
2. To start scanning, press Scan to display the Scanning Screen.
When the scale appears on the right side of the screen, push
the cart. The data image scrolls across the screen from the
right (see Section 3.3).
3. Stop and back up to see the Locating Screen (see Section
3.4) to mark the exact position of a target on the ground and
to access the menu to estimate its depth.
12 RD1000™ Operation Manual
4. When you push the cart forward again and reach the point
where you originally stopped and backed up, the system will
automatically start scanning again. Or press Clear Screen to
start fresh.
5. At any time press the Pause button to change Depth, Color,
Gain etc. using the Image Settings Screen (see Section 3.5)
then press Scan (or Pause again) to continue.
6. If the Display Unit has Compact Flash disk, pressing the
Camera button saves the current screen image to the
Compact Flash. Later, transfer images to a PC for re-plotting
and printing.
3.2 System Settings Screen
3.2.1 Scan
Press the Scan button to start
scanning (see Section 3.3).
3.2.2 Language
Select the language for the
menus. Current options are
English or Icons. This manual
generally uses the English
menus. See Section 3.7 for a
chart showing all the equivalent
Figure 3.2: system settings screen
RD1000™ Operation Manual 13
3.2.3 Units
Units for the Position Axis, Depth Axis and Depth Indicator can be
either Meters or Feet.
Figure 3.3: units
3.2.4 Scale
The Scale button toggles to four different Scale options:
1. Lines means Depth Lines
are plotted on the data
image to assist with
determining the depth of
targets (also see Section
Figure 3.4: depth lines
2. Text means Depth Values
are plotted in the center
of the data image every 8
metres (26 feet):
Figure 3.5: text depth markers
14 RD1000™ Operation Manual
3. Both means both Depth
Lines and Values are
plotted on the data image:
4. Off means no Depth Lines
and Values are plotted on
the data image.
Figure 3.6: text and line depth markers
3.2.5 Date
Opens the Date Screen to change the current date (see Section
3.5). Images are saved with this date.
3.2.6 Time
Opens the Time Screen to change the current date (see Section
3.5). Images are saved with this time.
3.2.7 Power Off
Opens a sub-menu to confirm powering off the system. There is
also an option to restore the system to factory default settings.
3.2.8 System Information
The top of the Systems Setting Screen displays the serial number
of the GPR sensor, the software version number, the GPR Sensor
frequency (in MHz) and the current battery voltage.
RD1000™ Operation Manual 15
3.3 Scanning Screen
After pressing the Scan button, wait a few seconds for the vertical
depth scale to appear on the right side of the screen, and then
push the Cart forward.
A cross-sectional image of the ground scrolls onto the screen from
the right to left. The position is displayed on the horizontal axis
at the top while the depth is displayed on the vertical axis. The
position and depth axes units are meters or feet depending on the
units set in the Systems Setting Screen (Section 3.2).
If the Scale or Both option is
selected (Section 3.2), horizontal
depth lines appear on the image
to assist with determining the
depth of targets.
Approximately 16 meters (50
feet) of data is displayed on one
screen. If the survey line exceeds
this distance the image will scroll
off the left side of the screen.
Figure 3.7: scanning screen
To save the current screen image to file, press the Camera button
on the Display Unit. The image number appears on the bottom of
the screen with a message to press any button to continue.
A message will appear on the screen if there is no Compact Flash
card in the Display Unit. Images are only saved when a card is
Pressing any of the number
buttons on the Display Unit
marked 1 to 8 while scanning
adds a numbered marker at the
current position.
Figure 3.8: number marker
16 RD1000™ Operation Manual
Pressing the Pause button opens the Image Settings Screen to
change the current Color Palette, Depth, Filter and Gain (see
Section 3.5).
Stopping and pulling the cart backwards along the same path
automatically opens the Locating Screen (See Section 3.4) used to
pinpoint the position and depth of a target.
3.4 Locating screen
The Locating Screen is accessed by stopping and pulling the cart
backwards while scanning. The cursor moves over the image and
menu options appear at the bottom of the screen.
3.4.1 Locating Cursor
The Cursor consists of 3 parts:
Position Indicator
Vertical cross-hair is tied to the
odometer and corresponds to
the location at the center of
the GPR sensor. As the cart is
pulled backwards, the Position
Indicator moves to indicate the
current location of the cart in the
Figure 3.9: locating screen
Depth Indicator
Horizontal cross-hair found at the peak of the soil type indicator
arch indicating the depth. The Depth Indicator moves up or down
using the Arch Up and Down buttons.
RD1000™ Operation Manual 17
Indicator Arch
Idealized representation of a typical pipe-like target response
observed on the GPR image. The width of the arch is controlled by
soil type setting. The soil type setting is changed using the Arch
buttons. Increasing the soil type makes the indicator arch wider
while decreasing the soil type makes it narrower.
3.4.2 Soil Type
To obtain an accurate depth axis and depth estimations of targets
in the GPR image, a Soil Type Calibration must be performed. Soil
Type Calibration can be done 3 ways:
1. Matching the shape of a target arch,
2. Using a target at a known depth, or,
3. Using the moisture level of the soil.
Matching a Target Arch
Targets like pipes, cables, buried artefacts, tree roots and rocks
generate arch-shaped responses on the GPR image.
Arches occur because GPR energy does not travel into the ground
as a pencil-thin beam but more like a 3D cone. Reflections can
appear on the record even though the object is not directly below
the GPR sensor. Thus, the GPR sensor “sees” the pipe before and
after going over top of it and forms an arch-shaped response on
the image.
Figure 3.10: matching a target line
18 RD1000™ Operation Manual
Cross long, linear targets like pipes or cables at a 90 degree
angle to produce a target arch suitable for the soil type calibration.
The depth estimation of a target will be incorrect if the soil type
calibration is done on a target arch produced at an oblique angle
(smaller that 90 degrees).
Figure 3.11: estimating target depth
To determine the Soil Type using a Target Arch:
1. With a target arch visible
on the image, back the
cart up until the Position
Indicator is centered on
the target arch in the GPR
image; preferably one with
long tails because this
provides the most accurate
soil type calibration.
Figure 3.12: position indicator
2. As you slow down and
stop, the Indicator Arch will
appear on the data image.
Figure 3.13: indicator arch
RD1000™ Operation Manual 19
3. Use the Up and Down
Arrows to move the
Indicator Arch shallower or
deeper in the GPR image
respectively, until it lies over
the top of the target arch.
Figure 3.14: indicator arch cont.
4. Press the Soil Type button
and toggle through the five
different soil types to find
the one that roughly fits the
shape of the Indicator Arch
to the shape of the Target
Figure 3.15: indicator arch cont.
5. Use the Wide and Narrow
Arch buttons to change the
shape of the Indicator Arch
to match the shape of the
Target Arch on the GPR
image. The depth of the
target is indicated on the
bottom left.
Figure 3.16: indicator arch cont.
6. Press the Apply button to save the Soil Type and update the
Depth Axis on the Scanning Screen. The Depth axis can now
be used to estimate the depth of targets while scanning in
the area.
20 RD1000™ Operation Manual
Target at Known Depth
If there are no suitable arches visible in the image to perform the
Target Arch Matching described above, there may be a target of
known depth in the area being scanned.
To determine the Soil Type using a target at known depth:
1. With the target response visible on the image, use the Up
and Down Arrows to move the Depth Indicator (and Indicator
Arch) until it lies on top of the GPR response of the known
2. Use the Wide and Narrow Arch buttons to change the shape
of the Indicator Arch until the depth of the target, displayed in
red above the menu, is correct.
3. Once the depth is matched, save the Soil Type value by
pressing the Save button.
Soil Moisture
If a good target arch or a target of known depth is not available,
the user will have to estimate the Soil Type. The soil type is most
strongly affected by water so the soil type options relate to the
amount of water in the soil.
Change the soil type by pressing the Soil Moisture button until the
option that best describes the soil in the area is displayed. The
options are Very Dry, Dry, Moist, Wet and Very Wet Soil.
RD1000™ Operation Manual 21
3.4.3 Identifying Air Wave Reflections
Some arches in the image can be caused by objects that are not
in the subsurface, such as posts, fences, overhead wires and even
An important part of understanding the data image is learning to
recognize these unwanted “air” targets and differentiate them from
the targets in the ground.
One way of identifying air reflections is to use the target arch
method described above. However, arches from above-ground
objects are wider than objects in the ground and out of the range of
the maximum Soil Type.
Therefore, if the widest Indicator Arch is still not wide enough to
match the target arch, the target arch is from on object in the air,
not the ground.
Figure 3.17: air wave reflections
22 RD1000™ Operation Manual
Figure 3.18: image settings screen
3.5 Image Settings Screen
The Image Settings Screen is accessed by pressing the Pause (||)
button while in the Scanning Screen or the Locating Screen. Menu
options appear along the bottom of the screen:
Figure 3.19: scan screen
3.5.1 Scan
To exit from the Image Settings
Screen and resume Scanning,
press the Scan button or the
Pause (||) button again (to
resume). The Scanning Screen
returns at the current location
with the position information
If, while paused in the Image Settings Screen, the cart has moved
more than a few centimeters, when scanning is restarted, a gap
called a Position Break will appear in the image. The position break
is also indicated by a message on the bottom of the screen and the
Position Axis along the top of the data image resetting to zero.
3.5.2 Clear Image
Deletes the current data image on the display.
RD1000™ Operation Manual 23
3.5.3 Color
GPR images are displayed in colors corresponding to a color
palette. In general, stronger GPR signals appear in stronger colors.
A number of different color palettes are available to display the
image. Some color palettes may show the target better than others.
Figure 3.20: color adjustments
24 RD1000™ Operation Manual
3.5.4 Gain
Since GPR signals are absorbed by the material being scanned,
deeper targets have weaker signals. Gain acts like an audio volume
control, amplifying the signals and making deeper targets appear
stronger in the image. The Gain varies from 1 to 9 with 1 being no
gain and 9 being the maximum gain.
As the Gain changes, the current image on the display updates so it
is not necessary to re-collect an image with a different gain setting.
Use the lowest gain setting that shows the targets. Try to avoid
over-gaining as understanding the image may become
more difficult.
Figure 3.21: gain adjustments
RD1000™ Operation Manual 25
3.5.5 Filter
The filter has the effect of removing flat-lying reflections in the
image and enhancing the dipping reflections and arches usually
caused by targets. It can also assist in identifying very shallow
targets that might be masked by the strong signals at the top of the
The Filter defaults to ON, so if you are looking for a layer or other
flat-lying target, turn the Filter OFF.
The image below shows the same scan with the Filter OFF and ON.
Figure 3.22: filter adjustments
26 RD1000™ Operation Manual
3.5.6 Depth
The depth setting is an estimate of the total depth displayed on the
Scanning Screen based on the current Soil Type setting. The depth
setting ranges from 1 to 8 meters.
Figure 3.23: reading depth
The system always collects data to a depth of approximately 8
meters but the Depth setting on this menu determines how much
of the data is displayed on the screen. It is possible to scan with a
Depth setting of, say 2 meters, pause scanning and then increase
the depth setting to re-display the image to look for deeper targets.
3.5.7 Quit
Exits the Scanning and Image Settings Screens and returns to the
Systems Settings Screen.
RD1000™ Operation Manual 27
3.6 Changing the Date and Time
To change the time:
1. From the System Settings
Screen, select the Date
option. The Time option is
2. Use the Left and Right
Arrow buttons to highlight
the number to change in
3. Increase the number using
the Up Arrow and decrease
the number using the Down
Figure 3.24: time and date
adjustment screen
4. Pressing OK saves the new date or time and exits the screen.
5. Pressing Cancel exits the screen without saving the date or
28 RD1000™ Operation Manual
3.7 Screen icons
3.7.1 Systems settings menu
Power Off
RD1000™ Operation Manual 29
3.7.2 Locating screen menu
Clear Image
Very Dry Soil Dry Soil
Moist Soil
Wet Soil
3.7.3 Image settings screen menu
Clear Image
30 RD1000™ Operation Manual
Very Wet
3.7.4 Date and time menus
RD1000™ Operation Manual 31
Section 4 Surveying Techniques
4.1 Cross and mark
The most common method of locating is cross and mark as you
go. This method works well in favourable soils and uncluttered
settings. Cross and mark is very similar to the use of traditional
current tracking utility detectors. The Cart is moved along sweeps
perpendicular to the anticipated utility axis (see figure below). When
the GPR sensor crosses the utility, the image shows an arch. The
top of the arch is the position of the utility. The depth to the top of
the arch is an estimated depth.
By moving the GPR back and forth and marking the ground where
the top of the arch is observed, the alignment of the subsurface
utility can be traced out as the X’s in the figure indicate.
Figure 4.1:
cross and mark
For example, a concrete storm sewer alignment was located under
the road in the figure and data images of lines 1, 2 and 3 below.
The target arch visible on each scan clearly identifies the pipe
Figure 4.2: locating a concrete pipe
32 RD1000™ Operation Manual
Notice that as the pipe gets deeper, the strength of the target arch
gets weaker. This is a result of the GPR signal being absorbed as
it travels deeper into the subsurface. In all soil types eventually the
GPR signal will be completely absorbed and only the background
radio noise in the area will be detected by the GPR sensor. The
noise is seen in the image a fuzzy signal like a TV station not
properly received. To see the deepest possible targets with a GPR,
it is important to have a quiet, highly sensitive system.
4.2 Limitations
GPR is not without its limitations. GPR radio wave signals are
absorbed by the ground with some soils (clays, saline) greatly
limiting exploration depth. GPR effectiveness is thus site specific
and varies greatly from place-to-place. GPR also responds to
changes in soil type, density, water content, as well as many other
buried objects; making unique identification of the desired target
difficult. (i.e. you can not see the individual tree in the middle of the
Please note that many factors can affect the
accuracy of the RD1000, including, without
limitation, soil and other environmental
conditions, electronic and radio signal
interference, surface depth of pipe or cable
to be located and operator error. As such,
Radiodetection assumes no liability for the
overall accuracy of the RD1000 and/or any maps
prepared using the RD1000.
RD1000™ Operation Manual 33
Section 5 Troubleshooting
The system is designed to minimize user problems; however, all
electronic devices are subject to possible failure. The following are
troubleshooting hints in the likelihood of occurrence if your system
fails to operate.
5.1 Power
The most common problem that can occur while trying to run the
system is insufficient power. The battery may be dead, have a low
voltage or the fuse may be blown.
If there is enough power to run the Display Unit, the upper red light
on the front of the Display Unit will illuminate when the battery is
plugged in.
If the battery voltage is less than about 10.2 volts, the Display Unit
may not turn on and the upper red light will flash or not illuminate at
Check the battery voltage with a voltmeter. Try to do this while
the system is still attached to the Cart to get a true measure of
the voltage while under load (it will be necessary to open the Cart
battery case and connect the voltmeter to the positive and negative
battery terminals). If the battery has a low voltage or seems dead,
try the system with another battery (if available), or give the battery
a good 12-14 hour charge and try running the system again. If in
doubt, consult a qualified electrician.
If the battery does not charge up to 12 Volts or more, it should be
Batteries are fused to protect the system. Open the battery case
and check that the 10 Amp fuse is OK. If necessary, replace it with
one of the spare fuses available inside the battery case.
If the battery seems OK but the system still does not power up,
check the battery cable connections and inspect the battery cable
for damage.
34 RD1000™ Operation Manual
5.2 System Communications
If the battery is OK and the Display Unit turns on but the GPR
sensor does not scan, there may be a communication failure
between the Display Unit and the GPR sensor. If an error occurs,
an error message will appear. Power Off the system and disconnect
the battery.
Make sure the display cable is not damaged; all pins are straight
and blow out the connector sockets as small debris may block
individual pin connections and disrupt communications. Ensure that
the cable connections are tightly secured. Sometimes vibrations
cause the cable connections to loosen just a bit and break
contact and this can cause errors. Disconnecting the cable and
reconnecting it may provide a better contact and solve the problem.
Plug in the battery, turn on the system and try scanning again.
If the battery, Battery Cable and Display Cable are OK, the problem
is either a failure of the Display Unit or the GPR sensor. These
units have no user-serviceable parts so it will have to the vendor for
inspection and possible repair.
5.3 System Overheating
The GPR system is designed to operate to a maximum internal
temperature of 70ºC (158ºF). In situations of high ambient
temperatures or long exposure to direct sun, this maximum internal
temperature may be exceeded and cause the system to fail.
If you suspect that the GPR sensor is overheating, shut it off and
give it a chance to cool down in a shady location before trying to
run it again. Placing a wet cloth on top of the GPR may help in
cooling it down.
If the situation is such that the high temperatures or direct sun
cannot be avoided, it may be a good idea to put some sort of shade
over the GPR sensor.
RD1000™ Operation Manual 35
5.4 Display Unit Problem
While the Display Unit is weatherproof and fairly rugged, it should
be handled in much the same way a notebook computer is. If the
Display Unit does not power up, there may be a problem with the
CPU or the storage media. Always make sure that the access port
on the top of the display unit is closed and sealed.
5.5 Test Line
One of the best ways of detecting problems with the system is,
shortly after receiving the system and getting comfortable with its
operation, collect a line of data at a convenient, easily accessible
location. The line does not have to be too long but one screen (16
meters (50 feet)) is a good guide. This data line should be saved
electronically and perhaps plotted out on paper and dated. The test
line could be collected say, every 6 months and, by reviewing the
previous data, system problems can be detected early. As well, if
there is a suspected problem with the system, this test line could
be collected and compared with earlier tests.
5.6 Contacting the Vendor for Service
When returning the Vendor, have the following information available:
1. GPR sensor Serial Number displayed at the top of the System
Settings Screen.
2. A brief description of when the error is happening and the
operating conditions (temperature, humidity, sunshine, system
settings, etc.).
36 RD1000™ Operation Manual
Section 6 Care and Maintenance
6.1 Battery Care
The RD1000 uses a 9-Amp-hour, 12-Volt sealed lead acid battery.
It is fused with a 10 Amp fuse to protect it from short circuit
The battery unit should run the Cart for 6-8 hours before recharging
is necessary. If long days of data surveying are typical, a second
battery unit may be a useful item.
The battery is strapped onto the cart base and is normally
recharged without removing it from the cart. However, the battery
can be easily removed for maintenance or for recharging, if
If batteries are maintained in a charged condition they will give long
life and reliable service. Improper use and lack of maintenance will
greatly reduce their life.
Sealed lead acid batteries should NEVER be left in a discharged
condition for any period of time. Charge the batteries as soon as
possible after use.
Charge the battery at room temperature whenever possible.
The RD1000 has a voltage monitoring circuit that will turn off the
unit when the input voltage drops below 10.2 volts.
If a battery has been deeply discharged or left in a discharged
condition for some period of time it may not accept charge
immediately when it is connected to the charger (The fast charge
light will not illuminate). If the fast charge light does not come on
within 6 hours the battery should be considered damaged and
should be discarded.
Do not assume that a battery that is still charging after 8 hours is
nearing the end of its charge cycle. Typical charging time for an
empty battery is 12-14 hours from start of fast charge.
RD1000™ Operation Manual 37
Ensure that the batteries are fully charged before storing. If
practical, store the batteries in a cool place, 10oC (a refrigerator
is ideal), but make sure the temperature is not likely to drop below
-30oC or the electrolyte may freeze and possibly split the case.
Batteries should be disposed of in accordance with your company’s
work practice, and/or any relevant laws or guidelines in your
6.2 Cable Care
1. The cable connectors as well as the connectors on the GPR
Sensor and Display Unit need to stay clean and free of dust
and moisture. Use a brush or air spray to clean dust, lint and
other foreign particles from these connectors.
2. When the system is not being used, make sure the
connections are done up to prevent dust and moisture from
collecting inside. If the connectors are exposed, cover them
with some sort of dust cap.
3. Cables are designed to be as tough as practical.
4. Careless use of cables making them carry loads that they are
not designed for can cause internal damage.
5. Connectors are weak points in any system. With the use of
this product in rough, dusty and outdoor environments, users
can minimize potential down time if they care for cables and
treat connectors with respect.
6. Cables and connectors are not designed to suspend or tow
or otherwise carry the weight of systems. They are part of the
electronic circuit and should be treated accordingly. When not
in use they should be placed in their storage box.
38 RD1000™ Operation Manual
6.3 Skid Pad
The bottom of the GPR Sensor is covered with one large wearresistant skid pad. The skid pad is designed to take the majority of
the abrasive wear. If the pad wears down enough, the less-resistant
plastic housing may start to wear. If this occurs, it is best to replace
the skid pad. It is easily removed with a screwdriver and a new one
can be purchased from the vendor.
6.4 Odometer
The odometer is factory calibrated and does not require maintenance.
6.5 Wheels
Over time, the wheel attached to the odometer (back, right wheel)
may become slightly wobbly as the axle bushing wears. To ensure
smooth operation, the wheel nut may need to be tightened manually.
Insert a large slotted screwdriver into the slot at the end of the axle
and use a large 19mm (¾") wrench to tighten the wheel nut slightly.
The nut only has to be turned slightly, 1/8th -1/16th of a turn is
usually enough. Spin the wheel to make sure it is still free and not
too tight.
RD1000™ Operation Manual 39
Appendix A
GPR Emissions, Interference and Regulations
All governments have regulations on the level of electromagnetic
emissions that an electronic apparatus can emit. The objective
is to assure that one apparatus or device does not interfere with
any other apparatus or device in such a way as to make the other
apparatus non-functional.
The manufacturer test their GPR products using independent
professional testing houses and comply with latest regulations
of the USA, Canada, European Community, and other major
jurisdictions on the matter of emissions.
Electronic devices have not always been designed for proper
immunity. If a GPR instrument is placed in close proximity to an
electronic device, interference may occur. While there have been
no substantiated reports of interference to date, if any unusual
behavior is observed on nearby devices, test if the disturbance
starts and stops when the GPR instrument is turned on and off.
If interference is confirmed, stop using the GPR.
Where specific jurisdictions have specific GPR guidelines, these
are described below.
FCC Regulations
This device complies with Part 15 of the USA Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) Rules. Operation in the USA
is subject to the following two conditions:
1. this device may not cause harmful interference and
2. this device must accept any interference received, including
interference that may cause undesired operation.
Part 15 – User Information
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits
for a Class A digital device, where applicable, and for an ultrawide
40 RD1000™ Operation Manual
bandwidth (UWB) device where applicable, pursuant to Part 15 of
the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference when the equipment is
operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates,
uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed
and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause
harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of
this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful
interference in which case the user will be required to correct the
interference at his own expense.
Changes or Modifications not expressly approved by the
manufacturer could void the user’s authority to operate the
Certification of this equipment has been carried out using approved
cables and peripheral devices. The use of non-approved or
modified cables and peripheral devices constitutes a Change or
Modification outlined in the warning above.
Operating Restrictions
Operation of this device is limited to purposes associated with
law enforcement, fire fighting, emergency rescue, scientific
research, commercial mining, or construction. Parties operating this
equipment must be eligible for licensing under the provisions of
Part 90 of this chapter.
FCC Interpretation of Operation Restrictions issued
July 12, 2002
(FCC Order DA02-1658, paragraph 9)
The regulations contain restrictions on the parties that are eligible to
operate imaging systems (See 47 C.F.R. §§15.509(b), 15.511(b),
and 15.513(b)). Under the new regulations, GPRs and wall
imaging systems may be used only by law enforcement, fire and
emergency rescue organizations, by scientific research institutes,
by commercial mining companies, and by construction companies.
Since the adoption of the Order, we have received several inquiries
from the operators of GPRs and wall imaging systems noting
RD1000™ Operation Manual 41
that these devices often are not operated by the users listed in
the regulations but are operated under contract by personnel
specifically trained in the operation of these devices. We do not
believe that the recent adoption of the UWB rules should disrupt
the critical safety services that can be performed effectively only
through the use of GPRs and wall imaging systems. We viewed
these operating restrictions in the broadest of terms. For example,
we believe that the limitation on the use of GPRs and wall imaging
systems by construction companies encompasses the inspection
of buildings, roadways, bridges and runways even if the inspection
finds no damage to the structure and construction does not actually
result from the inspection; the intended purpose of the operation
of the UWB device is to determine if construction is required.
We also believe that the GPRs and wall imaging systems may be
operated for one of the purposes described in the regulations but
need not be operated directly by one of the described parties.
For example, a GPR may be operated by a private company
investigating forensic evidence for a local police department.
FCC Permitted Mode of Usage
The GPR antenna must be kept on the surface to be in compliance
with FCC regulations. Use of the antenna is not permitted if it is
lifted off the surface. Use as a through-the-wall imaging device is
GPR Use Coordination
FCC regulation 15.525(c) (updated in February 2007) requires
users of GPR equipment to coordinate the use of their GPR
equipment as described below:
(a) UWB imaging systems require coordination through the FCC
before the equipment may be used. The operator shall comply
with any constraints on equipment usage resulting from this
(b) The users of UWB imaging devices shall supply operational
areas to the FCC Office of Engineering and Technology, which shall
coordinate this information with the Federal Government through
the National Telecommunications and Information Administration.
42 RD1000™ Operation Manual
The information provided by the UWB operator shall include the
name, address and other pertinent contact information of the
user, the desired geographical area(s) of operation, and the FCC
ID number and other nomenclature of the UWB device. If the
imaging device is intended to be used for mobile applications, the
geographical area(s) of operation may be the state(s) or county(ies)
in which the equipment will be operated. The operator of an imaging
system used for fixed operation shall supply a specific geographical
location or the address at which the equipment will be operated.
This material shall be submitted to:
Frequency Coordination Branch, OET
Federal Communications Commission
445 12th Street, SW,
Washington, D.C. 20554
Attn: UWB Coordination
The form given on the following page is a suggested format for
performing the coordination.
RD1000™ Operation Manual 43
FCC Ground Penetrating Radar Coordination Notice
Send the information to:
Frequency Coordination Branch., OET
Federal Communications Commission
445 12th Street, SW
Washington, D.C. 20554
ATTN: UWB Coordination
Fax: 202-418-1944
44 RD1000™ Operation Manual
ETSI Regulations for the EC
In the European Community (EC), GPR instruments must conform
to ETSI (European Technical Standards Institute) standard
EN302066. Details on individual country requirements for licensing
are coordinated with this standard. For more information, contact
the GPR system vendor.
This GPR product offered for sale in European Community
countries or countries adhering to ETSI standards is tested to
comply with EN302066.
RD1000™ Operation Manual 45
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© 2013 Radiodetection Ltd. - SPX Corporation. All rights reserved. Radiodetection is a subsidiary of SPX Corporation. SPX, the
green “>” and “X” are trademarks of SPX Corporation, Inc. Radiodetection and RD1000 are trademarks of Radiodetection Ltd.
Due to a policy of continued development, we reserve the right to alter or amend any published specification without notice.
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