Pairing of wireless devices using a wired medium

Pairing of wireless devices using a wired medium
USOO7913297B2
(12) Unlted States Patent
(10) Patent N0.:
Wyld
(45) Date of Patent:
(54) PAIRING OF WIRELESS DEVICES USINGA
WIRED MEDIUM
Inventori
Jeremy Wyld, San Jose, CA (Us)
gfi?gg, Jr~
4,371,945 A
4,375,674 A
2/1983 Karr et 31.
3/1983 Thornton
( * ) Notice:
,
u
4,386,345 A
(73) Assignee: Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA (US)
Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this
1/1984 Morrison
4,434,801 A
3/1984 JimineZ et a1.
4,451,849 A
5/1984 Fuhrer
32212151;
ngrmyer
patent 15 extended or adjusted under 35
4,578,769 A
3/1986 Frederick
U-S-C- 154(1)) by 1222 days-
4,589,022 A
.
,
,
1
4,625,733 A
Appl.No.: 11/513,692
5/1986 Prince 6161.
9/1987 Vlakancic 6161.
10/1987 Chateau et al.
Aug. 30, 2006
(65)
(Continued)
Prior Publication Data
Us 2008/0070501 A1
e0
12/1986 Saynajakangas
4,694,694 A
4,699,379 A
(22) Filed:
5/1983 Narveson et a1.
4,423,630 A
2
.
(21)
Mar. 22, 2011
2
,
(75)
US 7,913,297 B2
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
Mar. 20, 2008
DE
43 34 773 A1
4/1994
(Continued)
(51)
Int. Cl.
G06F 7/04
(200601)
(52) IGJOS6Fcllj/l6
(58)
Field
.
-
OTHER PUBLICATIONS
(200601)
of
- Classi?cation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Search
. . . . . . . . . . . . . ......................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
726/5
Bisdikian, Chatschik. “An Overview of the Bluetooth Wireless Tech
726/5
nology»,
_
See application ?le for complete search history.
(56)
(commued)
References Cited
Primary Examiner * Michael J Simitoski
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Beyer LaW Group LLP
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
3,612,265 A
10/1971 Dickerson
3,807,388 A
3’918’058 A
11/1975 Noyon et 31'
otherWireless devices are disclosed Accordin to one as ect
3,958,459
A
5/1976
Shimomura
3,978,725
4,089,057
4,090,216
4,101,873
A
A
A
A
9/1976
5/ 197 8
5/1973
7/1978
Haditke
Eriksson
Constable
Anderson et al'
4,114,450 A
(57)
ABSTRACT
Techniques that facilitate pairing of Wireless devices With
4/1974 on et 9L
.
9/1978 Shulmann et al.
4,195,642 A
4,210,024 A
4/1980 Price etal‘
7/1980 Ishiwatari et al‘
4,223,211 A
9/1980 Allsen et 31.
4,248,244 A
2/1981 Charnitski et a1.
.
.
'
.
g
.
p
’
a pan of W1reless deV1ces can be pa1red for W1reless data
exchange using an available Wired link. Advantageously, the
Wired link can be used to transport a pin code from one of the
Wireless devices to the other. Consequently, pairing of the
-
1
d
-
b
1 t d
~th
t
-t t
W1re ess ev1ces can ecomp e e vv1 ou ne~cess1 a mg user
entry ofa pm code so long as the W1red lmk 1s ava1lable.
22 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets
200
ACCESSORY DEVICE
/
DEVICE
me
~
r
236
I
I
I
HOST DEVICE
DRIVER
218 A
TRANSCEIVER
220 '—
CONTROLLER
224 —
OPERATING SYSTEM
226 A
APPLICATION PROGRAMIS)
I
MEMORY
222
232
WIRELESS
MODULE
USER
INPUT
DEVICE
OUTPUT
DEVICE
234
230
215
" 24°
US 7,913,297 B2
Page 2
US. PATENT DOCUMENTS
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* cited by examiner
US. Patent
Mar. 22, 2011
Sheet 1 0f8
US 7,913,297 B2
100
102% HOST DEVICE ‘
\‘~~\
LOCAL
WIRELESS
NETWORK
108
104'“
106
WIRELESS
,1”
DEVICE
FIG. 1
US. Patent
Mar. 22, 2011
US 7,913,297 B2
Sheet 2 0f 8
200
/
ACCESSORY DEVICE
OUTPUT
DEVICE
208
210*“ USER INPUT DEVICE
212%
v211
I
MEMORY
CONTROLLER
\ 202
WIRELESS
MODULE
BATTERY
—-/ 206
PERIPHERAL BUS
DRIVER
214 '\_l TRANSCEIVER
"\v 238
236
I
H'OST DEVICE
I
PERIPHERAL BUS
DRIVER
218A“ TRANSCEIVER
MEMO RY
CONTROLLER
"\J 204
224 ?y
OPERATING SYSTEM
222
232
/
226 A
APPLICATION PROGRAM(S)
USER
INPUT
DEVICE
OUTPUT
DEVICE
Z
I
230
228
FIG. 2
WIRELESS
MODULE
(
234
US. Patent
Mar. 22, 2011
Sheet 3 0f8
US 7,913,297 B2
300
/
302
WIRED
DATA LINK
?
304
WIRELESS
DATA LINK
?
YES
RETRIEVE PIN CODE
\/ 306
SEND THE PIN CODE OVER
N
THE WIRED DATA LINK
308
310
RECEIVE
AUTH.
DATA
?
YES
312
Z
EVALUATE AUTHENTICATION DATA
69
FIG. 3A
US. Patent
Mar. 22, 2011
Sheet 4 0f8
US 7,913,297 B2
314%
AUTHENTICATED
316
_/NO
YES
Z
GENERATE ONE OR MORE KEYS
SEND AT LEAST ONE OF THE ONE OR MORE KEYS
318
END
FIG. 3B
US. Patent
Mar. 22, 2011
Sheet 5 0f8
US 7,913,297 B2
400
/
402
WIRED
DATA LINK
?
404
WIRELESS
DATA LINK
'?
406
RECEIVE
PIN CODE
?
408
GENERATE AUTHENTICATION DATA
BASED ON THE PIN CODE
SEND THE AUTHENTICATION DATA
"\J 410
412
NO
YES
STORE THE RECEIVED KEY \ 414
FIG. 4
US. Patent
Mar. 22, 2011
Sheet 6 0f8
US 7,913,297 B2
500
/
502
PERIPHERAL
BUS
CONNECTION
ESTABLISHED
SEND PAIRING REQUEST OVER
N 506
WIRELESS NETWORK
RETRIEVE PIN CODE
\1 508
PRESENT THE PIN CODE VIA
AN OUTPUT DEVICE
SEND THE PIN CODE OVER
THE PERIPHERAL BUS
PERFORM KEY EXCHANGE
OVER WIRELESS NETWORK
@
FIG. 5
N
51°
N
512
N 514
US. Patent
Mar. 22, 2011
Sheet 7 0f8
US 7,913,297 B2
600
/
REQUEST
RECEIVED
OVER
WIRELESS
NETWORK
?
YES
604 N
PRESENT PIN CODE PROMPT SCREEN
606
PERIPHERAL
BUS (PB)
CONNECTION
ESTABLISHED
NO
RECEIVED
OVER
PB
I
610 N
YES
SUBMIT PIN CODE
PERFORM KEY EXCHANGE
OVER WIRELESS NETWORK
N
6’14
FIG. 6
US. Patent
Mar. 22, 2011
US 7,913,297 B2
Sheet 8 0f 8
700
/
702
CONNECTION
TO WIRELESS
ACCESSORY
DEVICE
DESIRED
?
704
LINK KEY
FOR USE WITH
WIRELESS
ACCESSORY
DEVICE
NO
706
V
T)
CONNECTION NOT
AVAILABLE
CONNECT TO WIRELESS ACCESSORY
DEVICE USING KNOWN LINK KEY
—>
TRANSFER DATA OVER
WIRELESS LINK
CLOSE
CONNECTION
?
714N
N 710
712
SELECT (NEXT) POTENTIAL PIN CODE
L
FIG. 7
US 7,913,297 B2
1
2
PAIRING OF WIRELESS DEVICES USINGA
WIRED MEDIUM
used to transport a pin code from one of the wireless devices
to the other. Consequently, pairing of the wireless devices can
be completed without necessitating user entry of a pin code so
long as the wired link is available.
The invention can be implemented in numerous ways,
including as a method, system, device, apparatus, or com
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED
APPLICATIONS
puter readable medium. Several embodiments of the inven
This application is related to: (i) US. patent application
Ser. No. 11/245,937, ?led Oct. 7, 2005, and entitled “TECH
NIQUES FOR PAIRING REMOTE CONTROLLERS
tion are discussed below.
As a method for pairing a host device with a wireless
WITH HOST DEVICES”, which is hereby incorporated by
reference herein; and (ii) US. patent application Ser. No.
11/513,616, ?led concurrently, and entitled “AUTOMATED
device, one embodiment of the invention includes at least the
acts of: detecting a wired data link between the host device
and the wireless device; establishing a wireless data link
between the host device and the wireless device; retrieving a
PAIRING OF WIRELESS ACCESSORIES WITH HOST
pin code internal to the host device; sending the pin code to
the wireless device over the wired data link; receiving authen
tication data from the wireless device; authenticating the
DEVICE”, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
wireless device based on the received authentication data; and
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to wireless devices and, more
particularly, to pairing wireless devices for authorized data
20
exchange.
2. Description of the Related Art
Traditionally, headphones or earphones are connected to
an audio output device, such as a mobile phone, through a
wired connection. The wired connection can, however, in
includes at least: a connection manager con?gured to detect a
25
many cases be cumbersome or annoying to the user. Hence, in
recent times, wireless headsets or earphones have been devel
30
connection between the headset or earphones and the media
player.
35
the wireless headset or earphone must be paired with the
mobile phone. Pairing is a process that is used to associate a
headset or earphone with a particular mobile phone, and vice
versa. The pairing provides for secure data transfer between
the devices, typically through use of encryption. Thus, the
pairing helps ensure that the data being transferred is not only
40
based on the received authentication data.
As a method for pairing a wireless device with a host
device, one embodiment of the invention includes at least the
acts of: detecting a wired data link between the host device
and the wireless device; detecting a wireless data link
between the host device and the wireless device; receiving a
pin code over the wired data link from the host device; gen
erating authentication data at the wireless device based on the
pin code; sending the authentication data from the wireless
device to the host device; and subsequently completing pair
secured but also transferred to the appropriate recipient
device. Pairing, however, requires that a pin code be entered
in order to pair a mobile phone with a headset or earphone.
Entering of a pin code is sometimes problematic for a user.
For example, often mobile audio devices are small handheld
devices and the entering of a pin code can be cumbersome
ager can operate to: (i) retrieve a pin code internal to the host
computing device, (ii) send the pin code to the wireless device
over the wired data link, (iii) receive authentication data from
the wireless device, and (iv) authenticate the wireless device
the mobile phone. As a result, there is no need for a wired
Unfortunately, however, before the wireless headset or ear
phone can operate in a wireless manner with a mobile phone,
wired data link between the host computing device and a
wireless device; a wireless transceiver for transferring data
between the host computing device and the wireless device
over a wireless data link, and a pairing manager operatively
connected to the peripheral bus driver and the wireless trans
ceiver. The pairing manager manages pairing of the host
computing device and the wireless device. The pairing man
oped. Typically, these wireless devices utilize BLUETOOTH
short range local wireless network technology in order to
wirelessly transmit data between the headset or earphone and
completing pairing of the ho st device with the wireless device
when the wireless device has been authenticated.
As a host computing device with support for a wired data
link and a wireless data link, one embodiment of the invention
45
given the small scale of mobile audio devices (e.g., mobile
phones, portable music players, etc.). The mobile audio
devices may also not offer a user interface that supports ease 50
ing of the wireless device with the host device when authen
tication is successful.
As a computer readable medium including at least com
puter program code for pairing a ?rst wireless device with a
second wireless device, one embodiment of the invention
includes at least: computer program code for detecting a
wired data link between the ?rst wireless device and the
of entry of a pin code. Still further, users often do not know the
second wireless device; computer program code for detecting
appropriate pin code to be utilized.
Moreover, similar di?iculties exist for other types of wire
less devices besides headsets and earphones. For example,
other wireless devices that also need to undergo pairing
a wireless data link between the ?rst wireless device and the
second wireless device; computer program code for receiv
ing, at the second wireless device, a code over the wired data
55
include remote controllers, computing devices, peripheral
wireless device based on the code received over the wired
devices, etc.
Thus, there is a need for improved techniques to facilitate
pairing of wireless devices.
60
data link.
As an electronic device having wireless capabilities,
another embodiment of the invention includes at least oper
ating the electronic device such that pairing of the electronic
device to another electronic device having wireless capabili
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The invention pertains to improved techniques that facili
tate pairing of wireless devices with other wireless devices.
According to one aspect of the invention, a pair of wireless
devices can be paired for wireless data exchange using an
available wired link. Advantageously, the wired link can be
link from the ?rst wireless device; and performing pairing
operations to pair the ?rst wireless device and the second
65
ties includes electrically sending a code over a physical con
nection between the electronic device and the another elec
tronic device.
Other aspects and advantages of the invention will become
apparent from the following detailed description taken in
US 7,913,297 B2
3
4
conjunction with the accompanying drawings which illus
trate, by way of example, the principles of the invention.
electronic device that can be used in conjunction with the ho st
device 102. For example, the wireless device 104 can be a
peripheral device or an accessory device that augments the
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
capabilities of the host device 102. As a speci?c example, the
wireless device 104, for example, could pertain to a wireless
headset that is used in conjunction with the host device 102
that provides media playback (e. g., audio and/ or video play
back). Typically, the wireless device 104 is coupled to the host
The invention will be readily understood by the following
detailed description in conjunction with the accompanying
drawings, wherein like reference numerals designate like
structural elements, and in which:
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a wireless pairing system
device 102 in a wireless manner. That is, the wireless device
according to one embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 2 is a diagram of a wireless system according to one
embodiment of the invention.
FIGS. 3A and 3B are ?ow diagrams of a host device pairing
process according to one embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 4 is a ?ow diagram of a wireless device pairing pro
cess according to one embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 5 is a ?ow diagram of a host pairing process according
102. Instead, a wireless link can be facilitated by a local
wireless network 106. The wireless link connects the host
device 102 to the wireless device 104 via the local wireless
network 106. The local wireless network 106 is often referred
to as a piconet, which is a short range local wireless network.
One example of the local wireless network 106 is a BLUE
TOOTH network.
to one embodiment of the invention.
of the host device 102 with the wireless device 104, a cable
108 is coupled between the host device 102 and the wireless
FIG. 6 is a ?ow diagram of an accessory pairing process
according to one embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 7 is a ?ow diagram of wireless data transfer between
a wireless host device and a wireless accessory device that
104 need not be physically connected with the host device
In addition, according to the invention, to facilitate pairing
20
device 104. Typically, the cable 108 is coupled to the host
device 102 and the wireless device 104 during a pairing
operation. However, the cable 108 could also couple the host
have been successfully paired.
device 102 and the wireless device 104 at other times if so
25
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The invention pertains to improved techniques that facili
tate pairing of wireless devices with other wireless devices.
According to one aspect of the invention, a pair of wireless
devices can be paired for wireless data exchange using an
available wired link. Advantageously, the wired link can be
used to transport a pin code from one of the wireless devices
to the other. Consequently, pairing of the wireless devices can
be completed without necessitating user entry of a pin code so
long as the wired link is available.
The wired link can be implemented by a wired medium that
physically provides one or more electrical connections. Typi
cally, the wired medium is used to removably connect a pair
of wireless devices. As one example, the wired medium can
30
over the cable 108. As such, the user does not have to remem
ber and enter the appropriate pin code, thus the pairing can be
35
performed in a substantially automated manner that reduces
cumbersome and tedious pairing actions that a user would
otherwise have to perform. Failed pairing attempts can also be
reduced given that user pin code entry errors no longer con
tribute to failed pairing attempts.
40
FIG. 2 is a diagram of a wireless system 200 according to
one embodiment of the invention. The wireless system 200
includes an accessory device 202 and a host device 204. As an
45
the wireless host device can be a computing device (e.g.,
personal computer, media device, etc.). The other of the wire
example, the accessory device 202 can represent the wireless
device 104 illustrated in FIG. 1, and the host device 204 can
represent the host device 102 illustrated in FIG. 1.
The accessory device 202 is typically a portable device that
is powered by a battery 206. The accessory device 202 also
includes at least a controller 208, a user input device 210, a
user output device 211, and a memory 212. The controller 208
less devices can be a peripheral device, an accessory or
another computing device. As examples, a peripheral device
can be a data storage device, a printer, or an input device (e.g.,
of the local wireless network 106.
According to the invention, the wireless device 104 is able
to be paired with the host device 102 without requiring user
input of a pin code. In other words, instead of the user of the
wireless device 104 being required to enter a pin code, the
required pin code can be delivered to the wireless device 104
be a peripheral bus (e.g., USB or Firewire) cable (or cord) that
removably connects the pair of wireless devices together and
permits a peripheral bus to be established therebetween.
Of a pair of wireless devices being paired, one of the
wireless devices can be a wireless host device. As an example,
desired. Once paired, however, the host device 102 would
typically communicate with the wireless device 104 by way
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controls the overall operation of the accessory device 202.
mouse, keyboard). An accessory device can, for example, be
The user input device 210 enables a user to interact with the
a headset, earphones or remote controller. In one embodi
ment, a media device can be a mobile phone, a media player
accessory device 202. As an example, the user input device
210 can include a button that enables a user to place the
(e. g., portable media player), a docking station for a portable
media player, or a dedicated media appliance.
Embodiments of this aspect of the invention are discussed
below with reference to FIGS. 1-7. However, those skilled in
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(e.g., LCD display). The memory 212 provides persistent data
storage for various elements, including program code and
the art will readily appreciate that the detailed description
given herein with respect to these ?gures is for explanatory
purposes as the invention extends beyond these limited
embodiments.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a wireless pairing system 100
according to one embodiment of the invention. The wireless
pairing system 100 includes a host device 102 and a wireless
device 104. The host device 102 is an electronic device, such
accessory device 202 into a pairing mode. The user output
device 211 displays information for the user to view. As an
example, the user output device 211 can be a display device
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data. Still further, the accessory device 202 includes a trans
ceiver 214. In one embodiment, the transceiver 214 is a radio
frequency (RF) transceiver. The transceiver 214 can output a
wireless transmission 216. Typically, the wireless transmis
sion 216 is directed toward the host device 204.
The host device 204 includes a transceiver 218 for the
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wireless transmission medium 216 (e.g., wireless link). The
as a personal computer, a mobile communication device, a
host device 204 also includes at least a controller 220, a
portable media device, etc. The wireless device 104 is an
memory 222, an operating system 224, application program
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(s) 226, an output device 228, and a user input device 230. The
controller 220 controls the overall operation of the host
device 204. The memory 222 can be used to store persistent
determines that a wired data link is available, a decision 304
determines whether a wireless data link is available. When the
decision 304 determines that a wireless data link is not avail
data, including program code (e.g., for the operating system
able, the host device pairing process 300 awaits the availabil
224 and the application program(s) 226) and data. The oper
ating system 224 together with the controller 220 enables the
ity of a wireless data link. Once the decision 304 determines
that a wireless data link is available, then a pairing operation
can be performed to pair together the host device and the
host device 204 to not only wirelessly receive transmissions
from the accessory device 202, but to also support and operate
wireless accessory device. Hence, the following processing
one or more application programs 226 as well as to utilize the
assumes that the host device is not already paired with the
wireless accessory device. In other words, the host device
pairing process 300, or at least the following processing
thereof, can be skipped if the host device and the wireless
output device 228 and the user input device 230.
The host device 204 can also include a wireless module
232. The wireless module 232 can pertain to one or a set of
integrated circuits that provide wireless communication func
accessory device have already been paired.
tionality. The wireless module 232 is used when communi
cating over the wireless link 216 to the wireless module 215.
In this regard, the wireless module 232 couples to or includes
the transceiver 218. In one embodiment, the wireless module
232 can store a pin code (or key) 234 that is used to pair
wireless devices.
Besides the wireless link 216, the accessory device 202 and
In any event, when the host device pairing process 300
continues, a pin code is retrieved 306. Typically, the pin code
is retrieved 306 from the host device itself. That is, the pin
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the host device 204 can also communicate over a wired link
236. The wired link 236 can be provided by a cable (which
contains one or more wires) connected between the accessory
device 202 and the host device 204. The accessory device 202
also includes a peripheral bus driver 238, and the host device
204 also includes a peripheral bus driver 240. The wired link
23 6 can be established over the cable that connects the periph
eral bus driver 238 of the accessory device 202 to the periph
eral bus driver 240 of the host device 204.
According to one aspect of the invention, the accessory
device 202 can be paired with the host device 204. When
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code is typically a pin code stored in a data storage device
internal to the host device. For example, as illustrated in FIG.
2, the pin code 235 can be stored in the wireless module 232.
Once the pin code is retrieved 306, the pin code can be sent
308 over the wired data link. Here, the pin code is sent 308
from the host device to the wireless accessory device. Given
that the pin code is sent 308 over the wired data link estab
lished through physical connection, its transport is relatively
secured from unauthorized interception. Optionally, the pin
code could be encrypted for further security.
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Next, a decision 310 determines whether authentication
data has been received. When the decision 310 determines
that authentication data has not been received, the ho st device
pairing process 300 awaits such data. Alternatively, when the
decision 310 determines that authentication data has been
paired, the host device 204 is responsive only to the accessory
devices) to host devices. When paired, a user of the accessory
received, the authentication data is evaluated 312. In one
embodiment, the authentication data can be received at the
host device as part of an authentication response being pro
vided to the host device by the wireless accessory device.
Following the evaluation 312 of the authentication data, a
decision 314 then determines whether the devices have been
authenticated. When the decision 314 determines that the
wireless accessory device has been authenticated to the host
device, the host device pairing process generates 316 one or
device 202 can interact with the one or more application
more keys. Then, at least one of the one or more keys is sent
programs 226 operating on the host device 204. For example,
one type of application program 226 is a media player pro
318 to the wireless accessory device. Additionally, the at least
device 202. Hence, if there are other accessory devices in the
vicinity of the host device 204, the host device 204 under
stands to ignore wireless communications from such other
accessory devices. In contrast, when unpaired, the ho st device
204 is responsive to any compatible accessory devices in the
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vicinity.
Additional details are discussed below for the operations
associated with pairing wireless devices (e.g., accessory
gram capable of playing digital media assets stored in the
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wireless module 232 of the host device 204. Following the
block 318, the host device pairing process 300 ends. Also,
following the decision 314 when authentication has not been
memory 222 or some other memory accessible by the host
device 204. Hence, the user of the accessory device 202 can
interact with the user input device 210 of the accessory device
202 to manipulate media playback controls, such as volume
changes, next track, previous track, and play and pause opera
one of the one or more keys can be stored at the host device.
In one embodiment, the one or more keys can be stored in the
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successfully veri?ed, the host device pairing process 300
ends while bypassing the operations 316 and 318.
tions associated with the media player program. For other
types of application programs 226 available at the host device
FIG. 4 is a ?ow diagram of a wireless device pairing pro
cess 400 according to one embodiment of the invention. The
204, the particular controls or commands being provided by
wireless device pairing process 400 is, for example, per
the accessory device 202 to the host device 204 can vary
widely depending upon the application.
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FIGS. 3A and 3B are ?ow diagrams of a host device pairing
process 300 according to one embodiment of the invention.
wireless device 104 illustrated in FIG. 1 or the accessory
The host device pairing process 300 is, for example, per
formed by a host device. For example, the host device can, for
example, pertain to the host device 102 illustrated in FIG. 1 or
the host device 204 illustrated in FIG. 2.
The host device pairing process 300 begins with a decision
302 that determines whether a wired data link exists between
a host device and a wireless accessory device. When the
decision 302 determines that a wired data link is not present,
the host device pairing process 300 awaits the availability of
a wired data link. On the other hand, when the decision 302
formed by a wireless accessory device. For example, the
wireless accessory device can, for example, pertain to the
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device 202 illustrated in FIG. 2. The wireless device pairing
process 400 is complementary process to the host device
pairing process 300 illustrated in FIGS. 3A and 3B.
The wireless device pairing process 400 begins with a
decision 402 that determines whether a wired data link exists
between a host device and a wireless accessory device. When
the decision 402 determines that a wired data link is not
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present, the wireless device pairing process 400 awaits the
availability of a wired data link. When the decision 402 deter
mines that a wired data link is present, a decision 404 deter
mines whether a wireless data link is present. When the deci
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sion 404 determines that the wireless data link is not present,
the wireless device pairing process 400 can await its avail
500 could be initiated automatically when a peripheral bus
connection is established between the host device and a wire
less accessory device.
In any event, once the decision 502 determines that a
ability.
Once the decision 404 determines that a wireless data link
peripheral bus connection has been established, a decision
504 determines whether the host device has already been
paired to the wireless accessory device. When the decision
504 determines that the host device is already paired to the
wireless accessory device, the host pairing process 500 ends
is available, then a pairing operation can be performed to pair
together the host device and the wireless accessory device.
Hence, the following processing assumes that the host device
is not already paired with the wireless accessory device. In
other words, the wireless device pairing process 400, or at
least the following processing thereof, can be skipped if the
host device and the wireless accessory device have already
since pairing processing is not required. On the other hand,
when the decision 504 determines that the host device is not
already paired with the wireless accessory device, a pairing
been paired.
request is sent 506 over the wireless network from the host
device to the wireless accessory device. A pin code is also
Accordingly, when the decision 404 determines that the
wireless data link is available, a decision 406 determines
whether a pin code has been received. The pin code is pro
vided to the wireless accessory device over the wired data link
according to one embodiment of the invention. As illustrated
in FIG. 3A, the block 308 operates to send the pin code to the
wireless accessory device over the wired data link. When the
decision 406 determines that a pin code has not been received
over the wired data link, the wireless device pairing process
retrieved 508. The pin code is retrieved 508 from the host
device itself. For example, the host device can include a
wireless module (e.g., wireless module 232) that stores within
the wireless module at least one pin code. The pin code can be
presented 510 via an output device associated with the host
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is also sent 512 to the wireless accessory device over the
peripheral bus. Thereafter, assuming that the host device is
400 can await the pin code. After a period of time, the waiting
able to authenticate the accessory device through use of the
could cease and a user could enter the required pin code or the
wireless pairing process 400 could end.
In any case, once the decision 406 determines that a pin
code has been received over the wired data link, authentica
tion data is generated 408 at the wireless accessory device
based on the pin code. The authentication data is then sent 410
to the ho st device. In one embodiment, the authentication data
is sent to the host device over the wireless data link. However,
in an alternative embodiment, the authentication data could
be sent over the wired data link. In any case, after the authen
tication data has been sent 410, a decision 412 determines
whether a key has been received from the host device. Here,
assuming that the host device determines that the wireless
accessory device is indeed authenticated, pairing can be com
pleted by storing keys at the wireless device as well as at the
host device. In one embodiment, these keys can be referred to
as link keys, in accordance with BLUETOOTH short range
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wireless device pairing process 400 awaits receipt of a key.
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and are able to exchange data over the wireless data link.
Following the block 414, the wireless device pairing process
peripheral bus connection has not been established, the host
pairing process 500 can await the presence of a peripheral bus
connection. In one implementation, the host pairing process
device.
FIG. 6 is a ?ow diagram of an accessory pairing process
600 according to one embodiment of the invention. The
a wireless accessory device, such as the wireless device 104
illustrated in FIG. 1 or the accessory device 202 illustrated in
FIG. 2. The accessory pairing process 600 is complementary
process to the host device pairing process 500 illustrated in
FIG. 5.
The accessory pairing process 600 begins with a decision
602 that determines whether a pairing request has been
received over the wireless network. When the decision 602
determines that a pairing request has not been received, the
accessory pairing process 600 awaits such a request. Altema
tively, when the decision 602 determines that a pairing
request has been received over the wireless network, the
accessory pairing process 600 continues. In other words, in
this embodiment, the accessory pairing process 600 is effec
tively invoked upon receipt of a pairing request.
When the accessory pairing process 600 continues, a pin
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ing process 500 is, for example, performed by a host device,
such as the host device 102 illustrated in FIG. 1 or the host
device 204 illustrated in FIG. 2.
The host pairing process 500 begins with a decision 502
that determines whether a peripheral bus connection has been
established between the host device and the wireless acces
sory device. The peripheral bus connection is a wired con
nection and examples of which are Universal Serial Bus
(USB) and Firewire. When the decision 502 determines that a
network. The key exchange means that the host device will
store at least one key (e.g., link key) that will be used to
exchange data with the wireless accessory device via the
wireless network. However, prior to or part of the key
exchange, the host device ?rst authenticates the accessory
device. The authentication is dependent on the proper pin
code being available at the wireless accessory device. Fol
lowing the block 514, the host pairing process 500 ends with
accessory pairing process 600 is, for example, performed by
determines whether a key has been received. When the deci
sion 412 determines that a key has not yet been received, the
400 ends.
FIG. 5 is a ?ow diagram of a host pairing process 500
according to one embodiment of the invention. The host pair
pin code, key exchange is performed 514 over the wireless
the host device being successfully paired with the wireless
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local wireless network protocol. Hence, the decision 412
Once the decision 412 determines that a key has been
received, the received key is stored 414 at the wireless device.
The received key is then subsequently used to authenticate the
wireless device to the host device prior to the transfer of data
between the wireless device and the host device. The wireless
device and the host device have thus been successfully paired
device. Here, the pin code can be presented 510 (e.g., dis
played) on the output device of the host device. The pin code
code prompt screen is presented 604. Typically, in a conven
tional fashion, a user would enter a pin code into the prompt
screen. However, the pin code is able to be provided auto
matically (i.e., without user input) according to the invention.
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In this regard, a decision 606 determines whether a peripheral
bus (PB) connection has been established between the wire
less accessory device and the host device. When the decision
606 determines that a peripheral bus connection has been
established, a decision 608 determines whether a pin code has
been received from the host device over the peripheral bus.
When the decision 608 determines that the pin code has been
received over the peripheral bus, then the pin code can be
submitted 610. For example, the pin code can be automati
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