here - MorphoMuseuM

here - MorphoMuseuM
ISE-MeshTools User’s guide
ISE-MeshTools 1.0.1
Renaud LEBRUN1
1 Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution, Montpellier, France
ISE-MeshTools is a software designed by Renaud Lebrun, from the university of Montpellier II. ISE-MeshTools is a
system for the processing and editing of series of 3D triangular meshes. The system provides a set of tools for editing,
positioning, deforming, labelling, measuring and rendering sets of 3D meshes.
Features include:
•
Retrodeformation for un-deforming fossils/deformed specimens
•
Point and curve primitives for placing the exact type of landmark points you’re interested in
•
Easy to use 3D interface for positioning and manipulating sets of surfaces and landmark primitives
•
Mesh tagging, labelling and colouring (to allow for the creation of anatomy atlases)
•
Mesh scalar computation and colouring (based upon curvature/thickness etc...)

General table of contents
Licence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
F.A.Q.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Interaction modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Keyboard and mouse controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Camera and object GUI main controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Menu File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Menu Viewing Opt.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Menu Edit selected surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Menu Edit selected landmarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Menu Scalars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Menu Tags. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Menu Show. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Menu “?”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Acknowledgements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
i
Licence
Contents
1. ISE-MeshTools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. VTK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
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MeshTools User Manual
1. ISE-MeshTools
ISE-MeshTools is Copyright(C) 2013-2014: Renaud LEBRUN. All rights reserved.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License,
or any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without
even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
2. VTK
ISE-MeshTools’ distributions contain binary forms of VTK: Copyright (c) 2000-2006 Kitware Inc. 28
Corporate Drive, Suite 204, Clifton Park, NY, 12065, USA. All rights reserved. Redistribution and use
in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following
conditions are met:
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and
the following disclaimer.
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions
and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
Neither the name of Kitware nor the names of any contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS’’ AND ANY
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE AUTHORS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
2
F.A.Q.
Contents
1. How should I cite ISE-MeshTools in scientific publications ?. . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Is ISE-MeshTools a geometric morphometrics software ?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Can I produce/extract 3D meshes out of CT/MRI data using ISE-MeshTools ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Is there a “CTRL-Z” functionnality around ?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
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MeshTools User Manual
1. How should I cite ISE-MeshTools in scientific publications ?
An article is currently being prepared and should be submitted to Palaeovertebrata journal soon
(http://palaeovertebrata.com). Once available in Palaeovertebrata (if accepted), I will invite you to
cite the corresponding article whenever you use ISE-MeshTools in published work.
However, you may already cite ISE-MeshTools with the following reference :
Lebrun, R. ISE-MeshTools, a 3D interactive fossil reconstruction freeware. 12th Annual Meeting of
EAVP, Torino, Italy; 06/2014
2. Is ISE-MeshTools a geometric morphometrics software ?
No. However, you can digitize 3D landmarks on complex 3D surfaces using ISE-MeshTools, which you
can use in other software.
3. Can I produce/extract 3D meshes out of CT/MRI data using ISE-MeshTools ?
No. To extract 3D meshes CT/MRI data sets, you have to use another software. However, you can edit
3D Meshes in various ways using ISE-MeshTools.
4. Is there a “CTRL-Z” functionnality around ?
I did not implement yet the possibility to cancel any action. I am thinking about it though. So remember to regularly save your work (especially when tagging surfaces), otherwise precious hours of work
can be lost in a second.
4
Interaction modes
Contents
1. Selection modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2. Interaction modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3. Landmark setting modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
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MeshTools User Manual
1. Selection modes.
1.1 Normal mode
Press “ ” to activate this mode
This is the default selection mode. Selected objects (meshes and landmarks) are drawn “grey”. Unselected “normal” landmarks are red, while “target” landmarks are yellow. Unselected meshes can be
drawn:
-
-
-
Using a uniform colour (default modes)
According to tag values at each vertex (tag display mode active
)
According to scalar values at each vertex (scalar diplay mode active
)
1.2 Tag mode
Press “
” to activate this mode
This mode is useful when tagging surfaces (as you can only interact with selected objects). Unselected
meshes are drawn “grey”. Unselected “normal” landmarks are red, while “target” landmarks are yellow. Selected landmarks are grey, while selected meshes can be drawn:
-
-
-
Using a uniform colour (default modes)
According to tag values at each vertex (tag display mode active
)
According to scalar values at each vertex (scalar diplay mode active
2.
)
Interaction modes
2.1 Camera mode
« Camera mode » is the default interaction mode, and is active on startup. When active, left and
middle mouse button drags result in camera rotation/translation, respectively.
2.2 Object mode
When active, left
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and middle mouse button drags result in object rotation/translation, respectively.
2.3 Landmark mode
When active, only landmarks can be selected/unselected via right mouse button drag/click. This
mode is useful when editing/placing landmarks. Left and middle mouse button drags result in camera
rotation/translation, respectively.
6
Landmark setting modes
3. Landmark setting modes
Landmarks can be set on surfaces by pressing “L” + left mouse click. Two series of conventional landmarks can be set with ISE-MeshTools: “normal” and “target” landmarks. Aditionnally a third landmark
series (“flag” landmarks) can be used to label surface structures.
3.1 Normal landmark mode
Press “
” to activate this mode (this mode is active by default)
3.2 Target landmark mode
Press “
” to activate this mode
3.3 Flag landmark mode
Press “
” to activate this mode
7
Keyboard and
mouse controls
Contents
1. Keyboard and mouse controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2. Additional controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8
Keyboard and mouse controls
1. Keyboard and mouse controls
Ctrl+A
Selects all objects
Ctrl+D
Unselects all objects
L+ left click
Creates a landmark (either “normal”, “target” or
“flag” landmark).
L + right click
If a single landmark is selected, its position is
moved. Nothing happens if no landmark is selected or if more than one landmark are selected
Left mouse button drag
Camera mode : camera rotation
Object mode : object rotation
Landmark mode : camera rotation
Ctrl + left mouse button drag
Camera mode : object rotation
Object mode : camera rotation
Landmark mode : object rotation
Right mouse button drag
Draws a yellow rectangle. Once right button is
released, all objects (surfaces and landmarks)
falling inside the rectangle get selected/unselected, depending on their initial selection status
Right mouse button click
All objects (surfaces and landmarks) lying at click
location get selected/unselected, depending on
their initial selection status
Middle mouse button roll (roll wheel)
Zoom / unzoom
Middle mouse button drag
Camera mode : camera translation
Object mode : object translation
Landmark mode : camera translation
Ctrl + middle mouse button drag
Camera mode : object translation
Object mode : camera translation
Landmark mode : object translation
« Del »
All selected objects are deleted
T + left click
Tag selected surface with active tag value
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MeshTools User Manual
T + right click
Tag selected surface with « 0 » value
2. Additional controls
Additional controls are available when using “lasso cut” or “lasso tag” (lasso mode should be active):
Left click
Adds a segment to polygon (segments are drawn
yellow)
Right click
Connects last segment to first segment. If two
segments cross each other, lasso action is canceled. Otherwise, the closed polygon is drawn
red.
Middle click or “C” + right click.
Once the lasso il closed (lasso polygon drawn red
after a right click), all the vertices falling within
the clicked region (outside or inside the polygon) are either:
- given the colour corresponding the the active
tag (lasso tag)
- inserted into a new objects (lasso cut).
See lasso cut and lasso tag sections for further
information.
T + left click (“lasso tag” only)
Depending on which tag tool is active, if the
lasso il closed (lasso polygon drawn red after a
right click) the vertices are painted either :
- using the pencil
- using the magic wand
- using the flood fill
Tag propagation is restricted within the area
defined by the red polygon.
10
Camera and object GUI main
controls
Contents
1. Camera controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2. Object controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
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MeshTools User Manual
1. Camera controls
1.1 Zoom
There are three ways to modify the « zoom » in ISE-MeshTools :
- You may use the zoom roller lying in the lower part of the right panel of the
main window
- You may set manually the display scale (viewing opt -> Camera -> Set 100 pixels
in mm)
- You may use the middle click mouse roll button (roll the wheel).
Zoom Roller
When the option “Adapt field of view depth” is active in the Rendering options window (Viewing opt.>General rendering options -> Depth of field of view panel), changing the zoom value will also modify
the depth of the field of view (camera.far value) and the position of the clipping plane (camera.tz
value). When the option “Keep current field of view depth” is active, changing the zoom will not affect the camera.far and camera.tz values.
1.2 Camera rotation around « z » viewing axis
To do so, you may use the slider lying in the upper part of the right panel of the
main window.
1.3 Clipping plane
In some cases, you may need to displace the viewing clipping plane. To do so, use
the slider lying centrally in the right panel of the main window.
Camera «z» rotation slider
You can also modify the clipping plane manually by editing the “Tz” control in
the camera options window (viewing opt. -> Camera -> Camera options).
The buttons
and
which lie just underneath the clipping plane slider (and
also in the camera option window) also permit to adjust / readjust the position of
the clipping plane at predefined positions :
: the clipping plane is placed at z = 0 (all objects having a z coordinate along
z viewing axis smaller than 0 are hidden).
Camera clipping
plane slider
: the clipping plane is replaced at its original value : z= - camera.far / 2. This value permits to
view objects having positive and negative coordinates along z viewing axis.
1.4 Camera orientation
6 camera positions are predefined :
view object from right side
12
Object controls
view object from left side
view object from front side (default camera position)
view object from back side
view object from above
view object from below
1.5 Coordinate system orientation helper
Press
to show / hide the coordinate system orientation helper lying on
the bottom left corner of the main 3D window. By default, the labels are defined the following way:
+z axis : dorsal side
-z axis : ventral side
+y axis : left side
-y axis : right side
+x axis : proximal side
-x axis : distal side.
Orientation helper
You may edit these labels depending on your preferences (for instance,
depending on the structure you are working with, you may need to set “+y” to “labial”, and “-y” to
“lateral”). To edit orientation labels, click on “viewing opt. -> Orientation labels.”
1.6 Grid
Press
to show / hide the grid. Default grid size is 1 cm / square. Grid size can be edited manually
(viewing opt. -> Grid size).
Switching between the 6 camera predefined positions defined above ( ,
,
, ,
and )will
affect the plane in which the grid is drawn.
1.7 Lightning
6 lightning orientations are predefined :
light from right viewing side
light from left viewing side
light from front viewing side
light from back viewing side
light from above
light from below
2. Object controls
As seen earlier, selected objects can be translated and rotated using the mouse left and middle buttons (in landmark and camera selection modes, you also need to maintain “CTRL” button pressed
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MeshTools User Manual
while dragging the mouse to achieve rotation and translation of selected objects). Alternatively, you
may also use the following controls to accomplish rotation and translation of selected objects. Rotation is performed around the global center of mass of all selected objects.
2.1 Rotation around « z » viewing axis and translation along
« z » viewing axis
These controls are extremely useful, as there is no way to achieve rotation
around « z » viewing axis or translation along « z » viewing axis using the
mouse.
To do so, use the slider and roller lying in the upper part of the left panel of the
main window.
Object «z» roller
and slider
2.2 Rotation around « x » viewing axis and translation around
« y » viewing axis
To do so, use the slider and roller lying in the lower part of the left panel of the
main window.
Object «x» roller
and «z» slider
2.3 Rotation around « y » viewing axis and translation along
« x » viewing axis
To do so, use the slider and roller lying in the left part of the bottom panel of the
main window.
Object «y» roller
and «x» slider
14
Menu File
Contents
1. Open surface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2. Save surface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3. Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4. Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5. Landmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6. Curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7. Tags and flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8. Save infos (surface area, volume...). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9. Orientation labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
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MeshTools User Manual
1. Open surface
.stl, .ply, .vtk surfaces can be open via this menu. ISE-MeshTools does not manage textures associated
with meshes; still, you can open .obj files, but associated textures will not be loaded. When opening a
.ply file containing RGB colours (for instance a file painted manually or automatically with “MeshLab”)
or a .vtk file containing RGB scalars, these colours are placed inside the “RGB” scalars. MeshTools will
reinitialize the “RGB” scalars whenever you change the object’s colour or whenever you activate tag
display mode or scalar display mode : if these colours are important to you, you may convert them
to TAG values in the menu Tags->Convert RGB colours to tags before changing the object colour or
display mode/before changing tags or any colour scale activated.
2. Save surface
Selected surfaces can be saved into files. If no surface is selected, the following message appears:
If more than one mesh are selected, the following message shows up:
2.1 Save .ply
Options:
- File type: you can save .ply data in binary (little or big
endian) or ASCII formats.
- Position : you can keep object original coordinate system
or save the surface in its current position.
Note that the “RGB” scalar (object rendering colour, depending on which rendering mode you are using) will be
saved inside the .ply file. This means that Tag / Scalar /
Object colour can be exported and viewed in other software
such as MeshLab.
PLY save options window
2.2 Save .stl
Options:
- File type: you can save .stl data in binary (little endian) or
16
STL save options window
Position
ASCII formats.
- Position : you can keep object original coordinate system or save the surface in its current position
2.3 Save .vtk
Vtk mesh file format is by far not as widespread as stl or ply
format. However, it is extremely useful as it allows to store
scalar and tag values at each vertex or at each triangle.
Options:
- File type: you can save .vtk data in binary (little endian) or
VTK save options window
ASCII formats.
- Position : you can keep object original coordinate system
or save the surface in its current position
Note that the “RGB” scalar (object rendering colour, depending on which rendering mode you are
using) will be saved inside the .vtk file.
2.4 Save Obj.
ISE-MeshTools does not manage textures associated with
meshes. Still, you can save meshes in .obj format, but
textures will not be saved.
Options:
- Position : you can keep object original coordinate system
or save the surface in its current position
OBJ save options window
3. Position
In MeshTools, mesh position consists in two
4*4 square matrices: one matrix is used as the
aspect matrix (by default the identity matrix),
and the other one as the position matrix. These
matrices can be opened and saved in “.pos”
format.
3.1 Load position
If no surface is selected, the following message
appears:
Example of .pos position file. The first 4 lines correspond to the aspect matrix, and the 4 last lines
to the position matrix.
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MeshTools User Manual
If more than one mesh are selected, the following message shows up :
3.2
Load transposed position
This option may be useful in the following case:
- Let us suppose that you did modify the position of a given surface and saved its position
- Then you have saved the surface in its current modified position (that is : the original position of the
surface is lost).
For some reason, you may need to open the surface in its original position. To do so, you may apply
this option (apply transposed position matrix to the modified surface).
Note : this option only works if the aspect matrix was not modified.
3.3 Save position
Mesh aspect and position matrices can be saved in “.pos” format. If no surface is selected, the
following message appears:
If more than one mesh are selected, the following message shows up:
3.4 Editing manually aspect and position matrices.
There are two ways to access the object matrix editor :
- Either select one surface and click on “ ”(edit first selected object position and aspect matrices).
- Or select one surface and click on “edit selected surfaces->Rendering modifications-> edit first
selected object position and aspect matrices”.
This opens the “Object Matrix” window, in which the aspect and position matrices can be edited. See
“Edit selected surfaces” corresponding section (Rendering modifications-> edit first selected object
18
Project
position and aspect matrices) for further information.
4. Project
When working with multiple surface objects,
loading surfaces and associated positions one
by one becomes fastidious. You may open and
save series of meshes and associated position
matrices using this menu.
“project” files (.ntw) files are organized the
Example of project .ntw file
following way :
- Name of surface 1 file
- Name of position 1 file associated to surface 1
- Surface 1 RGB colour and transparency
- Name of surface 2 file
- Name of position 2 file associated to surface 2
- Surface 2 RGB colour and transparency
(etc...)
Surface files can be of the following types : .stl, .vtk, .ply and .obj
“.ntw” files can be constructed manually, providing that the refered surface and position files exist.
4.1 Open project
Loads a .ntw file
4.2 Save project
Saves a .ntw file implicating all selected surfaces. Though ISE-MeshTools can open .ntw files
implicating .stl, .ply and .obj surfaces, when saving a .ntw project, surface files will be saved in .vtk
format in order to keep potential tag / scalars associated to each saved surface. Each surface file
will be given the name of the original file. Each position file will be given a name which starts with
the name of the associated surface and ends with the name of the project. In the .ntw file example
shown above, the surface files are “SeG-SP07-URM2_EDJ2.vtk” and “Seg-SP07-URM2_OES2.vtk”,
and the project name is “M2_Sup.ntw”. The advantage of naming position files that way is you may
construct different .ntw files with different associated surface files using a same set of surfaces.
Requirement : all selected surfaces saved via this option
need to have distinct names.
Note : When working with “project” files, you may need at
some point to rename some of the object surfaces. To do so,
select one surface, click on
: the “Edit Name” window
Edit Name window
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MeshTools User Manual
appears.
Press ok to modify the name of that surface object.
See tutorial “working with projects” for further information.
5. Landmarks
As mentioned earlier, landmarks can be set on surfaces by pressing “L” + left mouse click.
Two series ofconventional landmarks can be set : “normal” and “target” landmarks. As mentioned
earlier, in the “normal” landmark mode (button
active), pressing “L” + left mouse click results in
the creation a “normal” landmark (a red one). In the “target” landmark mode (button
active),
pressing “L” + left mouse click will create a “target” landmark (a yellow one). “Normal” and “target”
landmarks can be loaded and saved.
Selected “normal”/”target” landmarks can be reordered using the following buttons. Pressing “ ”
will place the selected landmarks earlier in the “normal”/”target” landmark list, while pressing “ ”
will place them one step further, respectively.
ISE-MeshTools can manage two types of landmark files: “.LMK” “.VER” files.
.LMK files contain a series of lines, each line
being constructed the following way: landmark
name (without space or tab character),
landmark coordinates.
Example of .LMK file
Note that each landmark name does not need
to be of the form “landmark”+landmark number. Meanwhile, the name should not hold space or tab
characters.
.VER files contain a series
of lines, each line being
constructed the following
way: landmark name
(without space or tab
character), landmark
coordinates, landmark
orientation.
Example of .VER file
5.1 Load landmarks
Landmarks opened using this option will be put in the “normal” landmark list (red landmarks)
20
Curves
5.2 Load target landmarks
Landmarks opened that way will be put in the “target” landmark list (yellow landmarks)
5.3 Save landmarks
Contrary to surface objects, which need to be selected in order to be saved, all selected and
unselected “normal” landmarks (the red ones) are saved when using this options.
5.4 Save target landmarks
Contrary to surface objects, which need to be selected in order to be saved, all selected and
unselected “target” landmarks (the yellow ones) are saved when using this options.
The section “Menu: Edit Selected Landmarks” and the tutorial “working with landmarks” contain
further information regarding landmark digitization with ISE-MeshTools
6. Curves
3D Curves are constructed in ISE-MeshTools using 2 series of landmarks : a series of “normal”
landmarks, and a series of “target” landmarks of equal sizes. “Target” landmarks are referred to as
“curve handles”, when they are used to construct curves (“Target” landmarks can also be used to
achieve TPS deformation, see later in this documentation). By default, curves are not drawn in the
main 3D window : curves start being drawn when the checkbox “draw curves” is checked in the menu
“Viewing opt.” (
). Curves are draw green when no landmark/curve handle belonging to
the curve is selected. Curves are drawn red when at least one landmark / curve handle involved in the
curve is selected. Two different cases are considered:
- Case 1: the numbers of “normal” and “handle/target” landmarks differ. In that case, a curve is a
series of lines passing through “normal” landmarks.
- Case 2: the numbers of “normal” and “handle/target” landmarks differ. In that case, a curve is a
series of cubic Bezier curves passing through “normal” landmarks. For a given set of 2 “normal”
consecutive landmarks (Ln and Ln+1) and their associated curve “handles” (Hn and Hn+1), a mirror
image of Hn+1 relative to Ln+1 (H’n+1) is constructed. The Bezier curve involving Ln, Ln+1, Hn and
Hn+1 starts from Ln, going toward Hn, and arrives at Ln+1 coming from the direction of H’n+1.
The explicit form of the curve is :
B(t) = (1-t) 3Ln + 3(1-t)²tHn + 3(1-t)t²H’n+1 +t3Ln+1, t ϵ[0,1]
In order to be able to digitize several curves using a given set of normal and target landmarks,
“normal” landmarks curves can be given 4 flags (see section ”Edit Selected landmarks”-> Landmarks
involved into curves for further details):
Flag “0” : landmark is placed inside the curve (drawn “red”).
Flag “1” : landmark is a curve start (drawn “green”).
Flag “2” : landmark is placed inside the curve, and is a curve “milestone” (drawn blue) .
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MeshTools User Manual
Example of .CUR file
Flag “3” : landmark is placed inside the curve, and should be connected to the preceding curve
starting point. When landmark n is flagged that way, landmarkn+1 will be set as a curve starting point.
Flag “2” is used to decompose a given curve into curve segments (see “export curves as landmark
file”). By default, a curve comprises 1 segment
Flag “3” is used to close a curve (by default, curves are open).
3D curves are loaded and saved into .CUR files, which contain a series of lines, each line being
constructed the following way: name (without space or tab character), curve “normal” landmark
coordinates, curve “handle” coordinates, flag.
In the example shown below, 4 curves are defined :
- an open curve starting from landmark 1 and ending at landmark 7
- a closed curve involving landmarks 8 to 12
- a closed curve involving landmarks 13 to 20
- a closed curve involving landmarks 21 to 26
These four curves contain only one segment (no curve milestone was set within those 4 curves).
Note that each name does not need to be of the form “landmark”+ number. Meanwhile, the name
should not hold space or tab characters.
22
Curves
6.1 Load curves
This menu allows the user to load a .CUR file.
6.2 Save curves
This menu allows the user to save current landmarks and curve handles as a .CUR file. This action
is ony allowed if the number of “normal” landmarks and “target” landmarks is the same. If not, the
following message appears:
6.3 Export curves as landmark file
Curves can be transformed in a series of equidistant
landmarks using this option. The curve decimation window
appears.
Each curve/curve segment is saved as a number of
equidistant landmarks. In the present example, each curve/
curve segment is saved as 20 equidistant landmarks.
Curve decimation window
When pressing “Ok”, if the numbers of “normal” landmarks and “target” landmarks differ, the
following message appears:
6.4 Save curve infos (length per curve …)
Each curve /curve segment length can be saved as a .txt file
using this option.
The section “Menu: Edit Selected Landmarks” and the
tutorial “Working with curves” contain further important
information regarding curve digitization with ISE-MeshTools.
Example of curve info file
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MeshTools User Manual
7. Tags and flags
- Tag colours and names can be edited interactively by
clicking on
, which opens the tag window (see the section “Menu Tags” and the tutorial “Working with tags” for
further information).
- By default, Tags are not visible. To activate/deactivate tag
display, click on
- Using “Tag display mode” (
) is useful when editing
surface tags.
25 Tag names and associated colours can be defined in ISEMeshTools. Tag colours files (.TAG) consist of 25 pairs lines,
each pair being constructed following way :
line 2*n: Tag name
line 2*n+1: Tag colour and transparency
Example of .TAG file
Regarding flags, as stated earlier, one series of “flag
landmarks” can be set in ISE-MeshTools (button
should
be pressed). To edit flag label, length and colour, select one
flag landmark, click on
. The “edit flag” window appears.
Pressing ok will update the label, the colour and the
Edit Flag window
length associated to the selected flag, which in turn will be
unselected. If you wish to edit a second flag, select it and press “Refresh”. The current colour, length
and label of the newly selected flag will appear in the edit flag window.
Flags are saved using the .FLG file format, which consists of n pairs of lines constructed the following
way :
line 2*n: Flag name
line 2*n+1: Flag coordinates, flag orientation, flag length and colour.
7.1 Load tag colours and labels
Select a .TAG file using this menu => Then open the tag window (
transparencies should have been updated.
) : Tag labels, colours and
7.2 Save tag colours and labels
This option saves the current state of tag labels, colours and transparencies in a .TAG file.
7.3 Load flags
Select a .FLG file using this menu
24
Save infos (surface area, volume...).
7.4 Save flags
This option saves the current flag landmarks into a .FLG file, regardless their selection status.
8. Save infos (surface area, volume...).
Surface area, volume, triangle number and
vertex number of selected surface objects can be
saved in a .txt file using this option.
Example of info file
Note: surface objects should be closed in order to provide a correct estimation of object volume.
9. Orientation labels
The coordinate system orientation helper labels can be saved into “.ORI” files, which are .txt files
containing 6 lines, 1 for each axis.
9.1 Load orientation labels
Select a .ORI file using this menu => Then open the orientation labels window window (Viewing opt;
Orientation labels) : the 6 orientation labels should have been updated.
9.2 Save orientation labels
This option saves the current state of orientation labels in a .ORI file.
25
Menu Viewing
Opt.
Contents
1. General colour and lightning options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2. General rendering options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3. Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4. Object rendering options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5. Grid size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6. Landmark and flag rendering options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7. Display landmark numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8. Draw curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
9. Orientation labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
26
General colour and lightning options
1. General colour and lightning options
The general options window contains the following
sections:
1.1 Windows
These controls affect the default colour of objects opened
within ISE-MeshTools, the colour of grid elements, and
the background colour.
1.2 Light
These controls affect the orientation of the light and
Lightning and colour options window
specular, diffuse and ambient light parameters. By default
surface back faces are not shown. Back face lighting can
be enabled if the checkbox “enable two sided lighting” is checked
2. General rendering options
The rendering options window contains the following sections:
2.1 Object rendering when moving object/camera
Show full surface / scalars (slower): when active, surfaces
are fully drawn when moving the object or the camera.
This results in a better perception of object / camera
movements. This option is convenient when working with
light surfaces.
Show point cloud (faster): 3D surface rendering can be
slow using the preceding option when working with:
Rendering options window
- large number of surfaces simultaneously
- heavy surfaces (large number of triangle / vertices)
Also, rendering is slower when tag rendering mode is active ( ) or when scalar rendering mode is
active ( ) . In order to increase rendering spedth, surfaces can be rendered as a schematic point
cloud when moving the object or the camera.
2.2 Depth of field of view
When the option “Adapt field of view depth” is active, changing the zoom value will affect the depth
of the field of view (camera.far value) and the position of the clipping plane (camera.tz value). When
the option “Keep current field of view depth” is active, changing the zoom will not affect the camera.
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MeshTools User Manual
Left : cranium and mandible of the type specimen of Pan paniscus (downloadable at http://www.
metafro.be/primates/panpaniscustype ) rendered with the clipping plane placed at its original
position (
). Right : the same skull viewed using a clipping plane placed at the position of the
saggital plane, revealing inner structures such as the endocranium cavity (
was pressed).
Note that the position of the specimen was modified so that the sagittal plane of the skull passes
through the point (0,0,0) and is perpendicular to the vector (0,1,0).
far and camera.tz values.
3. Camera
3.1 Camera options
- Camera near, Camera far : define near and far clipping planes of the camera
- Azimuth, Elevation, Twist : camera rotation parameters
- Tx, Ty, Tz : camera translation in x, y and z
The buttons
and
which lie underneath the Tz
control(and also underneath the clipping plane slider in the
main window) permit to adjust / readjust the position of
the clipping plane at predefined positions :
: the clipping plane is placed at z = 0 (all objects having
a z coordinate along z viewing axis smaller than 0 are hidden).
Camera options window
: the clipping plane is replaced at its original value : z= - camera.far / 2. This value permits to
view objects having positive and negative coordinates along z viewing axis.
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Object rendering options
3.2 Camera rotation centre at
Camera rotation centre can be modified at the origin (x=0,
y=0, z=0) or at the location of one of the first 10 “normal”
landmarks.
Scale window
3.3 Set 100 pixels in mm
Camera zoom can be modified in order to reach a desired display pixel size. This is useful to produce
scaled images.
3.4 Reset camera
You may use this option to reinitialize camera parameters.
4. Object rendering options
4.1 Gouraud shading (smooth rendering)
This is the default rendering mode. Object rendering is
performed using vertices’ normals.
Gouraud shading
4.2 Draw wireframe
This option can be useful to inspect the structure of the
surface.
4.3 Sort vertices from back to front (beware: slow rendering)
This option is (only) useful when working with transparent
surfaces, in the case you want to display all surface inner
structures. When active, whenever the camera of the
object is moved, vertices will be sorted in order to be
displayed from back to front. This is the way transparency
is achieved in OpenGL. As a consequence, rendering fluidity
becomes slow when working with heavy surfaces and/or a
large number of objects. To change the transparency of an
object, select an object, and reach “Edit selected surfaces ->
Rendering modifications -> Set alpha value”.
Alternatively, in order to increase rendering fluidity, you
may chose not to use the “Sort vertices from back to front
Example of wireframe rendering
Sort vertices from back to front. In this
example, vertices are displayed from
back to front. Four landmarks placed
within this structure can be visualized.
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(beware: slow rendering)” rendering option, but to sort episodically the vertices from back to front by
pressing the button .
Working with transparency is useful to observe inner structures and/or when digitizing landmarks
inside structures.
4.4 Sort vertices from front to back (beware: slow rendering)
This option is (only) useful when working with transparent
surfaces, and when you do not want to display too many
inner structures. When active, whenever the camera of
the object is moved, vertices will be sorted in order to be
displayed from front to back. As a consequence, rendering
fluidity becomes slow when working with heavy surfaces
and/or a large number of objects.
Sort vertices from front to back.
Alternatively, in order to increase rendering fluidity, you
may chose not to use the “Sort vertices from front to back
(beware: slow rendering)” rendering option, but to sort
episodically the vertices from front to back by pressing the
button .
4.5 Flat triangles
Using this option improves the perception of surface
structure.
Example of flat triangle surface rendering
4.6 Wireframe and flat triangles
Using this option further improves the perception of surface
structure.
4.7 Backface culling
Surface’s back faces are hidden when using this option.
Example of flat triangle + wireframe
surface rendering
4.8 Display vertices ids
For surface inspection purposes, you may sometimes need to visualize vertices ids.
Note : this option affects rendering fluidity even when using relatively light surfaces.
30
Grid size
4.9 Display triangle ids
For surface inspection purposes, you may sometimes need to visualize triangle ids.
Note : this option affects rendering fluidity even when using relatively light surfaces.
Gouraud shading + vertices ids rendering
Gouraud shading + triangle ids rendering
5. Grid size
Grid rendering can be edited to reach the desired size/
square
Grid size window
6. Landmark and flag rendering options
The landmark and flag options window contains the
following sections:
6.1 Landmarks rendering
“Normal” and “Target” landmarks can be drawn as
spheres or as needles. Landmark display size can be
also edited in this section.
6.2 Flags settings
Flag length and colour settings can be defined in this
subsection. Once placed on a surface and selected,
the colour, the length and the label of the flag can be
changed by pressing
Landmark and flag options window
7. Display landmark numbers
“Normal” and “target” landmark numbers are displayed by default. For illustration purposes, you may
sometimes need to hide landmark numbers.
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MeshTools User Manual
8. Draw curves
Activate/deactivate this option to draw/hide 3D bezier curves passing through “normal” landmarks.
See the tutorial “working with curves” section for further details regarding curve digitization with ISEMeshTools.
9. Orientation labels
The labels associated to the 6 orientation axes can be modified
using this window. This will affect the coordinate system
orientation helper displayed on the bottom left area of the 3D
window.
Edit orientation labels window
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Menu Edit selected surfaces
Contents
1. Structure modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2. Rendering modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3. Grouping actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4. Object list order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5. Delete small objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
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MeshTools User Manual
As a prerequisite, you need to select surfaces. Only selected surfaces can be edited.
1. Structure modifications
1.1 Invert
Surface’s triangles can be
inverted in order to show surface
inner structures.
Note that the original surface
is directly affected; this option
does not involve the use of a
filter (no output additionnal
surface is created).
Example of surface triangle inversion. Left: original surface.
Right: the same surface inverted, revealing inner structures such
as the endocranial cavity. Gouraud shading rendering + backface
culling option was used.
1.2 Mirror
This option uses vtkReflectionFilter,which produces a mirror image of the original selected input
mesh.
Example of fossil restoration implicating the production of mirror images of missing parts.
1.3 Connectivity : separate all non connected regions
This option uses vtkPolyDataConnectivityFilter. This filter produces a new surface for each non-
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Structure modifications
connected region of the selected input surface. 3D meshes of
biological objects sometimes contain a multitude of small and
biologically irrelevant independent regions. This “noise” may have
multiple origins: low quality of original 3D data, state of preservation
of the specimen, threshold used to be able to visualize all relevant
structures, etc... In order to extract relevant independent regions,
only regions reaching a minimal size (minimal number of triangles)
Connectivity decomposition
window
are transformed into new surfaces.
Original surface containing a large number of
independent regions of size > 350 triangles (in
grey)
Filtered surfaces : all meshes produced using
this filter have more than 350 triangles
This process may take some time to be completed.
Left: original surface (one single mesh). Right: the resulting 298 filter output surfaces (each drawn
using a different colour) can be manipulated independently.
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MeshTools User Manual
All produced surfaces corresponding to independent regions can be manipulated independently.
1.4 Connectivity: keep largest region
This option uses vtkPolyDataConnectivityFilter.This filter produces a new surface for the largest
independent region of the selected input surface.
Left: original surface. Right: the resulting largest region in terms of triangle number.
1.5 Lasso cut
You may cut through an input selected surface using this option. Once “lasso cut” menu is clicked, the
mouse cursor changes to a cross in the 3D window. Additional mouse and keyboard controls become
available.
Left click
Adds a segment to polygon (segments are
drawn yellow)
Right click
Connects last segment to first segment. If two
segments cross each other, lasso cut action
is canceled. Otherwise, the closed polygon is
drawn red.
Once polygon is closed : Middle click or “C” +
when click falls inside/outside the closed red
right click.
polygon: the region falling inside the polygon is
included/is not included into the filter output
surface, respectively. The region falling ousitde
the polygon is not included/is included inside
the output, respectively.
Once “Middle click” is pressed or “C” + right click is pressed, the usual mouse and keyboard controls
become available again.
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Structure modifications
Left clicks -> add new yello seg- Right final click -> connects last Result of middle click inside red
segment to first segment
polygon.
ments
Left clicks -> add new yello seg- Right final click -> connects last Result of middle click outside
segment to first segment
red polygon.
ments
1.6 Smooth
This option uses vtkSmoothPolyDataFilter.You may smooth an input
selected surface using this option. A number of iteration and a
relaxation factor are required .
See vtkSmoothPolyDataFilter documentation for further information
Smoothing window
Left: example of original input surface. Right: resulting output surface after 50 iterations using a
relaxation factor of 0.1.
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MeshTools User Manual
regarding this option.
1.7 TPS deformation
This option uses vtkThinPlateSplineTransform filter.
Requirements : to use TPS deformation, a selected surface,
a series of “n” normal landmarks and a series of “n”
target landmarks (n>3) are needed. “Normal” landmarks
are usually placed on the original selected input surface,
whereas “target” landmarks are placed at a location in 3D
space which will drive the TPS deformation.
Original distorted input surface. 31 “normal”
landmarks were placed on the surface and 31
“target” landmarks were placed in order to
restore bilateral symmetry.
TPS window
Resulting output (deformation : 100%). Note
that the 31 “target” landmarks are located on
the output surface.
See vtkThinPlateSplineTransform documentation for further information regarding TPS deformation.
1.8 Decimate
This option uses vtkDecimatePro and
vtkQuadricDecimation filters.
Requirements : to use mesh decimation, a selected
surfaceis required.
Decimate window
See vtkDecimatePro and vtkQuadricDecimation documentations for further information regarding
mesh decimation.
38
Structure modifications
Original input surface. Number of triangles:
27679.
Resulting output (vtkQuadricDecimation filter,
decimation factor: 80%). Number of triangles:
5535.
1.9 Densify
This option uses vtkDensifyPolyData filter.
Requirements : to use mesh densification, a selected
surfaceis required.
Note that mesh decimation can become extremely slow
when using number of subdivisions larger than 1.
Densify window
See vtkDensifyPolyData documentation for further information regarding mesh densification.
Original input surface. Number of triangles:
5535.
Resulting output (number of subdivisions: 1).
Number of triangles: 16605.
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MeshTools User Manual
1.10 Fill holes
This option uses vtkFillHolesFilter.
Requirements : to use mesh hole filling, a selected surfaceis
required. See vtkFillHolesFilter documentation for further
information regarding hole filling.
Fill holes window
Original input surface. Number of triangles: 5535. Resulting output (maximal size: 1). Number of
triangles: 5689.
2. Rendering modifications
2.1 Set alpha value
A selected surface is needed.
Please chose a value between 0 and 100. 100 stands for “opaque
rendering”. 0 stands for “invisible surface”.
Alpha value window
As stated earlier, vertex display order has consequences on 3D rendering when working with
transparency. 3D objects are displayed one after the other following an object list. The way object
are ordered inside this list thus affects transparency rendering, especially when some objects such as
inner structures are positioned inside others. Object display order of selected objects can be changed
using the two following controls. Pressing “ ” will place all selected objects one step earlier in the
object display list. Pressing “ ” will place all selected objects one step further in the object display
list.
See also “Sort vertices from back to front (beware: slow rendering)” and “Sort vertices from front to
back (beware: slow rendering)” sections for further information.
40
Rendering modifications
1) 3 objects (cranium, left_inner_ear and right_ Corresponding display object order (Show ->Disinner_ear) are opened in this order, and object play object order)
“cranium” is rendered with an alpha value of 40.
The inner ears remain invisible, because “cranium” is displayed before the two inner ears
2) “Cranium” was selected, and button “ ” was
pressed. Now the left inner ear is visible, because it is displayed before the cranium.
Corresponding display object order
3) “Cranium” was selected again, and button “
” was pressed. Now the two inner ears are
visible, because they are displayed before the
cranium.
Corresponding display object order
2.2 Change object colour
Object colour can be changed using this option. A set of 13 predefined colours is available via this
menu. Alternatively, you can edit object colour manually using the “Object colour” control of the
“General options” window (click on menu “Show ->General options->”).
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MeshTools User Manual
2.3 Edit first selected object and aspect matrices
A selected surfaceis required . This opens the following window,
in which the aspect and position matrices can be edited.
Options :
- Ok : set aspect and position matrices to first selected object.
- Init : set aspect and position matrices to identity.
- Refresh : change matrices to those of first selected object.
- Ok for all selected objects: set aspect and position matrices to
all selected objects.
You can also access faster the “Object Matrix” window by clicking on “ ”(edit first selected object position and aspect matrices).
Object matrix window
3. Grouping actions
One or several meshes can be placed into one logical object using this option. This option is useful in
the following two cases.
-
It allows an easy way to select/unselect together several objects (sometimes you do not want
to select/unselect manually multiple meshes one by one).
-
As a logical object’s aspect object and position matrices can be edited, placing 1 or several
meshes into one logical object provides a convenient means to achieve deformation into
a particular direction in 3D space (for instance to achieve mesh decompression in one
direction.
Logical objects can be also put into another logical object. Note that meshes contained into selected
logical objects cannot be saved until they are ungrouped.
3.1 Group
Select one or several meshes. Click on “Edit selected surfaces->Grouping actions->Group”. As a result,
the selected meshes are drawn in brown colour.
3.2 Ungroup
Select one logical object. Click on “Edit selected surfaces->Grouping actions->Ungroup”. If the logical
object aspect and position matrices are different from the identity matrices, the position and aspect
matrices of the contained objects are edited in order to take into account position and aspect
transformations that were applied to that logical object. Then the objects contained into the selected
logical object are ungrouped, and the selected logical object is deleted.
42
Grouping actions
1) 7 objects are opened. Original matrices of
“bx_md” object are shown (right mandible,
selected).
Corresponding display object order (Show ->Display object order)
2) The 7 object are grouped. The group is drawn
in brown.
Corresponding display object order
3) The position of the group is changed, as well
as its aspect matrix. Note that the enclosed
meshes cannot be saved in that state.in brown.
Corresponding display object order
4) Objects are ungrouped. Modified matrices
of “bx_md” object are shown (right mandible is
selected). Now, the 7 meshes can be saved.
Corresponding display object order (Show ->Display object order)
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MeshTools User Manual
4. Object list order As explained earlier, the following options are useful when working with transparent objects. Normal
and Target landmark ordering can also be edited using these options.
As stated above, access to object display order can be reached via the menu “Show->Display object
order”.
4.1 Move up
All selected objects (landmarks or surfaces) will be placed one step earlier in the object display list.
This action can also be reached via the following button:
4.2 Move down
All selected objects (landmarks or surfaces) will be placed one step further in the object display list.
This action can also be reached via the following button:
See tutorial “working with landmarks” for further information.
5. Delete small objects
5.1 Threshold : a given number of triangles
Using this option, you may delete selected objects smaller than a given number of triangles.
5.2 Threshold : a given volume
Using this option, you may delete selected objects smaller than
a given volume.
Delete small objects window
Delete small objects window 2
44
Menu Edit selected landmarks
Contents
1. Push back selected landmarks on closest surface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2. Edit all selected flag landmarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3. Change selected landmarks orientation according to surface normals. . . 46
4. Landmarks involved into curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
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MeshTools User Manual
As stated above, landmarks can be set on surfaces by pressing “L” + left mouse click. Several actions
can be performed on selected (grey) landmarks.
1. Push back selected landmarks on closest surface
When set via pressing “L” + left click, landmarks are positioned on one surface’s vertex. Selected
landmarks can be subsequently moved manually to other locations (for instance, if you want to place
a given landmark in the middle of a canal or a foramen, or between two unfused bones). However,
you may sometimes want to push back automatically some selected landmarks to the position of the
closest surface’s vertex available. This can be achieved using this option.
2. Edit all selected flag landmarks
Using this option, you can modify the length and the colour
of several selected flag landmarks at once.
Edit all selected flags window
3. Change selected landmarks orientation according to surface normals
When set via pressing “L” + left surfaces, landmark orientation is that of the vertex on which it is
placed. Selected landmarks’ orientation can be subsequently moved manually. However, you may
sometimes want to reset one or several landmarks’ orientation automatically to that of the closest
surface’s vertex available. This can be achieved using this option.
4. Landmarks involved into curves
4.1 Move curve handles (selected yellow landmarks) semi-automatically
This option allows saving a lot of time when creating
3D Bezier curves with ISE-MeshTools (see “working
with curves” section for further details regarding curve
implementation and digitization in ISE-MeshTools).
Requirement : at least a handle landmark (“target”
landmark) must be selected.
Mode handles window
Depending on whether selected curve handles lie within the curve, at the start of the curve or at the
end of the curve, their displacements differ:
46
Landmarks involved into curves
Case 1: curve handle is associated to a curve
Curve handle associated to A is moved
starting point (A), and a following point (B) exfrom point A along
. Displacement
ists. Vector
is computed, as well as its length length=movement intensity/|AB|.
|AB|.
Curve handle associated to B is moved
from point B along
. Displacement
Case 2: curve handle is associated to a point B
lying between two points (A and C). Vector
is length=movement intensity/|AC|.
computed, as well as its length |AC|.
Case 3: curve handle is associated to a curve
ending point (C), and a preceding point (B) exists. Vector
|BC|.
Curve handle associated to C is moved
from point C along
. Displacement
length=movement intensity/|BC|.
is computed, as well as its length
4.2 Normal landmarks (red): define as curve starting points (green)
Selected landmark will be given flag “1”.
4.3 Normal landmarks (red): connect to preceding starting points (violet)
Selected landmark will be given flag “3”.
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MeshTools User Manual
Example of curve handles semi-automatic displacement (movement intensity: 25%).
4.4 Normal landmarks (red): define as curve milestones (blue)
Selected landmark will be given flag “2”.
4.5 Green, blue, violet landmarks: set back to normal landmarks (red)
Selected landmark will be given flag “0”.
Further information regarding curve use in ISE-MeshTools is available in the section “Menu File ->
Curves” section and in the tutorial “working with curves”.
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Menu Scalars
Contents
1. Show scalar rendering options window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2. Scalars: distance from camera (Depth) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3. Scalars : compute vertice curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4. Scalars: compute thickness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
5. Scalars: compute thickness between two objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6. Smooth active scalars (Gaussian blur). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7. Saving and loading scalars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
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MeshTools User Manual
Scalar values can be associated to each vertex. Scalar values
can be displayed when scalar display mode is active. To
activate/deactivate scalar display mode, click on “ ”.
Rainbow colour scale, showing a
“min” range display value of -1, a
When active, the rainbow colour scale shows up in the
“max” range display value of 1, and a
bottom-right part of the 3D rendering window.
middle range display value of 0.
1. Show scalar rendering options window
Displayed scalars and scalar associated
colour scales can aslo be onpend by
clicking on “ ”.
Available controls:
Chose active scalar : please chose among
the available scalars (see below for further
information).
Chose colour scale : please chose among
the available colour scales (see below for
further information).
Scalar rendering options window
Init scalar : set current active scalar values to “0” for all selected objects.
Remove scalar : removes active scalar for all selected objects. This option is useful if you plan to save
surfaces in the .vtk format and do not want ISE-MeshTools to save associated scalar values (this will
save some disk space).
min : changes the minimal value of the active colour scale.
max : changes the maximal value of the active colour scale.
Show below min: if active, all vertices with an associated active scalar value below “min” will be
drawn using the colour situated at the leftmost part of the active colour scale. If not, these vertices
will be transparent.
Show below max: if active, all vertices with an associated active scalar value above “max” will be
drawn using the colour situated at the rightmost part of the active colour scale.
Suggested min: suggested “min” range display value. This value is computed in order to use the
colour scale at its best.
Suggested max: suggested “max” range display value. This value is computed in order to use the
colour scale at its best.
“ ”: Set min/max to suggested min/max, respectively.
Scale min: current “min” range display value.
Scale max: current “max” range display value.
Ok: applies changes.
50
Scalars: distance from camera (Depth)
2. Scalars: distance from camera (Depth)
Computes distance from camera for all vertices of
all selected objects. This option may offer a better
perception of the 3D structure of an object on a
2D screen representation.
Example of 3D rendering of “Depth” scalars.
Scalar mode is active, the rainbow colour scale
is used.
3. Scalars : compute vertice curvature
vtkCurvatures filter is implied in this option.
vtkCurvatures filter offers 4 ways to compute surface’s
curvature at each vertex :
- Principal maximal curvature
- Principal minimal curvature
- Gaussian curvature
- Mean curvature
Principal maximal curvature
Curvature window
Principal minimal curvature
Gaussian curvature
Mean curvature
Examples of 3D rendering of “Curvature” scalars. Scalar mode is active, the rainbow colour scale
is used. Specimen : enamel dentine junction (EDJ) of the second superior molar of a juvenile
medieval human from Sains-en-Gohelle (France). Specimen number : SP07. Image credit : Mona Le
Luyer (PACEA, Bordeaux).
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MeshTools User Manual
See vtkCurvatures’ documentation for further details.
4. Scalars: compute thickness
Thickness within an object is defined the following way: for a
given vertex, the minimal distance between this vertex and other
vertices in the direction opposite to that of the surface’s normal
is computed. In order to minimize computation time, a maximal
distance (Maximal thickness (mm) ) is asked to the user, in order
to reduce the amount of vertices investigated at a given location.
Thickness scalar window
5. Scalars: compute thickness between two objects
Thickness between tow objects is defined the following way:
for a given vertex of the impacted object, the minimal distance
between this vertex and other vertices of the observed surface in
the direction opposite to that of the impacted surface’s normal
is computed. Again, in order to minimize computation time, a
maximal distance (Maximal thickness (mm) ) is asked to the user,
in order to reduce the amount of vertices investigated at a given
location. Only selected surfaces appear in the impacted object
and observed object lists.
Example of 3D rendering of “Thickness” of the
3D model ot the type specimen of Pan paniscus
(downloadable at http://www.metafro.be/primates/panpaniscustype). Scalar mode is active,
the rainbow colour scale is used.
Thickness between 2 surfaces
window
Example of 3D rendering of “Thickness” between two objects’ scalars. Scalar mode is active, the rainbow colour scale is used. Impacted
object : enamel surface of SP07 specimen (see
above for details). Observed object : enameldentine junction’s surface (EDJ) of SP07specimen.
6. Smooth active scalars (Gaussian blur)
Active scalars are “smoothed” the following way : for each vertex, a new scalar value is computed as
the mean of the scalar values of all neighbouring vertices.
52
Saving and loading scalars.
Smoothing scalars. Examples of 3D rendering of “Mean Curvature” scalars. Scalar mode is active,
the rainbow colour scale is used. Left : “raw” mean curvature. Middle : mean curvature scalars
smoothed once. Right : mean curvature scalars smoothed twice. Specimen: EDJ of SP07 specimen
(see above for details)
7. Saving and loading scalars.
Computed scalars can be saved inside the .vtk surface files. In order to access scalar values into other
software (such as a text editor), save the .vtk files in ASCII format. Saved scalars can be reloaded into
ISE-MeshTools. Saving surfaces into .vtk format provides an efficient means to store and exchange
computed scalars.
53
Menu Tags
Contents
1. Tagging surfaces with ISE-MeshTools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2. Show tag options window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3. Convert RGB colours to Tags. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4. Merge tags. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5. Tag connected regions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6. Extract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7. Delete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
54
Tagging surfaces with ISE-MeshTools
1. Tagging surfaces with ISE-MeshTools
25 tags (ordered between 0 and 24) can be given
a label, a colour, a transparency, and be manually
delimitated. A greater number of tags can be given
Example of tag colour scale
to a surface using automatic tagging tools such as the “Tag connected regions” tool, but these
additionnal tags can not be labelled or manually edited. As stated earlier, in order to edit tags, it is
avisable to activate the “tag mode” (press “ ” button). In this mode, selected surfaces (on which
you can interact and tag) can be drawn according to tag values at each vertex if “tag display mode”
is active. Press
to activate “tag diplay mode”. When active, the tag colour scale shows up in the
bottom-right part of the 3D rendering window. Selected surfaces can be tagged using the pencil tag
tool ( ), the magic wand tag tool ( ), the paint bucket tag tool ( ) or the lasso tag tool ( ).
1.1 Pencil tag tool (
)
Pencil tag tool controls:
T pressed + left mouse click : tags the selected surface using currently active tag.
T pressed + right click : tags the selected surface using tag 0 (usually used as “exterior” tag). This
option is often used to “clear” a wrongly tagged part.
Pencil tag special option :
pencil tag size can be modified in the Tag option window. This
option defines the tag propagation extension level, which starts at
the vertex on which the mouse click is performed.
1.2 Magic wand tag tool (
Pencil tag size option
)
Magic wand tag tool controls:
T pressed + left mouse click : tags the selected surface using currently active tag.
T pressed + right click : tags the selected surface using tag 0 (usually used as “exterior” tag). This
option often is used to “clear” a wrongly tagged part.
Magic wand special option :
Magic wand limit angle size can be modified in the Tag option
window.
Magic wand limit angle
This option defines the tag propagation extension level, which starts at the vertex on which the
mouse click is performed : propagation stops if the angle between the notmal of current vertex and
the normal of the vertex on which the mouse click was done is found is greater than the defined
angle.
1.3 Paint bucket tag tool (
)
Paint bucket tag tool controls:
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MeshTools User Manual
T pressed + left mouse click : tags the selected surface using currently active tag.
T pressed + right click : tags the selected surface using tag 0 (usually used as “exterior” tag). This
option is often used to “clear” a wrongly tagged part.
Note : the paint bucket tag tool works exactly like the magic wand tag tool when the magic wand limit
angle is set to 180°.
1.4 Pencil tag, magic wand and paint bucket common option
These 3 tools share a common option, available in the Tag option
window.
Allow colour override option
- If checked : no attention is paid to the colour of the vertex on
which the left/right click was done during tag propagation.
- If unchecked: tag propagation will stop if a tag colour different from 0 (exterior tag) and from that of
the vertex on which the mouse click was done is found.
Important note : Be careful when using “allow colour override” option checked with the paint bucket
tag tool or with the magic wand, as it will paint a large region uniformly (minutes or even hours of
work may be lost in a single click, if you did not save your tagged surface in .vtk format earlier).
1.5 Lasso tag tool (
)
The lasso tag tool can be used alone (option 1) or in combination with the pencil, the magic wand or
the paint bucket (option 2).
Once “lasso tag tool” button is pressed, the mouse cursor changes to a cross in the 3D window.
Additional mouse and keyboard controls become available
Left click
Right click
Option 1: once polygon is closed : Middle click
or “C” + right click.
56
Adds a segment to polygon (segments are
drawn yellow)
Connects last segment to first segment. If two
segments cross each other, lasso tag action
is canceled. Otherwise, the closed polygon is
drawn red.
when click falls inside/outside the closed red
polygon: the region falling inside the polygon
is tagged/ is not tagged using the active tag
colour, respectively. The region falling outside
the polygon is not tagged/is tagged using the
active tag colour, respectively.
Show tag options window
Option 2: once polygon is closed: Press “T” +
left or Press “T” +right click
The selected tag tool (magic wand or paint
bucket) is be used, but tag propagation will not
cross over polygon edges.
Once option 1 or option 2 is achieved, the usual mouse and keyboard controls become available
again.
2. Show tag options window
The “Tag options” window can aslo be onpened by clicking on
.
Tag options window
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MeshTools User Manual
Exemple of tag hole filling. Left : cranium of Microcebus murinus presenting a parietal region
tagged mostly in yellow, and presenting red “holes”. Right : “holes” present in the yellow region
were filled using “Max num vertices” = 4000 option.
Available controls :
Define tag labels, colours and transparency group:
Labels : you may define tag labels for all 25 available tags.
Active tag : you may define the currently active tag.
Colour : you may define the colour for all 25 available tags.
Alpha : you may define the transparency for all 25 available tags.
Clear : clears the tag region (all vertices of this region will be set to 0 = Tag 00).
Fill holes : opens the “Fill holes” window:
Pressing ok will fill all regions adjacent to the concerned tag region
(Tag id) containing less than “Max num” vertices.
Tag tools group:
Fill Holes window
Pencil tag size : This option defines the tag propagation extension
level of the pencil tag tool.
Magic wand limit angle : This option defines the tag propagation extension level of the magic wand
tag tool (see above for further explanations).
Allow colour override : The pencil, magic wand and paint bucket tag tools share this option. If active,
tag propagation will stop if a tag colour different from 0 (exterior tag) and from that of the vertex on
which the mouse click was done is found.
Tag extraction/deletion:
For a given triangle : All points must satisfy condition / One point must satisfy condition.
This option defines the extent to which region extraction or deletion is performed at the boundaries
of the concerned tagged region.
58
Convert RGB colours to Tags
Exemple of tag merging. Left : cranium of Microcebus murinus presenting the parietal region
tagged in yellow, the frontal region tagged in orange. Right : frontal tag region was merged into
the parietal region.
3. Convert RGB colours to Tags
This option may be useful when you just
have opened a .ply file already containing RGB colours (for instance, let us suppose that you have painted a surface using
MeshLab software, and that you wish to
convert those colours into tags). RGB
colours contained in .ply files are inserted
Convert RGB scalars to TAGS window
inside the RGB scalar when opened with
MeshTools. I you plan to transform those RGB values into tags with MeshTools, be aware of the fact
that RGB scalar is reinitialised extremely frequently: for instance as soon as you activate the tag or the
scalar display mode, or whenever you change the objects’ colour rendering. So I advise you to use the
present option only immediatly after opening the surface.
You have two options :
1) Exact colour match
=> In that case, in order to be given a tag value other than Tag 00, a vertex must satisfy the following condition: its RGB scalar value should match one of the 25 colours defined in the “Tags options”
window. If a vertex does not satisfy this condition, it is given the Tag 00 value.
2) Define tags following the first 25 distinct colours found in RGB scalar
=> In that case the following sequence of operations is applied :
a) MeshTools searches for the first 25 distinct RGB colours inside the object; MeshTools gives them
numbers ranging from 0 to 24. Important : if more than 25 distinct colours exist in the RGB scalar,
they are not given a tag value.
b) MeshTools updates tag colours according to the 25 first colours found in the RGB scalar.
c) All vertices are given a Tag value following the procedure defined above in #1 (exact colour match).
Advantages of #1 : if you have well prepared your RGB colours so that they matches well those associated with the 25 tags, this procedure will work perfectly.
Advantages of #2 : if you have up to 25 distinct RGB colours in your .ply file and if you do not want to
bother to edit manually the 25 tags and give them a RGB colour, you will save time with this procedure.
Drawbacks of both methods: if your file contains more than 25 distinct RGB colours, you will definitely
lose information in the process.
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MeshTools User Manual
Be also aware that when saving .ply files with ISE-MeshTools, the RGB coulours saved within the file
are those currently rendered in the 3D screen. If you spent time to colour a 3D surface in .ply format
(for instance with MeshLab) and you have opened it subsequently with ISE-MeshTools and have
saved it again, there is a high probability that all the initial RGB colours will have been replaced with
those rendered in ISE-MeshTools.
4. Merge tags
Two tagged regions can be merged into a single one
All source tags will be put into target tags.
Merge tags window
5. Tag connected regions
This option implies vtkPolyDataConnectivityFilter. This filter will tag all non-connected regions of the
selected input surface into different colours.
Left: original surface. Right: the same mesh automatically tagged into 304 non connected regions.
6. Extract
Note: The “Tag extraction/deletion” option in the Tag options window will affect the boundaries of
the extracted regions.
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Extract
Exemple of tag extraction. Left : cranium of Microcebus murinus presenting the frontal region
tagged in orange. Right : frontal tag region was extracted into a new surface object.
6.1 Extract active tag corresponding region
Using this option, a single mesh will be created out of the active tag corresponding region of the
selected object.
6.2 Extract all tagged regions as several new objects
In order to prevent extremely small surface objects to be
created, a minimal region size parameter for tag extraction is
asked.
Extract all tagged regions window.
Left: original tagged surface. Right: all tagged regions were extracted into single independent
surface objects
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MeshTools User Manual
6.3 Extract one tagged region as 1 new object
This option works similarly as the “Extract active tag
corresponding region” option mentioned above, except that
you can reach tag id values beyond the 25 reachable in the
Tag options window.
Extract tagged region window.
6.4 Extract tag or other scalar range as 1 new object
Using this option, you may extract several tagged regions
into one single mesh, or all regions ranging from a minimal
value up to a maximal value for a given scalar into a single
new mesh.
Extract scalar range window.
Extraction of the region showing an enamel thickness greater than 1 mm. Specimen : enamel surface of SP07 specimen (see “Scalars” and “Acknowledgement” sections for details regarding this
specimen). Image credit : Mona Le Luyer (PACEA, Bordeaux).
7. Delete
Note: The “Tag extraction/deletion” option in the Tag options window will affect the boundaries of
the deleted regions.
7.1 Delete one tagged region
This option works similarly as the “Extract one tagged
region” option mentioned above, except that it deletes the
selected tag region.
Delete tagged region window.
62
Delete
7.2 Delete active tag corresponding region
This option works similarly as the “Extract active tag corresponding region” option mentioned above,
except that it deletes the corresponding active tag region.
7.3 Delete all tagged regions except TAG 00
This option deletes all tagged region except the vertices tagged with TAG 00 (exterior).
63
Menu Show
Contents
1. General options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2. Show object view/hide window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3. Area and volume of selected objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4. Print scalar list. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
5. Print list of selected objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
6. Print list of distinct selected objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7. Show object display order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
64
General options
1. General options
The general options window contains the following sections
1.1 Behaviour when opening surfaces
Object position:
- Move object centre of mass at x=0, y=0, z=0: when active,
the position matrix of a newly opened surface is set in
order to display the object at the origin of the coordinate
system (x=0, y=0, z=0). This option is useful when surface
native coordinate system is far from the origin (this is often
the case if you see nothing in the 3D rendering window
General options window
after opening a surface).
- Keep object native coordinate system: when active, the
position matrix of a newly opened surface is set to the identity matrix.
Camera:
- Auto zoom / unzoom according to object size: when active, the zoom of the camera is modified in
order to match the object global size.
- Switch off auto zoom: switches off the preceding option.
1.2 Surface edition involving filters
The following “filters” are available in ISE-MeshTools (see “Edit selected surfaces” section):
- Connectivity filters
- Lasso cut
- TPS deformation
- Mesh mirroring/smoothing/decimation/densification/hole filling
Delete initial surface (only keep filter output): when active, when using one of the previously
mentioned filters, the initial object is deleted. Only the filter output is kept. This option is useful to
avoid object multiplication.
Keep both input and output surfaces : when active, when using one of the previously mentioned
filters, the initial object is kept. This option is useful to compare the initial object and the filter output.
Note that filter output object’s name differs from filter input objects’ name.
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MeshTools User Manual
2. Show object view/hide window
This option shows the list of currently opened meshes. You
may hide / show objects using this interface. Note that if
you delete/load objets while opened, the list will not be
updated. Please click on “refresh” to see the actual current
list of existing objects.
“Check all” : will show all objects
“uncheck all” : will hide all currently loaded objects.
This window is useful to hid/show structures.
View Hide Objects window
3. Area and volume of selected objects
This option shows in the output window the list of surface objects which are selected.
4. Print scalar list
This option shows in the output window the list of existing scalars. When saving .vtk files, all these
scalars are saved inside the .vtk file along with the geomtry of the object(s). When saving .ply files,
only the RGB scalars are saved.
5. Print list of selected objects
This option shows in the output window the full list of the names of all currently selected surfaces.
6. Print list of distinct selected objects
This option shows in the output window the list of the distinct names of all currently selected
surfaces. It may sometimes be useful to compare the full list of names and the list of distinct names
of selected objects when working with projects : ISE-MeshTools only allows to save series of surface
files having distinct names (see tutorial “Working with projects” for futher explanations).
7. Show object display order
This option shows in the output window the list of objects (landmarks, target landmarks, flag
66
Show object display order
landmarks, logical objects, surfaces) loaded into ISE-MeshTools, as well as their display order.
67
Menu “?”
Contents
1. About. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
68
About
1. About
This option shows the current version of ISEMeshTools.
About window
69
Acknowledgements
Contents
1. Specimens illustrated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
2. Scanning facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
70
Specimens illustrated
1. Specimens illustrated
I wish to thank the curators of different institutions for the access to most specimens illustrated
in this document: Nathalie Mémoire from the Musée d’Histoire Naturelle de Bordeaux, Christoph
Zollikofer and Marcia Ponce de León from the Anthropological Institute and Museum of Zürich,
Jacques Cuisin from the Musée d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris, Peter Giere and Robert Asher from the
Museum für Naturkunde (Berlin), Suzane Jicquel from the ISE-M, Nadine Mestre-Francès from the
Université Montpellier II. Thanks also to Mona Le Luyer and Pauline Colombet (PACEA, Bordeaux) ,
the PEPS IdEx Bordeaux / CNRS 3 Dent’in for the access to the digital reconstruction of the specimen
SP07 of Sains-en-Gohelle, and Cédric Beauval and Archéosphère SARL (Bordeaux) for the access to
these remains.
2. Scanning facilities
I wish to thank the MRI Platform (Montpellier), Zollikofer and Marcia Ponce de León from the
Anthropological Institute and Museum (Zürich), Paul Tafforeau and the E.S.R.F. (Grenoble, France) for
the access to the scanning facilities in which the illustrated specimens were digitized.
71
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