Implementation of a wireless OFDM system using USRP 2

Implementation of a wireless OFDM system using USRP 2
Implementation of a wireless OFDM system
using USRP 2 and USRP N210 kits
By
Amr Youssef Fathy Youssef
Karim Mokhtar Hamdna-Allah Hassan
Mohamed Gamal Mostafa
Mohamed Taha Saad
Under the Supervision of
Dr. Mohamed Khairy
A Graduation Project Report Submitted to
the Faculty of Engineering at Cairo University
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of
Bachelor of Science
in
Electronics and Communications Engineering
Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University
Giza, Egypt
July 2012
i
“Do not go where the path may lead ,
go instead where there is no path and
leave a trail . ”
Ralph Waldo Emerson
ii
Table of Contents
List of Tables ................................................................................................................ vi
List of Figures ..............................................................................................................vii
List of Symbols and Abbreviations............................................................................... ix
Acknowledgments......................................................................................................... xi
Abstract ........................................................................................................................xii
Chapter 1:
Introduction .............................................................................................. 1
1.1
Motivation ................................................................................................... 1
1.2
Tasks and contents ....................................................................................... 1
1.3
Software Defined Radio .............................................................................. 2
1.3.1
Definition ................................................................................................. 2
1.3.2
Basic principle and difference to analog radios ....................................... 3
1.3.3
Defining software radio using tiers .......................................................... 4
1.4
GNU Radio .................................................................................................. 5
1.4.1
Concepts and architecture ........................................................................ 5
1.4.2
GNU Radio installation............................................................................ 6
1.5
Tools ............................................................................................................ 8
1.5.1
GRC ......................................................................................................... 8
1.5.2
C++ .......................................................................................................... 9
1.5.3
Python ...................................................................................................... 9
1.5.4
SWIG ..................................................................................................... 11
1.6
USRP ......................................................................................................... 11
1.6.1
Motivation .............................................................................................. 11
1.6.2
Motherboard and internal construction .................................................. 11
1.6.3
From USRP1 to USRP2 ......................................................................... 13
1.6.4
Different sections in USRP .................................................................... 15
1.6.5
General Notes......................................................................................... 17
iii
Chapter 2:
Analog Environment .............................................................................. 19
2.1
Motivation ................................................................................................. 19
2.2
Transmission path ...................................................................................... 19
2.2.1
Signal source .......................................................................................... 19
2.2.2
Wide band FM transmitter ..................................................................... 19
2.2.3
USRP sink .............................................................................................. 20
2.3
Reception Path ........................................................................................... 20
2.3.1 USRP source .............................................................................................. 21
2.3.2 Wide band FM receiver ............................................................................. 21
2.3.3 Band pass filter .......................................................................................... 22
2.3.4 Rational resampler ..................................................................................... 22
2.3.5 Audio sink.................................................................................................. 22
2.3.6 FFT sink ..................................................................................................... 22
Chapter 3:
Digital Environment............................................................................... 23
3.1
Motivation ................................................................................................. 23
3.2
Transmission Path...................................................................................... 23
3.2.1
Random/Vector source........................................................................... 23
3.2.2
DPSK modulator .................................................................................... 24
3.2.3
Multiply const ........................................................................................ 26
3.2.4
USRP Sink ............................................................................................. 26
3.3
Reception Path ........................................................................................... 26
3.3.1
USRP source .......................................................................................... 27
3.3.2
DPSK demodulator ................................................................................ 27
3.3.3
Vector sink ............................................................................................. 34
Chapter 4:
OFDM .................................................................................................... 35
4.1
Introduction ............................................................................................... 35
4.2
Advantages and disadvantages of OFDM compared with SC .................. 35
iv
4.3
Objective .................................................................................................... 35
4.4
Important issues in OFDM ........................................................................ 36
4.4.1
Orthogonality ......................................................................................... 36
4.4.2
Delay spread and cyclic prefix ............................................................... 36
4.5
OFDM modulator ...................................................................................... 38
4.5.1
Motivation .............................................................................................. 38
4.5.2
Packet structure and construction .......................................................... 39
4.5.3
Blocks of OFDM modulator .................................................................. 39
4.6
OFDM demodulator .................................................................................. 44
4.6.1
Motivation .............................................................................................. 44
4.6.2
Blocks of OFDM demodulator .............................................................. 45
Ofdm symbol synchronization ..................................................................................... 48
4.7
A point by point simulation ....................................................................... 54
4.7.1
Mapper ................................................................................................... 54
4.7.2
Preample ................................................................................................. 56
4.7.3
BW and channel filter ............................................................................ 56
4.7.4
PN based synchronization ...................................................................... 58
4.7.5
Peak detection ........................................................................................ 59
4.8
Simulation codes........................................................................................ 60
4.8.1
Preample ................................................................................................ 60
4.8.2
BW and channel filter ............................................................................ 62
4.8.3
PN based synchronization ...................................................................... 66
References ................................................................................................................... 75
Future work .................................................................................................................. 78
v
List of Tables
Table ‎1.1: Comparison between USRP1 , USRP2 and USRP N210 ........................... 14
Table ‎1.2: USRP daughterboards available from Ettus research ................................. 17
Table 4.1 : Advantages and disadvantages of OFDM comapred with SC................... 35
vi
List of Figures
Figure ‎1.1: Module diagram of a SDR sender and receiver .......................................... 3
Figure ‎1.2: Example of a Python code ........................................................................ 10
Figure ‎1.3: USRP Motherboard ................................................................................... 12
Figure ‎1.4: High level view of USRP .......................................................................... 12
Figure ‎1.5: USRP 2 ...................................................................................................... 13
Figure ‎1.6: USRP 2 and its motherboard ..................................................................... 13
Figure ‎1.7: Internal construction of USRP 2 ............................................................... 14
Figure ‎2.1:Single tone transmission path ..................................................................... 19
Figure ‎2.2: Single tone reception path ......................................................................... 20
Figure ‎3.1: DBPSK transmission path ......................................................................... 23
Figure ‎3.2: Data flow through the modulation block ................................................... 24
Figure 3.3: Example showing input and output of packed to unpacked sub-block .... 25
Figure ‎3.4: Example showing input and output of differential encoder sub-block ..... 25
Figure ‎3.5: DBPSK reception path .............................................................................. 26
Figure 3.6: Data flow through the demodulation block .............................................. 27
Figure ‎3.7 :Carrier recovery process ............................................................................ 28
Figure ‎3.8 Four-phase poly-phase taps ........................................................................ 30
Figure 3.9: Estimating error process ............................................................................ 30
Figure ‎3.10: Taking the derivative output only is not enough ..................................... 31
Figure 3.11: Whole system block diagram .................................................................. 31
Figure ‎3.12 : Phase error .............................................................................................. 32
Figure ‎3.13: Block diagram of costas loop .................................................................. 33
Figure ‎4.1:Signal in the presence of ISI....................................................................... 37
Figure ‎4.2:Signal in the presence of GT ...................................................................... 37
Figure ‎4.3:The effect of adding a cyclic prefix to the signal ....................................... 37
Figure ‎4.4: OFDM Modulator Hierarchy..................................................................... 38
Figure ‎4.5: OFDM packet structure ............................................................................. 39
Figure ‎4.6: Flowchart of OFDM insert preample algorithm........................................ 42
Figure ‎4.7: OFDM demodulator hierarchy .................................................................. 44
Figure ‎4.8: Block diagram OFDM receiver block ....................................................... 45
Figure ‎4.9 : Time domain signal of channel filter ....................................................... 46
Figure ‎4.10:Distribution of preamble in frequency domain ........................................ 47
vii
Figure ‎4.11:Preamble symmetry in time ...................................................................... 47
Figure ‎4.12: Timing metric of Schmidl and Cox method ............................................ 48
Figure ‎4.13: Block diagram of OFDM symbol synchronization module .................... 48
Figure ‎4.14:Internal structure of OFDM synchronization block ................................. 49
Figure ‎4.15:Correlation between of halves .................................................................. 49
Figure ‎4.16: State machine representing OFDM frame sink block ............................. 51
Figure ‎4.17: Preample symmetry ................................................................................. 56
Figure ‎4.18: Transmitted OFDM signal....................................................................... 57
Figure ‎4.19: Time domain representation for filter taps .............................................. 57
Figure ‎4.20: Output of the timing metric ..................................................................... 58
Figure ‎4.21: Output of the matched filter .................................................................... 58
Figure ‎4.22: The peaks ................................................................................................. 58
Figure ‎4.23: Peak detection process............................................................................. 59
viii
List of Symbols and Abbreviations
SDR
Software Defined Radio
OFDM
Orthogonal Division Multiplexing
WIMAX
Worldwide Interoperability For Microwave Access
LTE
Long Tem Evolution
USRP
Universal Software Radio Peripheral
DBPSK
Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
QOS
Quality Of Service
PRR
Packet Received Ratio
PC
Personal Computer
RF
Radio Frequency
SCR
Software Controlled Radio
ISR
Ideal Software Radio
USR
Ultimate Software Radio
CR
Cognitive Radio
GPS
Global Positioning System
OS
Operating System
GRC
Gnu Radio Companion
FFT
Fast Fourier Transform
FPGA
Field Programmable Gate Array
DAC
Digital To Analog Converter
ADC
Analog To Digital Converter
DSP
Digital Signal Processing
GE
Giga Ethernet
DDC
Digital Down Converter
DUC
Digital Up Converter
CIC
Cascaded Integrator-Comb
TX
Transmitter
RX
Receiver
AGC
Automatic Gain Controller
LFTX
Low Frequency Transmitter
LFRX
Low Frequency Receiver
VHF
Very High Frequency
ix
UHF
Ultra High Frequency
USB
Universal Service Bus
LO
Local Oscillator
FM
Frequency Modulation
SNR
Signal To Noise Ratio
FIR
Finite Impulse Response
BW
Band Width
FDM
Frequency Division Multiplexing
CDM
Code Division Multiplexing
PAPR
Peak To Average Power Ratio
SC-FDMA
Single Carrier-Frequency Division Multiple Access
DAB
Digital Audio Broadcasting
DVB-T
Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial
DVB-H
Digital Video Broadcasting-Handheld
CP
Cyclic Prefix
QAM
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
PSK
Phase Shift Keying
IFFT
Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
ISI
Inter Symbol Interference
ICI
Inter Carrier Interference
FFT
Fast Fourier Transform
BPSK
Binary Phase Shift Keying
FEC
Forward Error Correction
LSB
Least Significant Bit
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check
PLL
Phase Locked Loop
GRC
Gnu Radio Companion
BER
Bit Error Rate
MSB
Most Significant Bit
FLL
Frequency Locked Loop
CW
Clock Wise
CCW
Counter Clock Wise
QPSK
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
EOF
End Of File
PN
Pseudo Noise
x
Acknowledgments
First and foremost, thanks God the most merciful and most beneficent to who we
relate any success in achieving any work in our life.
It gives us the greatest pleasure to express our deepest attitude and warmest thanks to
Dr.Mohamed Khairy, Lecturer of Communications, Electronics and Electrical
Communications Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University for his kind
supervision and valuable suggestions. Dedicating some of his valuable time and
encouraging guidance were the reasons for enriching this work.
It seems very difficult to select the suitable words expressing our respect and
appreciation to Eng.Hazem Nasef for his valuable assistance, encouragement and
helpful instruction throughout the work.
Also, we would like to extend our deep thanks to our families for their permanent help
and support through every step not only in this work but also through every step in
our life.
Lastly, some words which must be said, the GNU Radio mailing list is a treasure and
some mailing list answers should be gold weighted. Please send feedback corrections
for any technical mistakes. GNU Radio is great and impressive project and the USRP
is an amazing device. We always ask ourselves, how they build this great project ?
We will never know the answer.
Authors,
xi
Abstract
As technologies quickly evolve and computers and devices become more powerful
and economical, paths of research appear allowing a new mass of researchers the
chance to work on technologies that were only available to few. This is the case for
wireless communications technologies. The practical research was very costly in
terms of time and also money, sometimes even being necessary to build prototype
circuit boards for testing a possible model. Actual commodity computers have
become powerful enough to be able to undertake the signal processing tasks that have
always been done by dedicated devices. Cheap computers like the ones we use at
home are now able to do the necessary computation that these dedicated devices are
doing. This is what Software Defined Radio (SDR) is all about. The translation of the
signal processing into software run by a regular computer opens up a huge number of
possibilities at an affordable price. Now we can access to all the parameters that were
embedded and invariable before. Thanks to SDR now we can analyze and change
every value of the system. This project will try to get a grip of the state of the art in
both wireless communication technology and SDR projects. With that objective in
mind, in this project an implementation of a wireless communications system will be
made. For the physical layer of this system Orthogonal Frequency-Division
Multiplexing (OFDM) was chosen as the transmission multiplexing method. This
choice has been made because of the advantages that OFDM has shown in terms of
channel capacity. It has proven its importance by gaining relevance in two of the most
important technologies for the 4th generation of wireless communications: WiMAX
and LTE. The software toolkit that has been used for the implementation of the
prototype has been GNU Radio; an open source project that is being used by many
researchers and manufacturers all over the world, and that is growing steadily in
source code available and in active members and projects using it. The implemented
prototype communication system has been a prove of concept that has shown that it is
possible to run a communication system of a certain complexity all in software with
not much more than commodity equipment. The prototype has shown a very good
behaviour in some parts of the system such as the synchronization, and has also
shown weaknesses in other parts, like the return channel or the equalization.
.
xii
Chapter 1:
Introduction
This chapter gives an overview of the objectives of this project, as well as the
different tasks that will be necessary to fulfill these objectives. The chapter is divided
into the motivation section 1.1 and the tasks and contents section 1.2. In the
motivation we explain the interests that made us decide for this project, introducing
also the context in which it has been thought. The tasks and contents section will
explain the different proposed tasks for this project and will locate them in the
different chapters and sections of the project
1.1 Motivation
This project has been conceived as the result of putting many ideas in the practice. It
started with the objective of covering and gaining experience in some fields of interest
in wireless communications such as SDR or the implementation of communication
systems on USRP boards. The first idea that starts shaping this project is the
importance that SDR has acquired in the last years. As of today it has become a tool
that allows researchers great freedom at a very moderate price. Some years ago, the
leap between the theoretical part of a technology and its practical implementation was
very big, both in terms of requirements and specially costs. The proliferation of SDR
projects, specially based on open source software, and the interest from the academic
and industrial community for its utilization have created a relatively simple and
comparatively very affordable solution for the implementation and testing of a very
large number of wireless technologies. One of the objectives of this project is to gain
knowledge about actual SDR projects, its state of the art and the possibilities it offers.
Another important point for the development of this project, more specifically its
practical part, is our interest for the GNU Radio project, the chosen implementation
platform and one of the most developed and active toolkits for the development of
SDR applications as of today. This report will allow us to gain experience and get
acquainted with GNU Radio: its structure, its programming, its advantages and its
limitations. The implementation of the communication system in the GNU Radio
environment is the perfect way of getting to understand this tooklit. In order to finish
shaping this project the content of the implementation should be decided. The most
attractive technology for us was OFDM. It has a very good behaviour in terms of
spectral efficiency and it is a very hot technology that has found its way into the most
important standards for wireless communications in this new generation called 4G, in
which the main standards are the IEEE 802.16 (Worldwide Interoperability for
Microwave‎Access‎(WiMAX))‎and‎the‎3GPP‟s‎Long‎Term‎Evolution‎(LTE).
1.2 Tasks and contents
For this project, communication systems will be implemented. These communications
systems will include Analog environment example(s) , digital modulation techniques
such DBPSK and a physical layer example based on the OFDM multiplexing
method, thus being comparable to actual technologies such as WiMAX or LTE. The
first part of this report is the theoretical part, in which the technologies that will be
1
used during the implementation are explained. We will try to project the role that
these technologies will play in the implementation throughout the theoretical
explanation, also we intended to introduce the concepts and ideas behind the chosen
software toolkit for the implementation: GNU Radio. We will explain the structure of
GNU Radio with the objective of giving the reader a general idea of the possibilities
of GNU Radio. This part is included in chapter 1.This chapter can be specially useful
for people interested in starting a SDR project that are considering GNU Radio as
their platform .In chapter 2 , we go deeply inside communication systems , the best
and easiest start is dealing with analog environment .So , in this phase we exhibited
analog simple educational example to make the reader not feeling afraid of GNU
Radio . The implementation of digital systems , which in fact more sophisticated than
analog comes in chapter 3. Actually, in chapter 4 we reach our aim of this project
which is implementing OFDM complete systems , you can consider that chapter 2 and
chapter 3 as motivation for the reader to be able for understanding OFDM .
Successful transmission and reception of OFDM packets have been accomplished
with reasonable BER. Also, we discussed in this chapter different issues affecting the
whole process . In the end, chapter 5 summarizes the work done and provides some
suggestions for the future development of this project.
1.3 Software Defined Radio
1.3.1 Definition
SDR is a concept that has been used since the early nineties. Its original purpose was
the creation of a device (radio) capable of emulating many radios working at different
frequencies. In addition, it can tune to any frequency band, transmit and receive
different modulations and different physical parameters across a large frequency
spectrum by using a programmable hardware and powerful software . An alternative
definition for is a collection of hardware and software technologies that enable
reconfigurable system architectures for wireless networks and user terminals. SDR
provides an efficient and comparatively inexpensive solution to the problem of
building multi-mode, multi-band and multi-functional wireless devices that can be
enhanced using software upgrades. As such, SDR can really be considered an
enabling technology that is applicable across a wide range of areas within the wireless
industry .SDR-enabled devices can be dynamically programmed in software to
reconfigure the characteristics of equipment. In other words, the same piece of
"hardware" can be modified to perform different functions at different times. SDR
performs significant amounts of signal processing in a general purpose computer, or a
reconfigurable piece of digital electronics or the combination of both. SDR is where
all the signal manipulations and processing works in radio communication are done in
software instead of hardware. So, in SDR, signal will be processed in digital domain
instead in analog domain as in the conventional radio. The digitization work will be
done by a device called the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). Fig.1.1 shows the
concept of Software Defined Radio. This figure shows that the ADC process is taking
place after the Front End (FE) circuit. FE is used to down convert the signal to the
lower frequency called an Intermediate Frequency (IF); this is needed due to the
limitation of the speed of current Commercial of The Shelf (COTS) ADC. The ADC
will digitize signal and pass it to the baseband processor for further processes;
demodulation, channel coding, source coding and etc. In conventional radio, all this
2
processes are done in hardware. In this project, we seek to explore the viability of
using GNU Radio; an open source SDR implementation and the Universal Software
Radio Peripheral (USRP); an SDR hardware platform, to transmit and receive the
OFDM signal with BPSK modulation. Quality of Service (QoS) in terms of Packet
Received Ratio (PRR) on the data transmitted will then be investigated and analyzed.
Software defined radio nowadays is a tool that helps the wireless and mobile
communications industry in many aspects. For your knowledge, the term (SDR) was
introduced by Joseph Mitola from MITRE Corporation in 1991. His first paper on
SDR was published in 1992 at IEEE National Telesystems Conference. Though the
concept was first proposed in 1991, software-defined radios have their origins in the
defense‎sector‎since‎the‎late‎1970‟s‎in‎both‎the‎U.S.‎and‎Europe.
Software Radio defintion
Figure ‎1.1: Module diagram of a SDR sender and receiver
1.3.2 Basic principle and difference to analog radios
The basic principle of SDR is the reduction to the minimum of the hardware dedicated
to signal processing parts and its translation into software that should be runnable by
an all-purpose commodity PC. The signal should be generated digitally and dealt with
in the PC as much as possible, undergoing modulators, filters, FFT blocks and even
amplifiers, all of them done in software, until the signal is ready to be sent. Then, the
software gives place to the hardware, which has the function of transforming the
digital samples in an analog signal and modulating the baseband signal to the desired
carrier frequency to be sent. The last stage would be sending it to the antenna. The
concept of SDR is very different to the traditional radios that we have been using until
now. Traditional radios rely on dedicated hardware for all its functions and each
hardware part has a very concrete and fixed function. The same processor in the PC
used by SDR will take care of all the signal processing and it will be the software the
one responsible of dictating the function that will be computed. Not having dedicated
hardware has a very important advantage in relation to traditional radios. All
parameters that the radio uses are set in software, and they are all configurable
through software. This makes the development and research of new applications a lot
easier, faster and cheaper, as we can use software radio as a prototype where we can
3
test all kinds of variations and configurations. We will not need to make or order
hardware in order to try new configurations or variations of any kind. Another
advantage is the possibility of having a radio that can work as many radios, as the
same device can use different radio technologies without any change in the hardware.
This application was one of the first objectives of software radio, but for a number of
reasons that we will explain in the next paragraphs, it is still not a very interesting
solution. Software radio has some hardware requirements. It will require some ADC
and DAC hardware, as well as RF module dedicated to the modulation to the desired
transmission or receiving frequency. These elements and a PC with enough
computational power to run the software are the only hardware that we need. If we
need to speak in numbers, we should differentiate if the radio will be used for narrow
band applications or for wide band. For narrow band applications a regular Pentium
PC should have more than enough capacity to meet the requirements. If, however, the
application that we want to implement uses up a bigger part of the spectrum for
example, a receiver of multiple FM channels at the same time, the requirements get
much bigger and we might need powerful PCs in order to process all the data that we
are using in the required time. In our application the aim is implementing a
communications system based on OFDM, which is also a wide band application. Not
all aspects of software radio are positive and there is no free lunch. There are also a
number of challenges that have been reducing the use of SDR to a limited number of
applications. The first of them all is the power consumption of a SDR device. As we
have seen in the hardware requirements, we will in many cases need powerful
computers to run an application. This means that we will need an amount of power
that would never be achievable by a handheld device. The power consumption of
SDR devices is not comparable to the power needed by the radios that nowadays work
in hardware. Another important drawback is that even if the power needed could be
reduced, the size of the hardware needed to process the signal is also much bigger
than the dedicated hardware of the traditional radios. This is why the project of having
a portable device based on SDR that can be used as many different radios has not
evolved very much, and the use of SDR has been reduced to research or applications
in the base station, instead of the mobile terminal, where the power requirements are
not so critical at the moment.
1.3.3 Defining software radio using tiers
The SDR Forum has defined the following tiers, describing evolving capabilities in
terms of flexibility
 Tier 0 :The Hardware Radio
The radio is implemented using hardware components only and cannot be
modified except through physical intervention.
 Tier 1 : Software Controlled Radio (SCR)
Only the control functions of an SCR are implemented in software - thus only
limited functions are changeable using software. Typically this extends to
inter-connects, power levels etc. but not to frequency bands and/or modulation
types etc.
 Tier 2 : Software Defined Radio (SDR)
SDRs provide software control of a variety of modulation techniques, wideband or narrow-band operation, communications security functions (such as
hopping), and waveform requirements of current and evolving standards over
4


a broad frequency range. The frequency bands covered may still be
constrained at the front-end requiring a switch in the antenna system.
Tier 3 : Ideal Software Radio (ISR)
ISRs provide dramatic improvement over an SDR by eliminating the analog
amplification or heterodyne mixing prior to digital-analog conversion.
Programmability extends to the entire system with analog conversion only at
the antenna, speaker and microphones. Developer Days 2007 GNU
Tier 4 : Ultimate Software Radio (USR)
USRs are defined for comparison purposes only. It accepts fully
programmable traffic and control information and supports a broad range of
frequencies, air-interfaces & applications software. It can switch from one air
interface format to another in milliseconds, use GPS to track the user location,
store money using smartcard technology, or provide video so that the user can
watch a local broadcast station or receive a satellite transmission.
Cognitive radio (CR) is a form of wireless communication in which a
transceiver can intelligently detect which communication channels are in use
and which are not, and instantly move into vacant channels while avoiding
occupied ones. This optimizes the use of available radio-frequency (RF)
spectrum while minimizing interference to other.
1.4 GNU Radio
1.4.1 Concepts and architecture
GNU Radio is primarily developed using the GNU/Linux operating system, but, Mac
OS and Windows are also supported. In GNU Radio, a radio system is represented as
a directed signal flow graph where graph vertices are known as signal processing
blocks and edges indicate a connection between the two blocks. Data flows in one
direction from a signal source to one or more signal sinks. This construction of
software radio is similar to development of hardware radios, but with an additional
restriction that the signal flow in a flow graph cannot form a feedback cycle, so
implementation of any feedback mechanisms must be contained within one signal
processing block. In GNU Radio, the signal processing blocks are defined in C++ for
performance, while the connections between the blocks for a given application are
declared in Python. Using a high level language like Python allows users to quickly
create different applications by constructing a signal flow graph simply by making
connections between smaller building blocks. This approach meant that the agility of
software development in a high level language can be maximized while at the same
time‎sidestepping‎its‎drawback‎of‎slow‎performance‎by‎acting‎only‎as‎„glue‟‎code‎and‎
offloading the heavy lifting to C++ compiled code. Interoperation and data
marshalling between Python and C++ is done by employing the Simple Wrapper
Interface Generator (SWIG). GNU Radio uses a number of data types to represent the
signal at the interfaces of each of the signal processing blocks. The data type used by
a particular block can usually be identified through the naming convention that each
block should be suffixed with a code to represent its interface. For example, the block
gr_rms_cf has a suffix of _cf, which indicates that the block takes input as 8 byte
complex values, and produces an output in 4 byte floating point values. Similarly, the
block gr_multiply_const_vss would take a vector of 2 byte short integers and produce
an output in the same format. Other possible data types include b for 1 byte integers,
and i for 4 byte integer values. A new GNU Radio signal processing block is defined
5
by deriving from the base class gr_block or one of its subclasses gr_sync_decimator,
gr_sync_interpolator, gr_sync_block, or gr_hier_block2 in C++. Then, a SWIG
interface is defined for this block, which enables it to be constructed and connected
from Python. At the core of the signal processing block are two member functions:
forecast() and work(). Forecast() returns an estimate of how many units of the input
data is required for this module to produce a given number of output units and work()
is the function that does the actual computation on the input data and produces an
output. This signal processing blocks framework abstracts away the complexity of
how one might schedule the work of multiple signal processing blocks on the
computer.
1.4.2 GNU Radio installation
In this project Ubuntu 10.10 was used , and we are going to show steps of
installation of GNU on it .
(1) Install the following pre-requisite packages from Terminal
sudo apt-get -y install libfontconfig1-dev libxrender-dev libpulse-dev \
swig g++ automake autoconf libtool python-dev libfftw3-dev \
libcppunit-dev libboost-all-dev libusb-dev fort77 sdcc sdcc-libraries \
libsdl1.2-dev python-wxgtk2.8 git guile-1.8-dev \
libqt4-dev python-numpy ccache python-opengl libgsl0-dev \
python-cheetah python-lxml doxygen qt4-dev-tools \
libqwt5-qt4-dev libqwtplot3d-qt4-dev pyqt4-dev-tools python-qwt5-qt4
sudo apt-get install git-core cmak
(2) #Download and install UHD from git:
git clone git://code.ettus.com/ettus/uhd.git
cd uhd/host
mkdir build
cd build
cmake ../
make
make test
sudo make install
cd
sudo gedit .bashrc
write this before # append to the history file, don't overwrite it
6
# LD_LIBRARY_PATH for uhd
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:/usr/local/lib
# LD_LIBRARY_PATH
sudo ldconfig
(3) #Download and install GNURADIO from git:
git clone git://gnuradio.org/gnuradio.git
cd gnuradio/
mkdir build
cd build
cmake ../
make
make test
sudo make install
sudo ldconfig
cd
sudo gedit .bashrc
put it after UHD path
# python path for gnuradio
export
PYTHONPATH=$PYTHONPATH:/usr/local/lib/python2.6/dist-
packages/
# python path for gnuradio
sudo ldconfig
sudo apt-get install gnuradio-companion
then reboot Ubuntu
(4) Configure SD card by fpga& firmware
 format SD card in windows then open ubuntu again and insert it by
reader or in laptop.
 cd /home/uhd/host/utils/
 open gui burner by sudo ./usrp2_card_burner_gui.py
 download the lateast release of uhd binary image and select image
only then downlaod .tar then extract it in /home/uhd/host/utils/
7


after open burner select usrp2_fpga.bin & usrp2_fw.bin and select
/dev/sdb and burn it.
unmount SD card and put it in usrp2.
(5) Configuration usrp2 and Open GRC
 configure eth0
(address=192.168.10.1,,subnet=255.255.255.0,,,gateway=192.168.10.
2)
 sudo ping 192.168.10.2 (to check usrp2 send echo(response))
 sudo uhd_find_devices (Reading usrp2 and print some information
(serial‎number‎,‎version,….)
 sudo uhd_usrp_probe (Reading name of Rf_daughterboard and
range of frequencies that operate it )
 sudo gnuradio-companion
1.5 Tools
1.5.1 GRC
GRC is a graphical tool which provides a user interface that lets us create signal flow
graphs and activates its source code. This graphical interface, by means of graphical
blocks, allows us to set the input parameters which are taken by the source code of
each block in order to generate a signal flow, and to visualize the signal at every step
of the block chain using graphical sinks. There are mainly four kinds of blocks:
1- Source blocks: Their main functionality is to generate an output signal by means
of some input parameters. For this reason, these blocks have no input signal. There
are many types of sources, depending on the number of output ports, data type, vector
lengths, etc.
2- Sink blocks: In this case, there is no output signal. Sink blocks receive an input
signal with a specific data type and length, and, using certain input parameters, the
input signal is stored in a vector, file or sent to a binded TCP1or UDP2 socket.
3- Operation blocks: These blocks use a configurable number of input signals with
configurable data types, to produce a certain number of output signals with specific
data types, using the input parameters to perform a certain operation on the samples at
the input. These operations can be modulations or demodulations, coding operations,
filters, synchronizations, type or stream conversions, etc. Among the different
parameters needed to perform the operation, the sampling rate stands always out so
that a correct treatment of the signal can be done.
4- Visualization blocks: These blocks can be classified as a type of sink block which
generates a graphical output from the input signals. In this group of blocks, we can
mention scopes to provide a time domain representation, FFT sink for a frequency
domain screening, constellation plots, etc. The different blocks are connected in a
proper way so that the signal data can flow along a chain, taking into account data
8
types, vector lengths, etc. The core functionality of each block is defined by Python or
C++ code.
1.5.2 C++
Signal processing blocks process streams of data from their input port to their output
port. The input and output ports of a signal process block are variable. So a block can
have multiple outputs and multiple inputs. The signal processing blocks are written in
C++.
1.5.3 Python
Don‟t‎get afraid of the name, stay tuned, the python will not hurt you . The story of
this mysterious name is, at the same time he began implementing python, Guido van
Rossum was also reading the published scripts from Monty‎Python‟s‎Flying‎Circus (a
BBC comedy series‎ from‎ the‎ seventies,‎ in‎ the‎ unlikely‎ case‎ you‎ didn‟t‎ know).‎ It‎
occurred to him that he needed a name that was short, unique, and slightly mysterious,
so he decided to call the language Python The most important thing in the
programming language is the name. A language will not succeed without a good
name. About Python,it is a script language is used to connect the signal processing
blocks together. In Python the necessary signal sources, sinks and processing blocks
are selected and configured with the correct parameters. The flow of data through the
flow graph exists out of data in one of the following data-types:
_ Byte - 1 byte of data (8 bits)
_ Short - 2 byte integer
_ Int - 4 byte integer
_ Float - 4 byte floating point
_ Complex - 8 bytes
As mentioned previously, all sources, sinks and blocks are implemented as classes in
C++. This results, no matter how complicated the radio is, in good readable Python
code. The real heavy load is done in C++. Figure 1.2 shows an example of a Python
code . As you can see it is not difficult to create a radio in Python.
#!/usr/bin/env python
from gnuradio import gr
from gnuradio import audio
def build_graph ():
sampling_freq = 48000
ampl = 0.1
fg = gr.flow_graph ()
src0 = gr.sig_source_f (sampling_freq, gr.GR_SIN_WAVE, 350, ampl)
src1 = gr.sig_source_f (sampling_freq, gr.GR_SIN_WAVE, 440, ampl)
dst = audio.sink (sampling_freq)
fg.connect ((src0, 0), (dst, 0))
fg.connect ((src1, 0), (dst, 1))
return fg
if __name__ == '__main__':
fg = build_graph ()
fg.start ()
raw_input ('Press Enter to quit: ')
9
fg.stop ()
We start by creating a flow graph to hold the blocks and connections between them.
The two sine waves are generated by the gr.sig source _f calls. The fsu_x indicates
that the source produces floats. One sine wave is at 350 Hz, andthe other is at 440 Hz.
Together, they sound like the US dial tone. audio.sink is a sink that writes its input to
Figure ‎1.2: Example of a Python code
the sound card. It takes one or more streams of oats in the range -1 to +1 as its input.
We connect the three blocks together using the connect method of the flow
graph.connect takes two parameters, the source endpoint and the destination
endpoint,and creates a connection from the source to the destination. An end point has
two components: a signal processing block and a port number. The port number
specifies which input or output port of the specified block is to be connected. In the
most general form, an endpoint is represented as a python tuple like this: (block, port
number). When port number is zero, the block may be used alone. These two
expressions are equivalent:fg.connect ((src1, 0), (dst, 1)) and fg.connect (src1, (dst,
1)) . Once the graph is built, we start it. Calling start forks one or more threads to run
the computation described by the graph and returns control immediately to the caller.
In this case, we simply wait for any keystroke.
10
1.5.4 SWIG
It is the wrapper for the C++ modules and generates the corresponding Python code
and library so that these classes and functions can be called from Python. Most default
signal blocks are already created in the GNU Radio, or by third parties. So you only
touch the C++ environment to create your own special signal processing blocks. It
requires some experienced C++ skills to create these blocks. If you do not have much
C++ experience try to use signal blocks that are already part of the GNU Radio
library, or try to find code from third parties.
1.6 USRP
1.6.1 Motivation
The Universal Software Radio Peripheral, or USRP (pronounced "usurp") was
designed as a low cost board solely for the purpose of running GNU radio
applications and allowing general purpose computers to function as high bandwidth
software radios. . Fully developed by Matt Ettus, it is a very flexible platform and can
be used to implement real time applications . In essence, it serves as a digital
baseband and IF section of a radio communication system. You may say , it is the
bridge between the software world and the RF world .The basic design philosophy
behind the USRP has been to do all of the waveform specific processing, like
modulation and demodulation, on the host CPU. All of the high-speed general
purpose operations like digital up and down conversion, decimation and interpolation
are done on the FPGA. The true value of the USRP is in what it enables engineers
and designers to create on a low budget and with a minimum of effort. A large
community of developers and users have contributed to a substantial code base and
provided many practical applications for the hardware and software. The powerful
combination of flexible hardware, open-source software and a community of
experienced users make it the ideal platform for your software radio development.
1.6.2 Motherboard and internal construction
Figure 1.3 shows a typical graph for USRP Motherboard . The USRP has 4 highspeed analog to digital converters (ADCs), each at 12 bits per sample,
64MSamples/sec. There are also 4 high-speed digital to analog converters (DACs),
each at 14 bits per sample, 128MSamples/sec. These 4 input and 4 output channels are
connected to an Altera Cyclone EP1C12 FPGA. The FPGA, in turn, connects to a
USB2 interface chip, the Cypress FX2, and on to the computer. The USRP connects
to the computer via a high speed USB2 interface only, and will not work with
USB1.1. So in principle, we have 4 input and 4 output channels if we use real
sampling. However, we can have more flexibility (and bandwidth) if we use complex
(IQ) sampling. Then we have to pair them up, so we get 2 complex inputs and 2
complex outputs.. The USB controller contains the firmware that defines its behavior
and the USB endpoints. The firmware also takes care of loading the FPGA bit stream.
The FPGA handles the high bandwidth computations and reduces the data rate to
something we can send over the USB 2.0. The Analog Device chip is a mixed signal
11
Figure ‎1.3: USRP Motherboard
processor that takes care of the conversion between analog and digital signals, digital
up conversion in the transmit path and interpolation/decimation of the signals. The
motherboard can have up to 4 daughterboards, two for receive and two for transmit to
achieve wireless communication at different frequencies . They consist of the RF
front end where the signal is up converted from the intermediate frequency to the
carrier frequency or vice versa for the received signal. And The following figure is a
high level view of the USRP.
Figure ‎1.4: High level view of USRP
12
1.6.3 From USRP1 to USRP2
USRP1 and USRP2 provide the hardware platform for SDR in order to receive and
transmit the signal .Figure 1.5 shows a typical USRP2 board .
Figure ‎1.5: USRP 2
The USRP motherboard was discussed before. For USRP 2 , it is built on the success
of USRP1 but it is not meant to replace USRP1. Motherboard of USRP2 is shown in
figure 1.6 .The following new features are added to USRP2:













Gigabit Ethernet interface
25 MHz of instantaneous RF bandwidth
Xilinx Spartan 3-2000 FPGA
Dual 100 MHz 14-bit ADCs
Dual 400 MHz 16-bit DACs
1 MByte of high-speed SRAM
Locking to an external 10 MHz reference
1 PPS (pulse per second) input
Configuration stored on standard SD cards
Standalone operation
The ability to lock multiple systems together
for MIMO
Compatibility with all the same daughter
boards as the original USRP
Configuration: flash SD-card
Figure ‎1.6: USRP 2 and its motherboard
13
And the following table provides comparison between USRP1 , USRP2 and USRP
N210 :
USRP 1
USRP 2
USRP N210
Interface
USB 2.0
Gigabit Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet
FPGA
Altera EP1C12
Xilinx
Spartan
3 Xilinx
Spartan
2000
3A-DSP 3400
8 MHz @ 16 bits
25 MHz @ 16 bits
25 MHz @ 16 bits
Cost
$700
$1400
$1400
ADC Samples
12 bit , 64 MS/s
14 bit , 100 MS/s
14 bit , 100 MS/s
DAC Samples
14 bit , 128 MS/s
16 bit , 400 MS/s
16 bit , 400 MS/s
Daughterboard capacity 2 TX , 2 RX
1 TX ,1 RX
1 TX ,1 RX
SRAM
None
1 Megabyte
1 Megabyte
Power
6V , 3A
6V , 3A
6V , 3A
RF Bandwidth to / from host
Table ‎1.1: Comparison between USRP1 , USRP2 and USRP N210
As our project is implemented on USRP2 and USRP N210 , figure shows the internal
construction and blocks of USRP2 or USRP N210 as there is no big differences
except some improvements in USRP N210 over USRP 2 such as more capable FPGA
and reprogrammable over Ethernet , instead of SD card (in USRP 2)
.
Figure ‎1.7: Internal construction of USRP 2
14
1.6.4 Different sections in USRP
We will discuss shortly some important parts inside USRP and USRP2 such as
ADC,DAC, FPGA and daughter boards .
1- ADC Section
There are 4 high-speed 12-bit ADC converters. The sampling rate is 64M samples per
second. In principle, it could digitize a band as wide as 32MHz. For USRP2 , there
are two high-speed 14-bit ADC (of type LTC2284 used at 100 MS/s) . There is two
other auxiliary ADCS(of type AD7922 used at 100 MS/s) for each daughter board
connector . Giga Ethernet can sustain 1 gigabit/s . So, this is max 800 MB/s given
integer decimation and a 100 MHz DSP clock.
2- DAC Section
At the transmitting path, there are also 4 high-speed 14-bit DA converters. The DAC
clock frequency is 128 MS/s, so Nyquist frequency is 64MHz. For USRP 2 , The
DAC clock frequency is 400 MS/s, so Nyquist frequency is 200 MHz .USRP 2 has
main DAC ( Dual of type AD9777 used at 400Ms/s)and two auxiliary DACs (of type
AD5623)
3- FPGA
Now‎ let‟s‎ have‎ a‎ look‎ inside‎ the‎ FPGA‎ in‎ order‎ to‎ understand‎ the‎ functionality‎ of‎
each of its building blocks. Probably understanding what goes on the USRP/USRP 2
FPGA is the most important part for the GNU Radio users. All the ADCs and DACs
are connected to the FPGA. This piece of FPGA plays a key role in the USRP/USRP
2 system. Basically what it does is to perform high bandwidth math, and to reduce the
data rates to something you can squirt over USB2.0 /GE ON USRP/USRP 2
respectively .The standard FPGA configuration includes digital down converters
(DDC) implemented with 4 stages cascaded integrator-comb (CIC) filters. Also, it
includes digital up converters (DUC) implemented with 4 stages cascaded integratorcomb (CIC) filters . CIC filters are very high-performance filters using only adds and
delays. The DDC and DUC each contain 2 halfband filters. The high rate one has
7 taps and the low rate one has 31 taps For spectral shaping and out of band signals
rejection
4- Daughter boards
On the mother board there are two slots . One of these slots is for TX and the other is for
RX . Each daughter board slot has access to ADC/DAC . The daughter boards are used to
hold the RF receiver interface or tuner and the RF transmitter.
Every daughterboard has an I2C EEPROM (24LC024 or 24LC025) onboard which
identifies the board to the system. This allows the host software to automatically set up
the system properly based on the installed daughterboard. The EEPROM may also store
calibration values like DC offsets or IQ imbalances. If this EEPROM is not programmed,
a warning message is printed every time USRP software is run. There are several kinds of
daughter boards available now such as :
15
A)- Basic TX/RX Daughterboards
Each has two SMA connectors that can be used to connect external up/down tuners or
signal generators. We can treat it as an entrance or an exit for the signal without affecting
it. Some form of external RF front end is required. The ADC inputs and DAC outputs are
directly transformer-coupled‎to‎SMA‎connectors‎(50Ω‎impedance)‎with‎no‎mixers,‎filters,‎
or amplifiers. The BasicTX and BasicRX give direct access to all of the signals on the
daughterboard interface. Each of the Basic TX/RX boards has logic analyzer connecters
for the 16 general purpose IOs. These pins can be used to help debugging your FPGA
design by providing access to internal signals.
B)- Low Frequency TX/RX Daughterboards
The LFTX and LFRX are very similar to the BasicTX and BasicRX, respectively,
with 2 main differences. Because the LFTX and LFRX use differential amplifiers
instead of transformers, their frequency response extends down to DC. The LFTX and
LFRX also have 30 MHz low pass filters for anti-aliasing.
C)- TVRX Daughterboards
This is a receive-only daughter board. It is a complete VHF and UHF receiver system
based on a TV tuner module. The RF frequency ranges from 50MHz to 860MHz, with
an IF bandwidth of 6MHz. All tuning and AGC functions can be controlled from
software. Typical noise figure is 8 dB. This board is the only USRP daughterboard
which is NOT MIMO capable.
D)- DBSRX Daughterboards
Similar to the TVRX board, this is also a receive-only. It is a complete receiver
system for 800 MHz to 2.4 GHz with a 3 -5 dB noise figure. The DBSRX features a
software controllable channel filter which can be made as narrow as 1 MHz, or as
wide as 60 MHz. The DBSRX is MIMO capable, and can power an active antenna via
the SMA.
E)- RFX Daughterboards
The RFX family of daughterboards is a complete RF transceiver system. They have
Independent local oscillators (RF synthesizers) for both TX and RX which enables a
split-frequency operation. Also, it has a built-in T/R switching and signal TX and RX
can be on same RF port (connector) or in case of RX only, we can use auxiliary RX
port. Most boards have built-in analog RSSI measurement. All boards are fully
synchronous design and MIMO capable. Table 1.2 shows USRP daughter boards
currently available from Ettus research .
Name
Functionality
Frequency range (MHz)
Cost
From : To
Minimum power
(mw)
Basic Rx
Receiver
2 to 300
$ 75.00
------
Basic Tx
Transmitter
2 to 200
$ 75.00
------
LFRX
Receiver
0 to 30
$ 75.00
------
LFTX
Transmitter
0 to 30
$ 75.00
------
16
TVRX
Receiver
50 to 70
$ 100.00
------
DBSRX
Receiver
800 to 2400
$ 150.00
------
RFX400
Transceiver
400 to 500
$ 250.00
------
RFX900
Transceiver
800 to 1000
$ 275.00
200
RFX1200
Transceiver
1150 to 1450
$ 275.00
200
RFX1800
Transceiver
1500 to 2100
$ 275.00
100
RFX2400
Transceiver
2300 to 2900
$ 275.00
50
Table ‎1.2: USRP daughterboards available from Ettus research
1.6.5 General Notes
These notes are collected from our experience with USRP boards and may be helpful
for you .

Sometimes while using USRPs , "O" "U" "u" "a" characters appear on the
screen when you run gnuradio program. It appears conceptually when data
flows from USRP to PC is stopped or something near that. And now , we will
show the meaning of these characters :



"u" = USRP
"a" = audio (sound card)
"O" = overrun (PC not keeping up with received data from USRP or
audio card)
 "U" = underrun (PC not providing data quickly enough)
 “aUaU” = audio underrun (not enough samples ready to send to
sound card sink)
 “uUuU” = USRP underrun (not enough sample ready to send to
USRP sink)
 “uOuO” = USRP overrun (USRP samples dropped because they
weren't read in time.
A faster machine will generally cure this problem. This assumes that you are
not asking the USB/GE (for USRP/USRP 2, respectively) to do something that
it can't.

RISC processor used in USRP 2 is ZPU .

Minimum interpolation and decimation rates are 4 and maximum is 512.

The sampling rate is very important factor in implementations through the
USRP 2 .
The DC component is blocked (by USRP 2) to remove LO leakage. The best
way to work around this is to use the advanced tuning parameters to offset the

17


LO away from your signal; this will move the LO (and thus the DC offset
correction) outside the band of interest.
Sometimes , the gain setting in the USRP 2 sources/sinks is important . It
controls the gain of the RF frontend itself; both settings are necessary for
proper operation in your application.
In all our practical communication systems done in this project , we used
daughter boards : Basic TX and Basic RX , RFX 1800 and RFX 2400 .
18
Chapter 2:
Analog Environment
2.1 Motivation
We are going in this phase of the project to show practical analog implemented on
USRP boards under GRC. Successful transmission and reception of single tone is
successfully accomplished .Connecting received tone to audio sink enabled us to
distinguish between frequencies according to intensity of pitch. We will discuss
transmission path as well as reception path in details in the coming sub-sections.
2.2 Transmission path
For transmission path, the scenario set up is basically constituted of three main
different blocks, signal source, WBFM transmitter , and USRP sink as shown in
figure 2.1. Now, we will discuss the operation of each block.
Figure ‎2.1:Single tone transmission path
2.2.1 Signal source
Simply, it is just a generator generates different types of signals such as , sine and
cosine waves , square wave and triangle wave . Here, in our case we generated cosine
signal with frequency 10 KHz.
2.2.2 Wide band FM transmitter
It is defined in python file wfm_tx.py. It has one input, audio samples, and one output,
modulated signal. It takes a single float input stream of audio samples in the range [-1,
19
1] and produces a single FM modulated complex baseband output based on some
parameters such as audio rate and quadrature rate.
2.2.3 USRP sink
The sink used here is taking the baseband complex sampled signal at the modulator
block output in order to transmit it through the GE to the USRP 2 motherboard.
Basically, the parameters set the transmitting frequency to which the baseband carrier
is going to be up-converted.
2.3 Reception Path
To evaluate the USRPs performance when receiving, we set six main blocks as it can
be seen in figure 2.2.
Figure ‎2.2: Single tone reception path
2.3.1 USRP source
This block, as the beginning of the chain, provides us the received signal coming
through the GE link from the USRP 2 motherboard. This signal is a complex
digitalized signal with a sample rate of 640 kHz, down-converted to baseband.
20
2.3.2 Wide band FM receiver
It's defined in a python file wfm_rcv.py. It has one input, down converted base band
signal and one output; the demodulated audio. It has many blocks implemented in
C++, demodulating block, de-emphasizer and audio filter.
1- Demodulating
The first block in the wide band FM receiver chain is fm_demod, an instance
of gr.quadrature_demod_cf. To understand the work done within it, we should know
about how FM signals are generated. With FM, the instantaneous frequency of the
transmitted waveform is varied as a function of the input signal. The instantaneous
frequency at any time is given by : f(t) = k*m(t) + fc . Where , m(t) is the input
signal, k is a constant that controls the frequency sensitivity and fc is the the carrier
frequency .To recover m(t), two steps are needed. First we need to remove the carrier
fc, which leaves us with a baseband signal that has an instantaneous frequency
proportional to the original message m(t). The second step is to compute the
instantaneous frequency of the baseband signal. Thus, our challenge is to find a way
to remove the carrier and compute the instantaneous frequency. Removing the carrier
has been done on the FPGA via the digital down converter (DDC). Thus the signal
coming into the 'guts' has already become a baseband signal and the remaining task is
to calculate its instantaneous frequency. If we integrate frequency, we get phase or
angle. Conversely, differentiating phase with respect to time gives frequency. These
are the key insights we use to build the demodulator. We used
the gr.quadrature_demod_cf block for computing the instantaneous frequency of the
baseband signal. We approximate differentiating the phase by determining the angle
between adjacent samples.
2- De-emphasizer
The second block in the chain is the deemphasizer, deemph is an instance of the
class fm_deemph. fm_deemph is also a hierarchical block defined in fm_emph.py.
What is de-emphasis? Let's introduce it briefly. It has been theoretically proven that,
in an FM detector, the power of the output noise increases with the frequency
quadratically. However, for most practical signals, such as human voice and music,
the power of the signal decreases significantly as frequency increases. As a result, the
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the high frequency end usually becomes unacceptable.
To circumvent this effect, people introduce 'pre-emphasis' and 'de-emphasis' into FM
systems. At the transmitter, we use proper pre-emphasis circuitry to manually amplify
the high frequency components and do the reverse operation at the receiver to recover
the original power distribution of the signal. As a result, we effectively improve the
SNR.
21
In the analog world, a simple first order RLC circuit usually suffices for pre-emphasis
and de-emphasis.
3- Audio Filter
Maybe you are wondering where we 'pick out' the station of interest from the digitized
frequency band. Actually, this is done explicitly by the channel filter in wfm_rcy.py
and implicitly by the digital down converter (DDC) on the USRP. Recall that DDC
can be regarded as a low pass FIR filter followed by a down sampler. As a result of
these two operations, the target station is picked out then spread out in the digital
spectrum after decimation. Because we choose an appropriate decimation rate and
channel filter bandwidth, we have isolated our station of interest!
To keep our life simple, we just design a mono receiver, using a low pass filter to
select only channel signal.
2.3.3 Band pass filter
We used it to filter the received signal into our band only , and hence correction
reception is guaranteed . The parameters inside this block can be controlled manually
such as low cut off frequency of the filter , high cut off frequency of the filter and
transition BW .
2.3.4 Rational resampler
To reach the sample rate of audio sink in used PC . we used this block to do this task ,
thus we can enter the audio sink with adequate sample rate .
2.3.5 Audio sink
This block is responsible for listening to frequency of the sent tone . Its sample rate
differs‎from‎one‎PC‎to‎another‎,‎that‟s‎why‎we‎used‎a‎rational‎resampler‎block‎before‎
it .
2.3.6 FFT sink
This block simply displays the received tone in frequency domain As expected for a
single tone , we received two approximately deltas at frequency and its counterpart
of sent tone .
22
Chapter 3:
Digital Environment
3.1 Motivation
We are going in this phase of the project to show practical digital modulation
scheme(s) implemented on USRP boards under GRC. Successful transmission and
reception of bits (or packets) is successfully accomplished with reasonable BER. We
will discuss transmission path as well as reception path in details in the coming subsections.
3.2 Transmission Path
For transmission path, the scenario set up is basically constituted of three main
different blocks, random /vector source, DPSK modulator , multiply const and and
USRP sink as shown in figure 3.1. Now, we will discuss the operation of each block.
Figure ‎3.1: DBPSK transmission path
3.2.1 Random/Vector source
Random source: This block, as the beginning of the chain, generates a random digital
signal. It provides us a certain number of byte type samples, which values range from
0 to, in our case, 128 – this number is not significant for the meaning of the
measurements .Since it is a data source, it has no data input but one output port. As
the output are bytes, it is necessary to perform a unpacking from bytes to a 1-bit
vector, i.e. groups of 1-bit chunks, as the number of bits per symbols is 1, to treat the
signal bits properly in the demodulation process. However, In order to understand the
behavior of the modulation block, the random source is replaced by a “vector source”
so that we can introduce a known binary data.
23
3.2.2 DBPSK modulator
Basically, this block takes care of the root raised cosine filtering and performs a phase
shift modulation. The input data consists of a byte stream coming from the vector
source and the output is a complex modulated signal at baseband. The complete
functionality of the modulator block can be easily divided in different five sub-blocks
(functions) defined in C++ code and connected with Python code. The parameters that
are necessary here are the number of samples per symbol and the excess in bandwidth
that refers to the roll-off factor of the root raised cosine filter. These parameters will
be explained on greater detail in this section. The signal is flowing in a chain of subblocks, as shown in figure 3.2.
BPSK Modulator
Data
Packed to
Mapper
Differential Encoder
Unpacked
Modulated Data
Chunks to Symbols
Root Raised Cosine
Filter
Figure ‎3.2: Data flow through the modulation block
Note that the vector source generates a binary sequence from a list of byte type
numbers with no predefined timing. The timing is set at the USRP sink and the
demodulator block, by means of the sample rate and the factor of samples/symbol.
That is to say, for a sample rate of 250 kHz at the USRP sink and a factor of 2
samples/symbol for the interpolation filter at the modulation block, the symbol rate of
the source is defined, and its value is 125 ksymbols/s (
. The filter considered for any possible demodulation is a root
raised cosine with a roll-off factor of 0.6. For that reason, the input parameters are
DPSK and an excess bandwidth of 0.6 to match it the signal filter. The number of
samples/symbol is set to 2 to provide a signal with symbol rate of 125 ksymbols/s.
1- Packed to unpacked
Since the signal at the output from the vector source are packed bytes, it is necessary
to convert it into a 1-bit-chunk stream (It is for BPSK, what about another modulation
schemes? . Left for the reader ) in order to perform a proper identification and
treatment of the symbols. Data type is still being byte type at the output. It exists in
file: packed_to_unpacked_bb.cc.
This sub-block converts the data based on some parameters such as bits per chunk or
Endianness (LSB or MSB). e.g.: If the data of vector source is 101 and is inputted to
this sub-block (with 1 bit per chunk and LSB parameters), the output must be as
shown below in figure 3.3.
24
101
Packed to unpacked
00000001 00000000 00000001
unpacked
Figure 3.3: Example showing input and output of packed to unpacked sub-block
2- Mapper
After the unpacking, the mapping process on the chunks is executed. In this sub-block
a binary sequence is mapped to symbols. As we deal with BPSK, it maps the 0 and 1
to 0 to 1 respectively. But its benefit will appear in the case of QPSK with gray code
chosen, the mapping to the 2-bit chunks of 11 and 10 corresponds to 2 and 3,
respectively, while 00 and 01 are mapped to 0 and 1. It exists in file: map_bb.cc
3- Differential Encoder
A stream of chunks is encoded differentially by
Yn+1 = Yn + bn+1
In a differential modulation, the different binary chunks add a certain change in phase
to the current phase in the carrier signal. That means that the previous phase is taken
into account. It exists in file: diff_encoder_bb.cc
Example: When the input chunks (1-bit) to this sub-block is 10110100, the output will
be as shown below in figure 3.4.
10110100
01101100
Differential encoder
Figure ‎33.4: Example showing input and output of differential encoder sub-block
4- Chunks to Symbols
It maps a stream of chunks (unpacked bytes) to stream of float or complex
constellation points. The combination of packed to unpacked sub-block followed by
this sub-block handles the general case of mapping from a stream of bytes into
arbitrary float or complex symbols. It exists in file : chunks_to_symbols_bc.cc
25
5- Root Raised Cosine Filter
Once the modulated signal is obtained, a raised cosine filtering is carried out. This
filter is required to minimize the ISI, which causes a smearing into adjacent time slots
due to time-spreading in a real system. At the output we have the complex filtered
samples of a baseband carrier ready to be transmitted. It exists in file:
root_raised_cosine.cc
3.2.3 Multiply const
This block as its name reveals is responsible for multiplying the signal by a constant.
It simply increases the amplitude of the digital data (or any data generally) sent.
3.2.4 USRP Sink
The sink used here is taking the baseband complex sampled signal at the modulator
block output in order to transmit it through the GE to the USRP 2 motherboard.
Basically, the parameters set the transmitting frequency to which the baseband carrier
is going to be up-converted.
3.3 Reception Path
To evaluate the USRPs performance when receiving, we set three main blocks as it
can be seen in figure 3.5.
Figure ‎3.5: DBPSK reception path
26
3.3.1 USRP source
This block, as the beginning of the chain, provides us the received signal coming
through the GE link from the USRP 2 motherboard. This signal is a complex
digitalized signal with a sample rate of 250 kHz, down-converted to baseband.
3.3.2 DPSK demodulator
This block takes care of the root raised cosine filtering and performs a differential
coherent detection or phase shift demodulation. The input data consists of a complex
sampled signal at baseband frequency and the output is a big-endian stream of bits
packed 1 bit/Byte .The parameters that are necessary here are the number of samples
per symbol, the excess in bandwidth that refers to the roll-off factor of the root raised
cosine‎ filter,‎ the‎ Costa‟s‎ alpha‎ parameter, the mu factor and its gain, etc. These
parameters will be explained on greater detail later. As shown in figure 3.6. , the
block diagram of the DPSK demodulator consists internally of seven sub-blocks, each
will be discussed in detail.
Figure 3.6: Data flow through the demodulation block
1- AGC
It stands for Automatic Gain Control. In this block the signal is first multiplied by a
constant to scale the signal from full-range to ±1 . Then an automatic gain control is
performed. The procedure consists of a calculation of the maximum power level
among the samples. Until this point, a simple rescaling is performed . The AGC
works by measuring a smoothed power history, then adjusting an output gain to
achieve constant power. Its important parameters are:





Attack rate: How fast the AGC decreases the gain when a loud signal appears.
Decay rate: How fast the AGC increases the gain when the loud signal is gone.
Reference: This is the level the AGC will try to maintain.
Gain: The overall gain of the AGC.
Max gain: The maximum gain the AGC can have.
27
Conclusion, in short, from C++ algorithm we can say that AGC takes an input
complex sample and multiplies it by a gain parameter. Then, it calculates the output
sample power. It makes a control loop to check signal power reached the desired
power represented‎ in‎ “Reference”‎ parameter‎ or‎ not,‎ till‎ reaching‎ it.‎ In‎ addition‎ ,‎ it‎
exists in the file : gr_agc2_cc.cc .
2-FLL
It stands for Frequency Locked Loop. Its main aim is carrier recovery using band
edge filter. But how this is done? It is based on the theory of carrier recovery
implemented in C++ algorithm. We use a maximum likelihood frequency estimator to
compensate frequency offset in the received signal. We construct a filter that is the
derivative of the matched filter in the frequency domain. Note that the derivative is
zero everywhere except in the transition band ( controlled by roll off factor ) of the
filter , seeing that the non-zero spectral response of the derivative-matched filter spans
the band edges of the matched filter .Then product the input spectrum of the received
data that contain some frequency offsets with band edge filter and monitor the two
spectral segments in the output of the band edge filter then comparing the absolute
value squared of the two segments which providing error signal used to adjust the
spectrum of the modulated data. The carrier recovery process is also shown in figure
3.7 for more clarification.
Figure ‎3.7 :Carrier recovery process
28
Its important parameters are:




Samples per symbol: Sets the number of samples per symbol the system
should use. This value is used to calculate the filter taps.
Filter Roll off Factor: This parameter sets the roll off factor that is used in the
pulse shaping filter and is used to calculate the filter taps.
Prototype Filter Size: This sets the number of taps in the band-edge filters.
This should be about the same number of taps used in the transmitter's shaping
filter and also not very large. A large number of taps will result in a large
delay between input and frequency estimation, and so will
not be as
accurate. Between 30 and 70 taps is usual. In this implementation use 55.
Loop Bandwidth: Sets the loop filter bandwidth in control process. This
should be between
and
(in rads/sample). It must also be a positive
number.
Now, what about tasting the flavor of the communication algorithm implemented on
C++ (in the file : gr_fll_band_edge_cc.cc ) :

First, We form band edge filter which the derivative of the matched filter in
frequency by :





Take a quarter sine wave at the point of the matched filter's roll off
(if it's a raised-cosine, the derivative of a cosine is sine)
 Then extend this sine wave by another quarter wave to make a half
wave around the band-edges is equivalent in time to the sum of two
sinc functions , as shown in figure above .
 After creating this baseband filter which its bandwidth is
determined by the excess bandwidth (e.g., roll off factor) of the
modulated signal , we form band edge filters by not only spinning
the baseband filter up and down to the right places in frequency but
also by normalizing the power in the two filters.
Performing the dot product of the output modulated samples with the two
filters.
The error signal is the difference between energies of the upper and down
output from the result of the dot product.
Then, adjust the spectrum of modulated data in the right frequency by entering
the error signal in the control loop to correct the frequency offset.
Maximum and minimum frequencies that adjust by error signal in the control
loop
are
2*pi*(2/samps_per_sym) and -2*pi*(2/samps_per_sym)
respectively
Oh, the C++ flavor with some communications algorithms looks different. We expect
your smile right now.
29
3-Poly phase filter bank
Its main aim is timing recovery. It exists in the file : gr_pfb_clock_sync_ccf.cc .It is
expected that samples of the received signal are not aligned with the data clock used
to generate the analog waveform. Our approach for solving the timing recovery
problem works by setting up
two filter banks ; one filter bank
contains the signal's pulse
shaping matched filter (such as a
root raised cosine filter), where
each branch of the filter bank
contains a different phase of the
filter. Figure 3.8 shows a typical
four phase poly-phase taps.
The second filter bank contains
the derivatives of the filters in
the first filter bank. Thinking of
this in the time domain, the
output of the first filter bank is
shaped as the autocorrelation
function. We want to align the
output signal to be sampled at
exactly the peak of the
autocorrelation function.
.
Figure ‎3.8 Four-phase poly-phase taps
The derivative of the autocorrelation contains a zero at the maximum point of it.
Furthermore, the region around the zero point is relatively linear. We make use of this
fact to generate the error signal. This error signal is used to tune the selection of the
filters in the filter bank depending on the output of the derivative filter bank as shown
in figure 3.9.
Figure 3.9: Estimating error process
30
But using the derivative filter
bank alone contains insufficient
information to determine if the
timing should be time advanced,
held or retarded. As shown in
figure 3.10, a sample set formed
prior to the peak will generate
positive slope if the correlation
values are positive and a
negative slope if the correlation
values are negative.

Figure ‎3.10: Taking the derivative output only is not enough
The solution for this problem is to get
the product of the derivative matched
filter output with the matched filter
output or the sign of it. The whole
system is described in figure 3.11.
Figure 3.11: Whole system block diagram
Moving to the algorithm, the implementation of the timing recovery system is
implemented in python and C++. The number of filters in the filter bank is chosen to
be 32 filters with 22 taps for each one. It is represented by two blocks are
root_raised_cosine‎ (….)‎ and‎ pfb_clock_sync_ccf‎ (….) , we will discuss them now
shortly .
 Root raised cosine filter taps
- Root raised cosine filter taps is generated using the function‎root_raised_cosine‎(….)
- The implementation of this function is found in the file : gr_firdes.cc
31
- This function returns a vector of float numbers representing the filter taps.
 Poly phase filter bank and timing recovery process
- The block pfb_clock_sync_ccf‎ (….)‎ is‎ used‎ to‎ build‎ the‎ two‎ filter‎ banks‎ as
mentioned before. It is also used to perform the whole timing recovery process
(applying the input to the both filter banks, estimating error and tuning to the right
filter bank)
- The implementation of this block is found in the file gr_pfb_clock_sync_ccf.cc
- The input to this block is the complex signal in baseband. The timing recovery
process is applied to it and then the output is the complex signal corrected.
4-Costas loop
Its main aim is phase recovery. It is responsible for the correction of the phase error.
The implementation of this block is found in the file gr_costas_loop_cc.cc .The input
to this block is the complex received signal. This block considers that the frequency
offset correction and the timing recovery is performed. In BPSK the real part of the
output signal is the baseband BPSK signal and the imaginary part is the error signal.
This error signal (the imaginary part) is used to estimate a value for the phase error.
Then this value is updated through the control loop. Two cases will arise:
 Positive error = phase correction in CW direction =
 Negative error= phase correction in CCW direction =
The error signal should be multiplied by the real part or the sign of the real part to
perform sign correction. For more illustration, look at figure 3.12.
Figure 3.12.a : Phase error in CCW direction
Figure 3.12.b: Phase error in CW direction
Figure ‎3.12 : Phase error
- As shown in figure 3.12.a, we have phase rotation error in CCW direction. So, the
error signal (the imaginary part) is positive and the loop generates a phase recovery to
rotate the constellation in the CW direction. But in figure 3.12.b, we have phase
rotation error in CW direction .So; the error signal (the imaginary part) should be
negative in order to generate a phase recovery which makes a rotation in the CCW
direction. But the value of the imaginary part is also positive! . So, we multiply by the
real part or the sign of the real part to perform sign correction. Finally, figure 3.13
shows a complete block diagram of costas loop.
32
Rec_signal
Error
Real * Imaginary
X
Control loop
Phase error
Phase error recovery
signal
Figure ‎3.13: Block diagram of costas loop
5- Differential decoder
It is similar to the differential encoder as mentioned before (in transmission path). But
here, it makes differential decoding based on phase change of symbols.Differential
decoding is done by multiplying each sample of the input by the conjugate of the
previous sample so that we can get the phase difference which is actually the data.
This can be illustrated through the following code segment:
for(int i = 0; i < noutput_items; i++){
out[i] = in[i] * conj(in[i-1]);
}
The implementation of this block exists in the file: diff_phasor_cc. The input to this
block is the complex received signal after performing phase, frequency and timing
recovery on it. The output is the phase differences.
6- Constellation decoder
This block is responsible for finding the closest constellation point and taking the
decision. The decision is taken based on the minimum distance calculated.The
implementation of this block exists in the file: gr_constellation_decoder_cb.cc. The
input to this block is the complex data (the phase differences). After making decision,
the output is a byte representing the corresponding constellation point. In our case
(BPSK) output will be -1 or 1.
7- Symbol mapper
It takes the constellation points coming from the constellation decoder and performs
symbol mapping. The implementation of this block exists in the file: map_bb.cc. Its
input is a group of bytes representing the constellation points. And finally we get the
output as a group of bytes; each byte represents one of the transmitted bits.
33
3.3.3 Vector sink
Graphically or in a file depending on its data format, sinks are used to visualized the
resulting signal at the end of the chain. Input parameters are depending on the kind of
input data. Particularly in our scenario, since we want to see the resulting byte-type
data after the demodulator block, we used a vector sink where the date recovered will
be easily shown in python file , thus we can calculate BER .
34
Chapter 4:
OFDM
4.1 Introduction
OFDM stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, and it is the modulation
used for the data transmission in the system developed for this project. As its name
reveals, OFDM is a multiplexing method, which means that different data channels
share the bandwidth available.
In the particular case of OFDM the signal is made of independent channels. Each of
them will use a fraction of the available bandwidth. Each of these independent channels
is called subcarrier and transports data that is modulated in the amplitude and phase of
the signal. All subcarriers together form the OFDM carrier. OFDM is called orthogonal
because all subcarriers are orthogonal to each other. This orthogonality can be achieved
by multiplexing the subcarriers by Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM), which is
called multi-carrier transmission or by using Code Division multiplexing (CDM), which
is called multi-code transmission. The OFDM transmission system that has been
implemented in this project uses multi-carrier transmission.Therefore it uses the same
concept as FDM, which assign different frequencies to different signals. Each subcarrier will use a range of the frequencies available to transmit data that will travel in
the phase of the signal.
4.2 Advantages and disadvantages of OFDM compared with SC
Advantages
Disadvantages
1- Efficient way to transmit at very high
data rates over multipath fading
channels.
1- More sensitive to frequency offset.
2- OFDM has large PAPR which results
in reducing the power efficiency or
2- For slow channels, loading is easier
than single carrier.
the RF amplifier.
3- Sensitive to doppler shift.
3- OFDM is robust against narrow band
interference, as it will affect only
portion
of
subcarrier
and
may
overcome it by using coding.
Table 4.1 : Advantages and disadvantages of OFDM comapred with SC
4.3 Objective
This phase from our project implements a communication system that uses an OFDM
multiplexing method for various reasons. First of all, the prototype built for this project
35
had the objective of simulating the lower layers of the ones used by next generation
mobile communications (4G), and some of the most important technologies in that field,
which are WiMAX and LTE. They both use OFDM as an important part of them.
WiMAX uses OFDM as its multiplexing method in its physical layer. LTE uses OFDM
for its downlink, which is from the base station to the terminal, and a pre-coded version
of OFDM called Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA)
.OFDM is also used in many other technologies, like ADSL, digital radio (Digital Audio
Broadcasting (DAB)), terrestrial digital TV (Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial
(DVB-T)) and terrestrial mobile TV (Digital Video Broadcasting - Handheld (DVB-H))
.Again , the main goal is achieving a complete OFDM transceiver (transmitter and
receiver ) through USRP 2 and USRP N 210 boards , one board is for transmission
while the other is for reception . Different scenarios and issues will be handled and
discussed. After that, conclusions will be deduced.
4.4 Important issues in OFDM
4.4.1 Orthogonality
The OFDM modulation method relies on the orthogonality between its subcarriers to
achieve a good spectral performance. In the case of multi-carrier transmission the
chosen frequencies must be orthogonal between each other. This means all frequencies
must be multiples of the inverses of the symbol duration. The orthogonality of the
frequencies used reduces greatly the crosstalk interference between sub-carriers and
increases the spectrum utilization.
Each of the OFDM subcarriers has a range of frequencies assigned to it, and all of them
together fill the spectrum used for the OFDM carrier, that is the bandwidth available.
The data in bits will be split among the subcarriers by using a serial to parallel converter
and for each subcarrier it is independently modulated using, in most cases, a Quadrature
amplitude modulation (QAM) or a Phase-shift keying (PSK) modulation. Then, the
OFDM carrier is created with all the modulated subcarriers by using an inverse Fast
Fourier Transform (iFFT( module that calculates the time-domain signal with all
subcarriers to create a single broad-band complex signal containing all data belonging to
all subcarriers: the OFDM carrier signal. This signal will be used to modulate a Radio
Frequency (RF) carrier.
4.4.2
Delay spread and cyclic prefix
In wireless communication systems the received signal will always be received many
times due to the multipath propagation. This effect gives as a result in the receiver a
number of signals with different amounts of delay respect the first multipath signal,
which usually corresponds with the line of sight path. The difference of delay between
the first of the multipath components and the last one is called delay spread. The effect
of delay spread is specially present in urban environments, in which the number of
36
multipath components is higher than in rural environments, but also in environments
where sender or receiver are moving at high speeds.
This scenario could cause the multipath echoes to have important delays in time, as the
target might be moving close to some of the multipath components and far from others.
The problems that delay spread can cause are basically two. First of all the different
echoes that arrive at different times can come with a different phase in respect to the
main signal and they can cause some distortion in the main component. The second
problem is the effect that the delayed echoes can cause in the next transmitted symbol.
This is called inter-symbol interference (ISI). Figure 4.1 shows the effect that multipath
echoes can cause on a transmitted signal. To eliminate ISI completely a guard time is
introduced for each OFDM signal as shown in figure 4.2. The guard time is chosen
larger than the expected delay spread such that multipath component for one symbol
can‟t‎interfere‎with‎the‎next‎symbol.‎The‎guard‎time‎consists of no signal. However the
problem of ICI (Inter-Carrier Interference) would arise. ICI is the cross talk between
different subcarriers which means they are no longer orthogonal. To eliminate ICI,
OFDM symbols are cyclically extended in the guard time as shown in figure 4.3. This
ensures that delayed replicas of the OFDM symbol always have an integer number of
cycles within the FFT interval. And that we call CP .
Figure ‎4.1:Signal in the presence of ISI
Figure ‎4.2:Signal in the presence of GT
Figure ‎4.3:The effect of adding a cyclic prefix to the signal
37
4.5 OFDM modulator
4.5.1 Motivation
The OFDM modulator exits in python file ofdm.py. Also the OFDM demodulator exists
in the same python file. OFDM modulator modulates an OFDM stream based on the
options FFT length, occupied tones, and cyclic prefix length, this block creates OFDM
symbols using a specified modulation scheme (here is BPSK). It consists of four main
blocks: OFDM Mapper, OFDM Insert Preamble, FFT (Reverse) and OFDM Cyclic
Prefix, each of them will be discussed in details in next subsection. As shown in figure
4.4, it interconnects some blocks that are defined in C++.
Figure ‎4.4: OFDM Modulator Hierarchy
Looking at the definition of the modulator in the python file we can see that it has no direct- input and it has one output which is the complex modulated signal at baseband.
The modulator includes‎a‎send‎function‎that‎takes‎as‎the‎‎parameter‎‎“‎the‎payload“‎‎of‎
size‎512‎byte‎‎which‎will‎be‎sent‎from‎upper‎level‎thread‎“‎a‎queue‎of‎messages”‎‎,‎each‎
message‎contains‎ a‎payload‎from‎ data‎stream‎ .Then‎,the‎“Send_PKT‎“‎ function‎sends‎
these data to the first module of the modulator (ofdm_mapper) .This payload will be
converted into a data packet by calling a function (make _packet) from the python
module‎ “ofdm_packet_utils”‎ .‎ This‎ function‎ will‎ calculate‎ and‎ add‎ CRC‎ as‎ well‎ as‎
header addition, both to the payload.
38
4.5.2
Packet structure and construction
As we said in previous sub-section, the
word‎ “packet”.‎ Now,‎ we‎ will‎ discuss‎ it‎
in details, its structure as well as
construction process of it .Basically ,
the packet structure as shown in figure
4.5 contains three fields are header,
payload (512 byte) and CRC32. The
header contains two equal length fields,
each one of (2 byte) that comprises
offset and payload with CRC length.
The two equal length fields are used for
identifying the packet at the receiver
.Moreover, the payload with CRC fields
are whitened (scrambled), which
involves bit-wise XOR operation with
known pseudo random (PN-sequence)
stream of data.
Figure ‎4.5: OFDM packet structure
Now, moving to construction of the packet, the following steps show how packet is
constructed:





Calculate CRC32 of a payload from crc function and append it to payload.
Make header function that take a parameter length of payload with CRC and
offset (start of window of size 512 which take a known pseudo random
number from generation vector.
Append‎a‎character‎(„U‟)‎to‎a‎payload‎with‎CRC‎which‎separate‎between‎
packets.
Make whitening (Scrambling) for payload‎with‎CRC‎and‎character‎(„U‟).
Append scrambled data with the header and send it to queue of messages.
The end of (Send_PKT ) function will put the data that needs to be outputted in the
end of these queue of messages, and the first module in the modulator chain will
access to this data automatically.
4.5.3
Blocks of OFDM modulator
1- OFDM Mapper
 It is defined in : digital_ofdm_mapper_bcv.cc
 Main aim: Mapping the incoming data (messages) into OFDM symbols.
39
 Inputs and Outputs: It has one -indirect- input which is the pushed messages.
And has two outputs, the first is a stream of mapped OFDM symbols (of type
gr_complex) while the other output is an array of characters (flags), each
indicates the beginning of the first OFDM symbol to ease the process of
adding the Pre-amble.
 Steps of operation :
1- Checking and Preparation :
 Check and compare between occupied carriers length and FFT length.
 Filling out carriers to occupied carriers length.
 Padding zeros to the remainder of FFT length.
 Store the used subcarriers in the subcarrier table with known indexes.
2- M-ary Modulation Scheme and Constellation Table :
 Identifying the used modulation scheme with the M-ary concept.
 Build the constellation table by generating random symbols for the
pre-defined modulation scheme and insert them in a table to choose
from them later.
3- The Mapping Process itself and building the symbols :

Checking on EOF, packet is finished or not!
 If the packet is still in consuming process and not finished yet
then ,
 Pass on the messages message by message.
 The flag indicates the first OFDM Symbol is raised at
the beginning of consuming the packet.
 Pass on the message byte by byte.
 Pass on the byte bit by bit.
 Then, building the symbols is done by mapping each
subcarrier (from the known indexes) to one of the predefined symbols from the constellation map (pre-defined
too).
 Different cases were handled to be able to fit the number
of M-ary bits.
 Still loop till the packet goes finishing.
 If the packet is finished

 EOF is raised.
 Then, go and execute the work function again as long as
more packets exist.
Check if there is more messages or not.
Deeply into previous tree :
Actually, the most effective thing that should be kept in mind always is the process
was run through consuming one (and every) packet to produce as many OFDM
symbols of FFT length to hold the full packet. Thus, as long as messages are pushed,
the OFDM symbols are produced, each of FFT size (512 bits), you know. The concept
40
of occupied carriers is used here where the used carriers are only 200 out of 512! And
the remainder is padded with zeros from both sides (left and right).
1- Checking and Preparation
Checking that (occupied carriers <= FFT length). Otherwise, the process couldn't be
completed. Then, filling out carriers to occupied carriers length by starting with the
string‎“FE7F”‎with‎equivalent‎binary‎1111111001111111,‎you‎know.‎Then,‎a‎loop‎is‎
considered to pad F (1111) from both sides till reaching a maximum of 7 bits is
remaindered. At this case we pad ones too from both sides with the remaindered
length and it will be in equivalent for odd number of bits , e.g. : 7 bits will result in
padding four bits to the left and three bits to the right . After that, padding zeros for
the remainder length of the FFT size from both sides too is done. Finally, passing on
each occupied bit (a bit represents ONE) and push it in the map with a known index.
Of course, it was done after moving to bit domain from string domain. !
2- M-ary Modulation Scheme and Constellation Table
Identifying the M-ary modulation scheme -which will be used- is done here.
Actually, the used modulation scheme is BPSK. Also, building the constellation table
which we will map from is done here by generating random symbols depending on
the pre-defined modulation scheme. For our case, generated symbols may be 1 or -1
(BPSK).
3- The Mapping Process itself and building the symbols
Then, the mapping process comes now, it seems late a bit but preparations are
important too! Building a single symbol: First, Initialize all bins to zero to set unused
carriers.‎‎After‎that,‎checking‎that‎we‎still‎have‎messages‎is‎done‎and‎we‎don‟t‎exceed‎
number of occupied carriers so far. Then, taking a single message and working on it
byte by byte (via d_msgbytes) then for each byte, passing through it too bit by bit.
Then , test to make sure we can fit bits of the M-ary, then take the number of bits of
M-ary at a time from the byte to add to the symbol .Also, for each taken bits , enter
the constellation table and map (it) them to one of the pre-defined symbols
But,‎what‎would‎happen‎if‎we‎couldn‟t‎fit‎the‎number‎of‎bits‎of‎M-ary?!‎‎If‎we‎can‟t‎
fit the number of bits of M-ary, store them for the next byte by saving residual bits of
this message where residual bits must be smaller than number of bits of M-ary. Take
the residual bits, fill out with info from the new byte, and put them in the symbol
(also, from the constellation table).
When will we end!?! Check on End Of File (EOF) must be done each iteration, if
EOF = 1 then packet was finished (free message) and go to work again to consume
another packet. Otherwise, the loop is still considered to produce OFDM symbols.
Oh, we are done! GOD I cannot believe it! I have been writing this stuff for hours.
2- OFDM Insert Preamble

It is defined in : gr_ofdm_insert_preambles.cc
41
 Main aim: Inserting pre-modulated symbols "Preamble" before each payload
to ease the synchronization operation specially knowing start of the frame.
 Inputs and Outputs: It has two inputs and two outputs. The first input is a
stream of vectors of gr_complex [fft_length], which are the modulated
symbols of the payload. And the second input is a stream of characters, the
LSB of each indicates whether the corresponding symbol in first input is the
first symbol of the payload or not .It is 1 if the corresponding symbol is the
first symbol, otherwise it is 0. While the first output is a stream of vectors of
gr_complex [fft_length], these include the preamble symbols and the payload
symbols. And the second output is a stream of characters; the LSB of each
indicates whether the corresponding symbol in the first input is the first
symbol of a packet (i.e., the first symbol of the preamble). It is 1 if the
corresponding symbol is the first symbol, otherwise it is 0.
 Operation and flowchart: The information in the preamble is a known
sequence of symbols that is constructed from a vector of ones and negative
ones that has been randomly generated and stored in the file ofdm.py. The first
input port will contain OFDM symbols and the second one will receive the
character that marks the beginning of the frame. If it is the case, it will buffer
the OFDM data symbol, output a preamble and then output the buffered data
symbol. Flow chart is shown in figure 4.6.
Figure ‎4.6: Flowchart of OFDM insert preample algorithm
 There are 4 states to insert preamble for each data packet coming from
previous block:
42
 Idle state: checks the LSB of each char equal to 1 or not, if not
eat on input symbol.
 Preamble state: outputs a specific number of OFDM symbols
(known symbols) as a preamble.
 First payload state: runs after adding the preamble symbols
which copies the first OFDM symbol of the payload from the
input to the output.
 Payload state: copies an OFDM symbol from input to output
then checks the LSB corresponding to the next symbol if 1 or
not, if 1 repeat the process starting from preamble state.
3- FFT (Reverse) or iFFT
 It is defined in: gr_fft_vcc.cc
 Main aim: Computing iFFT of the produced symbols with pre-ample.
 Inputs and Outputs: It has one input and one output. It takes a vector of
complex values and computes the iFFT and it represents the output.
 Operation:
 Orthogonality is realized with FFT/iFFT whose output is a sum
of orthogonal signals. Recall, the basic functions for an IFFT
are N orthogonal subcarriers, each have a different frequency
and the lowest frequency is DC, and the iFFT output is the
summation of all N sub-carriers. Thus, the IFFT block provides
a simple way to modulate data onto N orthogonal subcarriers.
The block of N output samples from the iFFT make up a single
OFDM symbol.
 The block itself is used both for the computation of the FFT and
the iFFT just by editing its parameters. It also allows us to set
other parameters such as the window used, if the FFT should be
shifted and FFT size.
4- OFDM cyclic prefix

It is defined in : gr_ofdm_cyclic_prefixer.cc
 Main aim: Adding cyclic prefix to OFDM symbols.
 Inputs and Outputs: It has one input and one output. It the OFDM symbols as
its input, resulting in an output symbols with cyclic prefix.

Operation: After the fourier transformation, the redundancy belonging to the
cyclic prefix must be added to the OFDM signal. It does a very simple job. It
takes the OFDM symbol from its input port and copies the last symbols (the
43
number of symbols to copy is specified in the cp_size parameter) at the
beginning of the symbol, thus creating a symbol with a size that is the sum of
the size of the entered symbol and the size of the cyclic prefix.
4.6 OFDM demodulator
4.6.1 Motivation
As shown in figure 4.7 , the demodulator consists of many C++ functions callable by
Python. Like the modulator, it is firstly defined in the file ofdm.py. The inner
structure of the demodulator consists of two basic modules, corresponding to the two
blocks that are defined in ofdm.py. First‎one‎‎is‎‎“‎ofdm_receiver “ which takes care
of the synchronization and equalization of the CRC signal while the second module is
“‎ ofdm_frame_sink “ which mainly represents a state machine that de-maps the
symbols into bits, checks the validity of the synchronized frames and sends them to a
superior layer by adding them to the queue of received data packets .
Figure ‎4.7: OFDM demodulator hierarchy
Each of them will be discussed later in details. Its input comes, in most cases, from
the output of the channel. It demodulates a received OFDM stream based on the
options FFT length, occupied tones, and CP length. Its output port will contain the
demodulated‎ signal.‎ ‎ And‎ the‎ output‎ data‎ will‎ be‎ sent‎ to‎ a‎ handler‎ via‎ a‎ “callback
function‎“. At the end of the demodulator chain, the output data in the output queue
44
(the queue of received packets) from ofdm_frame_sink module will be sent to a
handler via a callback function. It is a function running in a separate thread that
monitors the queue of demodulated data packets. Once a new packet enters this queue
it will be taken by this function that will check if data in the packet is correct or not by
looking at the CRC32 code. Afterwards it will call the previously mentioned callback
function with the payload as a parameter. The callback function will be executed in
the uppermost level of the blocks hierarchy, and the output this data after remove
CRC32 and the header sent to output port in ofdm demodulator block. Again and in
short, this block performs: Synchronization, FFT, demodulation of incoming OFDM
symbols and passing the packets to the higher layer.
4.6.2 Blocks of OFDM demodulator
A)- OFDM receiver
This block is defined in a python file ofdm_receiver.py. It includes four main
modules defined in C++ files as shown in figure 4.8 :Channel Filter , OFDM
Symbol Synchronization , FFT , Frame Acquisition .The detailed construction of
this block is shown in figure 4.8 where the blue arrow shows the path the signal
follows, while the black arrows carry other kinds of data that are not the actual
OFDM signal.
Figure ‎4.8: Block diagram OFDM receiver block
Its input is the complex modulated signal at baseband. And the output is synchronized
packets are sent back to the demodulator. It performs receiver synchronization on
OFDM symbols.It performs channel filtering as well as symbol, frequency, and phase
synchronization.The synchronization routines are available in three flavors:
1- Preamble correlator (Schmidl and Cox).
2- Modified correlator with autocorrelation.
3- Cyclic prefix correlator (Van de Beeks).
Deeply into the sub-blocks :
45
1- Channel filter
The first module of the receiver, it is a simple fourier low pass filter for the input
signal coming from the antenna that takes the bandwidth corresponding to the number
of carriers that contain actual data, which is usually less than the size of the FFT and
in our implementation it was 200 used subcarriers for an FFT of 512 subcarriers.
BW= [(Occupied tones / FFT size)/2]*sampling frequency. It is defined in
gr_fft_filter_ccc.cc. The time domain signal of it - simulated under GNU Radio which is roughly a Sinc function, is shown in figure 4.9.
Figure ‎4.9 : Time domain signal of channel filter
2- OFDM symbol synchronization
It is defined in the python file ofdm_sync_pn.py. Once the signal has been filtered it is
fed into the synchronization block. This module makes a very important task; it is
responsible for making timing synchronization and frequency error correction based
on Schmidl and Cox's theory [2]. Synchronization is based on PN sequence
correlation. This theory is used for the correlation of received signal r[n] in many
46
OFDM timing synchronization methods. The preambles which are used for timing
synchronization are designed for having good correlation property. In order to achieve
the well correlation property, Pseudo noise (PN) sequence is used for preambles of
timing synchronization. They construct the first training symbol with 2 identical
halves in time by transmitting a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence only on even subcarriers,
and‎transmitting‎‎nothing‎on‎odd‎subcarriers,‎i.e.‎X(2i+1)‎=‎0‎for‎i‎=‎0,…….,N/2‎-1 as
shown in figure 4.10.
-1
0
…………………………………. Till FFT size
1 0
Figure ‎4.10:Distribution of preamble in frequency domain
Also , The form of preamble proposed in time by Schmidl and Cox is shown in figure
4.11.
1/2 OFDM SYMBOL
a
b
c
1/2 OFDM SYMBOL
d
a
b
c
d
Figure ‎4.11:Preamble symmetry in time
The‎Schmidl‎and‎Cox‟s‎timing‎estimator‎finds‎the‎start‎of‎the‎symbol‎at‎the‎maximum‎
point
of
Where, (
the
∑
timing
(
metric
given
(
) And, (
47
by
M(d)
=
∑
(
(
( (
.
Here, d is the time of first signal sample in the window of length N for symbol timing
estimation, P (d) is the conjugate multiplicative result and R(d) is energy of received
signal. The symbol timing offset is estimated by finding d which maximizes the
timing metric M(d). The‎timing‎metric‎of‎Schmidl‎and‎Cox‟s‎method‎has‎a‎plateau‎as‎
shown in figure 4.12 due to the CP which leads to some uncertainty as to the start of
OFDM symbol.
Figure ‎4.12: Timing metric of Schmidl and Cox method
Back to OFDM symbol synchronization , it has a single input which is the filtered
signal (from channel filter) and two outputs as shown in figure 4.13 where the first is
the fine frequency correction value and the other is the timing metric signal due to
correlation.
I/P
Ofdm symbol synchronization
Timing metric signal
Frequency error correction value
Figure ‎4.13: Block diagram of OFDM symbol synchronization module
48
Also, the block diagram of internal structure of the synchronization block is shown
in figure 4.14.
1
3
4
2
5
Figure ‎4.14:Internal structure of OFDM synchronization block
It is clear that there are five steps for synchronization process to get the start of frame
and frequency error correction value,
1- The first step is calculation of signal power.
2- Then, apply correlation between the first half of delayed signal and the
conjugate of second half of the received signal as shown below in figure 4.15.
000…………………
Conjugate
….000
e (CP)
CP
First half
Conj (First half)
Conjugate (Second)
half)
Second half
Correlation
Figure ‎4.15:Correlation between of halves
49
Another data
3- Thus, we can calculate the timing metric according to the Schmidl and Cox
equation as mentioned before.
4- To solve the problem of uncertainty due to the plateau outputted from
timing metric, the timing metric is inputted to a matched filter (its taps are
ones with CP length) to find the end of the plateau of the metric and get the
smooth peak as we will show in the simulation section .
5- Calculating the angle between the first half and the second of preamble
which is used for frequency error correction.
3- Frequency Modulator
It is defined in a C++ file gr_frequency_modulator_fc.cc. The input to this block is
the frequency error correction value outputted from synchronization block which is
*∆f‎ *T as explained before. And, T=Tc*N where, Tc is the time between two
samples, and N is the FFT length. So the input is ∆f *NTc.
Now we want to generate
which we can use to eliminate the frequency
offset. But t=kTc as we deal with a discrete samples, so we want to
generate
. And this block is used to generate the frequency offset
corresponding to each sample.
4- OFDM Sampler
It is defined in a C++ file digital_ofdm_sampler.cc. The ofdm_sampler block will use
that frequency offset to sample the signal that comes straight from the channel.
The output of the ofdm_sampler is the signal sampled in vectors of the size matches
to FFT size without existence of CP.
5- FFT (Forward)
It is also defined in C++ in the file gr_fft_vcc.cc. It takes a vector of complex values
outputted from the sampler with FFT size length and computes the FFT.
6- Frame Acquisition
It is defined in C++ in the file digital_ofdm_frame_acquisition.cc. It takes a vector of
complex values of the signal in the frequency domain which is the output of the FFT
of a received OFDM symbol and finds the start of a frame based on two known
symbols. It also looks at the surrounding bins in the FFT output for the correlation in
case there is a large frequency shift in the data. It assumes that the fine frequency shift
has already been corrected and that the samples fall in the middle of one FFT bin. It
then uses one of those known symbols to estimate the channel response over all
subcarriers and does simple 1-tap equalization on all subcarriers. This corrects the
phase and amplitude distortion caused by the channel.
50
B)- OFDM frame sink
It is defined in: digital_ofdm_frame_sink.cc. It is the second module in the OFDM
demodulator. It is a state machine that demaps the symbols into bits, checks the
validity of the synchronized frames (from first module, ofdm_receiver) and sends
them to a superior layer by adding them to the queue of received data packets. This
module has, in fact, fewer complexities than its preceding one. Recall, it looks more
or less like a state machine as shown in figure 4.16. This state machine has three
states; the first one‎is‎“sync‎search”,‎in‎which‎the‎algorithm‎looks‎for‎the‎flag‎in‎the‎
second input indicating the beginning of the frame (looks for the flag indicating
beginning of packet).
Figure ‎4.16: State machine representing OFDM frame sink block
Once‎ it‎ is‎ found‎ it‎ will‎ arrive‎ in‎ the‎ “have‎ sync”‎ state,‎ the‎ second‎ state,‎ you‎ know.‎
Then it will let the preamble through. Afterwards the algorithm will demap the
symbols and check the bytes corresponding to the header of the data. The header is
built in a way that the first and the last half are exactly the same, so this is the way it
validates the header. If the header is correct, the state machine will move to the next
state,‎which‎is‎called‎“have‎header”.‎There,‎the‎algorithm‎will‎demap‎the‎rest‎of‎the‎
frame and insert the resulting data bits in the output queue. As explained before, that
queue is monitored by a thread that will take the data, validate it and send the results
to the upper layers of the system. Throughout the duration of the have sync and have
header states, the algorithm will constantly look for beginning of frame flags in its
51
input port. In case it finds one it will detect an error and reset the state machine to the
sync search state.
Moving to the algorithm a bit:
Now, we will discuss some important ((but, not all) functions used such as:
 In enter have sync: State is assigned to have sync. At the beginning of state
“have‎sync‎“,‎resetting‎PLL‎is‎done.
 In enter have header: State is assigned to have header. As explained before (in
packet format) header consists of two 16-bit shorts in network byte order,
payload length is lower 12 bits and whitener offset is upper 4 bits. Here, in
“have header” state, the two fields are got.
 Slicer: Takes a stream of complex received data (complex symbol by symbol),
calculates the minimum Euclidean distance and returns this index of nearest
symbol.
 Demapper: Takes the coming data and produces the output demapped data.
The demodulation of OFDM symbols are performed using PLL. The
demapper block not only produces demapped data but it returns the number of
bytes produced as well. It makes that by passing through each symbol (bit in
our case), demaps it and stuff it into a byte (each byte will contain eight
symbols). After that, it pushes this byte (a byte by byte) into
the output vector.
 As explained before (in Mapper) ,the same step in Mapper is done here too
 Checking and Preparation :
Checking that (occupied carriers <= FFT length). Otherwise, the process couldn't be
completed. Then, filling out carriers to occupied carriers length by starting with the
string‎“FE7F”‎with‎equivalent‎binary‎1111111001111111,‎you‎know.‎Then,‎a‎loop‎is‎
considered to pad F (1111) from both sides till reaching a maximum of 7 bits is
remaindered. At this case we pad ones too from both sides with the remaindered
length and it will be in equivalent for odd number of bits , e.g. : 7 bits will result in
padding four bits to the left and three bits to the right . After that, padding zeros for
the remainder length of the FFT size from both sides too is done. Finally, passing on
each occupied bit (a bit represents ONE) and push it in the map with a known index.
Of course, it was done after moving to bit domain from string domain. !
 M-ary modulation
Here, identifying number of M-ary bits used is done. Besides that, it checks whether
number of produces symbols are true (two in BPSK) and their values are true as well .
But how all work together,‎from‎the‎name,‎all‎work‎through‎the‎“WORK”‎function.
Basically, it is the most important function in that block (and every one too). As its
name reveals, it makes all things (all work together). It takes the coming symbols
from previous module and produces the output in accordance with previous functions
(slicer,‎ demapper‎ ,‎ PLL‎ ,..‎ )‎ and‎ discussions‎ ‎ .‎ Inside‎ thw‎ “Work”‎ function, the
following steps are done :
1-Sync search: Looks for flag indicating beginning of the packet. If successfully
found,‎set‎up‎for‎header‎decode‎and‎go‎to‎“‎enter_have_sync‎“‎which‎discussed‎before‎
.
2-Have sync: Only demodulate after getting the preamble signal. It calls the
“demapper”‎ function‎ (and‎ inherently‎ calls‎ the‎ “slicer”‎ function)‎ which‎ discussed‎
52
before both returning demapped output symbols and number of bytes produced.
Firstly, it gets the header, if it is OK, it completes the packaging of received packet
and‎finally‎pass‎it‎to‎the‎output‎queue‎.In‎contrary,‎if‎header‎isn‟t‎correct,‎it‎represents‎
a packet loss. So, we go out of the loop and see another packet . The process is being
repeated till all received data are consumed.
3- If‎one‎packet‎is‎still‎not‎filled‎with‎bytes‎returned.‎We‎go‎to‎“have‎Header‎“state‎
which calls demapper function again to produce bytes again.
A Side note, as said before, the demodulation of OFDM symbols are performed using
PLL. To understand more let us assume:
 pk : is the phase locked loop coefficient; pk = |pk|

is the accumulated error
 f is the frequency shift

is the phase gain
 fg is the frequency gain
 eg is the equalizer gain
Where,
is the received symbols (after previous module operation ).
 Algorithm :
Step 3 : Pass on all received subcarriers and perform the following :
// Update with previous calculated PLL coefficients
and phase error
// Update accumulated error and making phase
correction (gradually ) by multiplying with conjugate of nearest symbol .
if yes do :
Also , check if
otherwise , it is considered as not useful and no correction is needed .
Note that :
:
represents updating of PLL coefficients .
53
/ / take phase of accumulated error to update with it
// update frequency error
// update phase error due to frequency and phase error
Steps 4 ,5 and 6 are done after finishing one complete OFDM symbol (by passing on
all its subcarriers ) , this means that updating PLL coefficients is done at each
iteration (subcarrier). But, the values are assigned, in fact, at each OFDM symbol and
hence the corrections is done on OFDM symbols domain (as an average errors and
corrections) and not on subcarriers domain.
4.7 A point by point simulation
Actually, this sub-section is not only very educational for beginners but also it
completes the whole picture for a professional communication engineer. Simulations
are done using python programming language. And the figures are plotted using pylab
module. Also, these simulations are done without any USRP boards used, only
simulation through GRC to clarify and verify the function of each block. The practical
system using USRPs will come later, stay tuned.
4.7.1 Mapper

Aim: Showing an example for header and scrambled data of OFDM
symbols. Simulation is done based on input = [0,0,0,0,0, …………… ,0]
with length 512, occupied tones = 200 and FFT length = 512. The
input is chosen to be all zeros because the scrambled data are added
to the input data (xor for each bit). So, the output will be the scramble
data because it is already added to zeros.
 The following data is representing the first OFDM symbol :
(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0,
1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0,
-1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0,
1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0,
1.0, -1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0,
1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0,
54
1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0,
-1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0,
1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0,
1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0,
-1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0)

Header contains a constant data represented in two parts, one is
payload length_with_crc and the other is whiten_offset which is
‘\x02\x04\x02\x04' ant it is generated from make header function.
From the above output we can see that the header is (1.0, -1.0, 1.0,
1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0,
1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0)
55
4.7.2 Preample
As said before, after adding zeros in odd frequencies of the preamble and its time
domain representation resulting in symmetric signal. This Simulation is done for the
PN sequence existing in the file ofdm.py which represents the preamble after adding
zeros in odd frequencies. Figure 4.17 shows this symmetry in time domain in real part
as well as imaginary part.
:Real part
Imaginary part
Figure ‎4.17: Preample symmetry
4.7.2 BW and channel filter
-
The following figure 4.18 shows the frequency domain representation of t
transmitted data with fft_length = 512, occupied_tones = 200,cyclic_prefix =
128 and Sampling rate = 32 k sample/second
56
- B.W calculations : Symbol time per subcarrier
= 512/32000 second = 0.016
second. What is the
reciprocal
of
previous
quantity? (Left for the
reader) .
 Bandwidth of the signal =
occupied carriers / Symbol
time per subcarrier
 Then, B.W = 200 / 0.016
=12.5 KHz ( as shown in the
figure .
 Or, you may simply say that
the BW =
as in previous
method.
Figure ‎4.18: Transmitted OFDM signal
Now, can you get number of symbols per packet and number of samples per packet? (Left
for the reader) .
Channel filter is designed to cover the whole B.W with an extra value = 0.08*B.W.
Figure 4.19 shows the
filter taps in the time
domain
based
on:
fft_length
=
512,
occupied_tones = 200
Figure ‎4.19: Time domain
representation for filter taps
57
4.7.3 PN based synchronization
This part is discussed through figures . The following three figures 4.20 ,4.21 and 4.22
show the output of the timing metric, the matched filter and the peaks respectively .
Figure ‎4.20: Output of the timing metric
Figure ‎4.21: Output of the matched filter
Figure ‎4.22: The peaks
58
4.7.4 Peak detection
Figure 4.23 shows simulation for the timing metric, matched filter and the peak signal for
only 1200 points. This figure shows also how the peak is detected based on fft_length =
512, cyclic_prefix = 128.
Figure ‎4.23: Peak detection process
59
4.8 Simulation codes
Previous discussions, results and figures were obtained from writing some codes through
Python programming language. Codes are listed below with same sequence of previous
subsection.
4.8.1 Preample
from gnuradio import digital
import pylab
import math
from gnuradio import blks2
from gnuradio import eng_notation
from gnuradio import gr
from gnuradio import window
from gnuradio.eng_option import eng_option
from gnuradio.gr import firdes
from grc_gnuradio import wxgui as grc_wxgui
from optparse import OptionParser
import wx
class top_block(grc_wxgui.top_block_gui):
def __init__(self):
grc_wxgui.top_block_gui.__init__(self, title="Top Block")
##################################################
# Variables
##################################################
self.samp_rate = samp_rate = 32000
_fft_length=512
_occupied_tones=200
zeros_on_left = int(math.ceil((_fft_length - _occupied_tones)/2.0))
ksfreq = digital.known_symbols_4512_3[0:_occupied_tones]
60
for i in range(len(ksfreq)):
if((zeros_on_left + i) & 1):
ksfreq[i] = 0
# hard-coded known symbols
preambles = ksfreq
##padded_preambles = list()
##for pre in preambles:
##
padded = _fft_length*[0,]
##
padded[zeros_on_left : zeros_on_left + _occupied_tones] = pre
##
padded_preambles.append(padded)
padded_preambles = _fft_length*[0,]
padded_preambles[zeros_on_left : zeros_on_left + _occupied_tones] = preambles
##################################################
# Blocks
##################################################
self.gr_vector_to_stream_0 = gr.vector_to_stream(gr.sizeof_gr_complex*1, 512)
self.gr_vector_source_x_0 = gr.vector_source_c(padded_preambles, False, 1)
self.gr_vector_sink_x_0 = gr.vector_sink_f(1)
self.gr_vector_sink_x_1 = gr.vector_sink_f(1)
self.gr_fft_vxx_0 = gr.fft_vcc(512, False, [], True)
self.gr_stream_to_vector_0 = gr.stream_to_vector(gr.sizeof_gr_complex*1, 512)
self.gr_complex_to_real_0 = gr.complex_to_real(1)
self.gr_complex_to_imag_0 = gr.complex_to_imag(1)
##################################################
# Connections
##################################################
self.connect((self.gr_vector_source_x_0, 0), (self.gr_stream_to_vector_0, 0))
self.connect((self.gr_stream_to_vector_0, 0), (self.gr_fft_vxx_0, 0))
self.connect((self.gr_fft_vxx_0, 0), (self.gr_vector_to_stream_0, 0))
self.connect((self.gr_vector_to_stream_0, 0), (self.gr_complex_to_real_0, 0))
self.connect((self.gr_vector_to_stream_0, 0), (self.gr_complex_to_imag_0, 0))
61
self.connect((self.gr_complex_to_real_0, 0), (self.gr_vector_sink_x_0, 0))
self.connect((self.gr_complex_to_imag_0, 0), (self.gr_vector_sink_x_1, 0))
def get_samp_rate(self):
return self.samp_rate
def set_samp_rate(self, samp_rate):
self.samp_rate = samp_rate
#
self.blks2_stream_to_vector_decimator_0.set_sample_rate(self.samp_rate)
if __name__ == '__main__':
parser = OptionParser(option_class=eng_option, usage="%prog: [options]")
(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
tb = top_block()
tb.Run(True)
fig = pylab.figure(1)
sp = fig.add_subplot(1,1,1)
p2 = sp.plot(tb.gr_vector_sink_x_0.data(), "b", linewidth=1.2, label="preamble symm. (real
part)",)
fig2 = pylab.figure(2)
sp2 = fig2.add_subplot(1,1,1)
p2 = sp2.plot(tb.gr_vector_sink_x_1.data(), "b", linewidth=1.2, label="preamble symm.
(imag. part)",)
sp.legend()
pylab.show()
4.8.2 BW and channel filter
from gnuradio import digital
from gnuradio import eng_notation
from gnuradio import gr
from gnuradio import window
from gnuradio.eng_option import eng_option
from gnuradio.gr import firdes
from gnuradio.wxgui import fftsink2
from grc_gnuradio import blks2 as grc_blks2
62
from grc_gnuradio import wxgui as grc_wxgui
from optparse import OptionParser
import numpy
import wx
class top_block(grc_wxgui.top_block_gui):
def __init__(self):
grc_wxgui.top_block_gui.__init__(self, title="Top Block")
##################################################
# Variables
##################################################
self.samp_rate = samp_rate = 32000
##################################################
# Blocks
##################################################
self.wxgui_fftsink2_0 = fftsink2.fft_sink_c(
self.GetWin(),
baseband_freq=0,
y_per_div=10,
y_divs=10,
ref_level=0,
ref_scale=2.0,
sample_rate=samp_rate,
fft_size=1024,
fft_rate=15,
average=False,
avg_alpha=None,
title="FFT Plot",
peak_hold=False,
)
self.Add(self.wxgui_fftsink2_0.win)
63
self.random_source_x_0 = gr.vector_source_b(map(int, numpy.random.randint(0,
256, 1000)), True)
self.gr_throttle_0 = gr.throttle(gr.sizeof_gr_complex*1, samp_rate)
self.digital_ofdm_mod_0 = grc_blks2.packet_mod_b(digital.ofdm_mod(
options=grc_blks2.options(
modulation="bpsk",
fft_length=512,
occupied_tones=200,
cp_length=128,
pad_for_usrp=False,
log=None,
verbose=None,
),
),
payload_length=0,
)
##################################################
# Connections
##################################################
self.connect((self.random_source_x_0, 0), (self.digital_ofdm_mod_0, 0))
self.connect((self.digital_ofdm_mod_0, 0), (self.gr_throttle_0, 0))
self.connect((self.gr_throttle_0, 0), (self.wxgui_fftsink2_0, 0))
def get_samp_rate(self):
return self.samp_rate
def set_samp_rate(self, samp_rate):
self.samp_rate = samp_rate
self.wxgui_fftsink2_0.set_sample_rate(self.samp_rate)
if __name__ == '__main__':
parser = OptionParser(option_class=eng_option, usage="%prog: [options]")
(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
64
tb = top_block()
tb.Run(True)
Channel filter
import pylab
from gnuradio import eng_notation
from gnuradio import gr
from gnuradio.eng_option import eng_option
from gnuradio.gr import firdes
from grc_gnuradio import wxgui as grc_wxgui
from optparse import OptionParser
import wx
class top_block(grc_wxgui.top_block_gui):
def __init__(self):
grc_wxgui.top_block_gui.__init__(self, title="Top Block")
##################################################
# Variables
##################################################
fft_length = 512
occupied_tones = 200
bw = (float(occupied_tones) / float(fft_length)) / 2.0
tb = bw*0.08
##################################################
# Blocks
##################################################
self.chan_coeffs = gr.firdes.low_pass (1.0,
1.0,
bw+tb,
tb,
# gain
# sampling rate
# midpoint of trans. band
# width of trans. band
gr.firdes.WIN_HAMMING) # filter type
65
def get_samp_rate(self):
return self.samp_rate
def set_samp_rate(self, samp_rate):
self.samp_rate = samp_rate
if __name__ == '__main__':
parser = OptionParser(option_class=eng_option, usage="%prog: [options]")
(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
tb = top_block()
tb.Run(True)
fig = pylab.figure(1)
sp = fig.add_subplot(1,1,1)
p2 = sp.plot(tb.chan_coeffs, "b", linewidth=2, label="channel filter taps")
sp.legend()
pylab.show()
4.8.3 PN based synchronization
Code is divided into two parts. First one is responsible for writing the needed data to
certain files. The second one is responsible for reading the data and plotting it.
 First code (writing data to files)
from gnuradio import digital
from gnuradio import eng_notation
from gnuradio import gr
from gnuradio.eng_option import eng_option
from gnuradio.gr import firdes
from grc_gnuradio import blks2 as grc_blks2
from grc_gnuradio import wxgui as grc_wxgui
from optparse import OptionParser
import numpy
import wx
66
class top_block(grc_wxgui.top_block_gui):
def __init__(self):
grc_wxgui.top_block_gui.__init__(self, title="Top Block")
##################################################
# Variables
##################################################
self.samp_rate = samp_rate = 32000
##################################################
# Blocks
##################################################
self.random_source_x_0 = gr.vector_source_b(map(int, numpy.random.randint(0,
256, 1000)), True)
self.gr_vector_sink_x_2 = gr.vector_sink_b(1)
self.gr_vector_sink_x_1 = gr.vector_sink_b(1)
self.gr_vector_sink_x_0 = gr.vector_sink_f(1)
self.gr_throttle_0 = gr.throttle(gr.sizeof_float*1, samp_rate)
self.digital_ofdm_sync_pn_0 = digital.ofdm_sync_pn(512, 128, True)
self.digital_ofdm_mod_0 = grc_blks2.packet_mod_b(digital.ofdm_mod(
options=grc_blks2.options(
modulation="bpsk",
fft_length=512,
occupied_tones=200,
cp_length=128,
pad_for_usrp=False,
log=None,
verbose=None,
),
),
payload_length=0,
)
67
##################################################
# Connections
##################################################
self.connect((self.digital_ofdm_mod_0, 0), (self.digital_ofdm_sync_pn_0, 0))
self.connect((self.gr_throttle_0, 0), (self.gr_vector_sink_x_0, 0))
self.connect((self.digital_ofdm_sync_pn_0, 0), (self.gr_throttle_0, 0))
self.connect((self.digital_ofdm_sync_pn_0, 1), (self.gr_vector_sink_x_1, 0))
self.connect((self.random_source_x_0, 0), (self.gr_vector_sink_x_2, 0))
self.connect((self.random_source_x_0, 0), (self.digital_ofdm_mod_0, 0))
def get_samp_rate(self):
return self.samp_rate
def set_samp_rate(self, samp_rate):
self.samp_rate = samp_rate
if __name__ == '__main__':
parser = OptionParser(option_class=eng_option, usage="%prog: [options]")
(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
tb = top_block()
tb.Run(True)
Second code (Read data from files and plotting it)
import pylab
from gnuradio import eng_notation
from gnuradio import gr
from gnuradio.eng_option import eng_option
from gnuradio.gr import firdes
from grc_gnuradio import wxgui as grc_wxgui
from optparse import OptionParser
import wx
class top_block(grc_wxgui.top_block_gui):
68
def __init__(self):
grc_wxgui.top_block_gui.__init__(self, title="Top Block")
##################################################
# Variables
##################################################
self.samp_rate = samp_rate = 32000
##################################################
# Blocks
##################################################
self.gr_vector_sink_x_0 = gr.vector_sink_b(1)
self.gr_throttle_0 = gr.throttle(gr.sizeof_char*1, samp_rate)
self.gr_file_source_0 = gr.file_source(gr.sizeof_char*1, "current directory/ False)
##################################################
# Connections
##################################################
self.connect((self.gr_file_source_0, 0), (self.gr_throttle_0, 0))
self.connect((self.gr_throttle_0, 0), (self.gr_vector_sink_x_0, 0))
def get_samp_rate(self):
return self.samp_rate
def set_samp_rate(self, samp_rate):
self.samp_rate = samp_rate
if __name__ == '__main__':
parser = OptionParser(option_class=eng_option, usage="%prog: [options]")
(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
tb = top_block()
tb.Run(True)
fig = pylab.figure(1)
sp = fig.add_subplot(1,1,1)
69
p2 = sp.plot(tb.gr_vector_sink_x_0.data()[:50000], "r", linewidth=2, label="peaks'
signals")
sp.legend()
pylab.show()
The previous code is for the peaks file only. The codes of the matched filter and the timing metric are
the same except the location of the file and the size of the throttle and the file source output. Then
replace :self.gr_throttle_0 = gr.throttle(gr.sizeof_char*1, samp_rate)
self.gr_file_source_0 = gr.file_source(gr.sizeof_char*1, "/current
directory/ofdm_sync_pn-peaks_b.dat", False)
By:self.gr_throttle_0 = gr.throttle(gr.sizeof_float*1, samp_rate)
self.gr_file_source_0 = gr.file_source(gr.sizeof_float*1, "/current
directory/sync_pn_analysis/your_file.dat", False)
Peak detection:First code (generate files of data):from gnuradio import digital
from gnuradio import eng_notation
from gnuradio import gr
from gnuradio.eng_option import eng_option
from gnuradio.gr import firdes
from grc_gnuradio import blks2 as grc_blks2
from grc_gnuradio import wxgui as grc_wxgui
from optparse import OptionParser
import numpy
import wx
class top_block(grc_wxgui.top_block_gui):
70
def __init__(self):
grc_wxgui.top_block_gui.__init__(self, title="Top Block")
##################################################
# Variables
##################################################
self.samp_rate = samp_rate = 32000
##################################################
# Blocks
##################################################
self.random_source_x_0 = gr.vector_source_b(map(int, numpy.random.randint(0,
256, 1000)), True)
self.gr_vector_sink_x_2 = gr.vector_sink_b(1)
self.gr_vector_sink_x_1 = gr.vector_sink_b(1)
self.gr_vector_sink_x_0 = gr.vector_sink_f(1)
self.gr_throttle_0 = gr.throttle(gr.sizeof_float*1, samp_rate)
self.digital_ofdm_sync_pn_0 = digital.ofdm_sync_pn(512, 128, True)
self.digital_ofdm_mod_0 = grc_blks2.packet_mod_b(digital.ofdm_mod(
options=grc_blks2.options(
modulation="bpsk",
fft_length=512,
occupied_tones=200,
cp_length=128,
pad_for_usrp=False,
log=None,
verbose=None,
),
),
payload_length=0,
)
##################################################
# Connections
71
##################################################
self.connect((self.digital_ofdm_mod_0, 0), (self.digital_ofdm_sync_pn_0, 0))
self.connect((self.gr_throttle_0, 0), (self.gr_vector_sink_x_0, 0))
self.connect((self.digital_ofdm_sync_pn_0, 0), (self.gr_throttle_0, 0))
self.connect((self.digital_ofdm_sync_pn_0, 1), (self.gr_vector_sink_x_1, 0))
self.connect((self.random_source_x_0, 0), (self.gr_vector_sink_x_2, 0))
self.connect((self.random_source_x_0, 0), (self.digital_ofdm_mod_0, 0))
def get_samp_rate(self):
return self.samp_rate
def set_samp_rate(self, samp_rate):
self.samp_rate = samp_rate
if __name__ == '__main__':
parser = OptionParser(option_class=eng_option, usage="%prog: [options]")
(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
tb = top_block()
tb.Run(True)
Second code (Reading data and plotting them)
from gnuradio import digital
import pylab
from gnuradio import eng_notation
from gnuradio import gr
from gnuradio.eng_option import eng_option
from gnuradio.gr import firdes
from grc_gnuradio import wxgui as grc_wxgui
from optparse import OptionParser
import wx
class top_block(grc_wxgui.top_block_gui):
72
def __init__(self):
grc_wxgui.top_block_gui.__init__(self, title="Top Block")
##################################################
# Variables
##################################################
self.samp_rate = samp_rate = 32000
##################################################
# Blocks
##################################################
self.gr_vector_sink_x_0_0_0 = gr.vector_sink_f(1)
self.gr_vector_sink_x_0_0 = gr.vector_sink_f(1)
self.gr_vector_sink_x_0 = gr.vector_sink_b(1)
self.gr_throttle_0 = gr.throttle(gr.sizeof_char*1, samp_rate)
self.gr_file_source_0_0_0 = gr.file_source(gr.sizeof_float*1,
"/home/mohamed/Desktop/Simulations/sync_pn_analysis/ofdm_sync_pn-theta_f.dat",
False)
self.gr_file_source_0_0 = gr.file_source(gr.sizeof_float*1,
"/home/mohamed/Desktop/Simulations/sync_pn_analysis/ofdm_sync_pn-mf_f.dat", False)
self.gr_file_source_0 = gr.file_source(gr.sizeof_char*1,
"/home/mohamed/Desktop/Simulations/sync_pn_analysis/ofdm_sync_pn-peaks_b.dat", False)
##################################################
# Connections
##################################################
self.connect((self.gr_file_source_0, 0), (self.gr_throttle_0, 0))
self.connect((self.gr_throttle_0, 0), (self.gr_vector_sink_x_0, 0))
self.connect((self.gr_file_source_0_0_0, 0), (self.gr_vector_sink_x_0_0_0, 0))
self.connect((self.gr_file_source_0_0, 0), (self.gr_vector_sink_x_0_0, 0))
def get_samp_rate(self):
return self.samp_rate
73
def set_samp_rate(self, samp_rate):
self.samp_rate = samp_rate
if __name__ == '__main__':
parser = OptionParser(option_class=eng_option, usage="%prog: [options]")
(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
tb = top_block()
tb.Run(True)
fig = pylab.figure(1)
sp = fig.add_subplot(1,1,1)
p2 = sp.plot(tb.gr_vector_sink_x_0.data()[:1200], "r", linewidth=2, label="Peak signal")
sp.hold(True)
p2 = sp.plot(tb.gr_vector_sink_x_0_0.data()[:1200], "b", linewidth=2, label="Matched
filter output")
sp.hold(True)
p2 = sp.plot(tb.gr_vector_sink_x_0_0_0.data()[:1200], "g", linewidth=2, label="Timing
metric")
sp.annotate("max corr. after 512 sample",xy=(512,1), xycoords='data', xytext=(-150, -30),
textcoords='offset points', arrowprops=dict(arrowstyle="->
", connectionstyle="arc3, rad=0.2"))
sp.annotate("peak is detected after 512+128 sample",xy=(640,1), xycoords='data', xytext=(50, 30), textcoords='offset points', arrowprops=dict(arrow
style="->", connectionstyle="arc3, rad=0.2"))
sp.grid()
sp.legend()
pylab.show()
74
References
[1] Venkat‎ vinod‎ Patcha.‎ “EXPERIMENTAL‎ STUDY‎ OF‎ COGNITIVE‎ RADIO‎
TEST-BED‎ USING‎ USRP”.‎ Thesis‎ by‎ B.TECH‎ in‎ Electronics‎ and‎ Communication‎
Engineering Padmasri Dr. B.V. Raju Institute of Technology (A_liated to JNTU),
India, 2008. August, 2011.
[2] T.‎M.‎Schmidl‎and‎D.‎C.‎Cox.‎“Robust‎frequency‎and‎timing‎synchronization‎for
OFDM”.‎In:‎Communications,‎IEEE‎Transactions‎on‎45.12‎(1997).‎Pp.‎1613–1621.
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www.csun.edu/~skatz/katzpage/sdr_project/sdr/grc_tutorial3.pdf
www.csun.edu/~skatz/katzpage/sdr_project/sdr/grc_tutorial4.pdf
www.csun.edu/~skatz/katzpage/sdr_project/sdr/grc_tutorial2.pdf
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[31] GNU radio mailing list
76
http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/discussgnuradio/
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[34] http://gnuradio.org/redmine/projects/gnuradio/wiki/TutorialsWritePythonApplications
77
Future Work
There is a great scope for improving the current project of OFDM. The effective
area of research and development work includes :
1. Extending the project to increase the spectral efficiency and decrease BER using
methods of channel coding and other communication concepts.
2. Implementation of communication standards such as WI-FI and LTE.
3. Add multiple users. We would like to have a group with three kits, representing two
users and a base station. We would also like to have multiple antennas.
78
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