"Watt`s Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User`s Manual

"Watt`s Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User`s Manual
"Watt's Up"
Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
Model WU100
Revision 1.2a
11/20/2004
Notices
Copyright
Copyright © 2004 by RC Electronics, Inc.. All rights reserved. No part of this manual may
be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by an means, analog, digital, electronic or
mechanical, including imaging, photocopying and recording, for any purpose other than the
purchaser's personal use without the written permission of RC Electronics, Inc., 2980 E.
Capitol Expy. #50-194, San Jose, CA 95148.
Trademarks
Watt’s Up is a trademark of RC Electronics, Inc..
All other brand and product names mentioned in this manual are trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective owners.
Changes
The material in this manual is for information only and is subject to change without notice.
While reasonable efforts have been made in the preparation of this manual to ensure its
accuracy, RC Electronics, Inc. assumes no liability resulting from errors or omissions in
this manual, or from the use of information contained herein.
RC Electronics, Inc. reserves the right to make changes in the product design without
reservation and without notification to its users.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Table of Contents
1
I
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................ 3
1.1
1.2
2
WHAT IT DOES .............................................................................................................................. 3
BENEFITS ...................................................................................................................................... 3
FEATURES AND SPECIFICATIONS .......................................................................................... 4
2.1
2.2
3
FEATURES ..................................................................................................................................... 4
SPECIFICATIONS TABLES............................................................................................................... 4
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS .............................................................................................................. 5
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
4
SAFE OPERATION LIMITATIONS .................................................................................................... 5
ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS AND WIRING ..................................................................................... 5
POWERING UP ............................................................................................................................... 5
LIMITS OF CONNECTED EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................. 6
BASICS OF ELECTRICITY .......................................................................................................... 7
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
5
CHARGE ........................................................................................................................................ 7
CURRENT ...................................................................................................................................... 7
VOLTAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 8
RESISTANCE .................................................................................................................................. 8
POWER .......................................................................................................................................... 9
WORK/ENERGY ............................................................................................................................. 9
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY ......................................................................................................... 9
ABOUT UNITS ............................................................................................................................. 10
GETTING STARTED.................................................................................................................... 11
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
6
MAKING CONNECTIONS .............................................................................................................. 11
USING AUXILIARY POWER .......................................................................................................... 11
POWER UP CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................ 11
APPLYING POWER ....................................................................................................................... 11
Applying Power, Examples .................................................................................................. 12
Applying Power, Problems .................................................................................................. 12
INFORMATION DISPLAY .......................................................................................................... 13
6.1
STARTUP SCREEN........................................................................................................................ 13
6.2
MEASUREMENT SCREEN ............................................................................................................. 13
6.2.1
(Current) Amps A, Ap .......................................................................................................... 13
6.2.2
(Voltage) Volts V, Vm .......................................................................................................... 13
6.2.3
(Energy) Watt-hours Wh ...................................................................................................... 13
6.2.4
(Charge) Amp-hours Ah....................................................................................................... 13
6.2.5
(Power) Watts W.................................................................................................................. 13
7
USING WATT'S UP....................................................................................................................... 14
7.1
7.2
7.3
8
WHERE DO YOU CONNECT WATT'S UP ...................................................................................... 14
MAXIMUM CURRENT CAPABILITIES ............................................................................................ 14
CONNECTION DIAGRAMS ............................................................................................................ 15
BATTERY CHARACTERIZATION ........................................................................................... 16
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.1.3
9
Battery Charging ................................................................................................................. 16
Battery Discharging, Efficiency and Health ........................................................................ 16
Low Voltage Measurement .................................................................................................. 17
SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION.............................................................................................. 18
9.1.1
9.1.2
9.1.3
9.1.4
10
Testing & Troubleshooting Loads ....................................................................................... 18
Capturing Current Peaks and Voltage Minimums (Droops) ............................................... 18
Backup DC Voltmeter & DC Ammeter ................................................................................ 19
Calculating Relative Efficiency............................................................................................ 19
WATT'S UP APPLICATIONS ..................................................................................................... 20
10.1
ON BOARD USE........................................................................................................................... 20
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Table of Contents
II
10.2 FLIGHT TIME ............................................................................................................................... 20
10.3 BASIC COMPONENT SELECTION .................................................................................................. 20
10.4 INITIAL TESTING ......................................................................................................................... 20
11
CARE............................................................................................................................................... 21
11.1
11.2
CLEANING ................................................................................................................................... 21
STORAGE .................................................................................................................................... 21
12
TROUBLESHOOTING................................................................................................................. 22
13
SUPPORT ....................................................................................................................................... 24
14
WARRANTY .................................................................................................................................. 25
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
ONE YEAR LIMITED WARRANTY ................................................................................................ 25
LIMITS AND EXCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................ 25
LIMITATION OF LIABILITY........................................................................................................... 25
ENTIRE WARRANTY .................................................................................................................... 25
PROCEDURE FOR WARRANTY CLAIMS AND RETURN AUTHORIZATION ....................................... 26
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Introduction
1
3
INTRODUCTION
Thank you for purchasing the Watt's Up watt meter and power analyzer. We are confident
you will find it to be an indispensable addition to the tools you use to make your hobby
more enjoyable.
Your Watt's Up watt meter and power analyzer is an easy-to-use precision instrument for
measuring and calculating the electrical parameters the radio controlled model hobbyist
needs to get the most from their electric model.
1.1
What it Does
Watt's Up measures current, voltage and time and from those measurements calculates
peak current (Amps), minimum voltage (Volts), power (Watts), energy (Watt-hours) and
charge (Amp-hours) values for you, in real-time, for the circuit in which you connect it.
1.2
Benefits
With the advent of electric power for models the hobbyist can now investigate and tune the
performance of their model in ways not possible with the traditional internal combustion
engines. With Watt's Up it is now easy to determine things like:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Flight time
Current through an ESC and motor
ESC, BEC and motor efficiencies
Charge put into and removed from a battery and the performance of battery
chargers
Battery health
Presence of peak currents that can damage components
Presence of voltage droops that cause components to operate out of
specification
Why power is lost during acrobatics or extreme conditions
Effect of gearing and propeller size and shape on power consumption and
battery currents
Effects of modifications, age and damage on many electrical system
components
Clever RC hobbyists will, no doubt, discover new applications to further improve electric
model performance.
With Watt's Up you can stop wondering what’s going on with your electric model and get
answers that allow you to apply science to your hobby. The precise measurements you
collect will help you fine tune your model to get all the performance that you paid for.
We know you are anxious to start using your Watt's Up and ask that you review this
manual first to get the most out of its capabilities and inform you of relevant safety
issues.
Enjoy learning Watt's Up!
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Features and Specifications
2
2.1
FEATURES AND SPECIFICATIONS
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.2
4
Measures energy (Wh), charge (Ah), power (W), current (A) and voltage (V)
Connector to use an optional receiver battery for measurement down to 0 V
Accurate & precise – 0.01 A current and 0.01 V voltage resolutions
Measures current peak and voltage minimum (droop)
Rugged – handles 50 A continuous and 100 A peak at 60 V
14 ga., super fine stranded, high temperature, silicone rubber insulated wire
Small & light with a tough plastic case available in several colors
Acts like a wire so doesn't affect model's performance. Precision Alu-Chrom
current sensing resistor, with only 0.001 Ohms resistance and circuitry that
draws only 7 mA
Uses DSP to increase ADC resolution and differential measurement
amplifiers to increase noise immunity
Factory calibration stores constants in EEPROM to compensate for
component tolerances
Powerful, 8 MIPS micro-controller
Made in USA to ISO 9001:2000 quality standards
One-year warranty and complete user manual
Specifications Tables
Table 1 Electrical Measurement Range
Parameter
Voltage
Range
0* - 60 V
Resolution
0.01 V
Current
Power
Charge
Energy
0 - 100 A
0 - 6000 W
0 - 65 Ah
0 - 6500 Wh
0.01 A
0.1 W
0.001 Ah
0.1 Wh
Notes
*0 V min. w/ auxiliary
power. E.g. a receiver
battery. Else 4.0 V.
Table 2 Miscellaneous Specifications
Parameter
Measurement Update Period
Signal Sampling Rate
Screen Alternation
Period
In Circuit Resistance
Operation Current
Auxiliary Power Voltage
Value
400 mS
1000 samples/s
3 seconds
Dimensions
Weight
Display Screen
Nominal Operating
Conditions
2.8" L x 1.7" W x 0.83" D
2.5 oz.
16 char x 2 row STN LCD
0° - 50° C ambient
temperature, non
condensing humidity
0.001 Ohms
7 mA
4.0 V - 60 V
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
Notes
e.g. from a
receiver battery
Maximum
temperature must
be reduced at
maximum current
rating
RC Electronics, Inc.
Safety Precautions
3
5
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
CAUTION: High power electrical systems pose dangers independent of devices like the
Watt's Up and it is the user's responsibility to be familiar with these dangers and take any
necessary action to ensure safe use. Shorting a rechargeable battery or a Watt's Up
connected to a rechargeable battery or battery charger can supply huge currents and have
serious consequences including explosions, causing fire, damage to equipment and
personal injury.
Please carefully read the entire SAFTY PRECAUTIONS section to ensure safe
product use.
3.1
Safe Operation Limitations
The Watt's Up is designed to be safe to use when operated within the parameter limits it
was designed for. Typical applications are well within these limits, but it is the user's
responsibility to be familiar with the Watt's Up specifications and ensure the unit is
operated within its limits.
Table 3 Safe Operating Limits (Do Not Exceed)
Parameter
Voltage
Current
Operating Range
0 V - 60 V
0 - 100 A intermittent
50 A continuous
Power
Nominal
Operating
Conditions
0 - 6000 W
0° - 50° C ambient air
temperature, non condensing
humidity
Notes
Assumes device's wires are
in free air and attached to
connections at or below
temperature of 35° C (95° F)
with adequate air flow. 100
A operation time depends on
ambient temperature and
wiring temperature.
limited by operating current
Maximum temperature must
be reduced at maximum
current rating
CAUTION: Exceeding these limits may permanently damage the Watt's Up and may
cause personal injury and may cause fire.
3.2
Electrical Connections and Wiring
There are risks associated with the potentially high currents measured by the Watt's Up.
These include, but are not limited to, fire, burns and personal injury. The user must be
familiar with the relevant methods, procedures and connection components before using
or making any connection to the. It is suggested that any connectors and wires chosen for
use be appropriately sized and rated for the intended application and attached in the
manner recommended by their respective manufacturers.
CAUTION: Poor connections and reckless wire handling in electrical systems may have
serious consequences including personal injury, fire and property damage.
3.3
Powering Up
Verify there are no exposed wires or connectors at risk for a short circuit before
connecting a battery or power source to the Watt's Up.
The Red “SOURCE” and “LOAD” leads of the Watt's Up are connected to each other
and the Black leads are essentially so. This means the "other" side is electrically "hot"
when a battery or other power source is connected to either side.
CAUTION: Shorting a rechargeable battery or a Watt's Up connected to a rechargeable
battery or battery charger can supply huge currents and have serious consequences
including explosions, causing fire, damage to equipment and personal injury.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Safety Precautions
3.4
6
Limits of Connected Equipment
The Watt's Up may have measurement capabilities, operating ratings and electrical signal
handling abilities that exceed those of equipment to which it is connected. This means the
Watt's Up may be able to make measurements on a connected component despite that
component being operated outside of its safe operating ratings.
CAUTION: It is the user's responsibility to consider the limitations of any equipment
connected to the Watt's Up and not to exceed them since the Watt's Up provides no
protection for those components. Examples of possible hazards include, without limitation:
charging or discharging batteries outside their voltage and current ratings, application of
excessive voltage or currents to electronic speed controls (ESC) and motors, application of
currents that cause dangerous heating or voltages that present a shock hazard. Other
hazards may exist.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Basics of Electricity
4
7
BASICS OF ELECTRICITY
Understanding the basics of electricity will help you get the most out of your Watt's Up and
electric model. With these concepts you can intelligently compare electrical components
and conduct experiments to maximize their performance in your electric modeling hobby.
If you are new to electrical propulsion systems you may want to read through this a few
times. Experts can skip it.
We use the water and plumbing analogies to teach electrical concepts because people often
already have good intuition about water systems.
4.1
Charge
It all starts with charge.
Charge is the basic unit of electric energy. Using the water analogy, charge is the “amount
of water”.
Charge (electrons actually) is what gets stored in a rechargeable battery by a battery
charger. Like water gets “stored” in an aquarium by a water pump a battery charger stores
charge in a battery.
Asking how much charge is in a battery is like asking how much water is in an aquarium.
A physicist will tell you that charge is measured in units of Coulombs (C) like water can
be measured in units of gallons. It turns out that Amp-hours (Ah) is also a unit of charge
and is more familiar to RC hobbyists. We’ll show why later when we discuss current.
Charge = Current × Time.
Charge can be measured in Amp-Hours by:
Amp-hours = Average Amps × hours of duration
4.2
Current
Current is measured as an amount of something flowing per unit of time.
With electricity, the “something” flowing in a wire is charge, which is measured in
“Coulombs”.
A Coulomb per second of electric charge current has a special name. It is called an
Ampere (abbreviated Amps or just A). A gallon per second of water flow doesn’t have a
special name. It’s just a gal/s.
So 20 Amperes or Amps flowing into a motor means it has a current of 20 Coulombs of
charge flowing per second.
Now we can explain why Amp-Hours is a measure of charge.
An hour is 60 × 60 = 3600 seconds. So an Amp-hour (meaning Amps times
hours)
= Ampere × Hour
And substituting the definition of an Ampere and of an hour this becomes
= (Coulomb/Second) × 3600 Seconds which leaves 3600 Coulombs.
Coulombs are charge so there we are -- an Amp-hour (or Ah) is 3600 Coulombs
of charge.
It is common in RC modeling to discuss charge in units of mAh. The m is an abbreviation
for the Greek “milli” which means “thousandth” of something. So 1 mAh is 1/1000 of an
Ah. Conversely, 2 Ah is the same as 2000 mAh.
Here are some examples showing the important relationships between current, time and
charge.
1) Charging.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Basics of Electricity
If you pump 1 gal/h of water into an aquarium for five hours it will contain 1
gal/h × 5 h = 5 gallons. Similarly a battery charging at 1500 mA for one hour
will contain 1.5 Amp × one hour = 1.5 Ah of charge. Since we learned above
that there are 3600 Coulombs per Ah, the physicist would say the battery
contains 1.5 Ah × 3600 C/Ah = 5400 Coulombs of charge. Amp-hr versus C.
They are different ways of saying the same thing.
8
2) Discharging
If you know a battery and an aquarium are both “full” you just read their
“capacity” (volume) specification to find the stored “charge.” The aquarium
says 20 gallons and the battery says 2000 mAh. The aquarium would take 4
hours to empty at a “current” of 5 gal/h and the battery would take 1 hour to
empty at a current of 2000 mA.
4.3
Voltage
Something forces current to flow in a wire. That something is called voltage and is
measured in Volts (abbreviated V). The pressure your hand feels pushing water out of a
pipe is the force analogous to voltage.
You can’t get a current without a voltage. The two are related by the concept of resistance.
4.4
Resistance
Resistance is measured in Ohms (abbreviated with the Greek symbol Omega Ω). It is the
property that limits the current, which flows in a wire for a given voltage applied across the
wire.
The very important “Ohm’s Law” summarizes this relationship.
Amps = Volts ÷ Ohms
It says the amount of current depends on the voltage applied divided by the amount of
resistance. Push harder for a given amount of resistance and you get more flow.
Reducing the diameter of a water pipe increases its resistance and therefore reduces the
water flowing from it for a given pressure (voltage). Similarly doubling the resistance of a
wire halves the current flowing through it for a given voltage across it.
A useful thing to remember is that 1 Volt divided by 1 Ohm = 1 Amp.
It says that One Amp of current will flow in wire having a resistance of one Ohm if one
Volt of voltage is applied across it.
So given relatively fixed battery voltages, you need low resistance wires to allow high
currents.
Resistance is a general term for a rather complex phenomenon. There are different kinds of
resistance. For our purposes we will mean Direct Current or DC resistance. Alternating
Current or AC resistance is beyond the scope of this tutorial and is not widely discussed in
RC electrical systems.
Here’s an example problem using resistance.
How much voltage drop is there to a motor drawing 50 Amps if the motor is one
foot from the battery? Assume14 Ga. wire has a resistance of approximately
0.0025 Ohms per foot.
So we have two feet of wire total with 50 Amps flowing through them. Ohms
law tells us that to get 50 Amps through a wire of 2 × 0.0025 Ohms requires:
Volts = Amps × Ohms, = 50 × (2 × 0.0025) = 0.25 V.
So those wires use up 0.25 V in battery voltage. Our motor would receive 7.15
Volts from a 7.4 Volt battery. Apparently, this motor consumes exactly 50
Amps at exactly 7.15 V.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Basics of Electricity
4.5
Power
9
Power is measured in units of Watts.
A key concept:
Power is the rate at which work is done or energy is expended and not the
amount of work done.
Or:
Power = energy ÷ time
The power being delivered or used (in Watts) is measured by the current (in Amps)
multiplied by the voltage (in Volts) of the system being measured. I.E.
Watts = Amps × Volts
A battery has a fixed energy capacity or amount of work it can do. The rate at which it does
that work or dumps that energy is its power output and that power output can be varied by
the time over which the work is done.
For example, the work or energy a battery and motor do to roll an electric car up a 30 foot
hill is the same whether it takes a minute or an hour to do so. The power, however, is 60
times greater in the second case!
Using the water analogy, you might fill a 10,000-gallon water tank (representing a fixed
amount of work/energy to be done) in two days with a small electric water pump. It would
take a pump attached to a “very powerful” V8 gas engine with a supercharger to fill it in
five minutes. Both need the same energy, but require very different powers. The difference
is the time the effort takes.
4.6
Work/Energy
From a physics point of view, work and energy describe the same thing. The word chosen
at a particular time depends on the point of view being emphasized by an author.
Hopefully, this will become clear as you read on.
People often, incorrectly, mix the concepts of power and energy/work as though they are
the same. They are different, but related by time. Understanding the difference is very
important toward an understanding of propulsion system performance.
Voltage does work to move charge. The battery charger worked to push charge against the
battery’s voltage into the battery. That work is stored as charge in the battery. Discharging
the battery does work on whatever is using the charge.
This work or energy is measured in Watt-hours by measuring the power (in Watts)
expended over some time duration (in hours).
Watt-hours = Watts (averaged) × hours
This is how much work the electricity has done.
The energy stored in a battery depends on the product of charge and voltage. I.E.
Energy (Wh) = voltage (V) × charge (Ah)
So while a 7.4 V and 14.8 V battery pack may both have the same charge of 2000 mAh, the
14.8 V pack has twice the energy and capacity to do work.
4.7
Conservation of Energy
This is a very important physics concept that will help you evaluate electric model power
systems.
Simply stated, conservation of energy means that energy isn't ever lost; rather it has gone
someplace "else."
Energy has many forms, Heat, Kinetic, Potential and Chemical being the most relevant to
RC.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Basics of Electricity
Two examples will help.
10
1) If you discharge a battery pack into light bulbs the energy stored in the battery's
chemistry was converted to heat in the battery's chemical reaction the wiring and the light
bulb filaments.
2) In an electric motor powered plane, energy from the battery converts to heat energy in
wires, connectors, the electronic components in the Electronic Speed Control, the wires in
the motor armature, the brushes, the motor bearings and lubricant and the air the prop and
plane fly through AND to potential energy that has been stored by the height the plane's
mass is above the ground AND to kinetic energy stored in the speed of the plane's mass.
If you measured all the heat generated and other stored energies, it would equal that
previously stored in the battery. That's the conservation.
Inefficiency in a process like this means some energy went someplace you didn't want it to
like the wires, bearings, ESC and brushes. You wanted it all delivered to the prop.
In battery charging, energy from the charger is delivered as a current into a battery where it
is converted to a charge stored in the battery's chemistry. In a perfect rechargeable battery
no energy would go anyplace else. In reality it does, like to heat, so battery charging is not
100 % efficient.
What you can learn from all of this is that your options for an electric powered model's
capabilities must consider all the places energy will be used.
Learning some basic things about potential and kinetic energy as well as Newton's second
Law of motion in a simple physics text book will give you powerful tools to evaluate an
electric model capabilities.
4.8
About Units
Small amounts of current and voltage are usually measured in milliamps or millivolts
where “milli” is a Greek abbreviation meaning “one thousandth of.” For example, 10 mA
means ten – one thousandths of one Amp, which is written as 0.01 Amps. 1000 mA is
another way to write 1 A. Similarly, 0.001 V is one thousandth of one volt. Milli is a
widely used prefix. E.g. 3000 mAh is another way to write a charge of 3 Ah.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Getting Started
5
11
GETTING STARTED
Please be familiar with the contents of the SAFETY PRECAUTIONS section before
continuing.
5.1
Making Connections
Watt's Up is supplied without connectors so you can use whatever kind you prefer.
If you attach connectors to the SOURCE and LOAD leads that mate with those you use on
your models it will be easier to do testing with your Watt's Up. However, it is strongly
recommended that you only use female connectors on batteries and other power sources to
prevent connectors and bare metal contacts from shorting together.
For example, with female (socket) connectors on your battery you will want male (plug)
connectors on the Watt's Up SOURCE leads and female connectors on the Watt's Up
LOAD leads. With this configuration, the Watt's Up can be inserted, like jumper cables,
between the battery and a load such as a ESC with Motor.
The user is responsible for selecting connectors rated to handle the current and voltage
expected in the user’s application and to follow the instructions provided with the
connectors to ensure best results.
Only qualified individuals should assemble any high current connections.
The Red SOURCE wire goes to Positive (Plus +) battery or other device terminals and
black to Negative (Minus -).
5.2
Using Auxiliary Power
By connecting a receiver battery pack (of at least 4.0 V) or other power source to the 3-pin
connector on the SOURCE side, the Watt's Up can measure down to 0 V. This makes it
possible to measure the characteristics of a single battery cell.
The 3-pin connector’s socket will accept a Futaba J type, JR or HiTec type servo plug
connector. Pin 1 is Negative and pin 2 (middle pin) is Positive. Pin 1 is the pin farthest
from the Watt's Up SOURCE wires. Pin 3 is reserved for testing.
5.3
Power Up Checklist
We recommend you always go through this checklist before applying power to the Watt's
Up.
• Always verify there are no exposed wires or bare connectors that can short
circuit prior to connecting a battery or power source to the Watt's Up.
• Carefully inspect wire and connector insulation for damage or bare spots that
can short. Properly insulate any such areas with electrical tape or shrink
tubing.
• While a load connection is not required, ensuring that the LOAD wires are
safely routed is important to prevent shorts. Capping unused connectors with a
fully insulated mating connector as a "cap" is a useful trick. E.g. capping a
female connector with an insulated male connector.
CAUTION: Verify correct connection polarities before applying power or damage
may result!
5.4
Applying Power
The Watt's Up requires a power source providing a minimum of 4.0 V to operate. This can
come from a power source (battery or charger) on the LOAD or SOURCE side or from the
auxiliary 3-pin SOURCE power input connector.
If you connect an auxiliary power source of 4.0 V or more (e.g. small receiver battery
pack), the Watt's Up operates independently of power sources on the LOAD or SOURCE
leads. This allows measurements down to 0V, e.g. for measuring a single cell main pack.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Getting Started
Note that a standard 9 V alkaline battery can be wired with a servo connector and used as
an auxiliary battery if desired.
5.4.1
Applying Power, Examples
• Use at least a four cell NiCd or NiMH battery pack or a two cell Li-Poly
battery pack on the SOURCE side to provide the minimum 4.0 V. Connect a
load on the LOAD side. E.g an ESC and a MOTOR.
• Connect an Auxiliary power source to the 3-pin SOURCE power input
connector and a single Li-Poly cell to the SOURCE side and an ESC and
motor to the LOAD side.
5.4.2
Applying Power, Problems
12
When you apply power as described, the Watt's Up display will show the "Startup Screen"
and then begin measurements.
CAUTION: if the Startup Screen does not appear, immediately remove the power sources
and refer to the troubleshooting section of this document.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Information Display
6
6.1
13
INFORMATION DISPLAY
Startup Screen
When power is applied to the Watt's Up, a startup screen is displayed for about three
seconds. The product's version number is also shown.
Startup Screen
6.2
Measurement Screen
The measurement screen is displayed after the startup screen. The measurement screen
values are updated approximately every 400 mS. The measurement screen alternates
between two views displaying Peak Amps, Min. Volts, Watts and Watt-hours or Amps,
Volts, Watts and Amp-hours approximately every 3 seconds. Note that the Watts value
is always displayed.
Amps, Volts, Watts & Ah
6.2.1
Peak Amps, Min. Volts, Watts & Wh
(Current) Amps A, Ap
The Amps value displayed is the average current flowing through the Watt's Up's black
wire over the last screen update interval. The displayed Peak Amps value (Ap) is the
maximum current drawn on the LOAD side, beginning three seconds after application of
power to the SOURCE. Watt's Up circuit operation draws a slight amount of current (7
mA) from the SOURCE side. Being hundreds of times less current than is drawn by typical
loads, this slight additional current can be ignored and the SOURCE’s current be
considered equal to the LOAD’s current for most practical purposes. The Amps value is
measured on the LOAD side.
6.2.2
(Voltage) Volts V, Vm
The Volts value displayed is the average voltage over the last screen update interval. The
displayed Minimum Volts value (Vm) is the minimum voltage (or “droop”) measured on
the SOURCE side, beginning three seconds after application of power to the SOURCE.
The Volts value is measured on the SOURCE side.
6.2.3
(Energy) Watt-hours Wh
The value displayed is the total energy delivered to the LOAD in Watt-hours since power
was applied to the Watt's Up. It is measured on the LOAD side. For accurate results, be
careful not to interrupt the SOURCE connection to the Watt's Up during an energy
measurement.
6.2.4
(Charge) Amp-hours Ah
The value displayed is the total charge in Amp-hours delivered to the LOAD since power
was applied to the Watt's Up. It is measured on the LOAD side. For accurate results, be
careful not to interrupt the SOURCE connection to the Watt's Up during a charge
measurement.
6.2.5
(Power) Watts W
The value displayed is the average power delivered in Watts over the last screen update
interval. It is measured on the LOAD side.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Using Watt's Up
7
7.1
14
USING WATT'S UP
Where Do You Connect Watt's Up
You can think of the Watt's Up like a set of jumper wires. Connect it in the same way and
you can measure what the jumper wires are connected to. Like Jumper wires, the Watt's Up
is essentially a direct connection between correspondingly colored SOURCE and LOAD
wires, i.e. both the “SOURCE” and “LOAD” leads of the Watt's Up are electrically “hot”
when a battery is connected to either side.
Example use #1 -- Testing Loads; Battery on SOURCE side, Electronic Speed
Controller (ESC) and motor on LOAD side. With the ESC on, the Watt's Up shows the
current into the motor, voltage and power at the battery and accumulates the Ah and
Wh while the motor is running.
Example use #2 -- Battery Charging; with a battery charger on the SOURCE side and
battery pack on the LOAD side (using gender changing jumpers), the Watt's Up shows
the charging current into the battery, the voltage and charging power at the battery and
accumulates the charge (Ah) and energy (Wh) into the battery.
7.2
Maximum Current Capabilities
Current flowing through Watt's Up and its supplied wires generates heat due to the
resistances of the wires and of the precision internal current shunt used for current
measurements. Though very low ( ~ 0.004 Ohms in wires and 0.001 Ohms in shunt), these
resistances are finite and at high currents the heat generated becomes noticeable. This is
because heat is created with the "square" of the current. I.E.:
2
heating power (W) = current (A) × resistance (Ohms)
So doubling the current increases the heat produced four times.
At 75 Amps, approximately 28 Watts of heat is produced – mostly in the Watt's Up's wires.
This doesn't only happen with Watt's Up. All wiring, connectors, etc have resistance
subject to the same resistance based heating.
The high current handing capabilities of Watt's Up will be maximized when the Watt's Up's
SOURCE and LOAD wires are kept short and cool. Cut the wires as short as is convenient
for high current operation. A fan blowing over the wires will help their cooling.
At moderate currents there is little heating.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Using Watt's Up
7.3
15
Connection Diagrams
The following diagrams show example connections between the Watt's Up and various
Sources and Loads.
-
"Watt's Up"
LOAD
-
+
SOURCE
+
Battery
+
+
-
-
watt meter
ESC
+
+
-
-
Motor
Testing Loads
-
"Watt's Up"
LOAD
+
SOURCE
Battery +
Charger -
+
+
-
watt meter
-
plug - plug
jumper wires
+
Battery
-
Battery Charging
Auxiliary +
Battery -
-
"Watt's Up"
LOAD
-
+
SOURCE
Battery
+
+
-
watt meter
Battery Discharging
Legend
+ Discharge
-
Load
Loads
Power Sources
Socket connector
Plug connector
Shows auxiliary battery connected to
allow measurement down to 0 volts
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Battery Characterization
8
8.1.1
16
BATTERY CHARACTERIZATION
Battery Charging
You can monitor the current, accumulated charge and energy into and voltage on a
charging battery.
Connect the Watt's Up as shown in the "Battery Charging" CONNECTION DIAGRAM.
You made need gender-changing connectors/wiring to do this depending on the connectors
you are using. Follow the manufacturer instructions for operation of the charger and battery.
Note that the Watt's Up's Peak Amps and Voltage Minimum values are cleared whenever
the Watt's Up turns on. If the battery is connected before the charger is turned on, the
Watt's Up will track the minimum voltage on the battery during the charging process.
With the charger on and the battery charging, the Watt's Up displays the ongoing charging
electrical values. The current (As) and power (W) show the average rate of charge and the
voltage indicates the current battery charging voltage.
CAUTION: When charging a battery do not operate it outside its manufacturer's
specifications. For example, do not allow battery voltage to exceed the maximum value
specified or charge at a current that exceeds the maximum specified or charge at a
temperature or manner that violates the manufacturers specifications. Note that so-called
"Battery Zapping Devices" may generate voltages and currents that exceed the safe
operating limits of both Watt's Up and batteries. Do not leave a charging battery unattended.
At the end of the charge the Watt's Up display indicates the total charge (Ah) and energy
(Wh) the battery received as well as the peak Amps (Ap) used and the minimum voltage on
the battery during the charging process.
Make a note of these final values as they can be used to determine charger efficiency
Charge (Amp-hours)
8.1.2
Peak Amps (Ap) Energy (Watt-hours)
Battery Discharging, Efficiency and Health
When discharging a battery pack through the Watt's Up into a load you can monitor key
battery parameters like actual available charge and energy, peak and average current and
battery voltage.
Connect the Watt's Up as shown in the "Battery Discharging" CONNECTION DIAGRAM.
The load device you connect on the LOAD side must be capable of handling the discharge
power the battery pack can provide. Example loads include, light bulbs, power resistors,
ESC & Motor combinations, and devices specifically designed to discharge a battery like
some chargers in discharge mode.
If the battery pack voltage at the end of discharge will be less than the minimum 4.0 V the
Watt's Up requires, connect a battery of at least 4.0 V to the 3-pin auxiliary power
connection.
After connecting the LOAD to the Watt's Up, connect the battery. Discharging begins
when the battery is connected. Some loads (e.g. ESC and motor) may have to be "turned
on" to begin drawing current and discharging the battery.
CAUTION: When discharging a battery do not operate it outside its manufacturer's
specifications. For example, do not allow battery voltage to drop below the minimum value
specified or discharge at a current that exceeds the maximum specified or discharge at a
temperature or manner that violates the manufacturers specifications. Note that shorting a
battery's output will violate most operating specifications. Do not leave a discharging
battery unattended.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Battery Characterization
When the battery is discharged, the Watt's Up display indicates the total charge (Ah) and
energy (Wh) the battery delivered to the load as well as the peak Amps (Ap) used and the
minimum voltage on the battery during the discharging process.
17
Make a note of these final discharge values to determine charger efficiency, battery
capacity and health.
Charge (Amp-hours)
Peak Amps (Ap) Energy (Watt-hours)
Battery Charging Efficiency
Battery Charging Efficiency (BCE) is the ratio of energy put in to energy removable.
Charging Efficiency = Discharge Energy ÷ Charge Energy.
Efficiency is never 100% due to a variety of losses involved. If the charge energy was 15
Wh and the discharge energy is 14.2 Wh the Charging Efficiency is:
14.3 ÷ 15 = 0.95 or 95%
BCE depends on both the charger and the battery so it can be difficult to determine where
problems are without extra batteries or chargers.
Battery Health
Battery Health is determined by comparing the actual energy or charge capacity with the
manufacturer's specifications or a "new" battery as a reference. Since it can be difficult to
get manufacturer specifications to match test results, it is often simpler and just as useful to
record the capacity value of a "new" battery and save that as a baseline. Note that a "new"
battery may be defective and give out of specification results.
By occasionally discharging a battery pack and comparing the energy delivered to the
baseline value delivered when it was first put into service, you can track that battery's
health. The percentage of baseline capacity at which a battery is considered to be at the end
of its life depends on battery chemistry and how it is used. A reduction in charge capacity
can also be an indication of battery pack damage or imminent failure.
To summarize, the percentage of baseline or initial capacity indicates a battery's health.
Baseline Capacity Ratio = Current Capacity ÷ Original Capacity
8.1.3
Low Voltage Measurement
Watt's Up's ability to measure down to 0 V allows unique measurement scenarios.
For example, if you have a micro model, or a model that uses a single cell or low voltage
battery pack or even solar cells, the Watt's Up can still measure all your system parameters
like in higher voltage systems. Watt's Up's low operating current minimizes the impact its
presence has on low power systems.
To support low voltage measurement, just connect a power source to the auxiliary power
connector.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
System Characterization
9
9.1.1
18
SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION
Testing & Troubleshooting Loads
To use Watt's Up to test, measure and troubleshoot Load behavior, connect the Watt's Up
and components as shown in the "Testing Loads" CONNECTION DIAGRAM. Use the
auxiliary power to ensure measurements down to 0 Volts. Follow the manufacturer
instructions for operation of the battery and Load components.
The object of testing & troubleshooting Loads is to confirm that all components are within
their safe operating ranges, to determine what their actual operating conditions are and to
uncover problems.
Example load tests are:
Does the ESC deliver the maximum allowed current to the motor?
How much current and power is delivered at various throttle settings?
Is too much current being drawn from the battery?
Is too much current or power being passed through the ESC or the motor?
Are there unexplained current peaks or voltage minimums that indicate problems or
explain why the system has malfunctioned in the past?
How much charge and energy are consumed by the load, for the time and exercise
performed?
The usual test procedure is to connect the Load to the LOAD side of the Watt's Up and a
battery pack to the SOURCE side. While noting Watt's Up readings, exercise the system by
varying things like throttle settings, gearbox ratios, motor type, ESC setup, propeller type,
battery voltage and type, drive train type, etc.
Watt's Up allows you to collect precise measurements with which to make scientific
performance analysis of your model.
All of the Watt's Up measured values may be useful in your Load testing &
troubleshooting.
Amps, Volts, Watts & Ah
9.1.2
Peak Amps, Min. Volts, Watts & Wh
Capturing Current Peaks and Voltage Minimums (Droops)
It can be very difficult to find out why a model or a component fails. The Watt's Up ability
to capture even brief current peaks and voltage minimum values can help.
The Peak Amps value and Voltage Minimum values will be the peak and minimum
captured following the Watt's Up power on sequence. Be careful in adjusting test setups to
not accidentally cause a current peak or voltage minimum that isn't the one you are
watching for. This might happen if, for example, you connect another component to the
system while it is measuring.
The Watt's Up's Peak Amps and Voltage Minimum values are cleared whenever the Watt's
Up turns on (i.e. is powered up). So remove all power sources when you need to clear them
for a new measurement.
Amps Peak and Voltage Minimum are displayed.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
System Characterization
9.1.3
Backup DC Voltmeter & DC Ammeter
19
In an emergency, the Watt's Up can be used like a DC voltmeter or like a DC current
meter. Remember that the Watt's Up can only measure positive voltages and currents.
Connect a battery of at least 4.0 V to the 3-pin auxiliary power connection and to nothing
else. The battery must be "floating electrically."
Use the SOURCE side wires for voltage measurements attaching the Red wire to voltages
that are positive with respect to the Black wire. Only the display's Voltage and Volts
Minimum will be accurate in this application.
To measure DC currents, connect the LOAD side Black wire to where the current comes
from (more positive) and the SOURCE side Black wire to where the current is going to
(less positive). Only the display's Amps and Peak Amps will be accurate in this application.
9.1.4
Calculating Relative Efficiency
The relative efficiency of two models electrical systems can be calculated and compared by
using the Watt's Up in conjunction with a tachometer or other means to measure the
mechanical output of each system. An example procedure for propeller propulsion models
is presented.
To make efficiency measurements, you will need a tachometer or a good quality electronic
fish weight scale. In order to use the tachometer method, you will keep the prop unchanged
while changing other components of the system for comparison. Start by taking a baseline
measurement to compare against. Run the prop up to its typical operating RPM using your
tachometer and make note of the Watts reading on the Watt's Up. Now change the motor,
gearbox, or other system component that you are trying to optimize. Run the prop up to the
same RPM and make note of the Watts reading. The setup that is using the least Watts to
run the prop at the same RPM is the most efficient.
With the fish scale method, you can change any of the system components for comparison.
Mount your fish scale between a stationary object and a rolling sled that the system is
mounted on. Start by taking a baseline measurement to compare against. Run the prop up
to its typical operating and make note of the Watts reading on the Watt's Up and the thrust
reading on the fish scale. Now change the motor, gearbox, or other system component that
you are trying to optimize. Run the prop up until the fish scale reading is the same as
before and make note of the Watts reading. The setup that is using the least Watts to
produce same thrust is the most efficient.
Connect the Watt's Up to each system as described above. Adjust the ESC to the desired
operating point (prop speed from tachometer, etc.) and make note of the Watts reading.
Now connect the Watt's Up to the second system. Adjust the ESC to bring it to the same
operating point. Compare the new Watts reading to the old one to determine the relative
efficiency of the two systems.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Watt's Up Applications
10
10.1
20
WATT'S UP APPLICATIONS
On Board Use
The Watt's Up is compact and lightweight compared to other watt meters on the market.
This allows the Watt's Up to be mounted on board larger models. This can be convenient
and can also allow the determination of peak Amps and minimum Volts while in flight due
to the unique features of the Watt's Up. During short test flights, the peak Amps and
minimum Volts generally occur simultaneously under heavy load. These values can help
give insight into the dynamic performance of the prop or explain erratic operation or
failures.
10.2
Flight Time
You can calculate flight time at various throttle settings by taking note of the Amps reading
on the Watt's Up and making some simple calculations. Divide the Ah rating of your
battery pack by the Amps reading to determine the flight time in hours. If your battery pack
is rated in mAh multiply the Amps reading by 1000 to convert it to mAh before dividing.
10.3
Basic Component Selection
You just finished your new model plane and want to select a battery, motor, prop, etc.
Where do you start? A useful metric for initial component selection is the power to weight
ratio or power loading. Power loading can be measured in watts/pound. Typical power
loading ranges from 20 W/lb to 200 W/lb depending on the type of model. Park flyers and
trainers are on the low end, while acrobatic and 3D models are on the high end.
Select a motor recommended for your model by the manufacture as a starting point. If the
manufacture does not recommend a motor, select a motor capable of putting out the power
required for a reasonable power loading for your model. Select a prop that looks suitable
from the motor manufactures recommendations and the prop manufactures data. Now
choose a suitable ESC and battery pack of the appropriate voltage.
10.4
Initial Testing
Now that you have chosen components to start with, it’s time to bench test things and do
some tuning. Keep in mind that a prop performs differently when tested statically on a
bench compared to dynamically when moving through the air. The faster a prop moves
through the air, the less thrust it produces. Bench testing can help select well-matched
components, but should not be taken as the final word. For bench testing, the complete
system can be assembled on a rolling sled (if you want to make thrust measurements), or
rigidly mounted. Connect the Watt's Up between the battery pack and the ESC.
Start by taking a baseline measurement at full throttle for comparison. Your battery pack
should be fully charged for each test. Run the motor up to full throttle and make note of the
Amps, Volts, and Watts readings on the Watt's Up at 30 seconds into the test then turn the
motor off. Readings at the beginning of the test are not typical due to the initial punch of
the batter pack, which quickly fades. The Watt's Up captures the peak Amps reading which
you can compare to the 30 second reading to see how much initial punch your pack has.
Divide the Watts reading by the weight of your model to get the power loading. Compare
this to the desired power loading for your model. Compare the Amps reading to the
maximum Amps rating of your motor. If it is higher, your motor is being overloaded. If it is
much lower, your motor is larger than you need for the given prop. Now change one of the
system components such as the prop and run the test again. Continue this procedure until
you have a well-matched system that provides the desired power loading for your model.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Care
11
21
CARE
Your Watt's Up is ruggedly constructed and requires minimal care. It contains no
adjustable or field serviceable parts inside. The case is ultrasonically welded and cannot be
opened without damage. Opening the case will void the warranty.
11.1
Cleaning
Do not use petroleum based solvents to clean your Watt's Up. Use a few drops of mild
hand dishwashing detergent in a cup of lukewarm water. Do not apply the detergent
directly to your Watt's Up. Instead, moisten a cloth with the solution and gently wipe your
Watt's Up clean.
CAUTION: Do not exert too much pressure on the display! Doing so could
permanently damage it.
11.2
Storage
Store your Watt's Up in a safe place where is protected from impact and scratches to the
LCD display. Do not store in direct sunlight. Prolonged exposure (years) to direct sunlight
will break down the plastics used in the Watt's Up.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Troubleshooting
12
22
TROUBLESHOOTING
Problem
Don't see the Startup
Screen after applying
power
Possible Remedies
1.
Make sure the LOAD side wires are
not shorted together or connected to
something that is shorting them.
2.
Check you have a power source
(battery or charger) supplying at
least 4.0 V connected to the
SOURCE side wires or to the
Auxiliary Power Connector.
3.
Check wiring Polarity. The Red wire
should be connected to the positive
(Red, +, Positive, etc.) side of the
power source and the Black wire to
the negative side.
4.
Try a 9 Volt consumer electronics
type alkaline battery as the source
power. If this works, your other
power source is likely too low a
voltage.
Display screen characters
are dim
1.
Probably due to low voltage. Check
you have a power source (battery or
charger) supplying at least 4.0 V
connected to the SOURCE side
wires or to the Auxiliary Power
Connector.
Only have volt readings –
no Amps, Power or other
readings
1.
Check the connections on the LOAD
side are good and have correct
wiring polarity and that any switches
or devices that must be turned on are
on.
2.
Test the Watt's Up is working with a
known charged battery of sufficient
voltage connected to the SOURCE
side wires and a simple, known good
load like a brush type motor, 110 V
100 W light bulb or RC receiver.
3.
The Watt's Up only measures
currents flowing in the direction of
SOURCE to LOAD. Make sure that
the setup is arranged tat way. For
example, a battery on SOURCE,
ESC & Motor on LOAD or Battery
charger on SOURCE and
rechargeable battery on LOAD.
1.
Check the 3-pin servo type plug is
inserted properly. Black (Negative, ) wire (pin 1) should be farthest
from where the Watt's Up's
SOURCE wires enter the case. Red
(Positive, +) wire (pin 2) should be
Auxiliary power not
working
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Troubleshooting
Problem
Peak Amps or Minimum
Voltage don't change or
seem wrong
Watt's Up & wiring get
warm
23
Possible Remedies
in the middle of connector.
2.
Check the Auxiliary battery or
power is supplying at least 4.0 V
1.
Any time the Amps value is more
than the Peak Amps value the Peak
Amps value will match it. Similarly,
any time the Volts value is less than
the Minimum Volts value the
Minimum Volts value will match it.
2.
To reset Peak Amps or Minimum
Voltage remove power to the Watt's
Up.
1.
It is normal for the Watt's Up and its
wiring to get warm at high currents.
You can cool it with a small fan
blowing on the wires.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Support
13
24
SUPPORT
If you are experiencing technical problems, and cannot find a solution in this manual, you
can contact RC Electronics, Inc. for further assistance.
RC Electronics, Inc.
2980 E. Capitol Expy. #50-194
San Jose, CA 95148
Phone: 408-705-1980
Fax: 408-705-1980
Technical Support Email: [email protected]
Customer Service Email: [email protected]
Website: www.rc-cars-planes.com
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Warranty
14
14.1
25
WARRANTY
One Year Limited Warranty
RC Electronics, Inc. warrants Watt's Up to be free of defects in materials and
craftsmanship for a period of twelve months from the original date of purchase to the
original retail purchaser.
Evidence of original purchase will be required to obtain warranty service.
RC Electronics, Inc. makes no other warranties, expressed or implied, including without
limitation the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose,
regarding the product. RC Electronics, Inc. does not warrant, guarantee or make any
representations regarding, currentness, or otherwise.
In the event that the Watt's Up does not conform to this warranty at any time during the
warranty period RC Electronics, Inc. will, at its sole discretion, repair or replace the
defective unit with an identical unit or one of equal capabilities without charge (except
shipping and handling). To return a unit during the warranty period, see the directions in
the “Procedure for Warranty Claims and Return Authorization” section.
14.2
Limits and Exclusions
The warranty is valid only if the Watt's Up is operated in strict compliance with
specifications, instructions and warnings provided in this user’s manual.
Watt's Up is not intended for industrial use.
This Warranty is invalid if the product is:
(i) Damaged as a result of use by anyone other than as detailed in this user’s manual.
(ii) Damaged as a result of exceeding the device's ratings, prolonged reverse polarity on
SOURCE or LOAD wires abuse, misuse, or neglect.
(iii) Damaged as a result of improper installation or usage.
(iv) Damage from immersion or cleaning with other than the described procedure.
(v) Damaged as a consequence of any repair, modification, alteration or conversion not
performed by RC Electronics, Inc..
This warranty is void outside the United States of America and Canada.
14.3
Limitation of Liability
(i)
(ii)
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Any and all of RC Electronics, Inc. liability for actual damages from any cause whatsoever,
and regardless of the form of the action (whether in contract, tort [including negligence],
product liability or otherwise), will be limited to the amount actually paid for the product.
Where the exclusion of implied warranties is not permitted by some jurisdictions the above
exclusion may not apply.
(iii) In no event will RC Electronics, Inc., their directors, officers, employees, or agents be liable
for any harm, consequential, incidental, third party, special or indirect damages whatsoever
(including damages for loss of business profits, business interruption, loss of business
information, and the like) arising out of the use or inability to use the product even if RC
Electronics, Inc. has been advised of the possibility of such damages. Because some
jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of liability for consequential or
incidental damages, the above limitations may not apply.
14.4
Entire Warranty
THE LIMITED WARRANTY SET FORTH ABOVE IS THE SOLE AND ENTIRE
WARRANTY PERTAINING TO THE PRODUCT AND IS IN LIEU OF AND
EXCLUDES AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES OF ANY
NATURE WHATSOEVER, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR ARISING BY
OPERATION OF LAW, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF FITNESS OR MERCHANTABILITY FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Warranty
14.5 Procedure for Warranty Claims and Return Authorization
26
For products not purchased directly from RC Electronics, Inc., please contact your retailer
for information on returns and warranty claim handling.
For warranty claims and repair returns on products purchased directly from RC Electronics,
Inc., please contact RC Electronics, Inc. directly to get a RMA #. You will need a copy of
your sales invoice. Carefully pack the Watt's Up and return to the address below. The RMA
# must be clearly printed on the package shipping label. Packages without a RMA # cannot
be accepted.
RMA#__________
RC Electronics, Inc.
373 Tomahawk Drive
Maumee, OH 43537
"Watt's Up" Watt Meter and Power Analyzer User's Manual
RC Electronics, Inc.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement