qooxdoo Documentation

qooxdoo Documentation
qooxdoo Documentation
Release 1.3.1
qooxdoo developers
April 06, 2011
CONTENTS
1
2
Introduction
1.1 About . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Framework . . . . . . . .
1.3 GUI Toolkit . . . . . . . .
1.4 AJAX . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 More Information (online)
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1
1
1
1
2
2
Getting Started
2.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1
Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2
Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.3
Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Hello World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1
Setup the Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2
Create your Application . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3
Run your Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.4
Write Application Code . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.5
Debugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.6
Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.7
API Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.8
Unit Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1
Python Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Tutorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1
Tutorial Part 1: The Beginning of a twitter App
2.4.2
Tutorial Part 2: Finishing the UI . . . . . . . .
2.4.3
Tutorial Part 3: Time for Communication . . .
2.4.4
Tutorial Part 4.1: Form Handling . . . . . . . .
2.4.5
Tutorial Part 4.2: Custom Widgets . . . . . . .
2.4.6
Tutorial Part 4.3: Translation . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 SDK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.1
Introduction to the SDK . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.2
Framework Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.3
Application Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.4
Manifest.json . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.5
Code Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.6
Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.7
Tools beyond the Python SDK . . . . . . . . .
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3
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5
ii
Core Framework
3.1 Object Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1
Introduction to Object Orientation
3.1.2
Features of Object Orientation . .
3.1.3
Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.4
Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.5
Mixins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1
Introduction to Properties . . . . .
3.2.2
Properties in more detail . . . . .
3.2.3
Initialization Behavior . . . . . .
3.2.4
Property features summarized . .
3.3 Settings and Variants . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1
Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2
Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Data Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1
Data Binding . . . . . . . . . . .
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GUI Toolkit
4.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1
Widgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2
Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.3
Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.4
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Widgets Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1
Widget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2
Basic Widgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3
Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4
Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.5
Selection Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6
Drag & Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.7
Inline Widgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.8
Custom Widgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.9
Form Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.10 Menu Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.11 Window Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.12 HTML Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.13 Widget Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1
Layouting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Themes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1
Theming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.2
Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.3
Custom Themes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.4
Decorators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.5
Using themes of contributions in your application
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Low Level Framework
5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1
Overview . . . . . . . .
5.1.2
Scenarios . . . . . . . .
5.2 Tutorials . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1
Setup a low-level library
5.2.2
Low-Level APIs . . . . .
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5.2.3
Back-Button and Bookmark Support
Technical Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1
HTML Element Handling . . . . . .
5.3.2
Image Handling . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.3
The Event Layer . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.4
The Focus Layer . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.5
qooxdoo Animation . . . . . . . . .
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193
Communication
6.1 Low-level AJAX Calls . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1
AJAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Higher-level Remote Procedure Calls (RPC)
6.2.1
RPC (Remote Procedure Call) . . .
6.2.2
RPC Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Specific Widget Communication . . . . . . .
6.3.1
Using the remote table model . . . .
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197
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217
217
Development
7.1 Debugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.1
Logging System . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.2
Debugging Applications . . . . .
7.2 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1
Memory Management . . . . . .
7.2.2
Profiling Applications . . . . . . .
7.3 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.1
Unit Testing . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2
The qooxdoo Test Runner . . . .
7.3.3
Test Runner 2 (Experimental) . .
7.3.4
Framework Unit Testing . . . . .
7.4 Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.1
Parts and Packages Overview . . .
7.4.2
Using Parts . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.3
Further Resources . . . . . . . . .
7.5 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.1
Working with Variants . . . . . .
7.5.2
Internationalization . . . . . . . .
7.5.3
Image clipping and combining . .
7.5.4
Writing API Documentation . . .
7.5.5
Reporting Bugs . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.6
An Aspect Template Class . . . .
7.5.7
Internet Explorer specific settings
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221
221
221
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236
236
240
242
246
250
250
252
Tooling
8.1 Generator Introduction . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.1
Generator Overview . . . . . .
8.1.2
Generator Usage . . . . . . . .
8.2 Generator Configuration . . . . . . . . .
8.2.1
Generator Configuration File . .
8.2.2
Generator Configuration Articles
8.3 Further Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.1
Source Code Validation . . . . .
8.4 Specific Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.1
Code Compilation . . . . . . . .
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274
274
275
275
5.3
6
7
8
9
Standard Applications
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279
iii
9.1
9.2
Demo Applications . . . . . . . .
9.1.1
Demobrowser . . . . . .
9.1.2
Feedreader . . . . . . .
9.1.3
Playground . . . . . . .
9.1.4
Portal . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.5
Showcase . . . . . . . .
Developer Tools . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1
Apiviewer . . . . . . . .
9.2.2
Testrunner . . . . . . . .
9.2.3
Inspector . . . . . . . .
9.2.4
Simulator (Experimental)
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279
279
280
280
281
282
282
282
283
283
292
10 Migration
297
10.1 Migration Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
11 References
11.1 Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.1 Class Declaration Quick Ref . . .
11.1.2 Interfaces Quick Ref . . . . . . .
11.1.3 Mixin Quick Ref . . . . . . . . .
11.1.4 Properties Quick Reference . . . .
11.1.5 Array Reference . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.6 Framework Generator Jobs . . . .
11.2 GUI Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.1 Widget Reference . . . . . . . . .
11.2.2 Layout Reference . . . . . . . . .
11.3 Tooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.1 Default Generator Jobs . . . . . .
11.3.2 Reference Listing of Config Keys
11.3.3 Configuration Macro Reference .
11.4 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.1 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5 License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.1 qooxdoo License . . . . . . . . .
Index
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299
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403
CHAPTER
ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 About
qooxdoo (pronounced [’kuksdu:]) is a comprehensive and innovative framework for creating desktop-style web applications, often called rich internet applications (RIAs). Leveraging object-oriented JavaScript allows developers to
build impressive cross-browser applications. No HTML, CSS nor DOM knowledge is needed. qooxdoo includes a
platform-independent development tool chain, a state-of-the-art GUI toolkit and an advanced client-server communication layer. It is Open Source under an LGPL/EPL dual license.
1.2 Framework
qooxdoo is entirely class-based and tries to leverage the features of object-oriented JavaScript. It is fully based on
namespaces and does not extend native JavaScript types to allow for easy integration with other libraries and existing
user code. Most modern browsers are supported (e.g. Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, WebKit/Safari) and it is free
of memory leaks. It comes with a comprehensive API reference, that is auto-generated from Javadoc-like comments.
The fast and complete JavaScript parser not only allows doc generation, but is an integral part of the automatic build
process that makes optimizing, compressing, linking and deployment of custom applications very user-friendly. Internationalization and localization of applications for various countries and languages is a core feature and easy to use.
more ...
1.3 GUI Toolkit
Despite being a pure JavaScript framework, qooxdoo is quite on par with GUI toolkits like Qt or SWT when it comes
to advanced yet easy to implement user interfaces. It offers a full-blown set of widgets that are hardly distinguishable
from elements of native desktop applications. Full built-in support for keyboard navigation, focus and tab handling
and drag & drop is provided. Dimensions can be specified as static, auto-sizing, stretching, percentage, weighted flex
or min/max or even as combinations of those. All widgets are based on powerful and flexible layout managers which
are a key to many of the advanced layout capabilities. Interface description is done programmatically in JavaScript for
maximum performance.
No HTML has to be used and augmented to define the interface. The qooxdoo developer does not even have to know
CSS to style the interface. Clean and easy-to-configure themes for appearance, colors, borders, fonts and icons allow
for a full-fledged styling.
1
qooxdoo Documentation, Release 1.3.1
1.4 AJAX
While being a client-side and server-agnostic solution, the qooxdoo project includes different communication facilities,
and supports low-level XHR requests as well as an RPC API. An abstract transport layer supports queues, timeouts
and implementations via XMLHttpRequest, Iframes and Scripts. Like the rest of qooxdoo it fully supports event-based
programming which greatly simplifies asynchronous communication.
1.5 More Information (online)
• FAQ
• License
• Framework Features
• Release Notes
• Roadmap
• Developers
• Committers Guide
• Media Download
2
Chapter 1. Introduction
CHAPTER
TWO
GETTING STARTED
2.1 Requirements
Here are the requirements for developing and deploying a qooxdoo application. A typical qooxdoo application is a
JavaScript-based “fat-client” that runs in a web browser. It does not enforce any specific backend components, any
HTTP-aware server should be fine. The framework comes with a powerful tool chain, that helps both in developing
and deploying applications.
It is very straightforward to satisfy the requirements for those three topics (client, server, tools).
2.1.1 Client
A qooxdoo application runs in all major web browsers - with identical look & feel:
Internet Explorer 6+
Firefox 2+
Opera 9+
Safari 3+
Chrome 2+
Not only the end users of your application benefit from this true cross-browser solution. As a developer you can also
pick your preferred development platform, i.e. combination of browser and operating system. Most built-in developer
Tools (e.g. for debugging, profiling) work cross-browser as well.
2.1.2 Server
Developing a qooxdoo application does not require a server. Its static application contents (initial html file, JavaScript
files, images, etc.) may just be loaded from your local file system.
Of course, for the actual deployment of your final app you would use a web server to deliver the (static) contents.
For developing a qooxdoo app it is not a prerequisite to setup a web server, so you can start right away on your local
computer.
Any practical qooxdoo client application will communicate with a server, for instance to retrieve and store certain
application data, to do credit card validation and so on. qooxdoo includes an advanced RPC mechanism for direct
3
qooxdoo Documentation, Release 1.3.1
calls to server-side methods. It allows you to write true client/server applications without having to worry about the
communication details. qooxdoo offers such optional RPC backends for Java, PHP, Perl and Python. If you are missing
your favorite backend language, you can even create your own RPC server by following a generic server writer guide.
If you already have an existing backend that serves HTTP (or HTTPS) requests and you do not want to use those
optional RPC implementations, that’s fine. It should be easy to integrate your qooxdoo app with your existing backend
using traditional AJAX calls.
2.1.3 Tools
qooxdoo comes with a platform-independent and user-friendly tool chain. It is required for creating and developing a
qooxdoo application. It is not needed for running an application.
The tool chain only requires to have Python installed. Use a standard Python 2.x release, version 2.5 or above. Python
3 is currently not supported! As a qooxdoo user you do not need any Python knowledge, it is merely a technology
used internally for the tools. Python comes either pre-installed on many systems or it can very easily be installed:
Windows
It is trivial! Just download and install the excellent ActivePython package. Its default settings of the installation wizard
are fine, there is nothing to configure. (It is no longer recommended to use the Windows package from Python.org, as
this requires additional manual configuration).
Cygwin
Cygwin can be used as an optional free and powerful Unix-like environment for Windows. You won’t need a native
Python installation, just make sure to include Cygwin’s built-in Python as an additional package when using Cygwin’s
setup program.
Mac
Python is pre-installed on Max OS X. No additional software needs to be installed, but on older systems it might need
an update.
Linux
Python often comes pre-installed with your favorite distribution. If not, simply use your package manager to install
Python.
2.2 Hello World
This tutorial is a step-by-step instruction on how to get started with qooxdoo by creating your very first application.
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qooxdoo Documentation, Release 1.3.1
2.2.1 Setup the Framework
Requirements
Please make sure to have read the detailed Requirements. To recap, there are only a few requirements for full-featured
qooxdoo application development:
• client: any major web browser
• server: any HTTP-aware backend. During development the local file system should also be ok (*)
• operating system: any
• tools: Python required
(*) Developers using Chrome should note that there is a known issue loading reasonably complex qooxdoo applications
(such as the API viewer or the demo browser) via the file:// protocol. It is recommended to Chrome users to use the
HTTP protocol, even while developing.
Download
Go to the Download section and grab the latest stable Software Development Kit (SDK).
Installation
Unzip the SDK archive.
2.2.2 Create your Application
It is easy to setup your own application using the platform-independent script create-application.py. It will
create a skeleton application in a directory you specify, that is automatically configured to work with your version of
the qooxdoo framework.
To create a new skeleton with create-application.py you will need to follow some initial platform-dependent
steps - even when the rest of your development is independent of the platform. Please see the appropriate section
below for Windows , Cygwin or Mac , Linux
Note: If you have any problems setting up the qooxdoo tool chain, please see some additional help for troubleshooting.
Windows
Installing ActivePython for Windows is trivial. Now let’s create an application named custom in C:, with the
qooxdoo SDK available at C:\qooxdoo-1.3.1-sdk:
C:\qooxdoo-1.3.1-sdk\tool\bin\create-application.py --name=custom --out=C:
Cygwin
To create your application custom to C:, with the qooxdoo SDK available at C:\qooxdoo-1.3.1-sdk, call the
script as follows:
2.2. Hello World
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qooxdoo Documentation, Release 1.3.1
/cygdrive/c/qooxdoo-1.3.1-sdk/tool/bin/create-application.py --name=custom --out=C:
Mac
, Linux
To create an application custom in your home directory, change to your home directory (just cd). With a qooxdoo
SDK available at /opt/qooxdoo-1.3.1-sdk, call the script as follows:
/opt/qooxdoo-1.3.1-sdk/tool/bin/create-application.py --name=custom --out=.
2.2.3 Run your Application
Now that your application is setup, lets generate a version that can be opened in your browser. Move to the newly
created application directory and kick off the automatic build process:
cd C:/custom
generate.py source-all
Under non-Windows systems you might have to prefix the command with the local directory, i.e.
./generate.py source-all instead.
execute
Please note, that the additional source-all target was introduced with qooxdoo 0.8.1. The regular source target
now only includes those qooxdoo classes that are actually required by your app, not all the source classes.
After the application has been generated, open source/index.html file in your web browser to run your application and click the button:
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2.2.4 Write Application Code
The folder source/class contains all your application classes. When starting with a newly created application,
there is only a single file custom/Application.js. Open it in your favorite editor or IDE.
The method main() contains the entire code of your little skeleton app. Even if you haven’t done any qooxdoo
programming before, you should be able to figure out what the code does. Get familiar with the code and change it,
e.g. modify the label of the button, move the button to another position or add a second button.
To see the changes, you just have to refresh your document in the browser, e.g. by hitting F5. During development there usually is no need to re-generate this so-called “source” version of your app. Only if you later introduce
new classes or if dependencies between classes change, you would have to regenerate your app. To do so, execute
generate.py source-all (to include all source classes) or generate.py source (to only include the required classes) before refreshing your browser.
2.2.5 Debugging
In your newly created application you have certainly noticed the following code:
if (qx.core.Variant.isSet("qx.debug", "on"))
{
qx.log.appender.Native;
2.2. Hello World
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qooxdoo Documentation, Release 1.3.1
qx.log.appender.Console;
}
This code turns on two different ways of “logging”, i.e. capturing and printing out information about the operation of
your application.
qx.log.appender.Native uses the native logging capabilities of your client if available, e.g. Firebug in Firefox
(use F12 to toggle). If your browser doesn’t come with developer-friendly logging, qx.log.appender.Console
provides such a feature for all browsers: the console prints out the log messages in an area inside your browser window.
It also includes an interactive JavaScript shell (use F7 to toggle):
The reason for enclosing the two logging classes in a so-called “debug” variant is explained in more detail in the next
section. It ensures that logging is only turned on in the development version (i.e. “source” version) of your app. It will
automatically be turned off in the final version of your app that is to be deployed:
2.2.6 Deployment
The development version of a qooxdoo app is called the “source” version, the deployment version of an app is called
“build” version. It is easily generated by executing
generate.py build
After successful completion let the browser open index.html from the newly created build folder. Although you
probably won’t see a difference between this deployment version of your app and the previous “source” version, it
should have started up faster.
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qooxdoo Documentation, Release 1.3.1
Unlike the “source” version, with its numerous unmodified JavaScript files, the “build” version only has to load a
single, optimized JavaScript file.
Manually creating such a “custom build” from your application class (or classes) would have been a very tedious and
complex job. In fact most other JavaScript libraries do provide built-in support to automate this task. Building your
app strips off unneeded whitespaces and comments, optimizes and reorganizes your code, uses a JS linker to only
include classes that your application needs, and many more refinements and optimizations as well.
A lot of debugging code is also removed when a “build” is generated, that would only be useful during development
of your application, e.g. printing out informative warnings or coding hints. Just like the logging code in the section
above, you can put arbitrary code into such “variants”, which may then be automatically removed during “conditional
compilation” of the build process. This lets you receive information on your app when you’re developing it, but
removes this for your final code, so your end users don’t see it.
2.2.7 API Reference
qooxdoo supports inline comments that are similar to Javadoc or JSDoc comments. They allow for JavaScript and
qooxdoo specific features, and look like /** your comment */.
From those comments a complete, interactive API reference can be generated:
generate.py api
To start the “API Viewer” application, open index.html from the newly created api folder in your browser. It
includes fully cross-linked and searchable documentation of your application classes as well as the framework classes.
2.2. Hello World
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qooxdoo Documentation, Release 1.3.1
2.2.8 Unit Testing
You might have noticed the test/DemoTest.js file in the source/class folder of your application. This class
demonstrates how to define “unit tests” for your application. qooxdoo comes with its own unit testing framework, it
does not require any additional software installation. Simply execute the following command:
generate.py test
Open index.html from the newly created top-level test folder in your browser. The “Testrunner” application
allows you to select and run the tests under your application namespace:
You may skip the rather advanced topic of unit tests while continuing to extend your custom application code. In
case you are interested in test-driven development and creating your own unit tests, please see the corresponding Unit
Testing documentation.
2.3 Troubleshooting
2.3.1 Python Installation
Python 3.0
Please make sure that you use a regular Python 2.x release (v2.5 or above). Python 3.0 is currently not supported.
Execute python -V in a console to get the installed Python version.
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Windows
Making the interpreter available
Note: The following is only required when installing the Windows package from Python.org. When installing the
preferred ActivePython this installation step is conveniently handled within its graphical installation wizard.
After your successful Python installation, you need to add the installation folder to the so-called PATH environment
variable, which contains a list of directories that are searched for executables.
Suppose you installed Python to its default location C:\Python26, open a Windows command shell (choose menu
Start -> Run... and type cmd). The following command prepends the installation folder to the value of PATH,
separated by a semicolon:
set PATH=C:\Python26;%PATH%
When you now execute python -V, it should print out its version number.
The modification of the PATH variable as described above is only temporary. In order not to repeat the command
each time you open a new command shell, modify the PATH variable permanently: in Start -> Preferences
-> System choose Environment variables under the Advanced tab. Edit the system variable Path by
prepending C:\Python26;.
File association
Note: The following is only required when installing the Windows package from Python.org. When installing the
preferred ActivePython this installation step is conveniently handled within its graphical installation wizard.
In a standard Python installation on Windows, the .py file extension gets associated with the Python interpreter. This
allows you to invoke .py files directly. You can check that in the following way at a command prompt:
C:\>assoc .py
.py=Python.File
If this doesn’t work, you can add a file association through Windows Explorer -> Extras -> Folder
Options -> File Types.
If for any reason you cannot use a file association for .py files, you can still invoke the Python interpreter directly,
passing the original command line as arguments. In this case, make sure to provide a path prefix for the script name,
even for scripts in the same directory, like so (this will be fixed later):
python ./generate.py source
Windows Vista
To run qooxdoo’s Python-based tools without problems, it is important to have Python installed as an administrator
“for all” users.
Administrators installing Python “for all” users on Windows Vista either need to be logged in as user
Administrator, or use the runas command, as in:
runas /user:Administrator "msiexec /i <path>\<file>.msi"
2.3. Troubleshooting
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Windows 7
It has been reported that you need to use the PowerShell that comes with Windows 7 for the tools to work properly.
The simple command shell doesn’t seem to be sufficient. To launch the PowerShell, hit the WIN+R keys and enter
powershell.
Mac OS X
Older Macs (e.g. 10.4) may need an update of the pre-installed Python. See the following comment from the Python
on Mac page : “Python comes pre-installed on Mac OS X, but due to Apple’s release cycle, it’s often one or even
two years old. The overwhelming recommendation of the “MacPython” community is to upgrade your Python by
downloading and installing a newer version from the Python standard release page.”
2.4 Tutorials
2.4.1 Tutorial Part 1: The Beginning of a twitter App
The Missing Manual
We have heard it a couple of times: Users are missing a tutorial a bit more complex than the simple “Hello World”
tutorial we already have. Today, we want to close that gap between the first tutorial and the demo applications included
in the framework like the Feedreader.
As you sure have read in the headline, we are building a simple twitter application. twitter is a well known service
for posting public short messages and has a good API for accessing data. The following mockup shows you how the
application should look like at the end.
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If you take a closer look at the mockup, you see a window containing a toolbar, a list, a text area and a button to post
messages. This should cover some common scenarios of a typical qooxdoo application.
In the first part you’ll learn how to create a new application and how to build a part of the main UI. But before we get
started, be sure you looked at the “Hello World” tutorial. We rely on some of the fundamentals explained there.
Getting started
The first step is to get a working qooxdoo application where we can start our development. You should have already
have the qooxdoo SDK and know how to use create-application.py, so we just create an application called
twitter.
create-application.py -n twitter
After that, we should check if everything works as expected. Change the directory to twitter and run
./generate.py source.
Now the skeleton application is ready to run and you can open the index file located in the source directory.
After that, open the Application.js file located in
source/class/twitter/Application.js with your favorite editor and we are set up for development!
2.4. Tutorials
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You should see the unchanged skeleton code of the application containing the creation of a button. We don’t need that
anymore so you can delete it including all the listener stuff.
The first part is to create a Window. As the Window contains all the UI controls, we should extend from the qooxdoo
Window and add the controls within that class. Adding a new class is as easy as creating a new file. Just create a file
parallel to the Application.js file named MainWindow.js. Now it is time to add some code to that file. We
want to create a class so we use the qooxdoo function qx.Class.define for that. Add the following lines to your
newly created file.
qx.Class.define("twitter.MainWindow",
{
extend : qx.ui.window.Window,
construct : function()
{
this.base(arguments, "twitter")
}
});
We have created our own class extending the qooxdoo Window. In the constructor, we already set the caption
of the window, which is the first constructor parameter of the qooxdoo window. So you already have guessed it,
this.base(arguments) calls the overridden method of the superclass, in this case the constructor. To test the
window, we need to create an instance of it in the main application. Add these two lines of code in the Application.js
file to create and open the window.
var main = new twitter.MainWindow();
main.open();
Now its time to test the whole thing in the browser. But before we can do that, we need to run the generator once more
because we added the window class as new dependency. So run ./generate.py source and open the page in
the browser. You should see a window in the top left corner having the name “twitter”.
Programming as Configuring
The last task of this tutorial part is to configure the window. Opening the window in the left corner does not look so
good, so we should move the window a bit away from the edges of the viewport. To do this add the following line to
your application file:
main.moveTo(50, 30);
Another thing we should configure are the buttons of the window. The user should not be able to close, minimize nor
maximize the window. So we add the following lines of code in our windows constructor.
// hide the window buttons
this.setShowClose(false);
this.setShowMaximize(false);
this.setShowMinimize(false);
The last thing we could change is the size of the window on startup. Of course the user can resize the window but we
should take care of a good looking startup of the application. Changing the size is as easy as hiding the buttons, just
tell the window in its constructor:
// adjust size
this.setWidth(250);
this.setHeight(300);
At this point, your application should look like this.
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Thats it for the first part. If you want to have the code from the tutorial, take a look at the project on github and just
fork the project. The next part of the tutorial will contain the building of the rest of the UI. If you have feedback or
want to see something special in further tutorials, just let us know!
2.4.2 Tutorial Part 2: Finishing the UI
In the first part of the tutorial, we built a basic window for our target application, a twitter client. In the second part of
the tutorial, we want to finish the UI of the application. So lets get started, we got a lot to do!
I hope you remember the layout of the application we are trying to build. If not, here is a little reminder.
2.4. Tutorials
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The first thing we need to do is to set a layout for our window. You can see that the text area and the button are
side by side while all the other elements are ordered vertically. But all elements are aligned in a grid so we should
choose a grid layout for that. We can add the grid layout in our own window class. Just add these lines of code in
MainWindow.js:
// add the layout
var layout = new qx.ui.layout.Grid(0, 0);
this.setLayout(layout);
But a layout without any content is boring so we should add some content to see if it’s working. Lets add the first two
elements to the window, the toolbar and the list view.
Layout and Toolbar
First, we need to create the toolbar before we can add it. Creating the toolbar and adding it is straight forward.
// toolbar
var toolbar = new qx.ui.toolbar.ToolBar();
this.add(toolbar, {row: 0, column: 0});
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This will add the toolbar to the grid layout of our main window. The only thing you should take care of is the second
parameter of .add(). It contains a map with layout properties. You can see the available layout properties in the API of
the layout, in this case of the grid layout. Here, we use only the row and column property to tell the layout that this is
the element in the first row and column (rows and columns start at index 0, you guessed it).
List and Layout, again
Adding the list should look familiar now.
// list
var list = new qx.ui.form.List();
this.add(list, {row: 1, column: 0});
Now its time to see our work in the browser. But again, we have added new class dependencies so we need to invoke
the generator with ./generate.py source. After that, we can see the result in the browser. I guess it’s not the
way we like it to be. You cannot see any toolbar, the list has too much padding against the window border and doesn’t
fit the whole window. That’s something we should take care of now.
First, get rid of that padding we don’t need. The window object has a default content padding which we just to set to
0.
this.setContentPadding(0);
Put that line in your windows constructor and the padding is gone.
Next, we take care of the size of the list. The layout does not know which column(s) or row(s) it should stretch. So we
need to tell the layout which one it should use:
layout.setRowFlex(1, 1);
layout.setColumnFlex(0, 1);
The first line tells the layout to keep the second row (the row for the list) flexible. The second row does the same for
the first column.
The last thing we need to fix was the invisible toolbar. If you know the reason why it’s not visible, you sure know how
to fix it. It contains not a single element so it won’t be visible. Fixing it means adding an element, in our case we just
add the reload button. We already know how to create and add widgets so just add the following lines of code.
// reload button
var reloadButton = new qx.ui.toolbar.Button("Reload");
toolbar.add(reloadButton);
Now its time to see if all the fixes work. But be sure to run the generator before you reload the browser page because
we added (again) another class (the button). Now everything should look the way we want it to be.
Text Area and Button
After that success, we can got to the next task, adding the text area and “Post” button. This is also straight forward
like we have seen in all the other adding scenarios.
// textarea
var textarea = new qx.ui.form.TextArea();
this.add(textarea, {row: 2, column: 0});
// post button
var postButton = new qx.ui.form.Button("Post");
this.add(postButton, {row: 2, column: 1});
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This time, we have to add the button in the second column to get the button and the text area aligned horizontally. Its
time to test this... again generate and reload.
Like the last time, the result is not quite what we want it to be. The list and toolbar do not fill the whole window. But
that’s a home-made problem because we extended our grid to two columns by adding the post button. The list and the
toolbar need to span both available columns to have the result we want. But that’s easy too, add colSpan: 2 to
the layout properties used by adding the list and the toolbar. Your code should look like this:
this.add(toolbar, {row: 0, column: 0, colSpan: 2});
// ...
this.add(list, {row: 1, column: 0, colSpan: 2});
This time, we did not add a new class dependency so we can just reload the index file and see the result.
Breathing Life into the UI
The UI now looks like the one we have seen in the mockup. But how does the UI communicate with the application
logic? It’s a good idea to decouple the UI from the logic and use events for notifying the behaviour. If you take a look
we only have two actions where the UI needs to notify the rest of the application: reloading the tweets and posting a
tweet.
These two events we add to our window. Adding events is a two step process. First, we need to declare what kind of
event we want to fire. Therefore, we add an events section alongside to the constructor section of the window class
definition:
events :
{
"reload" : "qx.event.type.Event",
"post"
: "qx.event.type.Data"
},
As you can see in the snippet here, it ends with a comma. It always depends on what position you copy the section
if the comma is necessary. Just take care the the class definition is a valid JavaScript object. But now back to the
events. The reload event is a plain event which only notifies the receiver to reload. The post event is a data event which
contains the data to post to twitter. That’s why there are two different types of events used.
Declaring the events is the first step of the process. The second part is firing the events! Let’s take a look at the reload
event. It needs to be fired when the reload button was triggered (or “was executed” in qooxdoo parlance). The button
itself fires an event on execution so we could use this event to fire our own reload event.
reloadButton.addListener("execute", function() {
this.fireEvent("reload");
}, this);
Here we see two things: First, how to add an event listener and second, that firing an event is as easy as a method call.
The only parameter to .fireEvent() is the name of the event we have declared in the class definition. Another interesting
thing here is the third parameter of the addListener call, this. It sets the context of the callback function to our
window instance, so the this in this.fireEvent() is resolved correctly.
The next case is a bit different but also easy.
postButton.addListener("execute", function() {
this.fireDataEvent("post", textarea.getValue());
}, this);
This time, we call the fireDataEvent method to get a data event fired. The second parameter is the data to embed
in the event. We simply use the value of the text area. That’s it for adding the events. To test both events we add a
debug listener for each event in out application code, in the main() method of Application.js:
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main.addListener("reload", function() {
this.debug("reload");
}, this);
main.addListener("post", function(e) {
this.debug("post: " + e.getData());
}, this);
You can see in the event listener functions that we use the qooxdoo debugging function debug. Now it’s time to test
the whole UI. Open the index file in a browser you like and see the UI. If you want to see the debugging messages you
have to open either a the debugging tool of your chosen browser or use the qooxdoo debugging console. Press F7 to
get the qooxdoo console visible.
Finishing Touches
As a last task, we can give the UI some finishing touches. Wouldn’t it be nice if the text area had a placeholder text
saying you should enter your message here? Easy task!
textarea.setPlaceholder("Enter your message here...");
Another nice tweak could be a twitter logo in the windows caption bar. Just download this logo from twitter and save
it in the source/resource/twitter folder of your application. Adding the logo is easy because the window
has also a property for an icon, which can be set in the constructor. Adding the reference to the icon in the base call
should do the job.
this.base(arguments, "twitter", "twitter/t_small-c.png");
This time, we added a new reference to an image. Like with class dependencies, we need to run the generator once
more. After that, the image should be in the windows caption bar.
Two more minor things are left to finish. First, the button does not look very good. Why don’t we just give it a fixed
width to fit its height.
postButton.setWidth(60);
The last task is a bit more complicated than the other tweaks before. As you probably know, twitter messages have a
maximum length of 140 characters. So disabling the post button if the entered message has more the 140 characters
could help us out in the communication layer. A twitter message with no text at all is also useless and we can disable
the post button in that case. To get that we need to know when the text was changed in the text area. Fortunately, the
text area has a data event for text changes we can listen to:
textarea.addListener("input", function(e) {
var value = e.getData();
postButton.setEnabled(value.length < 140 && value.length > 0);
}, this);
The event handler has only two rows. The first gets the changed text of the text area from the data event. The second
row sets the enabled property of the post button if the length of the message is lower than 140 characters and not 0.
Some of you might have a bad feeling about this code because the listener is called every time the user adds a character.
But that’s not a problem because the qooxdoo property system takes care of that. If the value passed into the setter is
the same as the existing value, it is ignored and no event is fired.
The last thing we should consider is the startup of the application. The text area is empty but the button is enabled.
Disabling the button on startup is the way to go here.
postButton.setEnabled(false);
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Now go back to the browser and test your new tweaks. It should look like this.
That’s it for building the UI. Again, if you want to take a look at the code, fork the project on github. Next time we
take care of getting the data. If you have feedback on this post, just let us know!
2.4.3 Tutorial Part 3: Time for Communication
After we created the application and the main window in the first tutorial part and finished the UI in the second, we
will build the communication layer today. With that part the application should be ready to use.
Pre-Evaluation
First, we need to specify what’s the data we need to transfer. For that, we need to take a look what tasks our application
can handle:
1. Show the public twitter timeline.
2. Post a tweet.
So it’s clear that we need to fetch the public timeline (that’s how it is called by twitter), and we need to post a message
to twitter. It’s time to take a look at the twitter API so that we know what we need to do to communicate with the
service. But keep in mind that we are still on a website so we can’t just send some POST or GET requests due to
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cross-site scripting restrictions. The one thing we can and should do is take advantage of JSONP. If you have never
heard of JSONP, take some time to read the article on ajaxian to get further details.
Creating the Data Access Class
Now, that we know how we want to communicate, we can tackle the first task, fetching the public timeline. twitter
offers a JSONP service for that which we can use. Luckily, there is no login process on the server side so we don’t
need to bother with that in the client. The following URL returns the public timeline wrapped in a JavaScript method
call (that’s what JSONP is about):
http://api.twitter.com/1/statuses/public_timeline.json?callback=methodName
Now we know how to get the data from twitter. Its time for us to go back to the qooxdoo code. It is, like in the
case of the UI, a good idea to create a separate class for the communication layer. Therefore, we create a class
named TwitterService. We don’t want to inherit from any advanced qooxdoo class so we extend straight from
qx.core.Object. The code for that class should looks like this:
qx.Class.define("twitter.TwitterService",
{
extend : qx.core.Object,
members :
{
}
});
Fetching the Data
As you can see, we omitted the constructor because we don’t need it currently. But we already added a members block
because we want to add a method named fetchTweets:
fetchTweets : function() {
}
Now it’s time to get this method working. But how do we load the data in qooxdoo? As it is a JSONP service, we can
use the JSONP data store contained in the data binding layer of qooxdoo. But we only want to create it once and not
every time the method is called. Thats why we save the store as a private instance member and check for the existence
of it before we create the store. Just take a look at the method implementation to see how it works.
if (this.__store == null) {
var url = "http://api.twitter.com/1/statuses/public_timeline.json";
this.__store = new qx.data.store.Jsonp(url, null, "callback");
// more to do
} else {
this.__store.reload();
}
We already added the code in case the store exists. In that case, we can just invoke a reload. I also mentioned that the
instance member should be private. The two underscores (__) mark the member as private in qooxdoo. The creation
of the store or the reload method call starts the fetching of the data.
But where does the data go? The store has a property called model where the data is available as qooxdoo objects
after it finished loading. This is pretty handy because all the data is already wrapped into qooxdoo objects! Wait, hold
a second, what are qooxdoo properites? Properties are a way to store data. You only need to write a definition for a
property and qooxdoo will generate the mutator and accessor methods for that property. You will see that in just a few
moments.
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We want the data to be available as a property on our own service object. First, we need to add a property definition
to the TwitterService.js file. As with the events specification, the property definition goes alongside with the
members section:
properties : {
tweets : {
nullable: true,
event: "changeTweets"
}
},
We named our property tweets and added two configuration keys for it:
• nullable describse that the property can be null
• event takes the name of the event fired on a change of the property
The real advantage here is the event key which tells the qooxdoo property system to fire an event every time the
property value changes. This event is mandatory for the whole data binding we want to use later. But that’s it for
setting up a property. You can find all possible property keys in the documentation.
Now we need to connect the property of the store with the property of the twitter service. That’s an easy task with the
single value binding included in the qooxdoo data binding. Just add the following line after the creation of the data
store:
this.__store.bind("model", this, "tweets");
This line takes care of synchronizing the two properties, the model property of the store and the tweets property of
our service object. That means as soon as data is available in the store, the data will also be set as tweets in the twitter
service. Thats all we need to do in the twitter service class for fetching the data. Now its time to bring the data to the
UI.
Bring the tweets to the UI
For that task we need to go back to our Application.js file and create an instance of the new service:
var service = new twitter.TwitterService();
You remember the debug listener we added in the last tutorial? Now we change the reload listener to fetch the tweets:
// reload handling
main.addListener("reload", function() {
service.fetchTweets();
}, this);
Thats the first step of getting the data connected with the UI. We talk the whole time of data in general without even
knowing how the data really looks like. Adding the following lines shows a dump of the fetched data in your debugging
console.
service.addListener("changeTweets", function(e) {
this.debug(qx.dev.Debug.debugProperties(e.getData()));
}, this);
Now it’s time for a test. We added a new classes so we need to invoke the generator and load the index file of the
application. Hit the reload button of the browser and see the data in your debugging console. The important thing you
should see is that the data is an array containing objects holding the items we want to access: the twitter message as
text and "user.profile_image_url" for the users profile picture. After evaluating what we want to use, we
can delete the debugging listener.
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But how do we connect the available data to the UI? qooxdoo offers controllers for connecting data to a list widget.
Thats the right thing we need in that case. But we currently can’t access the list of the UI. Thats something we need to
change.
Switch to the MainWindow.js file which implements the view and search for the line where you created the list.
We need to implement an accessor for it so its a good idea to store the list as a private instance member:
this.__list = new qx.ui.form.List();
Of course, we need to change every occurance of the old identifier list to the new this.__list. Next, we add
an accessor method for the list in the members section:
getList : function() {
return this.__list;
}
Data Binding Magic
That was an easy one! Now back to the application code in Application.js. We need to set up the already
mentioned controller. Creating the controller is also straight forward:
// create the controller
var controller = new qx.data.controller.List(null, main.getList());
The first parameter takes a model we don’t have right now so we just set it to null. The second parameter takes the
target, the list. Next, we need to specify what the controller should use as label, and what to use as icon:
controller.setLabelPath("text");
controller.setIconPath("user.profile_image_url");
The last thing we need to do is to connect the data to the controller. For that, we use the already introduced bind
method, which every qooxdoo object has:
service.bind("tweets", controller, "model");
As soon as the tweets are available the controller will know about it and show the data in the list. How about a test of
the whole thing right now? You need (again) to tell the generator to build the source version of the application.
After the application has been loaded in the browser, I guess you see nothing until you hit the reload button of the UI.
That’s one thing we have to fix: Load the tweets at startup. Two other things are not quite the way we want them to
be: The tweets get cut off at the end of the list, and the icons can be delivered by twitter in different sizes. So let’s fix
those three problems.
The first thing is quite easy. We just add a fetch at the end of our application code and that will initiate the whole
process of getting the data to the UI:
// start the loading on startup
service.fetchTweets();
The other two problems have to be configured when creating the items for the list. But wait, we don’t create the
list items ourselves. Something in the data binding layer is doing that for us and that something is the controller we
created. So we need to tell it how to configure the UI elements it is creating. For exactly such scenarios the controller
has a way to handle code from the user, a delegate. You can implement the delegate method configureItem to
manipulate the list item the controller creates:
controller.setDelegate({
configureItem : function(item) {
item.getChildControl("icon").setWidth(48);
item.getChildControl("icon").setHeight(48);
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item.getChildControl("icon").setScale(true);
item.setRich(true);
}
});
You see that the method has one parameter which is the current UI element which needs to be configured. This item is
a list item which stores its icon as a child control you can access with the getChildControl method. After that,
you can set the width, height and the scaling of the icon. The last line in the configurator set the item to rich, which
allows the text to be wrapped. Save your file and give it a try!
Now it should be the way we like it to be. Sure it’s not perfect because it has no error handling but that should be good
enough for the tutorial.
Posting tweets
As you have seen in the last paragraphs, creating the data access layer is not that hard using qooxdoo’s data binding.
That is why we want you to implement the rest of the application: Posting of tweets. But I will give you some hints so
it does not take that much time for you.
• twitter does only offer an OAuth authentification. Don’t make your self too much work by implementing the
whole OAuth thing.
• Tweets can be set to twitters web view by just giving a decoded parameter to the URL:
http://twitter.com/?status=123
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That should be possible for you right now! If you need to take a look at an implementation, you can always take a
look at the code on github or fork the project.
That’s it for the third part of the tutorial. With this tutorial, the application should be ready and we can continue our
next tutorial lines based on this state of the application. As always, if you have any feedback, please let us know!
2.4.4 Tutorial Part 4.1: Form Handling
Note: This tutorial is outdated! twitter changed its API and does not allow basic authentication anymore. Still, the
qooxdoo part is valid and worth trying even if you can not access you friends timeline anymore.
In the previous steps of this tutorial, we laid the groundwork for a Twitter client application, gave it a neat UI and
implemented a communication layer. One thing this application still lacks is a nice way for users to input their Twitter
user name and password in order to post a status update. Fortunately, qooxdoo comes with a forms API that takes the
pain out of creating form elements and handling user input.
Before we get started, make sure you’re working on the version of the Twitter tutorial application tagged with “Step 3”
in the GitHub repository. This includes the posting part of the communication layer that we’ll be using in this tutorial.
The plan
We want to create a new window with user name and password fields that pops up when the Twitter application starts.
The values will be used to retrieve the user’s list of Tweets. Seems simple enough, so let’s get right down to business.
Creating the login window
We start by creating a new class called twitter.LoginWindow that inherits from qx.ui.window.Window, similar to the
MainWindow class from the first part of this tutorial:
qx.Class.define("twitter.LoginWindow",
{
extend : qx.ui.window.Window,
construct : function()
{
this.base(arguments, "Login", "twitter/t_small-c.png");
}
});
The Login window will only contain the form, which takes care of its own layout. So for the window itself, a Basic
layout will suffice. We’ll also make the window modal:
var layout = new qx.ui.layout.Basic();
this.setLayout(layout);
this.setModal(true);
Adding the Form
Now it’s time to add a form and populate it with a pair of fields:
var form = new qx.ui.form.Form();
var username = new qx.ui.form.TextField();
username.setRequired(true);
form.add(username, "Username", null, "username");
var password = new qx.ui.form.PasswordField();
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password.setRequired(true);
form.add(password, "Password", null, "password");
Note how the fields are marked as required. This is a simple kind of validation and in this case it’s all we need, which
is why the third argument for form.add is null instead of a validation function. Required fields will be displayed
with an asterisk (*) next to their label.
The next step is to add a dash of data binding awesomeness:
var controller = new qx.data.controller.Form(null, form);
var model = controller.createModel();
Just like in the previous tutorial, we create a controller without a model. Then, we ask the controller to create a model
from the form’s elements. This model will be used to serialize the form data.
The form still needs a “submit” button, so we’ll add one, plus a “cancel” button to close the window:
var loginbutton = new qx.ui.form.Button("Login");
form.addButton(loginbutton);
var cancelbutton = new qx.ui.form.Button("Cancel");
form.addButton(cancelbutton);
cancelbutton.addListener("execute", function() {
this.close();
}, this);
That’s all the elements we need, let’s get them displayed. We’ll let one of qooxdoo’s built-in form renderer classes
worry about the form’s layout:
var renderer = new qx.ui.form.renderer.Single(form);
this.add(renderer);
The renderer is a widget, so we can just add it to the window. In addition to the standard renderers, it’s fairly simple
to create a cusstom renderer by subclassing qx.ui.form.renderer.AbstractRenderer, though that’s outside the scope of
this tutorial.
Accessing the form values
Similar to MainWindow, we’ll use an event to notify the other parts of our application of changes to the form. As
you’ll remember, the “event” section is on the same level as the constructor in the class declaration:
events : {
"changeLoginData" : "qx.event.type.Data"
},
Then we add a listener to the submit button that retrieves the values from the model object and attaches them to a data
event, making sure the form validates, i.e. both fields aren’t empty.
loginbutton.addListener("execute", function() {
if (form.validate()) {
var loginData = {
username : controller.getModel().getUsername(),
password : controller.getModel().getPassword()
};
this.fireDataEvent("changeLoginData", loginData);
this.close();
}
}, this);
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Tying it all together
Now to integrate the login window with the other parts of the application. Twitter’s friends timeline uses .htaccess for
authentication so we can add the login details to the request sent by TwitterService.fetchTweets():
fetchTweets : function(username, password) {
if (this.__store == null) {
var login = "";
if (username != null) {
login = username + ":" + password + "@";
}
var url = "http://" + login + "twitter.com/statuses/friends_timeline.json";
this.__store = new qx.data.store.Jsonp(url, null, "callback");
this.__store.bind("model", this, "tweets");
} else {
this.__store.reload();
}
},
All that’s left is to show the login window when the application is started and call fetchTweets with the information
from the changeLoginData event. In the main application class, we’ll create an instance of twitter.LoginWindow,
position it next to the MainWindow and open it:
this.__loginWindow = new twitter.LoginWindow();
this.__loginWindow.moveTo(320,30);
this.__loginWindow.open();
And finally, we’ll attach a listener to changeLoginData:
this.__loginWindow.addListener("changeLoginData", function(ev) {
var loginData = ev.getData();
service.fetchTweets(loginData.username, loginData.password);
});
Note how all the other calls to service.fetchTweets can remain unchanged: By making the login window
modal, we’ve made sure the first call, which creates the store, contains the login data. Any subsequent calls (i.e. after
reloading or posting an update) will use the same store so they won’t need the login details.
OK, time to run generate.py source and load the application in a browser to make sure everything works like
it’s supposed to.
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Twitter client application with login window
And that’s it for the form handling chapter. As usual, you’ll find the tutorial code on GitHub. Watch out for the next
chapter, which will focus on developing your own custom widgets.
2.4.5 Tutorial Part 4.2: Custom Widgets
In this tutorial we will deal with how to create a custom widget for our Twitter application. It is necessary that you
finished the tutorials part 1 through part 3 to work with this tutorial, but previous knowledge from tutorial 4.1 is not
needed.
Do you remember the mockup from tutorial part 1?
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You can see that one tweet consists of a photo, a text and a creation date, but at the moment the Twitter application
doesn’t show the creation date of a tweet. This is because we use the default ListItem to show a tweet and a ListItem
can only show an image and/or label. To achieve our goal, we have to create a custom widget which we can use instead
of the ListItem.
Note: The code in this tutorial should also work when you haven’t completed the 4.1 tutorial because it doesn’t
depend on the code changes from tutorial 4.1. But if you have any problems to run the tutorial, you can also checkout
the code from tutorial 4.1 on github.
The plan
First of all we have to create a custom widget which fulfills our requirements from the mockup. We will achieve this
by combining a widget with two labels and one image. Afterwards we have to configure the controller so that it uses
our custom widget for the tweets.
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Create the custom widget class
You should know how to create a class from the previous tutorials.
So please create a class for
twitter.TweetView, but in our case we need to extend from qx.ui.core. Widget.
qx.Class.define("twitter.TweetView",
{
extend : qx.ui.core.Widget,
include : [qx.ui.form.MModelProperty],
construct : function() {
this.base(arguments);
}
});
The attentive reader noticed that we use the include key for the first time. include is used to include a mixin
in a class. This is necessary in our case to support Data Binding. Our Twitter application uses it and therefore it is
expected that the new widget implements the qx.ui.form.IModel interface. Otherwise the widget can’t be used with
Data Binding. But fortunately the mixin qx.ui.form.MModelProperty already implements it, so we can reuse
the implementation.
Define the needed properties
Our widget should show a Tweet as shown in the mockup. To achieve this, we need properties to save the data for a
Tweet. Add this definition to the TweetView class:
properties :
{
appearance :
{
refine : true,
init : "listitem"
},
icon :
{
check : "String",
apply : "_applyIcon",
nullable : true
},
time :
{
check : "Date",
apply : "_applyTime",
nullable : true
},
post :
{
check : "String",
apply : "_applyPost",
nullable : true
}
},
The properties icon, time and post contain the data from a tweet. In this definition you’ll also find a property
appearance. This property is needed for the theming, it tells the appearance system that the TweetView should
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be styled like the ListItem. We could also use a new appearance id, but than we’d have to define an appearance for
it and that’s not part of this tutorial.
How to define properties was explained in tutorial part 3, so we don’t repeat it. But we use some unfamiliar keys for
definition and I will explain them:
• check: check ensures that the incoming value is of this type. But be careful, the check is only done in the source
version.
• apply: here you can define which method should be called when the value changes.
• refine: this is needed when an already defined property should be overridden.
• init: defines the initialized value of a property.
Using Child Control
qooxdoo has a special system to realize combined widgets like in our case. This system is called child controls and
you can find a detailed documentation in our manual.
Okay, back to our problem. To achieve the requirements we need an Image for the photo, a Label for the post and
another Label for the creation time. So three widgets, also called sub widgets, are needed for our custom widget. And
last but not least the familiar Grid layout for layouting, but that’s not created in the child control implementation. We
just need to keep it in mind when adding the child control with _add.
members :
{
// overridden
_createChildControlImpl : function(id)
{
var control;
switch(id)
{
case "icon":
control = new qx.ui.basic.Image(this.getIcon());
control.setAnonymous(true);
this._add(control, {row: 0, column: 0, rowSpan: 2});
break;
case "time":
control = new qx.ui.basic.Label(this.getTime());
control.setAnonymous(true);
this._add(control, {row: 0, column: 1});
break;
case "post":
control = new qx.ui.basic.Label(this.getPost());
control.setAnonymous(true);
control.setRich(true);
this._add(control, {row: 1, column: 1});
break;
}
return control || this.base(arguments, id);
}
},
The child control system has a special method to create sub widgets.
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_createChildControlImpl and we override it to create our sub widgets. This method is called from the child
control system when it notices that a sub widget is needed but not already created.
In our case:
• icon: for the photo
• time: for the creation time
• post: for the text from the tweet
Dependent on the passed id we create the correct sub widget, configure it and add it to the Grid layout at the right
position. If an unknown id is passed, we delegate it to the superclass.
Finishing the constructor
Now i’ts time to finish the constructor.
// create a date format like "June 18, 2010 9:31 AM"
this._dateFormat = new qx.util.format.DateFormat(
qx.locale.Date.getDateFormat("long") + " " +
qx.locale.Date.getTimeFormat("short")
);
The property for the date saves only a date object and our requirement from the mockup describes a spacial format
and a simple toString usage is not enough. Therefore we need a special transformation which we can achieve by
using DateFormat.
// initialize the layout and allow wrap for "post"
var layout = new qx.ui.layout.Grid(4, 2);
layout.setColumnFlex(1, 1);
this._setLayout(layout);
Now we create a layout for our custom widget. This should be known from tutorial part 2.
// create the widgets
this._createChildControl("icon");
this._createChildControl("time");
this._createChildControl("post");
Time for our child control implementation. With these lines we trigger the subwidget creation which we implemented
before.
Adding the apply methods
We have already defined the properties, but we haven’t implemented the needed apply methods for them. So, time to
add the missing apply method for the properties to the members section.
// property apply
_applyIcon : function(value, old) {
var icon = this.getChildControl("icon");
icon.setSource(value);
},
_applyPost : function(value, old) {
var post = this.getChildControl("post");
post.setValue(value);
},
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// property apply
_applyTime : function(value, old) {
var time = this.getChildControl("time");
time.setValue(this._dateFormat.format(value));
}
The apply methods for icon and post are trivial, we have to ensure that we delegate the value change to the correct
widget. To get the correct widget instance we can use the getChildControl method and afterwards we can set
the value on the widget.
The date, however, needs some extra love. We have to use the DateFormat instance to format the date before we set
the value.
Finishing the custom widget
At the end we have to add the attribute _dateFormat to the members section and a destructor to clean up the
created DateFormat instance.
Just add this line at the beginning of the members section:
_dateFormat : null,
And the destructor after the members section:
destruct : function() {
this._dateFormat.dispose();
this._dateFormat = null;
}
Great, now we have finished the custom widget.
Configure the List Controller
At the moment the controller doesn’t know that it should use our TweetView class. Therefore we have to change the
old controller configuration. Search for these lines of code in the Application.js file:
// create the controller
var controller = new qx.data.controller.List(null, main.getList());
controller.setLabelPath("text");
controller.setIconPath("user.profile_image_url");
controller.setDelegate({
configureItem : function(item) {
item.getChildControl("icon").setWidth(48);
item.getChildControl("icon").setHeight(48);
item.getChildControl("icon").setScale(true);
item.setRich(true);
}
});
First of all, remove these two lines:
controller.setLabelPath("text");
controller.setIconPath("user.profile_image_url");
Now to the delegate, just replace the current delegate with this one:
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controller.setDelegate({
createItem : function() {
return new twitter.TweetView();
},
bindItem : function(controller, item, id) {
controller.bindProperty("text", "post", null, item, id);
controller.bindProperty("user.profile_image_url", "icon", null, item, id);
controller.bindProperty("created_at", "time", {
converter: function(data) {
if (qx.bom.client.Engine.MSHTML) {
data = Date.parse(data.replace(/( \+)/, " UTC$1"));
}
return new Date(data);
}
}, item, id);
},
configureItem : function(item) {
item.getChildControl("icon").setWidth(48);
item.getChildControl("icon").setHeight(48);
item.getChildControl("icon").setScale(true);
item.setMinHeight(52);
}
});
The concept of a delegate should be known from tutorial part 3, I will only explain the modifications.
You can see that we added a createItem method: With this method we can configure the controller to use our
TweetView for item creation. The method bindItem is used to configure the controller to keep the properties
of the model and the widget synchronized. In our case it is important to keep the photo, post and creation date
synchronous.
controller.bindProperty("text", "post", null, item, id);
Let us have a look at the above example. The bindProperty method is responsible for the binding between model and
widget. The first parameter is the path from the model, the second is the name of the property in the widget, the third
parameter is an options map to do e. g. a conversion, the fourth parameter is the widget and the last is the index.
In our case the photo and the post need no conversion because the source data and target data are of the same type. But
the creation time needs a conversion because the model contains a String with the UTC time while the widget expects
a date object. So we have to convert the data:
converter: function(data) {
if (qx.bom.client.Engine.MSHTML) {
data = Date.parse(data.replace(/( \+)/, " UTC$1"));
}
return new Date(data);
}
The converter method creates a date object from the given String. Don’t be confused by the if statement. The Twitter
model has a format which is not standard UTC format in JavaScript and Internet Explorer has problems parsing the
String, therefore a short conversion is needed before the date object can be created.
The configureItem method should be known from tutorial part 3, there are only some improvements to keep the
same behavior as before.
Great, now we’ve got it! Run generate.py source to create the application.
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Again, if you want to take a look at the code, fork the project on github.
2.4.6 Tutorial Part 4.3: Translation
We’ve already covered quite a few of qooxdoo’s features to get to this point. In this tutorial, we want to internationalize
the twitter client. Additionally, we want to add a preferences dialog allowing users to change the language during
runtime. Adding a window containing a form should be familiar to you if you’ve read the form handling tutorial
The plan
The first step is to make the application aware of localization. We need to identify all the strings which need to change
on a language change. After that, we need to create translations for our initial string set. After that is done, we can add
a window containing a radio group with all available language options.
Identifying strings to translate
Now we can benefit from the good design of our application. We put all the view code in our main window which
means that’s the spot we need to look for strings. Here we can identify the following strings:
var reloadButton = new qx.ui.toolbar.Button("Reload");
// ...
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reloadButton.setToolTipText("Reload the tweets.");
// ...
this.__textarea.setPlaceholder("Enter your message here...");
// ...
var postButton = new qx.ui.form.Button("Post");
// ...
postButton.setToolTipText("Post this message on twitter.");
qooxdoo offers a handy way to tell both the JavaScript code and the generator which strings need to be translated.
Wrapping the strings with this.tr() will mark them as translatable strings. That should be an easy task:
var reloadButton = new qx.ui.toolbar.Button(this.tr("Reload"));
// ...
reloadButton.setToolTipText(this.tr("Reload the tweets."));
// ...
this.__textarea.setPlaceholder(this.tr("Enter your message here...");)
// ...
var postButton = new qx.ui.form.Button(this.tr("Post"));
// ...
postButton.setToolTipText(this.tr("Post this message on twitter."));
Generating the translation files
For the next step, we need to tell the generator what languages we want to support. But why does the generator or the
tool chain in general care about that? The tool chain will help us by generating the files necessary for the translation.
So we need to edit the config.json file located at the root folder of our application, which is the configuration file for
the tool chain. As you can see, this is a plain JSON file which holds some predefined configuration data for the tool
chain. You will find a let section holding a LOCALES key. This key has an array as value holding exactly one locale
named en, right? In this example, I want to add a translation set for German so I need to add de to this array.
"LOCALES"
: [ "en" , "de" ],
Now we are set up to generate our translation files. For that, just invoke the generator with its translation job.
./generate.py translation
This will go through all the steps necessary to generate the translation files. But what are translation files anyway?
Take a look at the folder source/translation. There you’ll find the created files which as you’ll see end with
.po. You may be familiar with that file format from GNU gettext which is quite popular.
You should see two files, one for the default language, English (en.po), and one for the language you added, in my
case German (de.po). For now, we just need the file for our alternative language because English is already used in
the application so this should work right out of the box. Opening the second file, you’ll notice some details about it at
the top of the document. The important part starts with the following text.
#: twitter/MainWindow.js:30
msgid "Reload"
msgstr ""
The first line is a comment, which is a hint containing the class file and line number where the string is used. The
second line holds the identifier we used in our application. The third line currently holds an empty string. This is the
place where the translation should go for that specific string.
You may have already realized that the rest of the file is a list of blocks similar to this one. Now you should translate
all strings and add them in the right spots.
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Give it a try
After adding these translations, we should rebuild the application using ./generate.py source and load it in
any browser. If your browser uses the locale you added by default, you should already see the application in the new
language. If not, just tell qooxdoo’s locale manager to switch the locale using e.g. the Firebug console.
qx.locale.Manager.getInstance().setLocale("de"); // or the locale you added
If you added a language like German in which most words are longer than in English, you may recognize that we
made a mistake in our main window. postButton.setWidth(60); may cut off the text in the button because
we set the width explicitly. Changing that to postButton.setMinWidth(60); will keep the layout flexible for
different content sizes.
Adding the preferences window
As you should already be familiar with creating new classes and subclassing a window from the form handling tutorial,
we won’t go into any detail about that again. Just add a new class, subclass the window and override the constructor.
qx.Class.define("twitter.SettingsWindow",
{
extend : qx.ui.window.Window,
construct : function()
{
this.base(arguments, this.tr("Preferences"));
// ... more to come
}
});
As you can see here, we added another string: The window’s caption, which should be translated as well. Keep in
mind that you have to use this.tr() on every string you add and want to have in your translation file.
For the next step, we need to fill the window with controls. As in the form example, we use a basic layout, a form and
some form elements. Add the following line to your constructor.
this.setLayout(new qx.ui.layout.Basic());
var form = new qx.ui.form.Form();
var radioGroup = new qx.ui.form.RadioButtonGroup();
form.add(radioGroup, this.tr("Language"));
// TODO: create a radio button for every available locale
var renderer = new qx.ui.form.renderer.Single(form);
this.add(renderer);
This code should be familiar to you except for the RadioButtonGroup, which is a container for radio buttons. It
also makes sure that only one of the buttons is selected at any time. So we don’t need to take care of that ourselves.
Again, we use a translated string as the label for the radio buttons.
The next step is to access all available locales and the currently set locale. For that, qooxdoo offers a locale manager,
as you’ll see in the following code part.
var localeManager = qx.locale.Manager.getInstance();
var locales = localeManager.getAvailableLocales();
var currentLocale = localeManager.getLocale();
It is pretty easy to get this kind of information. You surely know how to continue from here, but before that, I’ll show
you a little trick. We want to keep the name of the selectable language in the translation file itself. That’s a good place
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to keep that string because otherwise, we would need a mapping from the locale (e.g. en) to its human readable name
(e.g. English). Instead we’ll, add a special translation key to our application.
// mark this for translation (should hold the langauge name)
this.marktr("$$languagename");
We will use this key as the label for our radio buttons and then go on, as you would have expected, with a loop for all
available locales.
// create a radio button for every available locale
for (var i = 0; i < locales.length; i++) {
var locale = locales[i];
var languageName = localeManager.translate("$$languagename", [], locale);
var localeButton = new qx.ui.form.RadioButton(languageName.toString());
// save the locale as model
localeButton.setModel(locale);
radioGroup.add(localeButton);
// preselect the current locale
if (currentLocale == locale) {
localeButton.setValue(true);
}
};
This code contains the rest of the trick. But let’s take a detailed look at what we’re doing here. The first line of the
loop just stores the current locale we want to process. Keep in mind that this is the exact value we need to change the
locale later. The second line tells the locale manager to translate the special id we set for the language name using the
current locale. This will return a LocalizedString which is important to know because these strings update their
content on locale switch. But that’s not what we want because otherwise, every language will have the same name.
Thats why we use the toString() method to get the plain string of the current translated value as the label for the
new radio button. With that, we exclude the labels for the radio buttons from being translated. The next two tasks are
pretty easy: 1) we store the locale as the model of the radio button and 2) we add the radio button to the radio group.
Preselecting the currently set locale is really easy as well.
The last thing missing in the window is changing the locale if the user selects a new radio button. For that, we stored
the locales in the model property. We can now use the modelSelection of the radio button group to react on
changes.
// get the model selection and listen to its change
radioGroup.getModelSelection().addListener("change", function(e) {
// selection is the first item of the data array
var newLocale = radioGroup.getModelSelection().getItem(0);
localeManager.setLocale(newLocale);
}, this);
First, we get the model selection array, which is a data array and has a change event for every change in the array.
The new locale is always the first element of the selection array itself, as you can see in the second line. You might
have noticed that we need to access the item with a special method instead of the bracket notation normally used with
arrays. That’s a special method you have to use for data arrays. The third line simply hands the new locale to the
manager, which will take care of all the necessary changes.
Accessing the preferences
With that, we are done with the preferences window, but we can’t access it yet. We should add a button to the main
window’s toolbar. Add this code right after where you added the reload button.
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// spacer
toolbar.addSpacer();
// settings button
var settingsWindow = null;
var settingsButton = new qx.ui.toolbar.Button(this.tr("Preferences"));
toolbar.add(settingsButton);
settingsButton.setToolTipText(this.tr("Change the applications settings."));
settingsButton.addListener("execute", function() {
if (!settingsWindow) {
settingsWindow = new twitter.SettingsWindow();
settingsWindow.moveTo(320,30);
}
settingsWindow.open();
}, this);
The first thing we do is to add a spacer to attach the preferences button to the right side of the toolbar. This should be
the only new thing you haven’t seen before, so we won’t go into details here.
Final steps
Now we have created some new code containing new strings to translate. Obviously, we need to add translations for
these as well. Just run the generator again and let it add the new strings to your po files.
./generate.py translation
Now you can edit the po files again and add the new translations. Don’t forget to add the translation for the special
$$languagename key in the english po file as well.
After generating the source version of the application again you should be set up for testing and all should run as
expected.
I hope you enjoyed this little exercise and gained an idea how easy it is to internationalize an application using
qooxdoo’s help. As always, you can find the entire code on GitHub. With that said, I want to encourage you to send
me pull requests containing alternative translations we could add. It would be interesting to have the twitter app in
many different languages. Really looking forward to your feedback and pull requests!
2.5 SDK
2.5.1 Introduction to the SDK
Or “Everything is a library.”
While the Hello World tutorial is geared towards getting you started with your own project, this page walks you
through the basic structure of the qooxdoo SDK itself.
There is a page that gives you an overview of the physical structure of the SDK. As you can see there the SDK has four
main components represented through the subdirectories application, component, framework and tool. Three of them,
application, component and framework contain (either directly or in further subdirectories) qooxdoo applications or
libraries that follow the general scheme for a qooxdoo application. In each you will find a Manifest.json file which
signifies the adherance to the skeleton scheme. They also all contain a generate.py script which offers all or a subset
of the standard qooxdoo jobs that you can run on a library, like source, build, test or api.
The fourth component, tool, comprises the tool chain and its various parts. You shouldn’t need to worry about that since
you interact with the tool chain through the generate.py script or one of the tool/bin scripts like create-application.py.
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In the SDK’s root directory there is - besides readme.txt and license.txt - an index.html that gives you an overview over
and access to most of the SDK’s applications and components. Just be aware (as mentioned on that page) that all of
them need a generate.py build first in their respective directories. Only the Apiviewer for the framework is
shipped pre-built with the SDK currently and can be invoked immediately.
2.5.2 Framework Structure
When exploring the framework source, the following overview will give you an idea about the file structure of qooxdoo:
application - sample applications (for end users)
• demobrowser - for browsing a large number of demos (online)
• feedreader - a sample rich internet application (online)
• portal - a showcase for low-level features, i.e. without widgets (online)
• playground - an interactive playground without the need to install qooxdoo (online)
component - helper applications (used internally)
• apiviewer - API reference (for generate.py api) (online)
• skeleton - blue print for custom applications (for create-application.py)
• testrunner - unit testing framework (for generate.py test / test-source) (online)
framework - main frontend part of the framework
• source
– class - JavaScript classes
– resource
* qx - resources need to be namespaced, here it is qx
· decoration - images for the decorations, Modern and Classic
· icon - icon themes that come with qooxdoo, Oxygen and Tango
· static - other common resources like blank.gif
* source - contains original resources
– translation - language-specific data as po files
tool - tool chain of the framework
• bin - various scripts are located here, most importantly generator.py
• data - lots of data to be used by different tools, e.g. for localization, migration, etc.
• pylib - Python modules used by the platform-independent tool chain
2.5.3 Application Structure
Structural Overview
A qooxdoo application has a well-organized file structure. For an application named custom, everything is located
within the application folder custom. Indentation denotes file system nesting:
• source - this folder always exists, as it contains the development version of your app
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– index.html - usually the only HTML file a qooxdoo application needs. Typically it hardly includes any
markup, as the entire qooxdoo application is available as an external JavaScript file
– class - all JavaScript classes
* custom - this is the top-level namespace of your classes, often identical to the application name
– resource - any static resources like images, etc. belong into this folder
* custom - resource handling requires all files to be organized in folders that correspond to namespaces. Typically, the resources of your app are stored in a folder of the same name as the top-level
namespace of your application classes
· test.png - sample resource
– script - this folder is created and/or updated for each development version of your app when executing
generate.py source (or generate.py source-all)
* custom.js - this JavaScript file is included from index.html. In the source version it is a
loader script that includes all required files individually.
– translation - if you choose to develop your app for multiple languages, put your translation files into
this directory
* en.po - and the other .po files for the languages your app supports. The respective locale is used as
a file name, e.g. it.po, pt_BR.po, ...
• build - this folder is created and/or updated for each deployment version of your app using generate.py
build
– index.html - identical to the one of the source version
– script - contains the generated JavaScript code of your application
* custom.js - this JavaScript file is included from index.html. In the build version this single
file contains all the JavaScript code your application requires, in a compressed and optimized form.
If you are developing a large-scale application, you can split it into so-called parts that can be loaded
on-demand.
– resource - if your application classes contain appropriate #asset() meta information, those resources
are automatically copied to this target folder. Your application is then self-contained and may be transferred
to an external hosting environment.
• api - contains a searchable API viewer specific to your application, simply created by generate.py api.
As it is self-consistent, it may be copied anywhere and be run offline
• test - a standalone Test runner for unit tests you may create for your app, created by generate.py test
• Manifest.json - every qooxdoo app has such a Manifest file for some meta information
• config.json - configuration file for the build process and all other integrated developer tools
• generate.py - you use this platform-independent script for all kinds of tasks and tools, most importantly to
generate the development as well as the deployment version of your app
In Other Words
Here is a bit more prose regarding this structure. Of the basic structure, every application/library must contain a
config.json and a Manifest.json file in its top-level directory (In theory, you can deviate from this rule, but it’s much
easier to stick with it). From this directory, a source/class subdirectory is expected, which contains a name space
subdirectory and some class files therein. All other subdirectories in the top directory are then created during generator
runs (‘build’, ‘api’, ‘test’, ...).
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The most important of these sudirectories is of course source since it contains your source code. Aside from the
class/<name space> subdirectory it has to have a resource subdir (for icons, style files, flash files, etc.) and a
translation subdir (for string translation files). All these are mandatory, but might be empty. During a ‘generate.py
source’ a source/script directory is created which contains the generator output (basically a Javascript file that references all necessary class files, icons, etc.). This one has to be referenced from the application’s index.html (usually
source/index.html).
The build dir (created with ‘generate.py build’) has a very similar structure as the source dir, with script, and resource
subdirs. The main difference is that everything that is necessary for your application to run is copied under this
common root, and that the generator output script in build/script contains the actual class definitions, not just references
to their source files. The build dir is therefore self-contained, and doesn’t have references that point outside of it.
Create some vanilla skeleton apps with create-application.py located in tool/bin and look at their initial file structure, to
get a feel for it. Tailor the source/class/<namespace>/Application.js as the main application class, add further classes
to your needs, and let the tool chain take care of the rest. You will have to run generate.py source initially
and whenever you use further classes in your code. You can try out your app by opening source/index.html directly in
your browser. You simply reload to see changes in the code. If you are comfortable with that, run a generate.py
build and open build/index.html in your browser. If that is fine, copy the whole build tree to your web server.
2.5.4 Manifest.json
Manifest files serve to provide meta information for a library in a structured way. Their syntax is in JSON. They
have a more “informal” part (keyed info), which is more interesting for human readers, and a technical part (named
provides) that is used in the processing of generator configurations. Here is a brief sample with all the possible
keys:
{
"info" :
{
"name" : "Custom Application",
"summary" : "Custom Application",
"description" : "This is a skeleton for a custom application with qooxdoo.",
"keywords" : ["custom"],
"homepage" : "http://some.homepage.url/",
"license" : "SomeLicense",
"authors" :
[
{
"name" : "First Author (uid)",
"email" : "[email protected]"
}
],
"version" : "trunk",
"qooxdoo-versions": ["trunk"]
},
"provides" :
{
"namespace"
"encoding"
"class"
"resource"
"translation"
42
:
:
:
:
:
"custom",
"utf-8",
"source/class",
"source/resource",
"source/translation",
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"type"
: "application"
}
}
The file paths of the class, resource and translation keys are taken to be relative to the directory of the
Manifest file. The namespace attribute can be overridden in the importing config file (in the library key).
2.5.5 Code Structure
This is how a single source file should look like:
• UTF-8 encoding:All source files should be encoded in UTF-8.
• (optional) Header:A comment holding author, copyrights, etc.
• (optional) Compiler Hints:Can be any number of the following:
– #use(classname) – other class that has to be added to the application; a “run” dependency that has to be
available when the current class is actually used (instantiation, method invocation)
– #require(classname) – other class that has to be added to the application before this class; a “load” dependency that has to be available when the current class is loaded into the browser (its code being evaluated)
– #ignore(classname) – unknown global symbol (like a class name) that the compiler should not care about
(i.e. you know it will be available in the running application). Ignored symbols will not be warned about.
Besides proper class names there are two special symbols you can use:
* auto-require – ignore all require dependencies detected by the automatic analysis; they will not be
added to the class’ load dependencies
* auto-use – ignore all use dependencies detected by the automatic analysis; they will not be added to
the class’ run dependencies
– #optional(classname) – this symbol will not be added to either the run or load dependencies of the current
class, even if it was detected as a dependency by the automatic analysis
– #asset(resourcepattern) – resources that are used by this class (required if the class uses resources such as
icons)
– #cldr – indicates that this class requires CLDR data at runtime
• Single Definition: One call to a define() method, such as qx.(Class|Theme|Interface|Mixin|...).define().
Example:
/* ************************************************************************
Copyright:
License:
Authors:
************************************************************************ */
/* ************************************************************************
#require(qx.core.Assert)
#use(qx.log.Logger)
#asset(custom/*)
#ignore(foo)
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************************************************************************ */
qx.Class.define("custom.Application",
{
...
});
2.5.6 Architecture
UI Architecture
2.5.7 Tools beyond the Python SDK
These are the tools we use that are not self-written, nor part of a vanilla Python 2.x SDK:
Python Modules
(included with the qooxdoo SDK)
Module
elementtree
graph
polib
simplejson
textile
pyparsing
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License
old-style Python (HPND)
MIT
MIT
MIT
new BSD
MIT
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Other
(not included with the qooxdoo SDK)
Tool
ImageMagick
Sphinx
2.5. SDK
License
GPL-compat
BSD
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CHAPTER
THREE
CORE FRAMEWORK
3.1 Object Orientation
3.1.1 Introduction to Object Orientation
qooxdoo allows you to easily leverage many key concepts of object-oriented programming without bothering about
limited native support in JavaScript.
The main actors of qooxdoo OO are:
• Classes
• Interfaces
• Mixins
When trying to get a grip of the framework code, you should probably understand all those three concepts. As a regular
application developer you often get by with ignoring interfaces and mixins when starting and just getting familiar with
classes.
Classes
A “class” is a central concept in most object-oriented languages, and as a programmer you are certainly familiar
with it. qooxdoo supports a “closed form” of class declaration, i.e. the entire declaration is provided within a
qx.Class.define(name, config) statement, where name is the fully-qualified class name, and config
is a configuration map with various keys (or “sections”).
There are several types of classes available, which are specified by the type key within the config map:
• regular class: May contain class variables/methods (in a statics section) and instance variables/methods (in
a members section). An instance of the class can be created using the new keyword, so a constructor needs to
be given in construct.
• static class: Only contains class variables and class methods. Often a helper or utility class. Use type :
"static".
• abstract class: Does not allow an instance to be created. Typically classes derive from it and provide concrete
implementations. type is abstract.
• singleton: Not more than a single instance of the class may exists at any time.
getInstance() returns the instance. Use type : "singleton".
A static method
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Interfaces
qooxdoo’s interfaces are similar to the ones in Java. Similar to the declaration of class they are created by
qx.Interface.define(name, config). They specify an “interface” (typically a set of empty methods),
that classes must implement.
Mixins
Mixins are a very practical concept that not all programming languages provide. Unlike interfaces, which require a
class to provide concrete implementations to fulfill the interface contract, mixins do include code. This code needs to
be generic, if it is “mixed into” different existing classes. Mixins usually cover only a single aspect of functionality
and therefore tend to be small. They are declared by qx.Mixin.define(name, config).
Inheritance
Like most programming languages qooxdoo only supports single-inheritance for classes, not multiple-inheritance, i.e.
a class can only derive directly from a single super class. This is easily modeled by the extend key in the class
declaration map.
Since a class may implement/include one or many interfaces/mixins, which themselves can extend others, some advanced forms of multiple-inheritance can still be realized.
qooxdoo OO standalone
If you want to use qooxdoo OO layer standalone, take a look at the qxoo-build generator job of the framework.
3.1.2 Features of Object Orientation
Class definition
A class is defined by providing its name as a string:
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class");
This example only creates a trivial class my.cool.Class. A typical class declaration contains OO features like
constructor, instance members, static members, etc. This additional information is provided as a second parameter in
form of a map. Since the entire class definition is given in qx.Class.define(), it is called a “closed form” of
class declaration:
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class", {
// declare constructor, members, ...
});
A regular (non-static) class can simply be instantiated using the new keyword:
var myClass = new my.cool.Class;
Inheritance
In order to derive the current class from another class, the reference to the super class is provided by the key extend:
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qx.Class.define("my.great.SuperClass", {
// I’m the super class
});
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class", {
extend : my.great.SuperClass
});
Constructor
The constructor of a regular class is provided as a function declaration in key construct:
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class",
{
extend : my.great.SuperClass,
construct : function() {
...
}
});
Static members
Static members (often called “class” members) are also part of the class definition and declared in a map to the
statics key. Static methods are given by providing a function declaration, while all other values declare static
attributes. Typically they are given in uppercase to distinguish them from instance members:
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class",
{
statics :
{
FOO : VALUE,
BAR : function() { ... }
}
});
Static members, both methods and attributes, can be accessed by using the fully-qualified class name:
my.cool.Class.FOO = 3.141;
my.cool.Class.BAR();
Note: You can use static members as constants, but the value can be changed in the run time!!
Instance Members
Similar to static members, instance members are also part of the class definition. For them the members key is used:
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class",
{
members:
{
foo : VALUE,
bar : function() { ... }
}
});
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The instance members can be accessed by using an actual instance of a class:
var myClass1 = new my.cool.Class;
myClass1.foo = 3.141;
myClass1.bar();
Accessing Static Members
Generic form. Requires no updates if class name changes. This code can optionally be optimized for performance in
build versions.
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class",
{
statics : {
PI : 3.141
}
members : {
circumference : function(radius) {
return 2 * this.self(arguments).PI * radius;
}
}
});
Note: For this.self to be available, the class must have as a direct or indirect base class qx.core.Object.
Note: Static members aren’t inherited. For calling a superclass static method, use this.superclass, like in this
example:
qx.Class.define(’A’, {
statics: {
f: function() {}
}
});
qx.Class.define(’B’), {
extend: A,
members: {
e: function() {
this.superclass.self(arguments).f();
}
}
});
Static functions can access other static functions directly through the this keyword.
Calling the Superclass Constructor
Generic form. Requires no updates if super class (name) changes. This code can optionally be optimized for performance in build versions.
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class",
{
extend : my.great.SuperClass,
construct : function(x) {
this.base(arguments, x);
}
});
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Calling the Overridden Superclass Method
Generic form without using prototype. Requires no updates if super class (name) changes. This code can optionally
be optimized for performance in build versions.
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class",
{
extend : my.great.SuperClass,
...
members : {
foo : function(x) {
this.base(arguments, x);
}
}
});
Destructor
As a logical match to any existing constructor given by the key construct, a destructor is explicitly given by the
destruct key:
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class",
{
extend : my.great.SuperClass,
construct : function() {
...
}
destruct : function() {
...
}
});
Properties
qooxdoo comes with a very powerful feature called dynamic properties. A concise declaration of an age property
may look like the following:
qx.Class.define(
...
properties : {
age: { init: 10, check: "Integer" }
}
...
This declaration generates not only a corresponding accessor method getAge() and a mutator method setAge(),
but would allow for many more features.
Interfaces
A leading uppercase I is used as a naming convention for interfaces.
qx.Interface.define("my.cool.IInterface");
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Mixins
Leading uppercase M as a naming convention. A mixin can have all the things a class can have, like properties,
constructor, destructor and members.
qx.Mixin.define("my.cool.MMixin");
Attaching mixins to a class
The include key contains either a reference to an single mixin, or an array of multiple mixins:
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class",
{
include : [my.cool.MMixin, my.other.cool.MMixin]
...
});
Attaching mixins to an already defined class
qx.Class.include(qx.ui.core.Widget, qx.MWidgetExtensions);
Access
By the following naming convention. Goal is to be as consistent as possible. During the build process private members
can optionally be renamed to random names in order to ensure that they cannot be called from outside the class.
publicMember
_protectedMember
__privateMember
Static classes
Explicit declaration allows for useful checks during development. For example. construct or members are not
allowed for such a purely static class.
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class", {
type : "static"
});
Abstract classes
Declaration allows for useful checks during development and does not require explicit code.
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class", {
type : "abstract"
});
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Singletons
Declaration allows for useful checks during development and does not require explicit code.
getInstance() is added to such a singleton class.
A method
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class",
{
type : "singleton",
extend : my.great.SuperClass
});
Immediate access to previously defined members
The closed form of the class definition does not allow immediate access to other members, as they are part of the
configuration data structure themselves. While it is typically not a feature used very often, it nonetheless needs to be
supported by the new class declaration. Instead of some trailing code outside the closed form of the class declaration,
an optional defer method is called after the other parts of the class definition have been finished. It allows access to
all previously declared statics, members and dynamic properties.
Note: If the feature of accessing previously defined members is not absolutely necessary, defer should not be used
in the class definition. It is missing some important capabilities compared to the regular members definition and it
cannot take advantage of many crucial features of the build process (documentation, optimization, etc.).
qx.Class.define("my.cool.Class",
{
statics:
{
driveLetter : "C"
},
defer: function(statics, members, properties)
{
statics.drive = statics.driveLetter + ":\\";
members.whatsTheDrive = function() {
return "Drive is " + statics.drive;
};
}
});
Browser specific methods
To maintain the closed form, browser switches on method level is done using variants. Since the generator knows about
variants it is (optionally) possible to only keep the code for each specific browser and remove the implementation for
all other browsers from the code and thus generate highly-optimized browser-specific builds. It is possible to use an
logical “or” directly inside a variant key. If none of the keys matches the variant, the “default” key is used:
members:
{
foo: qx.core.Variant.select("qx.client",
{
"mshtml|opera": function() {
// Internet Explorer or Opera
},
"default": function() {
// All other browsers
}
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})
}
Events
qooxdoo’s class definition has a special events key. The value of the key is a map, which maps each distinct event
name to the name of the event class whose instances are passed to the event listeners. The event system can now
(optionally) check whether an event type is supported by the class and issue a warning if an event type is unknown.
This ensures that each supported event must be listed in the event map.
qx.Class.define("my.eventful.Class",
{
extend: qx.core.Target,
events :
{
/** Fired when the widget is clicked. */
"click": "qx.event.type.MouseEvent"
}
...
})
3.1.3 Classes
qooxdoo’s class definition is a concise and compact way to define new classes. Due to its closed form the JavaScript
code that handles the actual class definition already “knows” all parts of the class at definition time. This allows for
many useful checks during development as well as clever optimizations during the build process.
Declaration
Here is the most basic definition of a regular, non-static class qx.test.Cat. It has a constructor so that instances
can be created. It also needs to extend some existing class, here we take the root class of all qooxdoo classes:
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Cat", {
extend: qx.core.Object,
construct : function() { /* ... */ }
});
As you can see, the define() method takes two arguments, the fully-qualified name of the new class, and a configuration map that contains a varying number of predefined keys and their values.
An instance of this class is created and its constructor is called by the usual statement:
var kitty = new qx.test.Cat;
Members
Members of a class come in two flavors:
• Class members (also called “static” members) are attached to the class itself, not to individual instances
• Instance members are attached to each individual instance of a class
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Class Members
A static member of a class can be one of the following:
• Class Variable
• Class Method
In the Cat class we may attach a class variable LEGS (where uppercase notation is a common coding convention) and
a class method makeSound(), both in a statics section of the class declaration:
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Cat", {
/* ... */
statics : {
LEGS: 4,
makeSound : function() { /* ... */ }
}
});
Accessing those class members involves the fully-qualified class name:
var foo = qx.test.Cat.LEGS;
alert(qx.test.Cat.makeSound());
Instance Members
An instance member of a class can be one of the following:
• Instance Variable
• Instance Method
They may be defined in the members section of the class declaration:
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Cat", {
...
members: {
name : "Kitty",
getName: function() { return this.name }
}
});
Accessing those members involves an instance of the class:
var kitty = new qx.test.Cat;
kitty.name = "Sweetie";
alert(kitty.getName());
Primitive Types vs. Reference Types There is a fundamental JavaScript language feature that could lead to problems, if not properly understood. It centers around the different behavior in the assignment of JavaScript’s two data
types (primitive types vs. reference types).
Note: Please make sure you understand the following explanation to avoid possible future coding errors.
Primitive types include Boolean, Number, String, null and the rather unusual undefined. If such a primitive
type is assigned to an instance variable in the class declaration, it behaves as if each instance had a copy of that value.
They are never shared among instances.
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Reference types include all other types, e.g. Array, Function, RegExp and the generic Object. As their
name suggests, those reference types merely point to the corresponding data value, which is represented by a more
complex data structure than the primitive types. If such a reference type is assigned to an instance variable in the class
declaration, it behaves as if each instance just pointed to the complex data structure. All instances share the same
value, unless the corresponding instance variable is assigned a different value.
Example: If an instance variable was assigned an array in the class declaration, any instance of the class could
(knowingly or unknowingly) manipulate this array in such a way that each instance would be affected by the changes.
Such a manipulation could be pushing a new item into the array or changing the value of a certain array item. All
instances would share the array.
You have to be careful when using complex data types in the class declaration, because they are shared by default:
members:
{
foo: [1, 2, 4]
}
// all instances would start to share this data structure
If you do not want that instances share the same data, you should defer the actual initialization into the constructor:
construct: function()
{
this.foo = [1, 2, 4];
// each instance would get assigned its own data structure
},
members:
{
foo: null
// to be initialized in the constructor
}
Access
In many object-oriented classes a concept exists that is referred to as “access” or “visibility” of members (well, or
even classes, etc.). Based on the well-known access modifiers of Java, the following three types exist for qooxdoo
members:
• public: To be accessed from any class/instance
• protected: To be accessed only from derived classes or their instances
• private: To be accessed only from the defining class/instance
Unfortunately, JavaScript is very limited in enforcing those protection mechanisms. Therefore, the following coding
convention is to be used to declare the access type of members:
• public: members may not start with an underscore
• protected: members start with a single underscore _
• private: members start with a double underscore __
There are some possibilities to enforce or at least check the various degrees of accessibility:
• automatic renaming of private members in the build version could trigger errors when testing the final app
• checking instance of this in protected methods
• ...
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Special Types of Classes
Besides a “regular” class there is built-in support for the following special types:
Static Classes A static class is not instantiated and only contains static members. Setting its type to static makes
sure only such static members, no constructor and so on are given in the class definition. Otherwise error messages
are presented to the developer:
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Cat", {
type : "static"
...
});
Abstract Classes An abstract class may not be instantiated. It merely serves as a superclass that needs to be derived
from. Concrete classes (or concrete members of such derived classes) contain the actual implementation of the abstract
members. If an abstract class is to be instantiated, an error message is presented to the developer.
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Cat", {
type : "abstract"
...
});
Singletons The singleton design pattern makes sure, only a single instance of a class may be created. Every time
an instance is requested, either the already created instance is returned or, if no instance is available yet, a new one
is created and returned. Requesting the instance of such a singleton class is done by using the getInstance()
method.
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Cat", {
type : "singleton"
...
});
Inheritance
Single Inheritance
JavaScript supports the concept of single inheritance. It does not support (true) multiple inheritance like C++. Most
people agree on the fact that such a concept tends to be very complex and error-prone. There are other ways to shoot
you in the foot. qooxdoo only allows for single inheritance as well:
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Cat", {
extend: qx.test.Animal
});
Multiple Inheritance
Not supported. There are more practical and less error-prone solutions that allow for typical features of multiple
inheritance: Interfaces and Mixins (see below).
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Polymorphism (Overriding)
qooxdoo does, of course, allow for polymorphism, that is most easily seen in the ability to override methods in derived
classes.
Calling the Superclass Constructor It is hard to come up with an appealing syntax and efficient implementation
for calling the superclass constructor from the constructor of a derived class. You simply cannot top Java’s super()
here. At least there is some generic way that does not involve to use the superclass name explicitly:
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Cat", {
extend: qx.test.Animal,
construct: function(x) {
this.base(arguments, x);
}
});
Unfortunately, to mimic a super() call the special variable arguments is needed, which in JavaScript allows a
context-independent access to the actual function. Don’t get confused by its name, you would list your own arguments
just afterwards (like the x in the example above).
this.base(arguments, x) is internally mapped to arguments.callee.base.call(this, x) (The
.base property is maintained for every method through qooxdoo’s class system). The latter form can be handled by
JavaScript natively, which means it is quite efficient. As an optimization during the build process such a rewrite is
done automatically for your deployable application.
Calling an Overridden Method Calling an overridden superclass method from within the overriding method (i.e.
both methods have the same name) is similar to calling the superclass constructor:
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Cat", {
extend: qx.test.Animal,
members: {
makeSound : function() {
this.base(arguments);
}
}
});
Calling the Superclass Method or Constructor with all parameters This variant allows to pass all the parameters
(unmodified):
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Animal", {
members: {
makeSound : function(howManyTimes) {
....
}
}
});
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Cat", {
extend: qx.test.Animal,
members: {
makeSound : function() {
this.debug("I’m a cat");
/* howManyTimes or any other parameter are passed.
arguments.callee.base.apply(this, arguments);
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}
}
});
Calling another Static Method Here is an example for calling a static member without using a fully-qualified class
name (compare to this.base(arguments) above):
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Cat", {
extend: qx.test.Animal,
statics : {
someStaticMethod : function(x) {
...
}
},
members: {
makeSound : function(x) {
this.constructor.someStaticMethod(x);
}
}
});
The syntax for accessing static variables simply is this.constructor.someStaticVar. Please note, for
this.constructor to be available, the class must be a derived class of qx.core.Object, which is usually the
case for regular, non-static classes.
Instead of this.constructor you can also use the alternative syntax this.self(arguments).
In purely static classes for calling a static method from another static method, you can directly use the this keyword,
e.g. this.someStaticMethod(x).
Usage of Interfaces and Mixins
Implementing an Interface
The class system supports Interfaces. The implementation is based on the feature set of Java interfaces. Most relevant
features of Java-like interfaces are supported. A class can define which interface or multiple interfaces it implements
by using the implement key:
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Cat", {
implement : [qx.test.IPet, qx.test.IFoo]
});
Including a Mixin
Unlike interfaces, Mixins do contain concrete implementations of methods. They borrow some ideas from Ruby and
similar scripting languages.
Features:
• Add mixins to the definition of a class: All members of the mixin are added to the class definition.
• Add a mixin to a class after the class is defined. Enhances the functionality but is not allowed to overwrite
existing members.
• Patch existing classes. Change the implementation of existing methods. Should normally be avoided but, as
some projects may need to patch qooxdoo, we better define a clean way to do so.
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The concrete implementations of mixins are used in a class through the key include:
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Cat", {
include : [qx.test.MPet, qx.test.MSleep]
});
Summary
Configuration
Key
type
Type
String
extend
implement
include
construct
statics
properties
members
settings
variants
events
Class
Interface |
Interface[]
Mixin |
Mixin[]
Function
defer
Function
destruct
Function
Map
Map
Map
Map
Map
Map
Description
Type of the class. Valid types are abstract, static and singleton. If unset it
defaults to a regular non-static class.
The super class the current class inherits from.
Single interface or array of interfaces the class implements.
Single mixin or array of mixins, which will be merged into the class.
The constructor of the class.
Map of static members of the class.
Map of property definitions. For a description of the format of a property definition see
qx.core.Property.
Map of instance members of the class.
Map of settings for this class. For a description of the format of a setting see
qx.core.Setting.
Map of settings for this class. For a description of the format of a setting see
qx.core.Variant.
Map of events the class fires. The keys are the names of the events and the values are
the corresponding event type class names.
Function that is called at the end of processing the class declaration. It allows access to
the declared statics, members and properties.
The destructor of the class.
References
• Class Declaration Quick Ref - a quick syntax overview
• API Documentation for Class
3.1.4 Interfaces
qooxdoo supports Java like interfaces.
Interface definitions look very similar to normal class definitions.
Example:
qx.Interface.define("qx.test.ISample",
{
extend: [SuperInterfaces],
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properties: {"color": {}, "name": {} },
members:
{
meth1: function() {},
meth2: function(a, b) {
this.assertArgumentsCount(arguments, 2, 2);
},
meth3: function(c) {
this.assertInterface(c, qx.some.IInterface);
}
},
statics:
{
PI : 3.14
},
events :
{
keydown : "qx.event.type.KeyEvent"
}
});
Definition
Interfaces are declared using qx.Interface.define. Interface names start by convention with an I (uppercase
“i”). They can inherit from other interfaces using the extend key. Multiple inheritance of interfaces is supported.
Properties
Properties in interfaces state that each class implementing this interface must have a property of the given name. The
property definition is not evaluated and may be empty.
Members
The member section of the interface lists all member functions which must be implemented. The function body is used
as a precondition of the implementation. By implementing an interface the qooxdoo class definition automatically
wraps all methods required by the interface. Before the actual implementation is called, the precondition of the
interface is called with the same arguments. The precondition should raise an exception if the arguments are don’t
meet the expectations. Usually the methods defined in qx.core.MAssert are used to check the incoming parameters.
Statics
Statics behave exactly like statics defined in mixins and qooxdoo classes, with the different that only constants are
allowed. They are accessible through their fully-qualified name. For example, the static varaiable PI could be used
like this:
var a = 2 * qx.test.ISample.PI * (r*r);
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Events
Each event defined in the interface must be declared in the implementing classes. The syntax matches the events
key of the class declaration.
Implementation
With implement key of the class declaration, a list of interfaces can be listed, which the class implements. The
class must implement all properties, members and events declared in the interfaces. Otherwise a runtime error will be
thrown.
Example:
qx.Class.define("qx.test.Sample",
{
implement: [qx.test.ISample],
properties: {
"color": { check: "color"},
"name": { check: "String"}
},
members:
{
meth1: function() { return 42; },
meth2: function(a, b) { return a+b },
meth3: function(c) { c.foo() }
}
events :
{
keydown : "qx.event.type.KeyEvent"
}
});
Validation
qx.Class contains several static methods to check, whether a class or an object implements an interface:
• qx.Class.hasInterface(): Whether a given class or any of its superclasses includes a given interface.
• qx.Class.implementsInterface(): Checks whether all methods defined in the interface are implemented in the class. The class does not need to implement the interface explicitly.
It is further possible to use interfaces as property checks.
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Summary
Configuration
Key
extend
members
statics
properties
events
Type
Interface |
Interface[]
Map
Description
Single interface or array of interfaces this interface inherits from.
Map
Map
Map of statics of the interface. The statics will not get copied into the target class. This
is the same behavior as statics in mixins.
Map of properties and their definitions.
Map
Map of event names and the corresponding event class name.
Map of members of the interface.
References
• Interfaces Quick Ref - a syntax quick reference for interfaces
• API Documentation for Interface
3.1.5 Mixins
Mixins are collections of code and variables, which can be merged into other classes. They are similar to classes but
can not be instantiated. Unlike interfaces they do contain implementation code. Typically they are made up of only a
few members that allow for a generic implementation of some very specific functionality.
Mixins are used to share functionality without using inheritance and to extend/patch the functionality of existing
classes.
Definition
Example:
qx.Mixin.define("name",
{
include: [SuperMixins],
properties: {
"tabIndex": {check: "Number", init: -1}
},
members:
{
prop1: "foo",
meth1: function() {},
meth2: function() {}
}
});
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Usage
Here a short example to see, how to use mixins (MMixinA, MMixinB) with a class (ClassC).
The first mixin:
qx.Mixin.define("demo.MMixinA",
{
properties: {
"propertyA":
{
check: "String",
init: "Hello, I’m property A!\n"
}
},
members:
{
methodA: function() {
return "Hello, I’m method A!\n";
}
}
});
The second mixin:
qx.Mixin.define("demo.MMixinB",
{
properties: {
"propertyB":
{
check: "String",
init: "Hello, I’m property B!\n"
}
},
members:
{
methodB: function() {
return "Hello, I’m method B!\n";
}
}
});
The usage in the class:
qx.Class.define("demo.ClassC",
{
extend : qx.core.Object,
include : [demo1.MMixinA, demo1.MMixinB],
members :
{
methodC : function() {
return this.getPropertyA() + this.methodA()
+ this.getPropertyB() + this.methodB()
+ "Nice to meet you. Thanks for your help!";
}
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}
});
The result is when calling the method methodC() of ClassC:
var classC = new demo.ClassC;
var result = classC .methodC();
/*
* Result:
* Hello, I’m property A!
* Hello, I’m method A!
* Hello, I’m property B!
* Hello, I’m method B!
* Nice to meet you. Thanks for your help!
*/
Summary
Configuration
Key
include
construct
destruct
statics
members
properties
events
Type
Mixin or
Mixin[]
Function
Description
Single mixin or array of mixins, which will be merged into the mixin.
Function
An optional mixin destructor.
Map
Map
Map of static members of the mixin. The statics will not get copied into the target class.
They remain accessible from the mixin. This is the same behaviour as for statics in interfaces
Map of members of the mixin.
Map
Map of property definitions.
Map
Map of events the mixin fires. The keys are the names of the events and the values are the
corresponding event type classes.
An optional mixin constructor. It is called when instantiating a class that includes this mixin.
References
• Mixin Quick Ref - a quick syntax reference for mixins
• API Documentation for Mixin
3.2 Properties
3.2.1 Introduction to Properties
qooxdoo comes with its own convenient and sophisticated property management system. In order to understand its
power we will first take a look at the ordinary property handling in plain JavaScript first.
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Ordinary Property Handling
Let’s say we have a property width for an object obj.
As is a good practice in regular high-level programming languages you should not access object properties directly:
// NOT RECOMMENDED: direct access to properties
obj.width = 200; // setting a value
var w = obj.width; // getting the current value
Instead you should work with properties only through so-called accessor methods (“getters”) and mutator methods
(“setters”):
// direct access is no good practice
obj.setWidth(200); // setting a value
var w = obj.getWidth(); // getting the current value
Of course, directly accessing properties may be faster because no indirection by a function call is needed. Nonetheless,
in practice this does not outweight the disadvantages. Direct access to properties does not hide internal implementation
details and is a less maintainable solution (Well, you don’t program web applications in assembler code, do you?).
A typical implementation of the accessor and mutator methods would look like the following, where those instance
methods are declared in the members section of the class definition:
// ordinary example #1
members:
{
getWidth : function() {
return this._width;
},
setWidth : function(width)
{
this._width = width;
return width;
}
}
Something that is very familiar to the typical programmer of Java or any other comparable language. Still, it is not
very convenient. Even this trivial implementation of only the basic feature requires a lot of keystrokes. More advanced
features like type checks, performance optimizations, firing events for value changes, etc. need to be coded by hand.
An improved version of the setter could read:
// ordinary example #2
members:
{
setWidth : function(width)
{
if (typeof width != "number") {
// Type check: Make sure it is a valid number
throw new Error("Invalid value: Need a valid integer value: " + width);
};
if (this._width != width)
{
// Optimization: Only set value, if different from the existing value
this._width = width;
// User code that should be run for the new value
this.setStyleProperty("width", width+ "px");
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};
return width;
}
}
Large part of the code found here is for managing the validation and storage of the incoming data. The propertyspecific user code is rather short.
qooxdoo Property Handling
Let’s see how the above example can be written using qooxdoo’s property implementation. The property itself is
declared in the properties section of the class definition. Only if some property-specific code needs to be run in
the setter, an additional apply method has to be given:
// qooxdoo version of ordinary example #2
properties : {
width : { check : "Number", apply : "applyWidth" }
}
members :
{
applyWidth : function(value) {
this.setStyleProperty("width", value + "px");
}
}
Compare that to the lengthy code of the ordinary code example above! Much shorter and nicer, also by objective
means. And it almost only contains the “real code”.
The apply method may optionally be defined for each property you add to your class. As soon as you define a key
“apply” in your property declaration map the method gets automatically called on each property modification (but not
during initial initialization). If you do not define an apply method, the property just handles the fundamental storage
of your data and its disposal.
Despite needing much less explicit code (keep in mind, for every property), it actually contains at least as many
features as the hand-tuned code: The type of the property is checked automatically (Number in the example above).
Moreover, new values are only stored (and the optional apply method called) if different from the existing values. A
tiny but important optimization.
Change Events
qooxdoo supports full-featured event-based programming throughout the framework. So-called change events are a
good example for this powerful concept.
Each property may optionally behave as an observable. This means it can send out an event at any time the property
value changes. Such a change event (an instance of qx.event.type.Data) is declared by providing a custom
name in the event key of the property definition. While you are free to choose any event name you like, the qooxdoo
framework tries to consistently use the naming convention "change + Propertyname", e.g. "changeWidth"
for a change of property width. In order to get notified of any value changes, you simply attach an event listener to
the object instance containing the property in question.
For example, if you would like the element property of a Widget instance widget to fire an event named
"changeElement" any time the value changes. If this happens, you would like to set the DOM element’s content:
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widget.addEventListener("changeElement", function(e) {
e.getValue().innerHTML = "Hello World";
});
The anonymous function acts as an event handler that receives the event object as variable e. Calling the predefined
method getValue() returns the new value of property element.
Available Methods
qooxdoo’s dynamic properties not only make sure that all properties behave in a consistent way, but also guarantee
that the API to access and manipulate properties are identical. The user is only confronted with a single interface,
where the method names are easy to understand. Each property creates (at least) the following set of methods:
• setPropertyName(): Mutator method (“setter”) to set a new property value.
• getPropertyName(): Accessor method (“getter”) that returns the current value.
Additionally, all properties of boolean type (declared by check:
methods:
"Boolean") provide the following convenience
• isPropertyName(): Identical to getPropertyName().
• togglePropertyName(): Toggles between true and false.
Property Groups
Property groups is a layer above the property system explained in the last paragraphs. They make it possible to set
multiple values in one step using one set call. qx.ui.core.Widget supports the property group padding.
padding simply sets the paddingLeft, paddingRight, paddingTop and paddingBottom property.
widget.setPadding(10, 20, 30, 40);
The result is identical to:
widget.setPaddingTop(10);
widget.setPaddingRight(20);
widget.setPaddingBottom(30);
widget.setPaddingLeft(40);
As you can see the property groups are a nice really convenient feature.
Shorthand support
One more thing. The property group handling also supports some CSS like magic like the shorthand mode for example.
This means that you can define only some edges in one call and the others get filled automatically:
// four arguments
widget.setPadding(top, right, bottom, left);
// three arguments
widget.setPadding(top, right+left, bottom);
// two arguments
widget.setPadding(top+bottom, right+left);
// one argument
widget.setPadding(top+right+bottom+left);
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As you can see this can also reduce the code base and make it more userfriendly.
BTW: The values of a property group can also be given an array as first argument e.g. these two lines work identically:
// arguments list
widget.setPadding(10, 20, 30, 40);
// first argument as array
widget.setPadding([10, 20, 30, 40]);
Note: For more information regarding declaration, usage and internal functionality please see the the developer
documentation.
3.2.2 Properties in more detail
Note: Please take a look at Property features summarized first to get an compact overview of the available features.
Declaration
The following code creates a property myProperty and the corresponding functions like setMyProperty() and
getMyProperty().
qx.Class.define(
...
properties : {
myProperty : { nullable : true }
}
...
You should define at least one of the attributes init, nullable or inheritable. Otherwise, the first call to the
getter would stop with an exception because the computed value is not (yet) defined.
Note: As an alternative to the init key you could set the init value of the property by calling an initializing function
this.initMyProperty(value) in the constructor. See below for details.
Please also have a look at the Quick Reference.
Handling changes of property values
You have multiple possibilities to react on each property change. With change the modification of a property is meant,
where the old and the new values differ from each other.
As a class developer the easiest solution with the best performance is to define an apply method. As a user of a class
(the one who creates instances) it is the best to simply attach an event listener to the instance, if such an corresponding
event is provided in the property declaration.
Defining an apply method
To attach an apply method you must add a key apply to your configuration which points to a name of a function
which needs to be available in your members section. As the apply method normally should not be called directly, it
is always a good idea to make the method at least protected by prefixing the name with an underscore _.
The return value of the apply method is ignored. The first argument is the actual value, the second one is the former
or old value. The last argument is the name of the property which can come very handy if you use one apply mehtod
for more than one property. The second and third arguments are optional and may be left out.
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Example
properties : {
width : { apply : "_applyWidth" }
},
members :
{
_applyWidth : function(value, old, name) {
// do something...
}
}
The applying method is only called when the value has changed.
For a more technical description, take a look at the API documentation of qx.core.Property
Providing an event interface
For the users of a class it is in many cases a nice idea to also support an event to react on property changes. The event
is defined using the event key where the value is the name of the event which should be fired.
qooxdoo fires a qx.event.type.Data which supports the methods getData() and getOldData() to allow
easy access to the new and old property value, respectively.
Note: Events are only useful for public properties. Events for protected and private properties are usually not a good
idea.
Example
properties : {
label : { event : "changeLabel" }
}
...
// later in your application code:
obj.addListener("changeLabel", function(e) {
alert(e.getValue());
});
Init values
Init values are supported by all properties. These values are stored separately by the property engine. This way it is
possible to fallback to the init value when property values are being reset.
Defining an init value
There are two ways to set an init value of a property.
Init value in declaration The preferred way for regular init values is to simply declare them by an init key
in the property configuration map. You can use this key standalone or in combination with nullable and/or
inheritable.
properties : {
myProperty : { init : "hello" }
}
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Init value in constructor Alternatively, you could set the init value of the property in the constructor of the class.
This is only recommended for cases where a declaration of an init value as explained above is not sufficient.
Using an initializing function this.initMyProperty(value) in the constructor would allow you to assign
complex non-primitive types (so-called “reference types” like Array, Object) that should not be shared among
instances, but be unique on instance level.
Another scenario would be to use a localizable init value when internationalizing your application: Because
this.tr() cannot be used in the property definition, you may either use the static qx.locale.Manager.tr()
there instead, or use this.tr() in the call of the initializing function in the constructor.
Note: You need to add a deferredInit:true to the property configuration to allow for a deferred initialization
for reference types as mentioned above.
qx.Class.define("qx.MyClass", {
construct: function() {
this.initMyProperty([1, 2, 4, 8]);
},
properties : {
myProperty : { deferredInit : true}
}
};
Applying an init value
It is possible to apply the init value using an user-defined apply method. To do this call the init method
this.initMyProperty(value) somewhere in your constructor - this “change” will than trigger calling the
apply method. Of course, this only makes sense in cases where you have at least an apply or event entry in the
property definition.
If you do not use the init method you must be sure that the instances created from the classes are in a consistent state.
The getter will return the init value even if not initialized. This may be acceptable in some cases, e.g. for properties
without apply or event. But there are other cases, where the developer needs to be carefully and call the init method
because otherwise the getter returns wrong information about the internal state (due to an inconsistency between init
and applied value).
Like calling the this.initMyProperty(value) method itself, you could call the setter and use the defined init
value as parameter. This will call the apply method, not like in the usual cases when setting the same value which is
aready set.
construct : function()
{
this.base(arguments);
this.setColor("black"); // apply will be invoked
this.setColor("black"); // apply will NOT be invoked
},
properties :
{
color :
{
init : "black",
apply : "_applyColor"
}
},
members :
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{
_applyColor : function(value, old) {
// do something...
}
}
This example illustrates how the behavior differs from the default behavior of the property system due to the already
mentioned inconsistency between init and applied value.
construct : function()
{
this.base(arguments);
// Initialize color with predefined value
this.initColor();
// Initialize store with empty array
this.initStore([]);
},
properties :
{
color :
{
init : "black",
apply : "_applyColor"
},
store : {
apply : "_applyStore"
}
},
members :
{
_applyColor : function(value, old) {
// do something...
},
_applyStore : function(value, old) {
// do something...
}
}
In the above example you can see the different usage possibilities regarding properties and their init values. If you
do not want to share “reference types” (like Array, Object) between instances, the init values of these have to be
declared in the constructor and not in the property definition.
If an init value is given in the property declaration, the init method does not accept any parameters. The init methods
always use the predefined init values. In cases where there is no init value given in the property declaration, it is
possible to call the init method with one parameter, which represents the init value. This may be useful to apply
reference types to each instance. Thus they would not be shared between instances.
Note: Please remember that init values are not for incoming user values. Please use init only for class defined
things, not for user values. Otherwise you torpedo the multi-value idea behind the dynamic properties.
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Refining init values
Derived classes can refine the init value of a property defined by their super class. This is however the only modification
which is allowed through inheritance. To refine a property just define two keys inside the property (re-)definition:
init and refine. refine is a simple boolean flag which must be configured to true.
Normally properties could not be overridden. This is the reason for the refine flag . The flag informs the implementation that the developer is aware of the feature and the modification which should be applied.
properties : {
width : { refine : true, init : 100 }
}
This will change the default value at definition time. refine is a better solution than a simple set call inside the
constructor because it the initial value is stored in a separate namespace as the user value and so it is possible for the
user to fall back to the default value suggested by the developer of a class.
Checking incoming values
You can check incoming values by adding a check key to the corresponding property definition. But keep in mind
that these checks only apply in the development (source) version of the application. Due to performance optimization,
we strip these checks for the build version. If you want a property validation, take a look at the validation section.
Predefined types
You can check against one of these predefined types:
• Boolean, String, Number, Integer, Float, Double
• Object, Array, Map
• Class, Mixin, Interface, Theme
• Error, RegExp, Function, Date, Node, Element, Document, Window, Event
Due to the fact that JavaScript only supports the Number data type, Float and Double are handled identically to
Number. Both are still useful, though, as they are supported by the Javadoc-like comments and the API viewer.
properties : {
width : { init : 0, check: "Integer" }
}
Possible values
One can define an explicit list of possible values:
properties : {
color: { init : "black", check : [ "red", "blue", "orange" ] }
}
Note: Providing a list of possible values only works with primitive types (like strings and numbers), but not with
reference types (like objects, functions, etc.).
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Instance checks
It is also possible to only allow for instances of a class. This is not an explicit class name check, but rather an
instanceof check. This means also instances of any class derived from the given class will be accepted. The class
is defined using a string, thereby to not influencing the load time dependencies of a class.
properties : {
logger : { nullable : true, check : "qx.log.Logger" }
}
Interface checks
The incoming value can be checked against an interface, i.e. the value (typically an instance of a class) must implement
the given interface. The interface is defined using a string, thereby not influencing the load time dependencies of a
class.
properties : {
application : { check : "qx.application.IApplication" }
}
Implementing custom checks
Custom checks are possible as well, using a custom function defined inside the property definition. This is useful for
all complex checks which could not be solved with the built-in possibilities documented above.
properties :
{
progress :
{
init : 0,
check : function(value) {
return !isNaN(value) && value >= 0 && value <= 100;
}
}
}
This example demonstrates how to handle numeric values which only accept a given range of numbers (here 0 .. 100).
The possibilities for custom checks are only limited by the developer’s imagination. ;-)
Alternative solution As an alternative to the custom check function, you may also define a string which will directly
be incorporated into the setters and used in a very efficient way. The above example could be coded like this:
properties :
{
progress :
{
init : 0,
check : "!isNaN(value) && value >= 0 && value <= 100"
}
}
This is more efficient, particularly for checks involving rather small tests, as it omits the function call that would be
needed in the variant above.
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Transforming incoming values
You can transform incoming values before they are stored by using the transform key to the corresponding property
definition. The transform method occurs before the check and apply functions and can also throw an error if the value
passed to it is invalid. This method is useful if you wish accept different formats or value types for a property.
Example
Here we define both a check and transform method for the width property. Though the check method requires that the
property be a integer, we can use the transform method to accept a string and transform it into an integer. Note that we
can still rely on the check method to catch any other incorrect values, such as if the user mistakenly assigned a Widget
to the property.
properties :
{
width :
{
init : 0,
transform: "_transformWidth",
check: "Integer"
}
},
members :
{
_transformWidth : function(value)
{
if ( qx.lang.Type.isString(value) )
{
value = parseInt(value, 10);
}
return value;
}
}
Validation of incoming values
Validation of a property can prevent the property from being set if it is not valid. In that case, a validation error should
be thrown by the validator function. Otherwise, the validator can just do nothing.
Using a predefined validator
If you use predefined validators, they will throw a validation error for you. You can find a set of predefined validators
in qx.util.Validate. The following example shows the usage of a range validator.
properties : {
application : { validate : qx.util.Validate.range(0, 100) }
}
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Using a custom validator
If the predefined validators are not enough for you validation, you can specify your own validator.
properties : {
application : { validate : function(value) {
if (value > 10) {
throw new qx.core.ValidationError(
"Validation Error: ", value + " is greater than 10."
);
}
}
}
}
Validation method as member
You can define a validation method as a member of the class containing the property. If you have such a member
validator, you can just specify the method name as a sting
properties : {
application : { validate : "_validateApplication" }
}
Enabling theme support
The property system supports multiple values per property as explained in the paragraph about the init values. The
theme value is another possible value that can be stored in a property. It has a lower priority than the user value and a
higher priority than the init value. The setThemed and resetThemed methods are part of qooxdoo’s theme layer
and should not be invoked by the user directly.
setter
setProperty(value)
setThemedProperty(value)
initProperty([value])
value
^
|
Priority
|
|
user
theme
init
resetter
|
|
Fallback
|
v
resetProperty()
resetThemedProperty()
n.a.
To enable theme support it is sufficient to add a themeable key to the property definition and set its value to true.
properties : {
width : { themeable : true, init : 100, check : "Number" }
}
Note: themeable should only be enabled for truely theme-relevant properties like color and decorator, but not for
functional properties like enabled, tabIndex, etc.
Working with inheritance
Another great feature of the new property system is inheritance. This is primarily meant for widgets, but should be
usable in independent parent-children architectures, too.
Inheritance quickly becomes nothing short of vital for the property system, if you consider that it can reduce redundancy dramatically. It is advantageous both in terms of coding size and storage space, because a value only needs to
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be declared once for multiple objects inside an hierarchy. Beyond declaring such an inheritable property once, only
intended exceptions to the inherited values need to be given to locally override those values.
The inheritance as supported by qooxdoo’s properties is comparable to the inheritance known from CSS. This means,
for example, that all otherwise undefined values of inheritable properties automatically fall back to the corresponding
parent’s value.
Each property may also have an explicit user value of string "inherit". The inherited value, which is normally
only used as a fallback value, can thus be emphasized by setting "inherit" explicitly. The user may set a property
to "inherit" in order to enforce lookup by inheritance, and thereby ignoring init and appearance values.
To mark a property as inheritable simply add the key inheritable and set it to true:
properties : {
color : { inheritable : true, nullable : true }
}
Optionally, you can configure an init value of inherit. This is especially a good idea if the property should not be
nullable:
properties : {
color : { inheritable : true, init: "inherit" }
}
Inheritable CSS properties
To give you an idea for what kind of custom properties inheritance is particularly useful, the following list of prominent
CSS properties which support inheritance may be a good orientation:
• color
• cursor
• font, font-family, ...
• line-height
• list-style
• text-align
Note: This list of CSS properties is only meant for orientation and does not reflect any of qooxdoo widget properties.
Internal methods
The property documentation in the user manual explains the public, non-internal methods for each property. However,
there are some more, which are not meant for public use:
• this.resetProperty(value) : For properties which are inheritable. Used by the inheritance system to
transfer values from parent to child widgets.
• this.setThemedProperty(value) : For properties with appearance enabled. Used to store a separate value for the appearance of this property. Used by the appearance layer.
• this.resetThemedProperty(value) : For properties with appearance enabled. Used to reset the
separately stored appearance value of this property. Used by the appearance layer.
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Defining property groups
Property groups is a convenient feature as it automatically generates setters and resetters (but no getters) for a group
of properties. A definition of such a group reads:
properties : {
location : { group : [ "left", "top" ] }
}
As you can see, property groups are defined in the same map as “regular” properties. From a user perspective the API
with setters and resetters is equivalent to the API of regular properties:
obj.setLocation( 50, 100);
// instead of
// obj.setLeft(50);
// obj.setTop(100);
Shorthand support
Additionaly, you may also provide a mode which modifies the incoming data before calling the setter of each group
members. Currently, the only available modifier is shorthand, which emulates the well-known CSS shorthand
support for qooxdoo properties. For more information regarding this feature, please have a look at the user manual.
The definition of such a property group reads:
properties :
{
padding :
{
group : [ "paddingTop", "paddingRight", "paddingBottom", "paddingLeft" ],
mode : "shorthand"
}
}
For example, this would allow to set the property in the following way:
obj.setPadding( 10, 20 );
//
//
//
//
//
}
instead of
obj.setPaddingTop(10);
obj.setPaddingRight(20);
obj.setPaddingBottom(10);
obj.setPaddingLeft(20);
.. _pages/defining_properties#when_to_use_properties:
When to use properties?
Since properties in qooxdoo support advanced features like validation, events and so on, they might not be quite as
lean and fast as an ordinarily coded property that only supports a setter and getter. If you do not need these advanced
features or the variable you want to store is extremely time critical, it might be better not to use qooxdoo’s dynamic
properties in those cases. You might instead want to create your own setters and getters (if needed) and store the value
just as a hidden private variable (e.g. __varName) inside your object.
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3.2.3 Initialization Behavior
This document summarizes some thoughts about the behavior of the initialization of properties.
The Problem
Imagine a class containing a property named a with an init value, like the following:
qx.Class.define("A", {
extend : qx.core.Object,
properties : {
a : {
init : "b",
event : "changeA"
}
}
});
As you can see, the property a has an init value, b. Now, if you access a with its getter, you get the init value in return:
var a = new A();
a.getA(); // returns "b"
If you now set something different than the initial value, you get a change event, because the content of the property
changed.
a.setA("x");
// changeA fired
As far, everything behaves as desired. But if set the init value instead of a new value, the change event will be also
fired. The following code shows the problem:
var a = new A();
a.setA(a.getA()); // changeA fired (first set)
a.setA(a.getA()); // changeA NOT fired (every other set)
Why not just change this behaviour?
It’s always hard to change a behavior like that because there is no deprecation strategy for it. If we change it, it is
changed and every line of code relying on that behavior will fail. Even worse, the only thing we could use as a check
for the wrong used behavior is to search for all properties having an init value and either an apply function or an event.
Now you have to check if one of these properties could be set with the init value, before any other value has been
set. If it is possible that the init value is set as first value, check if the attached apply is required to run or any listener
registered to the change event of that property. A good example in the framework where we rely on the behavior is the
Spinner:
// ...
construct : function(min, value, max) {
// ...
if (value !== undefined) {
this.setValue(value);
} else {
this.initValue();
}
// ...
_applyValue: function(value, old)
// ...
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this._updateButtons();
// ...
The example shows the constructor and the apply of the value property. The problem begins in this case with the
constructor parameter named value, which is optional. So we have three cases to consider.
1. The value argument is undefined: The initValue method is called, which invokes the apply function for the
property with the init value as value.
2. A value is given different as the init value: So the value is not undefined and the setter for the value property
will be called, which invokes the apply function.
3. A value is given and its exactly the init value: In this case, the setter will be called with the init value. The apply
method is called and invokes the _updateButtons method. This method checks the given value and enables
/ disabled the buttons for increasing / decreasing the spinner. So it is necessary that the apply method is at least
called once that the buttons have the proper states.
The problem with a possible change of this behavior is obvious. In the third case, the apply method is not called and
the buttons enabled states could be wrong without throwing an error. And they are only wrong, if the value is exactly
the init value and one of the minimum or maxiumum values is the same. Because only in that scenario, one of the
buttons need to be disabled.
When can it be changed?
Currently we don’t plan to change it because it can have some hard to track side effects as seen in the example above
and we don’t have any deprecation strategy. Maybe it can be change on a major version like 2.0 but currently there are
no plans to do so.
3.2.4 Property features summarized
Note: The chapter gives you an compact but extensive overview of the features offered by qooxdoo’s property system.
Please refer to Properties in more detail for an explanation of how to define and use properties.
Value checks
• Built-in types for most common things
• Runtime checks (development version only)
• Instance checks by simply define the classname of the class to check for (always use an instanceof operation - a
real classname is not available anymore)
• Custom check method by simply attaching a function to the declaration
• Custom check defined by a string which will be compiled into the resulting setters (faster than the above variant)
• Define multiple possible (primitive) values using an array
Validation
• Validation in both development and build version
• Predefined validators for default validation
• Throws a special validation error
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Advanced value handling
• Multi value support. Support to store different values for init, inheritance, style and user including a automatic
fallback mechanism between them.
• Inheritance support. Inheritance of properties defined by a parent widget e.g. inherit enabled from a groupbox
to all form elements. Uses the inheritance if the computed value would be undefined or explicitly set to
"inherit". The getter simply returns "inherit" for inheritable properties which are otherwise unset.
• Blocks unintentionally undefined values in all setters with an exception. To reset a value one must use the
reset or unstyle method which are available too.
• Overriding of a value by setting a property explicitly to null
• Properties must be explicitly configured as "nullable" (like in .Net). The default is false which means
that incoming null values will result in an exception.
• Accessing nullable properties with undefined values will result in a normalization to null.
Convenience
• Convenient toggle method for boolean properties
Notification
• Support for a custom apply rountine
• Event firing with a custom named event
Initialization
qooxdoo automatically correctly initializes properties. This is true for both, properties which have defined an init
value and also for the other properties which are nullable. This means that after you have created an instance the
properties correctly reflect the applied value. Default values assigned by init also execute the configured apply
methods and dispatch configured events to inform already added listeners.
Initialization Behavior
Performance
Automatic optimization of all setters to the optimal highly-tuned result code. Impressive tailor made high performance
setters are the result.
Please note that after the definition point of a property the setters are not yet available. Wrappers for them will be
created with the first instance and the final code will be generated with the first use of such a setter. This first use will
also automatically unwrap the property setter to directly use the generated one.
Memory managment
Automatic memory management. This means all so-configured properties which contain complex data objects get
automatically disposed with the object disposal. The affected built-in types are already auto-configured this way. Also
all properties which need an instance of a class, defined by using a classname as check are automatically handled.
Note: Note that this does not actually call dispose() on the object but just removes the property value etc i.e. dereferences the object. You still need to call dispose() if necessary.
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For all other properties which contain complex data the developer must add a dispose key with a value of true to
the property declaration. For example if there is no check defined or the check definition points to a function.
Note: This is not needed for primitive types like strings and numbers.
3.3 Settings and Variants
3.3.1 Settings
One of the major problems of JavaScript frameworks is that you, as the user of such a framework, cannot easily
control one of the initial settings. For example the framework may have defaults which can only be changed after the
framework is loaded, but not before. Most of the time this restriction is not problematic. Most applications are only
interested in settings once their main routine gets processed. But there are exceptions when things must be configured
at or before load time.
What are settings?
This is where qooxdoo’s settings come in. They are directly built into the core of qooxdoo. This means that many
intial settings are easily controllable using a simple hash map structure or generator settings.
For example you can control the following things in qooxdoo:
• All type of themes (colors, icons, widgets, appearance)
• Default log level and appender
• Resource-URLs of standard qooxdoo icons and widgets images
• Timeout of the image preloader
• The init component (graphical or non-graphical)
• Different debugging options for json, remote io, etc.
This list shows you some of your possibilities.
When to use settings (and when not)
Generally settings are not meant to replace the properties which exist in qooxdoo. Settings are immutable. There
is only a default value, defined by the class which declares the setting, and a optional user value which overrides this
default value. The only possiblity to change this user value is to use the generator option or to define a global map
qxsettings before including the qooxdoo JavaScript file(s). It is not possible to modify the value later.
As a class developer it is quite important to not use settings for everything. The intention is to reduce the number of
settings to a minimum. They are only meant to control loadtime relevant stuff. Other things should be resolved with
other available technologies like properties. Properties have a much greater set of features and possibilities.
Defining new settings
New settings can be defined in this way:
qx.core.Setting.define("ns.key", "value");
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In contrast to Variants there is no array of available values. Settings are not limited in this way. You can even store
any JS-Type in a setting. But normally it is better to just use primitive types like Boolean, String and Number values.
The qooxdoo class definition allows you to integrate settings directly in the defining map:
qx.Class.define("myapp.ClassA",
{
[...]
settings : {
"myapp.key" : value
}
});
The key should always contain a namespace. This protects the application developer from creating conflicting settings
with the framework and maybe other qooxdoo-based libraries. The namespace could be something short. All qooxdoo
settings use “qx”, like the toplevel namespace. If you have a “myapp.Application” you may want to prefix all your
settings with “myapp” (but deeper nested namespaces are also possible).
Even if settings (and variants) are defined in the class where they are used, they are stored in a more “global” manner
and may be accessed from everywhere.
Note: Important: You must be sure that the class defining –which is using a setting– is loaded before the first access
to this setting. Also you must not redefine settings.
Selecting settings
You can select a new value for a settings using the generator or a global map defined before loading qooxdoo.
Using the generator
Use the config.json settings config key:
{
...
"settings" : {
"myapp.key" : "value",
...
}
}
Using a map
Use a map named qxsettings which is globally defined in the loading HTML page
window.qxsettings = {
"myapp.key" : value,
...
}
Note: Because of the namespace-like dot you must be sure to put the whole hash map key into quotes.
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Predefined Settings
These settings are known in the qooxdoo framework:
Setting
qx.allowUrlSettings
qx.allowUrlVariants
qx.application
qx.bom.htmlarea.HtmlArea.debug
qx.disposerDebugLevel
qx.globalErrorHandling
qx.ioRemoteDebug
qx.ioRemoteDebugData
qx.jsonEncodeUndefined
qx.jsonDebugging
qx.nativeScrollBars
qx.propertyDebugLevel
qx.tableResizeDebug
Recognized Values
true/false
true/false
<string>
“on”/”off”
0, 1, ...
“on”/”off”
true/false
true/false
true/false
true/false
true/false
0, 1, ...
true/false
Default
false
false
<undefined>
“off”
0
“on”
false
false
true
false
false
0
false
3.3.2 Variants
Variants enable the selection and removal (in the build version) of code. A variant is a named value from a finite
collection from which exactly one is set at load time of the framework. The static class qx.core.Setting can be
used to query the value of a setting.
Depending on the current value of a variant a specific code path can be chosen using the
qx.core.Setting.select method.
You can set variants in the generator configuration. The generator will then set this variant and for the build version
will remove all code paths which are not selected by the current variant value.
Variants are used to implement browser optimized builds and to remove debugging code from the build version. It is
very similar to conditional compilation in C/C++. In the source version of the application, calls to select are like
if/case switches.
Browser optimized builds
qooxdoo tries to hide browser incompatibilities from the application developer. But to provide browser independent
functionality it is sometimes necessary to use different code on different browsers. Low level code like the key handler
often has an individual implementation for each supported browser (and uses browser variants to achieve this).
The generator selects for browser optimized builds only the code which is needed for one specific browser and removes
the unused code. For each supported browser engine an optimized build is generated and on load time the appropriate
build is loaded. As a fall back there can be an unoptimized build.
Code like this was very common in older versions of qooxdoo:
if (qx.core.Client.getInstance().isMshtml()) {
// some Internet Explorer specific code
} else if(qx.core.Client.getInstance().isOpera()){
// Opera specific code
} else {
// common code for all other browsers
}
Using Variants the same code looks like this:
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if (qx.core.Variant.isSet("qx.client", "mshtml")) {
// some Internet Explorer specific code
} else if(qx.core.Variant.isSet("qx.client", "opera")){
// Opera specific code
} else {
// common code for all other browsers
}
The variant qx.client is always set to the current browser, so this code works exactly like the first version. What is
new is that the generator knows about variants and is able to optimize the build for one value of a variant and remove
the unused code for all other values of the variant.
Browser optimization is enabled by default in skeleton based applications.
Removal of debugging code
Often one wants to add additional checks and assertions to the code but don’t want the build to suffer from these
checks. This can be solved elegantly by using variants too. The variant qx.debug with the allowed values on and
off can be used to add debugging code which is only active in the source version and removed from the build version.
Example:
function foo(a, b) {
if (qx.core.Variant.isSet("qx.debug", "on")) {
if ( (arguments.length != 2) || (typeof a != "string") ) {
throw new Error("Bad arguments!");
}
}
This check is now only enabled in the source version. By default qx.debug is set to off in build versions.
Details
Variants are used to select certain code paths. Each variant has a name and exactly one value from a limited list
of allowed values. The variant names have a namespace prefix to avoid name conflicts. The value of a variant is
immutable and once set cannot be altered in the JavaScript code.
Definition of a Variant
The method qx.core.Variant.define is used to define a variant. This is how qx.debug is defined:
qx.core.Variant.define("qx.debug", [ "on", "off" ], "on");
The first parameter is the name of the variant, the second is a string array of all allowed values and the third the default
value. The default is taken if the variant is not set otherwise.
Using Variants
Variants can be used in two ways. They can be used to select code using if statements or to select whole functions.
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select If the whole definition of a function should be selected the select method can be used as follows:
var f = qx.core.Variant.select("qx.client", {
"gecko": function() { ... },
"mshtml|opera": function() { ... },
"default": function() { ... }
});
Depending on the value of the qx.client variant the corresponding function is selected. The first case is selected
if the variant is gecko, the second is selected if the variant is mshtml or opera and the third function is the default case.
It is selected if none of the other keys match the variant.
isSet This method is used to check whether a variant is set to a given value. The first parameter is the name of the
variant and the second parameter is the value to check for. Several values can be “or”-combined by separating them
with the “|” character. A value of mshtml|opera would for example check whether the variant is set to “mshtml” or
“opera”.
To enable the generator to optimize this selection, both parameters must be string literals.
This method is meant to be used in if statements to select code paths. If the condition of an if statement is only this
method, the generator is able to optimize the statement.
Example:
if (qx.core.Variant.isSet("qx.client", "mshtml")) {
// some Internet Explorer specific code
} else if(qx.core.Variant.isSet("qx.client", "opera")){
// Opera specific code
} else {
// common code for all other browsers
}
Setting the Value of a Variant
There are three ways to set a variant:
• Setting the value in the global variable qxvariants before qooxdoo is loaded.
• Set the variant in the generator configuration, using the variants config key.
• Set the variant in JS class code, using qx.core.Variant.define.
For the first approach just define a global map named qxvariants. This is how it could look in your application
application:
<script language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript">
qxvariants = {
"custom.variant": "off"
}
</script>
<script language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript" src="script/qooxdoo_application.js"></script>
Predefined Variants
Here is a list of variants currently predefined in qooxdoo:
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Variant
“qx.aspects”
“qx.client”
“qx.debug”
“qx.dynlocale”
Possible Values
[ “on”, “off” ]
[ “gecko”, “mshtml”, “opera”, “webkit” ]
[ “on”, “off” ]
[ “on”, “off” ]
Default
“off”
qx.bom.client.Engine.NAME
“on”
“off”
3.4 Data Binding
3.4.1 Data Binding
Data Binding
Introduction
Data binding is a functionality that allows to connect data from a source to a target. The entire topic can be divided
into a low-level part, called “single value binding”, and some higher-level concepts involving stores and controllers.
The main idea The main idea of qooxdoo’s data binding component is best summarized by the following diagram.
As you can see data binding includes five major components, which will be described in more detail in the following
sections.
Data The data part is where the raw data is stored and can be retrieved from. This can be a plain local file, a regular
web server or even a web service. There are all sources of data possible depending on the implementation of the actual
store.
Store The store component is responsible for fetching the data from its source and for including it into a data model
of an application. For more info about the available store components see the stores section below.
Model The model is the centerpiece of data binding. It holds the data and acts as an integration point for the store and
for the controller. Almost all models are plain qooxdoo classes holding the data in properties, which are configured to
fire events on every change. Since native JavaScript arrays do not fire events when items are changed, a complementary
array is added for data binding purposes. It is available with most of the native array API as qx.data.Array. But
there is no need to manually write own model classes for every data source you want to work with. The stores provide
a smart way to automatically create these classes during runtime. Take a look at the stores section for details.
Controller The main task of the controller components is to connect the data in the model to the view components.
Details are available in the controller section. The base layer of all controllers, the Single Value Binding is explained
later.
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View The views for data binding can be almost any widget out of qooxdoo’s rich set of widgets, depending on the
type of controller. qooxdoo’s data binding is not limited to some predefined data bound widgets. Please note that one
of the most prominent data centric widgets, the virtual Table, currently still has its own model based layer and is not
covered by the new data binding layer. The new infrastructure for virtual widgets is expected to nicely integrate the
upcoming data binding layer, though.
Demos, API and CheatSheet
You should now have a basic idea of qooxdoo’s data binding, so to see it in action, take a look at the online demos and the API reference. If you want to start programming, maybe the CheatSheet can help you during your
programming.
Single Value Binding
The purpose of single value binding is to connect one property to another by tying them together. The connection
is always in one direction only. If the reverse direction is needed, another binding needs to be created. The binding
will be achieved by an event handler which assigns the data given by the event to the target property. Therefore it is
necessary for the source event to fire a change event or some other kind of data event. The single value binding is
mostly a basis for the higher concepts of the data binding.
Binding a single property to another property
The simplest form of single value binding is to bind one property to another. Technically the source property needs
to fire a change event. Without that no binding is possible. But if this requirement is met, the binding itself is quite
simple. You can see this in the following code snippet, which binds two properties of the label content together:
var label1 = new qx.ui.basic.Label();
var label2 = new qx.ui.basic.Label();
label1.bind("content", label2, "content");
label1 is the source object to bind, with the following three arguments to that call:
1. The name of the property which should be the source of the binding.
2. The target object which has the target property.
3. The name of the property as the endpoint of the binding.
With that code every change of the content property of label1 will automatically synchronize the content property
of label2.
Binding a data event to property
In some cases in the framework, there is only a change event and no property. For that case, you can bind a data event
to a property. One common case is the TextField widget, which does not have a property containing the content of
the TextField. Therefor you can use the input event and bind that to a target property as you can see in the example
snippet. The API is almost the same as in the property binding case.
var textField = new qx.ui.form.TextField();
var label = new qx.ui.basic.Label();
textField.bind("input", label, "content");
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As you can see, the same method has been used. The difference is, that the first argument is a data event name and not
a property name.
Bind a property chain to another property
A more advanced feature of the single value binding is to bind a hierarchy of properties to a target property. To
understand what that means take a look at the following code. For using that code a qooxdoo class is needed which is
named Node and does have a child and a name property, both firing change events.
// create the object hierarchy
var a = new Node("a");
// set the name to „a“
var b = new Node("b");
// set the name to „b“
a.setChild(b);
// bind the property to a labels content
a.bind("child.name", label, "content");
Now every change of the name of b will change the labels content. But also a change of the child property of a to
another Node with another name will change the content of the label to the new name. With that mechanism a even
deeper binding in a hierarchy is possible. Just separate every property with a dot. But always keep in mind that every
property needs to fire a change event to work with the property binding.
Bind an array to a property
The next step in binding would be the ability to bind a value of an array. That’s possible but the array needs to be a
special data array because the binding component needs to know when the array changes one of its values. Such an
array is the qx.data.Array class. It wraps the native array and adds the change event to every change in the array.
The following code example shows what a binding of an array could look like. As a precondition there is an object a
having a property of the qx.data.Array type and that array containing strings.
// bind the first array element to a label’s content
a.bind("array[0]", labelFirst, "content");
// bind the last array element to a label’s content
a.bind("array[last]", labelFirst, "content");
You can use any numeric value in the brackets or the string value last which maps to length - 1. That way you
can easily map the top of a stack to something else. For binding of an array the same method will be used as for the
binding of chains. So there is also the possibility to combine these two things and use arrays in such property chains.
Options: Conversion and Validation
The method for binding introduced so far has the same set of arguments. The first three arguments are mostly the same. There
• converter: A own converter which is a function with one argument returning the converted value.
• onSetOk: A key in the options map under which you can add a method. This method will be called on a
validation case if the validation was successful.
• onSetFail: The counterpart to onSetOk which will be called if the validation fails.
In addition there is a built in default conversion which takes care of the default conversion cases automatically. Default
cases are, for example, string to number conversion. To get that working it is necessary to know the desired target
type. This information is taken from the check key in the property definition of the target property.
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Managing bindings
If you want to manage the bindings, there are some ways to get that. First aspect of managing is showing the existing
bindings. You can find all these function on the static qx.data.SingleValueBinding class or parts of it on
every object.
• getAllBindingsForObject is a function which is in the data binding class and returns all bindings for the given
object. The object needs to be the source object.
• getAllBindings returns all bindings in a special map for all objects.
Another way of managing is removing. There are three ways to remove bindings.
• removeBindingFromObject removes the given binding from the given source object. As an id you should use
exactly the id returned during the creation of the binding.
• removeAllBindingsForObject removes all binding from the source object. After that, the object is not synchronized anymore.
• removeAllBindings removes all single value bindings in the whole application. Be careful to use that function.
Perhaps other parts of the application use the bindings and also that will be removed!
Debugging
Working with bindings is in most cases some magic and it just works. But the worse part of that magic
is, if it does not work. For that the data binding component offers two methods for debugging on the static
qx.data.SingleValueBinding class.
• showBindingInLog shows the given binding in the qooxdoo logger as a string. The result could look something
like this: Binding from ‘qx.ui.form.TextField[1t]’ (name) to the object ‘qx.ui.form.TextField[1y]’ (name). That
shows the source object and property and the target object and property.
• showAllBindingsInLog shows all bindings in the way the first method shows the bindings.
Tech notes
For everyone who is interested on how that whole thing works, here are some small notes on the inside of the data
binding. Every binding function maps to the event binding function. This is where the heart of the data binding lies.
In that function a listener will be added to the source object listening to the change event. The key part of the listener
is the following code part.
targetObject["set" + qx.lang.String.firstUp(targetProperty)](data);
In that line the listener sets the data given by the data event to the target property.
Controller
The general idea of controllers is connecting a view component to a set of data stored in a model. The kind of controller
you need depends on the view component. Currently there are four types of controller available:
• Object Controller
• List Controller
• Tree Controller
• Form Controller
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You may miss the table controller. The currently available table will not be changed and therefore will not implement
data binding features. The new virtual table, which is currently under development, will be considered for data binding.
In the following section, the selection will be discussed because it’s a common feature of the list and tree controller.
The delegation mechanism is another common feature of those two controllers and will also be described. After that,
each of the available controllers will be discussed in detail.
Selection
Usually the selection of view components like the tree or the list handle their selection with tree folder or list items. As
a user of data binding, you don‘t want to convert the view widgets to the model widgets. Therefore, the controller does
that mapping for you. There is a selection array available on the controller containing the currently selected model
items. When using the selection of the controller, there is no need to deal with view widgets like ListItems. It is also
possible to change the array in place and add / remove something from the selection. As it is a data array, you can use
all methods defined by that array to manipulate the selection of the corresponding controller.
Delegate
The list and tree controller are responsible for creating and binding the child widgets of the views. But what if you
want to use something different in the list or bind not just the label and the icon. For that purpose, the delegation offers
the possibility to enhance the controller code without having to subclass it.
In total, there are three methods which relate to the topic of creating and binding the child view widgets.
configureItem The configureItem function is the function which you can use if you just want to modify the
created default widgets. This gives you the opportunity to set the labels to rich for example or modify anything else in
the child widget. But this is not the place where you want to change / add the binding behavior.
bindItem That place is the bindItem method. But you don’t want to use the single value binding all on your own
and bind the stuff. Therefore, the controller offers you a method called bindProperty, which takes the source path
to the data, the target property name and the options for the single value binding. The other two parameters will just
mapped through. But keep in mind that if you use this function, the default binding of the label and the icon is gone
and the properties used for those bindings do not work anymore. If you still want to have the default binding, use the
bindDefaultProperties method and pass the two given parameters through. But keep in mind that the bindings
set up with these two methods are unidirectional, from the model to the view. If you want to have b binding from the
view to the model, use the bindPropertyReverse which takes the same arguments as the bindProperty
method.
createItem The last method named createItem gives the user the chance to add something different as child
widgets to the view. In that method you just create the widget you want to see in the view and return the new item. But
keep in mind that the default bindings may not work on those widgets and the code will fail. So it is always a good
idea to also define its own bindings with the bindItem method.
The following code shows how such a delegate could look like.
var delegate = {
configureItem : function(item) {
item.setPadding(3);
},
createItem : function() {
return new qx.ui.form.CheckBox();
},
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bindItem : function(controller, item, id) {
controller.bindProperty("name", "label", null, item, id);
controller.bindProperty("online", "checked", null, item, id);
}
};
The delegate defines, that CheckBox‘‘es should be used as child view items. As the
‘‘CheckBox‘‘es don’t have an icon, the ‘‘bindItem function needs to re-specify the bindings.
It binds the name and the online property of the model to the label and checked property of the CheckBox.
Object Controller
The most simple and lightweight controller is the object controller. It connects a model object with one or more
views. The data in the model can be anything a property can hold, i.e. a primitive data type like String or Number,
or a reference type like a map. With that you can for instance bind views like textfields, sliders and other widgets
visualizing primitive JavaScript types. But you can not only use views as targets. A target can be anything that has a
property with the proper type. Take a look at the following code example to see the object controller in action:
// create two sliders
var slider1 = new qx.ui.form.Slider();
var slider2 = new qx.ui.form.Slider();
// create a controller and use the first slider as a model
var controller = new qx.data.controller.Object(slider1);
// add the second slider as a target
controller.addTarget(slider2, "value", "value");
This code snippet ensures that every value set by slider1 will automatically be set as value of slider two. As you can
see, the object controller only wraps the fundamental single-value binding, trying to make its usage a little bit easier.
List Controller
A list controller could - as the name suggests - be used for list-like widgets. The supported list-like widgets in qooxdoo
are List, SelectBox and ComboBox, all in the qx.ui.form package. The controller expects a data array as a data model,
that contains the model objects. These objects are displayed in the list and can either have some primitive type or be
real qooxdoo objects. The following code snippet shows how to bind an array of strings to a list widget:
// create the model
var model = new qx.data.Array(["a", "b", "c", "d", "e"]);
// create a list widget
var list = new qx.ui.form.List();
// create the controller
var listController = new qx.data.controller.List(model, list);
Now every change in the model array will invoke a change in the list widget.
As a unique feature of the list controller a filtering method is included. You can assign a filter function to the controller
and the results will be filtered using your given function.
Tree Controller
Of course, also the tree does have its own controller. With that controller the Tree widget can automatically be filled
with data from qooxdoo objects containing the data. As model nodes for the tree, only qooxdoo widgets are allowed
containing at least two properties, one for holding its own children in a data array and a second one holding the name
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of the node which should be showed as the label of the tree folder widgets. Imagine that a model class called Node is
available containing the two already mentioned properties called ch for the children and n for the name. The following
code will bind a data model containing Node objects to a tree widget:
// create the model
var rootNode = new qx.Node();
rootNode.setN("root");
var childNode = new qx.Node();
childNode.setN("child");
rootNode.getCh().push(childNode);
// create the tree view
var tree = new qx.ui.tree.Tree();
// create the controller
var treeController = new qx.data.controller.Tree(rootNode, tree, "ch", "n");
After that code snippet, every change in the name or of the children will be automatically mapped into the tree view.
Selecting one of the tree folders will put the corresponding Node object into the selection array of the controller.
Form Controller
Also forms do have a special controller. The form controller uses a qx.ui.form.Form as target and a Object
controller for the bidirectional bindings. The usage equals to the usage of all other controllers. The main properties
of it are the model and target property. Given both, the controller connects the model and the target. An additional
feature of the form controller is the possibility to create the model for a given form. See the following code to get an
idea of using it.
// a form is available as ’form’
// create the controller
var formController = new qx.data.controller.Form(null, form);
// create the model
var model = formController.createModel();
If you nee additional information on forms, see form handling documentation. After executing this code, the controller
and the model variable do have the model available and therefore, the controller can set up the bindings.
Combining Controller
As a more advanced example we connect the selection of a tree to a list. Therefore we extend the code sample of the
tree controller section.
// create a list widget
var list = new qx.ui.form.List();
// create the controller
var listController = new qx.data.controller.List(null, list, "n");
// bind the selection of the tree to the list
treeController.bind("selection", listController, "model");
The example shows how the controller can work pretty well together with the single value binding. The trick is not
to set the model of the list controller at creation time. The model will be set by the single value binding from the tree
controllers selection. This works because the selection will be provided as data array.
Stores
The main purpose of the store components is to load data from a source and convert that data into a model. The task
of loading data and converting the data into a model has been split up. The store itself takes care of loading the data
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but delegates the creation of model classes and instances to a marshaler.
The only marshaler currently available is for JSON data and therefore, the only data store available is a JSON store.
Both will be described in detail in the following sections.
JSON Marshaler
NOTE: This class should only be used if you want to write your own data store for your own data types or request.
The marshaler takes care of converting JavaScript Objects into qooxdoo classes and instances. You can initiate each
of the two jobs with a method.
toClass This method converts a given JavaScript object into model classes. Every class will be stored and available
in the qx.data.model namespace. The name of the class will be generated automatically depending on the data
which should be stored in it. As an optional parameter you can enable the inclusion of bubbling events for every
change of a property. If a model class is already created for the given data object, no new class will be created.
toModel The method requires that the classes for the models are available. So be sure to call the toClass method
before calling this method. The main purpose of this method is to create instances of the created model classes and
return the model corresponding to the given data object.
createModel (static) This method is static and can be used to invoke both methods at once. By that, you can create
models for a given JavaScript objects with one line of code:
var model = qx.data.marshal.Json.createModel({a: {b: {c: "test"}}});
JSON Store
The JSON store takes an URL, fetches the given data from that URL and converts the data using the JSON marshaler
to qooxdoo model instances, which will be available in the model property after loading. The state of the loading
process is mapped to a state property. For the loading of the data, a qx.io.remote.Request will be used in the
store.
The following code shows how to use the JSON data store.
var url = "json/data.json";
var store = new qx.data.store.Json(url);
After setting the URL during the creation process, the loading will begin immediately. As soon as the data is loaded
and converted, you can access the model with the following code.
store.getModel();
JSONP Store
The JSONP store is based on the JSON store but uses a script tag for loading the data. Therefore, a parameter name
for the callback and an URL must be specified.
The following code shows how to use the JSONP data store.
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var url = "json/data.json";
var store = new qx.data.store.Jsonp(url, null, "CallbackParamName");
After setting the URL and the callback parameter name during the creation process, the loading will begin immediately.
YQL Store
YQL is the Yahoo! Query Language. Yahoo! describes it as “[...] an expressive SQL-like language that lets you
query, filter, and join data across Web services.” Based on the JSONP store, qooxdoo offers a YQL store, where you
can specify the YQL queries and qooxdoo handles the rest.
The following code demonstrates how to fetch some twitter messages.
var query = "select * from twitter.user.timeline where id=’wittemann’";
var store = new qx.data.store.YQL(query);
Combining with controllers
As described in the section above, you can access the model in the property after loading. The best solution is to use
the model with a controller and then bind the the model properties with single value binding together. The code for
this could look something like this.
store.bind("model", controller, "model");
Using the single value binding, the binding handles all the stuff related with the loading of the model data. That means
that the data will be available in the controller as soon as its available in the store.
How to get my own code into the model?
What if you want to to bring your own code to the generated model classes or if you even want to use your own model
classes? Thats possible by adding and implementing a delegate to the data store. You can either
• Add your code by supporting a superclass for the created model classes.
• Add your code as a mixin to the created model classes.
• Use your own class instead of the created model classes.
Take
a
look
at
the
API-Documentation
of
the
‘qx.data.store.IStoreDelegate
<http://demo.qooxdoo.org/1.3.1/apiviewer/index.html#qx.data.store.IStoreDelegate>‘_
to see the available methods and how to implement them.
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CHAPTER
FOUR
GUI TOOLKIT
4.1 Overview
4.1.1 Widgets
Widgets are the basic building blocks of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) in qooxdoo. Each GUI component, such as a
button, label or window, is a widget and can be placed within an existing user interface. Each particular type of widget
is provided by a corresponding subclass of Widget, which is itself a subclass of LayoutItem.
Widget can be subclassed with minimal effort to create custom widgets. The entire layout handling and children
handling in this class is only available as “protected”. It is possible to add some public API as needed.
Another framework class which extends LayoutItem is Spacer. A spacer is an empty area, which may be used as a
temporary placeholder that is to be replaced later, or explicitly as a flexible part in certain dynamic UI designs.
To structure an interface it is common to insert widgets into each other. Each child is displayed within the screen area
occupied by its parent. The hierarchical structure is also used to hide or show specific areas. This means for instance,
that hiding a parent hides its children as well. Another example would be when a widget is being disposed, all the
child widgets it contains are automatically being disposed as well.
4.1.2 Composites
As mentioned a few sentences above the normal Widget does not have public methods to manage the children. This
is to allow the normal Widget to be used for inheritance. To allow the creation of structures in applications, the
Composite was created.
Composite extends Widget and publishes the whole children and layout management of the Widget to the public. Typically it is used as a container for other widgets. Children can be managed through the methods add(),
remove(), etc. In application code Composites are used to structure the interface.
4.1.3 Roots
A special category of widgets are the root widgets. These basically do the connection between the classic DOM and
the qooxdoo widget system. There are different types of roots, each individually tuned for the requirements in the
covered use case.
First of all every application developer needs to decide if an application should be standalone e.g. working with a
minimal set of classic HTML or will be integrated into an maybe full-blown web page. Developers of an standalone
application normally have no problem to give the control to the toolkit (maybe even enjoy it to give away this responsibility), but this would not work for integrating qooxdoo into an existing web page layout.
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A standalone application normally only uses a really slimmed down set of HTML (in fact the file only functions as a
wrapper to load the application code). It normally does not include any CSS files and often comes with an empty body
element. In fact even simpler elements like headers, footers etc. are created using widgets (so they may benefit from
typical qooxdoo features like internationalisation, theming etc.).
• Application: Build full-blown application from scratch. Target audience are developers of a completely qooxdoo
based application.
• Page: Build applications as isles into existing content. Ideal for the more classic web developer. Needs to bring
in know how of HTML & CSS for non-qooxdoo content.
Both roots are attached directly to the document. The Application is automatically stretched to the full size of the
window and this way allows to position elements in relation to the right or bottom edge etc. This is not possible using
the Page root.
The instantiation of the required root widget is normally nothing the developer has to do. It is done by the application
class the developer chooses to extend. The next chapter will explain the concept behind applications in detail.
As even the Page root is attached to the document it would be still not possible to place children into a specific existing
column or box into the existing layout. However the developer of the web page may use any number of optional isles
to insert content into an existing layout (built with classic HTML markup). The isles are named Inline. They need an
existing DOM element to do their work (maybe using some type of getElementById). The reason for the overall
need, even when working with these isles, for the Page root is that all dynamically floating elements like tooltips,
menus, windows etc. are automatically placed into this root. This makes positioning of such elements a lot easier.
4.1.4 Applications
The application is the starting point of every qooxdoo application. Every qooxdoo application should also come with a
custom application class. The application is automatically initialized at the boot phase of qooxdoo (to be exact: when
all required JavaScript packages are loaded).
The first method each developer needs to get used to is the main method. It is automatically executed after the
initialization of the class. Normally the method is used to initialize the GUI and to load the data the application needs.
There are different applications which could be used as a starting point for a custom application:
• Standalone: Uses the Application root to build full blown standalone qooxdoo applications
• Inline: Uses the Page root to build traditional web page based application which are embedded into isles in the
classic HTML page.
• Native: This class is for applications that do not involve qooxdoo’s GUI toolkit. Typically they make only use
of the IO (“Ajax”) and BOM functionality (e.g. to manipulate the existing DOM).
4.2 Widgets Introduction
4.2.1 Widget
This is the base class for all widgets.
Features
• Integration with event system
• Focus handling
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• Drag and drop
• Auto sizing
• Theming
• Tool tips
• Context menus
• Visibility handling
• Sub widget management
Description
The widget is the base class for all qooxdoo widgets. It contains the widget system’s core functionality.
Diagram
A widget consists of at least three HTML elements. The container element, which is added to the parent widget, has two child Elements: The “decoration” element and the “content” element. The decoration element has
a lower z-Index and contains markup to render the widget’s background and border using an implementation of
qx.ui.decoration.IDecorator. The content element is positioned inside the “container” element to respect
paddings and contains the “real” widget element.
Demos
There are no explicit widget demos since the widget is typically sub classed.
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API
Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.core.Widget
4.2.2 Basic Widgets
Note: This chapter introduces some of the widgets found in qooxdoo. For a full list of widgets, please refer to the
Widget Reference.
Labels
Labels are one of the basic building blocks in applications. The qooxdoo Label supports two modes: One which
combines simple single line text content with the possibility to automatically render an ellipsis in cases where not
enough room is available. This is often the best choice for all types of simple labels and is the default mode in
qooxdoo. Through technical restrictions it is not possible to insert HTML in a so-configured instance. The other mode
allows rich content (HTML) and adds the option for multi-line content together with an advanced mechanism called
Height4Width which automatically re-wraps content based on the available width. This mode however cannot handle
automatic ellipsis (which makes less sense in multiline labels, but is also not technologically possible).
More details: Label
Images
The second building block of applications. The image class in qooxdoo is quite sophisticated. PNG transparency is
available in all browsers. Image data (e.g. format and dimension) is automatically pre-cached by the build system and
distributed to the application for optional performance (avoiding page reflow during application startup for example).
This data also makes it possible to allow semi-automatic image sprites, a feature which becomes more important in
larger applications. Image sprites combine multiple images (perhaps even with multiple states) in a single image
instance. Only the relevant part is shown, all other states or images are cropped. This has positive effects on the
latency (e.g. number of HTTP requests needed) and also improves the runtime performance (switching a state in an
image sprite is much faster than replacing the source of an image instance). Image sprites can be introduced in any
application at any time without changing the application code. The original image path is automatically interpreted as
a clipped image source with the needed offsets. Please note that this feature largely depends on qooxdoo’s tool chain
which is required to generate the image data for the client.
A major restriction of this technology is that the options to resize images on the client side are crippled (the normal
image is rendered through a background-image definition and allows no stretching at all). The alternate mode renders
the image using a normal image element. This is a good alternative whenever a part of the application depends on this
scaling feature but should not be used unless necessary.
More details: Image
Atoms
Atoms have been in qooxdoo for quite some time now. Basically, this widget combines an Image with a Label
and allows some alignment options for them. Both content types are optional and toggle-able. The Atom supports
shrinking like the Label while keeping the image intact. Atoms are used by many higher level widgets like Buttons (in
Tab Views, Toolbars, ...) or List Items etc.
More details: Atom
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Buttons
The Button is basically an Atom with some additional events. All relevant rendering features are already provided by
the Atom. Several variants of the Button are available: Repeat, Radio or Toggle Button.
The Button can be connected to a Command (a class to work with key bindings etc.) and fires an execute event when
clicked (or activated via the keyboard). The Repeat Button fires the execute event in an interval while being pressed.
The Toggle Button (which toggles between checked and unchecked) is an exception to this and fires a change event
on each transition of the checked property.
More details: Button
Text Fields
The Text Field is one of the most commonly used form elements. It fires two events: The input event is fired on
every keystroke or other type of text modification. This event fires “live”, i.e. whenever a modification is made. If
the application does not need this level of detailed information, it should use the change event which fires after the
modification is done, typically after the field has lost focus.
The Text Field supports basic label alignment to left, center or right. Preventing user inputs is possible
through the property enabled or readOnly. Disabling a widget greys it out and makes it unresponsive for all
types of interaction while readOnly only prevents the modification of the value and normally has no special visual
indication when enabled.
More details: TextField
Popups
Popups and Tooltips are comparable in some way. Both are rendered above other content (while tooltips are even
above Popups). Both widgets are automatically inserted into the application root widget (can be overridden when
needed).
Popups may be used for notification panels or a type of modal sub dialog. Basically they are just a container (with a
configurable layout) which lays above normal content.
By default, popups are automatically hidden if the user interacts with some other part of the application. This behavior
is controllable through the autoHide property. Popups are automatically moved back inside the viewport. In fact, it
is not possible to place Popups outside the viewport (not even partly). This behavior makes sense in almost every case
and improves the usability of popups in general.
With bringToFront and sendToBack the popups’ zIndex can be controlled in relation to other visible popups.
More details: PopUp
Tooltips
Tooltips are basically Popups with an Atom in them. But Tooltips improve on many of the features of the normal
Popup. The automatic positioning support as mentioned for the Popups supports offsets as well and automatically
moves the Tooltip to the best possible side in relation to the mouse cursor’s position.
Although it’s generally not necessary, every popup can be configured with an individual timeout. This is useful when
building different type of tooltips e.g. to display system notifications etc.
More details: ToolTip
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4.2.3 Interaction
Register listeners
To register listeners to a widget or other qooxdoo object just call addListener() with the given event type and
callback method on them. The method will be executed every time the event occurs. Some types of events will bubble
up the parent widget chain (such as mouse events, ...) while others are only fired on the original object (e.g. property
changes, ...). A typical registration might look like this:
obj.addListener("changeColor", this._onChangeColor, this);
The first parameter is the name of the event. The events supported by an object are listed in the API documentation
of each class in the “Events” section. The second argument is a pointer to a function to call. The function can also be
defined inline (in a closure). The third argument defines the context in which the function is executed. This argument
is optional and defaults to the object which is listened to, e.g. a listener on a button will call a function on the button.
The method is called with the event object as the first and only argument. The event object contains all information
about the target and state of the event and also contains some other useful data: Mouse events may contain mouse
coordinates while focus events may contain the focused element. Data events typically contain the current value of the
data field listened to.
Please note that event objects are automatically pooled after their dispatch. This is mainly for performance reasons;
event objects are reused during the application runtime. That’s why keeping references to event instances is not a good
idea! If some of the data is needed later during the application runtime it is best to store the actual data and not the
event object, e.g. store the coordinates instead of the mouse event object.
Event Phases
In the browser most user input events like mouse or keyboard events are propagated from the target element up to
the document root. In qooxdoo these events bubble up the widget hierarchy. This event propagation happens in two
phases, the capturing and the bubbling event phase. The last parameter of the addListener(type, listener,
context, capture) method defines whether the listener should be attached to the capturing (true) or bubbling
(false) phase.
In the capturing phase, the event is dispatched on the root widget first. Then it is dispatched on all widgets down
the widget tree until the event target is reached. Now the event enters the bubbling phase. In this phase the event is
dispatched in the opposite direction starting from the event target up to the root widget.
Most of the time only the bubbling phase is used but sometimes the capturing phase can be very useful. For example
a capturing listener for “mousedown” events on the root widget is guaranteed to receive every “mousedown” event
even if the target widget calls stopPropagation() on the event. Further it can be used to block events from sub
widgets.
Mouse Events
qooxdoo supports all the typical mouse events: mousedown, mouseup, click and dblclick as well as
mouseover and mouseout. For most action-related widgets execute is the better choice than click (see the
section about basic widgets). All these events behave identically in all supported browsers, even the sequence in which
they are fired is identical. All of them come with a usable target and sometimes even with a relatedTarget for
mouseover and mouseout events.
Every mouse event propagates the screen (e.g. getScreenLeft()), document (e.g. getDocumentLeft())
or viewport (e.g. getViewportLeft()) coordinates through the available getters. The getWheelDelta()
delta method provides information about the scroll amount of a mousewheel event. Some widgets like Spinners or
SelectBoxes make use of this event already.
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During every mouse event it is possible to check the status of modifier keys through the methods
isCtrlPressed(), isAltPressed() or isShiftPressed(). The pressed button can be detected by calling one of the methods isLeftPressed(), isMiddlePressed() or isRightPressed() on the mouse
event.
See the API documentation of the MouseEvent for a full list of all available methods.
Event Capturing
Usually only the widget underneath the mouse cursor will receive mouse events. This can be a problem in drag
operations where the mouse cursor can easily leave the dragged widget. This issue can be resolved in qooxdoo by
declaring this widget a capturing widget using the widget’s capture() method.
If a widget is a capturing widget, all mouse events will be dispatched on this widget, regardless of the mouse cursor’s
position. Mouse capturing is active until either a different widget is set to capture mouse events, the browser loses
focus or the user clicks the left mouse button. If a widget loses its capture state a losecapture event is dispatched
on the widget.
Internally, qooxdoo uses mouse capturing in menus, split panes or sliders for example.
Keyboard Support
DOM3-like event handling was the prototype for qooxdoo’s key event support. This means that key identifiers can be
used (instead of un-unified key codes) which is much more comfortable than what is known from most web application
frameworks. Basically each key on the keyboard has a name like Ctrl, Shift, F3 or Enter. A complete list of all
supported keys is available in the API documentation.
All the typical key sequence events keyup, keydown and keypress support the key identifier. The keypress
event is repeated during the time the key is pressed. That’s why keypress is the best candidate for most action
related keyboard events. Only use keyup and keydown when you really depend on the status of the key.
To handle character inputs e.g. on text boxes, there is a special keyinput event which has nice unified accessors,
getChar() and getCharCode(), to detect the pressed character. This even automatically respects the effects
modifier keys have, supporting e.g. German umlauts. The API lists all available methods of the KeyInput event.
Working with Commands
Commands (API) are used to bundle a command to be used by multiple buttons. They can also be used to define a
global shortcut to be used for this action.
Creating new commands is as easy as it can be. A shortcut can simply be defined through the constructor, e.g.:
var find = new qx.event.Command("Ctrl+F");
find.addListener("execute", this._onFind, this);
The command can easily be attached to many types of Buttons etc. Some of them, like the MenuButtons, automatically display the configured shortcut as well. As seen above, the Commands also make use of the key identifiers.
Focus Handling
Good keyboard support also means good focus support. One major feature is the seamless integration between DOM
focus handling and qooxdoo’s focus handling. Both system communicate with each other. This makes it possible to
integrate qooxdoo into normal web pages while still supporting the advanced focus features qooxdoo has to offer in
qooxdoo-powered isles.
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Focus handling in qooxdoo also means sophisticated support for the Tab key. While qooxdoo can also use the
functionality provided by the browser, it adds its own layer for tab focus handling by default. This layer supports
focus roots: A focus root is basically a widget which manages its own tab sequence. This is frequently used for
many types of windows inside complex applications: Instead of leaving the window when reaching the last of its child
widgets, the focus is moved back to the first child widget. The tab handling in qooxdoo is based on coordinates of
each widget on the screen. It follows the visible structure and not the internal application (or even markup) structure.
This is often seen as a huge benefit as it improves the usability of such applications out-of-the-box. It is also possible
to define a tabIndex on widgets which should be reachable in a static hard-coded way. It is not advisable to use
this feature too much. The automatic handling works quite well out of the box without hard-wiring every widget to a
specific tab position.
To make a widget focusable just enable the property focusable (API) on it. For most widgets, this will also
means that the widget is reachable using the Tab key, but this depends on the widget’s implementation of the method
isTabable().
Every widget can function as a focus root. To register a widget as a focus root just call the method addRoot() of
the FocusHandler like this:
qx.ui.core.FocusHandler.getInstance().addRoot(myWidget);
Activation is related to focus. While focus is limited to widgets which are marked as focusable, any widget can
be activated. Usually, the activation moves around while clicking on widgets (during the mouseup event). The
focus is applied to the next focusable parent while the activation directly happens on the widget that was clicked on.
Activation is mainly used for keyboard support (key events start bubbling from the active widget). Compared to the
focus, there is no visual highlighting for this state. To change the currently focused or active widget just call focus()
or activate():
myInputField.focus();
The properties keepFocus and keepActive are targeted more towards advanced users and developers of custom
widgets. Both prevent the focus or active state from moving away (from the widget that currently has it) to the
widget which has the specified property disabled. This is appropriate for complex widgets like a ComboBox where
the activation should be kept on the ComboBox itself when selecting items from the dropdown list.
4.2.4 Resources
Resources comprise images, icons, style sheets, Flash files, helper HTML files, and so forth. The framework itself
provides many icons and some other useful resources you can use right away in your application without any customization. This article however explains how to specify and use custom resources for your application.
Technical overview
Resources live in the source/resource/<namespace> subtree of each library. You explicitly reference a resource in your application code by just naming the path of the corresponding file under this root (This is also referred
to as the resource id).
So
if
there
is
a
resource
in
your
“myapp”
application
under
the
path
myapp/source/resource/myapp/icons/tray.png you would refer to it in your application code
with myapp/icons/tray.png.
To find the corresponding file during a build, qooxdoo searches all those paths of all the libraries your application is
using. The first hit will be regarded as the resource you want to use. (During the generation of a build version of
your app, these resource files will be copied to the build folder, so your build version will be self-contained).
The libraries are searched in the order they are declared in your config.json file. This usually means that your own resource folder comes first, then the framework’s resource folder, and then the resource folders of all further libraries you
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have included. This way, you can shadow resources of like names, e.g. by adding a file qx/static/blank.gif
under your source/resource folder you will shadow the file of the same resource id in the framework.
Declaring resources in the code
You have to declare the resources you wish to use in your application code in an #asset compiler hint near the top
of your source file.
/* ***
#asset(myapp/icons/16/folder-open.png)
*/
This is essential, since these hints are evaluated during the compile step, which searches for the corresponding files,
generates appropriate URIs to them and copies them to the build folder.
Instead of adding meta information for each individual resource, you may as well use simple (shell) wildcards to
specify a whole set of resources:
/* ***
#asset(myapp/icons/16/*)
*/
This is all you need to configure if your application code uses any of the icons in the given folder.
Using resources with widgets
Once you’ve declared the resource in your code, you can equip any compatible widget with it.
Here’s an example:
var button = new qx.ui.form.Button("Button B", "myapp/icons/16/folder-open.png");
Using qooxdoo icons with widgets
If you want to use some of the icons as resources that are part of the icon themes that come with qooxdoo, there are
the following three ways to do so:
1. Copy the icons you are interested in from the original location in the qooxdoo framework to the local resource
folder of your application. You are now independent of the qooxdoo icon theme folders and can manage these
icons as you would any other custom images.
2. Use a fully-qualified path that points to the qooxdoo resource folder. This solution would contain the icon
theme’s name explicitly.
3. Use a macro to get the icons from the current theme. This would allow for a later change of icon themes at
the config file level, without the need to adjust any resource URIs in your application code. The Generator
documentation explains how to declare these macros.
/*
#asset(myapp/icons/16/utilities-dictionary.png)
#asset(qx/icon/Oxygen/16/apps/utilities-dictionary.png)
#asset(qx/icon/${qx.icontheme}/16/apps/utilities-dictionary.png)
*/
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...
var button1 = new qx.ui.form.Button("First Button", "myapp/icons/16/utilities-dictionary.png");
var button2 = new qx.ui.form.Button("Second Button", "qx/icon/Oxygen/16/apps/utilities-dictionary.png
var button3 = new qx.ui.form.Button("Third Button", "icon/16/apps/utilities-dictionary.png");
When you use the third method above and you do not use the Modern theme, you must edit config.json in order
to have the meta theme’s icons and the explicitly given icon theme in sync:
{
"name"
: "myapp",
...
"let" :
{
"APPLICATION"
...
"QXTHEME"
"QXICONTHEME"
...
"ROOT"
}
: "myapp",
: "qx.theme.Classic",
: ["Oxygen"],
: "."
}
Obtaining the URL for a resource
To obtain a URL for a resource, use the ResourceManager:
var iframe = new
qx.ui.embed.Iframe(qx.util.ResourceManager.getInstance().toUri("myapp/html/FAQ.htm"));
4.2.5 Selection Handling
The framework contains several widgets which support selection handling. These are divided into widgets that support
Single Selection and others that support Multi Selection. A widget which supports multi selection also
supports single selection.
Here is a list of widgets which support single and/or multi selection:
• Multi Selection:
– Tree (API)
– List (API)
• Single Selection:
– SelectBox (API)
– RadioGroup (API)
– TabView (API)
– Stack (API)
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Selection Interfaces
Event
Both selections fire a changeSelection event if the selection has changed. Listeners can register with the event
to be notified about the changes. The event contains an array with the newly selected widgets. If the array is empty,
that means no widgets are selected.
list.addListener("changeSelection", function(e)
{
var selection = e.getData();
for (var i = 0; i < selection.lenght; i++) {
this.debug("Selected item: " + selection[i]);
}
}, this);
Selection Methods
The ISingleSelection interface specifies the methods for single selection handling. Since the methods of the
single selection interface are re-used, the IMultiSelection only extends the interface with methods for multi
selection handling.
Re-using the methods requires a uniform handling for setting and getting the current selection. This has been achieved
by using an array for the selection handling, see setSelection and getSelection.
Single Selection
The listed single selection widgets above implement the ISingleSelection. To implement the behavior they use
the MSingleSelectionHandling mixin. This mixin offers the methods for selection handling and also initializes the
manager for selection management.
The widget itself configures the mixin to allowing an empty selection or not. Dependent on the configuration,
resetSelection clears the current selection (empty array) or selects the first selectable element.
User interactions (mouse and keyboard) are managed from the widget, which only calls the selection methods if the
user interaction has an effect on the selection. So the selection management and the user interaction handling are
separated. This is one thing that has changed with the new selection API.
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Multi Selection
The multi selection implementation has hardly changed at all. The widgets supporting multi selection, also listed
above, have already used a mixin called MSelectionHandling for selection handling. Like the mixin for the single
selection, it offers the selection methods and initializes the selection manager. The mixin has only been changed to
conform to the new IMultiSelection interface.
Selection Modes
Due to the small changes the configuration for the selection mode hasn’t changed. The widgets also support the
property selectionMode with these different modes:
• single: Only one element or none at all can be selected.
• one: Exactly one item is selected if possible. The first selectable item is selected per default.
• multi: Multiple items can be selected by using the modifier keys together with mouse or keyboard actions. This
type also allows empty selections.
• adaptive: Easy Web-2.0 selection mode: multiple items can be selected without modifier keys. Empty selections are possible.
Note: Multi and Adaptive selections dealing with selection ranges, Single and One dealing with one selected item.
list.setSelectionMode("multi");
Selection Options
These options change the way a selection is created or modified. By default, items can be selected by holding down the
mouse button and hovering them or by holding down the modifier key and pressing the arrow keys to traverse them.
• Quick: One item can be selected by hovering it (no need to click on it or hit keys) Only possible for the modes
single and one.
• Drag: Multiselection of items through dragging the mouse in pressed states. Only possible for the modes multi
and additive.
list.setDragSelection(true);
How to use the selection API
Single Selection
The example below shows how to use the single selection API. This example uses the SelectBox widget:
// creates the SelectBox
var selectBox = new qx.ui.form.SelectBox();
this.getRoot().add(selectBox, {top: 20, left: 20});
// registers the listener
selectBox.addListener("changeSelection", function(event) {
this.debug("Selected (event): " + event.getData()[0].getLabel());
}, this);
// creates the items and select one of them
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for (var i = 0; i < 10; i++)
{
var item = new qx.ui.form.ListItem("ListItem" + i);
selectBox.add(item);
if (i == 5) {
selectBox.setSelection([item]);
}
}
this.debug("Selected (selectBox): " + selectBox.getSelection()[0].getLabel());
The output should be:
(1) Selected (event): ListItem0
(2) Selected (event): ListItem5
(3) Selected (selectBox): ListItem5
The SelectBox’s implementation doesn’t allow empty selections, so if the first item is added to the SelectBox it will
be selected (1). (2) occurs due to the selection and (3) from getSelection.
Multi Selection
The next example uses the List widget:
// creates the List and sets the selection mode
var list = new qx.ui.form.List();
list.setSelectionMode("multi");
this.getRoot().add(list, {top: 20, left: 20});
// registers the listener
list.addListener("changeSelection", function(event) {
this.debug("Selection (event): " + event.getData());
}, this);
// creates the items
for (var i = 0; i < 10; i++)
{
var item = new qx.ui.form.ListItem("ListItem" + i);
list.add(item);
}
// sets selection
list.setSelection([list.getChildren()[1], list.getChildren()[4]]);
this.debug("Selection (list): " + list.getSelection());
The output should look like this:
(1) Selection (event): qx.ui.form.ListItem[1p],qx.ui.form.ListItem[2a]
(2) Selection (list): qx.ui.form.ListItem[1p],qx.ui.form.ListItem[2a]
4.2.6 Drag & Drop
Drag & Drop is one of the essential technologies in today’s applications. An operation must have a starting point (e.g.
where the mouse was clicked), may have any number of intermediate steps (widgets that the mouse moves over during
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a drag), and must either have an end point (the widget above which the mouse button was released), or be canceled.
qooxdoo comes with a powerful event-based layer which supports drag&drop with full data exchange capabilities.
Every widget can be configured to cooperate with drag&drop be it as sender (draggable), receiver (droppable) or both.
A sender (drag target) can send data to any receiver (drop target).
You may like to see an example first:
• Drag&Drop for Lists
Basics
To enable Drag & Drop the properties draggable and droppable must be enabled on the specific widgets. For list type
sources or targets it’s often enough to make the top-level widget drag- or droppable e.g. the list instead of the list
items.
var dragTarget = new qx.ui.form.List;
dragTarget.setDraggable(true);
var dropTarget = new qx.ui.form.List;
dropTarget.setDroppable(true);
The basic drag&drop should start working with these properties enabled, but it will show the no-drop cursor over all
potential targets. To fix this one needs to register actions (and optionally data types) supported by the drag target. This
can be done during the dragstart event which is fired on the drag target:
dragTarget.addListener("dragstart", function(e) {
e.addAction("move");
});
The drop target can then add a listener to react for the drop event.
dropTarget.addListener("drop", function(e) {
alert(e.getRelatedTarget());
});
The listener now shows an alert box which should present the identification ID (classname + hash code) of the drag
target. Theoretically this could already be used to transfer data from A to B.
Data Handling
qooxdoo also supports advanced data handling in drag&drop sessions. The basic idea is to register the supported drag
data types and then let the drop target choose which one to handle (if any at all).
To register some types write a listener for dragstart:
source.addListener("dragstart", function(e)
{
e.addAction("move");
e.addType("qx/list-items");
e.addType("html/list");
});
This is basically only the registration for the types which could theoretically be delivered to the target. The IDs used
are just strings. They have no special meaning. They could be identical to typical mime-types like text/plain but
there is no need for this.
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The preparation of the data (if not directly available) is done lazily by the droprequest event which will explained
later. The next step is to let the target work with the incoming data. The following code block appends all the dropped
children to the end of the list.
target.addListener("drop", function(e)
{
var items = e.getData("qx/list-items");
for (var i=0, l=items.length; i<l; i++) {
this.add(items[i]);
}
});
The last step needed to get the thing to fly is to prepare the data for being dragged around. This might look like the
following example:
source.addListener("droprequest", function(e)
{
var type = e.getCurrentType();
if (type == "qx/list-items")
{
var items = this.getSelection();
// Add data to manager
e.addData(type, items);
}
else if (type == "html/list")
{
// TODO: support for HTML markup
}
});
Support Multiple Actions
One thing one might consider is to add support for multiple actions. In the above example it would be imaginable to
copy or move the items around. To make this possible one could add all supported actions during the drag event.
This might look like the following:
source.addListener("dragstart", function(e)
{
// Register supported actions
e.addAction("copy");
e.addAction("move");
// Register supported types
e.addType("qx/list-items");
e.addType("html/list");
});
The action to use is modifiable by the user through pressing of modifier keys during the drag&drop process.
The preparation of the data is done through the droprequest as well. Here one can use the action (call
e.getCurrentAction() to get the selected action) to apply different modifications on the original data. A
modified version of the code listed above might look like the following:
source.addListener("droprequest", function(e)
{
var action = e.getCurrentAction();
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var type = e.getCurrentType();
var result;
if (type === "qx/list-items")
{
result = this.getSelection();
if (action == "copy")
{
var copy = [];
for (var i=0, l=result.length; i<l; i++) {
copy[i] = result[i].clone();
}
result = copy;
}
}
else if (case == "html/list")
{
// TODO: support for HTML markup
}
// Remove selected items on move
if (action == "move")
{
var selection = this.getSelection();
for (var i=0, l=selection.length; i<l; i++) {
this.remove(selection[i]);
}
}
// Add data to manager
e.addData(type, result);
});
As known from major operating systems, exactly three actions are supported:
• move
• copy
• alias
which could be combined in any way the developer likes. qooxdoo renders a matching cursor depending on the
currently selected action during the drag&drop sequence. The event dragchange is fired on the source widget on
every change of the currently selected action.
Runtime checks
There are a few other pleasantries. For example it is possible for droppable widgets to ignore a specific incoming
data type. This can be done by preventing the default action on the incoming dragover event:
target.addListener("dragover", function(e)
{
if (someRunTimeCheck()) {
e.preventDefault();
}
});
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This could be used to dynamically accept or disallow specific types of drop events depending on the application status
or any other given condition. The user then gets a nodrop cursor to signal that the hovered target does not accept the
data. To query the source object for supported types or actions one would call the methods supportsAction or
supportsType on the incoming event object.
Something comparable is possible during the dragstart event:
source.addListener("dragstart", function(e)
{
if (someRunTimeCheck()) {
e.preventDefault();
}
});
This prevents the dragging of data from the source widget when some runtime condition is not solved. This is especially useful to call some external functionality to check whether a desired action is possible. In this case it might also
depend on the other properties of the source widget e.g. in a mail program it is possible to drag the selection of the
tree to another folder, with one exception: the inbox. This could easily be solved with such a feature.
Drag Session
During the drag session the drag event is fired for every move of the mouse. This event may be used to “attach” an
image or widget to the mouse cursor to indicate the type of data or object dragged around. It may also be used to render
a line during a reordering drag&drop session (see next paragraph). It supports the methods getDocumentLeft and
getDocumentTop known from the mousemove event. This data may be used for the positioning of a cursor.
When hovering a widget the dragover event is fired on the “interim” target. When leaving the widget the
dragleave event is fired. The dragover is cancelable and has information about the related target (the source
widget) through getRelatedTarget on the incoming event object.
Another quite useful event is the dragend event which is fired at every end of the drag session. This event is fired in
both cases, when the transaction has modified anything or not. It is fired when pressing Escape or stopping the session
any other way as well.
A typical sequence of events could look like this:
• dragstart on source (once)
• drag on source (mouse move)
• dragover on target (mouse over)
• dragchange on source (action change)
• dragleave on target (mouse out)
• drop on target (once)
• droprequest on source (normally once)
• dragend on source (once)
Reordering items
Items may also be reordered inside one widget using the drag&drop API. This action is normally not directly data
related and may be used without adding any types to the drag&drop session.
reorder.addListener("dragstart", function(e) {
e.addAction("move");
});
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reorder.addListener("drop", function(e)
{
// Using the selection sorted by the original index in the list
var sel = this.getSortedSelection();
// This is the original target hovered
var orig = e.getOriginalTarget();
for (var i=0, l=sel.length; i<l; i++)
{
// Insert before the marker
this.addBefore(sel[i], orig);
// Recover selection as it gets lost during child move
this.addToSelection(sel[i]);
}
});
4.2.7 Inline Widgets
This page describes how you can use qooxdoo widgets inside HTML-dominated pages. This use case is different from
creating a regular, “standalone” qooxdoo application.
Target Audience
Integrating qooxdoo widgets into existing HTML pages could be interesting to all users who already have (many)
existing pages, often some kind of “portal”, and therefore don’t want to transform these into a standalone rich Internet
application (RIA).
Online Demos
Take a look at the online demos to see the use of inline widgets in action.
• Absolute positioning demo
• Page flow using Inline
• Dynamic resize for Inline
• Inline window
Set Up An Inline Application
An inline application is set up by using the create-application script described in the Hello World section.
You just have to add the additional option -t with the value inline and you’re done.
/opt/qooxdoo-sdk/tool/bin/create_application.py -n myapp -t inline
Once executed you get a skeleton application which is ready-to-use to develop an inline application. The skeleton also
demostrates the different integration approaches which are described in the next section.
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Ways of Integration
There are basically two ways to integrate a qooxdoo widget into an existing HTML-dominated page:
• positioning a widget with absolute coordinates (maybe overlaying existing content)
• adding the widget within the page flow by using an existing DOM node as an isle
Which way you should choose depends on what you wish to achieve. Technically both share the same foundation.
Instead of using qx.application.Standalone as a base application class you need to extend from
qx.application.Inline as a starting point. So basically your (empty) application looks like this:
qx.Class.define("myPortal.Application",
{
extend : qx.application.Inline,
members :
{
main: function()
{
this.base(arguments);
// your code follows here
}
}
});
Absolute Positioning
Adding a widget to the page without regarding the page flow is a no-brainer. Just create the desired widget and add it
to the application root. As the application root is an instance of qx.ui.layout.Basic you can only use left and top
coordinates to position your widgets.
Note: Absolute positioning requires no existing DOM node in the target document.
qx.Class.define("myPortal.Application",
{
extend : qx.application.Inline,
members :
{
main: function()
{
this.base(arguments);
// add a date chooser widget
var dateChooser = new qx.ui.control.DateChooser();
// add the date chooser widget to the page
this.getRoot().add(dateChooser, { left : 100, top : 100 });
}
}
});
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Page Flow
However, the former solution won’t fit for e.g. a portal where the page is divided into several parts. In this case you
won’t have any absolute coordinates you could work with reliably.
To add widgets at certain locations inside the page you can create or reuse DOM nodes which act as islands where the
qooxdoo widgets live in regard to the page flow.
Note: You need to define specific DOM nodes in your document which act as islands for the qooxdoo widgets.
qx.Class.define("myPortal.Application",
{
extend : qx.application.Inline,
members :
{
main: function()
{
this.base(arguments);
// create the island by connecting it to the existing
// "dateChooser" DOM element of your HTML page.
// Typically this is a DIV as in <div id="dateChooser"></div>
var dateChooserIsle = new qx.ui.root.Inline(document.getElementById("dateChooser"));
// create the date chooser widget and add it to the inline widget (=island)
var dateChooser = new qx.ui.control.DateChooser();
dateChooserIsle.add(dateChooser);
}
}
});
4.2.8 Custom Widgets
Most widgets are built using a combination of pre-existing, more basic widgets. This is also true for custom widgets
made for a specific application or as an extension to the existing feature set of qooxdoo.
Inheritance Structure
A more complex widget usually extends the base class qx.ui.core.Widget. A widget can manage children using
a set of protected methods. Extending from a richer widget often has the side effect that the final class contains APIs
which do not make sense in the derived class anymore. Also be sure not to extend from Composite or a widget based
on this class. This is mainly because it has public methods for the normally internal layout and children handling and
would propagate all the internal information to the outside when children are added or the layout is modified by the
derived class.
A good example: Most rich text editors implemented in JavaScript make use of an iframe. One could imagine using
the Iframe class as a base to build such a component. The problem is that most of the methods and properties like
setSource or reload do not make a lot of sense on an editor component. It’s better to embed the needed widgets
into the outer widget to hide their functionality in the custom class.
The qooxdoo Spinner for example extends the Widget as well and adds a TextField and two RepeatButton
instances. The layout is done by a Grid layout. All the children and the chosen layout are hidden from the outside.
There are no public accessors for the layout or the children. This makes sense as no one is interested in the children of
a Spinner widget. These methods would also mean a lot of bloat added to the API of such an widget.
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Setup Content
The following methods may be used to manage children:
• _getChildren
• _add, _addAt, _addBefore, _addAfter
• _remove, _removeAt, _removeAll
It is possible to use any layout available. To set up the layout just use _setLayout. To access it afterwards use
_getLayout.
For details refer to the API documentation of qx.ui.core.Widget.
Child Controls
qooxdoo supports a mechanism called child controls. A child control is a widget as part of another widget. Child
controls were introduced to have a common way of accessing these controls and to make it easy to refine them when a
class should be extended. Each child control is accessible using an identifier which is basically a string. By convention
these strings are all lower-case und use dashes to structure complex identifiers. Typical identifiers are button, icon
or arrow-up. Never slashes / as this might conflict with the appearance system.
Instances for the supported child controls are created dynamically as needed. A widget developer just needs to override
the method _createChildControlImpl, let the method work on the customized controls, and just call the super
class method when the incoming ID is not supported. For example, such a method might look like:
_createChildControlImpl : function(id)
{
var control;
switch(id)
{
case "icon":
control = new qx.ui.basic.Image;
this._add(control);
break;
}
return control || this.base(arguments, id);
}
Each child control should directly add itself to the parent. As mentioned before child controls are automatically created
as needed. This basically means that if nobody asks for a specific child control it is never created or added. This is
an important feature for dynamic widgets as it reduces the initial memory and CPU usage. A child control is always
created when some code asks for it. This can happen through different methods:
• getChildControl(id, notcreate): Returns the child control with the given ID. May return null if
the second argument is true. This is basically used to check if the child control has already been created and
then apply something to it. In some more complex scenarios this makes sense, but it can be ignored for the
moment.
• _showChildControl(id): Executes show() on the child control. This method also creates the control if
that hasn’t happened yet. It also returns the control so other properties can be applied to it.
• _excludeChildControl(id): Excludes the widget using exclude(). When the control is not yet
created the function does nothing. The method has no return value.
• _isChildControlVisible(id): Returns true if the child control with the given ID is created and
visible.
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• hasChildControl(id): Returns true if the child control with the given ID has been created.
Styling
Child controls are automatically supported by the appearance system. For every child control a selector is generated
which starts with the first widget which is not a child control itself. Typical selectors look like:
• spinner/up-button
• groupbox/legend
• tree-item/icon
As a container for child controls may be a child control for another container as well, even more complex selectors are
possible:
• list/scrollbar-x/slider
• splitbutton/button/icon
This means that even the deepest child control can be easily accessed by theme authors. Widget authors should
define the styling of a widget in the appearance theme and not in the widget itself. The widget and the
_createChildControlImpl method should only apply functional properties like zIndex or tabIndex, but
no decorations, colors or fonts for example.
As mentioned, a key always starts with the appearance of the first widget which is not itself a child control. Appearance
values of the inner widgets are ignored as long as they are used as a child control. Instead, the ID of the child control
is used. The / is used to separate the child controls. All widgets added through user code start with their own
appearance. For example, the items of the List widget have the appearance list-item. Their appearance key is
also list-item and not list/item.
For details about styling please refer to the theming article.
HTML Elements
A normal qooxdoo widget consists of at least two HTML Elements (API). The first one is the container element which
is the outer frame of each widget. The inner one is the content element which is the target for children added to the
widget. The content element is also used for the iframe element of the Iframe widget and the image element of the
Image widget. This means it may contain children or may be used by a native DOM element which does not allow
any children.
There might be some other elements depending on the configuration:
• shadow: Placed into the container with negative offsets to be visible behind the original widget.
• decorator: Placed into the container with the same size as the container. Used to render all kinds of decorators.
• protector: Helper to fix certain hover issues when changing decorators during event sequences, e.g. hover
effects.
For widget authors, the content element is normally the most important, followed by the container element. The other
elements are quite uninteresting. It is good to know that they are there, but one typically has little to do with them.
Both elements are instances of qx.html.Element so they come with a cross-browser fixed API to apply styles
and attributes to the DOM nodes. All of these things can be done without the DOM element needing to be created or
inserted. For details on qx.html.Element please have a look at the technical documentation.
The elements are accessible through the functions getContentElement() and getContainerElement(),
respectively. The elements are stored privately in each widget instance and are only accessible through these methods
in derived classes.
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Custom Elements
qooxdoo normally generates a bunch of styled div elements. Some widgets like iframes or images need other
elements, though. Normally the only element which is replaced is the content element. To achieve this, the
method _createContentElement needs to be overwritten. The overwritten method should create an instance
of qx.html.Element (or a derived class), configure it with some static attributes or styles, and finally return it. For
most natively supported types there exists a class which can be used already. In special cases the widget author also
needs to write a special low-level class which is derived from qx.html.Element.
Working with Events
Events can be added to the HTML elements as well as to the child controls. The names of the methods assigned should
follow the following names for convention.
• For the HTML elements use: _onContentXXX or _onContainerXXX
• For the child controls use: _onIconXXX or _onFieldXXX etc.
Where XXX stands for the name of the event or of the change that happens.
_onIframeLoad or _onContentInput.
This will result in names like
Anonymous Widgets
Anonymous widgets are ignored in the event hierarchy. This is useful for combined widgets where the internal structure does not have a custom appearance with a different styling from the enclosing element. This is especially true
for widgets like checkboxes or buttons where the text or icon are handled synchronously for state changes to the outer
widget.
A good example is the SelectBox widget where the mouseover event should affect the entire widget at once and
not the different child controls of which it consists. So setting the child controls (in this case an atom and an image
widget) to anonymous keeps these child control widgets from receiving any events and the event handling is done
completely by the parent widget (the SelectBox itself).
4.2.9 Form Handling
The qx.ui.form package contains several classes for the construction of forms. Some widgets – like Button,
List or TextField – may look familiar if you have worked with HTML before, but this package also contains more
complex widgets that you may know from your operating system and/or native desktop applications (e.g. Spinner,
Slider or DateField).
Idea
The idea of the form API is to make handling of form widgets as simple as possible, but also as generic as possible
within the entire framework. There has been a thorough discussion on what would be the best solution and how to
design a solid API. This is what we ended up with.
Demos
If you like to see some of qooxdoo’s form management in action, take a look at the following samples in the demo
browser:
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Widgets
• All form widgets
• All form widgets with invalid states
Validation and Resetting
• Synchronous and asynchronous form validation
• Validation on different pages
Rendering
• Single column form
• Double column form
• Single column form using placeholders
• Custom form layout
Data Binding
• Manual form binding
• Form Controller
Interfaces
The entire form API is defined by a couple of interfaces. These interfaces contain the most important methods and
events for the form widgets. The following listing shows the interfaces, their purpose and how you can benefit from
them.
Form
The interface qx.ui.form.IForm defines a set of methods and events for every visible form widget. It contains
the listed events and methods.
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As you can see, the interface defines accessors for four different properties.
• The enabled property is usually inherited from the widget class and is used to deactivate a form element.
• The required property is just a boolean flag signaling that the form widget is required. This can be used by some
kind of form manager or parent widget to display the status of the widget.
• The valid property is a boolean flag containing true if the content of the widget is valid, but the form widgets
do not have any kind of code to set this property. It needs to be set from outside. If it is set to false, the
appearance will change automatically to properly signal the invalid state.
• The invalidMessage property should contain a message which will be shown in a tooltip if the valid flag is set
to false. If no message is given, no tooltip will appear.
Executable
The qx.ui.form.IExecutable interface defines the essential components for all executable widgets. The best
example for an executable widget is a button. It defines the following events and methods.
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As you can see, the interface defines accessors for only one property.
• The command property can take a qx.event.Command. The execute method executes the given command.
Range
The qx.ui.form.IRange interface defines the essential components for all widgets dealing with ranges. It defines
the following methods.
As you can see, the interface defines accessors for four properties.
• The minimum value of the range is defined by the Minimum property.
• The maximum value of the range is defined by the Maximum property.
• Each range has a single step value which is defined by the SingleStep property.
• Like the single step, there is a page step for every range which is defined by the PageStep property.
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Number / String / Color / Date / Boolean
Each of the listed interfaces define the same methods and events. The only difference in the interfaces is - as the name
says - the type of the data processed by the implementing widget. With that solution, we have the same API for every
form widget but can still determinate which type of value the widget expects by checking for the different interfaces.
Interfaces
• Number : qx.ui.form.INumberForm
• String : qx.ui.form.IStringForm
• Color : qx.ui.form.IColorForm
• Date : qx.ui.form.IDateForm
• Boolean : qx.ui.form.IBooleanForm
The color interface takes a string which has to be formatted like the common colors in qooxdoo.
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As you can see, the interface can be implemented with only one property.
• The value property takes the value of the widget. This is for example a boolean in a checkbox widget or a string
in a text field widget.
Model / ModelSelection
Most of the form items handling a selection had a value property in the old API. We replaced that with a model property
since the the value property is used for user input values. The methods for accessing the model data are defined in an
interface called qx.ui.form.IModel.
The model property can be used to store additional data which is represented by the widget. The data does not need to
be a string like in the old value property. You can store references to objects, numbers, strings and so on. Accessing
the model is very easy. Every widget containing a widget implementing the qx.ui.form.IModel interface has its
own interface to access the current selected model.
As you can see in the diagram, you can get the currently selected model and also set the selection using the models.
Widgets
The following listing shows the form widgets and their corresponding interfaces. To see more details about a widget,
take a look at the widgets documentation.
Sample Usage
The first example is a simple one, showing how to use two widgets implementing the IStringForm interface:
// create and add a textfield
var textfield = new qx.ui.form.TextField();
this.getRoot().add(textfield, {left: 10, top: 10});
// create and add a label
var label = new qx.ui.basic.Label();
this.getRoot().add(label, {left: 10, top: 40});
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// set the text of both widgets
textfield.setValue("Text");
label.setValue("Text");
The second example shows how to react on a change in a widget implementing the INumberForm interface. The
value of the slider will be shown as a label:
// create and add a slider
var slider = new qx.ui.form.Slider();
slider.setWidth(200);
this.getRoot().add(slider, {left: 10, top: 10});
// create and add a label
var label = new qx.ui.basic.Label();
this.getRoot().add(label, {left: 220, top: 10});
// add the listener
slider.addListener("changeValue", function(e) {
// convert the number to a string
label.setValue(e.getData() + "");
}, this);
The last example shows how to use the IForm interface and how to mark a widget as invalid:
// create and add a slider
var slider = new qx.ui.form.Slider();
slider.setWidth(200);
slider.setValue(100);
this.getRoot().add(slider, {left: 10, top: 10});
// set the invalid message
slider.setInvalidMessage("Please use a number above 50.");
// add the validation
slider.addListener("changeValue", function(e) {
if (e.getData() > 50) {
slider.setValid(true);
} else {
slider.setValid(false);
}
}, this);
All examples work in the Playground application.
Migrating to the new API
There are some important topics you have to keep in mind if you want to migrate from the former Form API to the
new one.
IFormElement
The previous form interface called qx.ui.form.IFormElement is deprecated now. Therefore, the name and
value properties for storing string information for serialization are gone also. If you are using those constructs, you
can instead use regular user data:
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widget.setName("field1"); // old
widget.setUserData("name", "field1");
// new
This works identically to the old code. The HTML name property will not be set after the call in both cases.
CheckBox and RadioButton
Widgets like CheckBox or RadioButton had a checked property for their state. This property is deprecated and is
now called value.
changeValue on List and SelectBox
It was quite common to use the changeValue event of a SelectBox or List to handle a change of the selection.
Due to the removal of value, the changeValue event has also been removed. Please use the changeSelection
event instead.
Label
The former content property of the Label class has been renamed to make it consistent with the rest of the framework. So the new name is the same as in every other widget: value.
Validation
Form validation is essential in most of the common use cases of forms. Thats why qooxdoo supports the application
developer with a validation component named qx.ui.form.validation.Manager. This manager is responsible for managing the form items which need to be validated. We tried to keep the API as minimal as possible but
simultaneously as flexible as possible. The following class diagram shows the user API of the component.
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The events, properties and methods can be divided into three groups:
• Validation
– getValid()
– isValid()
– validate()
– validator - property
– complete - event
– changeValid - event
• Form Item Management
– add(formItem, validator)
– reset()
• Invalid Messages
– getInvalidMessages()
– invalidMessage - property
The first part with which the application developer gets in contact is the add method. It takes form items and a validator.
But what are form items?
Requirements
Form items need two things. First of all, a given form item must be able to handle an invalid state and must have an
invalid message. This is guaranteed by the IForm interface already introduced. But that’s not all: The manager needs
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to access the value of the form item. Therefore, the form item needs to specify a value property. This value property is
defined in the data specific form interfaces also introduced above. So all widgets implementing the IForm interface
and one of the value defining interfaces can be used by the validation. For a list of widgets and the interfaces they
implement, take a look at the widgets section in this document.
Now that we know what the manager can validate, it’s time to learn how to validate. In general, there are two different
approaches in validation. The first approach is client side validation, which is commonly synchronous. On the other
hand, server side validation is asynchronous in most cases. We will cover both possibilities in the following sections.
Synchronous
The following subsections cover some common scenarios of synchronous validation. See this code snippet as basis
for all the examples shown in the subsections.
var manager = new qx.ui.form.validation.Manager();
var textField = new qx.ui.form.TextField();
var checkBox = new qx.ui.form.CheckBox();
Required Form Fields One of the most obvious validations is a check for a non-empty field. This can be seen in
common forms as required fields, which are easy to define in qooxdoo. Just define the specific widget as required and
add it to the validation manager without any validator.
textField.setRequired(true);
manager.add(textField);
The validation manager will take all the necessary steps to mark the field as invalid as soon as the validate method is
invoked if the text field is empty.
Default Validator Another common use case of validation is to check for specific input types like email addresses,
URLs or similar. For those common checks, qooxdoo offers a set of predefined validators in qx.util.Validate.
The example here shows the usage of a predefined email validator.
manager.add(textField, qx.util.Validate.email());
Custom Validator Sometimes, the predefined validators are not enough and you need to create an applicationspecific validator. That’s also no problem because the synchronous validator is just a JavaScript function.
In this function, you can either return a boolean which signals the validation result or you can throw a
qx.core.ValidationError containing the message to be displayed as an invalid message. The validation
manager can handle both kinds of validators. The example here checks if the value of the text field has a length of at
least 3.
manager.add(textField, function(value) {
return value.length >= 3;
});
Validation in the context of the form All shown validation rules validate each form item in its own context. But it
might be necessary to include more than one form item in the validation. For such scenarios, the manager itself can
have a validator too. The example here demonstrates how to ensure that the text field is not empty if the checkbox is
checked.
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manager.setValidator(function(items) {
if (checkBox.getValue()) {
var value = textField.getValue();
if (!value || value.length == 0) {
textField.setValid(false);
return false;
}
}
textField.setValid(true);
return true;
});
Asynchronous
Imagine a scenario where you want to check if a username is already taken during a registration process or you want
to verify a credit card number. This type of validation can only be done by a server and not in the client. But you
don’t want the user to wait for the server to process your request and send the answer back. So you need some kind of
asynchronous validation.
For
all
asynchronous
validation
cases,
we
need
a
wrapper
for
the
validator,
the
qx.ui.form.validation.AsyncValidator. But that does not mean a lot work for the application
developer. Just take a look at the following example to see the AsyncValidator in action.
manager.add(textField, new qx.ui.form.validation.AsyncValidator(
function(validator, value) {
// here comes the async call
qx.event.Timer.once(function() {
// callback for the async validation
validator.setValid(false);
}, this, 1000);
}
));
The only difference to the synchronous case, at least from the application developer’s point of view, is the wrapping
of the validator function. Take a look at the following sequence diagram to get an insight on how the asynchronous
validation is handled.
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The asynchronous validation can not only be used for form items. Also, the manager itself can handle instances of the
AsyncValidator as validator.
Serialization
Entering data into a form is one part of the process. But usually, that entered data needs to be sent to the server. So
serialization is a major topic when it comes to forms. We decided not to integrate this in one form manager which
would be responsible for both validation and serialization.
Idea
The main idea behind this was to ensure that it cooperates nicely with features like the form widgets and the corresponding data binding components. So we decided to split the problem into two different parts. The first part is storing
the data held in the view components as a model. The second part takes that model and serializes its data. Sounds like
data binding? It is data binding!
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But you don’t have to connect all these widgets yourself. qooxdoo offers an object controller which can take care
of most of the work. But where do you get the model? Writing a specific qooxdoo class for every form sounds like
a bit of overkill. But qooxdoo has a solution for that, too. The creation of classes and model instances is already a
part of the data binding components and can also be used here. Sounds wierd? Take a look at the following common
scenarios to see how it works.
Common Scenarios
The most common scenario is to serialize a number of form items without any special additions. Just get the values of
the entire form and serialize them.
// create the ui
var name = new qx.ui.form.TextField();
var password = new qx.ui.form.PasswordField();
// create the model
var model = qx.data.marshal.Json.createModel({name: "a", password: "b"});
// create the controller and connect the form items
var controller = new qx.data.controller.Object(model);
controller.addTarget(name, "value", "name", true);
controller.addTarget(password, "value", "password", true);
// serialize
qx.util.Serializer.toUriParameter(model);
The result will be name=a&password=b because the initial values of the model are a and b.
This way, the serialization is separated from the form itself. So hidden form fields are as easy as it could be. Just add
another property to the model.
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var model = qx.data.marshal.Json.createModel(
{name: "a", password: "b", c: "i am hidden"}
);
Keep in mind that you’re creating a model with that and you can access every property you created using the default
getters and setters.
You might be asking yourself “What if i want to convert the values for serialization? My server needs some different
values...”. That brings us to the topic of conversion. But as we have seen before, the mapping from the view to
the model is handled by the data binding layer which already includes conversion. Take a look at the data binding
documentation for more information on conversion.
Need something special? In some cases, you might want to have something really special like serializing one value
only if another value has a special value or something similar. In that case, you can write your own serializer which
handles serialization the way you need it.
Resetting
A third useful feature of a form besides validation and serialization is resetting the entire form with one call. Doesn’t
sound complicated enough that a separate class is needed. But we decided to do it anyway for good reasons:
• The validation manager is not the right place for resetting because it handles only the validation.
• The form widget, responsible for layouting forms, is a good place, but we don’t want to force developers to use
it if they just want the reset feature.
So we decided to create a standalone implementation for resetting called qx.ui.form.Resetter.
Like the task of resetting itself, the API is not too complicated. We have one method for adding items, and another
one for resetting all added items.
How It Works
Technically, it’s not really a challenge thanks to the new form API. You can add any items either having a value
property defined by one of the data specific form interfaces or implementimg the selection API of qooxdoo. On every
addition, the resetter grabs the current value and stores it. On a reset all stored values are set.
Sample Usage
The following sample shows how to use the resetter with three input fields: A textfield, a checkbox and a list.
// create a textfield
var textField = new qx.ui.form.TextField("acb");
this.getRoot().add(textField, {left: 10, top: 10});
// create a checkbox
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var checkBox = new qx.ui.form.CheckBox("box");
this.getRoot().add(checkBox, {left: 10, top: 40});
// create a list
var list = new qx.ui.form.List();
list.add(new qx.ui.form.ListItem("a"));
list.add(new qx.ui.form.ListItem("b"));
list.setSelection([list.getSelectables()[0]]);
this.getRoot().add(list, {left: 10, top: 70});
// create the resetter
var resetter = new qx.ui.form.Resetter();
// add the form items
resetter.add(textField);
resetter.add(checkBox);
resetter.add(list);
// add a reset button
var resetButton = new qx.ui.form.Button("Reset");
resetButton.addListener("execute", function() {
resetter.reset();
});
this.getRoot().add(resetButton, {left: 120, top: 10});
Form Object
We’ve already covered most parts of form handling. But one thing we’ve left out completely until now is layouting
the form items. Thats where the qx.ui.form.Form widget comes into play.
What is it?
The qooxdoo form is an object which includes three main parts.
• Validation using the qx.ui.form.validation.Manager class
• Resetting using the qx.ui.form.Resetter class
• Handling the layout of the form
As we have already talked about the first two items, I’ll cover the last item in a more detailed way.
In most cases, a form’s layout is specific to the application. It depends on the space available in the application
and many other factors. Thats why qooxdoo has this flexible form layouting tool, which includes a set of default options to layout a form. On of the main requirements of the solution was extensibility so that anyone could
have the layout their application requires. To get achieve this, we applied a pattern used widely across the qooxdoo framework, which moves all UI related code to renderer classes. These renderers are as lightweight as possible to make it easy for developers to write their own custom renderer, as you can see in this UML diagram:
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Renderer
As the diagram shows, qooxdoo provides an interface for FormRenderer, the IFormRenderer interface. It defines
two methods, one for adding a group of form items and one for adding buttons.
• addItems(items : qx.ui.form.IForm[], names : String[], title : String) : void
• addButton(button : qx.ui.form.Button) : void
Surely you’ve recognized the difference to the API of the form itself. Widgets are added to the form individually, but
the renderer always gets a group of widgets at once. This gives the renderer additional information which it may need
to render the form based on the number of groups rather then on the number of widgets.
You may ask yourself why we didn’t use the layouts we usually use in such scenarios if we ant to render widgets on
the screen. It may be necessary for a renderer to contain even more than one widget. Imagine a wizard or a form
spread out over multiple tabs. That wouldn’t be possible using layouts instead of renderer widgets.
The following sections show the renderers included in qooxdoo, which can be used out of the box.
Default (Single Column) If you don’t specify a renderer, the default is used, which is a single column renderer.
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As you can see in the picture, the renderer adds an asterisk to every required field, adds a colon at the end of every
label and defines the vertical layout.
Double Column The double column renderer has the same features as the previously introduced single column
renderer but renders the fields in two columns, as you can see in the following picture.
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Single Column with Placeholer This renderer is more a of demo showing how easy it can be to implement your
own renderer. It has a limitation in that it can only render input fields which have the placeholder property. But the
result is pretty nice:
Sample Usage
After we’ve seen how it should look, here come some examples showing how it works. In this example, we want to
create a form for an address management tool. So we divide our input fields into two groups. The first group contains
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two text fields, one for the first name and one for the last name. The second group contains some contact data like
email, phone number and company name. Finally, we want to add two buttons to the form, one for saving the data if
it is valid and another for resetting the form. So here we go...
First, we need a form object.
// create the form
var form = new qx.ui.form.Form();
After that, we can create the first two input fields. As these two fields are required, we should mark them as such.
// create the first two input fields
var firstname = new qx.ui.form.TextField();
firstname.setRequired(true);
var lastname = new qx.ui.form.TextField();
lastname.setRequired(true);
As you can see, the input fields are text fields as described above. Next, we can add those input fields to the form.
// add the first group
form.addGroupHeader("Name");
form.add(firstname, "Firstname");
form.add(lastname, "Lastname");
First, we added a group header to create a headline above the two input fields. After that, we added them with a name
but without a validator. The required flag we set earlier is enough. We need to add another group of input fields for
the contact data.
// add the second group
form.addGroupHeader("Contact");
form.add(new qx.ui.form.TextField(), "Email", qx.util.Validate.email());
form.add(new qx.ui.form.TextField(), "Phone");
After adding the second group header, you’ll see the text field for the email address, which uses a predefined email
validator from the framework. The phone number does not get any validator at all. The last missing thing are the
buttons. First, add the save button.
// add a save button
var savebutton = new qx.ui.form.Button("Save");
savebutton.addListener("execute", function() {
if (form.validate()) {
alert("You can save now...");
}
});
form.addButton(savebutton);
The save button gets an execute listener which first validates the form and, if the form is valid, alerts the user. The
reset button is analogous.
// add a reset button
var resetbutton = new qx.ui.form.Button("Reset");
resetbutton.addListener("execute", function() {
form.reset();
});
form.addButton(resetbutton);
Now the form is complete and we can use the default renderer to render the form and add it to the document.
// create the view and add it
this.getRoot().add(new qx.ui.form.renderer.Single(form), {left: 10, top: 10});
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Running this code will create a form as described above which will look like this:
If you want to get a different look and feel, you can create a different renderer.
// create the view and add it
this.getRoot().add(
new qx.ui.form.renderer.SinglePlaceholder(form),
{left: 10, top: 10}
);
Just give it a try in the playground.
Form Controller
Data binding for a form certainly is a handy feature. Using a model to access data in the form brings form handling to
another level of abstraction. That’s exactly what the form controller offers.
The form controller is fully covered in the data binding documentation.
Sample Usage
The following example shows how to use the controller with a simple form, which contains three text fields: One for
salutation, one for first name and one for last name.
First, we create the form:
// create the form
var form = new qx.ui.form.Form();
In a second step we add the three text fields. The important thing here is that if no name is given - as in the first two
cases - each label will also be used as a name. For that, all spaces in the label are removed.
// add the first TextField ("Salutation" will be the property name)
form.add(new qx.ui.form.TextField(), "Salutation");
// add the second TextField ("FirstName" will be the property name)
form.add(new qx.ui.form.TextField(), "First Name");
// add the third TextField ("last" will be the property name)
form.add(new qx.ui.form.TextField(), "Last Name", null, "last");
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After we add the text fields, we can add the view to the application root.
// add the form to the root
this.getRoot().add(new qx.ui.form.renderer.Single(form));
Now that the form has been created, we can take care of the data binding controller. We simply supply the form
instance as an argument to the constructor. But we don’t have a model yet, so we just pass null for the model.
// create the controller with the form
var controller = new qx.data.controller.Form(null, form);
The final step for data binding is to create the actual model.
// create the model
var model = controller.createModel();
Take
a
look
at
the
following
sequence
diagram
to
see
how
it
works
internally.
Now we have managed to set up a form and a model connected by bidirectional bindings. So we can simply use the
model to set values in the form.
// set some values in the form
model.setSalutation("Mr.");
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model.setFirstName("Martin");
model.setLast("Wittemann");
As you can see here, the properties (and therefore setters) are defined according to the names we gave the text fields
when adding them.
See the code in action in the playground.
Still to come...
• A way to create a form out from a JSON definition
4.2.10 Menu Handling
Menus are well-established user interface elements in GUIs. They are popup-like controls that provide simple or
cascading lists of buttons. Typical uses show menus opening off from buttons in tool bars, or popping up as context
menus on mouse right-clicks e.g. on a tree element.
Here are a few examples:
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The Demobrowser provides further examples.
Menus can be constructed in a qooxdoo application using widgets from the qx.ui.menu name space. The main class
from this package is Menu. Other classes allow you to tailor the appearance and the behaviour of the menu you create.
You can even use checkboxes and radiobuttons inside your menus.
Simple Example
Here is a simple menu example:
// Create the menu
var menu = new qx.ui.menu.Menu();
// Creates the command
var command = new qx.event.Command("Control+O");
command.addListener("execute", function() {
this.debug("Open action");
},this);
// Add some content
var openButton = new qx.ui.menu.Button("Open", "icon/16/actions/document-open.png", command);
var closeButton = new qx.ui.menu.Button("Close");
menu.add(openButton);
menu.add(closeButton);
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// Add behaviour
closeButton.addListener("execute", function() {
this.debug("Close action");
}, this);
// Create a button that will hold the menu
var button = new qx.ui.form.MenuButton("Menu", null, menu);
There are a couple of things to note here:
• The main widget is the menu of type qx.ui.menu.Menu.
• Menu buttons are of type qx.ui.menu.Button and are created individually.
• They are then added to the menu. The buttons will appear in the menu in the order they are added.
• The closeButton is created with the minimal set of parameters, namely just the string for the button label.
For a more advanced solution, see the openButton: you can optionally specify a button icon, and a command
qx.event.Command that is invoked if the button or the shortcut is pressed/selected.
• You can supply missing or updated features after the widget’s creation; e.g. the callback function for the
closeButton is provided in a separate method call to addListener().
• The canonical event for the selection of a menu button is the execute event. (This is in line with other button
flavors throughout the qooxdoo framework, e.g. the regular qx.ui.form.Button).
Complex Menu Sample
This example should show how to create a menu structure with submenu and how to handle with groups.
Qooxdoo has some widgets that need a menu to handle user interaction. For this sample we will chose the
qx.ui.toolbar.ToolBar to create the menu structure. To see a overview, witch widgets uses a menu, take
a look in the Menu.
This code snippet show how to create a “ToolBar” with to menu items “File” and “View”:
// Create the toolbar and add to the DOM
var toolBar = new qx.ui.toolbar.ToolBar();
this.getRoot().add(toolBar, {
left: 20,
top: 20,
right: 20
});
// Create "File" menu
var fileButton = new qx.ui.toolbar.MenuButton("File");
toolBar.add(fileButton);
var fileMenu = new qx.ui.menu.Menu();
fileMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.Button("New", null, null, this.__getNewMenu()));
fileMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.Button("Open...", "icon/16/actions/document-open.png"));
fileMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.Separator());
fileMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.Button("Save", "icon/16/actions/document-save.png"));
fileMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.Button("Save As...", "icon/16/actions/document-save-as.png"));
fileMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.Separator());
fileMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.Button("Exit", "icon/16/actions/application-exit.png"));
fileButton.setMenu(fileMenu);
// Create "View" menu
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var viewButton = new qx.ui.toolbar.MenuButton("View");
toolBar.add(viewButton);
var viewMenu = new qx.ui.menu.Menu();
viewMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.Button("Panes", null, null, this.__getPanesMenu()));
viewMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.Button("Syntax", null, null, this.__getSyntaxMenu()));
viewMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.Separator()); // First kind to add a separator
viewMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.CheckBox("Show ruler"));
viewMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.CheckBox("Show line numbers"));
viewMenu.addSeparator(); // A other kind to add a separator
viewMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.Button("ASCII table..."));
viewButton.setMenu(viewMenu);
There are a couple of things to note here:
• The qx.ui.menu.Menu could get some different children (Button, Seperator, CheckBox, ...)
• The fourth parameter in qx.ui.menu.Button is also a menu. So it is possible to create submenus.
• There are tow kinds to add a separator to a menu. The first kind is to create a Separator instance and
add this to the menu. Or the other kind is to call the addSeparator method from the Menu instance.
The next code snipped should explain how to create a menu, which contain RadioButtons, but only one could be
selected:
__getSyntaxMenu : function()
{
var syntaxMenu = new qx.ui.menu.Menu();
var cDialectMenu = new qx.ui.menu.Menu();
cDialectMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.RadioButton("C"));
cDialectMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.RadioButton("C Sharp"));
cDialectMenu.add(new qx.ui.menu.RadioButton("C Plus Plus"));
var
var
var
var
htmlButton = new qx.ui.menu.RadioButton("HTML");
jsButton = new qx.ui.menu.RadioButton("JavaScript");
cdialectButton = new qx.ui.menu.Button("C Dialect", null, null, cDialectMenu);
pythonButton = new qx.ui.menu.RadioButton("Python");
syntaxMenu.add(htmlButton);
syntaxMenu.add(jsButton);
syntaxMenu.add(cdialectButton);
syntaxMenu.add(pythonButton);
// Configure and fill radio group
var langGroup = new qx.ui.form.RadioGroup();
langGroup.add(htmlButton, jsButton, pythonButton);
langGroup.add.apply(langGroup, cdialectButton.getMenu().getChildren());
return syntaxMenu;
}
You can see, that the menu contains RadioButton and all RadioButton should grouped in one RadioGroup,
but the RadioButton in the submenu “C Dialect” should also be considered in the RadioGroup.
To add a RadioButton to the RadioGroup call the add() method from the RadioGroup. The parameter from add() is a variable number of items which should be added. You can see that the code calls a
langGroup.add.apply() method to add the RadioButton from the “C Dialect” submenu. This is no qooxdoo construction, the apply() method is a construction from JavaScript and it is not important to know how thus the
method works.
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Additional Menu Topics
Menu positioning
Qooxdoo will go a long way to position a menu sensibly and with regard to the enclosing container, so that menu
buttons are always fully visible if the menu is opened.
The Placement demo shows how the menus are positioned.
4.2.11 Window Management
Window is a widget used to show dialogs or to realize a MDI (Multiple Document Interface) applications.
Windows can only be added to qx.ui.window.Desktop widgets, or to widgets which implement the
qx.ui.window.IDesktop interface.
Each Desktop widget must have a qx.ui.window.Manager. If none is provided, the default window manager
(qx.ui.window.Window#DEFAULT_MANAGER_CLASS) is used. The desktop uses the manager to handle the
contained windows.
The manager takes care of windows z-index order. Windows can be normal (default), always on top or modal. Always
on top windows stay on top of normal windows and modal windows appear in front of all other windows. If there are
a bunch of windows open and we close one, the manager will activate the window that is higher in the z-index order
stack.
Let’s see this in action. We’ll create a tabview with one page, create a desktop widget for the page, and add different
types of windows. You can see how the opened windows stack on each other and when you close one, the highest
z-index order window will get activated.
var
var
var
var
var
var
root = this.getRoot();
tabView = new qx.ui.tabview.TabView();
page = new qx.ui.tabview.Page("Desktop");
windowManager = new qx.ui.window.Manager();
desktop = new qx.ui.window.Desktop(windowManager);
aWindow = null;
page.setLayout(new qx.ui.layout.Grow());
page.add(desktop);
tabView.add(page);
root.add(tabView, {edge: 0});
//create 3 normal windows and add them to the page’s desktop
for (var i=0; i<3; i++)
{
aWindow = new qx.ui.window.Window("Normal Window #" +i).set({
width:300
});
desktop.add(aWindow);
aWindow.open();
}
//create 3 alwaysOnTop windows and add them to the page’s desktop
for (var i=0; i<3; i++)
{
aWindow = new qx.ui.window.Window("AlwaysOnTop Window #" +i).set({
width:300
});
aWindow.setAlwaysOnTop(true);
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desktop.add(aWindow);
aWindow.open();
}
//create a modal window and add it to the page’s desktop
aWindow = new qx.ui.window.Window("Modal Window #" +i).set({
width:300
});
aWindow.setModal(true);
desktop.add(aWindow);
aWindow.open();
Like I said, windows can be added to widgets which implement the IDesktop interface. This interface is implemented
by qx.ui.window.MDesktop mixin. You can use this mixin to make a custom widget behave like a Desktop.
This is exactly what the superclass of all root widgets (qx.ui.root.Abstract) does. This is why we can add
windows to a root widget.
var win = new qx.ui.window.Window("First Window");
var root = this.getRoot();
root.add(win);
win.open();
Related documentation
Window widget
Demos and API
To find out more, you can check the desktop demo and the API reference.
4.2.12 HTML Editing
HtmlArea is a html editing widget which is part of the framework. This widget is available as low-level and UIlevel implementation. The first targets traditional webpages / single-page applications and the latter Rich Internet
Applications (RIA) as preferred usecase.
Here you can find some interesting technical info.
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Demo
Setup
One important step is necessary to get the HtmlArea up and running.
Note: If you setup the component without handing the source parameter you have to place a blank.html file next to
your applications index.html.
This is necessary due the Same-Origin Policy implemented by most browsers.
Features
Feature List
This page aims to describe the features of the HtmlArea component. Aims because there are for sure features which
are missing or considered as must-have to not enter the feature list as own entry.
This page should get you a good overview of what you can expect from this HTML editing component.
End-User Features
Text Formatting
• Bold
• Italic
• Underline
• Strikethrough
• Text Color
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• Background Color
• Font Size
• Font Family
Alignment
• Left
• Center
• Right
• Justify
Lists
• Unordered lists
• Ordered lists
Inserting
• Tables
• Images
• Horizontal rulers
• Hyperlink
• HTML code
Document Wide Formatting
• Background Image
• Background Color
Additional Features
• Removing format
• Select the whole content
• Indent / Outdent
• Undo / Redo
Developer Features
Events
• Load / LoadingError and Ready
• Current cursor context
• Contextmenu
• Focus / Focus out
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Content Manipulation
• Content as HTML output
• Post-process HTML output
• Current selected HTML
• Reset content
• Context Information of current focused node (e.g. to update a toolbar widget)
Advanced Paragraph-Handling
• Keeps formatting across multiple paragraphs
• Type of line-break adjustable (new paragraph or new line)
• Support for Shift+Enter and Ctrl+Enter to insert single line-break
Additional Features
• Hotkey Support
• Set own CSS for content at startup
• Access to content document and content body
• Access to editable iframe element
Technical Feature List
In comparison to the Feature List of the HtmlArea this page describes some technical insights of the component. If
you plan to get to know some details of how to develop a WYSIWYG component and want to learn the pitfalls of the
different browser implementations this is good place to start.
Startup The HtmlArea relies on a editable iframe. To take control over this iframe the component has to ensure that
the iframe’s document is fully loaded and accessible. For every browser the load event of the iframe object is used.
Only for IE it is necessary to poll the document if it’s not immediately available after the load event. The result of
the startup phase is the ready event which informs the application developer that the startup was successful.
Content Wrapping Since the application developer only sets the content of the HtmlArea and not the whole document the component needs to setup the rest of the content (DOCTYPE, HTML and BODY elements). The difficult
exercise here is to set the right style attribute at the right element for each browser.
The toughest thing is to get the right behaviour for native scrollbars. In IE for example the overflow handling with
overflow-x and overflow-y does not work correctly. When both style attributes are set IE does mix them up
by overwriting one with the others value.
Anyway, the correct content wrap is important for
• document is taking the whole space of the iframe
• no margins and paddings are set
• scrollbars are only shown if the user enters more content than space is available
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Editable Document Another pitfall is how to set the document of the iframe object editable. There are two properties
which can be be applied for an editable document: designMode and editable.
The designMode property is applied for all browsers and works at the document node of the iframe.
Setting the editable property is only needed for gecko browsers. And only if the HtmlArea was hidden and shown
again. The editable property is applied to the body element.
Internet Explorer For IE it is important to set the document design mode before the content is rendered. Once the
document is editable it does not loose this status even if the whole component is hidden and shown again.
Gecko, Webkit and Opera All three need to have rendered content to set the document design mode correctly.
Focus Management At least IE has problems whenever a native command (execCommand method) does manipulate
the content of the editable iframe and the iframe document does not have the focus. If an application developer want
to use a toolbar to offer the user an interface to manipulate the content he has to make sure that each of these buttons
need a special setup. Otherwise the button would steal the focus from the editing component whenever clicked.
Luckily qooxdoo does offer this customization out-of-the-box. The application developer only has to set the properties
keepFocus to true and focusable to false.
button.set({
focusable: false,
keepFocus: true
});
Advanced Key Events One major feature is to track the user input. To use the powerful key event handler in
qooxdoo the HtmlArea does listen to all key events at the body element and handles various actions depending on the
user’s input. This way it is possible to work with a keyIdentifier instead of the keyCode or charCode.
Integration Guide
Integrate the HtmlArea into your application
Note: This explanations mainly do address the 0.8+ based HtmlArea component.
This page does explain what you should consider when integrating the HtmlArea component in your application.
However, it does not explain how to setup the component itself, it’s rather an integration guide to avoid pitfalls.
Use Public API This one should be self-explaining. Do not use any internal API to get things done even it’s the easy
way to go. If it’s hidden from the application developer then by purpose, but if you need access to specific parts of the
component which is not offered don’t hesitate to file a bug report.
Use Events The component does offer various events to work with e.g. the ready event to get informed of the
finished loading.
The bottom line is the same as for the public API: use these events to interact with the component. If an event is
missing feel free to file a bug report.
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Lazy Initialization The HtmlArea widget is using a low-level editing component to offer a WYSIWYG editor
solution. The widget does initialize this editing component after the first appear of the widget. So if you use e.g. a
stack container which hides the HtmlArea keep in mind that the widget is only fully usable after it is shown.
Toolbar Details The HtmlArea does only offer the plain editing widget so if you do not use the HtmlEditor contribution and instead create your own toolbar you have to consider some specialities concerning the focus management
of qooxdoo.
Since the HtmlArea relies on that the focus is not lost to another widget (e.g. a toolbar button) during the execution
of a command you have to set two focus-specific properties on each widget which runs commands at the HtmlArea
component.
The two properties keepFocus and focusable have to be used together to get the correct behaviour. The more
important property is keepFocus which certainly ensures that the given widget never get the focus - even if this
widget is clicked. This will leave the focus at the HtmlArea component solving many focus-related issues successfully
(especially for IE browsers).
Example code snippet
button = new qx.ui.toolbar.Button(null, iconURL);
button.set({ focusable : false, keepFocus : true });
No Own Focus Management As already mentioned the focus management is important for HTML editing widgets
and there are special solutions necessary for the component already. Implementing an own focus management on
top in your application code can cause problems for your users. So if you encounter any issues that the component
e.g. does not perform a certain command even a button is clicked it’s probably a focus-related issue. As always: the
component is far from perfect, don’t hesitate to file a bug report for issues you encounter.
Keyboard Shortcuts Since you can use keyboard shortcuts to manipulate the content you should not implement
shortcuts with the same key bindings. A possibility to disable the shortcuts completely will soon be available. See
Bug #1193 for details.
Available Keyboard Shortcuts
The result of using the shortcuts Control + Enter and Shift + Enter are explained at the Paragraph Handling page.
The following keyboard shortcuts are implemented at the moment:
• Ctrl + A - Select the whole content
• Ctrl + B - Toggle the current selection to Bold / Normal text
• Ctrl + I and Ctrl + K - Toggle the current selection to Italic / Normal text
• Ctrl + U - Toggle the current selection to Underline / Normal text
If the Undo / Redo functionality is enabled the following shortcuts are additionally available:
• Ctrl + Z - Undo the last change
• Ctrl + Y - Redo the last undo step
• Ctrl + Shift + Z - Redo the last undo step
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Recommendations
This page should help developers using the HtmlArea to stick with some recommendations to avoid known issues or
to call attention how to use a specific feature.
Common Font Families Since the HtmlArea “only” is a editing component it does not offer a complete toolbar or
other features which an full-blown Html Editor might offer. So if you setup an own toolbar and decide to offer the
user a possibility to change the default font family you should be careful not to use a font family which is not widely
available. If the client computer does not has the listed font family installed it will certainly fall back to the systems
default. The user will be irritated by different choices which end up with the same result if he applies them to his
written content.
To avoid this problem you should play safe and offer the following font families:
• Arial
• Arial Black
• Verdana
• Courier New
• Courier
• Georgia
• Impact
• Comic Sans MS
• Tahoma
• Lucida Console
A nice list of the most common font families is listed at CodeStyle.org
InsertHtml Command This command lets you insert you HTML code directly into the component’s document. It
is powerful and can be an easy way to accomplish your goals, but you should keep in mind that this method should
only be used if there is no other possibility offered.
If you e.g. want to insert an image into the document use the dedicated insertImage command instead of putting
your HTML code together.
Avoid DIV elements with fixed width or height The problem with DIV elements which have width or height set
with CSS styles is that IE offers for those DIV elements resize/move handles. This is in the most cases not desired. So
better use margin, padding or top|left|right|bottom to position your DIV element.
Additionally if you set a width of 600px to a DIV element users with a small resolution (like 800 x 600 ) might end
up with horizontal scrollbars.
Technical Background
HTML Editing In General
External Information
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General infos
• Rich HTML editing - Part 1
Browsers
Mozilla (“Midas”)
• Midas specification
• Demo
• Migrationguide IE -> Gecko
• Documentation
• Source code (see list under MidasCommand in nsHTMLDocument.cpp)
• DOM Client Object Cross-Reference
IE (“HTML Edit”)
• MSDN Overview and tutorials
• Documentation
• Overview of Command Identifiers
• A Note about the DHTML Editing Control in IE7+
Opera
• Opera Browser Wiki
Safari
• WebKit: HTML Editing
• Quietly, Safari Finally Gains WYSIWYG Editing Powers
• execCommand list
• WYSIWYG comes to Safari 1.3
Compatibility
• The Mozile project contains code which adapts Internet Explorer’s Selection object to an interface like Mozilla’s.
• Converting your app from IE to Midas
• execCommand compatibility
General
• htmlarea.com
• cmsreview.com
• geniisoft.com
• Web-Based Rich Text Editors Compared
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Editor
YUI
RTE
Xinha
License
BSD
HTMLArea
(BSD based)
Creative
Commons
MIT
RTE
RTEF
Overview of exisiting WYSIWYG editors
Pro/Con
Pro: works with all well-known browsers ( IE / Gecko / Ope
Con: Still in Beta (although the final release version should
WYMEditor
dojo
TinyMCE
FCKEdit
MIT/GPL
Pro: works with all well-known browsers ( IE / Gecko / Ope
Con: no user-feedback e.g. which font or size is currently us
Pro: produces XHTML, uses CSS; Con: currently only avai
BSD
LGPL
GPL, LGPL
and MPL
GPL
Solmetra
FreeRTE Creative
Commons
CMAGPL
Simple
XStanFreeware
dard
lite
Loki
GPL
Whizzywig
command
Bold
Italic
Underline
Strikethrough
Mozilla
x
x
x
x
IE
x
x
x
x
Opera
x
x
x
x
Safari
x
x
x
x
Color
BackColor
ForeColor
HiliteColor
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Font Handling
FontName
FontSize
IncreaseFontSize
DecreaseFontSize
Subscript
Superscript
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Formatting and CSS
ContentReadOnly
StyleWidthCSS
UseCSS
RemoveFormat
x
x
x
x
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x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Continued on next page
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Table 4.1 – continued from previous page
User actions
Copy
Paste
Cut
Delete
Undo
Redo
Print
SaveAs
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Alignment
JustifyLeft
JustifyCenter
JustifyRight
JustifyFull
Indent
Outdent
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Hyperlinks
CreateLink
Unlink
x
x
Lists
InsertOrderedList
InsertUnorderedList
Basic (formatting) elements
FormatBlock
Heading
InsertParagraph
InsertImage
InsertButton
InsertFieldset
InsertHorizontalRule
InsertHTML
InsertIFrame
Form elements
InsertInputButton
InsertInputCheckbox
InsertInputFileUpload
InsertInputHidden
InsertInputImage
InsertInputPassword
InsertInputRadio
InsertInputReset
InsertInputSubmit
InsertInputText
InsertSelectDropdown
InsertSelectListbox
InsertTextArea
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
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Table 4.1 – continued from previous page
InsertMarquee
x
Bookmarking
CreateBookmark
UnBookmark
Selection and status handling
SelectAll
Unselect
MultipleSelection
Overwrite
Refresh
Misc
2D-Position
AbsolutePosition
LiveResize
gethtml
contentReadOnly
insertBrOnReturn
enableObjectResizing
enableInlineTableEditing
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Browser-specific overview of “execCommand”
Copy and Paste
For a HTML editor component it is important to get along with external content which is inserted with a Copy and
Paste operation. This is especially important if any filter for the external content should be applied before the content
is actually inserted in the editor.
However it is quite difficult to implement this across all major browsers. This short article should give a short overview
about the existing events in the different browsers.
To get the detailed overview on this topic check out the section at quirksmode.org
IE This browser offers the most events. Besides onpaste and oncopy there are also events like beforepaste,
beforecopy and beforecut. Additionally all events are stoppable and are bubbling up the DOM hierarchy.
Safari Follows almost the implementation of IE and goes partly beyond it. Safari offers a wide range of events to
detect a Copy and Paste operation, but has currently no implementation at image elements.
Gecko In Firefox 2 there is no support for any event to detect a Copy and Paste operation directly. One can
detect the pressed shortcuts, but if the user paste some text via the menu/contextmenu there is possibility to catch
that. With the upcoming release of Firefox 3 this situation will improve. This version will have some support for such
events like onpaste or oncopy
Opera Same situation as Firefox 2: no working implementation for copy or paste events.
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Text align
The text align of a selction can be modified using the following exec commands: JustifyLeft, JustifyCenter,
JustifyRight and JustifyFull.
Browsers
• IE: Text align is applied on the paragraph which contains the selection.
• Gecko and Opera: Text align is applied on selection only. The selection gets surrounded by a <div> tag
containing a text-align style attribute.
• Webkit: Applies text-align style attribute on every <div> element that is (partly) selected.
Problems
• If <br> tags are used for line breaks, the textalign will be applied on the <p> tag in IE, even if only a part of
this <p> has been selected!
• If <p> tags are used for line breaks, all style settings set will be “lost” after entering an other <p> tag in FF. It
is necessary to “save” these settings manually and apply them on the new paragraph.
Browser Bugs
Gecko
• Gecko 1.8 needs a <br> tag inside an element with contenteditable="true", even if the element is empty! If no such element existes, Gecko automatically adds it. These elements can be recognized by the proprietary attribute _moz_editor_bogus_node: <br _moz_editor_bogus_node="TRUE"
_moz_dirty=""/>
• Gecko 1.9 will always insert this <br> tag, if contenteditable="true" is set. Even if the element contains content! This <br> tag is removed, as soon as any input is entered by the user:
https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/attachment.cgi?id=119342
• Undo/Redo : it could happen that 2 content changes occuring right after another leading Gecko to remove both
of these 2 changes in one undo step. This is especially important for the undo/redo stacks of the HtmlArea.
Internet Explorer
• If you want to use the pasteHTML() function, you have to select the textrange first using select().
Webkit/Safari
• Setting a background color for text on collapsed selection is not working like in Gecko or IE. Instead of setting
the background color and allowing the user to type ahead in the new background color (like in Gecko/IE)
nothing happens. The current solution in the HtmlArea is to select the word currently under the caret and to set
the background color on this selection. Working on a user-selection works as expected.
• Deleting a block element (e.g. an <p> tag) can cause an element to contain two text nodes:
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This wrong behavior can cause problems with selections.
Default Paragraph Handling
This section describes how browsers and other applications react on different keys to enter line breaks or paragraphs.
P = paragraph (<p> tag)
LB = line break (<br /> tag)
Browsers
<enter>
<shift> + <enter>
<strg> + <enter>
Word processors / E-mail clients
Firefox
LB
LB
—
MSIE
P
LB
—
<enter>
<shift> + <enter>
<strg> + <enter>
Opera
LB
LB
—
Webkit
<div>
<div>
—
MS Word
P
LB
Page break
OO Writer
P
LB
P
Outlook
P
LB
—
Thunderbird
LB
LB
LB
Implementation Details
Undo and Redo
Limitations The implementation of undo/redo in the HtmlArea has some limitations you should be aware of. It is
possible to undo all of your steps but redo is only possible when no other action occured between the undo and the
redo action. If you undo several steps and e.g. enter some text you can not execute redo anymore.
Note: If you use the Undo/Redo functionality you have to make sure you are not manipulating the content of the
HtmlArea by using the innerHTML property of an element.
This will break Undo/Redo functionality!
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Implementation: Description on a high-level The implementation is split up into two different approaches.
For Internet Explorer the execCommand approach can’t be used anymore. The internal undo / redo stack gets broken
on every DOM manipulation. So, if any qooxdoo decorator is used this approach is a dead end. Instead an own
implementation using innerHTML is used for IE browsers.
For all other browsers the base of the Undo/Redo functionality is to use the execCommand method to manipulate
the content whenever possible. Each change which is performed with a call of execCommand is easy to undo/redo.
For any manipulation which cannot be achieved using the built-in execCommand a special implementation for each
browser is necessary (e.g. changing the background color of the whole document).
Using the Decorator Pattern To easily integrate the undo/redo management with the commands of the HtmlArea
the UndoManager class is a decorator of the CommandManager class. It takes the method calls from the HtmlArea
class, collects the info for undo the action and calls the decorated commandManager class to actually perform the
requested action. This keeps both implementations clean and separated.
Tracking changes using stacks Two stacks keep track of the changes which are done to the content: an undo stack
and the corresponding redo stack. Currently each stack holds four different types of changes:
• Command
• Content-block
• Custom
• Internal
Each entry in the stacks is represented by an object which holds additional info (the type above is among this info).
Command Every change which is performed with the execCommand method is equipped with this type. These
changes are the easiest to track and to undo/redo.
Content-block Each keypress event is observed to determine changes in the content and to mark a set of content
changes as an own block which is capable for an undo/redo step. For example IE and Gecko do both recognize text
changes as a content block if the text changes occured between two calls of execCommand.
Custom These changes are the ones which cannot be handled with the built-in execCommand method. For example
changing the background color of the whole document is a custom undo/redo step which needs to be handled in a
special way by each browser.
Internal These steps are included to keep the stacks intact if the user e.g. resizes an images with the handles provided
by the browsers. It is possible to undo/redo these internal changes with the common execCommand method. The
primary task here is to record these changes and add them to the stack(s).
Paragraph Handling
The aim of the component is to facade all the browser differences concerning the behaviour when the user hits the
Enter, the Shift+Enter or the Control+Enter combination. And this is by far not an easy task since the
differences between the browsers are enormous.
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Formatting across multiple paragraphs Every formatting infos like underline, bold, text color, text size etc. are
transferred to the new paragraph. It is likely that the user expects to write on with the same configuration/modifications
he applied to the former paragraph.
Alignment A paragraph in always aligned completely - the way a word processor also work. This can be irritating
at the first time of use if e.g. a paragraph contains multiple lines of text each separated by normal line-breaks, but
concerning alignment the paragraph is treated only as whole. So every line of the paragraph (=the whole paragraph)
is aligned and not only the line the cursor is currently located.
Customization The HtmlArea offers you two properties to customize the paragraph handling globally and thus
customize the behaviour of the component.
insertParagraphOnLinebreak The default value of this property is true. It controls whether a new paragraph or
a normal line-break is inserted when hitting the Enter key. Since the default behaviour of all word processors is to
insert a new paragraph it is recommended to leave this property value with its default.
Note: As every word processor the HtmlArea also supports inserting a normal line-break by using the key combination
Shift+Enter
insertLinebreakOnCtrlEnter This property also has a default value of true. Since some users are familiar with
the key combination Control+Enter to insert a normal line-break the HtmlArea component does support this. So
in the default setup Control+Enter and Shift+Enter will end up with the same result.
Technical Background
Paragraph-Handling in Firefox
Browser control Currently the HtmlArea does only take control and manage the paragraphs on its own if
• SHIFT and CTRL keys are not pressed
• caret is not within a word
• focus node is not an element (current line is not empty)
• the focus is inside a list
HtmlArea control If the HtmlArea with its paragraph handling takes control, the following actions are taken.
Phase 1: Collecting styles
• computed styles of the focus node are collected
• these styles are grouped in the correct order (e.g. special handling for text-decoration because the text-decoration
is linked to the elements color value)
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Phase 2: Style string creation
• a style attribute based on the computed styles is generated for the paragraph element -> only margin,
padding and text-align can be applied at paragraph-level. All other styles need to be applied at span
elements (=child elements)
• a string with nested span / font element string is created. This element string is applied to the paragraph
element. The nested structure is necessary because some styles need to be applied in the right order
Phase 3: Nodes creation The following string is applied with the “insertHtml” command
• an empty span element with an ID
• a p element with the paragraph style
• the nested span / font string to reflect the formatting which can’t be applied at paragraph level
Phase 4: Cleanup
• Gecko inserts a p element on his own even if we intercept. This element gets removed afterwards by selecting
this paragragph and inserting an empty DIV element at the selection
• the ID of the empty span is removed (Gecko will remove an empty span then automatically)
• if an empty paragraph is detected it will be removed to avoid rendering problems
Reasons for own paragraph handling
• support to keep formatting across multiple paragraphs or lists
• keep the caret always inside a p element
• keep control of the kind of line-breaking which is inserted
• normalize line-breaking
• act like MS Word
Issues
• DOM manipulations can break Undo/Redo since Gecko is expecting a DOM node which does not exist anymore
• edge cases can occur which are not targeted yet
• future browser implementation can change and mess up the current implementation
• MS Word behaviour can not be achieved in a browser, yet
List Handling
The component offers ordered and unordered lists to group content.
If the user inserts a new list
• Enter on a non-empty item: inserts a new list item
• Enter on an empty item: stops the editing of list
• Shift+Enter: inserts a new line within the current list item
These actions/key bindings are reflecting the default behaviour of word processors.
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4.2.13 Widget Reference
• Widget reference
4.3 Layouts
4.3.1 Layouting
Introduction
A Layout manager defines the strategy of how to position the child widgets of a parent widget. They compute the
position and size of each child by taking the size hints and layout properties of the children and the size hint of the
parent into account.
Whenever the size of one widget changes, the layout engine will ask the layout manager of each affected widget to
recompute its children’s positions and sizes. Layout managers are only visible through the effects they have on the
widgets they are responsible for.
It is possible to place and size all children directly to static positions using setUserBounds as well, but this is quite
uncommon and only used in very special cases. It is almost always better to position children using a layout manager.
The layout manager can be configured on any widget, but most classes only have the protected methods to control the
layout. In fact it doesn’t make sense to control the layout manager of a Spinner, ComboBox, etc. from outside. So
this scenario is quite common. Some widgets however publish the layout API. One of them is the above mentioned
Composite widget. It exposes the layout system and the whole children API.
The nature of layout managers is that each one has specialized options for its children. For example, one layout allows
specifying a left position of a child in the canvas while another one works with rows and cells instead. Given this fact,
the best place to handle these options is the layout itself. Every LayoutItem has the methods setLayoutProperties
and getLayoutProperties. Through this API the layout properties can be configured independendly from the layout.
The validation of properties is lazy (compared to the classic qooxdoo properties). At the moment where a child with
layout properties is inserted into a parent widget with a layout, these properties are checked against the rules of the
layout. This validation is not possible earlier, e.g. at the definition of the wrong property, as at this moment the child
may not have a parent yet.
To make layout properties available in a convenient fashion each add() has an optional second parameter: A map with
all layout properties to configure. A basic example:
var canvas = new qx.ui.container.Composite(new qx.ui.layout.Canvas);
canvas.add(new qx.ui.form.Button("Say Hello"), {
left : 20,
top: 20
});
This example places a button at the position 20x20 of the composite created. As you can see, the Composite widget
has a convenient way – using the constructor – to define the layout it uses.
Panes
Some widgets extend the Composite widget above. Typical examples here are:
• TabView Page
• Popup
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These have the same API like the composite. A slightly other type are so-called composite-like widgets. These widgets
offer the same type of children management and layout management to the outside, but they redirect these properties
to an inner pane.
Typical widgets in this category are:
• Window
• GroupBox
Sensible defaults
By default, widgets are intelligently auto-sized. This means that most of the time you can create a widget and it will
look nice. If you need greater control, you can override the defaults. Every property defined initially is also reconfigurable during the runtime of an application. When using layout managers any computed sizes are automatically
refreshed and the arrangement of children is updated.
Every automatically detected size can be overridden. Common settings of a widget (or spacers) are configured through
the widget itself. This for example includes properties like width or height. All these sizes are pixel values. Percent
and other complex values are only supported by a few layout managers so these are implemented as layout properties
(explained in detail later).
Automatic size detection means, that limits are detected as well. Any widget in qooxdoo knows how much it can
shrink and how much it can grow without interfering the functionality. The application developer can override these
min/max sizes as well. This is no problem as long as the new value is tougher than the automatically detected values
(e.g. lower limit of maximum width). When overriding the automatic sizes to reduce the limits layout problems may
occur. It is highly suggested to keep an eye on this to omit such scenarios.
One thing to keep in mind is that the width cannot override the minWidth or the maxWidth. Limitation properties
may be overridden by the property itself, but not by the normal size property. The minWidth can override the
minimal automatically detected size, but the width cannot. This decision makes the layout system more stable as
unintended overrides of the limitations are omitted in most cases.
Often width and height are described as preferred sizes as the given size may not have an influence on the actual
rendered size of the widget. Even if the width is configured by the user, this does not mean that the widget always
get the desired width.
Growing & Shrinking
Dynamic GUIs often must work equally well in cases where not enough (or too much) room is available to render
the GUI in the way meant by the developer. This may include simple cases where the size of tabs is reduced in order
to handle the display of all open tabs without scrolling. More advanced cases are text which wraps to multiple lines
depending on the available width (and this way influences the position of following children).
In the first case we often see that an application reduces the size of the label and uses an ellipsis symbol to show
that the label was too long. This feature is built-in into both commonly used widgets: Label and Atom. When the
underlaying layout ask to reduce the width (or the developer using the width property) the widget tries to solve the
requirement dynamically. This certainly works for the height as well.
var label = new qx.ui.basic.Label().set({
value: "A long label text which has not enough room.",
width: 60
});
The second case is handled by the height for width support. Longly name but basically a really strong feature which is
required quite often. It means that the height may depend on the actual width available. This especially makes sense
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for multi-line text where the wrapping may be influenced by the available width. The Label widget includes support
for this feature when using the rich output mode (HTML content).
var label = new qx.ui.basic.Label().set({
value: "A long label text with auto-wrapping. This also may
contain <b style=’color:red’>rich HTML</b> markup.",
rich : true,
width: 120
});
Finally this means that every widget can grow and shrink depending on the limitations given for the respective axis.
Two easy accessors which disable growing or shrinking respectively are allowGrowX and allowShrinkX. When the
growing is disabled the configured or automatically detected maximum size is ignored and configured to the preferred
size. When the shrinking is disabled the configured or automatically detected minimum size is ignored and configured
to the preferred size. Two convenient methods to controlling these features without knowing of the exact dimensions.
Overflow Handling
This leads to the next question: how to handle scenarios where the content needs more room than provided by the
parent but should not shrink. This is a common case for data widgets like Lists or Trees. Both extend the AbstractScrollArea to provide scrollbars to handle overflowing content.
The ScrollArea itself renders scrollbars in a custom way. It does not use the native scrollbars nor the native
overflowing capabilities of the browser. Benefits of this decision are:
• Scroll bars can be themed.
• Optimal integration into layout system.
• Own implementation overrides browser quirks
The scrollbars are controlable in a way that is comparable to CSS. It is possible to have both scrollbars marked as
auto to automatically detect the needs of the content. Or any other combination where a scrollbar may be statically
hidden or visible. Each bar can be controlled separately. It is possible to enable one scrollbar statically and make the
other one auto-displayed and vice-versa.
var big = new qx.ui.form.TextArea;
big.setWidth(600);
big.setHeight(600);
var area = new qx.ui.container.Scroll;
area.setWidth(200);
area.setHeight(200);
area.add(big);
The ScrollArea provides all typically needed methods like scrollToX to scroll to an absolute position or scrollByX
to scroll by the given amount. The widget also supports the scrolling of any child into the viewport. This feature is
provided through the method scrollItemIntoView. It just needs any child of the widget (at any depth).
var list = new qx.ui.form.List();
var item;
for (var i=0; i<20; i++)
{
item = new qx.ui.form.ListItem("Item #" + i);
list.add(item);
if (i == 12) {
list.select(item);
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}
}
One really interesting aspect of these scrolling features is, that they work all the time, even if the widget is not yet
rendered. It is possible to scroll any ScrollArea before even rendered. It is even possible to scroll any child into
view without the whole parent being visible. This is quite useful for selection handling (selected items should be
visible). Selections of a list for example can be modified during the normal application runtime and are automatically
applied and scrolled correctly after the first appearance on the screen.
Layout Properties
While there are a few core layout features which are normally respected by most layouts like the margin and alignment
properties (have a look to the LayoutItem for these), there are layout specific properties which only makes sense in
conjunction with the specified layout as well. These properties are called layout properties in qooxdoo.
These properties are normally defined with the addition to the parent widget. The children handling normally allows a
second optional parameter options. The layout properties are given through a simple map e.g.
parent.add(child, {left:20, top: 100});
This is still good readble and directly defines the properties where the children is added to the parent (and the parent’s
layout). While this is the common use pattern of layout properties in qooxdoo applications, it is still possible to define
layout properties afterwards using setLayoutProperties. The first parameter is like the second parameter in add and
accepts a map of layout properties.
Units of Layout Properties
Pixel
Usually all position and size values are defined as pixel values. For example the left and top layout properties of
the Basic layout are defined as pixel values.
Flex
The flex value indicates the flexibility of the item, which implies how an item’s container distributes remaining empty
space among its children. Flexible elements grow and shrink to fit their given space. Elements with larger flex values
will be sized larger than elements with lower flex values, at the ratio determined by the two elements. The actual
flex value is not relevant unless there are other flexible elements within the same container. Once the default sizes of
elements in a box are calculated, the remaining space in the box is divided among the flexible elements, according to
their flex ratios. Specifying a flex value of 0 has the same effect as leaving the flex attribute out entirely.
The easiest use case is to make exactly one child consuming the remaining space. This is often seen in modern
application. For example the location field in common browsers are automatically configured to behave like this. To
do this add a flex value of 1 to the child. In order to make more children behave like this, one could make them flexible
the same way. The available space is automatically allocated between all of them. As flex allows integer values it
is also possible to define weighted values. A flex value of 2 means double importance over 1. The result is that from
100 pixel remaining space and two flexible children the one with 2 gets about 66 pixel and the other one 33 pixel.
Please note that in shrinking mode flex has an analogous effect. As a flex value of 2 means doubled importance
compared to 1 the child with 2 is shrunken less than the child with 1.
In contrast to qooxdoo 0.7 flex values are supplemental to the normal size values of a widget. First all children are
positioned using their regular size hints. If after this step the combined size of the children is larger or smaller than the
available size the flex value defines by how much each widget is stretched or shrunken.
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The flex property is supported by both Box Layouts, the Dock Layout and the Grid (for columns and rows).
In some way the SplitPane supports flex as well, but it behaves a bit different there as it is regarded as an alternative to
the preferred size.
Percent
With the above mentioned flex feature the use of percents is quite uncommon in most qooxdoo applications. Still,
there are some cases where it might be interesting to define percent locations or dimensions.
The Canvas Layout for example allows a child’s position to contain a percent value (e.g. the layout property left
could be configured to 20%). When there are 1000 pixel available the so-configured child is placed at a left coordinate
of 200 pixel. The final coordinate is automatically updated when the outer dimensions are modified.
The LayoutItem‘s dimension properties only support integer values. To use percentage dimensions some qooxdoo
layout managers allow to define width and height using layout properties. This dimensions are then higher prioritized than the width and height configured in the child using the normal properties. The limitations defined through
minWidth etc. are still respected by the layout manager. Percentage dimensions are useful to allocate a specific part
of the available space to a given widget without being dependent on the configuration of the other children.
It is possible to combine flex with percent dimensions. This is good because it allows to define approximations like
3 times 33% instead of being forced to fill the 100% completely. With flex enabled the layout manager automatically
arranges the children to fill the remaining pixels.
The effects of percentage dimensions in box layouts are comparable to the result of flex in a SplitPane. The resulting
size is computed from the available space less all statically configured gaps like spacings or margins. Layout managers
with support for percentage dimensions are the already mentioned Box Layouts, but also the Canvas Layout as well as
the Dock Layout.
Pre-configured Widgets
There are a few containers in qooxdoo which use a predefined immutable layout for rendering their children. Currently
these containers are included:
• Scroll: Provides auto-matic scrollbars for larger content. Does not influence the size of the content which is
rendered at the preferred size. Allows scrolling of the content. Supports advanced features like offset calculation
and scroll into view.
• Stack: Scales every widget to the available space and put one over another. Allows selection of which child
should be visible. Used internally by TabView etc.
• SlideBar: Comparable to the Scroll Container but only provides automatic forward and backward arrows. Supports only one axis per instance: horizontal or vertical. Buttons are automatically displayed as needed. Supports
automatic shrinking of the children (other than the Scroll Container).
• SplitPane: Divides the available space into two areas and provides a possibility to resize the panes for the user.
Automatically respects the limitations of each child.
Visibility Handling
Every widget can be hidden and shown at any time during the application runtime. In qooxdoo each widget’s visibility
might have three values: visible, hidden or excluded. While hidden and excluded both makes a widget
invisible there is still a difference: excluded ignores the widget in during the layout process while hidden simply
hides the widget and keeps the room for the widget during the layout process.
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The visibility property is not commonly used in qooxdoo applications.There are a few nice accessor methods
for each widget:
• To check the status of a widget: isVisible(), isHidden() and isExcluded()
• To modify the visibility: show(), hide() and exclude()
Please note that for performance reasons invisible widgets are not rendered or updated to the DOM which means that
especially initially invisible parts could improve the startup of a qooxdoo application e.g. alternate Tab Pages, closed
Window instances, Menus, etc.
To work with multiple layers like in a Tab View it is suggested to use a Stack Container instead of doing the visibility
management on the own.
4.4 Themes
4.4.1 Theming
qooxdoo includes two themes:
• Modern - a graphically rich theme, showcasing many UI capabilities of qooxdoo 1.3.1
• Classic - a more lightweight, MS Windows oriented theme
Here some screenshots:
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While those two themes run out-of-the-box, it is easy to create your own themes. Those custom themes can either be
created by extending existing ones or they can be created from scratch.
A complete theme (a so-called meta theme) consists of several special themes, each designed to play a dedicated role
and to setup the different parts of the whole theming. These special themes are described at the subsequent sections
followed by a description of how to create own themes.
Meta Theme
A meta theme describes the whole theme itself by defining the specific parts. Each meta theme consists of five keys
• appearance
• color
• decoration
• font
• icon
each of them referencing to a specialized theme. So you can think of a meta theme as of collection whose parts can
easily be changed.
Sample of a meta theme:
qx.Theme.define("qx.theme.Modern",
{
meta :
{
color : qx.theme.modern.Color,
decoration : qx.theme.modern.Decoration,
font : qx.theme.modern.Font,
appearance : qx.theme.modern.Appearance,
icon : qx.theme.icon.Tango
}
}
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This section describes the different types of themes which are used for theming a whole application.
Color Theme
A color theme defines all colors used by the framework. Each color is defined by an unique name and a value which
can be written as hex, rgb or named color. This defined name is usable throughout the whole framework and your
application.
Note: The best way to organize your color names is to use semantic ones like background, text-input or
text-disabled. This way it is easier to use one color for multiple widgets.
Part of a sample color theme:
/**
* sample color theme
*/
qx.Theme.define("myApplication.theme.sample.Color",
{
colors :
{
/*
---------------------------------------------------------------------SAMPLE COLORS
---------------------------------------------------------------------*/
// color as hex value
"background-application" : "#DFDFDF",
// color as rgb array
"background-pane" : [ 128, 128, 128 ],
// color as named color
"background-light" : "gray",
}
});
Following names are recognized as named colors: black, white, silver, gray, maroon, red, purple,
fuchsia, green, lime, olive, yellow, navy, blue, teal, aqua, orange, brown.
The color values are set in the class qx.util.ColorUtil
Decoration Theme
Each widget can be equipped with an independent decoration which can be used to set a background-color or -image,
define a border or add a shadow. In a decoration theme you can use several different decorators depending on the
results you wish to achieve. Please take a look at the decorator article to get more information.
Note: It is recommend to define the decorations inside the theme instead of creating manually decorator instances
inside your application code. This way the created decorators can be used by multiple widgets.
What a decoration theme can look like:
/* *********************************************
#asset(sample/decoration/myDecorationTheme/*)
************************************************/
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/**
* sample decoration theme.
*/
qx.Theme.define("myApplication.theme.sample.Decoration",
{
aliases : {
decoration : "myApplication/decoration/sample"
},
decorations :
{
"uniform" :
{
decorator: qx.ui.decoration.Uniform,
style :
{
width : 1,
color : "border-main"
}
},
"single" :
{
decorator: qx.ui.decoration.Single,
style :
{
width : 1,
color : "red",
colorLeft : "black",
colorRight : "white",
style : "solid"
}
},
"double" :
{
decorator : qx.ui.decoration.Double,
style :
{
width : 1,
innerWidth: 1,
color : [ "border-dark-shadow", "border-light", "border-light", "border-dark-shadow" ],
innerColor : [ "border-dark", "border-light-shadow", "border-light-shadow", "border-dark" ]
}
},
"background" :
{
decorator : qx.ui.decoration.Background,
style :
{
backgroundImage
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: "decoration/background.png",
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backgroundRepeat : "scale"
}
},
"beveled" :
{
decorator : qx.ui.decoration.Beveled,
style : {
backgroundImage : "decoration/beveled.png",
backgroundRepeat : "scale",
outerColor : "border-main",
innerColor : "white",
innerOpacity : 0.5
}
},
"grid" :
{
decorator : qx.ui.decoration.Grid,
style :
{
baseImage : "decoration/pane/grid.png"
}
}
});
Noted the #asset at the top and the aliases key inside the theme declaration? This is needed to for the images
used within the theme. A description of how to work with resources is available here.
Note: The aliases key is especially important when defining an own decorator theme. This entry does add
a new alias at the AliasManager class and verifies that your images for the decoration theme are found by the
ResourceManager which is working with the resolve URLs of the AliasManager class.
Font Theme
This theme is all about the information of the fonts used throughout your application. As the number of types/variants
of fonts used with application isn’t that big the font theme is normally a compact one.
Note: It is always a good idea to limit the number of types or variants of fonts to create a homogenous look.
To demonstrate how compact and powerful a font theme can look like, take a look at the complete font theme of the
Modern theme:
/**
* The modern font theme.
*/
qx.Theme.define("qx.theme.modern.Font",
{
fonts :
{
"default" :
{
size : qx.bom.client.System.WINVISTA ? 12 : 11,
lineHeight : 1.4,
family : qx.bom.client.Platform.MAC ? [ "Lucida Grande" ] :
qx.bom.client.System.WINVISTA ? [ "Segoe UI", "Candara" ] :
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[ "Tahoma", "Liberation Sans", "Arial" ]
},
"bold" :
{
size : qx.bom.client.System.WINVISTA ? 12 : 11,
lineHeight : 1.4,
family : qx.bom.client.Platform.MAC ? [ "Lucida Grande" ] :
qx.bom.client.System.WINVISTA ? [ "Segoe UI", "Candara" ] :
[ "Tahoma", "Liberation Sans", "Arial" ],
bold : true
},
"small" :
{
size : qx.bom.client.System.WINVISTA ? 11 : 10,
lineHeight : 1.4,
family : qx.bom.client.Platform.MAC ? [ "Lucida Grande" ] :
qx.bom.client.System.WINVISTA ? [ "Segoe UI", "Candara" ] :
[ "Tahoma", "Liberation Sans", "Arial" ]
},
"monospace" :
{
size: 11,
lineHeight : 1.4,
family : qx.bom.client.Platform.MAC ? [ "Lucida Grande" ] :
qx.bom.client.System.WINVISTA ? [ "Consolas" ] :
[ "Consolas", "DejaVu Sans Mono", "Courier New", "monospace" ]
}
}
});
Icon Theme
This theme is to define which icon set is used and normally consists only of 3 main keys (title, resource and icons).
The important one is the resource key which points the generator to the location of the icon set. The icon alias,
which is used to reference icons in qooxdoo applications, is set to the value of this key. The icons key is to define
additional icons which are not part of the icon theme. As qooxdoo uses the free available Tango and Oxygen icon sets
it is not necessary to extend these.
Complete code for the tango icon theme:
/**
* Tango icons
*/
qx.Theme.define("qx.theme.icon.Tango",
{
aliases : {
"icon" : "qx/icon/Tango"
},
icons : {}
});
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Appearance Theme
The appearance theme is by far the biggest theme. Its task is to describe every themable widget and their child controls.
Since the widgets are styled using decorators, colors, fonts and icons the appearance theme uses the definitions of all
the other themes namely the decoration, color, font and icon theme. You can think of the appearance theme as the
central meeting point where the other themes (decorator, color, font and icon) get together.
To discover the power of the appearance theme please take a look at the corresponding article which should let you
get an idea of the whole picture.
Applying Themes
Typically, your application will have a certain, pre-defined theme known at build-time. The best way to associate such
a default outlook with your application is to use the config.json variable QXTHEME inside the “let” section. Setting
this variable to a fully-qualified meta theme class lets the build process handle the proper inclusion and linkage of the
theme classes automatically. E.g.:
...
QXTHEME : my.theme.Cool,
...
It is also possible to set a certain appearance at runtime:
qx.theme.manager.Meta.getInstance().setTheme(my.theme.Cool);
For appearance, color, border, icon and widget themes, you can use similar classes in the qx.theme.manager package.
4.4.2 Appearance
Theme Structure
A theme normally consists of a set of entries. Each entry has a key which is basically some kind of selector which
matches to a specific widgets. Missing selectors are presented as a warning when developing with debug code enabled.
qx.Theme.define("qx.theme.modern.Appearance",
{
appearances :
{
selector : entry,
[...]
}
});
Selectors
In the most basic form each selector is identical to an appearance ID. This appearance ID is the value stored in the
appearance property (API) of each widget.
The child control system ignores this appearance entry for widgets which function as a child control of another widget.
In these cases the selector is the combination of the appearance ID of the parent widget plus the ID of the child control.
In a classic Button there is a child control icon for example. The appearance selector for the image element which
represents the icon is button/icon. As you can see the divider between the appearance ID and the child control is
a simple slash (/).
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It is also possible that a widget, which is a child control itself, uses another child control. Generally the mechanism
prepends the ID of each parent which is also a child control to the front of the selector. For example:
- pane
- level1
- level2
- level3
the generated selector would be pane/level1/level2/level3. For pane which is not a child control of any
other widget the appearance ID is used. For all others the child control ID is used. Again pane is not managed by any
other widget so it is basically added by the developer of the application to another widget while level1 to level3
are managed by some type of combined widget and are added to each other without the work of the application
developer.
A classic example for this is the Spinner widget. A Spinner is basically a Grid layout with a TextField and
two RepeatButtons. The three internal widgets are available under the sub control IDs textfield, upbutton
and downbutton. The selectors for these kind of child controls are then:
• spinner/textfield
• spinner/upbutton
• spinner/downbutton
Each of these selectors must be defined by the selected appearance. Otherwise a warning about missing selectors is
displayed.
Aliases
A entry can be defined with two different values, a string or a map. The first option is named “alias”, it is basically a
string, redirecting to another selector. In the Spinner example from above we may just want to use aliases for the
buttons. See the example:
qx.Theme.define("qx.theme.modern.Appearance",
{
appearances :
{
[...],
"spinner/upbutton" : "button",
"spinner/downbutton" : "button",
[...]
}
});
So we have mastered one essential part for appearance themes. It is basically the easiest part, but seen quite often.
Compared to CSS you always have a full control about the styling of such an child control. There is no type of implicit
inheritance. This may also be seen negatively, but most developers tend to like it more.
Such an alias also redirects all child controls of the left hand selector to the right hand selector. This means that the
icon inside the button is automatically redirected as well. Internally this mapping looks like this:
"spinner/upbutton" => "button"
"spinner/upbutton/icon" => "button/icon"
"spinner/upbutton/label" => "button/label"
This is super convenient for simple cases and additionally it is still possible to selectively override definitions for
specific child controls.
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qx.Theme.define("qx.theme.modern.Appearance",
{
appearances :
{
[...],
"myimage" : [...],
"spinner/upbutton" : "button",
"spinner/upbutton/icon" : "myimage",
[...]
}
});
Internally the above results into the following remapping:
"spinner/upbutton" => "button"
"spinner/upbutton/icon" => "myimage"
"spinner/upbutton/label" => "button/label"
Entries
The more complex full entry is a map with several sub entries where all are optional:
qx.Theme.define("qx.theme.modern.Appearance",
{
appearances :
{
[...],
"spinner/textfield" :
{
base : true/false,
include : String,
alias : String,
style : function(states)
{
return {
property : states.hovered ? value1 : value2,
[...]
};
}
},
[...]
}
});
Style Method
Let’s start with the style sub entry. The value under this key should be a function which returns a set of properties
to apply to the target widget. The first parameter of the function is named states. This is a map containing keys
with boolean values which signalize which states are switched on. The data could be used to react on specific states
like hovered, focused, selected, etc.
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It is required that all properties applied in one state are applied in all other states. Something like this is seen as bad
style and may result in wrong styling:
style : function(states)
{
var result = {};
if (states.hovered) {
result.backgroundColor = "red";
}
// BAD: backgroundColor missing when widget isn’t hovered!
return result;
}
Instead, you should always define the else case:
style : function(states)
{
var result = {};
if (states.hovered) {
result.backgroundColor = "red";
} else {
// GOOD: there should be a setting for all possible states
result.backgroundColor = undefined;
}
return result;
}
Note: The undefined value means that no value should be applied. When qooxdoo runs through the returned map
it calls the reset method for properties with a value of undefined. In most cases it would be also perfectly valid
to use null instead of undefined, but keep in mind that null is stored using the setter (explicit null) and this way
it overrides values given through the inheritance or through the init values. In short this means that undefined is
the better choice in almost all cases.
One thing we have also seen in the example is that it is perfectly possible to create the return map using standard
JavaScript and fill in keys during the runtime of the style method. This allows to use more complex statements to
solve the requirements of today’s themes were a lot of states or dependencies between states can have great impact on
the result map.
Includes
Includes are used to reuse the result of another key and merge it with the local data. Includes may also used standalone
without the style key but this is merly the same like an alias. An alias is the faster and better choice in this case.
The results of the include block are merged with lower priority than the local data so it just gets added to the map.
To remove a key from the included map just define the key locally as well (using the style method) and set it to
undefined.
Includes do nothing to child controls. They just include exactly the given selector into the current selector.
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Child Control Aliases
Child control aliases are compared to the normal aliases mentioned above, just define aliases for the child controls.
They do not redirect the local selector to the selector defined by the alias. An example to make this more clear:
qx.Theme.define("qx.theme.modern.Appearance",
{
appearances :
{
[...],
"spinner/upbutton" :
{
alias : "button",
style : function(states) {
return {
padding : 2,
icon : "decoration/arrows/up.gif"
}
}
},
[...]
}
});
The result mapping would look like the following:
"spinner/upbutton" => "spinner/upbutton"
"spinner/upbutton/icon" => "button/image"
"spinner/upbutton/label" => "button/label"
As you can see the spinner/upbutton is kept in its original state. This allows one to just refine a specific outer
part of a complex widget instead of the whole widget. It is also possible to include the orignal part of the button into
the spinner/upbutton as well. This is useful to just override a few properties like seen in the following example:
qx.Theme.define("qx.theme.modern.Appearance",
{
appearances :
{
[...],
"spinner/upbutton" :
{
alias : "button",
include : "button",
style : function(states)
{
return {
padding : 2,
icon : "decoration/arrows/up.gif"
}
}
},
[...]
}
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});
When alias and include are identically pointing to the same selector the result is identical to the real alias
Base Calls
When extending themes the so-named base flag can be enabled to include the result of this selector of the derived
theme into the local selector. This is quite comparable to the this.base(arguments, ...) call in member
functions of typical qooxdoo classes. It does all the things the super class has done plus the local things. Please note
that all local defintions have higher priority than the inheritance. See next paragraph for details.
Priorities
Priority is quite an important topic when dealing with so many sources to fill a selector with styles. Logically the
definitions of the style function are the ones with the highest priority followed by the include block. The least
priority has the base flag for enabling the base calls in inherited themes.
States
A state is used for every visual state a widget may have. Every state has flag character. It could only be enabled or
disabled via the API addState or removeState.
Performance
qooxdoo has a lot of impressive caching ideas behind the whole appearance handling. As one could easily imagine all
these features are quite expensive when they are made on every widget instance and more important, each time a state
is modified.
Appearance Queue
First of all we have the appearance queue. Widgets which are visible and inserted into a visible parent are automatically
processed by this queue when changes happen or on the initial display of the widget. Otherwise the change is delayed
until the widget gets visible (again).
The queue also minimizes the effect of multiple state changes when they happen at once. All changes are combined
into one lookup to the theme e.g. changing hovered and focused directly after each other would only result into
one update instead of two. In a modern GUI typically each click influence a few widgets at once and in these widgets
a few states at once so this optimization really pays of.
Selector Caching
Each widget comes with an appearance or was created as a child control of another widget. Because the detection of
the selector is quite complex with iterations up to the parent chain, the resulting selector of each widget is cached. The
system benefits from the idea that child controls are never moved outside the parent they belong to. So a child controls
which is cached once keeps the selector for lifetime. The only thing which could invalidate the selectors of a widget
and all of its child controls is the change of the property appearance in the parent of the child control.
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Alias Caching
The support for aliases is resolved once per application load. So after a while all aliases are resolved to their final
destination. This process is lazy and fills the redirection map with selector usage. This means that the relatively
complex process of resolving all aliases is only done once.
The
list
of
resolved
aliases
can
be
seen
when
printing
out
the
map
under
qx.theme.manager.Appearance.getInstance().__aliasMap to the log console. It just contains the
fully resolved alias (aliases may redirect to each other as well).
Result Caching
Further the result of each selector for a specific set of states is cached as well. This is maybe the most massive source
of performance tweaks in the system. With the first usage, qooxdoo caches for example the result of button with the
states hovered and focused. The result is used for any further request for such an appearance with the identical
set of states. This caching is by the way the most evident reason why the appearance has no access to the individual
widget. This would torpedate the caching in some way.
This last caching also reduces the overhead of include and base statements which are quite intensive tasks because
of the map merge character with which they have been implemented.
4.4.3 Custom Themes
There are certain circumstances when the built-in themes are no more sufficient for your application and your needs.
You need to create a custom theme because you have either self-written widgets you wish to style or you like to change
the theming of your application overall.
Basically you have two choices to create a custom theme depending on your needs and the amount you want to change.
The next two sections describe both briefly.
Extending Themes
If you want to stick with an existing theme and only like to add or modify some appearances, change colors or or fonts
the best way to go is to extend a theme and to create an own meta theme which sets your extended theme.
For example you like to add some appearances (of your own widgets) to the Modern theme you can simply extend the
appearance theme of the Modern theme.
qx.Theme.define("myApplication.theme.Appearance",
{
extend : qx.theme.modern.Appearance,
title : "my appearance theme",
appearances :
{
"my-widget" :
{
alias : "atom",
style : function(states)
{
return {
width : 250,
decorator : "main"
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};
}
}
}
});
To enable your own appearance theme you also have to extend the Meta theme and set your appearance theme.
qx.Theme.define("myApplication.theme.Theme",
{
title : "my meta theme",
meta :
{
color : qx.theme.modern.Color,
decoration : qx.theme.modern.Decoration,
font : qx.theme.modern.Font,
icon : qx.theme.icon.Tango,
appearance : myApplication.theme.Appearance
}
});
At last you have to tell the generator to actually use your meta theme. Therefore you have to edit your config.json
file and add/edit the key QXTHEME in the let block.
"let" :
{
"APPLICATION"
...
"QXTHEME"
...
},
: "myApplication",
: "myApplication.theme.Theme"
After editing your config.json the very last step is to generate your application sources and you’re done. Now
you can adjust and extend your appearance theme to suit your needs.
Note: These steps are also applicable for the other themes.
Define Custom Themes
A custom theme is an own meta theme and the corresponding themes build from scratch. The main part of this work
is mainly the appearance theme and the content of the other themes is mostly defined by the appearance theme, since
this theme is the one who uses fonts, icons, decorators and colors.
Creating the meta theme is a no-brainer and when creating the several themes you only have to consider some rules:
• every theme has its own root key which also defines its type. colors for a color theme, appearances for
an appearance theme and so on
• every widget has to be equipped with an appearance, otherwise you’ll get a warning at application startup
• every used color, decorator or font has to be defined, otherwise you’ll get an error at application startup. So be
sure to define all used colors, fonts and decorators and to test your application always in the source version to
get the error messages
• be sure to include every image you use in your appearance theme by defining corresponding #asset directives.
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4.4.4 Decorators
Introduction
Decorations are used to style widgets. The idea is to have an independent layer around the widget content that can
be freely styled. This way you can have separate decorators that define all kinds of decoration (colors, background
image, corners, ...), and apply them to existing widgets, without interfering with the widget code itself.
Decorations are used for both, the shadow and the decorator property. They could be applied separately or
together. There is no dependency between them.
Using Decorators
Generally all decorators used should be part of the selected decorator theme. The convention is that each decorator
instance is stored under a semantic name. To use names which describe the appearance of the decorator is bad because
it may make themes less compatible to each other.
It is also regarded as bad style to make use of so-named inline decorators which are created by hand as part of a
function call. The reason for this is that generally decorators defined by the theme may be used in multiple places.
This means that widgets and application code should not directly deal with decorator instances.
Custom Decorators
Custom decorators are created by extending the decorator theme and adding new ones or overwriting existing ones.
Each decorator class comes with a set of properties for configuration of the instance. Following a short description of
the available decorators:
• Background: Renders a background image or color
• Uniform: Like Background, but adds support for a uniform border which is identical for all edges.
• Single: Like Background, but adds support for separate borders for each edge.
• Double: Like Single but with the option to add two separate border to each edge.
• Beveled: Pseudo (lightweight) rounded border with support for inner glow. May contain a background image /
gradient.
• Grid: Complex decorator based on nine images. Allows very customized styles (rounded borders, alpha transparency, gradients, ...). Optionally make use of image sprites to reduce image number.
Each entry of the theme is automatically made available using the setDecorator/setShadow functions of the
widget class. The instances needed are automatically created when required initially. This mechanism keeps instance
numbers down and basically ignores decorators which are defined but never used.
Writing Decorators
It is easily possible to write custom decorators. The interface is quite trivial to implement. There are only five methods
which needs to be implemented:
• getInsets: Returns a map of insets (space the decorator needs) e.g. the border width
• getMarkup: Returns the initial markup needed to build the decorator. This is executed by each widget using
the decorator. This method may not be used by some decorators and this way is defined as an empty method.
• init: Normally used to initialize the given element using getMarkup. Only executed once per element (read
per widget).
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• resize: Resizes the given element to the given dimensions. Directly works on the DOM to manipulate the
content of the element.
• tint: Applies the given background color or resets it to the (optionally) locally defined background color. This
method may not be used by some decorators and this way is defined as an empty method.
One thing to additionally respect is that resize and tint should be as fast as possible. They should be as minimal
as possible as they are executed on every switch to the decorator (e.g. hover effects). All things which are possible to
do once, in getMarkup or init methods, should be done there for performance reasons. Decorators are regarded
as imutable. Once they are used somewhere there is no need to be able to change them anymore.
Each decorator configuration means exactly one decorator instance (created with the first usage). Even when dozens
of widgets use the decorator only one instance is used. To cache the markup is a good way to improve the initial time
to create new element instances. These configured elements are reused e.g. a hover effect which moves from “Button
1” to “Button 2” uses the same DOM element when reaching “Button 2” as it has used in “Button 1”. This way the
number of DOM elements needed is reduced dramatically. Generally each decorator instance may be used to create
dozens of these elements, but after some time enough elements may have been created to fulfill all further needs for
the same styling.
4.4.5 Using themes of contributions in your application
Note: This tutorial assumes you are using the latest GUI skeleton template which contains pre-defined theme classes.
Contributions are a powerful and easy way to enhance your application with e.g. widgets that had not (yet) found the
way into the qooxdoo core framework. Nevertheless it is a no-brainer to use them in your application.
But if a contribution is providing its own theme (in most cases its own appearance theme) you have to manage this
manually.
Note: A bug report to make this step superfluous is already filed ( see #1591 ), but in the meantime you can stick with
this little tutorial to get things done.
For an easiser understanding this tutorial explains the necessary setup at the example of the TileView widget.
Adjust your configuration
The interesting part of the config.json looks like this:
...
"jobs" :
{
"libraries" :
{
"library" :
[
{
"manifest" : "contrib://TileView/trunk/Manifest.json"
},
// as the tileView uses internally the FlowLayout you have
// to add this to set it up correctly
{
"manifest" : "contrib://FlowLayout/trunk/Manifest.json"
}
]
}
}
...
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Include appearance theme
If you use the latest GUI skeleton template you will get an own appearance theme class (among all other theme classes)
already setup for you. All you need to do is to include the appearance class provided by the TileView widget into
your own appearance class.
Include the TileView appearance:
qx.Theme.define("yourApp.theme.Appearance",
{
extend : qx.theme.modern.Appearance,
// this include key does the magic
include : tileview.theme.Appearance,
// overwrite the appearances to customize the look of the modern theme
// usually not needed
appearances :
{
}
});
So all you need to add is this little include key with the corresponding appearance class to include it into your
application.
Known issues
The following code which could reside in your Application class won’t work:
qx.Theme.include(qx.theme.modern.Appearance, tileview.theme.Appearance);
The reason is that this include above will be resolved at runtime which does not work anymore. The first solution is
resolved at loading time, so the include is already performed at startup. This issue is already filed under #1604.
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CHAPTER
FIVE
LOW LEVEL FRAMEWORK
5.1 General
5.1.1 Overview
• Overview
5.1.2 Scenarios
• Scenarios
5.2 Tutorials
5.2.1 Setup a low-level library
A low-level library is interesting for all those who like to use the low-level APIs of qooxdoo. Such a library consists of
a pre-build javascript file that contains only the low-level classes of qooxdoo. For instance, no GUI toolkit (widgets,
layouts, theming) is included.
Create a low-level skeleton
To create your low-level application skeleton you can let do the tool-chain the heavy lifting and use the
create-application.py script to generate the skeleton.
$QOOXDOO_PATH/tool/bin/create-application.py -n appName -t bom -o $OUTPUT-DIR
The t parameter is the important one to define the application as a bom type application. To show all available options
of this mighty script just type
$QOOXDOO_PATH/tool/bin/create-application.py ?
Generate qooxdoo build
Looking at the output of your generated low-level library skeleton you first realize that no source folder exists. The
simple reason for this is, that you can easily use the low-level APIs without creating your own application classes.
Instead you add your logic directly into the given index.html or in whatever HTML file you like to.
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Before you can descend to the low-levels you have to generate a javascript file containing the qooxdoo low-level
classes.
./generate.py build
This pre-defined job is all you have to execute to start right away.
Note: The generated build script is a compilation of low-level classes, but it does not provide all classes of the
qx.bom or qx.dom namespace. Please take a look at the provide config.json file to determine which file is included.
The low-level wrapper of the XmlHttpRequest object ( qx.bom.Request ) is not provided by default.
Ready to code
As already mentioned implementing your logic is a no-brainer. Just grab the existing index.html file and start right
away.
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.2//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
<script src="qx-bom.js" type="text/javascript" charset="utf-8"></script>
<script type="text/javascript">
// get informed about startup
qx.event.Registration.addListener(window, "ready", onReady);
function onReady(e)
{
<!-- your application code resides here -->
}
</script>
</head>
<body>
<!-- more HTML -->
</body>
</html>
5.2.2 Low-Level APIs
This document describes the functionality of the low-level API classes in:
• qx.bom
• qx.dom
• qx.xml
qx.bom - Browser Object Model
The classes contained in the qx.bom namespace provide a cross-browser abstraction layer for object classes of the
browser JavaScript runtime.
Note: This layer is heavily used by higher-level classes but can also be used stand-alone for low-level manipulations.
The BOM classes mainly consists of the following three parts:
• DOM element manipulation
• wrappers for native layers/objects
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• powerful low-level helper classes
See the API reference of qx.bom for more details.
DOM element manipulation
The qx.bom.element package allows you to manipulate DOM elements in almost any way you can think of. Each
class is offering several static methods that take a DOM element as their first argument. Since those BOM classes
are static, no instances need to be created in order to manipulate a DOM element in the document.
The following manipulations are offered by the qx.bom.element package:
• Dimension and location
• Box-sizing - supports the modes content-box (W3C model) and border-box (Microsoft model)
• Scroll and overflow
• Style querying and modification
• CSS class name support - supports multiple class names for each element
• Scroll elements into view
• powerful low-level decoration support
• cross-browser support for opacity - optimized for animations
• Attribute/Property handling
• Background images and support for the clip property
• Cursor property
Wrapper for native layers/objects
These classes are offer an unique and powerful way to deal with native layers and objects. Wrappers exist for:
• the current document
• DOM elements to be connected to qooxdoo’s event system
• native event management
• flash embedding
• CSS font styles
• several native controls like iframe, form elements, label and image elements
As every object or layer is abstracted by a corresponding qooxdoo class you can use these BOM classes to interact
without worrying about the underlying browser used.
Additional classes
These additional classes help in developing low-level, cross-browser applications.
Features include:
• unified XMLHttp transport implementation
• powerful client detection classes
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• low-level Range and Selection API
• helper class for browser history
• wrapper for working with CSS stylesheets
• string utility class
• helper class for the client’s viewport
• helper class for VML
qx.dom - Cross-browser DOM manipulation
The Document Object Model (DOM) is a tree model that represents the document in a browser. The classes provided
by this packages allow you to query, to manipulate (i.e. add, remove, change order or replace) and to check the nodes
contained in the DOM.
Currently the qx.dom package consists of three classes:
• Element: manages children structures, inserts, removes and replaces nodes
• Hierarchy: for querying nodes
• Node: basic node creation and type detection
See the API reference of qx.dom for more details.
qx.xml - XML handling
This package is all about working with XML documents in a cross-browser way. Its three classes are:
• Document: creating an XML document
• Element: API to select, query and serialize XML elements
• String: escaping and unescaping of XML strings
See the API reference of qx.xml for more details.
5.2.3 Back-Button and Bookmark Support
Overview
Many Ajax applications break the browser back button and bookmarking support. Since the main page is never
reloaded, the URL of the application never changes and no new entries are added to the browser history.
Fortunately it is possible to restore the expected behavior with a JavaScript history manager like the one included with
qooxdoo (qx.bom.History).
Adding History support to an Application
To add history support to an application four basic steps are required:
• identify application states
• retrieve initial application state
• add event listener to history changes
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• update history on application state changes
Identify Application States
The first step to add history support to an Ajax application is to identify the application states, which should be added
to the history. This state must be encoded into a string, which will be set as the fragment identifier of the URL (the
part after the ‘#’ sign).
What exactly the application state is depends on the application. It can range from coarse grained states for basic
application navigation to fine grained undo/redo steps. The API viewer uses e.g. the currently displayed class as its
state.
Retrieve Initial Application State
At application startup the initial state should be read from the history manager.
This enables bookmarks to specific states of the application, since the state is encoded into the URL. The URL
http://api.qooxdoo.org#qx.bom.History would for example open the API viewer with the initial state
of qx.client.History.
This is the code to read the initial state (getState API documentation):
var state = qx.bom.History.getInstance().getState();
Add Event Listener to History Changes
Each time the history changes by hitting the browser’s back or forward button, the history manager dispatches a
request event. The event object holds information about the new state. The application must add an event listener
to this event and update the application state (request API documentation):
qx.bom.History.getInstance().addListener("request", function(e)
{
var state = e.getData();
// application specific state update
this.setApplicationState(state);
}, this);
Update History on Application State Changes
Every time the application state changes, the history manager must be informed about the new state. A state change
in the API viewer would for example occur if the user selects another class (addToHistory API documentation).
qx.bom.History.getInstance().addToHistory(state, title);
The first parameter is the state encoded as a string, which will be set as the URL fragment identifier. The second
parameter is optional and may contain a string, which is set as the title of the browser window for this state.
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5.3 Technical Topics
5.3.1 HTML Element Handling
This document describes the ideas and concepts behind the classes in the qx.html namespace (API). qooxdoo also
comes with a basic low-level abstraction API for DOM manipulation. For details about this API please have a look at
the corresponding documentation.
Idea
The classes in qx.html are wrapper for native DOM elements, which basically were created to solve one major
issue:
Automatically keeping care of DOM manipulation and creation while dealing with large number of elements.
In details this means:
• Automatic performance: Programmatically constructing DOM hierarchies is hard to get fast because the order
in which elements are nested can heavily influence the runtime performance. What qx.html.Element does
is trying to keep the number of element instances to the minimum actually needed (DOM nodes are expensive,
both performance and memory aside) and to insert the DOM nodes in an efficient manner. Further all changes
to the DOM are cached and applied in batch mode, which improves the performance even more.
• Normalized API: Working with HTML DOM elements usually involves many browser switches. Especially
when it comes to reading and setting of attributes or styles. For each style one has to remember whether a
normalization method should be called or if the value can be set directly. qx.html.Element does this kind
of normalization transparently. The browser normalization is based on the existing low-level APIs.
• Convenience methods: These elements have additional convenience API, which is not available on pure
DOM elements. They have e.g. the functionality to manage children with methods like addBefore() or
moveAfter().
Typical Use Cases
• Building a widget system on top
• Massively building DOM elements from data structures
It may be used for smaller things as well, but brings in quite some overhead. The size of the API, additional to a
basic low-level package of qooxdoo is about 20 KB (5 KB gzipped). Also it consumes a bit more memory when all
underlying DOM elements are created. Keep in mind that the instances are around all the time. Even when all jobs for
a instance are done at the moment.
Features
• Automatic DOM insertion and element management
• Full cross-browser support through usage of low-level APIs e.g. setStyle(), getAttribute(), ...
• Advanced children handling with a lot of convenience methods e.g. addAfter(), ...
• Reuse existing markup as a base of any element via useMarkup()
• Reuse an existing DOM node via useElement()
• Powerful visibility handling to include() or exclude() specific sub trees
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• Support for scrolling and scroll into view (scrollTo(), scrollIntoView(), ...)
• Integration of text selection APIs (setSelection(), getSelection(), ...)
• Automatic interaction with event managers (addListener(), removeListener(), ...)
• Connection to focus/activation handler
Specific HTML Elements
Roots
A root is one essential element type when dealing with the API. Every user of qx.html.Element needs at least
one instance of qx.html.Root to insert children to it. The root is always marked as being visible and is typically
the body DOM element or any other directly inserted element. This element can be assigned to be used by the root
using the method useElement().
Labels
Used for all types of text content. Supports text or HTML content togglable using the setRich() method. When
using the text mode ellipsis is supports in all browsers to show an indication when the text is larger than the available
space. Highly depends on the API of qx.bom.Label.
Images
An element pre-configured as a IMG tag. Supports scaled and unscaled images. Supports image clipping (without
scaling) to more efficiently deal with a lot of images. Depends on the API brought in by qx.bom.element.Decoration.
Input —–=
This element is used for all types of input fields. The type can be given using a constructor parameter. It allows
configuration of the value and the text wrapping (requires type textarea). Depends on the API brought in by
qx.bom.Input.
Iframe
This element is used to create iframes to embed content from other sources to the DOM. It wraps the features of
qx.bom.Iframe. Supports to configure the source of the iframe as well as its name. Comes with accessors to the
document or window object of the iframe.
Canvas
Renders a HTML5 Canvas to the DOM. Has methods to access the render context as well to configure the dimensions
of the Canvas.
The Queue
Internally most actions applied to the instances of qx.html.Element are applied lazily to the DOM. All style or
attribute changes are queued for example to set them at once. This is especially useful to allow to bump out changes
at once to the browser even when these happens in multi places and more important on more than one element.
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Even things like focus handling or scrolling may be queued. It depends on if the element is currently visibible etc.
whether these are queued. focus makes often more sense when it is directly executed as the following code may
make assumptions that the changes are applied already. Generally qooxdoo allows it to apply most changes without
the queue as well using a direct flag which is part of most setters offered by qx.html.Element.
5.3.2 Image Handling
This document tries to give some insights into the low-level features for image handling. This includes the functionality
of these classes:
• qx.bom.element.Background (API)
• qx.bom.element.Decoration (API)
Generally there are two common ways to show images in a browser: normal image elements and background images.
The Decoration class supports both of them and automatically selects the type to use for a specific requirement.
The Background class is a simple wrapper around the support for background images. It is mainly some crossbrowser magic to fix a few quirks of some of the supported engines.
5.3.3 The Event Layer
The class qx.event.Manager provides a per-document wrapper for cross-browser DOM event handling. The implementation of the event layer is inside the qx.event namespace.
The following features work in all supported browsers:
• Canceling events: stopPropagation()
• Skipping the browser’s default behavior: preventDefault()
• Unified event objects matching the W3C DOM 2 event interface
• Cross-browser event bubbling and capturing phase, even in Internet Explorer
• Mouse event capturing
• Port of the unified qooxdoo 0.7 key event handler to the 1.2 low-level layer. For a full list of available key
identifiers see the getKeyIdentifier() method documentation of the qx.event.type.KeySequence class.
• Unified mouse events
– Normalized double click event sequence mousedown -> mouseup -> click -> mousedown ->
mouseup -> click -> doubleclick in Internet Explorer
– Normalized right click sequence mousedown -> mouseup -> contextmenu in Safari 3 and Opera.
– Always fire click events if the mouseup happens on a different target than the corresponding
mousedown event. Natively only Internet Explorer behaves like that.
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UML Class Diagram
5.3.4 The Focus Layer
History
This document is meant to talk about some internals of the focus system in qooxdoo since 1.2. This is a technology documentation targeted to interested developers. There is no need to understand these details as a user of the
framework.
In previous versions of the focus handling we forced the application to our own implementation instead of working
together with the browser. This was quite straightforward because the topic itself is quite complex and the differences between the browsers are huge. So just ignoring all these differences and implementing an own layer is highly
attractive.
However this came with quite some costs. For example it’s quite hard to catch all the edge cases when a input field
loses the focus nor is it possible to recover the focus correctly when the browser does something after switching the
window (send back/bring to front etc.). To listen on the browser might improve some types of out-of-sync problems
in the previous versions. We caught most things correctly though, but it is quite hard to get 100% accuracy.
Focus Support
With 1.2 the focus system was reimplemented using the new low level event stack. Compared to the old focus system
this basically means that the whole focus support is implemented low-level without any dependencies on the widget
system. It directly uses the new event infrastructure and integrates fine with the other event handlers.
The new system tries to connect with all available native events which could help with detecting were the browser’s
focus is moving to. The implementation makes use of native events like activate or focusin where available.
It uses a lot of browser behavior which is not explicitly documented or valid when reading the specifications, just to
solve the issue of detecting where the focus currently is or is moved to.
It supports the events focusin, focus, focusout and blur on DOM nodes. It also supports focus and blur
events on the window. There is support for activate and deactivate events on DOM nodes to track keyboard
activation. It has the properties focus and active to ask for the currently focused or activated DOM node.
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Activation Support
The activation, as part of the focus system, is also done by this manager. The keyboard handler for example asks
the focus system which DOM element is the active one to start the bubble sequences for all keyboard events on this
element. As the keyboard layer sits on top of the DOM and implements the event phases on its own there is no need
to inform the browser about the active DOM node as it is simply not relevant when using this layer. It is also quite
important as in every browser tested the methods to activate a DOM node (if available at all) might also influence the
focus which creates some problems.
Window Focus/Blur
The handler also manages the focus state of the top-level window. It fires the blur and focus events on the window
object one can listen to. Natively, these events are fired all over just by clicking somewhere in the document. The issue
is to detect the real focus/blur events. This is implemented through some type of internal state representation.
Text Selection
Focus handling in qooxdoo also solves a lot of related issues. For example the whole support for unelectable text is
done with the focus handler as well. Normally all text content on a page is selectable (with some exceptions like native
form buttons etc.). In a typical GUI or during drag&drop sessions it is highly needed to stop the user from being able
to select any text.
The only thing needed for the focus handler here is to add an attribute qxSelectable with the value off to the
node which should not be selectable. I don’t know about a way which is easier to solve this need.
Behind the scenes qooxdoo dynamically applies styles like user-select or attributes like unselectable. There
are a lot of bugs in the browser when keeping these attributes or styles statically applied to the nodes so they are applied
as needed dynamically which works surprisingly well. In Internet Explorer the handler stops the event selectstart
for the affected elements.
Prevent Defaults
One thing we needed especially for the widget system, which is built on top, was support for preventing a widget or
in this case a DOM node from being able to get the focus. This sounds simpler at first than it is. The major issue is to
also keep the focus where it is while clicking somewhere else.
This is especially interesting when working with a text selection. Unfortunately in a browser the selection could only
be where the focus is. This is a major issue when trying to apply any change to the currently selected text like needed
for most kinds of editors (like a rich text editor used by a mail application for example). The type of fix we apply
in qooxdoo is not to allow the browser to focus a specific DOM node e.g. the “Bold” button of the text editor. This
makes it easy to add listeners to the button which work with the still existing selection of the editor field. The feature
could be applied easily to a DOM node like such a button just through an attribute qxKeepFocus with the value on.
It affects all children of the element as well, as long as these do not define anything else.
A similar goal is to keep the activation where it is when the user clicks at a specific section of the document. This is
mainly used to keep the keyboard processing where it is e.g. when clicking the opened list of a SelectBox widget.
This feature could be used for other scenarios like this as well. Like in the previous block it can be enabled simply by
setting the attribute qxKeepActive to on for the relevant DOM node. Internally, to stop the activation also means
to stop the focus. It was not solvable in another way because the browser otherwise sends activation events to the
focused DOM node which is contra productive in this case.
Another unwanted side effect of some browsers is the possibility to drag around specific types of content. There is
some type of native drag&drop support in most of today’s browsers, but this is quite useless with the current quality
of implementation. Still, the major issue remains: It is possible to drag around images for example which is often not
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wanted in a GUI toolkit. These native features compromise the behavior implemented by the application developer on
top of them. To stop this, qooxdoo applies styles like user-drag on browsers that support it, or prevents the native
draggesture event where available.
Other then this, most of these prevention is implemented internally through a preventDefault call on the global
mousedown event when a specific target is detected. This has some side effects though. When preventing such a core
event it means that most browsers also stop any type of selection happening through the mouse. This also stops them
from focusing the DOM node natively. The qooxdoo code uses some explicit focus calls on the DOM nodes to fix
this.
Please note that some settings may have side effects on other things. For example, to make a text region selectable
but not activate able is not possible with the current implementation. This has not really a relevance in real-world
applications, but may be still interesting to know about.
Finally
Finally, the whole implementation differs nearly completely for the supported browsers. Hopefully you get an impression of the complexity of the topic. May the browser with you.
5.3.5 qooxdoo Animation
qooxdoo Animation is a low level animation layer which comes with several effects to animate DOM elements. An
effect changes one or more attributes of a DOM element from a start to an end value in the given time either linear or
using a transition function. Effects can be stacked in a queue and orderd by assigning a startup delay.
• API documentation
• Demos
• Issues
Usage
To create an effect instance the desired effect and pass the DOM element, which should be used for the animation, as
parameter. The effect can be configured by changing the properties like from, to, duration and more. Once the
effect is set up, it can be started by calling the start() method of the effect.
var element = document.getElementById("dlAmount");
var attention = new qx.fx.effect.core.Highlight(element);
function update(amount)
{
element.innerHTML = parseInt(amount);
attention.start();
}
Queueing effecs
Every effect has a delay property which can be set to the amount of seconds the effect should wait before it should
be executed after calling the start() method on it. You can use this property to arrange effects in the order you
want them to be executed.
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var el = button1.getContainerElement().getDomElement();
var psEffect = new qx.fx.effect.combination.Pulsate(el);
// The pulsate effect will take two seconds to execute
psEffect.seDuration(2);
var mvEffect = new qx.fx.effect.core.Move(el);
mvEffect.set({
x : 100,
y : 200,
delay : 2 // Wait two seconds to execute
});
// Start both effects at the same time
psEffect.start();
mvEffect.start();
Writing own effects
To create own effects, create a new class and extend from qx.fx.Base and overwrite the update() methode. You
can access the DOM element of the effect by calling this._getElement().
qx.Class.define("fxdemo.flickerBackground",
{
extend : qx.fx.Base,
members :
{
update : function(value)
{
var element = this._getElement();
// Value is a floating-point number between the start and end property.
value +=""; // Convert it to a string.
value = parseInt(value[value.length-1], 10); // Read the last digit and parse it to integer
element.style.backgroundColor = "’" + (value % 2 == 0) ? "red" : "blue" + "’";
}
}
});
List of effects
The qx.fx.effect package contains 14 effects:
• ColorFlow Changes the background color of an element to a given initial. After that the effects waits a given
amount of time before it modifies to background color back to the initial value.
• Drop Moves the element to the given direction while fading it out.
• Fade Fades in the specified element: it changes to opacity from a given value to another. If target value is 0, it
will hide the element, if value is 1, it will show it using the “display” property.
• Fold Shrinks the element in width and height until it gets invisible.
• Grow Resizes the element from initial dimensions to final dimensions.
• Highlight Cycles the background color of the element from initial to final color.
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• Move Moves to element to the given coordinates.
• Puff Resizes the element from zero to the original size of the elment and fades it in at the same time.
• Pulsate Fades the element in and out several times.
• Scale This effect scales the specified element (and its content, optionally) by given percentages.
• Scroll Scrolls to specified coordinates on given element.
• Shake Moves the element forwards and backwards several times.
• Shrink Resizes the element from initial to given dimensions.
• Switch Flickers the element one time and then folds it in.
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SIX
COMMUNICATION
There are two forms of client-server communication supported:
6.1 Low-level AJAX Calls
6.1.1 AJAX
This system is (as everything else in qooxdoo) completely event based. It currently supports communication by
XMLHttp, Iframes or Script. The system wraps most of the differences between the implementations and unifies
them for the user/developer.
For all your communication needs you need to create a new instance of Request:
var req = new qx.io.remote.Request(url, "GET", "text/plain");
Constructor arguments of Request:
1. URL: Any valid http/https/file URL
2. Method: You can choose between POST and GET.
3. Response mimetype: What mimetype do you await as response
Mimetypes supported
• application/xml
• text/plain
• text/html
• text/javascript
• application/json
Note: text/javascript and application/json will be directly evaluated. As content you will get the
return value.
If you use the iframe transport implementation the functionality of the type is more dependent on the server side
response than for the XMLHttp case. For example the text/html mimetypes really need the response in HTML and
can’t convert it. This also depends greatly on the mimetype sent out by the server.
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Request data
• setRequestHeader(key, value): Setup a request header to send.
• getRequestHeader(key): Returns the configured value of the request header.
• setParameter(key, value): Add a parameter to send with your request.
• getParameter(key): Returns the value of the given parameter.
• setData(value): Sets the data which should be sent with the request (only useful for POST)
• getData(): Returns the data currently set for the request
Note: Parameters are always sent as part of the URL, even if you select POST. If you select POST, use the setData
method to set the data for the request body.
Request configuration (properties)
• asynchronous: Should the request be asynchronous? This is true by default. Otherwise it will stop the
script execution until the response was received.
• data: Data to send with the request. Only used for POST requests. This is the actual post data. Generally this
is a string of url-encoded key-value pairs.
• username: The user name to authorize for the server. Configure this to enable authentication.
• password: The password to authenticate for the server.
• timeout: Configure the timeout in milliseconds of each request. After this timeout the request will be automatically canceled.
• prohibitCaching: Add a random numeric key-value pair to the url to securely prohibit caching in IE.
Enabled by default.
• crossDomain: Enable/disable cross-domain transfers. This is false by default. If you need to acquire data
from a server of a different domain you would need to setup this as true. (Caution: this would switch to
“script” transport, which is a security risk as you evaluate code from an external source. Please understand the
security issues involved.)
• fileUpload: Indicate that the request will be used for a file upload. The request will be used for
a file upload. This switches the concrete implementation that is used for sending the request from
qx.io.remote.transport.XmlHttp to qx.io.remote.IFrameTransport, because only the
latter can handle file uploads.
Available events
• sending: Request was configured and is sending data to the server.
• receiving: The client receives the response of the server.
• completed: The request was executed successfully.
• failed: The request failed through some reason.
• timeout: The request has got a timeout event.
• aborted: The request was aborted.
The last four events give you a qx.event.type.Data as the first parameter of the event handler. As always for
qx.event.type.Data you can access the stored data using getData(). The return value of this function is an
instance of qx.io.remote.Response.
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Response object
The response object qx.io.remote.Response stores all the returning data of a qx.io.remote.Request.
This object comes with the following methods:
• getContent: Returns the content data of the response. This should be the type of content you acquired using
the request.
• getResponseHeader: Returns the content of the given header entry.
• getResponseHeaders: Return all available response headers. This is a hash-map using typical key-values
pairs.
• getStatusCode: Returns the HTTP status code.
Note: Response headers and status code information are not supported for iframe based communication!
Simple example
// get text from the server
req = new qx.io.remote.Request(val.getLabel(), "GET", "text/plain");
// request a javascript file from the server
// req = new qx.io.remote.Request(val.getLabel(), "GET", "text/javascript");
// Switching to POST
// req.setMethod("POST");
// req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
// Adding parameters - will be added to the URL
// req.setParameter("test1", "value1");
// req.setParameter("test2", "value2");
// Adding data to the request body
// req.setData("foobar");
// Force to testing iframe implementation
// req.setCrossDomain(true);
req.addListener("completed", function(e) {
alert(e.getContent());
// use the following for qooxdoo versions <= 0.6.7:
// alert(e.getData().getContent());
});
// Sending
req.send();
Please post questions to our mailinglist.
6.2 Higher-level Remote Procedure Calls (RPC)
6.2.1 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)
qooxdoo includes an advanced RPC mechanism for direct calls to server-side methods. It allows you to write
true client/server applications without having to worry about the communication details.
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The qooxdoo RPC is based on JSON-RPC as the serialization and method call protocol, and qooxdoo provides server
backends for Java, PHP, and Perl projects. A Python backend library is also provided by a third party. All parameters
and return values are automatically converted between JavaScript and the server-side language.
Setup
To make use of the RPC, you need to set up a server backend first.
Configuration of each server backend needs slightly different treatment. Please see the page relevant to you:
• Java
• PHP
• Perl
• Python
Your favorite language is missing? Feel free to write your own qooxdoo RPC server, consult the RPC Server Writer
Guide for details.
Making remote calls
Basic call syntax
To make remote calls, you need to create an instance of the Rpc class:
var rpc = new qx.io.remote.Rpc(
"http://localhost:8080/qooxdoo/.qxrpc",
"qooxdoo.test"
);
The first parameter is the URL of the backend (in this example a Java backend on localhost). The second is the name
of the service you’d like to call. In Java, this is the fully qualified name of a class. (The Java backend includes the
qooxdoo.test service used in the example. The class name is lowercase to keep it in sync with the PHP examples
- in Java-only projects, you would of course use standard Java naming conventions.)
When you have the Rpc instance, you can make synchronous and asynchronous calls:
// synchronous call
try {
var result = rpc.callSync("echo", "Test");
alert("Result of sync call: " + result);
} catch (exc) {
alert("Exception during sync call: " + exc);
}
// asynchronous call
var handler = function(result, exc) {
if (exc == null) {
alert("Result of async call: " + result);
} else {
alert("Exception during async call: " + exc);
}
};
rpc.callAsync(handler, "echo", "Test");
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For synchronous calls, the first parameter is the method name. After that, one or more parameters for this method may
follow (in this case, a single string). Please note that synchronous calls typically block the browser UI until the result
arrives, so they should only be used sparingly (if at all)!
Asynchronous calls work similarly. The only difference is an additional first parameter that specifies a handler function. This function is called when the result of the method call is available or when an exception occurred.
You can also use qooxdoo event listeners for asynchronous calls - just use callAsyncListeners instead of
callAsync. More details can be found in the API documentation.
One difference between the qooxdoo RPC and other RPC implementations are client stubs. These are small wrapper
classes that provide the same methods as the corresponding server classes, so they can be called like ordinary JavaScript
methods. In qooxdoo, there are no such stubs by default, so you have to provide the method name as a string. The
advantage is that there’s no additional build step for generating stubs, and it’s also not necessary to “register” your
server classes at runtime (which would be a prerequisite for dynamic stub generation). If you really want or need client
stubs, you currently have to write the stubs (or a generator for them) yourself. Future qooxdoo versions may include
such a generator.
Parameter and result conversion
All method parameters and result values are automatically converted to and from the backend language. Using the Java
backend, you can even have overloaded methods, and the correct one will be picked based on the provided parameters.
The following table lists the data types supported by the Java backend and the corresponding JavaScript types:
Java type
int, long, double, Integer, Long, Double
boolean, Boolean
String
java.util.Date
Array (of any of the supported types)
java.util.Map
JavaBean
JavaScript type
number
boolean
String
Date
Array
Object
Object
The first few cases are quite simple, but the last two need some more explanation. If a Java method expects a
java.util.Map, you can send any JavaScript object to it. All properties of the object are converted to Java and
become members of the Java Map. When a Map is used as a return value, it’s converted to a JavaScript object in a
similar way: A new object is created, and then all key/value pairs in the map are converted themselves and then added
as properties to this object. (Please note that “properties” is used here in the native JavaScript sense, not in the sense
of qooxdoo properties.)
JavaBeans are converted in a similar way. The properties of the JavaBean become JavaScript properties and vice versa.
If a JavaScript object contains properties for which no corresponding setters exist in the JavaBean, they are ignored.
For performance reasons, recursive conversion of JavaBeans and Maps is performed without checking for cycles! If
there’s a reference cycle somewhere, you end up with a StackOverflowException. The same is true when you try to
send a JavaScript object to the server: If it (indirectly) references itself, you get a recursion error in the browser.
Besides the fully-automatic conversions, there’s also a class hinting mechanism. You can use it in case you need to
send a specific sub-class to the server (see below for details). However, it can’t be used to instantiate classes without a
default constructor yet. Future qooxdoo versions may provide more extensive class hinting support.
Aborting a call
You can abort an asynchronous call while it’s still being performed:
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// Rpc instantiation and handler function left out for brevity
var callref = rpc.callAsync(handler, "echo", "Test");
// ...
rpc.abort(callref);
// the handler will be called with an abort exception
Error handling
When you make a synchronous call, you can catch an exception to handle errors. In its rpcdetails property, the
exception contains an object that describes the error in more detail. The same details are also available in the second
parameter in an asynchronous handler function, as well as in the events fired by callAsyncListeners.
The following example shows how errors can be handled:
// creation of the Rpc instance left out for brevity
var showDetails = function(details) {
alert(
"origin: " + details.origin +
"; code: " + details.code +
"; message: " + details.message
);
};
// error handling for sync calls
try {
var result = rpc.callSync("echo", "Test");
} catch (exc) {
showDetails(exc.rpcdetails);
}
// error handling for async calls
var handler = function(result, exc) {
if (exc != null) {
showDetails(exc);
}
};
rpc.callAsync(handler, "echo", "Test");
The following origin‘s are defined:
Constant
Meaning
qx.io.remote.Rpc.origin.server
The error occurred on the server (e.g. when a non-existing method is called).
qx.io.remote.Rpc.origin.application
The error occurred inside the server application (i.e. during a method call in non-qooxdoo
code).
qx.io.remote.Rpc.origin.transport
The error occurred in the communication layer (e.g. when the Rpc instance was constructed
with an URL where no backend is deployed, resulting in an HTTP 404 error).
qx.io.remote.Rpc.origin.local
The error occurred locally (when the call timed out or when it was aborted).
The code depends on the origin. For the server and application origins, the possible codes are defined by the backend
implementation. For transport errors, it’s the HTTP status code. For local errors, the following codes are defined:
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Constant
qx.io.remote.Rpc.localError.timeout
qx.io.remote.Rpc.localError.abort
Meaning
A timeout occurred.
The call was aborted.
Cross-domain calls
Using the qooxdoo RPC implementation, you can also make calls across domain boundaries. On the client side, all
you have to do is specify the correct destination URL in the Rpc constructor and set the crossDomain property to
true:
var rpc = new qx.io.remote.Rpc("http://targetdomain.com/appname/.qxrpc");
rpc.setCrossDomain(true);
On the server side, you need to configure the backend to accept cross-domain calls (see the documentation comments
in the various backend implementations).
Writing your own services
Java
Writing your own remotely callable methods is very easy. Just create a class like this:
package my.package;
import net.sf.qooxdoo.rpc.RemoteService;
import net.sf.qooxdoo.rpc.RemoteServiceException;
public class MyService implements RemoteService {
public int add(int a, int b) throws RemoteServiceException {
return a + b;
}
}
All you need to do is include this class in your webapp (together with the qooxdoo backend classes), and it will be
available for calls from JavaScript! You don’t need to write or modify any configuration files, and you don’t need to
register this class anywhere. The only requirements are:
1. The class has to implement the RemoteService interface. This is a so-called tagging interface, i.e. it has no
methods.
2. All methods that should be remotely available must be declared to throw a RemoteServiceException.
Both requirements are there to protect arbitrary Java code from being called.
Accessing the session There is one instance of a service class per session. To get access to the current session, you
can provide an injection method called setQooxdooEnvironment:
package my.package;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpSession;
import net.sf.qooxdoo.rpc.Environment;
import net.sf.qooxdoo.rpc.RemoteService;
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import net.sf.qooxdoo.rpc.RemoteServiceException;
public class MyService implements RemoteService {
private Environment _env;
public void setQooxdooEnvironment(Environment env) {
_env = env;
}
public void someRemoteMethod() throws RemoteServiceException {
HttpSession session = _env.getRequest().getSession();
}
}
The environment provides access to the current request (via getRequest) and the RpcServlet instance that is handling the current call (via getRpcServlet).
Advanced Java topics
Automatic client configuration
The Java RPC backend contains an auto-config mechanism, mainly used for automatically detecting the server URL.
You can access it by including the following script tag in your HTML page:
<html>
<head>
<!-- ... -->
<script type="text/javascript" src=".qxrpc"></script>
</head>
</html>
Provided the HTML page is part of the webapp (and not loaded via file:*...), and provided that you didn’t change
the default mapping of the RpcServlet (.qxrpc), any request to http://server/app/foo/bar.qxrpc (or
anything else that ends with .qxrpc) will always be directed to the RpcServlet. The RpcServlet fills a structure with
basic information about the server. It may answer with something like
qx.core.ServerSettings = {serverPathPrefix: ’http://server/app’, ...}
and this is used by the makeServerURL() helper method in the RPC class. You can use this when instantiating an
RPC instance:
var rpc = new qx.io.remote.Rpc(
qx.io.remote.Rpc.makeServerURL(),
"my.package.MyService"
);
This way, you don’t need to hardcode the URL of the service. Your client code will work without modifications, no
matter what the name of your application is or where it is deployed. By generating absolute URLs you don’t have
to worry about moving around web pages and scripts in the directory structure, which is a common shortcoming of
relative URLs. The auto-configration feature is also convenient if you need to embed a session id into the URL.
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Subclassing RpcServlet
It can be useful to create your own version of qooxdoo’s RpcServlet. Some of the benefits of subclassing it are:
1. Custom object conversion: By creating your own subclass, you can provide code for custom conversion of
objects. This is especially useful for classes that don’t have a default constructor.
2. Detailed server logging: You can hook your own code into the method calling mechanism, e.g. to provide
detailed failure logging (the JavaScript side only receives rather generic errors).
3. Property filtering: For methods that return JavaBeans, you can filter the properties that should be sent to the
client. This can save a lot of bandwidth without having to completely wrap the result in a custom object.
4. Class hinting: For security reasons, the class hinting mechanism isn’t active by default (otherwise, client code
could instantiate arbitrary server classes). By overriding a method, you can enable it on a case-by-case basis.
The following example code shows how all of this can be done:
package my.package;
import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;
import java.util.Calendar;
import java.util.Map;
import net.sf.qooxdoo.rpc.RpcServlet;
import net.sf.qooxdoo.rpc.RemoteCallUtils;
import org.json.JSONArray;
public class MyRpcServlet extends RpcServlet {
protected RemoteCallUtils getRemoteCallUtils() {
return new RemoteCallUtils() {
// log exceptions by overriding callCompatibleMethod
protected Object callCompatibleMethod(Object instance,
String methodName, JSONArray parameters)
throws Exception {
try {
return super.callCompatibleMethod(instance, methodName, parameters);
} catch (Exception exc) {
exc.printStackTrace();
throw exc;
}
}
// influence object conversion
public Object toJava(Object obj, Class targetType) {
// insert custom conversion to Java here
// (default: call super method)
return super.toJava(obj, targetType);
}
public Object fromJava(Object obj)
throws IllegalAccessException, InvocationTargetException,
NoSuchMethodException {
// use Dates instead of Calendars (so that the
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// client code receives native JavaScript dates)
if (obj instanceof Calendar) {
return super.fromJava(((Calendar) obj).getTime());
}
return super.fromJava(obj);
}
// filter unwanted bean properties
protected Map filter(Object obj, Map map) {
if (obj instanceof Date) {
map.remove("timezoneOffset");
}
return super.filter(obj, map);
}
// class hinting
protected Class resolveClassHint(String requestedTypeName,
Class targetType) throws Exception {
// allow class hinting in some cases
// (useful for methods that expect a superclass
// of SubClassA and SubClassB)
if (requestedTypeName.equals("my.package.SubClassA") ||
requestedTypeName.equals("my.package.SubClassB")) {
return Class.forName(requestedTypeName);
} else {
return super.resolveClassHint(requestedTypeName, targetType);
}
}
};
}
}
To make use of class hinting on the client side, you have to send objects with a class attribute:
rpc.callAsync(handler, "testMethod",
{"class": "my.package.SubClassA",
property1: 123,
property2: 456,
/* ... */
});
Please note that class is a reserved word in JavaScript, so you have to enclose it in quotes.
6.2.2 RPC Servers
Java RPC
Note: This information refers to releases up to 0.7.x. It needs to be updated for the current releases 1.3.1.
Building a qooxdoo test application
The Java backend comes with a build.xml file that generates a web application archive (WAR). (In order to use this
build file, you need to have Ant installed.) The resulting WAR contains all the necessary server-side and client-side
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classes to experiment with the RPC mechanism.
To build the test WAR, simply follow these steps on the command line:
cd /qooxdoo/frontend
make build
cd /qooxdoo/backend/java
ant
Now deploy the WAR in a Java web server of your choice (e.g. Apache Tomcat). You can then point your browser to
one of the RPC test pages (e.g. http://localhost:8080/qooxdoo/sample/html/test/RPC_1.html)
to see the RPC mechanism in action.
Future qooxdoo releases may also include a pre-built Java backend.
Building your own applications
You can use the supplied build.xml as a starting point for your own applications. For example, you can modify
it to include your own applications instead of the qooxdoo examples. Or you can modify it to build a JAR with the
qooxdoo RPC classes and add that to an already existing webapp of yours. In this case, you have to add a mapping for
the RpcServlet in your web.xml (see webapp/WEB-INF/web.xml in the Java backend).
For development, you can use cross-domain calls (see below). This way, you can load HTML and script files via
file:// URLs, and only the server part needs to be packaged in a WAR. To see any client-side changes, simply
reload the page. When you’re ready to put the application into production, set cross-domain to false and add the client
part to the WAR. There are also more sophisticated solutions (e.g. using a servlet and a custom classloader to load
scripts), but these are beyond the scope of this article.
PHP RPC
qooxdoo includes an advanced RPC mechanism for direct calls to server-side methods. It allows you to write true
client/server applications without having to worry about the communication details.
As described in the RPC overview, qooxdoo RPC is based on JSON-RPC as the serialization and method call protocol.
This page describes how to set up and implement a PHP-based server.
Setup
Note: The following information is from the README.CONFIGURE file of the RpcPhp contribution.
The simplest configuration of the PHP JSON-RPC server requires these steps:
• Copy the services directory to the root of your web server’s data directory, e.g. /var/www
• Ensure that PHP is properly configured. Try placing a file in the services directory called test.php which
contains this data:
<?php
phpinfo();
?>
You should then be able to access http://your.domain.com/services/test.php and see the
phpinfo() output. If not, you have a web server / php configuration problem to work out.
• Configure your web server to load index.php if it’s found in a directory specified by the URL. By default, the web
server probably looks only for index.html and index.htm, but you want it also to look for index.php.
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Example
Please see RpcExample for an example of how to use an RPC backend.
To set up the RPC Example application:
1. Change directory into qooxdoo-contrib/trunk/RpcExample
2. Edit config.json such that the “path” inside of the “include” key properly points to the framework’s application.json file, and the QOOXDOO_PATH variable inside of the “let” key properly points to the root of the
framework source tree.
3. Type “generate.py build”. That will create a “build” qooxdoo-contrib/trunk/RpcExample/build directory
4. Copy the contents of the build directory to the web server root directory called “test”, so your root contains ‘test’
and ‘services’. If you’re on Linux, the best way is with rsync:
# mkdir /var/www/test
# rsync -av ./build/ /var/www/test/
Note the slash after ‘build’ so that it copies the contents of ‘build’ into ‘test’, but not the directory ‘build’ itself.
1. Browse to http://your.domain.com/test/index.html and ensure that the echo test in the first tab
runs, and then try the Rpc Server Functionality (async) test in the fourth tab.
RPC with a Perl server
qooxdoo includes an advanced RPC mechanism for direct calls to server-side methods. It allows you to write true
client/server applications without having to worry about the communication details.
As described in the RPC overview, qooxdoo RPC is based on JSON-RPC as the serialization and method call protocol.
This page describes how to set up and implement a Perl-based server.
Setup
Get a copy of the qooxdoo perl backend (Qooxdoo::JSONRPC) from our sourceforge download area. In the archive
you will find a README.txt file as well as a README.CONFIGURE which contains details of how to set up the
server. The steps involved are:
• First, make sure that you have the Perl JSON module installed. This can be found on CPAN, and if you can’t
get it prepackaged, can be installed with
# perl -MCPAN -e ’install JSON’
• If you care for performance at all, you may want to make sure that you have the FCGI module installed as well
as mod_fcgid in your apache server.
# perl -MCPAN -e ’install FCGI’
• The JSONRPC module requires a module to take care of the session handling. You can either use the
SessionLite module included with RpcPerl or you can get CGI::Session from CPAN.
• Next you’ll need to configure a list of places to look for modules and services: Open jsonrpc.pl and add
as many (space-separated) directories as you need to the lib list. Usually this need only contain the full path to
wherever you have put your Qxoodoo::JSONRPC module.
It does however mean that services can be spread across different directories for different projects.
These are searched for as <path>/Qooxdoo/Services/<service name>, and should
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have package names such as Qooxdoo::Services::qooxdoo::test (which corresponds to
<path>/Qooxdoo/Services/qooxdoo/test.pm).
The harness will obviously be run as the user that the web server is configured to run as, so needs access to the
perl backend files.
• Test that the script has all its dependencies, and can find the runtime module:
$ ./jsonrpc.pl
Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1
Your HTTP Client is not using the JSON-RPC protocol
If you get “Can’t locate Qooxdoo/JSONRPC.pm in @INC” then you didn’t get you library path right.
• Now you have a few choices, depending on how you plan to integrate with your web server. The quickest way
to get going is to simply copy jsonrpc.pl into you cgi-bin directory.
• You can now point your web browser at the following address, and confirm that you get the JSON-RPC protocol
error shown above.
http://localhost/cgi-bin/jsonrpc.pl
Writing your own services
Let’s start by writing our own first service which will add its arguments up. The service will be called example.wiki
and have a method called add.
To do this, we create a package called Qooxdoo::Services::example::wiki which will live in a file
Qooxdoo/Services/example/wiki.pm. It doesn’t matter where this file lives, but it will be searched for
using the path(s) that you specified in the jsonrpc.pl harness. For this example you can create the new file under
backend/perl/Qooxdoo/Services/example. Our service contains:
package Qooxdoo::Services::example::wiki;
use strict;
use Qooxdoo::JSONRPC;
sub method_add
{
my $error = shift;
my @params = @_;
my $count
= 1+$#params;
if ($count != 1)
{
$error->set_error (Qooxdoo::JSONRPC::JsonRpcError_ParameterMismatch,
"Expected 1 parameter, but got $count");
return $error;
}
my @numbers = split (/\s+/, $params[0]);
my $total = 0;
$total += $_ foreach (@numbers);
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return $total;
}
1;
The service is just a Perl package containing functions called method_* which are exposed through RPC. When called,
the first argument will always be an error object, and subsequent ones will be supplied by the calling Javascript. In
this example we just add the numbers in the first argument, which is space separated. [In practice we would probably
pass each number as a separate argument, but doing it this way allows us to use RPC_1.html for testing]
You can also see how the method has done a check on the supplied parameters, and raised an exception which will be
raised in the client.
Now, let’s give it a try using the RPC_1.html test harness. Change the URL to be the address of jsonrpc.pl, for
example /cgi-bin/jsonrpc.pl, the service to be example.wiki and the method to be add. Finally, supply a list of numbers
in the final field and click ‘Send to server’ to see a result.
If you get an error, particularly a server error, have a look in Apache’s error_log to see if there is an error recorded.
There is also a debug flag in JSONRPC.pm which can be enabled. All being well, you should receive a popup with
the result.
A more advanced example
Let’s write something that’s a little more “real world” – an address book! We’ll use the NDBM database backend as I
believe you should have it with Perl. We’ll provide a couple of helper functions which open and close the database,
as well as methods which list the database keys, fetch a record and store a record. These routines can be added to
wiki.pm.
use Fcntl;
use NDBM_File;
use vars qw(%database);
sub open_database
{
# Please choose a better database path on a public system
tie %database, ’NDBM_File’, ’/tmp/database’, O_RDWR|O_CREAT, 0666;
}
sub close_database
{
untie %database;
}
sub method_get_record_ids
{
my $error = shift;
open_database ();
my @k = keys %database;
close_database ();
return \@k;
}
sub method_get_record
{
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my $error = shift;
my $id
= shift;
open_database ();
my $record = $database{$id};
close_database ();
return $record;
}
sub method_set_record
{
my $error = shift;
my $id
= shift;
my $record = shift;
open_database ();
$database{$id} = $record;
close_database ();
return $record;
}
Now to implement the front-end. Bear with me for a mo while I write it....
RPC with a Python server
qooxdoo includes an advanced RPC mechanism for direct calls to server-side methods. It allows you to write true
client/server applications without having to worry about the communication details.*
As described in the RPC overview, qooxdoo RPC is based on JSON-RPC as the serialization and method call protocol.
This page describes how to set up and implement a Python-based server.
Setup
Python 2.4 or 2.5 is required to run a JSON-RPC server. Download and install python from python.org if you don’t
have it.
The JSON-RPC backend itself is based on the qxjsonrpc library. The qxjsonrpc package is part of the RpcPython
contribution which has links to the software itself. Extract the archive and run python setup.py install as usual. This
will install the qxjsonrpc package into the site-packages subdirectory of your python installation.
The backend requires python-cjson or simplejson (also just import json as simplejson for Python 2.6 or
higher) for JSON serialization. Install at least one of them. Building python-cjson requires a C compiler, but it is
much faster (10-100x) than the pure python simplejson package.
A backend based on qxjsonrpc can be run as
• a standalone HTTP server using the qxjsonrpc.http.HTTPServer class or
• a WSGI application using the qxjsonrpc.wsgi.WSGIApplication class.
You can find examples in the downloaded qxjsonrpc archive.
NOTE: The qxjsonrpc package is very young, it should not be used in production. Bug reports are always welcome.
Send your reports to Viktor Ferenczi. Thank you in advance.
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Writing your own services
Let’s start by writing our own first service which will add its arguments up. The service will be called example.wiki
and have a method called add.
To do this, we create a service class called ExampleWikiService which will live in a file wiki.py. This file can be
created anywhere with the following contents, preserving the indentation of the source code:
#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: ascii -*import qxjsonrpc
import qxjsonrpc.http
class ExampleWikiService(object):
def __init__(self):
self.total=0
@qxjsonrpc.public
def add(self, *args):
for value in args:
self.total+=value
return self.total
def main():
server=qxjsonrpc.http.HTTPServer()
server.setService(’example.wiki’, ExampleWikiService())
server.serve_forever()
if __name__==’__main__’: main()
Note the @qxjsonrpc.public decorator in the service class. The public decorator makes the decorated method
accessible to everyone. Undecorated methods are not accessible by RPC clients.
The service is just an executable Python script. Running wiki.py will run a JSON-RPC server at localhost:8000 by
default. Open the following link in a new browser window or tab:
http://localhost:8000/?id=1&service=example.wiki&method=add&params=[2]
It should show you the JSON-RPC response. The result will be the accumulated total value. Pressing the refresh (F5)
key will increment the total value by two as passed in the only argument in the params array.
The RPC call was actually made using the HTTP GET method. You can achieve the same result by sending the same
request arguments using the HTTP POST or the ScriptTransport protocol. The later is used by the qooxdoo library for
cross-domain requests. Use qooxdoo’s RPC functionality for best results.
You can change the arguments to be passed to the method by altering the params array in the address bar. Multiple
numbers or even floating point values can be added. If you does not add params at all the total won’t change.
A more advanced example
To be done.
Using sessions
@qxjsonrpc.session
To be done.
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Running as part of a WEB server
• WSGI: Apache 2.0 and mod_wsgi
To be done.
RPC Server Writer Guide
Writing a new JSON-RPC server for use with qooxdoo is fairly easy. If you follow these rules, you should end up with
a conformant implementation. See also the other available qooxdoo RPC servers.
JSON
With the exception of the formatting of Javascript Date objects, all communication between client and server is
formated as JSON, as described and documented at http://json.org.
Date Objects Date objects are a problem in standard JSON encoding, because there is no “literal” syntax for a date
in Javascript. In Javascript, nearly everthing can be represented in literal form: objects by { ... }; arrays by [
... ]; etc. The only native type which can not be represented as a literal is a Date. For this reason, a format for
passing Dates in JSON is defined here so that all conforming servers can parse the data received from clients.
Date objects are sent as the following ‘tokens’.
• The string new Date(Date.UTC(
• The year, integer, e.g. 2006
• A comma
• The month, 0-relative integer, e.g. 5 is June
• A comma
• The day of the month, integer, range: 1-31
• A comma
• The hour of the day on a 24-hour clock, integer, range: 0-23
• A comma
• The minute of the hour, integer, range: 0-59
• A comma
• The second within the minute, integer, range: 0-59
• A comma
• The milliseconds within the second, integer, range: 0-999
• The string ))
A resulting Date representation might therefore be:
new Date(Date.UTC(2006,5,20,22,18,42,223))
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Whitespace
• when generating these date strings, implementations SHOULD NOT add white space before/after/between any
of the fields within the date string
• when parsing these date strings, implementations SHOULD allow white space before/after/between any of the
fields within the date string
Numbers
• when generating these date strings, implementations MUST NOT add leading zeros to the numeric values in the
date string. Doing so will cause them to be parsed as octal values. Numbers MUST be passed in decimal (base
10) notation without leading zeros.
• when parsing these date strings, implementations MUST take the integer value of numeric portions of the string
as base 10 values, even if leading zeros appear in the string representation of the numbers..
Within the JSON protocol and in JSON messages between peers, Date objects are always passed as UTC.
RPC
Remote procedure calls are issued using JSON seralization. The basis for the objects used to send requests and responses are described and defined at http://json-rpc.org, specifically http://json-rpc.org/wiki/specification. This document introduces a number of differences to that specification, based on real-life implementation discoveries and needs.
This portion of this document is an edited version of the JSON-RPC specification.
request (method invocation) A remote method is invoked by sending a request to a remote service. The request is
a single object serialized using JSON.
It has four properties:
• service - A String containing the name of the service. The server may use this to locate a set of related
methods, all contained within the specified service. The format of the supported service strings is up to the
server implementation.
• method - A String containing the name of the method to be invoked. The method must exist within the specified
service. The format of the method string is up to the server implementation.
• params - An Array of objects to pass as arguments to the method.
• id - The request id. This can be of any type. It is used to match the response with the request that it is replying
to. (qooxdoo always sends an integer value for id.)
response When the method invocation completes, the service must reply with a response. The response is a single
object serialized using JSON.
It has three properties:
• result - The Object that was returned by the invoked method. This must be null in case there was an error
invoking the method.
• error - An Error Object if there was an error invoking the method. It must be null if there was no error.
Note that determination of whether an error occurred is based on this property being null, not on result being
null. It is perfectly legal for both to be null, indicating a valid result with value null.
• id - This must be the same id as the request it is responding to.
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The Error Object
An error object contains two properties, origin and code:
origin origin - An error can be originated in four locations, during the process of initiating and processing a
remote procedure call. Each possible origin is assigned an integer value, assigned to this property, as follows:
• 1 = the server can return errors to the client
• 2 = methods invoked by the server can return errors
• 3 = Transport (e.g. HTTP) errors can occur
• 4 = the client determined that an error occurred, e.g. timeout
A conforming server implementation MUST send value 1 or 2 and MAY NOT send any other value, for origin. A
client may detect Transport or locally-ascertained errors, but a server will never return those.
code code - An integer error code. The value of code is hierarchically linked to origin; e.g. the same code represents
different errors depending on the value of origin.
One of these values of code SHALL be sent if origin = 1, i.e. if the server detected the error.
• Error code, value 1: Illegal Service The service name contains illegal characters or is otherwise deemed unacceptable to the JSON-RPC server.
• Error code, value 2: Service Not Found The requested service does not exist at the JSON-RPC server.
• Error code, value 3: Class Not Found If the JSON-RPC server divides service methods into subsets (classes),
this indicates that the specified class was not found. This is slightly more detailed than “Method Not Found”,
but that error would always also be legal (and true) whenever this one is returned.
• Error code, value 4: Method Not Found The method specified in the request is not found in the requested
service.
• Error code, value 5: Parameter Mismatch If a method discovers that the parameters (arguments) provided to it
do not match the requisite types for the method’s parameters, it should return this error code to indicate so to the
caller.
• Error code, value 6: Permission Denied A JSON-RPC service provider can require authentication, and that
authentication can be implemented such the method takes authentication parameters, or such that a method or
class of methods requires prior authentication. If the caller has not properly authenticated to use the requested
method, this error code is returned.
If origin = 2, i.e. the application (invoked method) detected the error, the value of the code property is entirely by
agreement between the invoking client and the and invoked method.
message message - A free-form textual message describing the error.
Other Errors
Errors detected by the server which indicate that the received data is not a JSON-RPC request SHOULD be simple text
strings returned to the invoker, describing the error. A web browser user who accidentally hits the URL of a JSONRPC server should receive a textual, not Error Object, response, indicating that the server is expecting a JSON-RPC
request.
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Transport
There are exactly two standard transport facilities potentially used by qooxdoo’s qx.io.remote.Rpc class:
• XmlHTTPRequest : The parameters of the remote procedure call are passed to the server using XmlHTTPRequest. The request will be issued using the POST method with Content Type: application/json.
The data provided by the client will be the JSON-serialized request object. The JSON-serialized result object
MUST be returned with Content Type: application/json. This transport will be used unless the
request is issued as cross-domain.
• Script : If the client application invokes a cross-domain request, the request will be issued by URL-encoding the
request object and wrapping it in a <script> tag. The request uses the GET method with Content Type:
text/javascript. The response to a request received via this method MUST be a call to the static method
qx.io.remote.transport.Script._requestFinished with parameters of the script id (a copy of
the value of the incoming parameter _ScriptTransport_id) and the JSON-serialized result object.
A server SHOULD issue an Other Error (textual reply) if it detects a method / content type pair other than the
two supported ones.
Testing A New Server
To validate that your new server is operating properly, the following test methods may be created at your server:
• echo - Echo the one and only parameter back to the client, in the form: Client said:
] where all text is literal except for <parameter>.
[ <parameter>
• sink - Sink all data and never return. (“Never” is a long time, so it may be simulated by sleeping for 240
seconds.
• sleep - Sleep for the number of seconds provided as the first parameter, and then return that parameter.
• getInteger - Return the integer value 1
• getFloat - Return the floating point value 1/3
• getString - Return the string "Hello world"
• getArrayInteger - Return an array containing the four integers [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ] in that order.
• getArrayString - Return an array containing the four strings [ "one", "two", "three",
"four" ] in that order
• getObject - Return some arbitrary object
• getTrue - Return the binary value true
• getFalse - Return the binary value false
• getNull - Return the value null
• isInteger - Return true if the first parameter is an integer; false otherwise
• isFloat - Return true if the first parameter is a float; false otherwise
• isString - Return true if the first parameter is a string; false otherwise
• isBoolean - Return true if the first parameter is either one of the boolean values true or false; return
false otherwise.
• isArray - Return true if the first parameter is an array; false otherwise
• isObject - Return true if the first parameter is an object; false otherwise
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• isNull - Return true if the first parameter is the value null; false otherwise.
• getParams - Echo all parameters back to the client, in received order
• getParam - Echo the first parameter back to the client. This is a synonym for the echo method.
• getCurrentTimestamp - Return an object which has two properties:
– now: An integer representing the current time in a native format, e.g. as a number of seconds or milliseconds since midnight on 1 Jan 1970.
– json: A Date object representing that same point in time
A test of all of the primitive RPC operations is available in the qooxdoo-contrib project RpcExample. The third tab
provides a test of the operations using synchronous requests, and the fourth tab tests the operations using asyncronous
requests. Note that the results are displayed in the debug log (in Firebug or in the debug console enabled by pressing
F7). You can look for true as a result of each request.
A future test will validate that all returned values are as expected, and display a single “passed/fail” indication.
6.3 Specific Widget Communication
6.3.1 Using the remote table model
The remote table should be used whenever you want to display a large amount of data in a performant way.
As this table model loads its data on-demand from a backend, only those rows are loaded that are near the area the
user is currently viewing. If the user scrolls, the rows that will be displayed soon are loaded asynchronously in the
background. All loaded data is managed in a cache that automatically removes the last recently used rows when it gets
full.
To get this model up and running you have to implement the actual loading of the row data by yourself in a subclass.
Implement your subclass
To correctly implement the remote table model you have to define/overwrite two methods _loadRowCount and
_loadRowData. Both are automatically called by the table widget.
qx.Class.define("myApplication.table.RemoteDataModel",
{
extend : qx.ui.table.model.Remote,
members :
{
// overloaded - called whenever the table requests the row count
_loadRowCount : function()
{
// Call the backend service (example) - using XmlHttp
var url = "http://localhost/services/getTableCount.php";
var req = new qx.io.remote.Request(url, "GET", "application/json");
// Add listener
req.addListener("completed", this._onRowCountCompleted, this);
// send request
req.send();
},
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// Listener for request of "_loadRowCount" method
_onRowCountCompleted : function(response)
{
var result = response.getContent();
if (result != null)
{
// Apply it to the model - the method "_onRowCountLoaded" has to be called
this._onRowCountLoaded(result);
}
},
// overloaded - called whenever the table requests new data
_loadRowData : function(firstRow, lastRow)
{
// Call the backend service (example) - using XmlHttp
var baseUrl = "http://localhost/services/getTableRowData.php";
var parameters = "?from=" + firstRow + "&to=" + lastRow;
var url = baseUrl + parameters;
var req = new qx.io.remote.Request(url, "GET", "application/json");
// Add listener
req.addListener("completed", this._onLoadRowDataCompleted, this);
// send request
req.send();
},
// Listener for request of "_loadRowData" method
_onLoadRowDataCompleted : function(response)
{
var result = response.getContent();
if (result != null)
{
// Apply it to the model - the method "_onRowDataLoaded" has to be called
this._onRowDataLoaded(result);
}
}
}
});
Using your remote model
Now that you’ve set up the remote table model the table component can use it.
var remoteTableModelInstance = new myApplication.table.RemoteDataModel();
yourTableInstance.setTableModel(remoteTableModelInstance);
That’s all you need to ensure your table is using your remote model.
Sorting your data
The table component offers sortable columns to let users sort the data the way they like. You can enable this sorting
ability for each column. Since you have to pull the data into the table yourself you have to update the table data
once the user changes the sorting criteria. You have to enhance the _loadRowData method with this information to
inform your backend how to sort the data.
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// "_loadRowData" with sorting support
_loadRowData : function(firstRow, lastRow)
{
// Call the backend service (example) - using XmlHttp
var baseUrl = "http://localhost/services/getTableRowData.php";
var parameters = "?from=" + firstRow + "&to=" + lastRow;
// get the column index to sort and the order
var sortIndex = this.getSortColumnIndex();
var sortOrder = this.isSortAscending() ? "asc" : "desc";
// setting the sort parameters - assuming the backend knows these
parameters += "&sortOrder=" + sortOrder + "&sortIndex=" + sortIndex;
var url = baseUrl + parameters;
var req = new qx.io.remote.Request(url, "GET", "application/json");
// Add listener
req.addListener("completed", this._onLoadRowDataCompleted, this);
// send request
req.send();
}
Backend
The backend has to deliver the requested data in a JSON data structure in order to display the data correctly. The data
structure has to use the same IDs as the remote table model instance at the client-side.
For example
var remoteModel = new myApplication.table.RemoteDataModel();
// first param: displayed names, second param: IDs
remoteModel.setColumns( [ "First name", "Last name" ], [ "first", "last" ] );
Then the data delivered by the backend should have the following structure:
result = {[
{ "first" : "John", "last" : "Doe" },
{ "first" : "Homer", "last" : "Simpson"
{ "first" : "Charlie", "last" : "Brown"
...
]};
},
},
Moreover, the backend has to deliver the row count, i.
e.
the number of rows the table contains.
This is what the _loadRowCount function of your subclass expects to get.
Please make sure that the URLs http://localhost/services/getTableCount.php and
http://localhost/services/getTableRowData.php of your subclass point to the right location.
Summary
This short and very basic example is far from complete and in your application you will have to implement some more
features like error-handling, but it should give you a short overview of how to implement the remote table model in
qooxdoo.
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Another basic implementation which uses the PHP RPC backend is available in qooxdoo-contrib. Take a look at the
RPCExample and setup the necessary RPC PHP backend.
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SEVEN
DEVELOPMENT
7.1 Debugging
7.1.1 Logging System
The logging API allows for a definition of what is logged and where it is logged, while trying to keep usage as simple
as possible.
Writing Log Messages
Every qooxdoo object has four logging methods debug(), info(), warn() and error(). Each method takes
an arbitrary number of parameters which can be of any JavaScript data type: The logging system will create text
representations of non-string parameters.
The name of the method defines the log level your log message will get. If you want to log a message that is interesting
for debugging, then use debug(). If you want to log some general information, use info(). If you want to log a
warning, use warn(). Errors should be logged with error(). Have a look to the API documentation of the class
qx.core.Object for more information.
So to write a log message just call:
this.debug("Hello world");
Writing Custom Log Appenders
qooxdoo’s logging system is extensible by adding user-defined log appenders. These can be used in place of or in
addition to qooxdoo’s default appenders. A log appender is a static class with at least a “process” method. This
method will be called by the logger with an “entry” map as the only parameter. Log appenders that need only a text
representation of the logged item(s) can pass this map to qx.log.appender.Util.toText. For other use cases,
this is what an entry map consists of:
Log Entry Map
• items Array of maps containing information about the logged items, see below
• time When the message was logged (JavaScript Date)
• level The level of the log message
• object qx object registry hash of the object the log method was called on
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• win The application’s DOM window (necessary for cross-frame logging)
• offset Time in milliseconds since application startup
Logged Item Map
• text Text representation of the logged item. If the logged item is an array, the value of text is an array containing
text representations of each of the logged array’s entries. For maps, the value is an array of maps with the
following fields:
• key The map key’s name
• text Representation of the corresponding value
• trace Stack trace (if the logged item is an Error object)
• type One of “undefined”, “null”, “boolean”, “number”, “string”, “function”, “array”, “error”, “map”, “class”,
“instance”, “node”, “stringify”, “unknown” “stringify”
Registering Appenders
To register an appender named “custom.Logger” with qooxdoo’s logging system, simply call
qx.log.Logger.register(custom.Logger)
7.1.2 Debugging Applications
You have several options at hand when it comes to debugging a qooxdoo application.
Introspection
• qx.io.Json.stringify()
• qx.dev.Debug()
Included in the latter is qx.dev.Debug.debugObject() which will print out a complete recursive hierarchy (or up to
some max level) of an object.
This is taken from a firebug interactive session:
>>> var myTest = {a:1, b:[2,3], c:4}
>>> qx.dev.Debug.debugObject(myTest)
1665905: Object, count=3:
-----------------------------------------------------------a: 1
b: Array
0: 2
1: 3
c: 4
==================================
Memory leaks
• Setting qx.disposerDebugLevel
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• Setting qx.ioRemoteDebug
• Setting qx.ioRemoteDebugData
Debugging Tools
Some browser-specific tools allow for a powerful and often convenient way of debugging applications.
Code Instrumentation Idioms
These are helpful idioms you might want to include in your code, i.e. you use them at programming time.
this.debug()
With this.debug() you can print out any string you want to see in the console during execution of your application.
Of course you might want to interpolate variable values in the output. If you pass an entire object reference, the whole
object will by stringyfied and printed. So beware: for big objects you get the entire instantiation in code printed out!
Example:
this.debug("I found this value for myVar: "+myVar);
console.log()
In contrast to this.debug(), if you pass an object reference to console.log() Firebug will provide you with a nice
hyperlink to the live object which you can follow to inspect the object in a structured way. This is much easier to
navigate than to skim through pages of source output.
var b = new qx.ui.form.Button();
console.log(b);
this.trace()
Will log the current stack trace using the defined logger. This can be useful to inspect from which method the current
function was called.
this.trace()
Getting at your Objects
This section shows you how to access objects of your application at run time, i.e. while it executes. Access to those
objects is possible through JavaScript, either in the form of another piece of JavaScript code, or - especially interesting
for debugging - from an interactive shell, like Firebug or Venkman, that allows for interactive input and execution of
JavaScript commands.
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qx.core.Init.getApplication()
In your running app, the singlton Init object provides you with the getApplication() method, to access the
root object of your application. All members and sub-members that you have attached to your application class in
your code are accessible this way.
qx.core.Init.getApplication();
Firebug Usage Idioms
“Inspect”
Getting at your application objects fast is a common requirement when debugging. A useful idiom (or usage pattern)
with Firebug is to press the “Inspect” button and select the visible page element you are interested in. This will take
Firebug to its HTML tab in a split-pane view. The left side holds the HTML code underlying your selection (which
is probably not very enlightening). The right side though has a “DOM” tab, among others. Selecting this will show a
display of the underlying DOM node, which features a qx_Widget attribute. This attribute is added to the outermost
HTML tag representing a qooxdoo widget. For complex widgets that are made up of nested HTML elements, make
sure to select the outermost container node that actually has this attribute qx_Widget. It takes you straight to the
qooxdoo object associated with the selected DOM node.
Inspect -> Web page element -> HTML tab -> right side -> DOM tab -> qx_Widget link
7.2 Performance
7.2.1 Memory Management
Introduction
Generally, qooxdoo’s runtime will take care of most of the issues around object disposal, so you don’t have to be too
anxious if you get those ‘missing destruct declaration’ messages from a verbose disposer run.
To destruct existing objects at the end of your application is an important feature in the ever growing area of web
applications. Widgets and models are normally handling a few storage fields on each instance. These fields need the
dispose process to work without memory leaks.
Normally, JavaScript automatically cleans up. There is a built-in garbage collector in all engines. But these engines are
more or less buggy. One problematic issue is that browsers differentiate between DOM and JavaScript and use different
garbage collection systems for each (This does not affect all browsers, though). Problems arise when objects create
links between the two systems. Another issue are circular references which could not be easily resolved, especially by
engines which rely on a reference counter.
To help the buggy engines to collect the memory correctly it is helpful to dereference complex objects from each other,
e.g. instances from maps, arrays and other instances. You don’t need to delete primitive types like strings, booleans
and numbers.
qooxdoo has solved this issue from the beginning using the included “dispose” methods which could be overridden
and extended by each class. qooxdoo 0.7 introduced a new class declaration. This class declaration supports real
“destructors” as known from other languages. These destructors are part of the class declaration. The new style makes
it easier to write custom destructor/disposer methods because there are many new helper methods and the whole
process has been streamlined to a great extend.
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Disposing an application
You can dispose any qooxdoo based application by simply calling qx.core.ObjectRegistry.shutdown().
The simplest possibility is to use the command line included in Firebug. Another possibility is to add a HTML link or
a button to your application which executes this command.
You can look at the dispose behaviour of your app if you set the disposer into a verbose mode and then invoke it
deliberately while your app is running. This will usually render your app unusable, but you will get all those messages
hinting you at object properties that might need to be looked after. How-To instructions can be found here. But mind
that the disposer output contains only hints, that still need human interpretation.
Example destructor
destruct : function()
{
this._data = this._moreData = null;
this._disposeObjects("_buttonOk", "_buttonCancel");
this._disposeArray("_children");
this._disposeMap("_registry");
}
• _disposeObjects: Supports multiple arguments. Dispose the objects (qooxdoo objects) under each key
and finally delete the key from the instance.
• _disposeArray: Disposes the array under the given key, but disposes all entries in this array first. It must
contain instances of qx.core.Object only.
• _disposeMap: Disposes the map under the given key, but disposes all entries in this map first. It must contain
instances of qx.core.Object only.
How to test the destructor
The destructor code allows you an in-depth analysis of the destructors and finds fields which may leak etc. The DOM
tree gets also queried for back-references to qooxdoo instances. These checks are not enabled by default because of
the time they need on each unload of a typical qooxdoo based application.
To enable these checks you need to select a variant and configure a setting.
The variant qx.debug must be on. The setting qx.disposerDebugLevel must be at least at 1 to show not
disposed qooxdoo objects if they need to be deleted. A setting of 2 will additionally show non qooxdoo objects.
Higher values mean more output. Don’t be alarmed if some qooxdoo internal showing up. Usually there is no need to
delete all references. Garbage collection can do much for you here. For a general analysis 1 should be enough. You
need to add a setting named “qx.disposerDebugLevel” with the value 1 to your config.json. See at the Support
for finding potential memory leaks snippet how to change your configuration.
Log output from these settings chould look something like this:
35443 DEBUG: testgui.Report[1004]: Disposing: [object testgui.Report]FireBug.js (line 75)
Missing destruct definition for ’_scroller’ in qx.ui.table.pane.FocusIndicator[1111]: [object qx.ui.t
Missing destruct definition for ’_lastMouseDownCell’ in qx.ui.table.pane.Scroller[1083]: [object Obje
036394 DEBUG: testgui.Form[3306]: Disposing: [object testgui.Form]FireBug.js (line 75)
Missing destruct definition for ’_dateFormat’ in qx.ui.component.DateChooserButton[3579]: [object qx.
Missing destruct definition for ’_dateFormat’ in qx.ui.component.DateChooserButton[3666]: [object qx.
The nice thing here is that the log messages already indicate which dispose method to use: Every “Missing destruct...”
line contains a hint to the type of member that is not being disposed properly, in the “[object ...]” part of the line. As
a rule of thumb
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• native Javascript types (Number, String, Object, ...) usualy don’t need to be disposed.
• for qooxdoo objects (e.g. qx.util.format.DateFormat, testgui.Report, ...) use _disposeObjects
• for arrays or maps of qooxdoo objects use _disposeArray or _disposeMap.
• be sure to cut all references to the DOM because garbage collection can not dispose object still connected to the
DOM. This is also true for event listeners for example.
7.2.2 Profiling Applications
qooxdoo has built-in a cross-browser, pure JavaScript profiler. If the profiler is enabled, each call of a method defined
by qooxdoo’s class declaration can be measured. The profiler is able to compute both the total own time and the call
count of any method.
Since the profiler is implemented in pure JavaScript, it is totally cross-browser and works on any supported browser.
How to enable the Profiler
Basically set the variant qx.aspects to on and be sure to include the class qx.dev.Profile. The class should be
included before other classes. The easiest way to achieve that is to extend the profiling helper job in a job that
creates your application. For example, to enable profiling in the source version of your app, go to the "jobs" section
of your config.json, and add
"source-script" : {
"extend" : [ "profiling" ]
}
How to use the Profiler
The profiler can be controlled either hard-wired in the application code, or interactively using a JavaScript shell like
FireBug for Firefox or DebugBar for IE.
Profiling a certain action:
• Open the application in your browser
• At the JavaScript console type qx.dev.Profile.stop() to clear the current profiling data gathered during
startup
• Start profiling using qx.dev.Profile.start()
• Perform the action you want to profile
• Stop profiling using qx.dev.Profile.stop()
• Open the profiler output window: qx.dev.Profile.showResults(50). The parameter specifies how many items to display. Default value is set to 100. The output will be sorted by the total own time of each method. Alternatively you can work with the raw profiling data returned by
qx.dev.Profile.getProfileData().
Limitations
In order to interpret the results correctly it is important to know the limitations of this profiling approach. The most
significant limitation is due to the fact that the profiler itself is written in JavaScript and runs in the same context as
the application:
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• The profiler adds some overhead to each function call. The profiler takes this overhead into account in the
calculation of the own time but there can still be a small inaccuracy.
• The result of new Date(), which is used for timing, has a granularity of about 10ms on many patforms, so it
is hard to measure especially small functions accurately.
• The application is slowed down because profiling is done by wrapping each function. Profiling should always
be turned off in production code before deployment.
• Turning on profiling currently breaks most applications in Safari 3.0.2 due to a very limited maximum recursion
depth of only 100 (Bugzilla Bug 226). Since the profiler has to wrap each function, the call stack is doubled,
which is just too much for Safari.
Summary
The output of the profiler can be of great value to find hot spots and time-consuming code. The timing data should be
interpreted rather qualitatively than quantitatively, though, due to constraints of this approach.
Note: The application is slowed down because profiling is done by wrapping each function. Profiling should always
be turned off in production code before deployment.
7.3 Testing
7.3.1 Unit Testing
qooxdoo comes with its own, nicely integrated unit testing environment and the corresponding application called
Testrunner. While being similar to JSUnit, the solution that ships with the qooxdoo SDK does not require any additional software.
If you look at the component section of a qooxdoo distribution, you will find the Test Runner tailored to test the
functionality of the qooxdoo framework. It provides a convenient interface to test classes that have been written to that
end. You can run single tests, or a whole suite of them at once.
But the Test Runner framework can be deployed for your own application. It provides a GUI, a layer of infrastructure
and a certain interface for arbitrary test classes. You can write your own test classes and take advantage of the Test
Runner environment.
• Test Tools – an overview over test tools and approaches
• The qooxdoo Test Runner – how to deploy the Testrunner component for your own application
• Framework Unit Testing – a developer’s notebook about unit testing of the qooxdoo framework
7.3.2 The qooxdoo Test Runner
“Test Runner” is a unit testing framework that fully supports testing qooxdoo classes. It is similar to but does not
require JSUnit or any other JavaScript unit testing framework. If you look at the component section of a qooxdoo
distribution under component/testrunner/, you will find the Test Runner sources, together with a mockup test
class. In the framework/ section you can create a Test Runner instance with all test classes from the qooxdoo
framework by running:
./generate.py test
Test
Runner
provides
a
convenient
interface
ten to that end.
You can run single tests,
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to
or
test
classes
run a whole
that
suite
have
been
of them at
writonce.
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Note: See the Test Runner in action in the online demo.
The Test Runner framework can also be deployed for your own application. It provides a GUI, a layer of infrastructure
and a certain interface for arbitrary test classes. So now you can write your own test classes and take advantage of the
Test Runner environment.
How to deploy Test Runner for your own development
This section assumes that your qooxdoo application bears on the structure of the qooxdoo skeleton application. Then
this is what you have to do:
Writing Test Classes
• You have to code test classes that perform the individual tests. These test classes have to comply to the following
constraints:
– They have to be within the name space of your application.
– They have to be derived from qx.dev.unit.TestCase.
– They have to define member functions with names starting with test*. These methods will be available
as individual tests.
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– Apart from that you are free to add other member functions, properties etc., and to instantiate other classes
to your own content. But you will usually want to instantiate classes of your current application and invoke
their methods in the test functions.
– In order to communicate the test results back to the Test Runner framework exceptions are used. No
exception means the test went fine, throwing an exception from the test method signals a failure. Return
values from the test methods are not evaluated.
– To model your test method behaviour, you can use the methods
qx.dev.unit.TestCase which encapsulate exceptions in the form of assertions:
inherited
from
* assert, assertFalse, assertEquals, assertNumber, ... - These functions take values
which are compared (either among each other or to some predefined value) and a message string, and
raise an exception if the comparison fails.
* A similar list of methods of the form assert*DebugOn is available, which are only evaluated if
the debug variant qx.debug is on (see Variants).
* See the documentation for the qx.dev.unit.TestCase class for more information on the available assertions.
Generic setUp and tearDown Test classes can optionally define a setUp method. This is used to initialize common
objects needed by some or all of the tests in the class. Since setUp is executed before each test, it helps to ensure that
each test function runs in a “clean” environment. Similarly, a method named tearDown will be executed after each
test, e.g. to dispose any objects created by setUp or the test itself.
Specific tearDown For cases where the generic class-wide tearDown isn’t enough, methods using the naming
convention tearDown<TestFunctionName> can be defined. A method named e.g. tearDownTestFoo would
be called after testFoo and the generic tearDown of the class were executed.
Asynchronous Tests Starting with qooxdoo 0.8.2, the unit testing framework supports asynchronous tests. This
enables testing for methods that aren’t called directly, such as event handlers:
• Test classes inheriting from qx.dev.unit.TestCase have a wait() method that stops the test’s execution
and sets a timeout. wait() should always be the last function to be called in a test since any code following
it is ignored. wait() has two optional arguments: The amount of time to wait in milliseconds (defaults to
5000) and a function to be executed when the timeout is reached. If no function is specified, reaching the
timeout will cause an exception to be thrown and the test to fail.
• The resume() method is used to (surprise!) resume a waiting test. It takes two arguments, a function to be
executed when the test is resumed, typically containing assertions, and the object context it should be executed
in.
Here’s an example: In our test, we want to send an AJAX request to the local web server, then assert if the response is
what we expect it to be.
testAjaxRequest : function()
{
var request = new qx.io.remote.Request("/myWebApp/index.html");
request.addListener("completed", function (e) {
this.resume(function() {
this.assertEquals(200, e.getStatusCode());
}, this);
}, this);
request.send();
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this.wait(10000);
}
Create the Test Application
• Run generate.py test from the top-level directory of your application. This will generate the appropriate
test application for you, which will be available in the subfolder test as test/index.html. Open this file
in your browser and run your tests.
• Equally, you can invoke generate.py test-source. This will generate the test application, but allows
you to use the source version of your application to run the tests on. In doing so the test application links directly
into the source tree of your application. This allows for test-driven development where you simultaneously
develop your source classes, the test classes and run the tests. All you need to do is to change the URL of
the “test backend application” (the textfield in the upper middle of the TestRunner frame) from tests.html
(which is the default) to tests-source.html. (Caveat: If generate.py test-source is the first
thing you do, you might get an error when TestRunner starts, since the default tests.html has not been built; just
change the URL and continue). For example, the resulting URL will look something like this:
html/tests-source.html?testclass=<your_app_name>
After that, you just reload the backend application by hitting the reload button to the right to see and test your
changes in the TestRunner.
• If you’re working on an application based on qx.application.Native or qx.application.Inline (e.g. by starting
with an Inline skeleton), you can run generate.py test-native or generate.py test-inline
to create a test application of the same type as your actual application. The TestRunner’s index file will be called
index-native.html or index-inline.html, respectively.
7.3.3 Test Runner 2 (Experimental)
As an alternative to the “regular” Test Runner GUI, test applications can be run in the new “testrunner2” component.
This is a modular unit testing GUI that makes use of framework features such as data binding that were introduced
after the original Test Runner was created. Its main advantage is separation of logic and UI so that specialized views
for different use cases can be created, such as a lightweight HTML GUI for use on mobile devices, or a “headless” UI
for server-side tests running in Rhino or node.js.
Test Runner 2 is designed to be fully backwards compatible with existing unit test suites. At any time, developers can
switch between the old an new runners using the TESTRUNNER_TYPE configuration macro. This can be defined in
an application’s config.json file or on the command line:
generate.py test -m TESTRUNNER_TYPE:testrunner2
The generated files and directories use the same names as the original Test Runner.
Defining Test Requirements
Test Requirements are a new feature only supported by Test Runner 2. Basically, they are conditions that must be met
before a test can be run. For example, a test might rely on the application having been loaded over HTTPS and would
give false results otherwise. Requirements are defined for individual tests; if one or more aren’t satisfied, the test code
won’t be executed and the test will be marked as “skipped” in Test Runner 2’s results list.
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Using Requirements
The make use of the requirements feature, test classes must include the MRequirements mixin. The mixin defines
a method require that takes an array of strings: The requirement IDs. This method is called from a test function
before the actual logic of the test, e.g.:
testSslRequest : function()
{
this.require(["ssl"]);
// test code goes here
}
require then searches the current test instance for a method that verifies the listed requirements: The naming
convention is “has” + the requirement ID with the first letter capitalized, e.g. hasSsl. This method is the called
with the requirement ID as the only parameter. If it returns true, the test code will be executed. Otherwise a
RequirementError is thrown. Test Runner 2 will catch these and mark the test as “skipped” in the results list. Any test
code after the require call will not be executed.
In addition to the verification methods in MRequirements, test developers can define their own right in the test class.
7.3.4 Framework Unit Testing
This page is about creating unit tests for the qooxdoo framework classes. It is a developer’s notebook to collect ideas
and approaches to create working unit tests and a good test coverage for the framework.
Currently, it is just a list of notes:
• With 1.2 the framework’s unit test classes are part of the framework class library, under the qx.test.* name
space.
• The existing tests cover only a portion of the framework classes.
• The potential to create a unit test for any given framework class largely depends on the level of sophistication the
test should have, which condition it tests and what is considered correctness: * on the simplest level, a test could
just run through the methods of a class and invoke them; test success is defined by the absence of runtime errors
(exceptions etc.). This is sometimes called smoke testing. * on more sophisticated levels, correctness can
be defined by return values, changes of system state, manipulations of the underlying DOM, up to GUI changes
in the browser. Obviously, with each level it’s get harder to test and/or check the correctness.
• Currently, we’d rather have a large test coverage with simple tests, than have sophisticated tests for only a few
classes. The test sophistication level can then be increased individually step by step.
• The event system should be black-box (API) testable, but there are currently only few tests written (?).
• io.Remote could be tested with a suitable server backend running in the test environment
• The DOM/BOM layer is black-box testable and there is acceptable test coverage
• The layout system should be black-box testable.
• The core Widget class should be black-box testable.
• Higher-level GUI widgets are difficult to black-box test, since they require user and GUI interaction (?). Selenium RC could be used here, but requires additional environment setup.
• Maybe we can come up with a good classification of the framework classes, and how each class can and should
be tested.
• Automated GUI tests depend on synthetic events being generated. Selenium can do this. Other possibilities?
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• The Testrunner application is a nice GUI tool for interactive testing, but for automated/continuous-integration
testing we need a (nearly)non-GUI test frame.
7.4 Parts
7.4.1 Parts and Packages Overview
Note: This is still an experimental feature.
Motivation
Packages are a concept that allows you to partition your application physically. The idea is to spread the entire
application over multiple JavaScript files, in order to optimize download and startup behaviour. On page load only the
essential first part of the application is loaded (commonly called the boot part), while others remain on the server and
will only be loaded on demand. As a consequence, the initial code part is smaller, so it’s faster to download, consumes
less bandwidth and starts up faster in the browser. Other parts are then loaded on demand during the user session. This
incures a bit of latency when the user enters a certain application path for the first time and the correpsonding part has
to be loaded. On the other side, parts that pertain to a certain application path (e.g. an options dialogue) never have to
be downloaded if this application path is not entered during the running session.
Development Model
In order to realize this concept, you have the option to specify parts of your application, while the build process takes
care of mapping these (logical) parts to physical packages that are eventually written to disk. At run time of your
application, the inital package will contain loader logic that knows about the other parts.
There are two different but related terms here: You as the developer define parts of your application. These are logical
or visual related elements, like all elemens that make up a complex dialogue, or the contents of an interactive tab
pane. The build process then figures out all the dependencies of these parts and collects them into packages, which
eventually map to physical files on disk. Since some parts might have overlapping dependencies, these are optimized
so that they are not included twice in different packages. Also, you might want to specify which parts should be
collapsed into as few packages as possible, how small a package might be, and so forth. So you define the logical
partitioning of your application and specify some further constraints, and the build process will take care of the rest,
producing the best physical split of the entire app under the given constraints.
Loading Parts
In your application code, you then load the defined parts at suitable situations, e.g. when the user opens a dialogue
defined as a part, using qooxdoo’s PartLoader API. The PartLoader keeps track of which parts have already been
loaded, and provides some further housekeeping. But it is your responsibility to “draw in” a given part at the right
moment.
Consequently, the configuration of your application allows you to specify those logical parts of your application, by
giving a suitable name to each and listing the top-level classes or class patterns for each. You are using these part
names with the PartLoader in your application code. Further config keys allow you tailor more specifics, as mentioned
above. See the packages key reference section for the config key nitty-gritty.
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7.4.2 Using Parts
Basic Usage
Parts allow you partition your application into multiple Javascript files.There is an initial part, the boot part, that is
loaded at application start-up. All other parts have to be loaded explicitly in your application code.
To use parts in your application, you have to do two things:
• declare the parts in your application’s config.json configuration file
• load each part other than the boot part explicitly at suitable situations in your application code
Here is an example:
Suppose you have a settings dialog in your application that is only needed occasionally. You want to save the memory
footprint of the involved classes, and only load the dialog on demand when the user hits an “Open Settings Dialog”
button during a session. If the user doesn’t invoke the dialog, the necessary classes are not loaded and the application
uses less memory in the browser. In all cases, application start-up is faster since less code has to be loaded initially.
Add Parts to your Config
In your configuration file, add the following job (assuming you are using a standard GUI application with a name
space of custom):
"build-script":
{
"packages" :
{
"parts" :
{
"boot"
:
{
"include" : [ "${QXTHEME}", "custom.Application" ]
},
"settings" :
{
"include" : [ "custom.Settings" ]
}
}
}
}
This will override the default build-script job, instructing the generator to generate JS files for the “boot” and the additional “settings” part (a single part may be made up of multiple JS files, depending on cross class dependencies with
other parts). In the boot part, you are repeating the main :ref:‘include <pages/tool/generator_config_ref#include>‘
list of class patterns for you application (the example mirrors this list of a standard GUI app). In the settings part, you
carve out some top-level classes or name spaces that constitute the part you want to specify. In the example, this is
just the name of the top-level dialog class.
Add Part Loading to your Class Code
At a suitable spot in your application code, you have to load the settings part, e.g. when the “Open Settings Dialog”
button is pressed. We put the loading action in the click event listener of the button:
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var settingsButton = new qx.ui.toolbar.Button("Open Settings Dialog");
settingsButton.addListener("execute", function(e)
{
qx.io.PartLoader.require(["settings"], function()
{
// if the window is not created
if (!this.__settingsWindow)
{
// create it
this.__settingsWindow = new custom.Settings();
this.getRoot().add(this.__settingsWindow);
}
// open the window
this.__settingsWindow.center();
this.__settingsWindow.open();
}, this);
}, this);
The main thing to note here is that upon pressing the “Open Settings Dialog” button qx.io.PartLoader.require is invoked
to make sure the settings part will be loaded (It doesn’t hurt to invoke this method multiple times, as the PartLoader
knows which parts have been loaded already).
The first argument to the require method is a list containing the parts you want to be loaded (just “settings” in our
example). The second argument specifies the task that should be done once the part is successfully loaded. As you
can see, the custom.Settings class, which is loaded with this part, is being instantiated.
These are the essential ingredients to set up and use parts in your application. For a general overview of parts in
qooxdoo, see this article. For full details on the packages configuration key, see the configuration reference. For a
complete application that uses parts, check the Feedreader sources.
Advanced Usage: Part Collapsing
This section reflects part collapsing as it is realized in qooxdoo version 0.8.3 and above.
Motivation and Background
You as the application developer define parts to partition your application. qooxdoo’s build system then partitions
each part into packages, so that each part is made up of some of the set of all packages. Each package contains class
code, and maybe some more information that pertains to it. So the classes making up a part are spread over a set of
packages. Several parts can share one or more packages. This way you obtain maximum flexibility for loading parts
in your application code. Whenever a part is requested through the PartLoader it checks which packages have already
been loaded with earlier parts, and loads the remaining to make the part complete. No class is loaded twice, and no
unnecessary classes are loaded with each part.
But there are situations where you might want to give up on this optimal distribution of classes across packages:
• when packages become too small; sometimes packages derived with the basic procedure turn out to be too small,
and the benefit of loading no unnecessary classes is outweight by the fact that you have to make an additional
net request to retrieve them.
• when you know the order in which parts are loaded during run time in advance; then it makes sense to be
“greedy” in retrieving as many classes as possible in a single package, as other parts needing the same classes
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of the (now bigger) package, but are known to load later, can rely on those classes being loaded already, without
being affected by the extra classes that get loaded.
These are situations where part collapsing is usefull, where packages are merged into one another. This is discussed
in the next sections.
How Packages are Merged
(This is a more theoretical section, but it is kept here for the time being; if you are only looking for how-to information,
you can skip this section).
During what we call part collapsing, some packages are merged into others. That means the classes that are contained
a source package are added to a target package, and the source package is deleted from all parts referencing it.
Obviously, it is crucial that the target package is referenced in all those parts where the source package was referenced
originally, so that a part is not loosing the classes of the source package. This is taken care of by the selection process
that for any given source package picks an appropriate target package. (Target packages are searched for in the set of
already defined packages, and there are no new packages being constructed during the collapsing process).
After the source package has been merged into the target package, and has been removed from all parts, there are two
cases:
• For parts that referenced both (source and target) package initially, there is no difference. The same set of classes
is delivered, with the only difference that they come in one, as opposed to two, packages.
• Parts that only reference the target package now reference more classes then they really need. But this should
be acceptable, as either negligible (in the case of merging packages by size), since the additional weight is
marginal; or as without negative effect (in the case of merging by load order), since the “overladen” package is
supposed to be loaded earlier with some other part, and will already be available when this part is loaded.
Collapsing By Package Size
Collapsing by package size is straight forward. You can specify a minimal package size (in KB) that applies to all
packages of your application. If a package’s size, and it is its compiled size that matteres here, is beneath this threshold
the package will be merged into another. This avoids the problem of too much fragmentation of classes over packages,
and trades optimally distributing the classes (to always load only necessary classes) for minimizing net requests (when
loading packages for a part).
Collapsing by size is disabled by default. You enable it by specifying size attributes in your parts configuration:
"packages" :
{
"sizes"
:
{
"min-package" : 20,
"min-package-unshared" : 10
},
...
}
The min-package setting defines a general lower bound for package sizes, the min-package-unshared, which defaults
to min-package if not given, allows you to refine this value specifically for those packages which pertain to only one
part.
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Collapsing By Load Order
Collapsing by load order is always useful when you know in advance the order of at least some of your parts, as they
are loaded during the app’s run time. This is e.g. the case when you have a part that uses other parts to do its work (a
big dialogue that has sub-controls like a tabview). The enclosing part is always loaded before its sub-parts can be used.
Or there is a part that is only accessible after it has been enabled in another part. These situations can be captured by
assigning a load order to (some of) your parts in your configuration.
"packages" :
{
"parts" :
{
"boot" :
{
"include"
: [ "${QXTHEME}", "app.Application" ]
},
"some-part" :
{
"include"
: [ "app.Class1", "app.Class2" ],
"expected-load-order" : 1
},
"other-part" :
{
"include"
: [ "app.Class3", "app.Class4" ],
"expected-load-order" : 2
},
...
},
...
}
The boot part has always the load index 0, as it is always loaded first. The other parts that have a load index (1 and
2 in the example) will be collapsed with the expectation that they are loaded in this order. Parts that don’t have an
expected-load-order setting are not optimized by part collapsing, and there are no assumptions made as to when they
are loaded during run time.
The important thing to note here is that the load order you define is not destructive. That means that parts are still
self-contained and will continue to function even if the expected load order is changed during run time. In such cases,
you only pay a penalty that classes are loaded with a part that are actually not used by it. But the overall functionality
of your application is not negatively affected.
7.4.3 Further Resources
• Generator Configuration
• qooxdoo API
7.5 Miscellaneous
7.5.1 Working with Variants
Variants enable the selection and removal of code from the build version. A variant consists of a collection of states
from which exactly one is active at load time of the framework. The global map qxvariants can be used to select
a variant before the Framework is loaded.
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Depending on the selected variant a specific code path can be choosen using the select method.
The generator is able to set a variant and remove all code paths which are not selected by the variant.
Variants are used to implement browser optimized builds and to remove debugging code from the build version. It is
very similar to conditional compilation in C/C++.
Browser optimized builds
qooxdoo tries to hide browser incompatibilities from the application developer. To provide browser independent
functionality it is often necessary to use different code on different browsers. Low level code like the key handler have
often their own implementation for each supported browser.
The generator selects for browser optimized builds only the code which is needed for one specific browser and removes
the unused code. For each supported browser engine an optimized build is generated and on load time the appropriate
build is loaded. As a fall back there is always the unoptimized build.
Code like this was very common in older versions of qooxdoo:
if (qx.core.Client.getInstance().isMshtml()) {
// some Internet Explorer specific code
} else if(qx.core.Client.getInstance().isOpera()){
// Opera specific code
} else {
// common code for all other browsers
}
Using Variants the same code looks like this:
if (qx.core.Variant.isSet("qx.client", "mshtml")) {
// some Internet Explorer specific code
} else if(qx.core.Variant.isSet("qx.client", "opera")){
// Opera specific code
} else {
// common code for all other browsers
}
The variant qx.client is always set to the current browser, so this code works exactly like the first version. What
is new is that the generator knows about variants and is able to optimize the build for one value of a variant and
remove the unused code for all other values of the variant.
Config changes
The browser-specific code above let’s you distinguish the different browsers inside your application code. In order to
serve different versions of your application for specific browsers you have to slightly change your config.json to
let the generator do the magic.
/* part of your "config.json" */
"jobs" :
{
/* shadow the original "build-script" job and add the needed infos */
"build-script" :
{
/* adding the variants */
"variants" :
{
"qx.client" : [ "gecko", "mshtml", "webkit", "opera" ]
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},
"compile-options" :
{
"paths" :
{
/* overwrite "file" entry to get client-specific file names */
"file" : "${BUILD_PATH}/script/${APPLICATION}-{qx.client}.js"
}
}
}
}
The generator will generate as many versions of your application as the number of values you give in the list value
of qx.client (4 in this example). To take advantage of these different variations of your app, you use the {qx.client}
compile macro in the name of the output file, which will be replaced during compilation by the value currently in
effect. This way you’ll get output files like myapp-gecko.js, myapp-mshtml.js, ... asf.
If you specify more than one variant with multiple values, e.g.
/* multiple variants with multiple values */
"variants" :
{
"qx.client"
: [ "gecko", "mshtml", "webkit", "opera" ],
"qx.debug" : ["on", "off"]
}
a compile output is produced for each possible combination of all the multi-valued variants, e.g. in this case for
{qx.client: gecko, qx.debug:on}, {qx.client:gecko, qx.debug:off}, {qx.client:mshtml, qx.debug:on}, {qx.client:mshtml,
...}, .... asf.
You would then also use multiple compile macros in the output file name, e.g. ${APPLICATION}-{qx.client}{qx.debug}.js, in order to distinguish those different outputs (otherwise one compile output is copied over the other,
and you are left with only the output for the last variation).
Removal of debugging code
Often one wants to add additional checks and assertions to the code but don’t want the build to suffer from these
checks. This can be solved elegantly by using variants too. The variant qx.debug with the allowed values on and
off can be used to add debugging code which is only active in the source version and removed from the build version.
Example:
function foo(a, b) {
if (qx.core.Variant.isSet("qx.debug", "on")) {
if ( (arguments.length != 2) || (typeof a != "string") ) {
throw new Error("Bad arguments!");
}
}
This check is now only enabled in the source version. By default qx.debug is set to off in build versions, and on
in source versions.
Using variants
Variants are used to select certain code paths. Each variant has a name and exactly one value from a limited list
of allowed values. The variant names have a namespace prefix to avoid name conflicts. The value of a variant is
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immutable and once set cannot be altered in the JavaScript code.
Variants can be used in two ways. They can be used to select code using if statements or to select whole functions.
Method: select()
If the whole definition of a function should be selected the select method can be used as follows:
var f = qx.core.Variant.select("qx.client", {
"gecko": function() { ... },
"mshtml|opera": function() { ... },
"default": function() { ... }
});
Depending on the value of the
"qx.client"
variant the corresponding function is selected. The first case is selected if the variant is “gecko”, the second is selected
if the variant is “mshtml” or “opera” and the third function is the default one. It is selected if none of the other keys
match the variant.
Method: isSet()
This method is used to check whether a variant is set to a given value. The first parameter is the name of the variant
and the second parameter is the value to check for. Several values can be “or”-combined by separating them with the
“|” character. A value of “mshtml|opera” would for example check whether the variant is set to “mshtml” or “opera”.
To enable the generator to optimize this selection, both parameters must be string literals.
This method is meant to be used in if statements to select code paths. If the condition of an if statement is only this
method, the generator is able to optimize the if statement.
Example:
if (qx.core.Variant.isSet("qx.client", "mshtml")) {
// some Internet Explorer specific code
} else if(qx.core.Variant.isSet("qx.client", "opera")){
// Opera specific code
} else {
// common code for all other browsers
}
Framework variants
The following variants are being provided by the framework:
Variant
qx.client Client detection
qx.debug Debugging code
qx.aspects Aspect-oriented programming (AOP)
qx.dynlocale Dynamic locale switch
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Allowed values
gecko, mshtml, opera, webkit
on, off
on, off
on, off
Default value
auto-detected
on
off
on
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Custom variants
You can easily create your own variants by using qx.core.Variant.define()
7.5.2 Internationalization
This page describes how to translate either a new or an existing qooxdoo-based application. It shows how to prepare
the application, extract and translate the messages and finally update and run the translated application.
Prepare the Application
To translate an application, all translatable strings must be marked using one of the following functions:
• this.tr(): translate a message
• this.trn(): translate a message that supports a plural form
• this.trc(): translate a message and providing a comment
• this.marktr(): mark a string for translation, but do not perform any translation
You can use these methods right away for your own classes if they are derived from qx.ui.core.Widget or
qx.application.AbstractGui. If that’s not the case you have to include the mixin qx.locale.MTranslation
manually:
qx.Class.define("custom.MyClass",
{
extend : qx.core.Object,
include : [qx.locale.MTranslation],
...
});
Note: You can also use self instead of this when you use the translation features inside a closure e.g.
self.tr(). See using self for closures for details using self as a local variable name.
Example
Change original code like this:
var button = new qx.ui.form.Button("Hello World");
to:
var button = new qx.ui.form.Button(this.tr("Hello World"));
In the following, the four methods are explained in more detail:
tr
var button = new qx.ui.form.Button(this.tr("Hello World"));
Marks the string Hello World for translation and returns an instance of qx.locale.LocalizedString. The
toString() method of the returned object performs the actual translation based on the current locale.
There is one exception to the simple rule that all strings can just be replaced by wrapping them in an appropriate
this.tr() function call: if init values of dynamic properties are meant to be localizable, the init value has either
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to be set in the class constructor using this.tr(), or qx.locale.Manager.tr() has to be used inside the
property declaration. See documentation on Defining an init value for details.
trn
var n = 2;
var label = new qx.ui.basic.Label(this.trn("Copied one file.", "Copied %1 files.", n, n));
Translate a message but take differences between singular and plural forms into account. The first argument represents
the singular form, while the second argument represents the plural form. If the third argument is 1 the singular form is
chosen, if it is bigger than 1 the plural form is chosen. All remaining parameters are the inputs for the format string.
trc
var n = 2;
var label = new qx.ui.basic.Label(this.trc("Helpful comment for the translator", "Hello World"));
Translate the message as the tr method, but providing an additional comment which can be used to add some contextual information for the translator. This meanigful comment hopefully helps the translator at its work to find the
correct translation for the given string.
marktr Sometimes it is necessary to mark a string for translation but not yet perform the translation.
var s = this.marktr("Hello");
Marks the string Hello for translation and returns the string unmodified.
Format Strings Since sentences in different languages can have different structures, it is always better to prefer a
format string over string concatenation to compose messages. This is why the methods above all support format strings
like Copied %1 files as messages and a variable number of additional arguments. The additional arguments are
converted to strings and inserted into the original message. % is used as an escape character and the number following
% references the corresponding additional argument.
Extract the Messages
After the source code has been prepared, the desired languages of the application may be specified in config.json,
in the LOCALES macro within the global let section, for example
"let" :
{
// ...
"LOCALES"
},
: ["de", "fr"]
This would add a German and a French translation to the project. For a more exhaustive list of available locales see
here.
A run of
generate.py translation
will generate a .po file for each configured locale, with all translatable strings of the application (These files are
usually stored in the source/translation folder of the application).
If a specified translation does not yet exist, a new translation file will be created. In this example two files
source/translation/de.po and source/translation/fr.po would be created.
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If such a file already exists, the newly extracted strings will be merged with this file, retaining all existing translations.
Therefore, you can re-run generate.py translation as often as you want. You should re-run it at least whenever you introduced new translatable strings into the source code, so they will be added to the .po files (s. further
down).
Translate the Messages
These .po files are the actual files you - or your translator ;-) - would have to edit. Since qooxdoo internally uses
well-established tools and formats for internationalization (“gettext” via polib), any “po”-aware editor or even a simple
text editor can be used.
Some of the programs that support manipulation of .po files are:
• Poedit (Windows, Mac OS X, Linux)
• LocFactory Editor (Mac OS X)
• Lokalize (Linux)
Update the Application
After editing and saving the .po files, the next generate.py source run integrates the translations into your
application’s source version. To get the effect of the new translations it can simply be reloaded in your browser.
If the source code changes, e.g. by adding, removing or changing translatable strings, it can be merged with the existing
translation files just by calling generate.py translation again. Moreover, each generate.py source or generate.py build if you are about to deploy your application - will pick up all current translatable strings
from the source files and will merge them on the fly with the information from the .po files, using the result for the
corresponding build job. This way, the generated application always contains all current translatable strings (But of
course only those from the .po files can have actual translations with them).
Run the translated Application
By default the application tries to use the browser’s default language. You can change the language of the application
by using qx.locale.Manager. For example, the following sets the language of the application to French:
qx.locale.Manager.getInstance().setLocale("fr");
The qooxdoo widgets are supposed to update their contents on a locale change. Custom widgets may have to be
modified to allow for an update on locale change. To inform the application of a language change, qooxdoo fires a
changeLocale event.
A widget that needs custom update logic may listen to this event:
qx.locale.Manager.getInstance().addListener("changeLocale", this._update, this);
7.5.3 Image clipping and combining
qooxdoo integrates the support for clipping and combining images in the framework and both features are heavily used
within the framework mainly in the different themes like appearance or decoration theme.
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Setup
Note: To be able to use image clipping and combining you need an installed ImageMagick package.
To use the two features you have to create a config file which can be used by the generator to clip or combine images.
Altough it is possible to integrate the jobs for clipping and combining in your config.json file of your application, the better way is to create an own config file for the image manipuations to separate it from the application
configuration.
Note: It is recommended to use the same file name for the config file as in the core framework to better reflect its
purpose: image.json
At the first look the configuration file for the image jobs is basically the same as a normal application configuration
file.
{
"jobs" :
{
"common" :
{
"let" :
{
"RESPATH" : "./source/resource/APPLICATION_NAME"
},
"cache" :
{
"compile" : "../../cache"
}
}
}
The described common is used to setup the basic settings which are used by the specific jobs image-clipping
and image-combine which are described at the following sections.
Image clipping
Clipping images is needed whenever you have a base image, e.g. a complete image for your button with rounded
borders, to strip them into several parts.
Note: Mainly, the clipping is needed to prepare the source image for the use as a baseImage for the grid decorator.
All clipped images of the core framework are used as baseImages for grid decorators.
"image-clipping" :
{
"extend" : ["common"],
"slice-images" :
{
"images" :
{
"${RESPATH}/image/source/groupBox.png" :
{
"prefix" : "../../clipped/groupBox",
"border-width" : 4
}
}
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}
}
Each entry in the images block represents one source image to clip.
• value of the key has to be the path to this image
• the prefix entry will set the filename for all of your splitted images. The resulting images will follow the rule
prefix+imagepart where imagepart will be e.g. tl or br (for top-left and bottom-right)
• the entry border-width is to define the part of the image which the rounded border occupies. If you look
at your baseImage you can determine the “border-width” by select a rectangle (which your graphic tool) which
occupies the rounded border completely
For the case border-width: One image says more than thousand words :)
The selection rectangle has the size of 4 x 4 pixels, thus the border-width value of 4. Differing border width values
for each of the four sides are also supported. In that case, the value for border-width must be an array containing the
four values in this order: top, right, bottom, left.
Note: For more information see the slice-image section.
Image combining
Opposite to image clipping the image combining takes multiple images as source and generates one combined image
out of them.
"image-combine" :
{
"extend" : ["common"],
"combine-images" :
{
"images" :
{
"${RESPATH}/image-combined/combined.png":
{
"prefix" : [ "${RESPATH}" ],
"layout" : "vertical",
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"input" :
[
{
"prefix" : [ "${RESPATH}" ],
"files" : [ "${RESPATH}/image/clipped/groupBox*.png" ]
}
]
}
}
}
}
Basically the structure is the same as for the image-clipping jobs. Let’s take a look at the details.
• value of the key has to the path of the combined image to create
• files is an array which takes the several images to combine as arguments - the use of wildcards like * or
[tb] are allowed
• the layout key takes the two possible values horizontal or vertical and determines the alignment of
the source images inside the combined images
Note: The layout depends on the sizes of the source images. Best suited for combining are always images with the
same sizes. For most cases the horizontal layout is the better choice
Note: For more information take a look at the combine-images section.
Run image jobs
If you are finished with the definition of your images to clip and/or to combine you can use the generator to actually
let them created for you.
./generate.py -c image.json image-clipping
./generate.py -c image.json image-combine
If you include the following job in your image.json jobs list
"images" :
{
"run" : [ "image-clipping", "image-combine" ]
},
the execution of
./generate.py -c image.json images
will run both jobs at once.
Benefits
There are several benefits for setting the image clipping and combining up
• less HTTP requests meaning better performance when using combined images
• widgets using the grid decorator are easier to use. If you do not use clipping you have to slice the baseImage
and name the parts manually
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• state changes are faster with combined images as the browser does not have to change the source if the displayed
image. Instead he only changes the value of the CSS property background-position to display the desired
part of the combined image
7.5.4 Writing API Documentation
For documenting the qooxdoo API special comments in the source code (so-called “doc comments”) are used. The doc
comments in qooxdoo are similar to JSDoc comments or Javadoc comments. To account for some qooxdoo specific
needs there are certain differences to the two systems mentioned above.
The structure of a documentation comment
A doc comment appears right before the structure (class, property, method or constant) it describes. It begins with
/** and ends with */. The rows in between start with a * followed by the text of the particular row. Within this
frame there is a description text at the beginning. Afterwards attributes may follow, describing more aspects.
Description texts may also include HTML tags for a better structuring.
An example:
/**
* Shows a message to the user.
*
* @param text {string} the message to show.
*/
showMessage : function(text) {
...
}
This comment describes the method showMessage. At the beginning there is a short text, describing the method
itself. A @param attribute follows, describing the parameter text.
The docgenerator recognizes the following structures:
/** Class definitions (resp. constructors). */
qx.Class.define("mypackage.MyClass",
{
extend : blubb.MySuperClass,
construct : function() {
...
}
});
/** Property definitions. */
properties :
{
"myProperty" :
{
check : "Number",
init : 0
}
},
/** Method definitions. */
members :
{
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myMethod : function(bla, blubb)
{
...
}
},
/** Static method definitions. */
statics :
{
myStaticMethod : function(bla, blubb)
{
...
},
MY_CONSTANT : 100
},
The class description is taken as the first comment in the file which starts with /**. Therefore if you have a comment
at the start of the file which has a first line of /**********, that will be taken as the class description, overriding
any comment above the class itself. Therefore use /* ********* or /* ========== etc.
Inline Markup
Running text can be formatted using inline markup which uses special characters around the target text:
• *strong* (will render as strong)
• __emphasis__ (will render as emphasis)
There is no escape character, so in order to e.g. enter a literal “@” into the text, use the HTML entity equivalent
(“&#64;” in this case).
Supported attributes
Within a doc comment the following attributes are supported:
@param (only for methods and constructors):
Describes a parameter. @param is followed by the name of the parameter. Following that is the type in curly brackets
(Example: {Integer}), followed by the description text. Types are described more in detail in the next section.
When the parameter is optional, the curly brackets include the default value in addition to the type. The default value
implies the value that has to be passed in, in order to get the same effect as when omitting the parameter. Example:
{Boolean ? true}
You can also define multiple possible types. Example: {Boolean | Integer ?
0}
@return (only for methods):
Describes the return value. After the @return comes the type in curly brackets followed by the description text.
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@throws (only for methods and constructors):
Describes in which cases an exception is thrown.
@see:
Adds a cross reference to another structure (class, property, method or constant). The text is structured as follows: At
first comes the full name of the class to link to. If you want to link to a property, method or constant, then a # comes,
followed by the name of the property, method or constant.
If you refer to a structure within the same class, then the class name may be omitted. If you refer to a class in the
same package, then the package name before the class may be omitted. In all other cases you have to specify the fully
qualified class name (e.g. qx.ui.table.Table).
Some examples:
• qx.ui.form.Button refers to the class Button in the package qx.ui.form.
• qx.constant.Type#NUMBER links to the constant NUMBER of the class qx.constant.Type.
• qx.core.Init#defineMain refers to the method defineMain in the class qx.core.Init
After this target description an alternative text may follow. If missing the target description is shown.
@link:
The @link attribute is similar to the @see attribute, but it is used for linking to other structures within description
texts. Unlike the other attributes, the @link attribute is not standalone, but in curly brackets and within the main
description text or a description text of another attribute.
@signature:
sometimes the API documentation generator is not able to extract the method signature from the source code. This
is for example the case, when the method is defined using variants of if the method is assigned from a method
constant like qx.lang.Function.returnTrue.
In these cases the method signature can be declared inside the documentation comment using the @signature attribute.
Example:
members :
{
/**
* Always returns true
*
* @return {Boolean} returns true
* @signature function()
*/
sayTrue: qx.lang.Function.returnTrue;
}
Example
Example for a fully extended doc comment:
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/**
* Handles a drop.
*
* @param dragSource {qx.bla.DragSource} the drag source that was dropped.
* @param targetElement {Element} the target element the drop aims to.
* @param dropType {Integer ? null} the drop type. This is the same type as used in
{@link qx.bla.DragEvent}.
*
* @return {Boolean} whether the event was handled.
* @throws if the targetElement is no child of this drop target.
*
* @see #getDragEvent(dragSource, elem, x, y)
* @see com.ptvag.webcomponent.ui.dnd.DragEvent
*/
handleDrop : function(dragSource, targetElement, dropType) {
...
};
This comment is shown in the API viewer like this:
Handling of data types
Because JavaScript has no strong typing, the types of the parameters accepted by a method may not be read from the
method’s definition. For showing the accepted types in the API documentation the data type may be specified in the
doc attributes @param and @return.
The following types are accepted:
• Primitive: var, “void”, “undefined”
• Builtin classes: Object, Boolean, String, Number, Integer, Float, Double, Regexp, Function,
Error, Map, Date and Element
• Other classes: Here the full qualified name is specified (e.g. qx.ui.core.Widget). If the referenced class
is in the same package as the currently documented class, the plain class name is sufficient (e.g. Widget).
Arrays are specified by appending one or more [] to the type. E.g.: String[] or Integer[][].
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__init__.js Files
While using doc comments in class files where they are interleaved with the class code is straight forward, this is not
so trivial if you want to provide documentation for a package, i.e. a collection of classes under a common name space
(like qx.ui.core, qx.util, etc.).
In order to fill this gap you can add a __init.js__ file to a package. This file should only contain a single doc comment
that describes the package as a whole. These files are then scanned during a generate.py api run and the
documentation is inserted at the package nodes of the resulting documentation tree.
7.5.5 Reporting Bugs
Note: Please see the general document on How to report bugs
7.5.6 An Aspect Template Class
Here is a code template which you may copy to your application namespace and adapt it to implement aspects in your
qooxdoo application. For a far more advanced sample look at qx.dev.Profile.
/**
* AspectTemplate.js -- template class to use qooxdoo aspects
*
* This is a minimal class template to show how to deploy aspects in qooxdoo
* applications. For more information on the aspect infrastructure see the API
* documentation for qx.core.Aspect.
*
* You should copy this template to your application namespace and adapt it to
* your needs. See the comments in the code for further hints.
*
* To enable the use of your aspect class, some extra settings need to be done
* in your configuration file.
* * Add a require of your aspects class to qx.Class
* * Set the variant qx.aspects to on
* * Set the setting qx.enableAspect to true
*
*/
/* ************************************************************************
#require(qx.core.Aspect)
#ignore(auto-require)
************************************************************************ */
/** Adapt the name of the class */
qx.Bootstrap.define("your.namespace.YourAspectClass", {
/** The class definition may only contain a ’statics’ and a ’defer’ member */
statics :
{
__counter : 0,
// Static vars are possible
/**
* This function will be called before each function call.
*
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* @param fullname {String} Full name of the function including the class name.
* @param fcn {Function} Wrapped function.
* @param type {String} The type of the wrapped function (static, member, ...)
* @param args {Arguments} The arguments passed to the wrapped function.
*/
atEnter: function(fullName, fcn, type, args)
{
console.log("Entering "+fullName); // Adapt this to your needs
},
/**
* This function will be called after each function call.
*
* @param fullname {String} Full name of the function including the class name.
* @param fcn {Function} Wrapped function.
* @param type {String} The type of the wrapped function (static, member, ...)
* @param args {Arguments} The arguments passed to the wrapped function.
* @param returnValue {var} return value of the wrapped function.
*/
atExit: function(fullName, fcn, type, args, returnValue)
{
console.log("Leaving "+fullName); // Adapt this to your needs
}
},
defer : function(statics)
{
/**
* Registering your static functions with the aspect registry. For more
* information see the API documentation for qx.core.Aspect.
*
* @param fcn {Function} Function from this class to be called.
* @param position {String} Where to inject the aspect ("before" or "after").
* @param type {String} Which types to wrap (“member”, “static”, “constructor”,
“destructor”, “property” or ”*”).
*
* @param name {RegExp} Name(pattern) of the functions to wrap.
*/
qx.core.Aspect.addAdvice(statics.atEnter, "before", "*", "your.namespace.*");
qx.core.Aspect.addAdvice(statics.atExit, "after", "*", "your.namespace.*");
}
});
A job in your configuration could look something like this:
"source" :
{
"require" :
{
"qx.Class" : ["aspects.Aop"]
},
"variants" :
{
"qx.aspects" : [ "on" ]
},
"settings" :
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{
"qx.enableAspect" : true
}
}
If you need some more information on configuring the generator, take a look at the Reference Listing of Config Keys.
7.5.7 Internet Explorer specific settings
This page describes all settings which are used/implemented by qooxdoo to workaround/solve IE-specific issues.
Document Mode in IE8
qooxdoo uses Internet Explorer 8 standard mode as the default for all generated applications. This is achieved by
setting a XHTML 1.2 Doctype to all index.html files provided by the framework.
Using alpha-transparent PNGs
IE7 and IE8 have built-in support for loading alpha-transparent PNGs. qooxdoo however does use the AlphaImageLoader for all IE versions whenever a PNG image has to be loaded. This has several reasons:
• Performance issues in IE8 - native alpha PNG support is slower when running IE8 standards mode
• Rendering bug in IE - reported at Bug #1287
URL-Rewriting under HTTPS
Every IE version does show a Mixed Content warning whenever a resource (image, script, etc.) is loaded with a
regular HTTP request when the containing page runs under HTTPS. However, this useful warning is also appearing
in situations it is not acceptable, e.g. for relative paths like ./path/to/my/resource. In order to solve these issues every
URL of a resource managed by qooxdoo is rewritten in IE under HTTPS to an absolute URL to prevent the warning.
See Bug #2427 for more details.
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8.1 Generator Introduction
8.1.1 Generator Overview
This is a high-level overview of some important generator features.
Quick links:
• Generator Usage
• Configuration file details
Configuration
• Load project configuration from JSON data file
• Each configuration can define multiple so named jobs
• Each job defines one action with all configuration
• A job can extend any other job and finetune the configuration
• Each execution of the generator can execute multiple of these jobs
Cache Support
• Advanced multi-level caching system which dramatically reduces the runtime in repeated calls.
• The cache stores all data on the disk using the cpickle Python module.
• Invalidation of cache files happens through a comparision of modification dates.
• Cache filenames are generated through SHA1 (hex) to keep them short and unique.
• There is memory-only caching as well. It is used for dependencies and meta data.
• The system supports caching for:
– extracted meta data
– syntax tokens
– syntax trees
– class dependencies
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– compiler results
– api data
– localizable strings
Class Selection
• Use include/exclude lists to define the classes to use.
• Has support for simple expressions inside each include or exclude definition e.g. qx.*.
• The smart mode (default) includes/excludes the defined classes and their dependencies. This mode also excludes
all classes only required by the excluded classes.
• The other mode is toggled using a = prefix. This switches to a mode where exactly the classes mentioned are
included/excluded.
• As a fallback all known classes will be added when no includes are defined.
Variants
• It is possible to generate multiple variant combinations. This means that a single job execution can create multiple files at once using different so-named variant sets. Variants are combinable and all possible combinations
are automatically created. For example: gecko+debug, mshtml+debug, gecko+nodebug, mshtml+nodebug
• The system supports placeholders in the filename to create filenames based on variant selection [TBD].
API Data
• Creation of split API data which loads incrementally as needed.
• Creation of API index containing all relevant names of the API (e.g. classes, properties, functions, events, ...)
Internationalisation
• Creation and update of “po” files based on the classes of any namespace.
• Generation of JavaScript data to be included into application
• Dynamic creation of localization data based on the standardized informations available at unicode.org. The
“main” package of CLDR which is used, is locally mirrored in the SDK.
Parts
• Each part can be seen as a logical or visual group of the application.
• Each part may result into multiple packages (script output files).
• The number of packages could be exponential to the number of parts (but through the optimization this is often
not the case).
• It is possible to automatically collapse any number parts (e.g. merging the packages used by a part). Such
an important part may be the one which contains the initial application class (application layout frame) or the
splashscreen. Collapsing reduces the number of packages (script files) for the defined parts. However collapsing
badly influences the fine-grained nature of the package system and should be ommitted for non-initial parts
normally.
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• Further optimization includes support for auto-merging small packages. The relevant size to decide if a package
is too small, is the minimum compiled size which is defined by the author of the job. The system calculates the
size of each package and tries to merge packages automatically.
• The parts can be used in combination with the include/exclude system. Includes can be used to select the classes
to use.
• By default all classes mentioned in the parts are added to the include list. It is possible to override this list.
• All global excludes listed are also respected for the parts.
8.1.2 Generator Usage
The generator is a command-line utility which serves as the single entry point front-end for all qooxdoo tool chain
functions (nearly; there are a few functions that are available through other programs, but these really serve specialcase purposes).
The generator is started to execute various jobs. Those jobs represent the feature set of the tool chain. This page is
about how to invoke the generator.
Files and Folder Structure
The qooxdoo SDK has a dedicated tool folder that contains all elements that make up the tool chain. The general
structure is like this:
tool
||||-
app
-- helper apps
bin
-- stand-alone programs and scripts
data -- various data files
pylib -- Python modules
The generator is actually the program under tool/bin/generator.py.
generate.py
To make it easier to invoke the generator, each library in the SDK (framework, applications, components) contains a
generate.py script that is really just a proxy for the generator itself. It is also part of each project structure created
by the create-application.py wizard. The aim is to hide the actual path to the generator program.
Command-line Options
Since the generator is nearly complete driven by its config files, there are very few command-line options:
shell> generator.py -h
Usage: generator.py [options] job,...
Arguments:
job,...
x
a list of jobs (like ’source’ or ’copy-files’,
without the quotes) to run
use ’x’ (or some undefined job name) to get a
list of all available jobs from the configuration file
Options:
-h, --help
show this help message and exit
-c CFGFILE, --config=CFGFILE
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path to configuration file containing job definitions
(default: config.json)
-q, --quiet
quiet output mode (extra quiet)
-v, --verbose
verbose output mode (extra verbose)
-w, --config-verbose verbose output mode of configuration processing
-l FILENAME, --logfile=FILENAME
log file
-s, --stacktrace
enable stack traces on fatal exceptions
-m KEY:VAL, --macro=KEY:VAL
define/overwrite a global ’let’ macro KEY with value
VAL
The most important options are the path of the config file to use (-c option), and the list of jobs to execute. The -m
option allows Json-type values, scalars like strings and numbers, but also maps {...} and lists [...].
Configuration Files
The singe most-important way to control the actions of the generator is through specialized config files. These files
have a JSON syntax and contain the definitions for the various jobs the generator is supposed to execute. There is a
whole section in this manual dedicated to these config files.
Usage Patterns
As a few quick hints at how you would invoke the generator, here are the most common use cases. All these examples
name a single job to run, and rely on the availability of the default config file config.json in the current directory:
• generate.py source – when you just started to create your application and every time you have added
new classes to it.
• generate.py build – when you have completed your application and/or want to create an optimized,
deployable version of it.
• generate.py api – when your application is getting complex and/or you want to have a local version of
the standard Apiviewer application that includes the documentation of all of your application classes.
• generate.py test – when you have created unit test classes for your application and want to run them in
the Testrunner frame application.
The Hello World tutorial will give the complete steps how to start a project and get going.
Default Jobs
Arguments like source or api, as shown in the previous section, are so called jobs in qooxdoo lingo. If you are
working on a skeleton-based application you automatically get a whole list of such pre-defined jobs to work with. For
a quick overview, invoke the generator script with an undefined job argument, like
generate.py X
This gives you a list of all jobs available through your current config file, many of them with a few words of explanation
about what they do:
-
api
build
clean
distclean
fix
256
------
create api doc for the current library
create build version of current application
remove local cache and generated .js files (source/build)
remove the cache and all generated artefacts of this library (source, build, ...)
normalize whitespace in .js files of the current library (tabs, eol, ...)
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-
inspector
lint
migration
pretty
profiling
source
source-all
test
test-source
translation
---------
(since 0.8.2) create an inspector instance in the current library
check the source code of the .js files of the current library
migrate the .js files of the current library to the current qooxdoo version
pretty-formatting of the source code of the current library
includer job, to activate profiling
create source version of current application
create source version of current application, with all classes
create a test runner app for unit tests of the current library
-- create a test runner app for unit tests (source version) of the current lib
-- create .po files for current library
For an exhaustive reference of these default jobs, see the default jobs page.
8.2 Generator Configuration
8.2.1 Generator Configuration File
Overview
The configuration file that drives the generator adheres to the JSON specification. It has the following general structure:
{
"jobs" :
{
"job1" : { ... },
"job2" : { ... },
...
"jobN" : { ... }
}
}
The job names job1, ..., jobN are freely chooseable names but must form a valid key. JavaScript-style comments
(/.../ and %//%...) are permissible but only in rather robust places, like after a comma or directly after opening or before
closing parentheses, but e.g. not between a key and its value.
Quick links:
• Reference Listing of Config Keys
• Configuration Macro Reference
• Configuration Detail Articles
• Implementation Background Information
Example
Here is an example of a minimal config file that defines a single job to create the source version of an application:
{
"jobs" :
{
"source" :
{
"let" :
{
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"QOOXDOO_PATH" : "../..",
"APPLICATION" : "custom"
],
"library" :
[
{
"manifest"
},
{
"manifest"
}
],
: "${QOOXDOO_PATH}/framework/Manifest.json"
: "./Manifest.json"
"compile-options" :
{
"paths" :
{
"file" : "./source/script/${APPLICATION}.js"
}
},
"compile" : { "type" : "source" },
"require" :
{
"qx.log.Logger" : ["qx.log.appender.Native"]
},
"settings" :
{
"qx.application" : "${APPLICATION}.Application"
},
"cache" :
{
"compile" : "../../cache2"
}
}
}
}
Syntax
Apart from the general Json rules, you can place ‘=’ in front of job and key names, to indicate that this feature should
prevail as specified when configs get merged. See here for more details on that. The config system also allows the use
of macros, details of which can be found here.
Valid Job Keys
The value of each job is a map where the keys are not freely chooseable, but are predefined.
Keys can be grouped into several categories:
• structure-changing - Keys that influence the configuration itself, e.g. the contents or structure of jobs,
the job queue, or the config file as a whole (e.g. extend, include (top-level), run).
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• actions - Keys that if present trigger a certain action in the generator, which usually results in some output
(e.g. compile, api, localize).
• input/output-setting - Keys that specify input (e.g. classes or ranges of classes to deal with) and output
(e.g. packaging, variants) options (e.g. library, require, include).
• runtime-settings - Keys pertaining to the working needs of the generator (e.g. cache).
• miscellaneous - Keys that don’t fall in any of the other categories (e.g. desc).
First, here is an overview table, to list all possible keys in a job (unless otherwise noted). Below that you’ll find a
structured listing of all possible configuration keys in their respective context, with links to further information for
each key.
Action Keys
api
clean-files
collect-environment-info
combine-images
compile
copy-files
copy-resources
fix-files
lint-check
migrate-files
pretty-print
provider
shell
simulate
slice-images
translate
Description
Triggers the generation of a custom Apiviewer application.
Delete files and directories from the file system.
Prints various infos about the qooxdoo environment (version etc.)
Triggers creation of a combined image file that contains various images.
Triggers the generation of a source or build version of the app.
Triggers files/directories to be copied.
Triggers the copying of resources.
Fix white space in source files.
Check source code with a lint-like utility.
Migrate source code to the current qooxdoo version.
Format source files.
Collects classes, resources and dependency info in a directory tree.
Triggers the execution of one or more external command(s).
Triggers the execution of a suite of integration tests.
Triggers cutting images into regions.
Triggers updating of .po files.
Structure-changing Keys
default-job (top-level)
export (top-level)
extend
include (top-level)
jobs (top-level)
let
let (top-level)
run
Description
Default job to be run.
List of jobs to be exported to other config files.
Extend the current job with other jobs.
Include external config files.
Define jobs.
Define macros.
Define default macros.
Define a list of jobs to run.
Input/Output-setting Keys
add-script
asset-let
compile-options
dependencies
exclude
include
library
packages
require
settings
use
variants
Description
Includes aritrary URIs to be loaded by the app.
Defines macros that will be replaced in #asset hints.
Various options that taylor the compile action.
Fine-tune dependency processing.
Exclude classes from processing of the job.
Include classes to be processed in the job.
Define libraries to be taken into account for this job.
Define packages for this app.
Define prerequisite classes (load time).
Define qooxdoo settings.
Define prerequisite classes (run time).
Define variants for the current app.
Continued on next page
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Table 8.1 – continued from previous page
Runtime-setting Keys
cache
log
Description
Define the path to the cache directory.
Tailor log output options.
Miscellaneous Keys
desc
name (top-level)
Description
A descriptive string for the job.
A descriptive string for the configuration file.
Listing of Keys in Context
This shows the complete possible contents of the top-level configuration map. Further information is linked from the
respective keys.
• name A name or descriptive text for the configuration file.
• include Include external config files. Takes a list of maps, where each map specifies an external configuration
file, and options how to include it. (See special section on the include key)
• let Define default macros. Takes a map (see the description of the job-level ‘let’ further down). This let map is
included automatically into every job run. There is no explicit reference to it, so be aware of side effects.
• export List of jobs to be exported if this config file is included by another.
• default-job The name of a job to be run as default, i.e. when invoking the generator without job arguments.
• jobs Map of jobs. Each key is the name of a job.
– <jobname> Each job’s value is a map describing the job. The describing map can have any number of the
following keys:
* add-script A list of URIs that will be loaded first thing when the app starts.
* api Triggers the generation of a custom Apiviewer application.
* asset-let Defines macros that will be replaced in #asset hints in source files. (See special section on
the “asset-let” key).
* cache Define the path to cache directories, most importantly to the compile cache. (See special section
on the “cache” Key key).
* clean-files Triggers clean-up of files and directories within a project and the framework, e.g. deletion
of generated files, cache contents, etc.
* collect-environment-info Collects various information about the qooxdoo environment (like version,
cache, etc.) and prints it to the console.
* combine-images Triggers creation of a combined image file that contains various images.
* compile Triggers the generation of a source or build version of the application.
* compile-options Define various options that influence compile runs (both source and build version).
* copy-files Triggers files/directories to be copied, usually between source and build version.
* copy-resources Triggers the copying of resources, usually between source and build version.
* dependencies Fine-tune the processing of class dependencies.
* desc A string describing the job.
* exclude List classes to be excluded from the job. Takes an array of class specifiers.
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* extend Extend the current job with other jobs. Takes an array of job names. The information of these
jobs are merged into the current job description, so the current job sort of “inherits” their settings.
(See the special section on “extend” semantics).
* fix-files Fix white space in source files.
* include List classes to be processed in the job. Takes an array of class specifiers.
* let Define macros. Takes a map where each key defines a macro and the value its expansion. (See the
special section on macros).
* library Define libraries to be taken into account for this job. Takes an array of maps, each map
specifying one library to consider. The most important part therein is the “manifest” specification.
(See special section on Manifest files).
* lint-check Check source code with a lint-like utility.
* log Tailor log output of job.
* migrate-files Migrate source code to the current qooxdoo version.
* packages Define packages for the application. (See special section on packages).
* pretty-print Triggers code beautification of source class files (in-place-editing). An empty map value
triggers default formatting, but further keys can tailor the output.
* provider Collects classes, resources and dependency information and puts them in a specific directory
structure under the provider root.
* require Define prerequisite classes needed at load time. Takes a map, where the keys are class names
and the values lists of prerequisite classes.
* run Define a list of jobs to run in place of the current job. (See the special section on “run” semantics).
* settings Define qooxdoo settings for the generated application.
* shell Triggers the execution of one or more external command(s).
* simulate Triggers the execution of a GUI test (simulated interaction) suite.
* slice-images Triggers cutting images into regions.
* translate Re-)generate .po files from source classes.
* use Define prerequisite classes needed at run time. Takes a map, where the keys are class names and
the values lists of prerequisite classes.
* variants Define variants for the generated application.
8.2.2 Generator Configuration Articles
This page contains various articles related to the generator JSON configuration.
Path Names
A lot of entries in a config file take path names as their values (top-level “include”, “manifest” keys of a library entry,
output path of compile keys, asf.). Quite a few of them, like the top-level include paths, are interpreted relative to the
config file in which they appear, and this relation is retained no matter from where you reference the config file.
This might not hold true in each and every case, though. For some keys you might have to take care of relative paths
yourself. The authoritative reference is always the corresponding documentation of the individual config keys. If a key
takes a path value it will state if and how these values are interpreted. Please check there.
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A good help when dealing with paths is also to use macros, if you need to abstract away from a value appearing
multiple times. E.g.
"let" : {"MyRoot": ".", "BUILD_PATH" : "build"}
"myjob" : { ... "build_dir" : "${MyRoot}/${BUILD_PATH}" ... }
This should make it more intuitive to maintain a config file.
Note: Implementor’s note:
The configuration handler (generator/config/Config.py) handles relative paths in the obvious cases, like
for the manifest entries in the library key, or in the top-level include key. But it cannot handle all possible
cases, because it doesn’t know beforehand which particluar key represents a path, and which doesn’t. In a config entry
like "foo" : "bar" it is hard to tell whether bar represents a relative file or directory. Therefore, part of the
responsibility for relative paths is offloaded to the action implementations that make use of the particular keys.
Since each config key, particularly action keys, interpret their corresponding config entries, they know which
entries represent paths. To handle those paths correctly, the Config module provides a utility method
Config.absPath(self, path) which will calculate the absolute path from the given path relative to the config
file’s location.
File Globs
Some config keys take file paths as their attributes. Where specified, file globs are allowed, as supported by the
underlying Python module. File globs are file paths containing simple metacharacters, which are similar to but not
quite identical with metacharacters from regular expressions. Here are the legal metacharacters and their meanings:
Metacharacter
*
?
[]
Meaning
matches any string of zero or more characters (regexp: .*)
matches any single character (regexp: .)
matches any of the enclosed characters; character ranges are possible using a hyphen, e.g. [a-z]
(regexp: <same>)
Examples
Given a set of files like file9.js, file10.js, file11.js, here are some file globs and their resolution:
File Glob
file*
file?.js
file1[01].js
Resolution
file9.js, file10.js and file11.js
file9.js
file10.js and file11.js
Class Data
Besides code a qooxdoo application maintains a certain amount of data that represents some sort of resources. This
might be negligible for small to medium size applications, but becomes significant for large apps. The resources fall
roughly into two categories,
• Internationalization (I18N) Data This comprises two kinds of data:
– translated strings
– locale information (also CLDR data, such as currency, date and time formats, asf.)
• File Resources
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– static files like PNG and GIF graphics, but also HTML and CSS files, sound and multimedia files, asf.
Many of these resources need an internal representation in the qooxdoo app. E.g. translated strings are stored as
key:value pairs of maps, and images are stored with their size and location. All this data requires space that shows up
in sizes of application files, as they are transfered from server to browser.
The build system allows you to tailor where those resources are stored, so you can optimize on your network consumption and memory footprint. Here is an overview:
• source version: - without dedicated I18N parts:all class data is allocated in the loader - with dedicated I18N
parts:class data is in dedicated I18N packages
• build version: - without dedicated I18N parts: class data is allocated in each individual package, corresponding
to the contained class code that needs it - with dedicated I18N parts: class data is in dedicated I18N packages
The term “dedicated I18N parts” refers to the possibility to split translated strings and CLDR data out in separate
parts, one for each language (see packages/i18n-with-boot). Like with other parts, those parts have to be actively
loaded by the application (using qx.io.PartLoader.require).
In the build version without dedicated I18N parts (case 2.1), those class data is stored as is needed by the code of the
package. This may mean that the same data is stored in multiple packages, as e.g. two packages might use the same
image or translated string. This is to ensure optimal independence of packages among each other so they can be loaded
independently, and is resolved at the browser (ie. resource data is stored uniquely in memory).
“cache” Key
Compile cache
The main payload of the cache key is to point to the directory for the compile cache. It is very recommendable to
have a system-wide compile cache directory so cache contents can be shared among different projects and libraries.
Otherwise, the cache has to be rebuilt in each enviornment anew, costing extra time and space.
The default for the cache directory is beneath the system TMP directory. To find out where this actually is either run
generate.py info, or run a build job with the -v command line flag and look for the cache key in the expanded
job definition, or use this snippet.
The compile cache directory can become very large in terms of contained files, and a count of a couple of thousand files
is not unusual. You should take care that your file system is equipped to comply with these demands. Additionally,
disk I/O is regularly high on this directory so a fast, local disk is recommendable. Don’t use a network drive :-) .
“let” Key
Config files let you define simple macros with the let key. The value of a macro can be a string or another JSONpermissible value (map, array, ...). You refer to a macro value in a job definition by using ${<macro_name>}.
"let": {"MyApp" : "demobrowser"}
...
"myjob" : { "settings" : {"qx.application" : "${MyApp}.Application"}}
If the value of the macro is a string you can use a reference to it in other strings, and the macro reference will be
replaced by its value. You can have multiple macro references in one string. Usually, these macro references will
show up in map values or array elements, but can also be used in map keys.
"myjob" : {"${MyApp}.resourceUri" : "resource"}
If the value of the macro is something other than a string, things are a bit more restrictive. References to those macros
can not be used in map keys (for obvious reasons). The reference has still to be in a string, but the macro reference has
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to be the only contents of that string. The entire string will then be replaced by the value of the macro. That means,
you can do something like this:
"let" : {"MYLIST" : [1,2,3], ...},
"myjob" : { "joblist" : "${MYLIST}", ...}
and the “joblist” key will get the value [1,2,3].
A special situation arises if you are using a top-level let, i.e. a let section on the highest level in the config file, and
not in any job definition. This let map will be automatically applied to every job run, without any explicit reference
(so be aware of undesired side effects of bindings herein).
When assembling a job to run, the precedence of all the various let maps is
local job let < config-level let < ’extend’ job lets
With imported jobs top-level definitions will take precedence over any definitions from the external config file (as if
they were the ‘first’ let section in the chain).
“log” Key
Logging is an important part of any reasonably complex application. The Generator does a fair bit of logging to the
console by default, listing the jobs it performs, adding details of important processing steps and reporting on errors
and potential inconsistencies. The log key lets you specify further options and tailor the Generator console output to
your needs. You can e.g. add logging of unused classes in a particular library/name space.
“extend” Key
Job resolution
extend and run keywords are currently the only keywords that reference other jobs. These references have to be
resolved, by looking them up (or “evaluating” the names) in some context. One thing to note here is that job names
are evaluated in the context of the current configuration. As you will see (see section on top-level “include”s),
a single configuration might eventually contain jobs from multiple config files, the local job definitions, and zero to
many imported job maps (from other config files), which again might contain imported configs. From within any map,
only those jobs are referenceable that are contained somewhere in this map. Unqualified names (like “myjob”) are
taken to refer to jobs on the same level as the current job, path-like names (containing “/”) are taken to signify a job in
some nested name space down from the current level. Particularly, this means you can never reference a job in a map
which is “parallel” to the current job map. It’s only jobs on the same level or deeper.
This is particularly important for imported configs (imported with a top-level “include” keyword, see further down).
Those configs get attached to the local “jobs” map under a dedicated key (their “name space” if you will). If in this
imported map there is a “run” job (see the next section) using unqualified job names, these job names will be resolved
using the imported map, not the top-level map. If the nested “run” job uses path-like job names, these jobs will be
searched for relative to the nested map. You get it?!
Extending jobs
Now, how exactly is a job (let’s call this the primary job) treated that says to “extend” another job (let’s call this the
secondary job). Here is what happens:
• The primary job provides sort of the master definition for the resulting job. All its definitions take precedence.
• The secondary job is searched in the context of the current “jobs” map (see above).
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• Keys of the secondary job that are not available in the primary job are just added to the job definition.
• Keys of the secondary job that are already present in the primary job and have a scalar value (string, number,
boolean) are discarded.
• Keys of the secondary job that are already present in the primary job and have a list or map value are merged.
The extending rules are applied on the element level recursively, i.e. scalar elements are blocked, new elements
are added, composed element are merged. That means, those keys accumulate all their inner keys over all jobs
in the transitive hull of all extend jobs of the primary job.
• There is a way of preventing this kind of merge behaviour: If you prefix a job key with an equal sign (=) no
subsequent merging will be done on this key. That means all following jobs that are merged into the current will
not be able to alter the value of this key any more.
• Obviously, each secondary job is extended itself before being processed in this way, so it brings in its own full
definition. As stated before it is important to note that this extending is done in the secondary job’s own context,
which is not necessarily the context of the primary job.
• If there are more than one job in the “extend” list, the process is re-applied iteratively with all the remaining
jobs in the list. This also means that the list of secondary jobs defines a precedence list: Settings in jobs earlier
in the list take precedence over those coming later, so order matters.
Important to note here: Macro evaluation takes place only after all extending has been done. That is, macros are
applied to the fully extended job, making all macro definitions available that have accumulated along the way, with a
‘left-to-right’ precedence (macro definitions in the primary job take precedence over definitions in secondary jobs, and
within the list of secondary jobs, earlier jobs win over subsequent). But in contrast to job names that also means that
macros are explicitly not evaluated in the original context of the job. This makes it possible to tweak a job definition
for a new environment, but can also lead to surprises if you wanted to have some substitution taking place in the
original config file, and realize it doesn’t.
Job Shadowing and Partial Overriding
Additionally to the above described features, with the configuration system you can
• create jobs in your local configuration with same names as those imported from another configuration file. The
local job will take precedence and “shadow” the imported job; the imported job gets automatically added to the
local job’s extend list.
• extend one job by another by only partially specifying job features. The extending job can specify only the
specific parts it wants to re-define. The jobs will then be merged as described above, giving precedence to local
definitions of simple data types and combining complex values (list and maps); in the case of maps this is a deep
merging process. Here is a sample of overriding an imported job (build-script), only specifying a single
setting, and relying on the rest to be provided by the imported job of same name:
"build-script" : {
"compile-options" : {
"code" : {
"format" : true
}
}
}
You can again use = to control the merging:
• selectively block merging of features by using = in front of the key name, like:
...
{
"=open-curly" : ...,
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...
}
...
• override an imported job entirely by guarding the local job with = like:
"jobs" : {
"=build-script" : {...},
...
}
“run” Key
“run” jobs are jobs that bear the run keyword. Since these are kind of meta jobs and ment to invoke a sequence of
other jobs, they have special semantics. When a run keyword is encountered in a job, for each sub-job in the “run”
list a new job is generated (so called synthetic jobs, since they are not from the textual config files). For each of
those new jobs, a job name is auto-generated using the initial job’s name as a prefix. As for the contents, the initial
job’s definition is used as a template for the new job. The extend key is set to the name of the current sub-job (it
is assumed that the initial job has been expanded before), so the settings of the sub-job will eventually be included,
and the “run” key is removed. All other settings from the initial job remain unaffected. This means that all sub-jobs
“inherit” the settings of the initial job (This is significant when sub-jobs evaluate the same key, and maybe do so in a
different manner).
In the overall queue of jobs to be performed, the initial job is replaced by the list of new jobs just generated. This
process is repeated until there are no more “run” jobs in the job queue, and none with unresolved “extend”s.
“asset-let” Key
The asset-let key is basically a macro definition for #asset compiler hints, but with a special semantics. Keys
defined in the “asset-let” map will be looked for in #asset hints in source files. Like with macros, references have to
be in curly braces and prefixed with $. So a “asset-let” entry in the config might look like this:
"asset-let" :
{
"qx.icontheme" : ["Tango", "Oxygen"],
"mySizes" : ["16", "32"]
}
and a corresponding #asset hint might use it as:
#asset(qx/icon/${qx.icontheme}/${mySizes}/*)
The values of these macros are lists, and each reference will be expanded into all possible values with all possible
combinations. So the above asset declaration would essentially be expanded into:
#asset(qx/icon/Tango/16/*)
#asset(qx/icon/Tango/32/*)
#asset(qx/icon/Oxygen/16/*)
#asset(qx/icon/Oxygen/32/*)
“library” Key and Manifest Files
The library key of a configuration holds information about source locations that will be considered in a job (much like
the CLASSPATH in Java). Each element specifies one such library. The term “library” is meant here in the broadest
sense; everything that has a qooxdoo application structure with a Manifest.json file can be considered a library in this
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context. This includes applications like the Showcase or the Feedreader, add-ins like the Testrunner or the Apiviewer,
contribs from the qooxdoo-contrib repository, or of course the qooxdoo framework library itself. The main purpose of
any library entry in the configuration is to provide the path to the library’s “Manifest” file.
Manifest files
Manifest files serve to provide meta information for a library in a structured way. Their syntax is again JSON, and part
of them is read by the generator, particularly the provides section. See here for more information about manifest
files.
Contrib libraries
Contributions can be included in a configuration like any other libraries: You add an appropriate entry in the library
array of your configuration. Like other libraries, the contribution must provide a Manifest.json file with appropriate
contents.
If the contribution resides on your local file system, there is actually no difference to any other library. Specify the
relative path to its Manifest file and you’re basically set. The really new part comes when the contribution resides
online, in the qooxdoo-contrib repository. Then you use a special syntax to specify the location of the Manifest file. It
is URL-like with a contrib scheme and will usually look like this:
contrib://<ContributionName>/<Version>/<ManifestFile>
The contribution source tree will then be downloaded from the repository, the generator will adjust to the local path,
and the contribution is then used just like a local library. A consideration that comes into play here is where the files
are placed locally. The default location is a subdirectory from your cache path named downloads. You can modify
this through the downloads attribute of the cache key in your config.
So, for example an entry for the “trunk” version of the “Dialog” contribution would look like this:
{
"manifest" : "contrib://Dialog/trunk/Manifest.json"
}
You will rarely need to set the uri attribute of a library entry. This is only necessary if the relative path to the library
(which is automatically calculated) does not represent a valid URL path when running the source version of the final
app. (This can be the case if your try to run the source version from a web server that requires you to set up different
document roots). It is not relevant for the build version of your app, as here all resources from the various libraries are
collected under a common directory. For more on URI handling, see the next section.
“contrib://” URIs and Internet Access As contrib libraries are downloaded from an online repository, you need
Internet access to use them. Here are some tips on how to address offline usage and Internet proxies.
Avoiding Online Access If you need to work with a contrib offline, it is best to download it to your hard disk, and
then use it like any local qooxdoo library. Sourceforge offers the “ViewVC” online repository browser, so you can
browse the contrib online, e.g.
http://qooxdoo-contrib.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/qooxdoo-contrib/trunk/qooxdoo-contrib/Dialog/
Browse to the desired contrib version, like trunk, and hit the “Download GNU tarball” link. This will download
an archive of this part of the repository tree. Unpack it to a local directory, and enter the relative path to it in the
corresponding manifest config entry. Now you are using the contrib like a local library.
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The only thing you are missing this way is the automatic online check for updates, where a newer version of the
contrib would be detected and downloaded. You need to do this by hand, re-checking the repository when you can,
and re-downloading a newer version if you find one.
Accessing Online from behind a Proxy If you are sitting behind a proxy, here is what you can do. The generator
uses the urllib module of Python to access web-based resources. This module honors proxies:
• It checks for a http_proxy environment variable in the shell running the generator. On Bash-like shells you can
set it like this:
http_proxy="http://www.someproxy.com:3128"; export http_proxy
• If there is no such shell setting on Windows, the registry is queried for the Internet Options.
• On MacOS, the Internet Config is queried in this case.
• See the module documentation for more details.
URI handling
URIs are used in a qooxdoo application to refer from one part to other parts like resources. There are places within the
generator configuration where you can specify uri parameters. What they mean and how this all connects is explained
in this section.
Where URIs are used The first important thing to note is:
Note: All URI handling within qooxdoo is related to libraries.
Within qooxdoo the library is a fundamental concept, and libraries in this sense contain all the things you are able to
include in the final Web application, such as class files (.js), graphics (.gif, .png, ...), static HTML pages (.htm, .html),
style sheets (.css), and translation files (.po).
But not all of the above resource types are actually referenced through URIs in the application. Among those that are
you find in the source version:
• references to class files
• references to graphics
• references to static HTML
• references to style sheet files
The build version uses a different approach, since it strives to be a self-contained Web application that has no outgoing reference
• JS class code is put into the (probably various) output files of the generator run (what you typically find
under the build/script path). The bootstrap file references the others with relative URIs.
• Graphics and other resources are referenced with relative URIs from the compiled scripts. Those resources
are typically found under the build/resource path.
• Translation strings and CLDR information can be directly included in the generated files (where they need
not be referenced through URIs), or be put in separate files (where they have to be referenced).
So, in summary, in the build version some references might be resolved by directly including the specific information,
while the remaining references are usually confined to the build directory tree. That is why you can just pack it up and
copy it to your web server for deployment. The source version is normally used directly off of the file system, and
employs relative URIs to reference all necessary files. Only in cases where you e.g. need to include interaction with a
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backend you will want to run the source version from a web server environment. For those cases the following details
will be especially interesting. Others might want to skip the remainder of this section for now.
Although the scope and relevance of URIs vary between source and build versions, the underlying mechanisms are
the same in both cases, with the special twist that when creating the build version there is only a single “library”
considered, the build tree itself, which suffices to get all the URIs out fine. These mechanisms are described next.
Construction of URIs through the Generator So how does the generator create all of those URIs in the final
application code? All those URIs are constructed through the following three components:
to_libraryroot [1]
+ library_internal_path [2] + resource_path [3]
So for example a graphics file in the qooxdoo framework might get referenced using the following components
• [1] “../../qooxdoo-1.3.1-sdk/framework/”
• [2] “source/resource/qx/”
• [3] “static/blank.gif”
to produce the final URI “../../qooxdoo-1.3.1-sdk/framework/source/resource/qx/static/ blank.gif”.
These general parts have the following meaning:
• [1] : URI path to the library root (as will be valid when running the app in the browser). If you specify the uri
parameter of the library’s entry in your config, this is what gets used here.
• [2] : Path segment within the specific library. This is taken from the library’s Manifest.json. The consumer of
the library has no influence on it.
• [3] : Path segment leading to the specific resource. This is the path of the resource as found under the library’s
resource directory.
Library base URIs in the Source version Part [1] is exactly what you specify with the uri subkey of an entry in the
library key list. All source jobs of the generator using this library will be using this URI prefix to reference resources
of that library. (This is usually fine, as long as you don’t have different autonomous parts in your application using the
same library from different directories; see also further down).
If you don’t specifying the uri key with your libraries (which is usually the case), the generator will calculate a value
for [1], using the following information:
applicationroot_to_configdir [1.1] + configdir_to_libraryroot [1.2]
The parts have the following meaning:
• [1.1] : Path from the Web application’s root to the configuration file’s directory; this information is derived from
the paths/app-root key of the compile-options config key.
• [1.2] : Path from the configuration file’s directory to the root directory of the library (the one containing the
Manifest.json file); this information is immediately available from the library’s manifest key.
For the build version, dedicated keys uris/script and uris/resource are available (as there is virtually only one “library”). The values of both keys cover the scope of components [1] + [2] in the first figure.
Since [1.2] is always known (otherwise the whole library would not be found), only [1.1] has to be given in the config.
The properties of this approach, compared to specifying just [1], are:
• The application root can be specified individually for each compile job. This means you could have more than
one application root in your project, e.g. when your main application offers an iframe, into which another
application from the same project is loaded; qooxdoo’s Demobrowser application takes advantage of exactly
this.
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• Relative file system paths have to match with relative URIs in the running application. So this approach won’t
work if e.g the relative path from your config directory to the library makes no sense when the app is run from
a web server.
From the above discussion, there is one important point to take away, in order to create working URIs in your application:
Note: You have to either specify the library’s uri parameter ([1]) or the URI-relevant keys in the compile jobs ([1.1])
in your config.
While either are optional in their respective contexts, it is mandatory to at least specify one of them for the URI
generation to work.
Overriding the ‘uri’ settings of libraries Libraries you specify in your own config (with the library key) are in
your hand, and you can provide uri parameters as you see fit. If you want to tweak the uri setting of a library entry
that is added by including another config file (e.g. the default application.json), you simply re-define the library entry
of that particular library locally. The generator will realize that both entries refer to the same library, and your local
settings will take precedence.
Specifying a “library” key in your config.json
You can specify library keys in your own config in these ways:
• You either define a local job which either shaddows or “extends” an imported job, and provide this local job
with a library key. Or,
• You define a local "libraries" job and provide it with a library key. This job will be used automatically
by most of the standard jobs (source, build, etc.), and thus your listed libraries will be used in multiple jobs (not
just one as above).
“packages” Key
For a general introduction to parts and packages see this separate document. Following here is more information on
the specifics of some sub-keys of the packages config key.
parts/<part_name>/include
The way the part system is currently implemented has some caveats in the way parts/*/include keys and the general
include key interact:
1. The general include key provides the “master list” of classes for the given application. This master list is
extended with all their recursive dependencies. All classes given in a part’s include, including all their dependencies, are checked against this list. If any of those classes is not in the master list, it will not be included in
the final app.
Therefore, you cannot include classes in parts that are not covered by the general include key. If you want to
use e.g. qx.bom.* in a part, you have to add "qx.bom.*" to the general include list. Otherwise, only classes
within qx.bom.* that actually derive from the general include key will be actually included, and the rest will be
discarded. Motto:
“The general include key is a filter for all classes in parts.”
2. Any class that is in the master list that is never listed in one of the parts, either directly or as dependency, will
not be included in the app. That means you have to actively make sure that all classes from the general include
get - directly or indirectly - referenced in one of the parts, or they will not be in the final app. Motto:
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“The parts’ include keys are a filter for all classes in the general include key.”
Or, to put both aspects in a single statement: The classes in the final app are exactly those in the intersection
of the classes referenced through the general include key and all the classes referenced by the include keys of
the parts. Currently, the application developer has to make sure that they match, ie. that the classes specified
through the parts together sum up to the global class list!
There is another caveat that concerns the relation between include‘s of different parts:
3. Any class that is listed in a part’s include (file globs expanded) will not be included in another part. - But this
also means that if two parts list the same class, it won’t be included in either of them!
This is e.g. the case in a sample application, where the boot part lists qx.bom.client.Engine and the core part lists
qx.bom.* which also expands to qx.bom.client.Engine eventually. That’s the reason why qx.bom.client.Engine
would not be contained in either of those parts, and hence would not be contained in the final application at all.
i18n-with-boot
Setting this sub-key to false will result in I18N information (translations, CLDR data, ...) being put in their own
separate parts. The utility of this is:
• The code packages get smaller, which allows for faster application startup.
• You can handle I18N data more individually.
Here are the details:
• By default, I18N data, i.e. translations from the .po files and CLDR data, is integrated as Javascript data in
the application packages. In the source version, where there are no generated packages, this data is integrated
with the loader. Setting packages/i18n-with-boot: false removes this data from the code packages (loader or
otherwise; don’t think too much about the key name).
• Rather, data for each individual locale (en, en_US, de, de_DE, ...) will be collated in a dedicated part, the
part name being that of the respective language code. As usual, each part is made up of packages. In the case
of an I18N part, these are the corresponding data package plus fall-back packages for key lookup (e.g. [”C”,
“en”, “en_US”] for the part en_US). Each package is a normal qooxdoo package with only the data section, and
without the code section.
So far, so good.
This is the point where the application developer has to take over.
The application will not load the I18N parts by itself. You have to do it using the usual part loading API (e.g.
qx.io.PartLoader.require(["en_US"])). You might want to do that early in the application run cycle,
e.g. during application start-up and before the first translateable string or localizable data is to be displayed. After
loading the part, the corresponding locale is ready to be used in the normal way in your application. The Feedreader
application uses this technique to load a different I18N part when the language is changed in its Preferences dialog.
“include” Key (top-level) - Adding Features
Within qooxdoo there are a couple of features that are not so much applications although they share a lot of the
classical application structure. The APIViewer and TestRunner are good examples for those. (In the recent repository
re-org, they have been filed under component correspondingly). They are applications but receive their actual meaning
from other applications: An APIViewer in the form of class documentation it presents, the TestRunner in the form of
providing an environment to other application’s test classes. On their own, both applications are “empty”, and the goal
is it to use them in the context of another, self-contained application. The old build system supported make targets like
‘api’ and ‘test’ to that end.
While you can always include other applications’ classes in your project (by adding an entry for them to the library
key of your config), you wouldn’t want to repeat all the necessary job entries to actually build this external app in your
environment. So the issue here is not to re-use classes, but jobs.
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Re-using jobs
So, the general issue we want to solve is to import entire job definitions in our local configuration. The next step is
then to make them work in the local environment (e.g. classes have to be compiled and resources be copied to local
folders). This concepts is fairly general and scales from small jobs (where you just keep their definition centrally, in
order to use them in multiple places) to really big jobs (like e.g. creating a customized build version of the Apiviewer
in your local project).
Practically, there are two steps involved in using external jobs:
1. You have to include the external configuration file that contains the relevant job definitions. Do so will result in
the external jobs being added to the list of jobs of your local configuration. E.g. you can use
generator.py ?
to get a list of all available jobs; the external jobs will be among this list.
2. There are now two way to utilize these jobs:
• You can either invoke them directly from the command line, passing them as arguments to the generator.
• Or you define local jobs that extend them.
In the former case the only way to influence the behaviour of the external job is through macros: The external job
has to parameterize its workings with macro references, you have to know them and provide values for them that are
suitable for your environment (A typical example would be output paths that you need to customize). Your values will
take precendence over any values that might be defined in the external config. But this also means you will have to
know the job, know the macros it uses, provide values for them (e.g. in the global let of your config), resolve conflicts
if other jobs happen to use the same macros, and so forth.
In the latter case, you have more control over the settings of the external job that you are actually using. Here as well,
you can provide macro definitions that parameterize the behaviour of the job you are extending. But you can also
supply more job keys that will either shaddow the keys of the same name in the external job, or will be extended by
them. In any case you will have more control over the effects of the external job.
Add-ins use exactly these mechanisms to provide their functionality to other applications (in the sense as ‘make test’
or ‘make api’ did it in the old system). Consequently, to support this in the new system, the add-in applications (or
more precisely: their job configuration) have to expose certain keys and use certain macros that can both be overridden
by the using application. The next sections describe these build interfaces for the various add-in apps. But first more
practical detail about the outlined ...
Add-In Protocol
In order to include an add-in feature in an existing app, you first have to include its job config. On the top-level of
the config map, e.g. specify to include the Apiviewer config:
"include" : [{"path": "../apiviewer/config.json"}]
The include key on this level takes an array of maps. Each map specifies one configuration file to include. The only
mandator key therein is the file path to the external config file (see here for all the gory details). A config can only
include what the external config is willing to export. Among those jobs the importing config can select (through the
import key) or reject (through the block key) certain jobs. The resulting list of external job definitions will be
added to the local jobs map.
If you want to fine-tune the behaviour of such an imported job, you define a local job that extends it. Imported jobs
are referenced like any job in the current config, either by their plain name (the default), or, if you specify the as
key in the include, by a composite name <as_value>::<original_name>. Suppose you used an "as" :
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"apiconf" in your include, and you wanted to extend the Apiviewer’s build-script job, this could look like
this:
"myapi-script" :
{
"extend" : ["apiconf::build-script"]
...
}
As a third step, the local job will usually have to provide additional information for the external job to succeed. Which
exactly these are depends on the add-in (and should eventually be documented there). See the section specific to the
APIViewer for a concrete example.
API Viewer
For brevity, let’s jump right in into a config fragment that has all necessary ingredients. These are explained in more
detail afterwards.
{
"include" : [{"as" : "apiconf", "path" : "../apiviewer/config.json"}],
"jobs" : {
"myapi" : {
"extend" : ["apiconf::build"],
"let" : {
"ROOT" : "../apiviewer",
"BUILD_PATH" : "./api",
"API_INCLUDE" : ["qx.*", "myapp.*"],
"API_EXCLUDE" : ["myapp.tests.*"]
},
"library" : { ... },
"settings" : {
"myapp.resourceUri" : "./resource"
}
}
}
}
The myapi job extends the build job of APIViewer’s job config. This “build” job is itself a run job, i.e. it will be
expanded in so many individual jobs as its run key lists. All those jobs will get the “myapi” job as a context into
which they are expanded, so all other settings in “myapi” will be effective in those jobs.
In the let key, the ROOT, BUILD_PATH, API_INCLUDE and API_EXCLUDE macros of the APIViewer config are
overridden. This ensures the APIViewer classes are found, can be processed, and the resulting script is put into a local
directory. Furthermore, the right classes are included in the documentation data.
The library key has to at least add the entry for the current application, since this is relevant for the generation of
the api documentation for the local classes.
So in short, the ROOT, BUILD_PATH, API_INCLUDE and API_EXCLUDE macros define the interface between the
apiviewer’s “run” job and the local config.
“optimize” Key
The optimize key is a subkey of the compile-options key. It allows you to tailor the forms of code optimization that
is applied to the Javascript code when the build version is created. The best way to set this key is by setting the
OPTIMIZE macro in your config’s global let section. Currently, there are four categories which can be optimized.
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strings With string optimization, strings are extracted from the class definition and put into lexical variables. The
occurrences of the strings in the class definition is then replaced by the variable name. This mainly benefits IE6
and repetitive references to the same string literal.
variables Long variable names are made short. Lexical variables (those declared with a var statement) are replaced
by generated names that are much shorter (1-2 characters on average). Dependending on the original code, this
can result in significant space savings.
privates This is less an optimization in space or time, but rather a way to enforce privates. Private members of a
class (those beginning with “__”) are replaced with generated names, and are substituted throughout the class.
If some other class is accessing those privates, these references are not updated and will eventually fail when
the access happens. This will lead to a runtime error.
basecalls Calls to this.base(), which invoke the corresponding superclass method, are inlined, i.e. the superclass
method call is inserted in place of the this.base() call.
8.3 Further Tools
8.3.1 Source Code Validation
qooxdoo includes its own Javascript validator, Ecmalint, which application developers can use to check their source
files for errors. It is started by running the lint generator job in an application directory:
./generate.py lint
Critical Warnings
Use of undefined or global identifier
This warning indicates that an unknown global variable is used. This can be caused by:
• The variable is not declared as local variable using var
• The variable name is misspelled
• It is OK to use this global but EcmaLint does not know about it. This can be fixed by passing the variable name
as known variable to the EcmaLint call or by adding a @lint ignoreUndefined(VARIABLE_NAME)
doc comment to the method’s API doc comment
Unused identifier
Map key redefined
Data field has a reference value
Hint: If data fields are initialized in the members map with reference values like arrays or maps they will be shared
between all instances of the class. Usually it is better to set the value to ‘null’ and initialize it in the constructor
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Use of deprecated identifier
Critical Warning (for framework)
Potentially non-local private data field
Hint: You should never do this.
Protected data field
Hint: Protected data fields are deprecated. Better use private fields in combination with getter and setter methods.
Comment: It appears that this isn’t an issue that is generically to be solved as the hint suggest. See the corresponding
bug report.
Undeclared private data field
Hint: You should list this field in the members section.
Coding Style Warnings
The statement of loops and conditions must be enclosed by a block in braces
Multiply declared identifier
Explicitly ignoring messages
Starting with qooxdoo 0.8.3 the following three doc comments can be used to explicitly ignore specific lint messages:
@lint
@lint
@lint
@lint
ignoreUnused(x, y)
ignoreDeprecated(alert)
ignoreUndefined(button1, foo)
ignoreReferenceField(field)
Before lint prints a warning it walks up the AST and looks for the next enclosing API doc comment. Usually these
comments should be placed in method JsDoc comments or in the class comment.
Suppressing additional warnings is not supported because they are always an error (e.g. duplicate map keys) or are
very hard to implement (e.g. protected warnings).
8.4 Specific Topics
8.4.1 Code Compilation
ASTlets - AST Fragments
Note: Work in Progress
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This is an ongoing page to record and document the AST (abstract syntax tree) fragments (“ASTlets”), as they are generated by the tool chain Javascript parser. It shows how certain JS syntax constructs get translated into the corresponding AST representation. This serves mainly internal purposes and should not be relevant for a qooxdoo application
developer.
The notation is a simplified tree structure that names token symbols and their nesting through indentation. “|” denotes
alternatives.
Syntax Constructs
a[i]
accessor
identifier ("a")
key
variable
identifier ("i")
a()
call
operand
variable
identifier ("a")
params
{a : 1}
map
keyvalue ("a")
value
constant (1)
a=b
assignment
left
variable
identifier ("a")
right
variable
identifier("b")
a.b.c(d)
call
operand
variable
identifier
identifier
identifier
params
variable
identifier
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("b")
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a.b().c(d)
accessor
left
call
operand
variable
identifier
identifier
right
call
operand
variable
identifier
params
variable
identifier
("a")
("b")
("c")
("d")
[file:] a.b(“c”,{d:e})
file
call
operand
variable
identifier ("a")
identifier ("b")
params
constant ("c")
map
keyvalue ("d")
value
variable
identifier ("e")
(function () {return 3;})() (anonymous function immediately called)
call
operand
group
function
params
body
block
return
expression
constant ("3")
function () {return 3;}() (anonymous function immediately called - no paren)
call
operand
function
params
body
block
return
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expression
constant ("3")
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CHAPTER
NINE
STANDARD APPLICATIONS
9.1 Demo Applications
9.1.1 Demobrowser
Demobrowser is a runner frame application that
hosts nearly 250 sample applications. All those applications are full, stand-alone qooxdoo applications. They cover a
wide range, from simple layout test apps to more full-featured form applications. But the focus is usually to exercise
a particular widget or feature of the qooxdoo class library. So while they might be simple visually, they are good
resources to see how a specific feature can be used in an app. As they are generated in two variants, one for each of
qooxdoo’s standard themes, you can get an impression how the same application looks under the different themes.
To navigate these demo applications, the runner frame organizes them in a navigation tree that groups applications by
main feature (like data binding, layouts, events, etc.). It also allows you to search for demo titles and qooxdoo classes
used in the demos, so you can e.g. search for all demos that deploy qooxdoo’s List widget (qx.ui.form.List). For each
rendered app you can inspect the JavaScript source to see how it is done.
Contains many examples and tests for widgets, layouts and other framework functionality.
Online demo
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9.1.2 Feedreader
Feedreader is a browser-based RSS feedreader. It
allows you to read posts of pre-defined feeds, but you can also add other feeds in a session. The indiviudal feeds are
retrieved using YQL queries. It also showcases switching the language for an application, offering seven languages
to choose from. As it uses internet access, internationalization and is organized in parts on the code level, it shows
several features of prototypical RIA applications.
A typical rich internet application (RIA) for displaying RSS feeds.
Online demo
9.1.3 Playground
The Playground application allows you to play
with code in an edit pane, and see the result of running that code in a preview pane. It comes with a set of pre-defined
code samples, but many more are available, e.g. from github. Code can also be bookmarked and the links saved and
re-run, to re-create the sample you were working on. This allows for easy sharing of running code samples with others.
The scope of the code you can enter in the edit pane is restricted to what you can do in the main() method of a
standard qooxdoo application class.
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Bookmarklet
Note: experimental
javascript:(function(s){try{s=document.selection.createRange().text}catch(e){s=window.getSelection().
Explore qooxdoo programming interactively: edit qooxdoo code in one pane, and see the result running
in another.
Online demo
9.1.4 Portal
Portal is a DOM-level application that doesn’t use
any of qooxdoo’s GUI widgets. It shows both what you can do using qooxdoo’s low-level API and how to build a
rudimentary portal application. The various portlets can be freely re-arranged by dragging them to new positions.
They also indicate how they can be resized.
A low-level, DOM-oriented application without any high-level qooxdoo widgets.
Online demo
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9.1.5 Showcase
The Showcase application contains a number of
feature “applets” that are actually parts of a single qooxdoo application. A thumbnails bar allows you to switch
between the different demo apps. The topics covered include tabling, themes, internationalization and data binding.
With each app there comes instructions and background information, how to exercise them, links to further demos and
documentation.
A page-style application embedding a number of small showcase applications to highlight specific topics
like tables, theming or internationalization.
Online demo
9.2 Developer Tools
9.2.1 Apiviewer
The Apiviewer is an application to browse qooxdoo’s class API. The tree view pane offers the typical class hierarchy, organized by name spaces. Each package
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(intermediate name space) has an overview description and links to the sub-packages or classes it contains. Descriptions usually contain cross links to relevant packages or classes. The entire reference is searchable through the search
tab, where you can enter class and method names.
The actual API descriptions are generated from JSDoc-style comments in the class code, and can be generated for
custom applications as well, so you can browse the API of your own classes in Apiviewer.
Searchable API reference of the qooxdoo framework.
Online demo
9.2.2 Testrunner
Testrunner is a runner frame application for unit
tests. Unit tests can be written using framework classes from the qx.dev.unit.* name space. They follow the
general scheme of JSUnit. Test class are then gathered into a dedicated test application (the “Application under Test”).
This test application is loaded into the runner frame, which discovers and displays the contained tests, and allows you
to run them all or individually. Results and log entries are displayed in dedicated panes.
The online Testrunner loads qooxdoo’s own framework unit tests (approx. 1,500 unit tests currently), but a custom
testrunner can be created for each custom application, to run that application’s unit tests.
Integrated unit testing framework similar to (but not requiring) JSUnit.
Online demo
9.2.3 Inspector
qooxdoo Inspector is a powerful development tool perfectly suited for live debugging and modifying qooxdoo applications.
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See it in action, debugging the qooxdoo feedreader demo application.
If you know the Firebug extension for Firefox, you will be familiar with most of Inspector’s capabilities. But it is
much more than that: Since it is a qooxdoo application itself, it runs in all major browsers, including IE, Firefox,
Opera, Safari and Chrome. And it allows for truly qooxdoo-specific debugging, including displaying the UI hierarchy
and modifying the properties of qooxdoo widgets.
Usage
There are two ways to use the inspector (explained in more detail below):
• The first way is to run a simple generator job to create a local inspector instance for your custom application.
(See: Running the inspector job)
• Generate the build version of the inspector and open it in a (local) web server. (See: Running inspector with an
HTTP server)
Individual inspector from file system
First of all, make sure you’ve created a source version of your application. Then create the inspector:
generate.py inspector
Once the job is finished, you can open the index.html file from the created inspector application. You will find the
file in the newly generated inspector folder (inspector\index.html).
Shared inspector over a web server
To generate the build version of the inspector, change to the inspector home directory (in the SDK in folder
SDK\component\inspector). Then run its build job:
generate.py build
Once the build job is finished you can access the inspector through your HTTP server to inspect different qooxdoo
applications. If you don’t already have an HTTP server like Apache installed or you don’t want to configure it, you
can startup a simple Python-based web server locally:
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python -m CGIHTTPServer
Note: Make sure the qooxdoo SDK (inspector) and the custom applications to debug are accessible from the document
root! You can achieve this by starting up the Python command above from a directory that has both directories as
subdirectories.
Objects Window
The objects window lists all qooxdoo objects created by your app in a table. The inspector has full access to the
internal object registry of your application. Of course, the inspector’s objects are excluded from the display so they
won’t interfere with debugging your app. The objects can be sorted by hash, count or name and filtered by name. To
select an object listed in the table and to update the other views accordingly, simply click on its list entry.
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Widgets Window
The widgets window displays the hierarchical structure of your application’s GUI as a tree. Each widget which was
added to the document (or into any deeper widget hierarchy) will be shown. Again, a simple click on a widget in the
tree selects it. Most of the widgets have a specific icon (corresponding to their type) in order to identify the widgets in
the tree faster. The name of the widget’s class and its hash value are shown as identifiers in the tree.
The widgets window has two display modes: By default, the application’s “public” widget hierarchy is displayed, i.e.
only those widgets that were explicitly added by the application developer using the parent widget’s “add” method.
Sub-widgets that are added by the parent widget itself (“child controls”) are hidden in this mode. That’s why it’s
possible to select a widget using the “Inspect widget” button or the Objects window without the Widgets tree displaying
it. In that case, use the button in the top right corner to switch to the internal widget hierarchy display mode and click
the “reload” button. After that, all sub-widgets including child controls will be displayed in the window.
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Properties Window
The properties window is one of two windows whose main focus is on actually working with a previously selected
object. It shows all properties of the currently selected object. There are two different ways to sort the properties.
But it is not only about displaying properties, it also allows editing: To make this as convenient and least error-prone as
possible, form elements are chosen according to the property’s type. For instance, in many cases it is as easy as using
a checkbox (for a boolean value), a drop-down menu (for pre-defined values) or a color picker (for a color value). For
properties that support a wider range of values, regular text input fields are used.
If you want to know more about a certain property, select it and click the API button to open up the API documentation
for the selected property.
Console
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The console is probably the most powerful Inspector window, as it allows viewing and modifying instances similar to
the properties window, but it also gives the developer a virtually unrestricted environment for debugging a qooxdoo
app.
One part of the console is a generic JavaScript console, familiar to most Firebug users. At the prompt you can enter
arbitrary JavaScript code which is executed after pressing enter. The keyword “this” refers to the currently selected
object. That way it is very easy to inspect and modify the currently selected widget instance. To make it even more
convenient, auto-completion while entering code is available. This allows you to select one of the suggested methods
that are available for a specific object. Hit the CRTL+Space keys to display a list of available instance members.
Another part of the console window is a DOM browser, named as in Firebug. This browser allows you to inspect an
object interactively. You can “dive into” an object, down to arbitrary depth, following property values that refer to data
structures within the current object or pointing to ones within other objects.
Selenium Window
The Selenium window’s purpose is to help test developers in writing simulated interaction tests which will then be run
using the Selenium testing framework and qooxdoo’s Simulator component or the Simulator contribution it is based
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on. Similar to the Selenium IDE Firefox plugin, it can be used to determine a locator string for any element (qooxdoo
widget in this case) and supports playback of test commands against the inspected application.
There is a dedicated page with extensive descriptions that demonstrates how to create a test case using the Selenium
window:
Using the Inspector to write Selenium tests
qooxdoo’s Inspector is not only a very useful tool for application developers, it can also help you write Selenium tests.
The Selenium window From qooxdoo 1.2 onward, the Inspector features a Selenium window that duplicates some
of the functionality of the Selenium IDE Firefox extension, with a qooxdoo twist. It can generate locator strings for
any qooxdoo widget and run Selenium commands against the inspected application. The result is a simple Selenium
test case that can be exported in the “Selenese” HTML format.
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Prerequisites The Selenium window needs to load Selenium Core (the JavaScript part of Selenium) and
the qooxdoo user extensions for Selenium to work. Selenium Core can be downloaded as a zip archive
from the Selenium website. The user extensions are located in the qooxdoo framework since version 1.4
(component/simulator/tool/user-extensions/user-extensions.js). Users of older qooxdoo
versions can use SourceForge’s SVN view to download the file.
If the Inspector is loaded over HTTP, the required scripts can be loaded directly from their online repositories by
clicking the Set default URIs button in the Options window.
Configuration Clicking the Options button (the only part of the Selenium window that is active initially) opens
a window where these two settings can be defined. For Selenium Core, enter the URI of a directory where you’ve
extracted the Selenium Core zip file.
The protocol used must be the same the Inspector is loaded over:
• If you’re loading the Inspector from your local file system, extract the archive locally and use a file system URI
(file:///...).
• If the Inspector is loaded from a web server, the Selenium Core directory must be accessed over HTTP. In this
case, Same Origin Policy restrictions do not apply, so the script directory needn’t be on the same server as the
Inspector itself. If it is, a relative path can be used.
The same restrictions apply for the qooxdoo user extensions for Selenium, except here the path should just point to
the one file. If the Inspector is accessed over HTTP, you can use this link to get the latest version directly from SVN:
http://qooxdoo.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/qooxdoo/tags/release_1_4/qooxdoo/component/simulator/tool/u
Click “OK” after entering the paths. The rest of the Selenium window’s GUI will be activated once the external scripts
are loaded. Path information is saved in Cookies so this step is only necessary once per browser.
Controls
Toolbar
Pressing the plus button will add a new line to the test case. This consists of a default command (qxClick) and a
qxh locator pointing to the widget currently selected in the Inspector.
The minus button removes the currently selected lines from the test case.
The slider controls the delay between individual commands when playing back a test case. In some cases, e.g. clicking
a button that opens a new window, it will be necessary to set this to a higher value to make sure the application finishes
rendering before the next command executes.
The play button executes selected test commands. If no commands are selected, the will all be run.
While the record button is active, a new line will be added whenever a new widget is selected in the Inspector.
The import/export button opens a new window containing the current test case in Selenese format. To import a
Selenese test case, paste it into the text field and click Import.
The options button opens a dialog where external script paths can be configured.
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Test Commands
The table underneath the toolbar lists the commands in the current test case. Select one or more rows to execute
their commands using the play button. Commands, locators and parameters can be edited by double clicking. Editing
commands will display a combo box listing all commands supported by Selenium Core.
Log The log area displays any messages generated by Selenium Core while running commands.
Selenese window
Opened by clicking the Import/Export button in the toolbar, the Selenese window displays the current test case in
Selenese format. This can be copied and pasted into a file, e.g. to be run by Selenium RC. Selenese import is also
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supported by pasting the contents of a Selenese file in the text area and clicking Import. This will replace any
commands in the current test case with those from the pasted Selenese.
Tutorial To demonstrate the Selenium window, let’s write a small test case for the qooxdoo Feed Reader: We’ll
automate the procedure of adding a new user-defined feed.
For this we’ll need both the Feed Reader itself and the Inspector, of course: Generate both by running generate.py
source,inspector in the application/feedreader directory of your qooxdoo SDK or SVN checkout,
then open application/feedreader/inspector/index.html in your favorite browser.
Now configure the external scripts as described above.
Time to start automating: Click the Inspect Widget button in the Inspector’s toolbar, then click the Feed Reader’s
Add Feed button. qx.ui.toolbar.Button[xy] should now be listed as the inspected widget. If you clicked
the button’s icon or label, that’s fine too.
Click the plus button and a new line is added to the test case. Select that line and press play and the Add Feed window
should open. You might need to move some Inspector windows around to see it.
Now click the record button, select Inspect widget again and click the upper text field in the Add Feed window. The
new command will be added immediately. Select Inspect Widget again and click the second text field, then repeat the
process for the Add button. We’re done adding commands, so you can deactivate the record button and then close the
Add Feed window.
Of course we want to type in the text fields instead of clicking them, so we need to change the commands: Double
click the first column of the second row that currently says qxClick. Open the dropdown menu that appears and
select qxType. Now double click this command’s value cell and enter a title for the new feed to be added, e.g.
“Selenium Blogs”.
Repeat this step for the next row to define the new feed’s URL, e.g. “http://feeds.feedburner.com/Selenium“.
That’s all the steps we need, so let’s watch Selenium work. Set the slider to something around 1.5 seconds, select all
four commands in the table and press the play button. If all went according to plan, we can click the export button to
get a Selenese version of our test case to save.
A debugging tool to inspect a qooxdoo application, featuring an interactive console, an object and widget
finder, and a property editor.
Online demo
9.2.4 Simulator (Experimental)
Overview
The purpose of the Simulator component is to help developers rapidly develop and run a suite of simulated user
interaction tests for their application with a minimum amount of configuration and using familiar technologies, e.g.
qooxdoo-style JavaScript. To do so it uses a combination of qooxdoo’s own toolchain, Mozilla’s Rhino JavaScript
engine and Selenium Remote Control.
Note: The Simulator is a highly experimental feature; the API is by no means finalized. It is included in this qooxdoo
release as a preview. Also, the Simulator is not intended as a replacement for any existing automated test setup, e.g.
using Selenium with JUnit. It is merely one of many ways to run Selenium tests on a qooxdoo application.
Feature Highlights
The Simulator enables developers to:
• Define Selenium test cases by writing qooxdoo classes
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• Use the JUnit-style setUp, test*, tearDown pattern
• Define test jobs using the qooxdoo toolchain’s configuration system
• Utilize the standard Selenium API and the qooxdoo user extensions to locate and interact with qooxdoo widgets
• Capture and log uncaught exceptions thrown in the tested application
• Use Selenium RC to run tests in many different browser/platform combinations
• Write custom logger classes using qooxdoo’s flexible logging system
How it works
Similar to unit tests, Simulator test cases are defined as qooxdoo classes living in the application’s source directory.
As such they support qooxdoo’s OO features such as inheritance and nested namespaces. The setUp, testSomething,
tearDown pattern is supported, as well as all assertion functions defined by qx.core.MAssert.
The main API that is used to define the test logic is QxSelenium, which means the DefaultSelenium API plus the
Locator strategies and commands from the qooxdoo user extensions for Selenium.
As with qooxdoo’s unit testing framework, the Generator is used to create a test runner application (the Simulator).
User-defined test classes are included into this application, which extends qx.application.Native and uses a simplified
loader so it can run in Rhino.
A separate Generator job is used to start Rhino and instruct it to load the Simulator application, which uses Selenium’s
Java API to send test commands to a Selenium RC server (over HTTP, so the server can run on a separate machine).
The Server then launches the selected browser, loads the qooxdoo application to be tested and executes the commands
specified in the test case.
Setting up the test environment
The following sections describe the steps necessary to set up Simulator tests for an application based on qooxdoo’s
GUI or inline skeleton.
Required Libraries
The Simulator needs the following external resources to run:
• Java Runtime Environment: Version 1.6 is known to work
• Selenium RC: The required components are selenium-server.jar and selenium-java-client-driver.jar. Versions
1.0 up to and including 2.0a5 are known to work.
• Mozilla Rhino: Versions 1.7R1 and later.
• Qooxdoo User Extensions for Selenium (user-extensions.js).
The Selenium Client Driver (selenium-java-client-driver.jar) and Rhino (js.jar) archives must be located on the same
machine as the application to be tested.
The Selenium Server (selenium-server.jar) can optionally run on a physically separate host (see the Selenium RC
documentation for details). The qooxdoo user extensions must be located on the same machine as the server.
Note: The qooxdoo User Extensions for Selenium will be moved into the Simulator component for a future release
so that it will no longer be necessary to download the file separately.
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Generator Configuration
Unlike other framework components, the Simulator isn’t ready to run out of the box: The application developer needs
to specify the location of the required external libraries (Selenium’s Java Client Driver and Mozilla Rhino). This is
easily accomplished by redefining the SIMULATOR_CLASSPATH macro (in the applicaton’s config.json file):
"let" :
{
"SIMULATOR_CLASSPATH" : ["../selenium/selenium-java-client-driver.jar", "../rhino/js.jar"]
}
Additional options are available, although their default settings should be fine for most cases. See the simulate job key
reference for details.
The “settings” section of the “simulation-build” job configures where the AUT is located and how to reach the Selenium RC server that will launch the test browser and run the test commands. The following example shows the
minimum configuration needed to build a Simulator application that will test the source version of the current library
in Firefox 3 using a Selenium RC server instance running on the same machine (localhost):
"simulation-build" :
{
"settings" :
{
"simulator.testBrowser" : "*firefox3",
"simulator.selServer" : "localhost",
"simulator.selPort" : 4444,
"simulator.autHost" : "http://localhost",
"simulator.autPath" : "/${APPLICATION}/source/index.html"
}
}
See the job reference for a listing of all supported settings and their default values.
Note: Since these settings are integrated into the Simulator application by qooxdoo’s compile process, the simulationbuild job must be run again whenever configuration settings were modified. Future versions of the Simulator will get
rid of this limitation by using a more flexible configuration approach.
Writing Test Cases
The following articles describe the QxSelenium API in greater detail than can be covered here:
• The qooxdoo user extensions for Selenium
• How to write qooxdoo tests with Selenium
Also, qooxdoo’s Inspector component can provide assistance to test developers.
Generating the Simulator
The “simulation-build” job explained above is used to generate the Simulator application (in the AUT’s root directory):
Note: generate.py simulation-build
Starting the Selenium RC server
The Selenium RC server must be started with the -userExtensions command line option pointing to the qooxdoo user
extenions for Selenium mentioned above:
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java -jar selenium-server.jar -userExtensions ../some/path/user-extensions.js
Note that the user extension file must be named user-extensions.js.
Running the Tests
Once the Simulator application is configured and compiled and the Selenium RC server is running, the test suite can
be executed using the “simulation-run” job:
generate.py simulation-run
The Simulator’s default logger writes the result of each test to the shell as it’s executed. The full output looks something
like this:
============================================================================
EXECUTING: SIMULATION-RUN
============================================================================
>>> Initializing cache...
>>> Running Simulation...
>>> Load runtime: 360ms
>>> Simulator run on Thu, 02 Dec 2010 15:57:30 GMT
>>> Application under test: http://localhost/~dwagner/workspace/myApplication/source/index.html
>>> Platform: Linux
>>> User agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en-US; rv:1.9.2.12) Gecko/20101026 Firefox/3.6.12
>>> PASS myapplication.simulation.DemoSimulation:testButtonPresent
>>> PASS myapplication.simulation.DemoSimulation:testButtonClick
>>> Main runtime: 11476ms
>>> Finalize runtime: 0ms
>>> Done
A framework to develop simulated interaction tests, using Selenium.
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CHAPTER
TEN
MIGRATION
10.1 Migration Guide
Migrating from a previous qooxdoo version to a current release often requires nothing more than just running the
migration job in your application. Yet, some changes between releases may involve manual modifications as
detailed in the migration guide of each individual release. The following guide cover both cases.
If you are migrating from a legacy verison of qooxdoo to 1.3.1, namely from a 0.8.2 or prior release, please do a twostep migration to 1.3.1. Firstly, migrate to qooxdoo 0.8.3, following the instructions in the corresponding manual. You
will need a qooxdoo 0.8.3 SDK to go through the process, so fetch one from the download location. This is necessary
as there have been major changes in qooxdoo which require the infrastructure of the intermediate version to bridge.
Then, follow the remaining steps in this document.
• Backup
You might want to create a backup of your application files first. The migration process changes source files in
place, modifying your code base.
• Configuration(1)
Then, after you have unpacked the new qooxdoo SDK on your system, change references to the framework
in your config.json and possibly in generate.py to point to the new version (look for “QOOXDOO_PATH”).
• Configuration(2)
Check the current release notes and those of previous releases between your current version and 1.3.1 for changes
to the generator configuration, as they have to be done by hand. Make sure you apply them to your config.json
as far as they affect your particular config file. For example, with 0.8.1 the config.json macro QOOXDOO_PATH
does not include the trailing “framework” part anymore, so make sure to add that. E.g. if you list the qooxdoo framework Manifest.json explicitly in your config using QOOXDOO_PATH, make sure “/framework” is
appended after the macro reference.
– Alternatively, particularly if you config.json is rather small, create a separate gui skeleton elsewhere and
copy its config.json over to your application, and port the config settings from your old configuration to
this file. This might be the simpler approach.
• Run Migration
Then change to your application’s top-level directory and invoke the command
generate.py migration
• Follow the instructions of the migration script, particularly allow the cache to be deleted. For more information
about this script, see the corresponding job description.
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• Migration Log
Check the migration.log which is created during the run of the migration script. Check all hints and
deprecation warnings in the log and apply them to your code.
You now have an up-to-date source tree in your application. Run
generate.py source
to check that the generation process goes through and test your application in the browser.
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CHAPTER
ELEVEN
REFERENCES
11.1 Core
11.1.1 Class Declaration Quick Ref
This is a quick reference for the various features of a qooxdoo class declaration. It uses an EBNF-like syntax.
Properties, a particular part of the class declaration, have quite an extensive sub-spec, and are therefore factored out to
their own page.
class_decl
:= ’qx.Class.define’ ’(’ ’"’ <name.space.ClassName> ’"’ ’,’
’{’ { feature_spec ’,’ } ’}’
’)’
feature_spec
:=
’type’
’extend’
’implement’
’include’
’construct’
’statics’
’properties’
’members’
’settings’
’variants’
’events’
’defer’
’destruct’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
type_spec
extend_spec
implement_spec
include_spec
construct_spec
statics_spec
properties_spec
members_spec
settings_spec
variants_spec
events_spec
defer_spec
destruct_spec
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
type_spec
:= ’static’ | ’abstract’ | ’singleton’
extend_spec
:= <name.of.SuperClass>
implement_spec
:= <name.of.Interface> |
’[’ <name.of.Interface1> ’,’ <name.of.Interface2> ’,’
... ’]’
include_spec
:= <name.of.Mixin> |
’[’ <name.of.Mixin1> ’,’ <name.of.Mixin2> ’,’ ... ’]’
construct_spec
:= js_function_value
statics_spec
:= c_map
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properties_spec := ? see separate properties quick ref ?
members_spec
:= c_map
settings_spec
:= ’{’ { ’"’ <settings_name> ’"’ ’:’
( js_primitive_value | js_reference_value )
’,’ } ’}’
variants_spec
:= ’qx.Variant.select’ ’(’ ’"’ <variantName> ’"’ ’,’
’{’ { ’"’ <variantvalue_spec> ’"’ ’:’ <selectValue>
’,’ } ’}’
’)’
events_spec
:= ’{’ { ’"’ <event_name> ’"’ ’:’ ’"’ qx_event_type ’"’
’,’ } ’}’
defer_spec
:= js_function_value
destruct_spec
:= ’{’
[ ’this._disposeFields’
’(’ <fields_list> ’)’ ’;’ ]
[ ’this._disposeObjects’
’(’ <fields_list> ’)’ ’;’ ]
[ ’this._disposeObjectDeep’ ’(’ <deep_field> ’)’
]
’}’
c_map
:= ’{’ { <key> ’:’ [ js_primitive_value
js_reference_value
js_function_value
variants_spec
js_function_value
js_primitive_value
js_reference_value
qx_event_type
:=
:=
:=
:=
?
?
?
?
|
|
|
] ’,’ } ’}’
Javascript anonymous function ’function (...) {...}’ ?
any value from the Javascript primitive types ?
any value from the Javascript reference types ?
any qooxdoo event type class name, e.g.
’qx.event.type.DataEvent’ ?
11.1.2 Interfaces Quick Ref
This is a quick reference for the various features of a qooxdoo interface declaration. It uses an EBNF-like syntax.
It is much like a class declaration, with a more limited set of features. Properties are just names with empty map
values.
interface_decl
:= ’qx.Interface.define’ ’(’ ’"’ <name.space.InterfaceName> ’"’ ’,’
{ feature_spec ’,’ }
’)’
feature_spec
:= ’extend’
’statics’
’properties’
’members’
’events’
extend_spec
:= <name.of.SuperInterface> |
’[’ <name.of.SuperInterface1> ’,’ <name.of.SuperInterface2>
’,’ ... ’]’
statics_spec
:= ’{’ { ’"’ <upper_case_key> ’"’ ’:’ js_primitive_value ’,’ } ’}’
300
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
extend_spec
statics_spec
properties_spec
members_spec
events_spec
|
|
|
|
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qooxdoo Documentation, Release 1.3.1
properties_spec := ’{’ { ’"’ <property_name> ’"’ ’:’ ’{}’ ’,’ } ’}’
members_spec
:= c_map
events_spec
:= ’{’ { ’"’ <event_name> ’"’ ’:’ ’"’ qx_event_type ’"’
’,’ } ’}’
c_map
:= ’{’ { <key> ’:’ [ js_primitive_value
js_reference_value
js_function_value
variant_spec
js_function_value
js_primitive_value
js_reference_value
qx_event_type
:=
:=
:=
:=
?
?
?
?
|
|
|
] ’,’ } ’}’
Javascript anonymous function ’function (...) {...}’ ?
any value from the Javascript primitive types ?
any value from the Javascript reference types ?
any qooxdoo event type class name, e.g.
’qx.event.type.DataEvent’ ?
11.1.3 Mixin Quick Ref
This is a quick reference for the various features of a qooxdoo mixin declaration. It uses an EBNF-like syntax.
It is much like a class declaration, with a more limited set of features. Properties are documented on their own page.
mixin_decl
:= ’qx.Mixin.define’ ’(’ ’"’ <name.space.MixinName> ’"’ ’,’
{ feature_spec ’,’ }
’)’
feature_spec
:=
’include’
’construct’
’statics’
’properties’
’members’
’events’
’destruct’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
include_spec
construct_spec
statics_spec
properties_spec
members_spec
events_spec
destruct_spec
|
|
|
|
|
|
include_spec
:= <name.of.Mixin> |
’[’ <name.of.Mixin1> ’,’ <name.of.Mixin2> ’,’ ... ’]’
construct_spec
:= js_function_value
statics_spec
:= c_map
properties_spec := ? see separate properties quick ref ?
members_spec
:= c_map
events_spec
:= ’{’ { ’"’ <event_name> ’"’ ’:’ ’"’ qx_event_type ’"’
’,’ } ’}’
destruct_spec
:= ’{’
[ ’this._disposeFields’
’(’ <fields_list> ’)’ ’;’ ]
[ ’this._disposeObjects’
’(’ <fields_list> ’)’ ’;’ ]
[ ’this._disposeObjectDeep’ ’(’ <deep_field> ’)’
]
’}’
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c_map
:= ’{’ { <key> ’:’ [ js_primitive_value
js_reference_value
js_function_value
variants_spec
js_function_value
js_primitive_value
js_reference_value
qx_event_type
:=
:=
:=
:=
?
?
?
?
|
|
|
] ’,’ } ’}’
Javascript anonymous function ’function (...) {...}’ ?
any value from the Javascript primitive types ?
any value from the Javascript reference types ?
any qooxdoo event type class name, e.g.
’qx.event.type.DataEvent’ ?
11.1.4 Properties Quick Reference
This is a quick reference for the various property features available in qooxdoo.
Properties are declared in the constructor map of the class as a dedicated key-value pair (here called
properties_decl). This is the quick reference for properties_decl (expressed in an EBNF’ish way):
properties_decl
:= ’properties’ ’:’ properites_map
properties_map
prop_spec
:= ’{’ { prop_spec ’,’ } ’}’
:= ’"’ <property_name> ’"’ ’:’ ’{’
{ property_feature ’,’ } ’}’
property_feature := nullable_spec
apply_spec
event_spec
init_spec
refine_spec
check_spec
themeable_spec
inheritable_spec
group_spec
mode_spec
validate_spec
dereference_spec
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
nullable_spec
apply_spec
event_spec
init_spec
refine_spec
:=
:=
:=
:=
:=
bool_val
’"’ <FunctionName> ’"’
’"’ <EventName> ’"’
<InitVal>
bool_val
check_spec
:= ’check’
’:’ ’"’ type_spec ’"’
|
’"’ <ClassName> ’"’
|
’"’ <InterfaceName> ’"’ |
enum_spec
|
inline_function
|
’"’ bool_expression ’"’
validate_spec
:= ’validate’
’:’ ’"’ <FunctionName> ’"’
’<Function>’
’nullable’
’apply’
’event’
’init’
’refine’
dereference_spec := ’dereference’
themeable_spec
:= ’themeable’
inheritable_spec := ’inheritable’
302
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
’:’
|
’:’ bool_val
’:’ bool_val
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group_spec
mode_spec
:= ’group’
:= ’mode’
type_spec
:= ’Boolean’
’Double’
’Mixin’
’RegExp’
’Element’
bool_val
enum_spec
inline_function
bool_expression
:=
:=
:=
:=
’:’ enum_spec
’:’ ’"’ ’shorthand’ ’"’
|
|
|
|
|
’String’ | ’Number’ | ’Integer’ | ’Float’ |
’Object’| ’Array’ | ’Map’
| ’Class’ |
’Interface’
| ’Theme’
| ’Error’ |
’Function’
| ’Date’
| ’Node’ |
’Document’
| ’Window’ | ’Event’
’true’ | ’false’
’[’ <val1>’,’ <val2> ’,’ ... ’,’ <valN> ’]’
? JavaScript anonymous function ’function (..) { ... }’ ?
? JavaScript expression evaluating to true/false ?
11.1.5 Array Reference
qooxdoo has a few classes that concern arrays. Some of them are special wrappers and others are extensions. Here is
a list of all classes which have something to do with arrays in qooxdoo.
Data binding specific array
• qx.data.Array: The data array is a special array used in the data binding context of qooxdoo. It does not extend
the native array of JavaScript but is a wrapper for it. All the native methods are included in the implementation
and it also fires events if the content or the length of the array changes in any way. Also the .length property is
available on the array.
Extension of the native array
• qx.type.BaseArray: This class is the common superclass for all array classes in qooxdoo. It supports all of the
shiny 1.6 JavaScript array features like forEach and map. This class may be instantiated instead of the native
Array if one wants to work with a feature-unified Array instead of the native one. This class uses native features
wherever possible but fills all missing implementations with custom code.
• qx.type.Array: An extended array class which adds a lot of often used convenience methods to the regular array
like remove or contains.
Utility methods
• qx.lang.Array: Provides static helper functions for arrays with a lot of often used convenience methods like
remove or contains.
Extending the native array’s prototype
• qx.lang.Core: Adds some methods to array to lift every browser to the same level. The methods are:
– indexOf
– lastIndexOf
– forEach
– filter
– map
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– some
– every
• qx.lang.Generics : Support string/array generics as introduced with JavaScript 1.6 for all browsers.
– join
– reverse
– sort
– push
– pop
– shift
– unshift
– splice
– concat
– slice
– indexOf
– lastIndexOf
– forEach
– map
– filter
– some
– every
11.1.6 Framework Generator Jobs
This page describes the jobs that are available in the framework. Mainly this is just a reference list with short descriptions of what the jobs do. To find out more about predefined jobs for custom applications, see the Default Generator
Jobs.
Framework Jobs
These jobs can be invoked in the framework/ directory with the generator, as generate.py <jobname>.
api
Create api doc for the framework.
api-data
Create the api data for the framework. Can take individual class names as further arguments.
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clean
Remove local cache and generated .js files.
distclean
Remove the cache and all generated artefacts of the framework (api, test, ...).
fix
Normalize whitespace in .js files of the framework (tabs, eol, ...).
images
Run the image clipping and combining of framework images.
lint
Check the source code of the frameworks .js files (except the tests).
lint-test
Check the source code of the test .js files of the framework.
qxoo-build
Creates a single file containing all the qooxdoo classes of the OO layer. This file can be used in non-browser environments.
qxoo-noopt
A non-optimized version of qxoo-build, for debugging.
test
Create a test runner app for unit tests of the framework.
test-source
Create a test runner app for unit tests (source version) of the framework.
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test-inline
Create an inline test runner app for unit tests of the framewrok.
translation
Create the .po files of the framework.
11.2 GUI Toolkit
11.2.1 Widget Reference
Core Widgets
Widget, Spacer, ScrollBar
Content Widgets
Label, Image, Atom, Tree, Table
Container Widgets
Composite, Scroll, Stack, SlideBar, Resizer
Building Blocks
Toolbar, TabView, SplitPane, GroupBox, MenuBar
Popups
PopUp, ToolTip, Menu, Window
Embed Widgets
Canvas, HTML Embed, Iframe
Form Widgets
Button, ToggleButton, RepeatButton, HoverButton, SplitButton, MenuButton
TextField, PasswordField, Spinner, DateField, TextArea
ComboBox, SelectBox
CheckBox, List, Slider
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Virtual Widgets
Virtual List
Indicators
ProgressBar
Widget Reference List
Atom The Atom groups an image with a label with support for different alignments. It is a building block for many
other widgets like Buttons or Tooltips.
Preview Image
Features
• Configurable spacing between icon and label
• Toggle display of “image” “label” or “both”
• Configurable icon position
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• A simple Atom demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.basic.Atom
Button A Button widget is used to display plain text and/or an icon. The button supports mouse and key events.
Preview Image
Features
• Contain text and/or icon.
• Mouse and keyboard support.
• Ellipsis: If the label does not fit into the widget bounds an ellipsis (”...”) is rendered at the end of the label.
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Description The button widget is a normal widget for a GUI. The button supports plain text and icon. Also it is
possible to handle user interactions with mouse and keyboard.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• A button demo with differently configured buttons
• A window demo which using button
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.Button
Canvas This widget embed the HTML canvas element.
Note: It does not work with Internet Explorer
Preview Image
Features Since this widget is embedding the HTML canvas element the core features of this widget are limited by
the canvas element itself respective by the implementation of the different browsers. However, the widget offers these
features on top:
• fires a redraw event whenever the dimensions of the canvas element has changed or the canvas element needs
an update
• update method for the canvas element
• width and height of the canvas element as properties
• support for synronized widht and height coordinates
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Description Taken from the WHATWG website: “The canvas element represents a resolution-dependent bitmap
canvas, which can be used for rendering graphs, game graphics, or other visual images on the fly.”
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Canvas demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
Canvas API
CheckBox A CheckBox widget for Boolean values.
Preview Image
Features
• Mouse and keyboard control.
• Ellipsis: If the label does not fit into the widget bounds an ellipsis (”...”) is rendered at the end of the label.
Description The CheckBox is a common widget found in many GUI applications. A CheckBox can be checked
or not checked, either by mouse or keyboard. When the tri-state mode is enabled, there is an additional third state.
The third state means that the CheckBox was neither checked nor unchecked, i.e. the state of the CheckBox is
undetermined.
The CheckBox supports an optional plain text.
Also it is possible to combine a CheckBox with a TreeItem to construct a complex widget.
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Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• CheckBoxes used in a GroupBox
• CheckBoxes used in a GroupBox to control a window
• A small dialog Demo
• ComboBox combined with a TreeItem
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.CheckBox
ComboBox A ComboBox widget is used to select items from a list or allow customer input. The items in a ComboBox supports plain text and/or icons.
Preview Image
Features
• Mouse and keyboard support.
• Items with plain text and/or icons
• Ellipsis: If the label does not fit into the widget bounds an ellipsis (”...”) is rendered at the end of the label.
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Description A ComboBox is like a TextField with a drop down of predefined values. The main difference to the
SelectBox is that the user can enter individual values or choose from the predefined ones. The items in the predefined
list supports plain text and/or icons. The items which can be added to the list are qx.ui.form.ListItem items.
Please note that the ComboBox supports no auto- completion.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• ComboBox demo
• Form demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.ComboBox
Composite The Composite is a generic container widget. It exposes all methods to set layouts and to manage child
widgets as public methods. Composites must be configured with a layout manager to define the way the widget’s
children are positioned.
Features
• Public methods to manage child widgets (add, remove, ...)
• Public setLayout method to define the Composite’s layout manager
Description Composites are used to manually compose widgets. They are always used in combination with a layout
manager. The general behavior of this widget is controlled by this layout manager.
Demos Any of the layout demos use Composites:
Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• The first layout demo. Any other layout demo uses Composites as well.
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.container.Composite
DateField A DateField widget can be used for date input. The input can be done in to kinds. The first kind is to
chose a date from a date chose, which is a part of the DateField. The second kind is to write the date direct in the input
field. .. _pages/widget/datefield#preview_image:
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Preview Image
Features
• Mouse and keyboard support.
• Own date format.
Description A DateField has a qx.util.format.DateFormat which is used to format the date to a string.
The formatted string is show in the input field. The input can be edit directly in the input filed or selecting a date with
the data chooser. The date chooser can be pop up by clicking the calender icon.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• DateField Demo
• Form demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.DateField
GroupBox A Groupbox is a widget to group a set of form elements in a visual way.
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Preview Image
Features
• Different legend types
• icon and text
• additional check boxes
• additional radio buttons
Description The GroupBox offers the possibility to visual group several form elements together. With the use of a
legend which supports both text and icon it is easy label the several group boxes to give the user a short description of
the form elements.
Additionally it is possible to use checkboxes or radio-buttons within the legend to enable or disable the connected
groupBox (and their child elements) completely. This feature is most important for complex forms with multiple
choices.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Demo showing all groupBox types
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.groupbox.GroupBox
HoverButton The HoverButton is an Atom, which fires repeatedly execute events while the mouse is over the widget.
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Preview Image
Features
• Contain text and/or icon.
• Ellipsis: If the label does not fit into the widget bounds an ellipsis (”...”) is rendered at the end of the label.
• Event interval is adjustable.
Description The HoverButton is an Atom, which fires repeatedly execute events while the mouse is over the widget.
The interval time for the HoverButton event can be configured by the developer.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Button demo with all supported buttons
• Form showcase demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.HoverButton
HTML Embed The Html widget embeds plain HTML code into the application.
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Preview Image
Features
• displays any valid HTML code
• CSS class support
• control whether the content is focusable
• control whether the content is selectable
• overflow support
• data event changeHtml is dispatched whenever content changes
Description The HTML embed can display any valid HTML code and implements some useful features like focusand selection-control on top of it.
If you want to display a large amount of HTML code you can additionally use the overflow control to prevent the widget
from eating up too much space within your application. This makes the seamless integration as easy as possible.
If you want to manipulate the styling of the displayed HTML code you can easily set a CSS class name to have the
full control of the HTML.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• HTML embed demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
HTML Embed API
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Iframe Container widget for internal frames (iframes). An iframe can display any HTML page inside the widget.
Preview Image
Features
• can display any HTML page
• fires a load event when the page fully loaded
• integrates a blocker element to prevents the iframe to handle key or mouse events
Description The iframe is a container widget for displaying any HTML page. It integrates seamlessly in your
application though it can be styled like any other qooxdoo widget and offers an load event to control the page that’s
loaded within the widget. And the built-in blocker element prevents the native iframe element to handle any key or
mouse event to ensure that e.g. the user navigates away by clicking a hyperlink.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Iframe demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
API for Iframe
Image As the name suggest, the Image widget is used to display image files.
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Preview Image
Features
• Scaling the image
• Image clipping (combine multiple images into one single image)
• Auto sizing
• Configurable second image for the disabled state
• Support for PNG files with alpha transparency in all browsers (including IE6)
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Image demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.basic.Atom
Label The Label widget is used to display either plain text or rich text with HTML markup.
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Preview Image
Features
• Auto sizing
• Ellipsis: If the label does not fit into the widget bounds an ellipsis (“...”) is rendered at the end of the label.
(Only in text mode)
• “height for width”: If the widget’s width is too small to display the text in one line the text is wrapped and a
new size hint is calculated. (Only in HTML mode)
• Configurable fonts, text colors and text alignment
Description The Label supports two different modes. The text and the HTML mode. The mode can be set by using
the rich property. Which mode to use depends on the required features. If possible the text mode should be preferred
because in this mode the text size calculation is faster.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• A label demo with differently configured labels
• Height for width demo
• Label reflow
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.basic.Label
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List A List widget has items with plain text and/or icon.
Preview Image
Features
• Horizontal and vertical orientation.
• Single selection.
• Multi selection.
• Additive selection.
• One selection.
• Drag selection.
• Quick selection.
• Items with plain text and/or icon.
• Context menu support.
Description A List widget can be used to show a list of items. These items could selected in different modes:
• single: Only one or none could be selected.
• multi: One, more or none could be selected.
• additive: The same selection like multi, but each item, which the user clicked on it is added or removed
to the selection.
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• one: The same selection like single, but one must selected.
The item which are added to the list are ListItem. For more details see: ListItem.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• List Demo
• Lists with Drag and Drop
• List with re-size support
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.List
Menu The Menu is a widget that contains different widgets to create a classic menu structure. The menu is used
from different widget, that needs a menu structure e.q. MenuBar.
Preview Image
Features
• On demand scrolling if the menu doesn’t fit on the screen
• Menu items with text and/or icon.
• Each menu item can have a command for keyboard support.
• Menu items can have submenus.
The menu can contain different item types:
• Normal buttons
• CheckBox buttons
• RadioButtons
• Separators
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Description The Menu widget is used in combination with other widgets. The other widgets has an instance from
the menu and it’s shown by user interactions. Each item in a menu can get an command key, that is used to get
keyboard support for the user.
Here a some widgets that use a menu for user interaction:
• MenuBar
• Toolbar
• MenuButton
• SplitButton
• List
The package qx.ui.menu has a collection of needed classes for creating a menu structure.
The
qx.ui.menu.Menu class is the container class for the menu structure and has items as child. Here are some
item that can be used to create the structure:
• Button
• CheckBox
• RadioButton
• Separator
To create a submenu structure, each item (but not separator) can contain a menu to realize the submenu structure.
Diagram
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Some different widgets that use the menu functionality
• Menus used in a MenuBar
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.menu.Menu
MenuBar The MenuBar is a Widget to create a classic menu bar for an application.
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Preview Image
Features
• Buttons as menu items with label and/or icon.
Description The MenuBar contains items qx.ui.menubar.Button to open a submenu qx.ui.menu.Menu
that can handle user interactions. For more information about menus see Menu.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• MenuBar with all features
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.menubar.MenuBar
MenuButton The MenuButton looks like a normal button, but it opens a menu when clicking on it.
Preview Image
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Features
• Contain text and/or icon.
• Mouse support.
• Ellipsis: If the label does not fit into the widget bounds an ellipsis (”...”) is rendered at the end of the label.
• Menu support.
Description The MenuButton looks like a normal button, but it opens a menu when clicking on it.
For using a menu see: Menu
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Menu demo that contains a MenuButton
• Form demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.MenuButton
PasswordField The PasswordField widget is a special TextField witch show the input hidden.
Preview Image
Features
• Hide password
• Mouse and keyboard control.
• Set maximum input length.
• Read only support.
Description The PasswordField is a special TextField for password input. The PasswordField hide the text input.
The act is the same like the TextField, for more details see: TextField
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Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Login dialog
• Show a form demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.PasswordField
PopUp Popups are widgets, which can be placed on top of the application.
Preview Image
Features
• Auto hide property
Description Popups are automatically added to the application root and are used to display menus, the lists of combo
or select boxes, tooltips, etc.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Simple example for the PopUp widget
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.popup
ProgressBar The progress bar is an indicator widget.
Preview Image
Description The Progress bar is designed to simply display the current % complete for a process. It fires 2 events.
When the % changes or when the process is complete.
The Value is limited between 0 and Maximum value. It’s not allowed to set a Maximum value of 0. If you set a
Maximum value bigger than 0, but smaller than Value, it will be limited to Value.
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Here’s an example. We create a default progress bar (value is 0, and the maximum value is 100). We then listen to
change event and complete event. The change event is fired every time the % complete is changed, so we can see the
new value. If the process is 100% complete the complete event is fired.
var pb = new qx.ui.indicator.ProgressBar();
this.getRoot().add(pb, { left : 20, top: 20});
pb.addListener("change", function(e) {
this.debug(e.getData()); // % complete
this.debug(pb.getValue()); // absolute value
});
pb.addListener("complete", function(e) {
this.debug("complete");
});
//set a value
pb.setValue(20);
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Simple example for the ProgressBar widget
API Here is a link to the API of the widget:
qx.ui.indicator.ProgressBar
RepeatButton The RepeatButton is a special button, which fires an event, while the mouse button is pressed on the
button.
Preview Image
Features
• Contain text and/or icon.
• Mouse support.
• Ellipsis: If the label does not fit into the widget bounds an ellipsis (”...”) is rendered at the end of the label.
• Event interval is adjustable.
Description The RepeatButton is a special button, which fires an event, while the mouse button is pressed on the
button. The interval time for the RepeatButton event can be configured by the developer.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Button demo with all supported buttons
• Form showcase demo
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API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.RepeatButton
Resizer The Resizer is a resizable container widget.
Preview Image
Features
• Configurable whether all four edges are resizable or only the right and bottom edge
• Live resize or resizing using a resize frame (like in the screen shot)
• Sensitivity configurable i.e. The number of pixels on each side of a resize edge, where the resize cursor is shown.
Description The Resizer is a generic container just like a Composite, which can be resized by using the mouse.
Either all edges or only the right and bottom edge can be configured to be resizable.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Resizer demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.container.Resizer
Scroll Scroll is a container, which allows vertical and horizontal scrolling if the content is larger than the container.
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Preview Image
Features
• Themeable scroll bars
• Scroll bar visibility can be set independently for the X- and Y-axis. Possible values are auto (default), on and
off
Description This widget can be used if the container’s content is larger than the container itself. In this case vertical
or horizontal scroll bars are displayed as needed.
Note that this class can only have one child widget and no configurable layout. The layout is fixed and cannot be
changed.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• A simple scroll container demo
• After resize the content matches the size of the scroll container.
• Content and container size can be changed. Display of scroll bars configurable.
• Content and container size can be changed. Display of scroll bars configurable.
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.container.Scroll
ScrollBar The scroll bar widget exists as a custom qooxdoo scroll bar and a native browser scroll bar widget.
Which one is used as default can be controlled by the qx.nativeScrollBars setting.
Scroll bars are used e.g. by the Scroll container. Usually a scroll bar is not used directly.
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Features
• Fully themable scroll bar (qooxdoo scroll bar)
• Size of the scroll bar knob can be adjusted
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Scroll bar demo
• A simple scroll container demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.core.ScrollBar
qx.ui.core.NativeScrollBar
SelectBox The SelectBox has the same act like the ComboBox, but the SelectBox doesn’t allow user input only
selection is allowed.
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Features
• Mouse and keyboard support.
• Items with plane text and/or icons
• Ellipsis: If the label does not fit into the widget bounds an ellipsis (”...”) is rendered at the end of the label.
Description The SelectBox has the same act like the ComboBox, but the SelectBox doesn’t allow user input only
selection is allowed.
For more details about ComboBox see: ComboBox
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• SelectBox demo
• Other SelectBox demo
• Form demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.SelectBox
SlideBar The SlideBar is a container widget, which provides scrolling in one dimension (vertical or horizontal).
Preview Image
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Features
• Supports vertical and horizontal orientation
• Hides the scroll buttons if the content fits into the scroll container
Description The SlideBar widget can be used as a replacement for a Scroll container if scrolling is only needed
in one direction. In contrast to the Scroll container the SlideBar uses RepeatButtons instead of scroll bars to do the
scrolling. It is used e.g. in tab views.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• SlideBar demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.container.SlideBar
Slider The Slider widget is the classic widget for controlling a bounded value.
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Features
• Mouse support.
• Horizontal and vertical orientation.
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• Configurable steps.
Description The Slider widget is the classic widget for controlling a bounded value. It lets the user move a slider
handle along a horizontal or vertical groove and translates the handle’s position into an integer value within the defined
range.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Slider demo
• Form demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.Slider
Spacer A Spacer is a “virtual” widget, which can be placed into any layout and takes the space a normal widget of
the same size would take.
Features
• Spacers are invisible and very light weight because they don’t require any DOM modifications
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• This demo shows how spacers can be used to configure vraiable spacing in a grid.
• This demo shows how spacers can be used to configure vraiable spacing in a box layout.
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.core.Spacer
Spinner A Spinner widget is a control that allows you to adjust a numerical value, typically within an allowed range
e.g.: month of a year (range 1 – 12).
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Features
• Mouse support.
• Configurable steps.
• Supports number format.
Description A spinner widget has a field to display the current value and controls such as up and down buttons to
change that value. The current value can also be changed by editing the display field directly, or using mouse wheel
and cursor keys.
An optional NumberFormat allows you to control the format of how a value can be entered and will be displayed.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Spinner demo
• Form demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.Spinner
SplitButton The SplitButton acts like a normal button, but it opens a menu when clicking on the arrow.
Preview Image
Features
• Contain text and/or icon.
• Mouse and keyboard support.
• Ellipsis: If the label does not fit into the widget bounds an ellipsis (”...”) is rendered at the end of the label.
• Menu support.
Description The SplitButton acts like a normal button, but it opens a menu when clicking on the arrow. The menu
could contain a history list or something similar.
For using a menu see: Menu
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Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Menu demo that contains a SplitButton
• Form demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.SplitButton
SplitPane A SplitPane is used to divide two Widgets. These widgets can be resized by clicking the splitter widget
and moving the slider. The orientation property states if the widgets should be aligned horizontally or vertically.
Preview Image
Features
• Orientation
– vertical
– horizontal
• Autosizing with static or flex values
Description The most important class (and the class you will use mainly) inside the qx.ui.splitpane package
is the Pane. One can add two widgets (of any type) to it. Besides these two widgets a Pane also contains a
Splitter between them. By clicking on it (and holding down the mouse button), a Slider will appear and
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follow the mouse to indicate where the Splitter‘‘s will be placed when the mouse button
is released. Once the mouse button is released the available space inside the
‘‘Pane is redivided to both widgets according to the Splitter‘s new position.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• SplitPane that can toggle its orientation and hide/show panes
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.splitpane
Stack The stack container is a container widget, which puts its child widgets on top of each other and only the
topmost widget is visible.
Features
• Two size hint modes.
– dynamic:true: The stack’s size is the preferred size of the visible widget
– dynamic:false: The stack’s size height is the to the height of the tallest widget and the stack’s width
is set to the width of the widest widget
Description The stack is used if exactly one out of a collection of many widgets should be visible. This is used e.g.
in the tab view widget. Which widget is visible can be controlled by using the selected property.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Two stack containers. The first not dynamic, the second dynamic.
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.container.Stack
Table The table package contains classes that allow you to build up virtual tables for showing data in a grid like
view.
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Description A Table is a widget to show a set of data in a column based view. It is based on the idea of virtual
rendering. This means that only the visible rows will be rendered, which increases the performance of the widget and
makes the table capable of displaying thousands of rows. But it is important to know that the table has only virtual
rows, not columns. Having a huge number of columns can still decrease performance.
Column Feature
Display grid data
Features
Set custom
header
Column sorting
Reorganizing of
columns
Change the
visibility of
columns
Contet menu
support
Meta Columns
Resizable
columns
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Description
Takes an array containing an array for each row. The data in the row can be of almost any
type.
Pre-built header renderer for icons and lables. Can be easily extended to supply a custom
header cell renderer.
Built-in sorting accesable to the user by a click on the table header.
Columns can be reorganized by the user via Drag&Drop.
A special column visibility menu is included. It offers the user a way to show / hide single
columns.
The table supports content menus for each cell.
You can define one or more column which have a separate scrolling if any. E.g. you could
have the first column always visible, while the other columns scroll out of view.
The user can resize each column individually.
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Row Feature
Render for different
kinds of data types
Conditional rendering for
individual table cells
Row filtering
Virtual rendering for
rows
Highlight color for
hovered row
General Feature
Capable of
remote data
gathering
Different
selection modes
Editable cells
Focus indicator
Statusbar
Special renderer for boolean, dates, HTML content, numbers, passwords and strings.
A conditional rendere is available which can render the data in different ways
dependent on the content, like applying a red text colors to negative numbers.
Filtering for specific data can be done with a filter method.
Only the rows visible will be rendered which increases the speed of the table.
The currently hovered row can be highlighted.
A remote data model can fetch data from the server. It fetches only the current visible data
which means not the whole data needs to be transfered to the client on startup.
The table offers single and multi selection in different variants.
The cells can be set to editable. Build in editors are CheckBox, ComboBox, PasswrodField,
SelectBox and TextField.
The currently selected cell can have a focus indicator.
The table has a status bar to show the number of rows and/or custom text.
Examples
Simple The most simple table can be build in five lines of code, as you cen see in this example:
// table model
var tableModel = new qx.ui.table.model.Simple();
tableModel.setColumns(["ID", "A number"]);
tableModel.setData([[1, 12.23],[3, 849759438750],[2, -2]]);
// table
var table = new qx.ui.table.Table(tableModel);
this.getRoot().add(table);
One of the importat parts of the table is the table model. The first line creates a simple table model. In the second and
third line, we configure the table model with some column names and data. With that model, we can create a table and
add it to our application, as the example shows in the last two lines.
Editable Column Making for example the second column of our simple example editable can be done in one line:
// make second column editable
tableModel.setColumnEditable(1, true);
The first parameter here is the column (column numbering starts with 0), and the second one is to change the editable
state.
Sorting Also adding a default sort order for the table is easy in one single line:
// sort the table on startup
tableModel.sortByColumn(0, true);
Again, the first argument is the column. The second argument is responsible for the sort order, true for ascending.
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Conditional Cell Rendering As a last addition to our example we build something more complex. We want to
render all negative numbers in red and all positive numbers in green:
// conditional rendering
var newRenderer = new qx.ui.table.cellrenderer.Conditional();
newRenderer.addNumericCondition(">", 0, null, "green");
newRenderer.addNumericCondition("<", 0, null, "red");
table.getTableColumnModel().setDataCellRenderer(1, newRenderer);
For that purpose, qooxdoo has a built-in conditional renderer. In the first line, we create such a renderer. The second
and third line set up our conditional rules. The last line tells the table column model to use that renderere for the
column with the index 1.
UML Diagram This diagram shows how the table uses the different kinds of classes you can find in the table
namespace. The diagram is divided in two sides. The left side is interesting for the user if he wants to extend the table
or wants to use its custom cell renderer for example. The right side is usually a set of internal classes the tables uses
to get its general tasks done.
Further resources
• Table demos in the online Demobrowser.
• API documentation for qx.ui.table in the online APIViewer.
TabView The tab view stacks several pages above each other and allows to switch between them by using a list of
buttons.
The buttons are positioned on one of the tab view’s edges.
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Features
• Tab positions: * top * bottom * left * right
• Overflow handling for tabs
Description A TabView widget consists of two parts:
• a qx.ui.container.SlideBar which contains a tab for every Page and can be positioned on every side
of the TabView.
• a qx.ui.container.Stack which contains the Pages which can be added and removed at runtime.
A Page contains widgets to be shown in a TabView and usually has a label and icon to identify it.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Horizontal and vertical TabViews with a different amount of pages
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.tabview
Widget name
TODO: write some general stuff about the widget
Preview Image
TODO: one manually taken preview image of the widget
Features
• TODO: List of features (buzzwords)
Description
Diagram
TODO: detailed information about the widget
TODO: (if necessary) a UML class diagram of the widget and its used classes using graphviz
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Meaningful name of the demo TODO: set the link
• TODO: More than one demo possible ...
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API Here is a link to the API of the Widget: complete package and classname TODO: set the link
TextArea A TextArea some long text. The TextArea is classic GUI element.
Preview Image
Features
• Mouse and keyboard control.
• Configurable fonts and text alignment.
• Read only support.
• Automatic wrap around.
Description The TextArea is like a TextField, but for longer text input. So the TextArea supports a automatic wrap
around which can be deactivated, when it is undesired.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Shows different TextArea demos
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• Shows a dialog demo with an TextArea
• Show a form demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.TextArea
TextField The TextField widget is a classic GUI widget to edit text in a TextField.
Preview Image
Features
• Mouse and keyboard control.
• Configurable fonts and text alignment.
• Set maximum input length.
• Read only support.
Description The TextField widget has properties to set an alignment for the orientation and a Font for styling. Also
is it possible to set the TextField read only and the maximum input length could be set.
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Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Shows different TextField demos
• Shows a dialog demo with some TextFields
• Show a form demo
• Shows a browser demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.TextField
ThemedIframe
Note: This widget is available since qooxdoo 0.8.3
Container widget for internal frames (iframes). An iframe can display any HTML page inside the widget.
Unlike qx.ui.embed.Iframe, which uses the browser’s native iframe, ThemedIframe (particularly its scrollbars)
can be visually modified according to the regular qooxdoo theming.
ToggleButton The ToggleButton widget is a classic GUI ToggleButton with to states: pressed or not pressed.
Preview Image
Features
• Contain text and/or icon.
• Mouse and keyboard support.
• Ellipsis: If the label does not fit into the widget bounds an ellipsis (”...”) is rendered at the end of the label.
Description The button is a classic GUI element, that supports two states: pressed and not pressed. The state is
changed by a mouse (click) or keyboard (enter or space) event. There is an additional third state when the tri-state
mode is enabled. The third state means that the widget was neither pressed nor unpressed, i.e. the state of the button
is undetermined.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Button demo with all supported buttons
• Form showcase demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.form.ToggleButton
Toolbar The ToolBar widget is responsible for displaying a toolbar in the application. Therefore it is a container for
Buttons, RadioButtons, CheckBoxes and Separators.
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Preview Image
Features
• Buttons
– Regular
– Radio
– Toggle
– Menu
• Icons and / or labels for all buttons
• Separation into parts
• Separator handles
Description The qx.ui.toolbar package, which contains all stuff needed for the toolbar widget, has the main class
called ToolBar. The ToolBar class is the main container for the rest of the classes. If you want to group your buttons
in the toolbar, you can do this with parts. The parts class acts as a subelement of the toolbar with almost the same
functionality. To a part you can add buttons. There are some kinds of buttons in the toolbar package:
• Buttons
• Radio buttons
• CheckBox buttons
• MenuButtons
• SplitButtons
These buttons can also be added directly to the toolbar if no parts are needed. For further structuring in the toolbar, a
Separator is available in the package which can be added.
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Diagram
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Toolbar with all features
• Toolbar in a browser demo
• Toolbar with other menus
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.toolbar
ToolTip A Tooltip provides additional information for widgets when the user hovers over a widget. This information
can consist in plain text, but also include an icon and complex HTML code.
Preview Image
Features
• ToolTip can contain an icon
• ToolTip’s label can contain HTML
• Show/hide delay
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Description A ToolTip can be attached to one ore more widgets be creating a ToolTip and calling the
setToolTip() method with the ToolTip as argument on the widget. The ToolTip will be shown as soon as the
mouse overs the widget. A ToolTip can be configured to contain an icon and label and to be shown/hidden after a
certain amount of time.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Demonstrates regular and shared ToolTips
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
complete package and classname
Tree The tree package contains classes that allow you to build up visual trees, like the ones you are familiar with e.g.
for browsing your file system. Expanding and collapsing tree nodes is handled automatically by showing or hiding the
contained subtree structure.
Preview Image
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Features
• Different open and selection modes
• Toggle-able tree root
Description A Tree contains items in an hierarchically structure. The first item inside a Tree is called the
root. A tree always contains one single TreeFolder as the root widget which itself can contain several other
items. A TreeFolder (which is also called node) can contain TreeFolder widgets or TreeFile widgets. The
TreeFile widget (also called leaf ) consists of an icon and a label.
UML Diagram
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Dependencies
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Complex demo which shows many features of the tree
• A multi column tree
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.tree
Virtual List The virtual List is a widget which based on the virtual infrastructure from the framework.
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Description The qx.ui.list.List is based on the virtual infrastructure and supports filtering, sorting, grouping, single selection, multi selection, data binding and custom rendering.
Using the virtual infrastructure has considerable advantages when there is a huge amount of model items to render
because the virtual infrastructure only creates widgets for visible items and reuses them. This saves both creation time
and memory.
With the qx.ui.list.core.IListDelegate interface it is possible to configure the list’s behavior (item and group renderer
configuration, filtering, sorting, grouping, etc.).
Note: At the moment we only support widget based rendering for list and group items, but we are planing also to
support HTML based rendering in a future release.
Code Example Here’s an example. We create a simple list example with 2500 items, sorting the items ascending,
selecting the 20th item and we log each selection change.
//create the model data
var rawData = [];
for (var i = 0; i < 2500; i++) {
rawData[i] = "Item No " + i;
}
var model = qx.data.marshal.Json.createModel(rawData);
//create the list
var list = new qx.ui.list.List(model);
//configure the lists’s behavior
var delegate = {
sorter : function(a, b) {
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return a > b ? 1 : a < b ? -1 : 0;
}
};
list.setDelegate(delegate);
//Pre-Select "Item No 20"
list.getSelection().push(model.getItem(20));
//log selection changes
list.getSelection().addListener("change", function(e) {
this.debug("Selection: " + list.getSelection().getItem(0));
}, this);
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Example for the virtual List widget
• Example shows the filtering feature
• Example shows the custom rendering
• Example shows the grouping feature
API Here is a link to the API of the widget:
qx.ui.list.List
Window The window widget is similar to Windows’ MDI child windows.
Preview Image
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Features
• Title support text and/or icon
• Support modal window
• Status bar support
• Minimize and maximize a window
• Open and close a window
• Resize a window
Description The window widget can be used to show dialogs or to realize a MDI (Multiple Document Interface)
Application.
The widgets implements all known metaphors from a window:
• minimize
• maximize
• open
• close
• and so on
The package qx.ui.window contains two other classes that can be used to create a MDI Application:
• The Desktop can act as container for windows. It can be used to define a clipping region for internal windows.
• The Manager handle the z-order and modality blocking of windows managed the connected desktop.
Demos Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the widget:
• Demonstrate different window types
• Windows with using a Desktop
• A window containing a table demo
• A calculator demo
API Here is a link to the API of the Widget:
qx.ui.window.Window
11.2.2 Layout Reference
qooxdoo comes with some of the most common layout managers. The following layout managers are supported by
qooxdoo:
The Basic layout is used to position the children at absolute top/left coordinates.
Basic
The Basic is used to position the children at absolute top/left coordinates.
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Features
• Basic positioning using left and top layout properties
• Respects minimum and maximum dimensions without skrinking/growing
• Margins for top and left side (including negative margins)
• Respects right and bottom margins in the size hint
• Auto-sizing
Description
The basic layout positions each child at the coordinate given by the left and top layout properties.
The size hint of a widget configured with a Basic layout is determined such that each child can be positioned at the
specified location and can have its preferred size and margin.
Margins for left and top will shift the widget position by this amount (negative values are possible). Margins for right
and bottom are only respected while computing the size hint.
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Layout properties
• left: The left coordinate in pixel (defaults to 0)
• top: The top coordinate in pixel (defaults to 0)
Alternative Names
• AbsoluteLayout (ExtJS)
Demos
Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the layout:
• A demo of the Basic layout
API
Here is a link to the API of the layout manager:
qx.ui.layout.Basic
The Canvas layout is an extended Basic layout. It is possible to position a widget relative to the right or bottom edge
of the available space. The Canvas layout furthermore supports dimension and location measures in percent.
Canvas
The Canvas is an extended Basic layout. It is possible to position a widget relative to the right or bottom edge of the
available space. The Canvas layout further has support for percent dimensions and locations.
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Features
• Pixel dimensions and locations
• Percent dimensions and locations
• Stretching between left+right and top+bottom
• Minimum and maximum dimensions
• Children are automatically shrunk to their minimum dimensions if not enough space is available
• Auto sizing (ignoring percent values)
• Margins (also negative ones)
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Description
In addition to the Basic layout the Canvas layout adds support for right and bottom layout properties. These allows
to position a child in distance from the right or bottom edge of the available space. The canvas also adds support for
percent locations and dimensions (layout properties width and height). Percents are defined as a string value
(otherwise using the same layout property) with a “%” postfix.
It is possible to stretch a between the left and right edge by specifying layout properties for both left and right.
The same is of cause true for top and bottom. To define a distance which is identially to each edge e.g. stretch a
child to between all sides there is the edge property. This property accepts the same values are supported by the other
location properties (including percents). Please keep in mind that often a Grow Layout might be the better choice
when edge was planned to use in conjunction with a Canvas Layout.
The size hint of a widget configured with a Canvas layout is determined such that each child can be positioned at the
specified location and can have its preferred size and margin. For this computation the layout ignores all widgets,
which have a percent size or position, because These sizes depend on the actual rendered size and are not known
upfront.
Layout properties
• left (Integer|String): The left coordinate in pixel or as a percent string e.g. 20 or 30%.
• top (Integer|String): The top coordinate in pixel or as a percent string e.g. 20 or 30%.
• right (Integer|String): The right coordinate in pixel or as a percent string e.g. 20 or 30%.
• bottom (Integer|String): The bottom coordinate in pixel or as a percent string e.g. 20 or 30%.
• width (String): A percent width e.g. 40%.
• height (String): A percent height e.g. 60%.
Demos
Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the layout:
• Canvas with pixel positions
• Canvas with percent positions and dimensions
• Canvas showing left and right attachment of children
• Canvas with children having minimum and maximum dimensions
API
Here is a link to the API of the layout manager:
qx.ui.layout.Canvas
The Box layouts arranges their children back-to-back. The horizontal box layout arranges widgets in a horizontal row,
from left to right, while the vertical box layout arranges widgets in a vertical column, from top to bottom.
HBox/VBox
The box layouts lay out their children one after the other. The horizontal box layout lays out widgets in a horizontal
row, from left to right, while the vertical box layout lays out widgets in a vertical column, from top to bottom.
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Preview Image
Features
• Respects Minimum and maximum dimensions
• Priorized growing/shrinking (flex)
• Margins with horizontal (HBox) resp. vertical (VBox) collapsing)
• Auto sizing (ignoring percent values)
• Percent widths (not size hint relevant)
• Alignment (Children property {@link qx.ui.core.LayoutItem#alignX} is ignored)
• Horizontal (HBox) resp. vertical (VBox) spacing (collapsed with margins)
• Property to reverse children ordering (starting from last to first)
• Vertical (HBox) resp. horizontal (VBox) children stretching (respecting size hints)
Description
Both box layouts lay out their children one after the other. This description will discuss the horizontal box layout.
Everything said about the horizontal box layout applies equally to the vertical box layout just with a vertical orientation.
In addition to the child widget’s own preferred width the width of a child can also be defined as percent values. The
percent value is relative to the inner width of the parent widget without any spacings. This means a horizontal box
layout with two children of width 50% and with a spacing will fit exactly in the parent.
The horizontal box layout tries to stretch all children vertically to the height of the box layout. This can be supressed
by setting the child property allowGrowY to false. If a child is smaller than the layout and cannot be stretched it will
be aligned according to its alignY value. The alignX property of the layout itself defines the horizontal alignment of
all the children as a whole.
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The horizontal spacing can be defined using the property spacing. In addition to the spacing property each widget
can define left and a right margin. Margins and the spacing are always collapsed to the largest single value. It for
example the layout has a spacing of 10 pixel and two consecutive child widgets A and B - A with a right margin of 15
and B with a left margin of 5 - than the spacing between these widgets would be 15, the maximum of these values.
The preferred height of an horizontal box layout is determined by the highest child widged. The preferred with is the
sum of the widths of each child plus the spacing resulting from margins and the spacing property.
Layout properties
• flex (Integer): Defines the flexibility (stretching factor) of the child (defaults to 0)
• width (String): Defines a percent width for the item. The percent width, when specified, is used instead of the
width defined by the size hint. The minimum and maximum width still takes care of the elements limitations. It
has no influence on the layout’s size hint. Percents are mainly useful for widgets which are sized by the outer
hierarchy.
Alternative Names
• QVBoxLayout (Qt)
• StackPanel (XAML)
• RowLayout (SWT)
Demos
Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the layout:
• Simple HBox usage
• HBox with flex widths
• HBox with child margins
• HBox with percent widths
• HBox with switchable ‘’reversed” property
• HBox with separators
• HBox with vertical shrinking
• Simple VBox usage
• VBox with flex heights
• VBox with child margins
• VBox with percent heights
• VBox with switchable ‘’reversed” property
• VBox with separators
• VBox with horizontal shrinking
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API
Here is a link to the API of the layout manager: qx.ui.layout.HBox
qx.ui.layout.VBox
The Flow layout places widget next to each other from left to right. If the available width is not sufficient an automatic
line break is inserted.
Flow
Note: This layout manager is available since qooxdoo 0.8.3.
A basic layout, which supports positioning of child widgets in a ‘flowing’ manner, starting at the container’s top/left
position, placing children left to right (like a HBox) until the there’s no remaining room for the next child. When out
of room on the current line of elements, a new line is started, cleared below the tallest child of the preceeding line – a
bit like using ‘float’ in CSS, except that a new line wraps all the way back to the left.
Preview Image
This image shows a gallery implemented using a Flow layout.
Features
• Reversing children order
• Manual line breaks
• Horizontal alignment of lines
• Vertical alignment of individual widgets within a line
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• Margins with horizontal margin collapsing
• Horizontal and vertical spacing
• Height for width calculations
• Auto-sizing
Description
The Flow layout imitates the way text is rendered. Each child is placed horizontally next to each other. If the remaining
space is too small a new line is created and the child is placed at the start of the new line.
It is possible to specify a horizontal alignment for all children. This is equivalent to center, left or right
alignment of text blocks. Further it is possible to specify the vertical alignment of each child in a line.
This layout supports height for width, which means that given a fixed width it can calculate the required height.
Layout properties
• lineBreak (Boolean): If set to true a forced line break will happen after this child widget.
Demos
Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the layout:
• Flow layout demo
API
Here is a link to the API of the layout manager:
qx.ui.layout.Flow
A Dock layout attaches the children to the edges of the available space.
Dock
Docks children to one of the edges.
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Preview Image
Features
• Percent width for left/right/center attached children
• Percent height for top/bottom/center attached children
• Minimum and maximum dimensions
• Prioritized growing/shrinking (flex)
• Auto sizing
• Margins and Spacings
• Alignment in orthogonal axis (e.g. alignX of north attached)
• Different sort options for children
Description
The Dock layout attaches the children to the edges of the availble space. The space distribution respects the child
order and starts with the first child. Every added child reduces the available space of the other ones. This is important
because for example a left attached child reduces the available width for top attached children and vice-versa. This
layout is mainly used for the basic application layout structure.
Layout properties
• edge (String): The edge where the layout item should be docked. This may be one of north, east, south,
west or center. (Required)
• width (String): Defines a percent width for the item. The percent width, when specified, is used instead of
the width defined by the size hint. This is only supported for children added to the north or south edge or
are centered in the middle of the layout. The minimum and maximum width still takes care of the elements
limitations. It has no influence on the layout’s size hint. Percents are mainly useful for widgets which are sized
by the outer hierarchy.
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• height (String): Defines a percent height for the item. The percent height, when specified, is used instead of the
height defined by the size hint. This is only supported for children added to the west or east edge or are centered
in the middle of the layout. The minimum and maximum height still takes care of the elements limitations. It
has no influence on the layout’s size hint. Percents are mainly useful for widgets which are sized by the outer
hierarchy.
Alternative Names
• BorderLayout (Qt)
• DockPanel (XAML)
• BorderLayout (Java)
• BorderLayout (ExtJS)
Demos
Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the layout:
• Simple docks
• Docks with auto sizing and spacings
• Docks with flex sizes (growing)
• Docks with flex sizes (shrinking)
• Docks with child margins
• Docks with percent sizes
• Docks with separators
API
Here is a link to the API of the layout manager:
qx.ui.layout.Dock
The Grid layout arranges items in a two dimensional grid. Widgets can be placed into the grid’s cells and may span
multiple rows and columns.
Grid
The grid layout manager arranges the items in a two dimensional grid. Widgets can be placed into the grid’s cells and
may span multiple rows and columns.
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Preview Image
This image show two nested grids with column and row spans.
Features
• Flex values for rows and columns
• Minimal and maximal column and row sizes
• Manually setting of column and row sizes
• Horizontal and vertical alignment
• Horizontal and vertical spacing
• Column and row spans
• Auto-sizing
Description
The grid arranges the child widgets in a two dimensional grid. Each child is associated with a grid column and row.
Widgets can span multiple cells by setting the colSpan and rowSpan layout properties. However each grid cell can
only contain one widget. Thus child widgets can never overlap.
The grid computes the preferred with/height of each column/row based on the preferred size of the child widgets. The
computed column widths and row heights can be overridden by explicitly setting them using setColumnWidth and
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setRowHeight. Minimum and maximum sizes for columns/rows can be set as well.
By default no column or row is stretched if the available space is larger/smaller than the needed space. To allow certain
rows/columns to be stretched each row/column can have a flex value.
Layout properties
• row (Integer): The row of the cell the widget should occupy. Each cell can only contain one widget. This layout
property is mandatory.
• column (Integer): The column of the cell the widget should occupy. Each cell can only contain one widget.
This layout property is mandatory.
• rowSpan (Integer): The number of rows, the widget should span, starting from the row specified in the row
property. The cells in the spanned rows must be empty as well. (defaults to 1)
• colSpan (Integer): The number of columns, the widget should span, starting from the column specified in the
column property. The cells in the spanned columns must be empty as well. (defaults to 1)
Alternative Names
• QGridLayout (Qt)
• Grid (XAML)
• TableLayout (ExtJS)
Demos
Here are some links that demonstrate the usage of the layout:
• Simple grids
• Complex grids
• A grid with different cell alignments
• An animated grid
API
Here is a link to the API of the layout manager:
qx.ui.layout.Grid
The Grow layout stretches all children to the full available size but still respects limits configured by min/max values.
Grow
The grow layout stretches all children to the full available size but still respects limits configured by min/max values.
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Features
• Auto-sizing
• Respects minimum and maximum child dimensions
Description
The Grow layout is the simplest layout in qooxdoo. It scales every child to the full available width and height (still
respecting limitations of each child). It will place all children over each other with the top and left coordinates set to
0. This layout is usually used with only one child in scenarios where exactly one child should fill the whole content
(e.g. adding a TabView to a Window). This layout performs a lot better in these cases than for example a canvas layout
with edge=0.
Layout properties
The Grow layout does not have any layout properties.
Alternative Names
• FitLayout (ExtJS)
API
Here is a link to the API of the layout manager:
qx.ui.layout.Grow
There are a few more layouts bundled with the default qooxdoo distribution but those are mostly intended for use by
a specific component. For example the Atom uses the Atom Layout, the SplitPane uses the two split layouts HLayout
and VLayout.
Through the simple API it should be quite easy to write custom layouts if the included ones do not meet demands.
Simply derive from the Abstract layout and start with a refined version of the method renderLayout().
11.3 Tooling
11.3.1 Default Generator Jobs
This page describes the jobs that are automatically available to all skeleton-based applications (particularly, applications with config.json files that include the framework’s application.json config file). Mainly this is just a reference
list with short descriptions of what the jobs do. But in some cases, there is comprehensive documentation about the interface of this job and how it can be parametrized (This would usually require changing your config.json configuration
file).
Action Jobs
These jobs can be invoked with the generator, e.g. as generate.py <jobname>.
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api
Create api doc for the current library. Use the following macros to tailor the scope of classes that are going to show up
in the customized apiviewer application:
"API_INCLUDE" = ["<class_patt1>", "<class_patt2>", ...]
"API_EXCLUDE" = ["<class_patt1>", "<class_patt2>", ...]
The syntax for the class pattern is like those for the include config key.
api-data
Create the api data for the current library. This is included in the api job, but allows you to re-generate the api data
.json files for the classes without re-generating the Apiviewer application as well. Moreover, you can supply class
names as command line arguments to only re-generate the api data for those:
sh> generate.py api-data my.own.ClassA ...
Beware though that in such a case the tree information provided to the Apiviewer (i.e. what you see in the Apiviewer’s
tree view on the left) is also restricted to those classes (augmented by stubs for their ancestors for hierarchy resolution).
But this should be fine for developing API documenation for specific classes.
build
Create build version of current application.
clean
Remove local cache and generated .js files (source/build).
distclean
Remove the cache and all generated artefacts of this library (source, build, ...).
fix
Normalize whitespace in .js files of the current library (tabs, eol, ...).
info
Running this job will print out various information about your setup on the console. Information includes your qooxdoo and Python version, whether source and/or build version of your app has been built, stats on the cache, asf.
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inspector
Create an instance of the Inspector in the current application. The inspector is a debugging tool that allows you to
inspect your custom application while running. You need to run the source job first, the run the inspector job. You will
then be able to open the file source/inspector.html in your browser. The source version of your application
will be loaded into the inspector automatically.
lint
Check the source code of the .js files of the current library.
migration
Migrate the .js files of the current library to the current qooxdoo version.
Running the migration job Here is a sample run of the migration job:
./generate.py migration
NOTE:
To apply only the necessary changes to your project, we
need to know the qooxdoo version it currently works with.
Please enter your current qooxdoo version [1.0] :
Enter your qooxdoo version or just hit return if you are using the version given in square brackets.
MIGRATION SUMMARY:
Current qooxdoo version:
Upgrade path:
1.0
1.0.1 -> 1.1 -> 1.2
Affected Classes:
feedreader.view.Header
feedreader.view.Article
feedreader.view.Tree
feedreader.PreferenceWindow
feedreader.view.ToolBar
feedreader.FeedParser
feedreader.view.Table
feedreader.Application
feedreader.test.DemoTest
NOTE:
It is advised to do a ’generate.py distclean’ before migrating any files.
If you choose ’yes’, a subprocess will be invoked to run distclean,
and after completion you will be prompted if you want to
continue with the migration. If you choose ’no’, the distclean
step will be skipped (which might result in potentially unnecessary
files being migrated).
Do you want to run ’distclean’ now? [yes] :
Enter “yes”.
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WARNING: The migration process will update the files in place. Please make
sure, you have a backup of your project. The complete output of the
migration process will be logged to ’migration.log’.
Do you want to start the migration now? [no] :
Enter “yes”.
Check migration.log for messages that contain foo.js has been modified. Storing modifications ... to verify
changes to class code.
simulation-build
Creates a runner application (the Simulator (Experimental)) for Selenium-based GUI interaction tests of the current
library.
The Simulator is configured using the “settings” key of this job. The following settings are supported:
• simulator.testBrowser (String, default: *firefox3)
– A browser launcher as supported by Selenium RC (see the Selenium documentation for details).
• simulator.autHost (String, default: http://localhost)
– Protocol and host name that Selenium should use to access the application to be tested
• simulator.autPath (String, default: /<applicationName>/source/index.html)
– Server path of the tested application.
• simulator.selServer (String, default: localhost)
– Host name of the machine running the Selenium RC server instance to be used for the test.
• simulator.selPort (Integer, default: 4444)
– Number of the port the Selenium RC server is listening on
• simulator.globalErrorLogging (Boolean, default: false)
– Log uncaught exceptions in the AUT.
• simulator.testEvents (Boolean, default: false)
– Activate AUT event testing support.
• simulator.applicationLog (Boolean, default: false)
– Capture the AUT’s log output.
simulation-run
Starts Rhino and executes a Simulator (Experimental) test application generated by simulation-build.
Configured using the “simulate” key.
pretty
Pretty-formatting of the source code of the current library.
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source
Create source version of current application.
source-all
Create source version of current application, with all classes.
test
Create a test runner app for unit tests of the current library.
• Use the following macro to tailor the scope of classes in which unit test classes are searched for:
"TEST_INCLUDE" = ["<class_patt1>", "<class_patt2>", ...]
The syntax for the class pattern is like those for the include config key.
• The libraries from the libraries job will be included when building the test application (the application containing
your unit tests is a separate application which is loaded into the runner application).
• If you want to break out from the reliance on the libraries job altogether, or have very specific settings that must
be applied to the test application, you can provide a custom includer job common-tests which may contain a
custom library key and other keys. But then you have to make sure it contains the Testrunner library as well.
"common-tests" :
{
"extend"
: [ "libraries" ],
"let" :
{ "LOCALES" : ["de", "de_DE", "fr", "fr_FR" ] },
"library" :
[
{ "manifest" : "${QOOXDOO_PATH}/framework/Manifest.json" },
{ "manifest" : "${TESTRUNNER_ROOT}/Manifest.json" }
],
"include" : ["testrunner.TestLoader", "${TEST_INCLUDE}", "${QXTHEME}"],
"settings" :
{
"qx.theme" : "${QXTHEME}",
"qx.globalErrorHandling" : "on"
},
"cache" :
{
"compile" : "${CACHE}"
}
}
This allows you to tailor most of the parameters that influence the creation of the test application.
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test-source
Create a test runner app for unit tests (source version) of the current library.
The same customization interface applies as for the default test job.
test-inline
Create an inline test runner app for unit tests of the current library.
The same customization interface applies as for the default test job.
test-native
Create a native test runner app for unit tests of the current library.
The same customization interface applies as for the default test job.
translation
Create .po files for current library.
Includer Jobs
These jobs don’t do anything sensible on their own, so it is no use to invoke them with the generator. But they can be
used in the application’s config.json, to modify the behaviour of other jobs, as they pick up their definitions.
common
Common includer job for many default jobs, mostly used internally. You should usually not need to use it; if you do,
use with care.
libraries
This job should take a single key, library. The libraries job is filled by default with your application and the qooxdoo
framework library, plus any additional libraries you specify in a custom libraries job you added to your application’s
config.json. Here, you can add additional libraries and/or contributions you want to use in your application. See the
linked reference for more information on the library key. Various other jobs will evaluate the libraries job (like api,
test), to work on a common set of libraries.
"libraries" :
{
"library" : [ { "manifest" : "some/other/lib/Manifest.json" }]
}
profiling
Includer job, to activate profiling.
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log-parts
Includer job, to activate verbose logging of part generation; use with the -v command line switch.
log-dependencies
Includer job, to activate verbose logging of class dependencies; use with the -v command line switch.
11.3.2 Reference Listing of Config Keys
This page contains the complete list of configuration keys and their sub-structures.
Mandatory keys in a context are marked ‘(required)’, all other keys can be considered optional (most have default
values). Special note boxes starting with ‘peer-keys’ indicate interactions of the current key with other configuration
keys that should be present in the job for the current key to function properly. E.g. the key compile will use the peerkey cache in the job definition for its workings. Again, in many cases fall-back defaults will be in place, but relying
on them might lead to sub-optimal results.
add-script
Add a pre-fabricated JS file to the application. Takes a list.
"add-script" :
[
{
"uri" : "<script-uri>"
}
]
Note: peer-keys: compile
• uri (required) : URI with which the script will be loaded, relative to the index.html.
api
Triggers the generation of a custom Apiviewer application. Takes a map.
"api" :
{
"path"
: "<path>",
"verify" : [ "links" ]
}
Note: peer-keys: cache, include, library
• path (required) : Path where the Apiviewer application is to be stored, relative to the current directory.
• verify : Things to check during generation of API data.
– links : Check internal documentation links (@link{...}) for consistency.
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asset-let
Defines macros that will be replaced in #asset hints. Takes a map.
"asset-let" :
{
"<macro_name>" : [ "foo", "bar", "baz" ]
}
Each entry is
• <macro_name> : [<list of replacement strings>] Like with macros, references (through ‘${macro_name}’) to
these keys in #asset hints in source files will be replaced. Unlike macros, each listed value will be used, and the
result is the list of all ensuing expressions, so that all resulting assets will be honored.
Special section
cache
Define the paths to cache directories, particularly to the compile cache. Takes a map.
"cache" :
{
"compile"
: "<path>",
"downloads"
: "<path>",
"invalidate-on-tool-change" : (true|false)
}
Possible keys are
• compile : path to the “main” cache, the directory where compile results are cached, relative to the current
(default: “${CACHE}“)
• downloads : directory where to put downloads (e.g. contrib://* libraries), relative to the current (default:
“${CACHE}/downloads”)
• invalidate-on-tool-change : when true, the compile cache (but not the downloads) will be cleared whenever the
tool chain is newer (relevant mainly for trunk users; default: true)
Special section
clean-files
Triggers clean-up of files and directories within a project and the framework, e.g. deletion of generated files, cache
contents, etc. Takes a map.
"clean-files" :
{
"<doc_string>" :
[
"<path>",
"<path>"
]
}
Note: peer-keys: cache
Each key is a doc string that will be used in logging when deleting the corresponding files.
• <doc_string> : arbitrary string
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• <path> : file/path to be deleted; may be relative to config file location; file globs allowed
collect-environment-info
Triggers the collection of information about the qooxdoo environment, and prints it to the console. Takes a map.
"collect-environment-info" : {}
Note: peer-keys: cache
This key currently takes no subkeys, but you still have to provide an empty map. The information collected includes
the qooxdoo version, the Python version, the path to the cache, stats about the cache contents, whether the current
application has been built, asf.
combine-images
Triggers the creation of combined image files that contain various other images. Takes a map. This action key requires
an external program (ImageMagic) to run successfully.
"combine-images" :
{
"images" :
{
"<output_image>" :
{
"prefix": [ "<string>", "<altstring>" ],
"layout": ("horizontal"|"vertical"),
"input" :
[
{
"prefix" : [ "<string>", "<altstring>" ],
"files" : [ "<path>", "<path>" ]
}
]
}
}
}
Note: peer-keys: cache
• images : map with combine entries
– <output_image> : path of output file; may be relative to the config file location
* prefix (required): takes a list; the first element is a prefix of the path given in <output_image>, leading
up to, but not including, the library name space of the output image; this prefix will be stripped from
the ouput path, and will be replaced by an optional second element of this setting, to eventually obtain
the image id of the output image;
* layout : either “horizontal” or “vertical”; defines the layout of images within the combined image
(default: “horizontal”)
* input (required): list of groups of input files, each group sharing the same prefix; each group consists
of:
· prefix (required): takes a list; analogous to the prefix attribute of the ouput image, the first element
of the setting will be stripped from the path of each input file, and replaced by an optional second
element, to obtain the corresponding image id
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· files : the list of input image files (file globs allowed); may be relative to config file location
The image id’s of both the input and output files will be collected in an accompanying <output_name>.meta file,
for later processing by the generator when creating source and build versions of the app. You may move these files
around after creation, but you’ll have to keep the combined image and its .meta file together in the same directory. At
generation time, the generator will look for an accompanying .meta file for every image file it finds in a library. The
combined image’s image id will be refreshed from its current location relative to the library’s resource path. But the
clipped images (the images inside the combined image) will be registered under the image id’s given in the .meta file
(and for browser that don’t support combined images, they’ll have to be available on disk under this exact image id).
compile
Triggers the generation of a source or build version of the app. Takes a map.
"compile" :
{
"type" : "(source|build)"
}
Note: peer-keys: compile-options, cache, include, library
Generate Javascript file(s) for the application that can be loaded in the browser. This includes an inital file that acts
as a bootstrap/loader file, and possibly other JS files with class code, I18N files, asf. All necessary settings for the
compile run are given in the compile-options key, so make sure this one is properly filled.
Possible keys are
• type : which version of the application should be generated (default: source)
compile-options
Specify various options for compile (and other) keys. Takes a map.
"compile-options" :
{
"paths" :
{
"file"
:
"app-root"
:
"gzip"
:
"loader-template" :
"scripts-add-hash":
},
"uris" :
{
"script"
:
"resource"
:
"add-nocache-param"
},
"code" :
{
"format"
:
"locales"
:
"optimize"
:
"decode-uris-plug"
}
}
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"<path>",
"<path>",
(true|false),
"<path>",
(true|false)
"script",
"resource",
: (true|false)
(true|false),
["de", "en"],
["variables", "basecalls", "privates", "strings"],
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Output Javascript file(s) are generated into dirname(<file>), with <file> being the primary file. Within the files, references to other script files are generated using the <script> URI prefix, references to resources will use a <resource>
URI prefix. If <file> is not given, the APPLICATION macro has to be set in the global let section with a proper name,
in order to determine a default output file name.
Possible keys are (<type> refers to the compile/type, e.g. source or build)
• paths : paths for the generated output
– file : the path to the compile output file; can be relative to the config’s directory (default:
<type>/script/<appname>.js)
– app-root : relative (in the above sense) path to the directory containing the app’s HTML page (relevant
for source version; default: ./<type>)
– loader-template : path to a JS file that will be used as an alternative loader template; for possible macros
and structure see the default template in tool/data/generator/loader.tmpl.js
– gzip : whether to gzip output file(s) (default: false)
– scripts-add-hash : whether the file name of generated script files should contain the script’s hash code;
the primary compile output file (see above) is exempted even if set to true (default: false)
• uris : URIs used to reference code and resources
– script : URI from application root to code directory (default: “script”)
– resource : URI from application root to resource directory (default: “resource”)
– add-nocache-param : whether to add a “?nocache=<random_number>” parameter to the URI, to overrule
browser caching when loading the application (relevant for source version; default: true)
• code : code options
– format : whether to apply simple output formatting (it adds some sensible line breaks to the output code)
(default: false)
– locales : a list of locales to include (default: [”C”])
– optimize : list of dimensions for optimization, max. ‘[”variables”, “basecalls”, “privates”, “strings”]’
(default: []) special section
– decode-uris-plug : path to a file containing JS code, which will be plugged into the loader script, into the
qx.$$loader.decodeUris() method. This allows you to post-process script URIs, e.g. through
pattern matching. The current produced script URI is available and can be modified in the variable euri.
copy-files
Triggers files/directories to be copied. Takes a map.
"copy-files" :
{
"files"
: [ "<path>", "<path>" ],
"source" : "<path>",
"target" : "<path>"
}
Note: peer-keys: cache
Possible keys are
• files (required) : an array of files/directories to copy; entries will be interpreted relative to the source key
value
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• source : root directory to copy from; may be relative to config file location (default: “source”)
• target : root directory to copy to; may be relative to config file location (default: “build”)
copy-resources
Triggers the copying of resources. Takes a map.
"copy-resources" :
{
"target" : "<path>"
}
Note: peer-keys: cache, include, library
Possible keys are
• target : root target directory to copy resources to; may be relative to the config file location (default: “build”)
Unlike copy-files, copy-resources does not take either a “source” key, nor a “files” key. Rather, a bit of implicit
knowledge is applied. Resources will be copied from the involved libraries’ source/resource directories (this
obviates a “source” key). The list of needed resources is derived from the class files (e.g. from #asset hints - this
obviates the “files” key), and then the libraries are searched for in order. From the first library that provides a certain
resource, this resource is copied to the target folder. This way you can use most resources from a standard library
(like the qooxdoo framework library), but still “shadow” a few of them by resources of the same path from a different
library, just by tweaking the order in which these libraries are listed in the library key.
default-job
Default job to be run. Takes a string.
"default-job" : "source"
If this key is present in a configuration file, the named job will be run by default when no job argument is passed to
the generator on the command line.
dependencies
Allows you to influence the way class dependencies are processed by the generator. Takes a map.
"dependencies" :
{
"follow-static-initializers"
"sort-topological"
}
: (true|false),
: (true|false)
• follow-static-initializers (experimental!): Try to resolve dependencies introduced in class definitions when
calling static methods to initialize map keys (default: false).
• sort-topological (experimental!): Sort the classes using a topological sorting of the load-time dependency graph
(default: false).
desc
Provides some descriptive text for the job.
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"desc" : "Some text."
The descriptive string provided here will be used when listing jobs on the command line. (Be aware since this is a
normal job key it will be passed on through job inheritance, so when you look at a specific job in the job listing you
might see the job description of some ancestor job).
exclude
Exclude classes from processing in the job. Takes an array of class specifiers.
"exclude" : ["qx.util.*"]
Classes specified through the exclude key are excluded from the job processing, e.g. from the generated build output.
The class specifiers can include simple wildcards like “qx.util.*” denoting class id’s matching this pattern, including
sub-name spaces.
A leading ‘=’ in front of a class specifier (like “=qx.util.*”) means ‘without dependencies’. That means the classes
themselves are exempted, but their dependencies added in. Be aware that this requires that all dependencies have to be
calculated upfront, including for those classes specified in this key, resulting in increased compile time and generator
logging. It also means that the final class list might contain classes that are not used by any of the remaining classes.
Usually, specifying classes without ‘=’ is what you want.
export
List of jobs to be exported if this config file is included by another, or to the generator if it is an argument.
"export" : ["job1", "job2", "job3"]
Only exported jobs will be seen by importing config files. If the current configuration file is used as an argument to
the generator (either implicitly or explicitly with -c), these are the jobs the generator will list with generate.py x, and
only these jobs will be runnable with generate.py <jobname>.
extend
Extend the current job with other jobs. Takes an array of job names.
"extend" : [ "job1", "job2", "job3" ]
The information of these (previously defined) jobs are merged into the current job description. Keys and their values
missing in the current description are added, existing keys take precedence and are retained (with some keys that are
merged).
Special section
fix-files
Fix white space in Javascript class files. Takes a map.
"fix-files" :
{
"eol-style" : "(LF|CR|CRLF)",
"tab-width" : 2
}
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fix-files will normalize white space in source code, by converting tabs to spaces, removing trailing white space in lines,
and unifying the line end character sequence.
Possible keys are
• eol-style : determines which line end character sequence to use (default: LF)
• tab-width : the number of spaces to replace tabs with (default: 2)
include
Include classes to be processed in the job. Takes an array of class specifiers.
"include" : ["qx.util.*"]
The class specifiers can include simple wildcards like ‘qx.util.*’ denoting a whole set of classes. A leading ‘=’ in
front of a class specifier means ‘without dependencies’ (like ‘=qx.util.*’). These classes are e.g. included in generated
Javascript.
include (top-level)
Include external config files. Takes a list of maps.
"include" :
[
{
"path"
"as"
"import"
"block"
}
]
:
:
:
:
"<path>",
"<name>",
["extjob1", "extjob2", "extjob3"],
["extjob4", "extjob5"]
Within each specifying map, you can specify
• path (required): Path string to the external config file which is interpreted relative to the current config file
• as : Identifier that will be used to prefix the external job names on import; without it, job names will be imported
as they are.
• import : List of job names to import; this list will be intersected with the export list of the external config, and
the resulting list of jobs will be included. : A single entry can also be a map of the form {“name”: <jobname>,
“as”: <alias>}, so you can import individual jobs under a different name.
• block : List of job names to block during import; this is the opposite of the import key and allows you to
block certain jobs from being imported (helpful if you want to import most but not all of the jobs offered by the
external configuration).
Special section
jobs
Define jobs for the generator. Takes a map.
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"jobs" :
{
"<job_name>" : { <job_definition> }
}
Job definitions can take a lot of the predefined keys that are listed on this page (see the overview to get a comprehensive
list). The can hold “actions” (keys that cause the generator to perform some action), or just settings (which makes
them purely declarative). The latter case is only useful if those jobs are included by others (through the extend key,
and thus hold settings that are used by several jobs (thereby saving you from typing).
let
Define macros. Takes a map.
"let" :
{
"<macro_name>" : "<string>",
"<macro_name1>" : [ ... ],
"<macro_name2>" : { ... }
}
Each key defines a macro and the value of its expansion. The expansion may contain references to previously defined
macros (but no recursive references). References are denoted by enclosing the macro name with ${...} and can
only be used in strings. If the value of the macro is a string, references to it can be embedded in other strings (e.g.
like “/home/${user}/profile”); if the value is a structured expression, like an array or map, references to it must fill the
entire string (e.g. like “${MyList}”).
• <macro_name> : The name of the macro.
Special section
let (top-level)
Define default macros. Takes a map (see the other ‘let’). Everything of the normal ‘let’ applies here, except that this
let map is included automatically into every job run. There is no explicit reference to it, so be aware of side effects.
library
Define libraries to be taken into account for this job. Takes an array of maps.
"library" :
[
{
"manifest"
"uri"
}
]
: "<path>",
: "<from_html_to_manifest_dir>"
Each map can contain the keys
• manifest (required) : path to the “Manifest” file of the library; may be relative to config file location; may use
contrib:// scheme
• uri : URI prefix from your HTML file to the directory of the library’s “Manifest” file
Special section
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lint-check
Check Javscript source code with a lint-like utility. Takes a map.
"lint-check" :
{
"allowed-globals" : [ "qx", "qxsettings", "qxvariants", "${APPLICATION}" ]
}
Note: peer-keys: library, include
Keys are:
• allowed-globals : list of names that are not to be reported as bad use of globals
log
Configure log/reporting features. Takes a map.
"log" :
{
"classes-unused" : [ "custom.*", "qx.util.*" ],
"privates"
: ("on"|"off"),
"resources"
:
{
"file"
: "<filename>"
}
"filter"
:
{
"debug"
: [ "generator.code.PartBuilder.*" ]
},
"dependencies"
:
{
"type"
: ("using"|"used-by"),
"phase"
: ("runtime"|"loadtime")
"format"
: ("txt"|"dot"|"json"|"provider"|"flare"|"term"),
"dot"
:
{
"root"
: "custom.Application",
"file"
: "<filename>",
"radius"
: 5,
"span-tree-only" : (true|false),
"compiled-class-size" : (true|false),
"optimize"
: [<optimize-keys>]
},
"json"
:
{
"file"
: "<filename>",
"pretty"
: (true|false)
},
"flare"
:
{
"file"
: "<filename>",
"pretty"
: (true|false)
}
}
}
Note: peer-keys: cache, include, library, variants
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This key allows you to enable logging features along various axes.
• classes-unused : Report unused classes for the name space patterns given in the list.
• privates : print out list of classes that use a specific private member
• resources: writes the map of resource infos for the involved classes to a json-formatted file
– file : output file path (default resources.json)
• filter : allows you to define certain log filter
– debug : in debug (“verbose”) logging enabled with the -v command line switch, only print debug messages from generator modules that match the given pattern
• dependencies : print out dependency relations of classes
– type (required): which kind of dependencies to log
* using: dependencies of the current class to other classes; uses the using key; supports txt, dot,
json and flare output formats
* used-by: dependencies of other classes to the current class; supports only txt format
– phase : limit logging to runtime or loadtime dependencies (default: both)
– format : format of the dependency output (default: txt)
* txt: textual output to the console
* dot: generation of a Graphviz dot file; uses the dot key
* json: “native” Json data structure (reflecting the hierarchy of the txt output class -> [run|load]); uses
the json key
* provider: similar to the json output, but all id’s are given as path suffixes (slashes between name
spaces, file extensions), and dependencies are extended with resource id’s and translatable string keys
(as translation#<key>); uses the json key
* flare: Json output suitable for Prefuse Flare depencency graphs; uses the flare key
* term: textual output to the console, in the form of a term depends(<class>, [<load-deps>,...], [<rundeps>,...])
– dot:
* span-tree-only: only create the spanning tree from the root node, rather than the full dependency
graph; reduces graph complexity by limiting incoming edges to one (i.e. for all classes at most one
arrow pointing to them will be shown), even if more dependency relations exist
* root : the root class for the dot format output; only dependencies starting off of this class are included
* file : output file path (default deps.dot)
* radius : include only nodes that are within the given radius (or graph distance) to the root node
* compiled-class-size : use compiled class size to highlight graph nodes, rather than source file sizes;
if true classes might have to be compiled to determine their compiled size, which could cause the log
job to run longer (default true)
* optimize : if compiled-class-size is true, provide optimization settings here so classes are compiled
with the correct optimizations; see compile-options/code/optimize for possible values (default [])
– json:
* file : output file path (default deps.json)
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* pretty : produce formatted Json, with spaces and indentation; if false produce compact format (default: false)
– flare:
* file : output file path (default flare.json)
* pretty : produce formatted Json, with spaces and indentation; if false produce compact format (default: false)
Special section.
migrate-files
Migrate source files to current qooxdoo version. Takes a map.
"migrate-files" :
{
"from-version" : "0.7",
"migrate-html" : false
}
This key will invoke the mechanical migration tool of qooxdoo, which will run through the class files an apply successive sequences of patches and replacements to them. This allows to apply migration steps automatically to an existing
qooxdoo application, to make it better comply with the current SDK version (the version the key is run in). Mind
that you might have to do further adaptions by hand after the automatic migration has run. The migration tool itself is
interactive and allows entering migration parameters by hand.
• from-version : qooxdoo version of the code before migration
• migrate-html : whether to patch .html files in the application (e.g. the index.html)
name
Provides some descriptive text for the whole configuration file.
"name" : "Some text."
packages
Define packages for this app. Takes a map.
"packages" :
{
"parts" :
{
"<part_name>" :
{
"include"
: [ "app.class1", "app.class2", "app.class3.*" ],
"expected-load-order"
: 1
"no-merge-private-package" : (true|false)
}
},
"sizes" :
{
"min-package"
: 1,
"min-package-unshared" : 1
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},
"init"
: "<part_name>",
"loader-with-boot" : (true|false),
"i18n-with-boot"
: (true|false),
"additional-merge-constraints" : (true|false),
"verifier-bombs-on-error"
: (true|false)
}
Note: peer-keys: compile, library, include
Keys are
• parts : map of part names and their properties
– <part_name> :
* include (required): list of class patterns
* expected-load-order : integer > 0 (default: undefined)
* no-merge-private-package : whether the package specific to that individual part should not be
merged; this can be used when carving out resource-intensive parts (default: false)
• sizes : size constraints on packages
– min-package : minimal size of a package in KB (default: 0)
– min-package-unshared : minimal size of an unshared package in KB (default: <min-package>)
• init : name of the initial part, i.e. the part to be loaded first (default: “boot”)
• loader-with-boot : whether loader information should be included with the boot part, or be separate; if set false,
the loader package will contain no class code (default: true)
• i18n-with-boot : whether internationalization information (translations, CLDR data, ...) should be included
with the boot part, or be separate; if set false, the loader package will contain no i18n data; rather, i18n data
will be generated in dedicated parts, which have to be loaded by the application explicitly; see special section
(default: true)
• additional-merge-constraints (experimental) : if set to true, will cause additional constraints to be applied
when merging packages; might result in more packages per part after part collapsing (default: false)
• verifier-bombs-on-error (experimental) : whether the part verifier should raise an exception, or just warn and
continue (default: true)
Special section
pretty-print
Triggers code beautification of source class files (in-place-editing). An empty map value triggers default formatting,
but further keys can tailor the output.
"pretty-print" :
{
"general" :
{
"indent-string"
},
"comments" :
{
"trailing" :
{
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"keep-column"
"comment-cols"
"padding"
}
},
"blocks" :
{
"align-with-curlies"
"open-curly" :
{
"newline-before"
"indent-before"
}
}
: false,
: [50, 70, 90],
: " "
: false,
: "m",
: false
}
Note: peer-keys: library, include
Keys are:
• general : General settings.
– indent-string : “<whitespace_string>”, e.g. “t” for tab (default: ” ” (2spaces))
• comments : Settings for pretty-printing comments. * trailing : Settings for pretty-printing line-end (“trailing”)
comments (“%//% ...”).
– keep-column : (true|false) Tries to fix the column of the trailing comments to the value in the original
source (default: false)
– comment-cols : [n1, n2, ..., nN] Column positions to start trailing comments at, e.g. [50, 70, 90] (default:
[])
– padding : “<whitespace_string>” White space to be inserted after statement end and beginning of comment (default: ” ” (2spaces))
• blocks : Settings for pretty-printing code blocks.
– align-with-curlies : (true|false) Whether to put a block at the same column as the surrounding/ending
curly bracket (default: false)
– open-curly : Settings for the opening curly brace ‘{‘.
* newline-before : “(a|A|n|N|m|M)” Whether to insert a line break before the opening curly always
(aA), never (nN) or mixed (mM) depending on block complexity (default: “m”)
* indent-before : (true|false) Whether to indent the opening curly if it is on a new line (default: false)
provider
Collects application classes, resources, translateable strings and dependency information in a specific directory structure, under the provider root directory. Takes a map.
"provider" :
{
"app-root" : "./provider",
"include" : ["${APPLICATION}.*"],
"exclude" : ["${APPLICATION}.test.*"]
}
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Note: peer-keys: library, cache
Keys are:
• app-root : Chose a different root directory for the output (default: ./provider).
• include : Name spaces for classes and resources to be included (default: ${APPLICATION}.*).
• exclude : Name spaces for classes and resources to be excluded (default: ${APPLICATION}.test.*).
require
Define prerequisite classes needed at load time. Takes a map.
"require" :
{
"<class_name>" : [ "qx.util", "qx.fx" ]
}
Each key is a
• <class_name> : each value is an array of required classes for this class.
run
Define a list of jobs to run. Takes an array of job names.
"run" : [ "<job1>", "<job2>", "<job3>" ]
These jobs will all be run in place of the defining job (which is sort of a ‘meta-job’). All further settings in the defining
job will be inherited by the listed jobs (so be careful of side effects).
Special section
settings
Define qooxdoo settings. Takes a map.
"settings" :
{
"qx.application" : "myapp"
}
Possible keys are valid
• <qooxdoo_settings> : along with their desired values
shell
Triggers the execution of external commands. Takes a map.
"shell" :
{
"command" : ("echo foo bar baz"|["echo foo", "echo bar", "echo baz"])
}
Note: peer-keys: cache
Possible keys are
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• command : command string or list of command strings to execute by shell
Note: Generally, the command string is passed to the executing shell “as is”, with one exception: Relative paths are
absolutized, so you can run those jobs from remote directories. In order to achieve this, all strings of the command
are searched for path separators (e.g. ‘/’ on Posix systems, ‘\’ on Windows - be sure to encode this as ‘\\’ on Windows
as ‘\’ is the Json escape character). Those strings are regarded as paths and - unless they are already absolute - are
absolutized, relative to the path of the current config. So e.g. instead of writing
"cp file1 file2"
you should write
"cp ./file1 ./file2"
and it will work from everywhere.
simulate
Runs a suite of GUI tests (simulated interaction). Takes a map.
"simulate" :
{
"java-classpath" : ["../rhino/js.jar", "../selenium/selenium-java-client-driver.jar"],
"qxselenium-path" : "${SIMULATOR_ROOT}/tool",
"rhino-class" : "org.mozilla.javascript.tools.shell.Main",
"simulator-script" : "${BUILD_PATH}/script/simulator.js"
}
Possible keys are
• java-classpath (required): Java classpath argument for Rhino application. Takes an Array. Must point to the
Selenium client driver and Rhino JARs. (default: ${SIMULATOR_CLASSPATH})
• qxselenium-path (required): Location of the QxSelenium Java class. (default: ${SIMULATOR_ROOT}/tool)
• rhino-class (required): Full name of the Mozilla Rhino class that should be used to run the simulation. Set
to org.mozilla.javascript.tools.debugger.Main to run the test application in Rhino’s visual debugger. (default:
org.mozilla.javascript.tools.shell.Main)
• simulator-script (required): Path of the compiled Simulator application to be run.
${ROOT}/simulator/script/simulator.js)
(default:
slice-images
Triggers cutting images into regions. Takes a map.
"slice-images" :
{
"images" :
{
"<input_image>" :
{
"prefix"
: "<string>",
"border-width" : (5 | [5, 10, 5, 10]),
"trim-width"
: (true|false)
}
}
}
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Note: peer-keys: cache
• images : map with slice entries.
• <input_image> : path to input file for the slicing; may be relative to config file location
• prefix (required) : file name prefix used for the output files; will be interpreted relative to the input file location (so a plain name will result in output files in the same directory, but you can also navigate away with
../../.... etc.)
• border-width : pixel width to cut into original image when slicing borders etc. Takes either a single integer
(common border width for all sides) or an array of four integers (top, right, bottom, left).
• trim-width : reduce the width of the center slice to no more than 20 pixels. (default: true)
translate
(Re-)generate the .po files (usually located in source/translation) from source classes. Takes a map. The
source classes of the specified name space are scanned for translatable strings. Those strings are extracted and put into
map files (.po files), one for each language. Those .po files can then be edited to contain the proper translations of the
source strings. For a new locale, a new file will be generated. For existing .po files, re-running the job will add and
remove entries as appropriate, but otherwise keep existing translations.
"translate" :
{
"namespaces"
"locales"
"pofile-with-metadata"
"poentry-with-occurrences"
}
:
:
:
:
[ "qx.util" ],
[ "en", "de" ],
(true|false)
(true|false)
Note: peer-keys: cache, library
• namespaces (required) : List of name spaces for which .po files should be updated.
• locales : List of locale identifiers to update.
• pofile-with-metadata : Whether meta data is automatically added to a new .po file; on existing .po files the
meta data is retained (default: true)
• poentry-with-occurrences : Whether each PO entry is preceded by #: comments in the .po files, which indicate
in which source file(s) and line number(s) this key is used (default: true)
use
Define prerequisite classes needed at run time. Takes a map.
"use" :
{
"<class_name>" : [ "qx.util", "qx.fx" ]
}
Each key is a
• <class_name> : each value is an array of used classes of this class.
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variants
Define variants for the current app. Takes a map.
"variants" :
{
"qx.debug" : [ "on" , "off" ]
}
Possible keys are valid
• <variant_key> : (e.g. “qx.debug”), with a list of their desired values (e.g. ‘[”off”]’)
As soon as you specify more than one element in the list value for a variant, the generator will generate different builds
for each element. If the current job has multiple variants defined, some of them with multiple elements in the value,
the generator will generate a variant for each possible combination of the given values.
Special section
11.3.3 Configuration Macro Reference
This page lists the macros which are pre-defined in qooxdoo, and can (mostly) be overridden in custom configuration
files.
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Macro name
API_EXCLUDE
Description
list of class pattern to exclude from
the api documentation
API_INCLUDE
list of class pattern to include in the
api documentation
APPLICATION
application name space
APPLICAapplication main class
TION_MAIN_CLASS
BUILD_PATH
output path for the “build” job (can
be rel. to config dir)
CACHE
path to the compile cache (can be rel.
to config dir)
HOME
(read-only) value of the (process)
environment variable “HOME”
LOCALES
list of locales for this application
OPTIMIZE
list of optimization options for build
version
QOOXpath to the qooxdoo installation root
DOO_PATH
dir
QOOXthe current qooxdoo version
DOO_VERSION
QXICONicon theme to use for this application
THEME
QXTHEME
theme to use for this application
ROOT
application root dir (rel. to config dir)
SIMULAclass pattern to search for GUI test
TION_INCLUDE classes
SIMULAJava classpath argument for GUI test
TOR_CLASSPATH runner
SIMULApath to the framework’s simulator
TOR_ROOT
component
TEST_INCLUDE class pattern to search for unit test
classes
TESTS_SCRIPT script file name for the test
application (the “AUT”)
TMPDIR
(read-only) path to tmp directory
USERNAME
(read-only) value of the (process)
environment variable “USERNAME”
Default value
[]
[”qx.*”, “${APPLICATION}.*”]
<undef>
${APPLICATION}.Application
./build
${TMPDIR}/cache
“.”
[ “en” ]
[”basecalls”, “variables”, “privates”, “strings”]
<undef>
1.3.1
[”Tango”]
“qx.theme.Modern”
“.”
“${APPLICATION}.simulation.*”
“${SIMULATOR_ROOT}/tool/js.jar:
${SIMULATOR_ROOT}/tool/selenium-java-clientdriver.jar”
“${QOOXDOO_PATH}/component/simulator”
“${APPLICATION}.test.*”
“tests.js”
(platform-dependent, like /tmp etc.)
<undef>
11.4 Glossary
11.4.1 Glossary
API Viewer A popular qooxdoo application, the API Viewer is a class browser for the framework class hierarchy,
written in qooxdoo. It allows for customized views, where the framework classes are displayed together with
the classes of an application, in order to provide automated application documentation. The data displayed is
extracted from the JavaScript source code where it is maintained as JavaDoc-like comments.
Build Process qooxdoo comes with its own build system, usually referred to as the “build process” or “build system”. It is a collection of ‘’make” Makefiles and command line tools. Together they help to maintain a development environment and is seamlessly used throughout the framework, the standard applications that come with
qooxdoo, and is recommended for any custom application. Its features encompass checking of dependencies
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and maintaining lists of used framework classes, generating files to “glue” everything together, copying code,
HTML, style and resource files around, pretty-formatting of source code, generating complete and compressed
JavaScript files, and creating distribution-ready, self-contained application folders. Particularly, the build system
helps to maintain a Source and a Build Version of a qooxdoo application.
Build Version The “Build Version” of a qooxdoo application is the version where all application files together with
all relevant framework classes have been compressed and optimized, to provide a self-contained and efficient
Web application that can be distributed to any Web environment.
class A JS object created with qx.Class.define().
Compiler TBD
Generator The Generator is the backbone of qooxdoo’s Build Process. It is the main tool that drives various other
tools to achieve the various goals of the Build Process, like dependency checking, compression and resource
management.
Interface An Interface is “a class without implementation”, i.e. a class-like structure that only names
class features like attributes and methods without providing an implementation. It is created with
qx.Interface.define().
Mixin A Mixin is a class you cannot instantiate, but provides a certain set of features. Mixins are the included in “proper” classes to add this feature set without the necessity to re-implement it. It is created with
qx.Mixin.define().
Quirks Mode “Quirks mode refers to a technique used by some web browsers for the sake of maintaining backwards
compatibility with web pages designed for older browsers, instead of strictly complying with W3C and IETF
standards in standards mode.” [Wikipedia]
RIA Rich internet application. A desktop-like application with menus, toolbars, etc. that runs over the Internet in a
browser.
Ribbon “The ribbon is a graphical user interface widget composed of a strip across the top of the window that
exposes all functions the program can perform in a single place, with additional ribbons appearing based on
the context of the data.” [Wikipedia]
Window A distinct rectangular region on the screen, usually with borders and a top bar that allows to drag it around.
More specifically a browser window.
11.5 License
11.5.1 qooxdoo License
qooxdoo may be used under the terms of either the
• GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) http://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl.html
or the
• Eclipse Public License (EPL) http://www.eclipse.org/org/documents/epl-v10.php
As a recipient of qooxdoo, you may choose which license to receive the code under. Certain files or entire directories
may not be covered by this dual license, but are subject to licenses compatible to both LGPL and EPL. License
exceptions are explicitly declared in all relevant files or in a LICENSE file in the relevant directories.
Following are the license text of the two licenses.
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GNU Lesser General Public License, version 2.1
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Version 2.1, February 1999
Copyright (C) 1991, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
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[This is the first released version of the Lesser GPL. It also counts
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library ‘Frob’ (a library for tweaking knobs) written by James Random Hacker.
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Each Contributor must identify itself as the originator of its Contribution, if any, in a manner that reasonably allows subsequent Recipients to identify the originator of the Contribution.
4. COMMERCIAL DISTRIBUTION
Commercial distributors of software may accept certain responsibilities with respect to end users, business partners and the like. While this license is intended to facilitate the commercial use of the Program, the Contributor who includes the Program in a commercial product offering should do so in a manner which does not create potential liability for other Contributors. Therefore, if a Contributor includes the Program in a commercial product offering, such Contributor (“Commercial Contributor”) hereby agrees to defend and indemnify every other Contributor (“Indemnified Contributor”) against any losses, damages and costs (collectively ”Losses”) aris-
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ing from claims, lawsuits and other legal actions brought by a third party against the Indemnified Contributor to the extent caused by the acts or omissions of such Commercial Contributor in connection with its distribution of the Program in a commercial product offering. The obligations in this section do not apply to any claims or Losses relating to any actual or alleged intellectual property infringement. In order to qualify, an Indemnified Contributor must: a) promptly notify the Commercial Contributor in writing of such claim, and b) allow the Commercial Contributor to control, and cooperate with the Commercial Contributor in, the defense and any related settlement negotiations. The Indemnified Contributor may participate in any such claim at its own expense.
For example, a Contributor might include the Program in a commercial product offering, Product X. That Contributor is then a Commercial Contributor. If that Commercial Contributor then makes performance claims, or offers warranties related to Product X, those performance claims and warranties are such Commercial Contributor’s responsibility alone. Under this section, the Commercial Contributor would have to defend claims against the other Contributors related to those performance claims and warranties, and if a court requires any other Contributor to pay any damages as a result, the Commercial Contributor must pay those damages.
5. NO WARRANTY
EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT, THE PROGRAM IS PROVIDED ON AN ”AS IS” BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Each Recipient is solely responsible for determining the appropriateness of using and distributing the Program and assumes all risks associated with its exercise of rights under this Agreement , including but not limited to the risks and costs of program errors, compliance with applicable laws, damage to or loss of data, programs or equipment, and unavailability or interruption of operations.
6. DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY
EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT, NEITHER RECIPIENT NOR ANY CONTRIBUTORS SHALL HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION LOST PROFITS), HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OR DISTRIBUTION OF THE PROGRAM OR THE EXERCISE OF ANY RIGHTS GRANTED HEREUNDER, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
7. GENERAL
If any provision of this Agreement is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law, it shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remainder of the terms of this Agreement, and without further action by the parties hereto, such provision shall be reformed to the minimum extent necessary to make such provision valid and enforceable.
If Recipient institutes patent litigation against any entity (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that the Program itself (excluding combinations of the Program with other software or hardware) infringes such Recipient’s patent(s), then such Recipient’s rights granted under Section 2(b) shall terminate as of the date such litigation is filed.
All Recipient’s rights under this Agreement shall terminate if it fails to comply with any of the material terms or conditions of this Agreement and does not cure such failure in a reasonable period of time after becoming aware of such noncompliance. If all Recipient’s rights under this Agreement terminate, Recipient agrees to cease use and distribution of the Program as soon as reasonably practicable. However, Recipient’s obligations under this Agreement and any licenses granted by Recipient relating to the Program shall continue and survive.
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Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute copies of this Agreement, but in order to avoid inconsistency the Agreement is copyrighted and may only be modified in the following manner. The Agreement Steward reserves the right to publish new versions (including revisions) of this Agreement from time to time. No one other than the Agreement Steward has the right to modify this Agreement. The Eclipse Foundation is the initial Agreement Steward. The Eclipse Foundation may assign the responsibility to serve as the Agreement Steward to a suitable separate entity. Each new version of the Agreement will be given a distinguishing version number. The Program (including Contributions) may always be distributed subject to the version of the Agreement under which it was received. In addition, after a new version of the Agreement is published, Contributor may elect to distribute the Program (including its Contributions) under the new version. Except as expressly stated in Sections 2(a) and 2(b) above, Recipient receives no rights or licenses to the intellectual property of any Contributor under this Agreement, whether expressly, by implication, estoppel or otherwise. All rights in the Program not expressly granted under this Agreement are reserved.
This Agreement is governed by the laws of the State of New York and the intellectual property laws of the United States of America. No party to this Agreement will bring a legal action under this Agreement more than one year after the cause of action arose. Each party waives its rights to a jury trial in any resulting litigation.
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INDEX
A
API Viewer, 387
B
Build Process, 387
Build Version, 388
C
class, 388
Compiler, 388
G
Generator, 388
I
Interface, 388
M
Mixin, 388
Q
Quirks Mode, 388
R
RIA, 388
Ribbon, 388
W
Window, 388
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