10BII Calc User Manual
10BII Calc
©2008,2009 Ernest Brock
Acorn Aircraft
[email protected]
http://web.mac.com/acornaircraft/AcornAircraftSite/Acorn_Aircraft.html
Acorn Aircraft
Table of Contents
Introduction
2
Calc10BII Layout
3
Home Keyboard
5
Bond Keyboard
9
Cash Flow Keyboard
11
Conversion Keyboard
12
Depreciation Keyboard
13
Math Keyboard
14
Stats Keyboard
17
tvm Keyboard
19
Amortization Table
20
print tape
21
Information Screens
22
Sample Problems
25
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Introduction
Calc10BII is a business calculator featuring over 100 built-in functions for business, finance, mathematics and statistics. Easily calculate loan payments, interest rates, amortization, discounted cash-flow analyses, TVM (loans, savings, and leasing) using a simplified algebraic entry system. The keyboard and display have been carefully optimized
for the iPhone and iPod Touch. Five different keyboard layouts allow you to do much
more than a 10BII calculator while maintaining compatibility with the standard.
Features:
Time Value of Money- Loans, savings, leases and amortization schedules using both
the standard keyboard and a specialized TVM solver window that displays the contents
of all the variables for rapid "what if" solutions to your problems.
Interest Conversion- Nominal and effective rates.
Cash Flows- Net present value and internal rate of return. Up to 40 cash flows are easily edited and reviewed using the dedicated cash flow editor screen. Entries are added,
deleted and modified in a scrolling display with a touch interface unique to the iPhone.
Business Percentages- Percent change, markup, and margin calculations.
Statistics- Mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, and linear regression forecasting, weighted mean.
Conversions- 47 world currency rates and over 100 commonly used metric, english
and other conversion factors used in financial, business, scientific and engineering calculations.
Scientific- sin, cos, tan, asin, acos, atan plus the hyperbolic trig functions, conversion
between rectangular and polar coordinates, conversion between degrees and radians,
time functions including h.ms+ and h.ms-, log, ln, 10ˣ, eˣ, yˣ, x root of y, fraction part and
integer part. Trig functions can be computed in radians, degrees or gradians.
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Calc10BII Layout
Calc10BII has 9 keyboards/ screens. A keyboard is selected by touching the blue key followed
by home, tvm, CF, conv, math, stats, depr, prt tape or bond.
The orange and blue keys work as shift keys. Touch the orange or blue key once to select shift
(a colored halo around the key indicates it is selected). Touch the shift key a second time to
cancel the shift. When a shift key is selected, the functions displayed in blue or orange are enabled on the keyboard. For example, touch orange followed by + to execute the square root
function.
The area at the top of the screen displays a variety of annunciators, the main results line and a
secondary results line for functions that return 2 values.
Annunciators
Input
After touching the input key, the secondary results line displays the input value.
Pend
The pending annunciator displays the number of pending operations in the display line.
Up to 20 operations can be pending.
Begin
The begin/end annunciator indicates that payments occur at the beginning or end of the
a period. Touch this annunciator to alternate between begin and end modes of computation.
P/YR
This annunciator shows the current setting of the P/YR parameter.
Amort
The amort annunciator displays immediately after performing the amort function. It displays PER for period, PRIN for principal, INT for interest and BAL for balance.
C-FLOW
The cash flow annunciator indicates the current cash flow entry number after touching
CFj or Nj.
Deg
In math mode the degree annunciator indicates the angular mode in effect- degrees, radians or gradians. Touch it to change the angular mode.
LastOp
The last operation annunciator displays the last operation that was performed. (lower
right)
Errors
Errors in operation are indicated either by a pop up alert message or by a numeric display of nan or inf. For example, 2.÷0.= returns a result of inf. -2y^x.5= returns nan
Numeric Displays
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There are two numeric display lines. The main line displays all pending operations and the final
results. If more operations are pending than can be displayed, the display scrolls to the left, indicated by ... A secondary smaller numeric display line appears above the main display after
operations that return 2 values. You can move the secondary value to the main numeric line using SWAP
The numeric display shows a number of decimal places from 0 to 13. The number of digits displayed to the right of the decimal is selected by touching orange DISP followed by 0 - 8. To display all available digits touch DISP decimal point. To activate the floating decimal display, touch
DISP 9.
To temporarily see all available digits, touch DISP then touch and leave your finger down on the
equal key. When you lift your finger, the display will revert to the selected number of decimal
places.
Touch orange ./, to change the decimal point radix from period to comma. The separator between each 3 digits of the mantissa also changes between comma and period.
Touch keys to enter numbers and operations into the main display. A negative number is entered by first touching the number then the +/- key. A number can also be entered in scientific
mode by touching the number then E followed by an exponent. Enter a negative exponent by
touching +/- after touching E.
Use the paren keys ( ) to group computations. All pending operations are displayed on the main
line.
The ← (back arrow) key erases the last digit or operation from the main display line.
Touch = to finalize a computation.
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Home Keyboard
The home keyboard has the standard 10BII function keys.
TVM keys
Time value of money keys are dual operation keys. If you enter a number then touch one of the
TVM keys the number will be stored in the register associated with that key. If you touch a key
without first entering a number, a value will be computed and displayed for that function.
The current setting of of N, I/YR, PV, PMT and FV is displayed immediately above each of the
keys. The display above the keys is rounded to the nearest integer. The full value is stored in
the calculator and can be viewed by recalling it to the display using RCL.
N"
"
stores/computes the number of periods
I/YR" "
stores/computes the interest rate per year
PV"
"
stores/computes the present value
PMT" stores/computes the payment
FV"
"
stores/computes the future value
You must set 4 of the 5 variables and properly initialize the 2 modifiers P/YR and BEG/END before solving any tvm problem.
P/YR
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stores the number of periods per year. Set it to 1 for annual payments, 12 for monthly
payments. The current setting of P/YR is always displayed in the annunciator at the top
right of the display area.
xP/YR
stores entered value multiplied by the number of periods in N. For example if P/YR is 12,
touch 30 xP/YR to store 360 in N.
BEG/END
changes TVM computations to make pmt at beginning or end of the periods. You can
also touch the begin/end annunciator to change modes.
Note: The most common error in computing TVM problems is improperly setting BEG/END and/
or P/YR. Please double check these values before reporting a calculator error.
Percentage Keys
%
converts last entry to a percentage by dividing it by 100. If the last entry was + or -, %
computes the percentage of the previous number on the display line.
%Tot
the portion that one number is of another expressed as a total. Enter the total, touch INPUT then enter the portion followed by %Tot
%CHG
the difference between two numbers, expressed as a percentage of input value. Enter
the first value, touch INPUT then enter the second number. Touch %CHG
Markup, Cost, Price and Margin Keys
CST" stores/computes the cost
PRC" stores/computes the price
MU" stores/computes the mark up
MAR" stores/computes the margin
Store values into any 2 and compute the 3rd.
Memory Keys
The memory keys are used to access the calculator storage locations. There are 10 general and
1 dedicated storage locations. In addition you can access the N, I/YR, PV, PMT, FV, P/YR, CST,
MU, PRC and 20 of the 80 cash flow registers.
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RCL
recalls a number from storage. Touch RCL followed by a number 0 - 9 to access the
general registers. Touch RCL followed by N, I/YR, PV, PMT, FV, P/YR, CST, MU, PRC to
recall a specialized register. Touch RCL CFj followed by 0-9 or .0-.9 to recall cash flow 09 or 10-20.
STO
stores the currently displayed value to a memory location. Touch STO followed by a
number 0 - 9 to store in the general registers. Touch STO followed by N, I/YR, PV, PMT,
FV, P/YR, CST, MU, PRC to store in a specialized register. Touch STO CFj followed by 0
- 9 or .0 - .9 to store the displayed value in cash flow 0 - 9 or 10 - 20. To change the cash
flow repeat value for the cash flow just stored, enter the value then touch Nj.
STO+
STOSTOx
STO÷
perform register arithmetic by touching STO followed by + - x ÷ followed by a valid register number/name.
->M
stores displayed value in dedicated memory
RM
recalls the dedicated memory to the display
M+
adds displayed value to the dedicated memory
K
stores a constant operation of +num, -num, xnum, ÷num, +num%, -num%, x num%,
÷num%, y^x num, Example: touch 12 + 3 K = to store +3 as a constant operation. Then
type 4= to get 7.
Interest Rate Conversion
Convert between nominal and effective interest rates by entering the known rate and the number of periods per year, then touch the unknown rate key.
NOM%
store/solve the nominal interest rate
EFF%
store/solve the effective interest rate
Amortization
First calculate a payment using the TVM operations. Then enter the beginning period, INPUT
then the ending period. Finally touch AMORT. Touch = to switch between displaying the period,
principal, interest and balance. Touch AMORT a second time to advance to next period.
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Cash Flow Analysis
Up to 80 cash flows can be entered using CFj and Nj. Start by touching C All. Enter the first
cash flow and touch CFj. If the cash flow occurs multiple consecutive times, enter the repeat
value and touch Nj. Repeat for all cash flows.
IRR/YR
computes internal rate of return per year for the cash flow.
NPV
computes the net present value of the cash flow based on the interest rate currently
stored in I/YR.
Statistics Functions
CL∑
clears statistics registers n,∑x,∑x²,∑y,∑y²,∑xy
∑+
accumulates x,y in registers, returns n
(enter x, INPUT then y)
∑- removes x,y from registers, returns n
(enter x, INPUT then y)
x,y
mean of x,y
x,w
weighted mean
x̂,r
linear estimate x for y, correlation coefficient
ŷ,m
linear estimate y for x, slope
Sx,Sy
standard deviation x,y
σx,σy
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population standard deviation x,y
∑n
recalls number of entries
∑x
recalls ∑x
∑x²
recalls ∑x²
∑y
recalls ∑y
∑y²
recalls ∑y²
∑xy
recalls ∑xy
Bond Keyboard
Select the bond keyboard by touching blue bond.
prt bond
prints bond information to the print tape
30/360
sets calendar basis to a 30-day month and a 360-day year
act/act
sets calendar basis to actual days for months and years
semi annual
sets semi-annual coupon payments
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annual
sets annual coupon payments
cpn%
sets annual coupon rate as a percentage
Call
stores the call price per $100 face value.
Settlement Date
stores the settlement (purchase) date.
Maturity Date
stores the maturity date or call date. The call date must coincide with a coupon date.
m.dy/d.my
sets the date for entering dates in the settlement and maturity fields to either m.ddyyyy
or d.mmyyy
∆Days
displays the number of days between settlement date and maturity date. If you enter a
value in ∆Days, maturity date is set to the settlement date plus the entered value.
Note: the number of days is computed using the current calendar basis (30/360 or act/
act).
yld
calculates the yield (as an annual percentage) to maturity or yield to call date.
yld field
stores a yield value.
price
calculates the price per $100 face value.
price field
stores a price value.
Accrued
displays the interest accrued from the last coupon-payment date until the settlement
date, per $100 face value.
Net
displays price + accrued
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Cash Flow Keyboard
Select the cash flow keyboard by touching blue CF.
The cash flow keyboard displays up to 80 cash flows in a scrolling list. Touch the list and move
your finger up/down to scroll. Touch an entry to high light it for editing. To edit successive cash
flows, use the = key to move between flows. The orange arrow keys move up/down/left/right in
the scrolling list.
As entries are added or modified the following are computed and displayed:
total"
NPV"
NFV"
NUS"
the total of the cash flows
net present value of the cash flows using I/YR
net future value (future value of the net present value)
net uniform series (the amount of constant, equal cash flows having a present value
equivalent to the net present value).
IRR" internal rate of return
MIRR" modified internal rate of return (see below)
Touch the P/YR field to enter the periods per year
Touch the I/YR field to enter the interest rate per year
Touch the mi/YR field to enter the "safe" interest rate for the MIRR calculation. (see below)
InsertCF inserts an empty cash flow at the current edit location in the list. Cash flow 79 is lost.
DeleteCF deletes the current cash flow line and moves all the lines above down. An empty cash
flow is added to entry 79.
graph displays a graph of the NPV vs interest rate for the current cash flow. Pinch the display to
scale up or down. Swipe the display to scroll.
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prt CF(prints the cash flows to the paper tape
Note: Certain cash flows can generate more than 1 solution for the internal rate of return calculation. The IRR field will show all the values found. Touch the IRR field to move the found interest rate(s) to the I/YR field for further calculations.
MIRR computes a modified internal rate of return based on the following: MIRR = 100 ((PositiveNFV / -NegativeNPV)^1/n - 1) where:
PositiveNFV = future value of positive cash flows using the I/YR rate.
NegativeNPV = net present value of negative cash flows using the mi/YR rate.
Conversion Keyboard
Select the conversion keyboard by touching blue conv.
Over 100 commonly used conversion factors are stored in the calculator and are accessed using the scroll wheels of the conversion keyboard.
Scroll the left most scroll wheel to select the type of conversion. Then scroll the middle and right
scroll wheels to select the units to convert between. Enter the quantity to be converted in the
display and then touch either the left or right pink button to compute the conversion in the direction indicated by the touched button.
The conversion is applied and the lastOp annunciator shows the units and direction of conversion.
The Money conversions use rates loaded from the International Monetary Fund web site:
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http://www.imf.org/external/np/fin/data/rms_rep.aspx
To update the rates, press the i button, then select Settings and touch the Update Currency
Rates button. You must have an active internet connection for the rates to download. The date
of the last download is displayed below the button. The downloaded rates are retained in the
calculator until the next time the download button is touched so they can be used when you are
not connected to the internet. The IMF site does not update all rates every day. 10BIICalc finds
and stores the most recently reported rate for each currency.
Depreciation Keyboard
Select the depreciation keyboard by touching blue depr.
basis
stores the depreciable cost basis of the asset.
salv.
stores the salvage value of the asset at the end of its useful life.
life
stores the expected useful life (in whole years) of the asset.
fact%
stores the declining-balance factor as a percentage of the straight-line rate.
acrs%
stores the Accelerated Cost Recovery System percentage from the published ACRS tables.
DB
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compute depreciation with declining balance method. Enter the year to calculate for followed by DB. The depreciation amount will be displayed. The second numeric display
line shows the remaining depreciable value. Touch DB again to calculate the following
year.
SOYD
compute depreciation with sum of years digits method. Enter the year to calculate for
followed by SOYD. The depreciation amount will be displayed. The second numeric display line shows the remaining depreciable value. Touch SOYD again to calculate the following year.
SL
compute depreciation with straight line method. Enter the year to calculate for followed
by SL. The depreciation amount will be displayed. The second numeric display line
shows the remaining depreciable value. Touch SL again to calculate the following year.
ACRS
compute ACRS deduction based on values stored in basis and acrs%.
"
Math Keyboard
Select the math keyboard by touching blue math.
Math Functions
ln
natural log for x > 0
log
logarithm base 10 for x > 0
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x√y
x root of y (if y < 0 x must be an odd integer)
√x
square root of x for x ≥ 0
eˣ
natural antilog
10ˣ
base 10 antilog
yˣ
y raised to x (if y < 0 x must be integer ≥ 0)
x²
x squared
1/x
reciprocal (x ≠ 0)
frac
fractional part of x
intg
integer part of x
n!
gamma function Γ(x+1) of non integer x
Trig Functions
sin
sin(x)
cos
cos(x)
tan
tan(x)
sin-1
arc sin(x) for |x| ≤ 1
cos-1
arc cos(x) for |x| ≤ 1
tan-1
arc tan(x)
Hyp
prefix for hyperbolic functions
→rad
convert x from degrees to radians
→deg
convert x from radians to degrees
→R
convert (r, Θ) in polar coordinates to (x,y)
rectangular coordinates. Key sequence:
Θ INPUT r →R yields y. Touch SWAP for x
→P
convert (x,y) in rectangular coordinates
to (r, Θ) polar coordinates. Key sequence:
x INPUT y →P yields r. Touch SWAP for Θ
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→H
convert x to decimal hours
→Hms"
convert x to H.mmss
Hms+
y + x where x,y are in H.mmss
Hmsy - x where x,y are in H.mmss
π constant Pi
note: arguments and results of trig functions are in radians, degrees or grads depending on the
setting of the angle annunciator in the display. Touch the annunciator to change the angle mode.
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Stats Keyboard
Select the statistics keyboard by touching blue stats. The stats keyboard displays a scrolling list
of samples at the top of the screen. A yellow hi light box indicates where keyboard entry will go.
Use the arrow keys to move the hi light box. You can also select a sample by touching it. Up to
200 samples can be stored and edited at a time. To edit a sample, select it and type in a new
value. To delete a sample, select it and touch Delete
Immediately below the sample list are the computed metrics for the current samples. The values
displayed are automatically updated when ever you edit the samples list.
Σx, Σy
display the totals of the x and y samples
Sx, Sy
display the standard deviation
σx, σy
display the population standard deviation
xbar, ybar
display the mean
xbar w
displays the weighted mean
n
displays the number of samples
Touch the Plot key to generate a plot of the samples.
Plot Display
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The plot display draws the samples as red x's and a yellow fit line on a cartesian plane. You can
scroll the plot using a finger swipe motion. The axis scales can be adjusted independently using
a pinch gesture.
prt stats
prints stats information to the print tape
Touch the buttons at the bottom of the screen to select a curve fit model:
Linear
computes and draws a linear curve fit
y = b + mx
Log
computes and draws a logarithmic curve fit
y = b + m ln x
Exp
computes and draws an exponential curve fit
y = b e^mx
Pwr
computes and draws a power curve fit
y = bx^m
To compute a forecasted value using the current curve fit model, touch either the x or y edit
field. A numeric keypad will appear. Enter the value and touch the Done key. The forecast value
will be computed and displayed in the opposite edit field. The forecast point will be displayed on
the fit curve circled in green.
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Immediately below the edit fields is a green display of the currently selected fit model. In the upper right corner of the display the correlation coefficient of the current fit model is displayed in
green.
When you are finished viewing the plot, touch the Done button in the lower left to return to the
stats keyboard.
tvm Keyboard
Select the tvm keyboard by touching blue tvm.
The tvm keyboard displays all the values used in solving the time value of money equations and
allows direct entry of any value. Touch a value to select it for editing (it will high light with yellow)
then enter a value from the keyboard.
To solve for a value touch the key next to it. The amortization area displays the payment, interest and balance for the specified begin and end periods.
N
compute the number of periods
xP/YR
multiplies N by number of periods
I/YR
computes interest per year
PV
computes present value
PMT
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computes payment
FV
computes the future value
P/YR
stores/displays the number of periods in a year
AMORT
computes the amortization using current pmt
table
displays the amortization table
prt tvm
prints the TVM variables to the print tape
prt loan
prints loan information to the print tape
prt amort
prints a loan amortization table to the print tape
Amortization Table
Select the amortization table by touching orange table (orange shift AMORT on the tvm page).
The amortization table page displays the interest, principal and the remaining balance for each
period of a loan.
Email
touch this button to email the amortization table
Monthly
when selected, all periods are displayed
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Yearly
when selected, each line summarizes the total of the payments for each year
Done
touch this button to return to the tmv page.
Note: if P/YR is set to 1, ie annual payments are specified, the Monthly / Yearly selector is not
available.
print tape
Select the print tape by touching blue prt tape.
The print tape keeps a running audit of the last 400+ keyboard operations. Operations beyond
the last 400 are dropped off the top of the tape. The print tape can be scrolled up and down by
swiping with your finger. Touch the Edit button to bring up the keyboard for edits. You can insert
annotations by typing on the keyboard. The standard iPhone 3.0 cut/copy/paste operations are
also supported.
Control buttons
Edit
Touch the edit button to enable editing and show the keyboard.
Hide Keyboard
Touch to end editing and hide the keyboard.
Email
Touch the email button to email the print tape. Fill in the To field and then touch Send.
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Clear
Touch the clear button to erase the print tape.
Done
Touch the done button to dismiss the print tape.
Information Screens
touch i in lower left corner to flip to information screens
About
version
displays Calc10BII version number
website
touch to view Calc10BII web site
email tech support
touch to open an email to Calc10BII tech support.
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Settings
•click sound
turn on/off keyboard click sound
•number format
select between comma or period for separator between each 3 digits of mantissa and
decimal radix character. The SI format inserts a space between each 3 digits of the mantissa and the fraction.
•Update Currency Rates
touch this button to initiate a download of the latest currency rates. You must have an
active internet connection for this function to operate. This operation may take some
time depending on your connection speed. The date when the currency rates were
posted is displayed under the button.
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User Guide
The User Guide contains the contents of this manual. Start at the Index page and select a topic.
When you are done reading a topic, touch the Index button at the top of the pate to return to the
index or touch the Done button to return to the calculator.
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Sample Problems
Setting up the calculator
The following steps should be used before working any problem.
1. Set the number of decimal places
Touch disp (orange shift = key) followed by the number of decimal places you want to view. For
most situations, set this to 2 decimal places by touching: disp 2
2. Set the number of payments per year (P/Y)
Touch P/YR (orange shift PMT key) followed by the number of payments per year. The new
value is displayed on the top display line so you can easily see what the current setting is. (Do
not confuse this function with the ×P/YR function which is under the N key.)
3. Set the annuity due (Begin) and ordinary annuity (END) mode
The current setting of the mode is displayed under in the top right of the display area. To change
it, touch BEG/END. The value will alternate between Begin and End each time you invoke this
function.
4. Clear the time value of money registers
Touch C All This function clears N, I/Y, PV, PMT and FV, but leaves P/Y at the current setting.
Time Value of Money (TVM) Computations
Lump Sums
Lump sum computations take into consideration the change in value over time of a single sum
invested at a given rate of return. These type of problems involve the 4 basic variables:
N"
I/YR"
PV"
FV"
the life of the investment
the interest rate
the present or starting value of the investment
the future or ending value of the investment
Enter any three of the variables and then solve for the 4th variable.
1. Future Value (FV)
If you have $5,000 to invest at 6.5% per year, how much would your investment be worth at the
end of 5 years?
If the calculator screen is not already displayed, touch the blue shift key and then home (0 key).
Then touch the following keys:
C All!
1 P/YR!
5 N!
6.5 I/YR!
!
!
!
!
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clear the financial registers
set the periods per year to 1
set the number of periods to 5
set the interest rate to 6.5
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5000+/- PV!!
FV!
!
set the present value to -5,000
compute the future value
The result is 6,850.43
2. Present Value (PV)
Your daughter will be attending college in 12 years and you have determined that she will need
$125,000 to pay for tuition, room and board and books. If you can earn an average annual rate
of return of 6% per year, how much money would you need to invest today as a lump sum?
Touch the following keys:
C All!
1 P/YR!
12 N!
6 I/YR!
125000 FV!
PV!
!
!
!
!
!
!
clear the financial registers
set the periods per year to 1
set the number of periods to 12
set the interest rate to 6
set the future value to 125,000
compute the present value
The result is -62,121.17. Note that the result is negative. Cash flows that are paid out are generally specified as a negative value and cash returned as a positive value. In this case, you pay
some amount of money into an investment (negative amount) and receive an amount some time
in the future (a positive amount).
3. Number of Periods (N)
If your daughter were to attend a private college the expenses would be greater than the above
example. You estimate that she would need $200,000. If you have $60,000 to invest at 8%,
how many years before she attends college would you have to begin her college savings plan?
Touch the following keys:
C All!
!
1 P/YR!
!
8 I/YR!
!
60000+/- PV!
200000 FV! !
N!
!
clear the financial registers
set the periods per year to 1
set the interest rate to 8
set the present value to -60,000
set the future value to 200,000
compute the number of years
You will have to start the savings plan 15.64 years before she attends college.
3. Interest Rate (I/YR)
You have financial commitments that prevent you from investing in your daughter's college fund
until 12 years before she will attend college. At that time you will be able to invest $70,000.
What interest rate will be required for her fund to grow to $125,000 in time for her to attend college?
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Touch the following keys:
C All!
!
1 P/YR!
!
12 N!
!
70000+/- PV!
125000 FV! !
I/YR!
!
clear the financial registers
set the periods per year to 1
set the number of years to 12
set the present value to -70,000
set the future value to 125,000
compute the interest rate
You will need to find an investment that returns 4.95% to attain your goal.
Regular Annuities
A regular annuity is a series of equal cash flows occurring at equally spaced time intervals. In a
regular annuity, the first cash flow occurs at the END of the first period. An annuity due is similar
to a regular annuity, except that the first cash flow occurs immediately (BEGIN).
Similar to the lump sum computations, the annuity calculations involve the N, I/Y, PV and FV
variables. In addition, they include the PMT variable. To compute an annuity problem, you must
enter 4 of the following 5 variables before solving for the 5th:
N"
I/YR"
PV"
FV"
PMT"
"
the life of the investment
"
the interest rate
"
the present or starting value of the investment
"
the future or ending value of the investment
the regular payment
1. Future Value (FV)
If you are making a regular payment and want to compute the sum of the payments with interest
some time in the future you need to solve for Future Value.
You can set aside $5,000 per year towards your daughter's college fund. If you establish her
fund 10 years before she attends college and receive an average annual rate of return of 5.6%,
how much money will she have for paying her expenses?
Make sure End is displayed in the upper left corner of the display. If Begin is shown there,
touch BEG/END to set end mode. Then touch the following keys:
C All!
!
1 P/YR!
!
10 N!
!
5.6 I/YR! !
5000+/- PMT!
FV!
!
clear the financial registers
set the periods per year to 1
set the number of periods to 10
set the interest rate to 5.6
set the payment to -5,000
compute the future value
She will have $64,678.99. Note that the payment is specified as a negative amount because it is
a cash outflow from your pocket to the savings plan.
Suppose you establish the savings plan the same as above, but make monthly contributions of
$420. How much money will be accumulated at the end of 10 years?
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Acorn Aircraft
Make sure End is displayed in the upper left corner of the display. If Begin is shown there,
touch BEG/END to set end mode. Then touch the following keys:
C All!
!
12 P/YR!
!
10 ×P/YR! !
5.6 I/YR! !
420+/- PMT!!
FV!
!
clear the financial registers
set the # payments per year to 12
set the # of periods to 10 × 12 = 120
set the interest rate to 5.6
set the payment to -420
compute the future value
She will have $67,355.42.
Note: the ×P/YR (the shift function of the N key) multiplies the value in the display by the current P/YR value and stores the result in the N variable. This is a short cut for entering N when
the number of payments per year is greater than 1. You could have computed the value in your
head and entered 120 N instead.
2. Payment (PMT)
Solving for an annuity payment is the process used for computing a home or car loan payment
or for determining the the amount you need to save each year to reach a financial goal.
You are about to purchase a new home. The selling price is $375,000 and the bank is willing to
loan you the money at an annual interest rate of 7.2%. What will your monthly payments be on a
15 year loan?
Make sure End is displayed in the upper left corner of the display. If Begin is shown there,
touch BEG/END to set end mode. Then touch the following keys:
C All!
12 P/YR!
15 ×P/YR!
7.2 I/YR!
375000 PV!
0 FV!
PMT!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
clear the financial registers
set the # payments per year to 12
set the # of periods to 10 × 15 = 180
set the interest rate to 7.2
set the present value to 375,000
you will pay the loan to 0 in the future
compute the future value
Your monthly payments will be -3,412.68
An alternative way to solve this problem is to use the tvm screen. Touch blue tvm to display the
tvm screen. You will notice that the values from the above problem have already been filled into
the fields on the tvm screen. Touch table (under the Amort button). The payment schedule is
displayed in a scrolling list showing the interest paid, principal paid and remaining balance for
each payment. The total amount of interest paid over the life of the loan is show in the "total i"
field just above the list. You can email the amortization schedule to yourself or a client by touching the email button.
To return to the home screen, touch the Done button to dismiss the amortization display and
then touch blue home.
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3. Number of Periods (N)
If you need to find out how long it will take, you are solving for the number of periods.
You have retirement savings of $1,200,000. You have determined that you need $85,000 per
year to live on. If you expect to earn 5.6% per year on average, how many years will your retirement fund last?
Make sure End is displayed in the upper left corner of the display. If Begin is shown there,
touch BEG/END to set end mode. Then touch the following keys:
C All!
1 P/YR!
5.6 I/YR!
1200000+/85000 PMT!
N!
!
!
!
PV!
!
!
clear the financial registers
set the # payments per year to 1
set the interest rate to 5.6
set the present value to -1,200,000
set the payment to 85,000
compute the number of payments
Your retirement fund will last 28.69 years.
4. Interest Rate (I/YR)
You are offered an investment that costs $50,000 that will pay 5,000 per year for 15 years. At
the end of the 15 years it can be redeemed for 10,000. What is your annual rate of return?
Make sure End is displayed in the upper left corner of the display. If Begin is shown there,
touch BEG/END to set end mode. Then touch the following keys:
C All!
!
1 P/YR!
!
15 N!
!
50000+/-PV!!
5000 PMT! !
10000 FV! !
I/YR!
!
clear the financial registers
set the # payments per year to 1
set the number of years to 15
set the present value to 50,000
set the payment to 5,000
set the future value to 10,000
compute the interest rate
The investment returns 6.76% annually.
5. Annuity Due
Annuities due differ from ordinary annuities because the first payment is made at the beginning
of the year instead of the end. To solve annuity due problems, you must change the end/begin
computation mode to begin. You do this by touching BEG/END until the upper right corner of the
display show Begin.
You are about to purchase a new home. The selling price is $375,000 and the bank is willing to
loan you the money at an annual interest rate of 7.2%. What will your monthly payments be on a
15 year loan?
Make sure End is displayed in the upper left corner of the display. If Begin is shown there,
touch BEG/END to set end mode. Then touch the following keys:
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Acorn Aircraft
C All!
12 P/YR!
15 ×P/Y!
7.2 I/YR!
375000 PV!
0 FV!
PMT!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
clear the financial registers
set the # payments per year to 12
set the # of periods to 10 × 15 = 180
set the interest rate to 7.2
set the present value to 375,000
you will pay the loan to 0 in the future
compute the payment
Your monthly payments will be -3,412.68
What will your payments be if you make the payments at the beginning of each month instead of
the end of the month?
Using the same setup as above, change the end/begin mode to begin by touching BEG/END.
The upper right line of the display should show Begin. Solve for payment:
PMT! !
!
compute the future value
Your monthly payments will be -3,392.32. By making payments early, you save 20.35 per payment.
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