Comparison of application virtual machines

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Contents
Articles
Comparison of application virtual machines
1
Comparison of platform virtual machines
6
Comparison of VMware Fusion and Parallels Desktop
20
Adaptive Domain Environment for Operating Systems
29
ALGOL 68C
30
Amazon Machine Image
33
Application virtualization
34
ARMware
36
Byte Code Engineering Library
37
Bytecode
38
CherryOS
40
CHIP-8
42
chroot
46
Computer cluster in virtual machines
48
Cooperative Linux
51
Copy-on-write
54
CP-370
55
CP-67
56
CP/CMS
57
Denali (operating system)
63
Dynamic Logical Partitioning
63
Workload Partitions
64
Dynamic recompilation
65
EasyVZ
68
Egenera
69
Embedded hypervisor
72
Ericom Software
76
Full system simulator
79
Full virtualization
80
HiperSocket
81
History of CP/CMS
82
HP Integrity Virtual Machines
93
Hyper-V
96
Hypervisor
103
HyperVM
108
I/O virtualization
110
IBM CP-40
112
IBM M44/44X
117
IBM OLIVER (CICS interactive test/debug)
118
IBM WebSphere eXtreme Scale
122
iCore Virtual Accounts
124
iEmulator
125
InstallFree
126
Kernel-based Virtual Machine
129
Lanamark
132
libquantum
133
Live migration
133
LivePC
134
Logical Domains
135
Logical partition (virtual computing platform)
137
Mac-on-Linux
140
Mac-on-Mac
141
Marionnet
142
Memory virtualization
145
Merge (software)
148
Microsoft App-V
149
Windows Virtual PC
154
Microsoft Virtual Server
168
MojoPac
170
MokaFive
172
Network virtualization
176
Novell ZENworks Application VIrtualization
178
Open Kernel Labs
180
Open Virtualization Alliance
182
Open Virtualization Format
182
Operating system-level virtualization
184
Optimal IdM
187
Oracle Enterprise Manager Ops Center
189
Oracle VM
190
OVPsim
191
Pano Logic
194
Parallels Desktop for Mac
197
Parallels Server for Mac
205
Parallels Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
208
Parallels Workstation
210
Parallels Workstation Extreme
212
Parallels, Inc.
214
Paravirtualization
217
Partial virtualization
219
PearPC
223
Physical-to-Virtual
225
PikeOS
227
PlateSpin
229
Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements
230
PowerVM
235
PowerVM Lx86
237
PR/SM
238
Q (emulator)
239
Quantum virtual machine
240
QuickTransit
241
Qumranet
242
R1soft Hyper-V VHD Explorer
243
Rawdisk
244
RingCube vDesk
245
Sandbox (computer security)
246
Sandbox (software development)
247
Simics
248
SIMNET
249
SIMON (Batch Interactive test/debug)
252
Software Virtualization Solution
253
SoftXpand
254
Solaris Containers
254
SPECvirt
257
Storage virtualization
258
Sun xVM
266
SVISTA
267
SWsoft
269
Sysjail
273
Systancia
274
Timeline of virtualization development
275
Tvpc
282
TwoOStwo
282
UC4
284
Virtual 8086 mode
285
Virtual appliance
286
Virtual Application
288
Virtual backup appliance
288
Virtual disk image
289
Virtual DOS machine
294
Virtual file system
296
Virtual Iron
300
Virtual lab automation
301
Virtual Machine lifecycle management
304
Virtual Machine Manager
306
Virtual Processor
307
Virtual resource partitioning
308
Virtual security appliance
309
Virtual security switch
311
VirtualBox
314
Virtualization engine
320
VM (operating system)
321
VM-CP
328
VM/XA
329
VM2000
335
VMmark
336
VMQ
337
VMware Fusion
338
VMware Infrastructure
343
VMware Player
345
VMware ThinApp
347
VMware VMFS
349
VMware vSphere
351
VMware Workstation
353
Vx32
359
Wanova
360
Win4Lin
363
x86 virtualization
364
XenClient
368
XenMan
369
Xenocode
370
z/VM
372
Zinstall XP7
376
References
Article Sources and Contributors
378
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
385
Article Licenses
License
387
Comparison of application virtual machines
1
Comparison of application virtual machines
This article lists some software virtual machines that are typically used for allowing application bytecode to be
portably run on many different computer architectures and operating systems. The application is usually run on the
computer using an interpreter or just-in-time compilation. There are often many implementations of a given virtual
machine, each covering a different functionality footprint.
Comparison of virtual machines
The table here summarizes elements for which the virtual machine designs intended to be efficient, not the list of
capabilities present in any implementation.
Virtual machine
Machine
model
Memory
management
stack
automatic or
manual
Dis (Inferno)
register
automatic
DotGNU
Portable.NET
stack
automatic or
manual
JVM
stack
automatic
JikesRVM
stack
automatic
LLVM
register
manual
Mono
stack
automatic or
manual
Parrot
register
automatic
Dalvik
register
automatic
libJIT
stack
manual
Squeak
stack
automatic
CLR
Code
security
Interpreter JIT Precompilation
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Shared
libraries
Common
Language
Object Model
Dynamic
typing
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes ?
Yes
Yes
?
?
No
No
source to
bytecode
Yes
?
No
No
Yes
Virtual machine instructions process data in local variables using a main model of computation, typically that of a
stack machine, register machine, or random access machine often called the memory machine. Use of these three
techniques is motivated by different tradeoffs in virtual machines vs physical machines, such as ease of
interpretation, compilation, and verifiability for security.
Memory management in these portable virtual machines is addressed at a higher level of abstraction than in
physical machines. Some virtual machines, such as the popular JVM, are involved with addresses in such a way as to
require safe automatic memory management by allowing the virtual machine to trace pointer references, and
disallow machine instructions from manually constructing pointers to memory. Other virtual machines, such as
LLVM, are more like traditional physical machines, allowing direct use and manipulation of pointers. CIL offers a
hybrid in between, offering both controlled use of memory (like the JVM, which allows safe automatic memory
Comparison of application virtual machines
management), while also offering an 'unsafe' mode that allows direct manipulation of pointers in ways that can
violate type boundaries and permission.
Code security generally refers to the ability of the portable virtual machine to run code while only offering it a
prescribed set of capabilities. For example, the virtual machine might only allow the code access to a certain set of
functions or data. The same controls over pointers which make automatic memory management possible and allow
the virtual machine to ensure typesafe data access are used to assure that a code fragment is only allowed to certain
elements of memory and cannot sidestep the virtual machine itself. Other security mechanisms are then layered on
top as code verifiers, stack verifiers, and other techniques.
An interpreter allows programs made of virtual instructions to be loaded and immediately run without a potentially
costly compilation into native machine instructions. Any virtual machine which can be run can be interpreted, so the
column designation here refers to whether the design includes provisions for efficient interpretation (for common
usage).
Just-in-time compilation or JIT, refers to a method of compiling to native instructions at the latest possible time,
usually immediately before or during the running of the program. The challenge of JIT is more one of
implementation than of virtual machine design, however, modern designs have begun to make considerations to help
efficiency. The simplest JIT techniques simply perform compilation to a code-fragment similar to an offline
compiler. However, more complicated techniques are often employed, which specialize compiled code-fragments to
parameters that are known only at runtime (see Adaptive optimization).
Precompiling refers to the more classical technique of using an offline compiler to generate a set of native
instructions which do not change during the runtime of the program. Because aggressive compilation and
optimization can take time, a precompiled program may launch faster than one which relies on JIT alone for
execution. JVM implementations have mitigated this startup cost by using interpretation initially to speed launch
times, until native code-fragments can be generated through JIT.
Shared libraries are a facility to reuse segments of native code across multiple running programs. In modern
operating systems, this generally means using virtual memory to share the memory pages containing a shared library
across different processes which are protected from each other via memory protection. It is interesting that
aggressive JIT techniques such as adaptive optimization often produce code-fragments unsuitable for sharing across
processes or successive runs of the program, requiring a tradeoff be made between the efficiencies of precompiled
and shared code and the advantages of adaptively specialized code. For example, several design provisions of CIL
are present to allow for efficient shared libraries, possibly at the cost of more specialized JIT code. The JVM
implementation on Mac OS X uses a Java Shared Archive (apple docs [1]) to provide some of the benefits of shared
libraries.
List of application virtual machine implementations
In addition to the portable virtual machines described above, virtual machines are often used as an execution model
for individual scripting languages, usually by an interpreter. This table lists specific virtual machine
implementations, both of the above portable virtual machines, and of scripting language virtual machines.
2
Comparison of application virtual machines
Virtual machine
Languages
3
Comments
JIT
Implementation
Language
Interpreter
Adobe Flash Player
(aka Tamarin)
ActionScript, SWF
(file format)
interactive web authoring
tool. bytecode is named
"ActionScript Byte Code
(.abc)"
Yes
Yes
BEAM
Erlang, Reia, Lisp
Flavoured Erlang
There exists a
native-code compiler,
HiPE.
Yes
No
Clipper, Harbour
plankton, HVM
Yes
No
Limbo
Dis Virtual Machine
[2]
Specification
Yes
Yes
Clone of Common
Language Runtime
No
Yes
Clipper p-code
Dis (Inferno)
DotGNU/Portable.NET CLI languages
including: C#
Forth
Forth
Features are simplified,
usually include
assembler, compiler,
text-level and
binary-level interpreters,
sometimes editor,
debugger and OS.
Compilation speeds are
>20 SKLOC/S and
behave much like JIT.
Glulx
Glulx, Z-code
Icon
Icon
JVM
Java, Groovy,
JRuby, C, C++,
Clojure, Scala and
[3]
several others
Reference
[4]
implementation
by
Sun ; OpenJDK: code
under GPL ; IcedTea:
code and tools under
GPL
C, C++,
Objective-C, Ada,
and Fortran
MSIL, C and C++ output
are supported.
ActionScript Byte Code
output is supported by
Adobe Alchemy.
bytecode is named
"LLVM Bytecode (.bc)".
assembly is named
"LLVM Assembly
Language (*.ll)".
LLVM
Lua
Lua
MMIX
MMIXAL
Mono
CLI languages
clone of Common
including: C#,
Language Runtime.
VB.NET,
IronPython,
IronRuby, and others
C++
135k (initially
released)
C
247k
C
C
Yes
Yes
15k + 2850 per
JIT arch + 500 per
host OS
C, C#
Forth, Forth
Assembler
2.8K to 5.6K;
advanced,
professional
implementations
are smaller.
JDK, OpenJDK &
IcedTea with
regular JIT : Java,
C, ASM ; IcedTea
with the "Zero" JIT
: Java, C
JVM is around
6500k lines; TCK
is 80k tests and
around 1000k
lines
No
Yes
SLoC
C++
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
LuaJIT
[5]
Yes
C
13k + 7k LuaJIT
C#, C
2332k
Comparison of application virtual machines
Oz
NekoVM
Oz, Alice
currently Neko and
haXe
O-code machine
BCPL
p-code machine
Pascal
Parrot
Perl virtual machine
CPython
4
Yes
C
46k
C, Perl
111k C, 240k Perl
C, Perl
175k C, 9k Perl
C
387k C,
368k Python,
10k ASM,
31k Psyco
UCSD Pascal,
widespread in late 70s
including Apple II
Perl (6 & 5),
NQP-rx, PIR,
PASM, PBC,
BASIC, bc, C,
ECMAScript, Lisp,
Lua, m4, Tcl,
WMLScript, XML,
and others
Perl
x86 only
op-code tree walker
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Python
Psyco
Yes
PyPy
Rubinius
SEAM
ScummVM
SECD
Python
Ruby
Yes
Yes
Virtual machine for
another Ruby
implementation
Yes
Yes
Scumm
Computer game engine
ISWIM, Lispkit Lisp
Squirrel
Smalltalk
Smalltalk
Yes
SQLite
SQLite opcodes
Virtual database engine
Squeak
Squeak Smalltalk
Self hosting
implementation of
Squeak virtual machine.
Rich multi-media
support.
TraceMonkey
Translator Engine
C++, Ruby
Alice
Squirrel
TaoGroup VP/VP2
Python
Self-hosting
implementation of
Python, next generation
of Psyco
C, Java
Proprietary embedded
VM
JavaScript
Based on Tamarin
Squirrel_JIT C++
Smalltalk/Slang
Yes
Cog[6] &
Exupery
No
Yes
C++
Yes
No
C (typically)
Flat File
IDE, programming by
Tables/Global C++
demonstration
variable declarations
TrueType
TrueType
Font rendering engine
Valgrind
x86/x86-64 binaries
Checking of memory
accesses and leaks under
Linux
12k
[7]
110k Smalltalk,
~300K C
173k
Comparison of application virtual machines
VisualWorks
VMKit
5
Smalltalk
[8]
JVM and CLI virtual
machine based on
LLVM.
Vx32 virtual machine
Application-level
virtualization for native
code
Waba
Virtual machine for
small devices, similar to
Java
Yet Another Ruby VM
(YARV)
Z-machine
Zend Engine
libJIT Library for
Just-In-Time
compilation
Ruby
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
C
Virtual machine of the
reference implementation
for Ruby 1.9 and newer
versions
Z-Code
PHP
Common
Intermediate
Language Java
bytecode
Domain-specific
programming
language
Virtual machine is used
in Portable.NET
Just-In-Time compiler,
ILDJIT, HornetsEye
Yes
Yes
C
75k
C, ia32, arm,
amd64, alpha,
low-level CPU
architecture specific
machine code
References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
http:/ / developer. apple. com/ mac/ library/ documentation/ Java/ Conceptual/ Java14Development/ 00-Intro/ JavaDevelopment. html
http:/ / doc. cat-v. org/ inferno/ 4th_edition/ dis_VM_specification
http:/ / www. is-research. de/ info/ vmlanguages/
http:/ / java. sun. com/ javase/
http:/ / luajit. org/
http:/ / www. mirandabanda. org/ cog/
http:/ / wiki. squeak. org/ squeak/ 2267
http:/ / vmkit. llvm. org/
• "libJIT vs LLVM discussion" Rhys Weatherley (libJIT) and Chris Lattner (LLVM) (http://lists.gnu.org/
archive/html/dotgnu-libjit/2004-05/index.html)
External links
• List of Java Virtual Machines (JVMs), Java Development Kits (JDKs), Java Runtime Environments (JREs) (http:/
/java-virtual-machine.net/other.html)
Comparison of platform virtual machines
6
Comparison of platform virtual machines
Platform virtual machines are software packages which emulate the whole physical computer machine, often
giving multiple virtual machines on one physical platform. The table below compares basic information about
platform virtual machine (VM) packages.
General information
Name
Creator
Host CPU
Guest CPU
Host OS(s)
Guest OS(s)
License
Bochs
Kevin Lawton
Any
x86, x86-64
Linux, IRIX,
AIX, FreeBSD,
OpenBSD,
BeOS, Mac OS
X
DOS, Windows,
Windows Mobile,
xBSD, Linux, OS/2
LGPL
Solaris 10,
Solaris 11
Express,
OpenSolaris
2009.06
Solaris (8, 9, 10, 11),
Linux (BrandZ)
Same as host
Windows 2000,
XP, 2003,
[1]
Vista
Linux
Denali
Ilwaco, NetBSD
Containers, or
Zones
Sun Microsystems
x86, x86-64,
SPARC (portable:
not tied to
hardware)
[1]
Same as host
Cooperative
Linux
Dan Aloni, other
developers (1)
Denali
University of
Washington
x86
x86
DOSBox
Peter Veenstra,
Sjoerd, community
help
Any
x86
x86
CDDL
Linux,
Internally emulated
Windows, Mac
DOS shell; classic
OS classic, Mac
PC booter games,
OS X, BeOS,
unofficially Windows
FreeBSD,
1.0 to 3.11
OpenBSD,
Solaris, QNX,
IRIX, MorphOS,
AmigaOS,
Maemo
DOSEMU
Community project
x86, x86-64
x86
Linux
DOS
FreeBSD Jail
FreeBSD
Any running
FreeBSD
Any running FreeBSD
FreeBSD
FreeBSD, Linux ABI
GXemul
Anders Gavare
Any
ARM, MIPS, M88K,
PowerPC, SuperH
Unix-like
NetBSD, OpenBSD,
Linux, Ultrix, Sprite
Hercules
Begun by Roger
Bowler, as of 2011
maintained by Jay
Maynard
Any
z/Architecture
Unix-like
Linux on zSeries,
z/OS, z/VM, z/VSE,
OS/360, DOS/360,
DOS/VS, MVS,
VM/370, TSS/370
GPL version
2
?
GPL
GPL version
2
BSD
BSD
QPL
Comparison of platform virtual machines
Hyper-V
Server 2008 R2
Microsoft
7
x86-64 +
hardware-assisted
virtualization (Intel
VT-x or AMD-V)
x86-64, x86 (up to 8
physical CPUs)
Windows 2008 supported drivers for
w/Hyper-V Role,
Windows 2000,
Windows
Windows 2003,
Hyper-V Server
Windows 2008,
Windows XP,
Windows Vista,
Linux (SUSE 10
released, more
announced)
iCore Virtual
Accounts
iCore Software
x86
x86
Windows XP
Windows XP
Integrity
Virtual
Machines
Hewlett-Packard
IA-64
IA-64
HP-UX
HP-UX, Windows,
Linux (OpenVMS
announced)
JPC (Virtual
Machine)
Oxford University
Any running the
Java Virtual
Machine
x86
Java Virtual
Machine
DOS, Linux,
Windows up to 3.0
KVM
Qumranet [2]
x86, x86-64, IA-64,
with x86
virtualization, s390,
PowerPC (see
restrictions, e.g., no
PowerPC 970
[3]
support )
Same as host
Linux
FreeBSD, Linux,
Solaris, Windows
Linux-VServer Community Project x86, x86-64, IA-64,
Alpha, PowerPC
64, PA-RISC 64,
SPARC64, ARM,
S/390, SH/66,
MIPS
Compatible
LynxSecure
lxc
Mac-on-Linux
Mac-on-Mac
OpenVZ
LynuxWorks
x86, Intel VT-x,
Intel VT-d
[5]
Sebastian
Gregorzyk
Proprietary
GPL version
2
GPL version
2
Linux
Linux variants
GPL version
2
No host OS
LynxOS, Linux,
Windows
Same as host
Linux
Linux variants
PowerPC
PowerPC
Linux
Mac OS X, Mac OS
7.5.2 to 9.2.2, Linux
GPL
PowerPC
PowerPC
Mac OS X, up to
Tiger excluded
Mac OS X, Mac OS
7.5.2 to 9.2.2, Linux
GPL
Same as host
Linux
Linux variants
Community project, x86, x86-64, IA-64,
supported by
PowerPC 64,
SWsoft, now
SPARC64
Parallels, Inc.
Proprietary
GPL version
2
GPL
Oracle VM for Oracle Corporation
x86
x86, x86-64, Intel
VT-x, AMD-V
x86, x86-64, Intel VT-x,
AMD-V
No host OS
Microsoft Windows,
Oracle Enterprise
Linux, Red Hat
Enterprise Linux,
Solaris
Oracle Corporation
UltraSPARC T1,
UltraSPARC T2,
UltraSPARC T2+,
SPARC T3
Compatible
Solaris 10
Solaris, Linux,
FreeBSD
Oracle VM
Server for
SPARC
(LDoms)
Proprietary
x86
Community project x86, x86-64, IA-64,
PowerPC 64,
lxc.sourceforge.net
[4]
SPARC64
Mac-on-Linux
Proprietary
Oracle VM
Server GPL;
Manager
proprietary
Proprietary
Comparison of platform virtual machines
OVPsim
OVP [6]
Parallels
Desktop for
Mac
Parallels, Inc.
Parallels
Workstation
Parallels, Inc.
PearPC
Sebastian Biallas
PikeOS
PowerVM
QEMU
SYSGO AG
IBM
Fabrice Bellard,
other developers
8
x86
x86, Intel VT-x
x86, Intel VT-x
OR1K, MIPS32,
ARC600/700, ARM; and
public API which enables
users to write custom
processor models, RISC,
CISC, DSP, VLIW all
possible
x86
x86
x86, x86-64,
PowerPC
PowerPC
PowerPC, x86,
ARM, MIPS,
SPARC, SuperH
Same as host
POWER4,
POWER5,
POWER6,
PowerPC 970
POWER4/5/6, PowerPC
970, X86
(PowerVM-Lx86)
x86, x86-64, IA-64, x86, x86-64, ARM, CRIS,
PowerPC, Alpha, LM32, MicroBlaze, MIPS,
SPARC 32/64,
SPARC 32/64, PowerPC
ARM, S/390, M68k
x86, x86-64
Same as host
Microsoft
Depends on target
Windows, Linux machine, for example
includes MIPS Malta
that runs Linux or
SMP-Linux; and
includes public API
which enables users
to write custom
peripheral and system
models
Mac OS X x86
Windows, Linux
DOS, Windows,
Linux, Mac OS X
Server, FreeBSD,
OS/2, eComStation,
Solaris
Proprietary
Windows, Linux,
FreeBSD, OS/2,
eComStation, DOS,
Solaris
Proprietary
Windows,
Linux, Mac OS
X, FreeBSD,
NetBSD
Mac OS X, Darwin,
Linux
PikeOS
PikeOS native,
Linux, RTEMS,
OSEK, ARINC 653
APEX, ITRON
No host OS
Windows,
Linux, Mac OS
X, Solaris,
FreeBSD,
OpenBSD,
BeOS
Apache 2.0
Linux PowerPC, x86;
AIX, i5/OS, IBM i
GPL
Proprietary
Proprietary
[7]
Changes regularly
GPL/LGPL
Linux, FreeBSD, Changes regularly[7]
OpenBSD,
Solaris,
Windows
QEMU w/
kqemu module
Fabrice Bellard
QEMU w/
qvm86 module
Paul Brook
x86
x86
Linux, NetBSD
[8]
, Windows
Changes regularly
QuickTransit
Transitive Corp.
x86, x86-64, IA-64,
POWER
MIPS, PowerPC, SPARC,
x86
Linux, Mac OS
X, Solaris
Linux, Mac OS X,
Irix, Solaris
Proprietary
RTS
Hypervisor
Real-Time Systems
x86
x86
No host OS
Windows XP, XP
Embedded, Windows
CE, Linux, Android,
VxWorks, OS-9,
RTOS-32, QNX,
proprietary
Proprietary
GPL/LGPL
GPL
Comparison of platform virtual machines
SIMH
Simics
Bob Supnik, The
Computer History
Simulation Project
[9]
Virtutech
[10]
9
Alpha, ARM,
Data General Nova,
HPPA, x86, IA-64, Eclipse; Digital Equipment
x86-64, M68K,
Corporation PDP-1,
MIPS, MIPSel,
PDP-4, PDP-7, PDP-8,
POWER, s390,
PDP-9, PDP-10, PDP-11,
SPARC
PDP-15, VAX; GRI
Corporation GRI-909, IBM
1401, 1620, 1130,
7090/7094, System 3;
Interdata (Perkin-Elmer)
16b/32b systems;
Hewlett-Packard 2114,
2115, 2116, 2100, 21MX;
Honeywell H316/H516;
MITS Altair 8800 with
8080 and Z80;
Royal-Mcbee LGP-30,
LGP-21; Scientific Data
Systems SDS 940
x86, x86-64,
SPARC v9
BSD, Linux,
Solaris, VMS,
Windows
Depends on target
machine, includes
NetBSD/VAX,
OpenBSD/VAX,
VAX/VMS, Unix v6,
Unix v7, TOPS-10,
TOPS-20, ITS
Alpha, ARM, IA-64, MIPS
32/64, MSP430, POWER,
PowerPC 32/64, SPARC
v8/v9, x86, x86-64, TI
TMS320C64xx
Windows,
Linux, Solaris
Depends on target
machine, VxWorks,
OSE, QNX, Linux,
Solaris, Windows,
FreeBSD, RTEMS,
TinyOS, many others
BSD-like,
unique
Proprietary
Sun xVM
Server
Sun Microsystems
x86-64, SPARC
Same as host
No host OS
Windows XP, 2003
GPL version
Server (x86-64 only),
3
Linux, Solaris
SVISTA 2004
Serenity Systems
[11]
International
x86
x86
Windows, OS/2,
Linux
Windows, Linux,
OS/2, BSD
Proprietary
TRANGO
TRANGO Virtual
Processors,
Grenoble, France
[12]
ARM, XScale,
MIPS, PowerPC
Paravirtualized ARM,
MIPS, PowerPC
No host OS,
Linux or
Windows as dev.
hosts
Linux, eCos,
µC/OS-II,
WindowsCE,
Nucleus, VxWorks
Proprietary
User Mode
Linux
Jeff Dike, other
developers
x86, x86-64,
PowerPC
Same as host
Linux
Linux
VirtualBox
Innotek, acquired
by Oracle
x86, x86-64
x86, (x86-64 only on
VirtualBox 2 and later with
hardware virtualization)
Windows,
Linux, Mac OS
X x86, Solaris,
FreeBSD,
eComStation
Virtual Iron
3.1
Virtual Iron
Software, Inc.,
acquired by Oracle
x86 VT-x, x86-64
AMD-V
x86, x86-64
No host OS
GPL version
2
DOS, Linux, Mac OS GPL version
[13]
2; full
X Server,
version
with
FreeBSD, Haiku,
extra
OS/2, Solaris,
enterprise
Syllable, Windows
features is
proprietary
Windows, Linux
Full product
is
proprietary,
a few
components
are GPL
[14]
version 2
Comparison of platform virtual machines
Virtual PC
2007
Windows
Virtual PC
Connectix
Connectix
x86, x86-64
10
x86
x86, x86-64 with
Intel VT-x or
AMD-V
x86
Windows Vista
(Business,
Enterprise,
Ultimate), XP
Pro, XP Tablet
PC Edition
DOS, Windows,
OS/2, Linux (SUSE,
Xubuntu),
OpenSolaris
(Belenix)
Windows 7
Windows XP,
Windows Vista,
Windows 7,
Windows Server
2003, Windows
Server 2008
Proprietary
Proprietary
Virtual PC 7
for Mac
Connectix
PowerPC
x86
Mac OS X
Windows, OS/2,
Linux
Proprietary
VirtualLogix
VLX
VirtualLogix
ARM, TI DSP
C6000, x86, Intel
VT-x, Intel VT-d,
PowerPC
Same as host
No host OS
Linux, Windows XP,
C5, VxWorks,
Nucleus, DSP/BIOS,
proprietary
Proprietary
Virtual Server
2005 R2
Connectix
x86, x86-64
x86
Windows 2003,
XP
Windows NT, 2000,
2003, Linux (Red
Hat, SUSE)
Proprietary
CoWare
Virtual
Platform
CoWare
Devices including (multi)
cores from ARM, MIPS,
PowerPC, Toshiba MeP,
Renesas SH, TI, Tensilica,
ZSP
Windows,
Linux, Solaris
Depends on guest
CPU; includes: Linux
(various flavors),
mITRON (various
flavors), Windows
CE, Symbian, more
Proprietary
Virtuozzo
SWsoft, now
Parallels, Inc.
x86, IA-64, x86-64
x86, IA-64, x86-64
Linux, Windows
Linux, Windows
VMware ESX
Server
VMware
x86, x86-64
x86, x86-64
No host OS
Windows, Linux,
Solaris, FreeBSD,
OSx86 (as FreeBSD),
virtual appliances,
Netware, OS/2, SCO,
BeOS, Darwin,
others: runs arbitrary
[15]
OS
Proprietary
x86, x86-64,
SPARC v9
Proprietary
VMware ESXi
VMware
x86, x86-64
x86, x86-64
No host OS
Same as VMware
ESX Server
Proprietary
VMware
Fusion
VMware
x86, x86-64
x86, x86-64
Mac OS X x86
Same as VMware
ESX Server
Proprietary
VMware
Server
VMware
x86, x86-64
x86, x86-64
Windows, Linux
Same as VMware
ESX Server
Proprietary
VMware
Workstation
7.1
VMware
x86, x86-64
x86, x86-64
Windows, Linux
Same as VMware
ESX Server
VMware
Player 3.1
VMware
x86, x86-64
x86, x86-64
Windows, Linux
Same as VMware
ESX Server
Proprietary
Proprietary
Comparison of platform virtual machines
Wind River
hypervisor
Wind River
Wind River
VxWorks MILS
Platform
Wind River
Xen
Xensource
XtratuM
z/VM
11
x86, PowerPC
Same as host
PowerPC
Same as host
x86, x86-64, IA-64
Same as host, up to 128
physical CPUs
Universidad
Politecnica de
Valencia
x86, x86; SPARC
v8 LEON2/3
Same as host
IBM
z/Architecture
z/Architecture, z/VM does
not run on predecessor
mainframes
No host OS
No host OS
NetBSD, Linux,
Solaris
No host OS
Linux, VxWorks,
unmodified guests
(including MS
Windows and
RTOSes such ach
OSE, QNX and
others), bare metal
virtual board
VxWorks, bare metal
virtual board
Proprietary
Proprietary
FreeBSD, NetBSD,
Linux, Solaris,
Windows XP & 2003
Server (needs vers.
3.0 and an Intel VT-x
(Vanderpool) or
AMD-V
(Pacifica)-capable
CPU), Plan 9
GPL
GPOS: Linux,
RTOS: PartiKle,
RTEMS
GPL
No host OS,
itself (single or
multiple
levels/versions
deep, e.g.
VM/ESA
running in z/VM
4.4 in z/VM 5.2
in z/VM 5.1.)
Linux on zSeries,
z/OS, z/VSE, z/TPF,
z/VM, VM/CMS,
MUSIC/SP,
OpenSolaris for
System z,
predecessors
Proprietary
z LPARs
IBM
z/Architecture
z/Architecture
Integrated in
firmware of
System z
mainframes
Linux on zSeries,
z/OS, z/VSE, z/TPF,
z/VM, MUSIC/SP,
and predecessors
Integrated in
firmware of
System z
mainframes
Name
Creator
Host CPU
Guest CPU
Host OS(s)
Guest OS(s)
License
Features
Name
Guest OS
SMP
available
Runs arbitrary
OS
Containers, or
Zones
Yes, over
500-way on
current
systems
No
Supported
guest OS
drivers
Method of
operation
Typical use
Uses native
device drivers
Operating
system-level
virtualization
Server
consolidation
with workload
isolation, single
workload
containment,
hosting,
dev/test/prod
Speed relative to
host OS
Commercial
support
available
Native
Yes
Comparison of platform virtual machines
Hyper-V
Server 2008
R2
12
Virtualization
Yes, up to 4
VCPUs per
VM
Yes
Yes
No
OpenVZ
KVM
Yes [16], up
to 16 VCPUs
per VM
Yes
Yes
No
Linux-VServer
Yes
Oracle VM
Server for
SPARC
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes, but
modifications
required as
paravirtualization
is used
PikeOS
Yes
Operating
system-level
virtualization
Virtualized
server isolation
Nativeosvirt
?
?
AMD-V and
Intel-VT-x
?
?
Yes, Look at
[17]
RedHat
or Novell
[18]
for
details
Compatible
Operating
system-level
virtualization
Virtualized
server isolation
Nativeosvirt
Paravirtualization
and hardware
virtualization
Server
consolidation
and security,
enterprise and
business
deployment
Near native
Paravirtualization
and hardware
virtualization
Server
consolidation
and security,
enterprise and
business
deployment
Near native
Full system
simulation with
optional
component
virtualization
Software
development
(early,
embedded),
advanced
debug for
single and
multicore
software,
compiler and
other tool
development,
computer
architecture
research,
hobbyist
Depends on target,
up to 500% faster
than embedded
target, runs over
1,000 MIPS on
desktop
Safety and
security critical
embedded
systems.
Near native
Yes
Yes
OVPsim
Yes
Near native
Compatible
Oracle VM
Server for x86
Yes
Server
consolidation,
service
continuity,
dev/test
Yes, but most of
the time
unmodified is
the goal
Paravirtualization
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes, with
commercial
license from
[19]
Imperas
Yes
Comparison of platform virtual machines
Compatible. OS
drivers run
unmodified, no
special drivers
required
Yes
Two modes: full
x86 based
virtualization and
devices:
paravirtualization; vertical markets
both modes may
include
be used for
robotics,
different operating
industrial
systems
automation,
concurrently
medical,
telecom, test
and
measurement;
focus is on
real-time uses
Servers
Yes
Up to near native
speednative
Yes
Yes
Paravirtualization
and porting or
hardware
virtualization
?
?
?
Hobbyist,
Developer,
Business
workstation
?
?
Mob. phone,
STB, routers,
etc.
Nativenative
?
Yes
Paravirtualization
and porting or
hardware
virtualization
Porting
used as a
separate
machine for a
server or with
X11
networking
near Native
(Runs
slow as all calls are
proxied)
?
Business
workstation,
server
consolidation,
service
continuity,
developer,
hobbyist
Near native
Server
consolidation,
service
continuity,
dev/test
Near Native
Virtualization,
guest calls
trapping where
supported
Hobbyist,
Developer,
Business
workstation
Near native with
virtual machine
additions
Hardware
virtualization
Developer,
Business
workstation,
support for
Compatibility
with Windows
XP applications
Near native with
virtual machine
additions
RTS
Hypervisor
Yes
Sun xVM
Server
13
Yes
SVISTA 2004
No
TRANGO
Yes
User Mode
Linux
Yespatch
???
No
special guest
kernel+modules
required
Virtualization
Oracle
VirtualBox
Yes
Virtual Iron
3.1
Virtual PC
2007
Yes, up to 8
way
No
Yes
Yes
Native
virtualization
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows
Virtual PC
Yes
Yes
Yes
Native
Yes
native_speed
Yes (with
commercial
license)
Yes
?
No
Comparison of platform virtual machines
14
Hobbyist,
Developer,
Business
workstation
Slow
?
Yes
dynamic
recompilation
(guest calls
trapping where
supported)
Server, server
farm
Near native with
virtual machine
additions
?
Yes
Virtualization
(guest calls
trapping where
supported)
Full-system
virtualization
(Processor Core
ISA + Hardware +
External
connections)
Early
embedded
software
development
and integration
(from driver to
application),
Multi-core
software
debugging and
optimization
Depending on the
system
characteristics and
the software itself,
ranges from faster
than real time to
slow.
Operating
system-level
virtualization
Server
consolidation,
service
continuity,
disaster
recovery,
service
providers
Native native_speed
Server
consolidation,
service
continuity,
dev/test, cloud
computing
Up to near native
Server
consolidation,
service
continuity,
dev/test
Up to near native
Server
consolidation,
service
continuity,
dev/test
Up to near native
Hobbyist,
Developer,
Tester,
Business
workstation
Near native
Server/desktop
consolidation,
dev/test
Up to near native
Virtual PC 7
for Mac
No
Virtual Server
2005 R2
No
Yes
Yes
CoWare
Virtual
Platform
Yes
Yes
Compatible
Virtuozzo
Yes
VMware ESX
Server 4.0
(vSphere)
VMware ESX
Server 3.0
VMware ESX
Server 2.5.3
Yes ( Same
compiled
Software image
as for the real
device)
No
Virtualization
Yes, add-on,
up to 8 way
Yes
Yes
Virtualization
Yes, add-on,
up to 4 way
Yes
Yes
Virtualization
Yes, add-on, 2
way
Yes
Yes
Virtualization
VMware
Fusion
VMware
Server
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes (2-way)
Yes
Yes
Virtualization
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Comparison of platform virtual machines
VMware
Workstation
6.0
Yes (2-way)
Yes
15
Yes
VMware
Player 2.0
Wind River
hypervisor
Wind River
VxWorks
MILS
Platform
Yes ( 2-way
[20]
)
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes, v4.0.0:
up to 128
VCPUs per
VM
Yes
Not required
with the
exception of the
networking
drivers where a
NAT is required.
A modified
guest kernel or
special hardware
level abstraction
is required for
guest OSs.
Yes
No
Yes, but not
required.
Xen
XtratuM
z/VM
Yes, both real
and virtual
(guest
perceives
more CPUs
than
installed),
incl. dynamic
CPU
provisioning
and
reassignment
Paravirtualization
(VMI) and
virtualization
Technical
professional,
advanced
dev/test, trainer
Up to near native
Virtualization
Technical
professional,
advanced
dev/test,
trainer, end
user on prebuilt
machines
Up to near native
Paravirtualization,
hardware assisted
virtualization
Embedded,
safety critical,
secure
Native
Paravirtualization,
hardware assisted
virtualization
Embedded,
safety critical,
secure
Native
Paravirtualization
and porting or
hardware
virtualization
Server/desktop
consolidation,
dev/test
Up to near native
native
speed,
substantial
performance loss on
some workloads
(network and disk
intensive especially)
Paravirtualization
Virtualization
(among first
systems to provide
hardware assists)
Yes
Yes, but not
required
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Embedded,
safety critical,
secure
Native (overhead
lower than 1%)
Servers
Near
Nativezvm_performance
Yes
Yes
Yes
Comparison of platform virtual machines
z LPARs
Name
Yes, both real
and virtual
(guest
perceives
more CPUs
than
installed),
incl. dynamic
CPU
provisioning
and
reassignment;
up to 64 real
cores
Guest OS
SMP
available
16
Microcode and
hardware
hypervisor
Yes
Runs arbitrary
OS
Servers
Native: System z
machines always
run with at least one
LPAR
Yes, but not
required
Supported
guest OS
drivers
Yes
Method of
operation
Typical use
Speed relative to
host OS
Commercial
support
available
• Providing any virtual environment usually requires some overhead of some type or another. Native usually means
that the virtualization technique does not do any CPU level virtualization (like Bochs), which executes code more
slowly than when it is directly executed by a CPU. Some other products such as VMWare and Virtual PC use
similar approaches to Bochs and QEMU, however they use a number of advanced techniques to shortcut most of
the calls directly to the CPU (similar to the process that JIT compiler uses) to bring the speed to near native in
most cases. However, some products such as coLinux, Xen, z/VM (in real mode) do not suffer the cost of
CPU-level slowdowns as the CPU-level instructions are not proxied or executing against an emulated architecture
since the guest OS or hardware is providing the environment for the applications to run under. However access to
many of the other resources on the system, such as devices and memory may be proxied or emulated in order to
broker those shared services out to all the guests, which may cause some slow downs as compared to running
outside of virtualization.
• OS-level virtualization is described as "native" speed, however some groups have found overhead as high as 3%
for some operations, but generally figures come under 1%, so long as secondary effects do not appear.
• See [21] for a paper comparing performance of paravirtualization approaches (e.g. Xen) with OS-level
virtualization
• Requires patches/recompiling.
• Exceptional for lightweight, paravirtualized, single-user VM/CMS interactive shell: largest customers run several
thousand users on even single prior models. For multiprogramming OSes like Linux on zSeries and z/OS that
make heavy use of native supervisor state instructions, performance will vary depending on nature of workload
but is near native. Hundreds into the low thousands of Linux guests are possible on a single machine for certain
workloads.
Other features
Comparison of platform virtual machines
17
Name
Can boot an
OS on another
disk partition
as guest
USB support
GUI
KVM
Yes
Yes
User Mode Linux
Yes
No
No
No
Oracle
VirtualBox-OSE
(GPLv2)
Partial (since
version 1.4, but
unsupported)
USB 1.1
Yes
Yes
OpenGL 2.0
Oracle
Partial (since
VirtualBox-PUEL version 1.4, but
(pre-compiled,
unsupported)
not free)
VirtualBox-partitions
USB 2.0
Yes
Yes
OpenGL 2.0
[22]
Yes
Live
memory
allocation
3D acceleration
Snapshots
per VM
?
Yes
Live
Shared
Snapshot migration Shared clipboard
of
folders
running
system
[23]
Yes
No
No
Yes
N/A
[25]
Yes
[26]
branched
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
[25]
Yes
[26]
branched
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
VirtualBox-partitions
Yes
Virtual Iron 4.2
Virtual PC 2007
No
No
Yes
Windows Virtual
PC
No
partially
Yes
VirtualPC 7 for
Mac
Yes
Yes
No
Microsoft Virtual
Server 2005 R2
Microsoft
Hyper-V Server
2008 R2
[24]
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
?
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
branched
Partial support
over remote
desktop
connections
Yes
Yes
Hyper-V-3DAcceleration
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
DirectX 9.0c
Hyper-V-USBRedirection
Virtuozzo
Yes
VMware ESX
Server 3.0 atp
Yes
No
VMware ESX
Server 2.5.3
Yes
No
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
VMware ESX
Server 4.0
(vSphere)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
VMware Fusion
2.0
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
DirectX 9 Shader
model 2
VMware Server
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
1
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Experimental
support for
DirectX 8; also
supported with
[27]
VMGL
Yes
branched
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
VMware
Workstation 5.5
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Comparison of platform virtual machines
18
VMware
Workstation 6.0
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Experimental
support for
DirectX 8; Also
supported with
[27]
VMGL
Yes
branched
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
branched
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
VMware
Workstation 7.0
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Support for
DirectX 9.0c
Shader Model 3
and OpenGL
2.13D.[28]
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
supported with
[27]
VMGL
Wind River
hypervisor
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Wind River
VxWorks MILS
Platform
Yes
Yes
[22]
Yes
Supported with
[27]
VMGL
with
add-ons
Yes
No
with
GDPS
Yes
Yes
No
with
GDPS
VMware Player
Xen
z/VM
z LPARs
Yes
Yes
Yes
Not applicable
Not applicable
Zones
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Name
Can boot an
OS on another
disk partition
as guest
USB
GUI
Live
memory
allocation
3D acceleration
No
?
Snapshots
per VM
Yes
Yes
Live
Shared
Snapshot migration Shared clipboard
of
folders
running
system
• VirtualBox User Manual, Chapter 9.9; requires usage of VBoxManage internalcommands
createrawvmdk which says:This is a development tool and shall only be used to analyse problems. It is
completely unsupported and will change in incompatible ways without warning.
• Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 and Windows 7 SP1 have limited support for redirecting the USB protocol over
RDP using RemoteFX.[29]
• Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 adds accelerated graphics support for certain editions of Windows Server 2008 R2
SP1 and Windows 7 SP1 using RemoteFX.[30] [31]
Restrictions
This table is meant to outline restrictions in the software dictated by licensing or capabilities.
Comparison of platform virtual machines
19
Name
Maximum
host
physical
processors
(sockets)
Maximum
host cores
per
processor
Maximum
host
memory
Maximum
host disk
volume size
Maximum
number of
guest VM
running
Containers,
or Zones
No limit
(Solaris
supports
system with
72 CPU
sockets)
No limit
No limit
(Solaris
supports
current
systems with
4TB RAM)
No limit
8,191
No limit
No limit
No limit
No limit
?
?
No limit
N/A
?
8
8/32 GB
?
2 TB
Varies, max
is # sockets *
# cores = 16
16
No limit
N/A
16 * 4 = 64
2
8/8 GB
60 + 4 = 64
950 GB
Varies, max
logical is 160
160
1 TB
2 TB minus
512 bytes
320 VMs
8
255/255 GB
60 + 4 = 64
2 TB minus
512 bytes
Varies, max
VMware
logical
is 160
vSphere
[35]
ESXi 4.1
160
1 TB
2 TB minus
512 bytes
320 VMs
8
255/255 GB
60 + 4 = 64
2 TB minus
512 bytes
16
No limit
4 IDE; no
limit SATA,
SCSI, SAS
2 TB
4
64 GB
4 IDE; 256
SCSI
2 TB
VMware
Player
[32]
3.1
VMware
Server
[33]
2.0
VMware
vSphere
Hypervisor
(ESXi)
[34]
4.1
VirtualBox
4.0.x
No limit ?
No limit ?
No limit ?
No limit
Hyper-V
2008 R2
64
(same 64)
1 TB
No limit
No limit
[36]
384 VMs
Maximum
Maximum
Maximum
number of
amount of
number of
logical CPU memory per SCSI + IDE
per VM
VM guest,
disks per
guest
32/64 bit
VM guest
Maximum
disk size
per VM
guest
Note: No limit means no enforced limit. For example, a VM with 1 TB of memory cannot fill a host with only 8 GB
memory, and no memory swap disk, so it will have a limit of 8 GB physically.
Hyper-V limit source: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee405267(WS.10).aspx
References
[1] "Cooperative Linux FAQ" (http:/ / colinux. wikia. com/ wiki/ FAQ). Retrieved on 2009-01-27.
[2] http:/ / kvm. qumranet. com
[3] http:/ / www. linux-kvm. org/ page/ PowerPC
[4] http:/ / lxc. sourceforge. net/
[5] http:/ / www. maconlinux. org/
[6] http:/ / www. ovpworld. org
[7] QEMU Official OS Support List (http:/ / www. claunia. com/ qemu)
[8] http:/ / pkgsrc. se/ wip/ qemu-qvm86
[9] http:/ / simh. trailing-edge. com/
[10] http:/ / www. virtutech. com/
[11] http:/ / www. serenityvirtual. com/
[12] http:/ / www. trango-vp. com
[13] Oracle VM VirtualBox® User Manual, Chapter 3: Configuring virtual machines | Mac OS X Server guests (http:/ / www. virtualbox. org/
manual/ ch03. html#intro-macosxguests)
[14] Oracle and Virtual Iron (http:/ / www. oracle. com/ us/ corporate/ Acquisitions/ virtualiron/ )
Comparison of platform virtual machines
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
[21]
[22]
[23]
[24]
[25]
[26]
[27]
[28]
[29]
[30]
[31]
[32]
[33]
[34]
[35]
[36]
Can run a guest OS without modifying it, and hence is generally able to run any OS that could run on a physical machine the VM simulates
http:/ / www. linux-kvm. com/ content/ running-windows-smp-guests
http:/ / www. redhat. com/ virtualization/ rhev/ desktop/ rhevm/
http:/ / www. novell. com/ linux/ products. html#linuxvirtualization
Imperas (http:/ / www. imperas. com)
http:/ / www. vmware. com/ products/ player/ features. html#c6062
http:/ / www. cs. princeton. edu/ ~mef/ research/ vserver/ paper. pdf
"Virtual Machine Manager" (http:/ / virt-manager. et. redhat. com/ ). . Retrieved 2010-02-20.
"Sheepdog is a distributed storage system for KVM" (http:/ / www. osrg. net/ sheepdog/ ). . Retrieved 2010-05-20.
"KVM Migration" (http:/ / www. linux-kvm. org/ page/ Migration). . Retrieved 2010-05-20.
"VirtualBox Changelog" (http:/ / www. virtualbox. org/ wiki/ Changelog-3. 0). . Retrieved 2009-06-30.
"VirtualBox Changelog 3.1" (http:/ / www. virtualbox. org/ wiki/ Changelog-3. 1). . Retrieved 2010-10-01.
"[[VMGL (http:/ / www. cs. toronto. edu/ ~andreslc/ xen-gl)] (formerly Xen-GL)"]. .
http:/ / www. vmware. com/ products/ workstation/ new. html
http:/ / technet. microsoft. com/ en-us/ library/ ff817581(WS. 10). aspx
http:/ / technet. microsoft. com/ en-us/ library/ ff817578(WS. 10). aspx
http:/ / technet. microsoft. com/ en-us/ library/ ff817602(WS. 10). aspx
(http:/ / www. vmware. com/ pdf/ vmware_player310. pdf) Getting Started Guide VMware Player 3.1
(http:/ / www. vmware. com/ pdf/ vmserver2. pdf) VMware Server User’s Guide VMware Server 2.0
(http:/ / www. vmware. com/ pdf/ vsphere4/ r41/ vsp_41_config_max. pdf) Configuration Maximums VMware® vSphere 4.1
(http:/ / www. vmware. com/ pdf/ vsphere4/ r41/ vsp_41_config_max. pdf) Configuration Maximums VMware® vSphere 4.1
(http:/ / www. virtualbox. org/ manual/ ch01. html) Oracle VM VirtualBox User Manual. Accessed 2011-04-07
External links
• Technical comparison of Linux virtualization technologies (http://virt.kernelnewbies.org/TechComparison).
• Unix for Windows FAQ (http://www.unix.com/answers-frequently-asked-questions/
16634-unix-environments-ms-windows.html) at Unix.com
Comparison of VMware Fusion and Parallels
Desktop
Represented by their respective products, VMware and Parallels are the two major commercial competitors in the
Mac consumer virtualization market. Both products are based on hypervisor technology and allow users to run an
additional 32- or 64-bit x86 operating system in a virtual machine alongside Mac OS X on an Intel-powered Mac.
The similarity in features and functionality between VMware Fusion and Parallels Desktop for Mac has given
occasion for much comparison.
Features
20
Comparison of VMware Fusion and Parallels Desktop
21
Feature
Product
VMware Fusion 3.1
Parallels Desktop 6
Installing Windows on Mac
Easy Install with Automatic Windows Setup
Yes
Yes
Run off existing Boot Camp partition
Windows XP (32-bit), Windows
Vista (32-bit and 64-bit), Windows 7
(32-bit and 64-bit)
Windows XP (32-bit), Windows
Vista (32-bit and 64-bit), Windows 7
(32-bit and 64-bit)
Allows to suspend VM running off the Boot Camp partition
No
Yes
Import Physical Windows PC to VM
Yes
Yes
Import Boot Camp partition to VM
Yes
Yes
Full Support for Windows 7
Yes
Yes
Import Third Party VMs (Parallels, VMware, VirtualPC for Mac)
Yes
Yes
Support Higher Synthetic screen resolutions in Full-Screen mode
without scrolling (e.g. Run Windows in 1920x1200 mode on a
1440x900 monitor)
Yes
No
Migrate Windows 2000 PC to Mac
Yes
Yes
Migrate Windows XP to Mac
Yes
Yes
Migrate Windows 7 to Mac
Yes
Yes
Migrate Linux to Mac
No
Yes
Migrate PC over wireless network
Yes
Yes
Migrate PC over Ethernet
Yes
Yes
Migrate PC over FireWire
Yes
Yes
Migrate PC over USB
No
Yes
Windows documents migration to appropriate folders to Mac
No
Yes
Migration of the Internet bookmarks and settings from Internet
Explorer, Firefox, or Chrome on PC to the default browser on the
Mac.
No
Yes
Comes with Video Tutorials to help Windows Switchers on Mac
No
Switch to Mac Edition
Run Windows apps like Mac apps (Unity/Coherence)
Yes
Yes
Exclude Dock in Unity/Coherence
Yes
Yes
Windows application folder in Dock
No
Yes
Windows Start Menu in Dock
No
Yes
Windows application folder in menu bar
Yes
No
Windows Start Menu in menu
Yes
Yes
Always On Application Menu available to launch Windows apps at
any time
Yes
Yes
Quit Individual Window applications
Yes
Yes
Mac
Running Windows Apps on Mac
Comparison of VMware Fusion and Parallels Desktop
Use Command ` to switch between open windows in a Windows
app
22
Yes
Yes
Yes
Doesn't keep windows from app
together
Shared Folders to access Mac files/folders from Windows
Yes
Yes
Access Windows tray icons in Unity
Yes
Yes
Arrow icon in the Mac menu bar for customizing Windows tray
icons in Coherence.
No
Yes
Progress for downloads and other operations is displayed on the
Windows 7 applications icons in the Dock.
No
Yes
Windows 7 Jump Lists are supported for Windows applications in
the Dock: view your recent documents by right-clicking the
application icon in the Dock.
No
Yes
Grouping of all windows of a single Windows application under the
same application icon in the Dock.
No
Yes
Active screen corners
No
Yes
Launch Windows or Mac internet applications from hyperlinks
Yes
Yes
Windows applications can be set as the default applications for
handling CDs and DVDs inserted into the Mac.
No
Yes
Enable Apple Gestures to work with Windows applications
No
Yes
Enable Apple Magic Mouse Gesture support with Windows
applications
No
Yes
Enable Apple Remote to work with Windows applications
No
Yes
Launch Mac applications from any Windows file (Shared
Applications/SmartSelect)
Yes
Yes
Automatically mount storage and network devices to guest OS
Yes
Yes
Suspend/Resume To Where You Last Left Off
Yes
Yes
Pause VM if no application running to reduce Mac OS load.
No
Yes
Mirrored/Remapped Desktop, Music, Documents, and Pictures
Folders
Yes
Yes
Contextual menu items "Run on Mac" and "Show in Finder" for
Shared Folders
No
Yes
Remapping Windows Keyboard Shortcuts to Mac Shortcuts
Yes, completely customizable
Yes, completely customizable
Keyboard shortcut (F6 or Fn + F6) for hiding/showing Parallels
Desktop and all its windows.
No
Yes
Virtual Links - aliases to Mac OS files from Windows virtual
machines
Yes
Yes
Copy/Paste Text between Windows / Mac
Yes, Plain and Rich (RTF) Text up
to 4MB
Yes, Plain and Rich (RTF) Text
Drag and Drop Text between Windows / Mac
Yes, Plain and Rich (RTF) Text up
to 4MB
No
Drag and Drop Files Between Windows / Mac
Yes
Yes
Copy/Paste Graphics between Windows / Mac
Yes
Yes
Passthrough "Driverless" Printing to Mac Printers
Yes
Yes
Assign Windows applications to a Mac OS X Space
Making Windows Safer on Mac
Comparison of VMware Fusion and Parallels Desktop
23
Single Snapshot support
Yes
Yes
Multiple Snapshot support
Yes
Yes
AutoProtect Automatic Snapshots
Yes
Yes
TimeMachine backups can be synced with SmartGuard snapshots,
to reduce the space required for backups.
No
Yes
Automatically revert VM to start state upon termination
No
Yes
Virtual machine encryption with AES algorithm for better security
of your data (empowered by AES-NI hardware support on i5 and i7
CPUs)
No
Yes
Mac OS Parental Controls are automatically applied to the virtual
machine for managing children’s computer usage
No
Yes
12-month subscription to McAfee
VirusScan Plus. User Prompted to
Install
3-month subscription to Kaspersky
Internet Security. User Prompted to
Install
No
3-month subscription to Kaspersky
Anti-Virus for Mac. User Prompted
to Install
Lock down application and virtual machine settings to prevent
changes
No
Yes
Isolated Virtual Machines
No
Yes
Runs on 64-bit kernel, 64-bit VMM,
64-bit helper application, 32-bit GUI
Runs on 64-bit kernel, 64-bit VMM,
64-bit helper application, 32-bit GUI
Cocoa and GTK+ frameworks
Nokia Qt library with Carbon and
Cocoa frameworks.
Welcome Screen to Simplify Initial Setup
Yes
Yes
Mac-like Settings and Preferences Windows
Yes
Yes
Apply different colors to virtual machines to find them in Finder or
in the virtual machines list
No
Yes
Customizable Toolbars
Yes
Yes
Default virtual machine to launch on application startup
Yes
Yes
Virtual Machine Library
Yes
Yes
Live View of Running Virtual Machines in Library/Settings
Yes
Yes
Live View of Running Virtual Machine in Dock
No
Yes
Startup in Last View Format
Yes
Yes
Reduce the virtual hard disk size as its unused space grows
Yes
Yes
Apple Help (Searchable with Mac Design)
Yes
Yes
Single File Virtual Machine Packages
Yes
Yes
QuickLook/Cover Flow Integration
Yes
Yes
Mount Running Virtual Machines in Finder
No
Yes
Mount Stopped Virtual Machines in Finder
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows AntiVirus & AntiSpyware Included
Mac OS AntiVirus Included
Designed for Mac (Fit and Finish)
Optimized for Snow Leopard
UI Built from Ground Up for Mac
Advanced Platform
32-bit Guest Operating Systems
Comparison of VMware Fusion and Parallels Desktop
24
64-bit Guest Operating Systems
Yes
Yes
Multi-CPU virtual machines
Up to 8 processors per VM & Multi
Core (as of VMWare Fusion 3.1)
Up to 8 processors per VM & Multi
Core
Virtual CPU supports AES-NI when running on i5 and i7 CPUs
No
Yes
Maximum RAM per virtual machine
8 GB
8 GB
Support for IPv6, the next-generation version of the Internet
Protocol, in shared, bridged and host-only networking.
No
Yes
Windows Aero (WDDM for Windows Vista and Windows 7)
Yes
Yes
DirectX 3D Graphics Support
DirectX 9.0c with Shader Model 3
DirectX 9.0Ex with Shader Model 3
OpenGL 3D Graphics Support for Windows Vista & Windows 7
guest OS
OpenGL 2.1 (as of VMWare Fusion
3.1)
OpenGL 2.1
OpenGL 3D Graphics Support for Windows XP guest OS
OpenGL 2.1
OpenGL 2.1
OpenGL 3d Graphics Support for Linux guest OS
No
Open GL 2.1
Multiple monitor/display support
Up to 10, each display is separate
unique display to Windows
Up to 10, each display is separate
unique display to Windows
Hardware Assisted Video/Movie Playback
Yes
Yes
Maximum video RAM per VM
288MB
256MB
USB 2.0 passthrough support
Yes
Yes
Support for external surround sound 5.1 USB or FireWire devices
work simultaneously in Mac and the virtual machine.
No
Yes
64-bit Native Engine
64-bit VMM, 64-bit kernel
extensions, 64-bit helper application,
32 GUI
64-bit VMM, 64-bit kernel
extensions, 64-bit helper application,
32 GUI
Power Management/Battery Passthrough
Yes
Yes
Bluetooth support (as USB device)
Yes
Yes
Firewire passthrough support
No
No
Virtual IDE Controller
Yes
Yes
Virtual SCSI Controller
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes, using software emulation in
guest OS
Shared Smart Card
Yes
Yes
Low Level Access to Network Interfaces (promiscuous mode / WiFi
monitor mode etc.)
Yes
No
Virtual Disk Management
Yes, Integrated in Settings Editor
Yes, Standalone tool
Resize Virtual Disks
Yes
Yes
Advanced Network Management
Requires modifying networking
scripts
Yes
Control VMs with Scripting option
Yes
Yes
Supports Intel VT-x hardware virtualization engine
Yes
Yes
Network (PXE) Boot
Yes
Yes
Virtual SAS Controller
Advanced Tools
Run More Operating Systems on Mac
Comparison of VMware Fusion and Parallels Desktop
25
Run Multiple Operating Systems at One Time
Yes, run up to 20 with available
memory
Yes
Supported x86 Operating Systems
Over 140 operating systems
Over 60 operating systems
Run Linux virtual machines
Yes
Yes
Linux Easy Install with Automatic Setup
Yes
Yes
Linux virtual machine support
Window resize, time sync, shared
folders, drag and drop
Window resize, time sync, shared
folders
Run Linux apps like Mac apps with Unity
Yes (Ubuntu and Red Hat with
Gnome)
No
Run Mac OS X Server virtual machines
Yes
Yes
Import VHD Test Drives
Yes
Yes
Run Virtual Appliances
Over 1200 available
Fewer than 100 available
Allows to work with remote VM on iPhone/iPad
No
Yes
Allows user to connect over internet
No
Yes
Complimentary iPhone/iPad mobile client
Minimum system requirements
Requirement
Product
VMware Fusion 3.1
Host OS
Parallels Desktop 6.0
Mac OS X 10.5.8 or later; Mac OS X 10.6 or later Mac OS X 10.5.8 or later; Mac OS X 10.6 or later
RAM
1 GB (2 GB Recommended)
1 GB (2 GB Recommended)
Disk space for product
700 MB
450 MB
2007 Benchmark tests
On August 16, 2007, CNET published the results of several benchmarks[1] in which Fusion demonstrated better
performance than Parallels Desktop for Mac in SMP-aware applications, which Fusion supports while Parallels does
not. It should also be noted that Boot Camp is a tool for natively booting Windows XP on Intel Macintosh and is not
a virtualization product. This comparison is of limited value today, as both products have had 2 major upgrades since
then.
Comparison of VMware Fusion and Parallels Desktop
This comparison was tested on an eight-core, 2.66 GHz MacPro running Mac OS X 10.4.10, Parallels Desktop 3.0
for Mac (build 4560) and VMware Fusion 1.0 (build 51348). Fusion and Parallels were both set to 1,024 MB of
system memory and a 32 GB hard disk. Fusion was set to 128 MB of graphics memory, and Parallels Desktop for
Mac was set to 64 MB of graphics memory (the maximum for each at that time)[1] .
2008 Benchmark tests
In Volume 24, Issue 02 of MacTech, the editors published the results of one-step and task tests between VMware
Fusion 1.0, Parallels Desktop 3.0 and Boot Camp and used a PC running Windows XP as a baseline comparison in a
native PC environment.[2]
• One-step Test: After clicking the mouse or pressing a key, this test requires no further human action.
• Task Test: This tests the interaction between Mac OS X and the virtual environment and requires multiple tests
throughout the process.
MacTech found that the faster the physical host computer, the more similarly Parallels Desktop and VMware Fusion
performed. MacTech did not test multiple processor performance. The following graphs displays the results in
seconds. Shorter bars indicate faster performance.
26
Comparison of VMware Fusion and Parallels Desktop
27
Each test was run on a MacBook (2 GB RAM; 1.83 GHz Core Duo processor), a MacBook Pro (4GB RAM;
2.16 GHz Core 2 Duo processor) and a Mac Pro (4GB RAM; Quad Core configuration with two 2.66 GHz
Dual-Core Intel Xeon processors). MacTech tested Parallels Desktop 3.0 for Mac Build 5160 and VMware Fusion
1.0 Build 51348. All tests were done on clean host systems with new installations of Mac OS X 10.4.10 and Office
installations and included all of the most up-to-date patches. No third party software was installed other than Mac OS
X, VMware Fusion, Parallels Desktop, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Adobe Reader and Microsoft Office.
2009 Benchmark tests
In March, 2009, Volume 25, Issue 04, MacTech [3] published the results of a new series of benchmark tests that
compared the performance between VMware Fusion 2.0.1 and Parallels Desktop 4.0 for Mac (build 3540), both
running Mac OS X 10.5.5.
In most of MacTech’s tests, Parallels Desktop performed 14-20% faster than Fusion; however, Fusion ran 10% faster
than Parallels Desktop when running Windows XP 32-bit on 2 virtual processors.[4]
OS/Environment
Result
Windows XP, 32-bit, 1 Processor
Parallels Desktop runs 14% faster
Windows Vista, 32-bit, 1 Processor Parallels Desktop runs 14% faster
Windows XP, 32-bit, 2 Processors
VMware Fusion runs 10% faster
Windows Vista, 32-bit, 2 Processors Parallels Desktop runs 20% faster
Windows XP, 64-bit, 2 Processors
Parallels Desktop runs 15% faster
The tests were performed on the White MacBook, MacBook Pro, iMac and MacPro. Both Fusion and Parallels
Desktop were optimized for virtual machine performance. MacTech’s test included launch and CPU tests, File and
Network IO, Footprint, Application Launch, Application Performance and 3D and HD Graphics. In many cases, tests
were performed after both Adam and Successful launches and were timed using a stopwatch.
Comparison of VMware Fusion and Parallels Desktop
28
Test Suite
Performance Winner
Windows Launch Performance
Parallels Desktop for Mac
CPU
Parallels Desktop for Mac, except for 2 of the 14 tests
Footprint on Mac
Parallels Desktop for Mac
Application Launch
VMware Fusion
Application Performance
[5]
Both products did well, except for IE where Parallels Desktop is 80-91% faster
3D and HD Performance
Dependent on game1, video and Windows environment.
1
3D Games tested were Civilization IV: Colonization and Portal. In Civilization, Parallels Desktop has faster FPS
(Frames Per Second) and performed better on slower machines while Fusion has better, more detailed graphics.
Fusion has difficulty showing the startup video, but Parallels Desktop's graphics are not as rich. When running
Portal, Fusion is faster but its graphics are visibly lighter, while Parallels Desktop has better graphics and visual
details.[6]
Cross-platform task tests
MacTech’s cross platform tests timed how long it took users to perform multi-step tasks that moved data between
Mac OS X and Windows. VMware Fusion, which is designed for increased isolation from the host, requires more
manual steps to move data between the host and the virtual environment. Parallels Desktop, which is designed to run
transparently with the Mac OS X host, requires fewer steps to perform the same tasks. Therefore, Parallels Desktop
was faster.
Networking and file I/O tests
Parallels Desktop occasionally displayed lag anomalies while VMware Fusion's virtual drive performance was very
close to that of a physical drive. VMware Fusion preferred a bridged connection for reliable performance, and
Parallels Desktop was consistent regardless of the type of virtual network adaptor used.
Simultaneous use of VM and host OS
Parallel Desktop 5 always uses wired memory for hosted OS, while VMWare Fusion 3.0 uses active memory that
can be swapped. Giving better performance to hosted VM, this leaves less memory to host OS programs and causes
more swapping if you use VM and host OS programs at the same time.
2010 Benchmark tests
In 2010 MacTech[7] , Volume 26, Issue 01, published the results of a new series of benchmark tests showing a
performance advantage for Parallels Desktop 5 across all subcategories, with an average of 30% faster.
References
[1] Begun, Daniel (2007-08-17). "Inside CNET Labs: Windows virtual machine performance on the Mac" (http:/ / crave. cnet. com/
8301-1_105-9760910-1. html). CNET. . Retrieved 2007-10-04.
[2] Ticktin, Neil. "Virtualization Benchmarking How do Boot Camp, Parallels Desktop, and VMware Fusion stack up?" (http:/ / www. mactech.
com/ articles/ mactech/ Vol. 24/ 24. 02/ VirtualizationBenchmark/ ). MacTech. . Retrieved February 2008.
[3] Ticktin, Neil. "Head-to-Head: Parallels Desktop for Mac vs. VMware Fusion" (http:/ / www. mactech. com/ articles/ mactech/ Vol. 25/ 25.
04/ VMBenchmarks/ ). MacTech. . Retrieved March 2009.
[4] http:/ / www. mactech. com:16080/ articles/ mactech/ Vol. 25/ 25. 04/ VMBenchmarks/ index-001. html
[5] http:/ / www. mactech. com/ articles/ mactech/ Vol. 25/ 25. 04/ VMBenchmarks/ index-002. html
[6] http:/ / www. mactech. com/ articles/ mactech/ Vol. 25/ 25. 04/ VMBenchmarks/ index-003. html
Comparison of VMware Fusion and Parallels Desktop
[7] Ticktin, Neil. "Head-to-Head: Parallels Desktop for Mac vs. VMware Fusion" (http:/ / www. mactech. com/ articles/ special/
1002-VirtualizationHeadToHead/ index-001. html). MacTech. . Retrieved March 2010.
Adaptive Domain Environment for Operating
Systems
Adeos (Adaptive Domain Environment for Operating Systems) is a nanokernel hardware abstraction layer (HAL)
that operates between computer hardware and the operating system that runs on it.[1] It is distinct from other
nanokernels, in that it is not just a low level layer for an outer kernel. Instead it is intended to run several kernels
together, which makes it similar to virtualization technologies.
Adeos provides a flexible environment for sharing hardware resources among multiple operating systems, or among
multiple instances of a single OS, thereby enabling multiple prioritized domains to exist simultaneously on the same
hardware.
Adeos has been successfully inserted beneath the Linux kernel, opening a range of possibilities, such as SMP
clustering, more efficient virtualization, patchless kernel debugging and real-time systems for Linux.
Unusually among HALs, Adeos can be loaded as a Linux loadable kernel module to allow another OS to run along
with it. In fact Adeos was developed in the context of RTAI (Real-Time Application Interface) to modularize it and
to separate the HAL from the real-time kernel.
Architecture
Adeos implements a queue of signals. Each time that a peripheral sends a signal, the different operating systems that
are running in the machine are awakened, in turn, and must decide if they will accept (handle), ignore, discard, or
terminate the signal. Signals not handled (or discarded) by an OS are passed to the next OS in the chain. Signals that
are terminated are not propagated to latter stages.
External links
• Adeos Home Page [2]
• Adeos Workspace [3]
References
[1] "Adaptive Domain Environment for Operating Systems" (http:/ / whitepapers. zdnet. co. uk/ 0,1000000651,260088515p,00. htm).
whitepapers.zdnet.co.uk. February 15, 2001. . Retrieved 2009-09-02.
[2] http:/ / home. gna. org/ adeos/
[3] https:/ / gna. org/ projects/ adeos/
29
ALGOL 68C
30
ALGOL 68C
The ALGOL68C computer programming language compiler was developed for the CHAOS OS for the CAP
capability computer at Cambridge University in 1971 by Stephen Bourne and Mike Guy as a dialect of ALGOL 68.
Other early contributors were Andrew D. Birrell[1] and Ian Walker.
The initial compiler was written in PSYCO (the Princeton SYntax COmpiler by Edgar T. Irons) and implemented by
J.H. Mathewman at Cambridge. The language was called Z was subsequently morphed into ALGOL 68.
ALGOL68C was built to develop the CAMbridge ALgebra system called CAMAL.
Subsequent work was done on the compiler after Bourne left Cambridge University in 1975. Garbage collection was
added and the code base is still running on an emulated OS/MVT using Hercules.
The ALGOL68C compiler generated ZCODE output, that could then be either compiled into the local machine code
by a ZCODE translator or run interpreted. ZCODE is a register-based intermediate language. This ability to interpret
or compile ZCODE encouraged the porting of ALGOL 68C to numerous different computer platforms. Aside from
the CAP capability computer the compiler was ported to systems including CMS, TOPS-10 and Z80.
Popular Culture
A very early predecessor of this compiler was used by Guy and Bourne to write the first life game programs on the
PDP-7 with a DEC 340 [2] display (see Scientific American article) "For long-lived populations such as this one
Conway sometimes uses a PDP-7 computer with a screen on which he can observe the changes. The program was
written by M. J. T. Guy and S. R. Bourne. Without its help some discoveries about the game would have been
difficult to make." Scientific American 223 (October 1970): 120-123.
Various Liverpool Software Gazette issues detail the Z80 implementation. The compiler required about 120Kb of
memory to run, hence the Z80's 64Kb memory is actually too small to run the compiler. So ALGOL 68C programs
for the Z80 had to be cross compiled from ALGOL 68C running on the larger CAP capability computer or an IBM
370 mainframe.
Algol 68C and Unix
Stephen Bourne subsequently reused ALGOL 68's revered if ~ then ~ else ~ fi, case ~ in ~ out ~ esac and for ~ while
~ do ~ od clauses in the common Unix Bourne shell, but with in's syntax changed, out removed, and od replaced
with done (to avoid conflict with the od utility).
After Cambridge, Bourne spent nine years at Bell Labs with the Seventh Edition Unix team. As well as developing
the Bourne shell, he ported ALGOL 68C to Unix on the DEC PDP-11-45 and included a special option in his Unix
debugger "adb" to obtain a stack backtrace for programs written in ALGOL68C. Here is an extract from the Unix 7th
[3]
edition adb manual pages:
NAME
adb - debugger
SYNOPSIS
adb [-w] [ objfil [ corfil ] ]
[...]
COMMANDS
[...]
$modifier
Miscellaneous commands.
are:
The
available modifiers
ALGOL 68C
31
[...]
a
ALGOL 68 stack backtrace.
If address is
given then it is taken to be the address of
the current frame (instead of r4). If count
is given then only the first count frames
are printed.
ALGOL 68C extensions to Algol 68
Below is a sampling of some notable extensions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Automatic op:= for any operator, e.g. *:= and +:=
UPTO, DOWNTO and UNTIL in loop-clauses;
displacement operator (:=:=)
ANDF, ORF and THEF syntactic elements.
separate compilation - ENVIRON clause and USING clause
scopes not checked
bounds in formal-declarers
CODE ... EDOC clause - for embedding ZCODE
The ENVIRON and USING clauses.
Separate compilation in ALGOL 68C is done using the ENVIRON and USING clauses. The ENVIRON saves the
complete environment at the point it appears. A separate module written starting with a USING clause is effectively
inserted into the first module at the point the ENVIRON clause appears.
ENVIRON and USING are useful for a top-down style of programming, in contrast to the bottom-up style implied by
traditional library mechanisms.
These clauses are kind of the inverse of the #include found in the C programming language, or import found in
Python. The purpose of the ENVIRON mechanism is to allow a program source to be broken into manageable sized
pieces. Note that it is only necessary to parse the shared source file once, unlike a #include found in the C
programming language where the include file needs to be parsed for each source file that includes it.
Example of ENVIRON clause
A file called mylib.a68:
BEGIN
INT dim = 3; # a constant #
INT a number := 120; # a variable #
ENVIRON EXAMPLE1;
MODE MATRIX = [dim, dim]REAL; # a type definition #
MATRIX m1;
a number := ENVIRON EXAMPLE2;
print((a number))
END
ALGOL 68C
Example of USING clause
A file called usemylib.a68:
USING EXAMPLE2 FROM "mylib"
BEGIN
MATRIX m2; # example only #
print((a number)); # declared in mylib.a68 #
print((2 UPB m1)); # also declared in mylib.a68 #
ENVIRON EXAMPLE3; # ENVIRONs can be nested #
666
END
Restrictions to the language from the standard ALGOL 68
•
•
•
•
•
no algol68 FLEX and variable length arrays.
MODE STRING implemented without FLEX.
The PAR parallel clause was not implemented.
nonstandard transput.
others...
A translator/compiler for ALGOL 68C was available for the PDP-10 and System/360 as well as a number of other
computers.
References
[1] Andrew D Birrell (December 1977). "System Programming in a High Level Language" (http:/ / birrell. org/ andrew/ papers/ thesis. pdf)
(PDF). Dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. University of Cambridge. . Retrieved 04-22 2007.
[2] http:/ / www. aceware. iinet. net. au/ acms/ ItemDetail. asp?lngItemId=175&
[3] http:/ / modman. unixdev. net/ ?sektion=1& page=adb& manpath=v7man
Notes
• S.R. Bourne, A.D. Birrell and I. Walker, Algol68C reference manual, Cambridge University Computer
Laboratory, 1975
External links
• Cambridge Algol 68: on the historical roster of computer languages (http://hopl.murdoch.edu.au/
showlanguage.prx?exp=667) - includes 10+ publication references.
• A TRANSPORTATION OF ALGOL68C - PJ Gardner, University of Essex (http://portal.acm.org/ft_gateway.
cfm?id=807148&type=pdf) - March 1977 (From 370 to DECsystem-10)
32
Amazon Machine Image
Amazon Machine Image
An Amazon Machine Image (AMI) is a special type of virtual appliance which is used to instantiate (create) a
virtual machine within the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud. It serves as the basic unit of deployment for services
delivered using EC2.[1]
Contents
Like all virtual appliances, the main component of an AMI is a read-only filesystem image which includes an
operating system (e.g., Linux, UNIX, or Windows) and any additional software required to deliver a service or a
portion of it.[2]
The AMI filesystem is compressed, encrypted, signed, split into a series of 10MB chunks and uploaded into Amazon
S3 for storage. An XML manifest file stores information about the AMI, including name, version, architecture,
default kernel id, decryption key and digests for all of the filesystem chunks.
An AMI does not include a kernel image, only a pointer to the default kernel id, which can be chosen from an
approved list of safe kernels maintained by Amazon and its partners (e.g., RedHat, Canonical, Microsoft). Users may
choose kernels other than the default when booting an AMI.[3]
Types of images
• Public: an AMI image that can be used by anyone.
• Paid: a for-pay AMI image that is registered with Amazon DevPay and can be used by any one who subscribes
for it. DevPay allows developers to mark-up Amazon's usage fees and optionally add monthly subscription fees.
• Shared: a private AMI that can only be used by Amazon EC2 users who are allowed access to it by the
developer.
References
[1] Amazon. "Amazon EC2 Functionality" (http:/ / aws. amazon. com/ ec2/ #functionality). .
[2] Amazon. "Creating an Image" (http:/ / docs. amazonwebservices. com/ AmazonEC2/ gsg/ 2006-06-26/ creating-an-image. html). .
[3] Feature Guide: Amazon EC2 User Selectable Kernels (http:/ / developer. amazonwebservices. com/ connect/ entry. jspa?externalID=1345)
External links
• Creating and preparing AMIs (http://docs.amazonwebservices.com/AWSEC2/2008-02-01/DeveloperGuide/
CreatingAndBundlingAMIs.html)
• Amazon Web Services Developer Community : Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) (http://developer.
amazonwebservices.com/connect/kbcategory.jspa?categoryID=171)
33
Application virtualization
34
Application virtualization
Application virtualization is an umbrella term that describes software technologies that improve portability,
manageability and compatibility of applications by encapsulating them from the underlying operating system on
which they are executed. A fully virtualized application is not installed in the traditional sense[1] , although it is still
executed as if it were. The application is fooled at runtime into believing that it is directly interfacing with the
original operating system and all the resources managed by it, when in reality it is not. In this context, the term
"virtualization" refers to the artifact being encapsulated (application), which is quite different to its meaning in
hardware virtualization, where it refers to the artifact being abstracted (physical hardware).
Description
Limited application virtualization is used in modern operating systems such a Microsoft Windows and Linux. For
example, INI file mappings were introduced with Windows NT to virtualize, into the registry, the legacy INI files of
applications originally written for Windows 3.1.[2] Similarly, Windows Vista implements a shim that applies limited
file and registry virtualization so that legacy applications that try to save user data in a readonly system location that
was writable by anyone in early Windows, can still work.[3]
[4]
Full application virtualization requires a virtualization layer.
Application virtualization layers replace part of the runtime
environment normally provided by the operating system. The layer
intercepts all file and Registry operations of virtualized applications
and transparently redirects them to a virtualized location, often a single
Illustration of an application running in a native
environment and running in an application
file.[5] The application never knows that it's accessing a virtual
virtualization environment
resource instead of a physical one. Since the application is now
working with one file instead of many files and registry entries spread
throughout the system, it becomes easy to run the application on a different computer and previously incompatible
applications can be run side-by-side. Examples of this technology for the Windows platform are BoxedApp,
Cameyo, Ceedo, Evalaze, InstallFree, Citrix XenApp, Novell ZENworks Application VIrtualization, Endeavors
Technologies Application Jukebox, Microsoft Application Virtualization, Software Virtualization Solution, VMware
ThinApp and InstallAware Virtualization.
Related Technologies
Technology categories that fall under application virtualization include:
• Application Streaming. Pieces of the application's code, data, and settings are delivered when they're first needed,
instead of the entire application being delivered before startup. Running the packaged application may require the
installation of a lightweight client application. Packages are usually delivered over a protocol such as HTTP,
[6]
CIFS or RTSP.
• Desktop Virtualization/Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI). The application is hosted in a VM or blade PC that
also includes the operating system (OS). These solutions include a management infrastructure for automating the
creation of virtual desktops, and providing for access control to target virtual desktop. VDI solutions can usually
fill the gaps where application streaming falls short.
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