HVAC Assessment Handbook - A Practical Guide to

HVAC Assessment Handbook - A Practical Guide to
HVAC
ASSESSMENT
HANDBOOK
A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO PERFORMANCE
MEASUREMENTS IN MECHANICAL HEATING,
VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
UNDERSTANDING, ACCELERATED
HVAC
ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK
A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO PERFORMANCE
MEASUREMENTS IN MECHANICAL HEATING,
VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
_____________________
TSI, TSI logo, Alnor, VelcoiCalc and AccuBalance are registered trademarks of TSI Incorporated.
IAQ-Calc, DP-Calc, TrakPro, LogDat2, and Airflow Instruments are trademarks of TSI Incorporated.
Copyright © 2013 by TSI Incorporated
Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................ 1
Building Design and Operation .......................................................................................................................................... 1
Efficiency vs. Effectiveness................................................................................................................................................... 2
Special Considerations ........................................................................................................................................................... 2
Indoor Air Quality .................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Outdoor Air ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3
Key Performance Measurements ...................................................................................................................................... 4
What – Air handling equipment ...................................................................................................................................4
What – Air velocity.............................................................................................................................................................5
What – Ventilation .............................................................................................................................................................6
What – Air volume and number of changes ............................................................................................................7
What – Thermal Comfort ................................................................................................................................................9
What – Airborne contaminants as related to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) .................................................. 10
What – Differential Pressure ...................................................................................................................................... 11
What – System Pressure ............................................................................................................................................... 12
What – Air Filters............................................................................................................................................................. 14
Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................................................ 16
Sources for Information Relating to Managing Mechanical HVAC Systems .................................... 17
Standards and Guidelines................................................................................................................................. 18
National Ambient Air Quality Standards..................................................................................................................... 18
Air Quality Guidelines ......................................................................................................................................................... 19
Glossary .................................................................................................................................................................. 20
Typical Mechanical Ventilation System ....................................................................................................................... 21
VTI Instruments from TSI ................................................................................................................................. 22
Notes........................................................................................................................................................................ 27
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INTRODUCTION
Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) relates to systems that perform processes
designed to regulate the air conditions within buildings for the comfort and safety of occupants or
for commercial and industrial processes or for storage of goods. HVAC systems condition and
move air to desired areas of an indoor environment to create and maintain desirable
temperature, humidity, ventilation and air purity.
Depending on geographic location and building construction, various types of interior climate
control systems help ensure that interior spaces are maintained at comfortable levels year-round.
With today’s energy conservation concerns, buildings are constructed to be much tighter,
reducing the level of natural exchange between indoor and outdoor air. As a result, more and
more buildings rely on mechanical conditioning and distribution systems for managing air.
A properly operated HVAC system finds the often-delicate balance between optimizing occupant
comfort while controlling operating costs. Comfort is an important issue for occupant satisfaction,
which can directly affect concentration and productivity. At the same time, controlling these
comfort and health parameters directly affects HVAC system operating costs in terms of energy,
maintenance and equipment life.
This handbook is not intended to be a comprehensive guide for all possible issues associated with
HVAC system operation and maintenance. There are volumes on the subject. Rather, it highlights
some measurements and techniques that can be used to evaluate HVAC systems for optimum
operation.
Building Design and Operation
Some basic considerations to address when
specifying the equipment needed to control and
condition the air should include the size and
physical layout of the building, which
determines equipment requirements such as
the size and type of fans, boilers, coils and
filters. A thorough understanding of the entire
system, from the outdoor air intake to the
furthest diffuser is essential to good system
design. It is also important to understand the
specific purpose of the space and activities
taking place. This will greatly influence the
building’s conditioning requirements. This further dictates appropriate equipment and the
capacity needed to meet those requirements. Design parameters must account for cooling load,
heating load, ventilation and filtration requirements. Other considerations that directly impact
the HVAC system include the number of people in each space, interior elements like wall
placements, furnishings and equipment that may create barriers to impede airflow and
distribution. Internal loads such as lights, computers and other equipment that may produce heat,
humidity or otherwise affect ambient air conditions must also be considered.
The design of air distribution equipment in today’s buildings presents challenges for the
mechanical engineer. Equipment selection must combine properly engineered products, which
efficiently provide conditioned air to the occupied space while blending in with the architectural
features of the interior. Considerable time and money can be spent developing and purchasing the
appropriate mechanical components, system controls, ductwork and piping. If components are
selected improperly, the HVAC system will operate inefficiently, not meet requirements and
create cost overruns to correct the situation. Since one aspect of the system affects another,
proper selection of every component, regardless of apparent significance, is imperative.
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Efficiency vs. Effectiveness
With any mechanical ventilation system, there is a trade-off between optimizing occupant
comfort and controlling operating costs. Common measurements for assessing effectiveness or
the level of comfort among occupants include a variety of parameters such as temperature,
humidity, air velocity, ventilation, vibration and noise. Individual perception plays a significant
role since comfort is both physical and psychological and can vary greatly by individual. What is
comfortable for one person may be too warm for the next and too cool for a third.
When maximizing the operating efficiency of a system, a number of factors must be considered
including fuel source and cost, electrical consumption, air filtration, equipment life, maintenance
costs and more. These expenditures are often very visible. Controlling them has a direct impact on
the day-to-day cost of building operation and can impact a company’s profitability. Reducing
HVAC operating expenditures to a point where occupants are dissatisfied has other costs
associated with it, including increased costs due to absenteeism, loss of people due to employee
turnover, recruiting, training and decreased productivity to name but a few. So it is important to
balance comfort against cost so both are optimized.
Special Considerations
Some situations require special attention with respect to
the HVAC system. This section lists a few examples from
the many situations where HVAC systems play a key role
in success or failure.
Some applications have strict requirements for precise
temperature and humidity control. These include food
processing, storage of perishables, certain industrial
processes, chemical processing and storage, computer
rooms, green houses and other applications where a few
degrees difference in temperature could mean the ruin
of costly product or equipment.
In some laboratories and health care facilities, the potential for the migration of dangerous or
infectious substances is a concern. Patients recovering from surgery, transplants or other immune
compromised conditions are especially prone to airborne infections and may require special
consideration with respect to filtration and ventilation. (TSI has published a brochure featuring
instrumentation for managing differential pressure in health care facilities. Visit our website at
www.tsi.com to view the brochure).
Cleanrooms in the semiconductor industry require very stringent filtration and control of
ambient air. Here, even a small breach in contamination control could mean the loss of a
considerable amount of valuable product.
Many buildings have adjacent or underground parking areas and controlling the introduction of
vehicle emissions into the building is imperative. Smoking restrictions have been implemented in
public buildings, restaurants and many corporate facilities. In general, proper exhaust and
ventilation is an important concern to rid the building of unwanted contaminants.
During construction or renovation, special attention must be paid to the HVAC system to contain
and control unwanted airborne contamination and prevent it from migrating to other areas of a
building. Maintaining negative relative pressure in the construction area is an important
consideration along with special filtration and, perhaps, dedicated exhaust.
Another matter regarding our national interest is protecting buildings from the infiltration of
dangerous material, particularly airborne nuclear, biological or chemical (NBC) agents. Here
special consideration must be given to controlling and protecting the outdoor air intake, filtration,
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the level of uncontrolled leakage and the ability of the system to purge a building. Mechanical
ventilation systems have various controls to regulate air flow and pressure in a building that can
be essential in an emergency response situation. In some cases, with sufficient time, it may be
wise to shut off the building’s HVAC and exhaust system to help prevent the introduction of NBC
agents. Other times, the system can be used to regulate pressure and airflow to control the
migration or spread of unwanted agents through the building. Special training for building
personnel may be required for them to recognize situations requiring certain action and be
familiar with the proper plan of action.
Indoor Air Quality
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a growing concern today. Concern with energy conservation has made
building construction nearly airtight, which, in turn, has made proper ventilation more important
than ever. People today are spending the majority of their lives indoors, more than 90% of the
time according to the EPA. Managing indoor air quality can have a big impact on the satisfaction,
productivity and health of occupants. Three general categories of contaminants can impact IAQ:
biological, chemical and particle related pollutants. The key to effective IAQ management is
finding and controlling the exact source of the contamination. It is not acceptable to treat
symptoms. The problems will not go away until the source is removed, repaired or controlled so
that creation and migration of unwanted pollutants is completely arrested.
TSI has published a practical guide to address some of the key issues in IAQ management today. It
can be viewed on the TSI web site at http://iaq.tsi.com.
Outdoor Air
An issue that is frequently overlooked and ends up being
dealt with after the fact is the impact of the surrounding
environment on a building. Too often, aesthetic consideration
places outdoor air intakes in areas of the building that may
be exposed to all sorts of problems. The quality of the indoor
air will be affected if an intake is facing heavy traffic,
industrial discharges, or other sources of unwanted
pollutants. Such situations may require special filtration,
could lead to premature loading of filters, increased
maintenance and cleaning costs and unexpected wear and
tear on the equipment. Corrective action may involve
upgrading to more effective filters or, in extreme cases,
relocating the outdoor air intake.
The EPA enacted the National Ambient Air Quality Standards
in reaction to the Clean Air Act passed in 1970. The Clean Air
Act established two types of national air quality standards.
Primary standards set limits to protect public health, including the health of "sensitive"
populations such as asthmatics, children, and the elderly. Secondary standards set limits to
protect public welfare, including protection against decreased visibility, damage to animals, crops,
vegetation, and buildings. The Clean Air Act requires the EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality
Standards (NAAQS) (see table on page 18) for pollutants considered harmful to public health and
the environment. The NAAQS is instrumental in providing guidelines for the location of outdoor
air intakes.
The EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) has set National Ambient Air
Quality Standards for seven principal pollutants, which are called "criteria" pollutants. They are
listed in the table on page 18, near the end of this book.
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Key Performance Measurements
What – Air handling equipment
The following are some examples of the many different types of HVAC systems available today.
Single-zone system—serves a single, temperature-controlled zone. Found in small shops or
computer rooms where the environment and usage generally remains the same.
Multi-zone system—delivers conditioned air to several zones from a single, central air-handling
unit. The zones served should have similar thermal load requirements such as offices or
classrooms. Conditions in each space are maintained by temperature controllers in each zone,
which vary the amount of heated or cooled air to be delivered.
Constant volume system—the volume of air delivered to an occupied zone by this system does
not change, or changes very little. The discharge temperature is controlled in the zone by a
temperature controller, which activates heating and/or cooling coils.
VAV (Variable Air Volume) system—air volume to a zone is adjusted via a damper that
responds to a zone thermostat controlling heating and cooling coils. VAV boxes can be found on
multi-zone system duct runs that are new to the building or are a considerable distance away
from the central air handler unit.
Heat pumps—a type of refrigeration system that draws out heated indoor air in the warm
weather to keep the occupied space cool, and removes heat from the outdoor air and transfers it
to the inside during cold weather periods.
Unit ventilator—a single, self-contained system found in hotel/motel rooms, schools, garages,
and other applications where individual room environments must be maintained separately.
Why
The HVAC system can be viewed as the cardiovascular and respiratory system of a building,
supplying clean conditioned air to all areas. The air handler is the heart of the system since this is
where outdoor air is drawn in, filtered, conditioned and mixed with return air. This “supply” air is
then distributed through a network of ducts to and from areas of
the building. Basic components include dampers, fans or
blowers, heating and cooling coils, air filters, boilers or furnaces,
compressors, ductwork to convey the air and diffusers or
registers to distribute the air evenly. A number of controlling
mechanisms, including thermostats, sensors and actuators, help
control the distribution of air throughout a building.
Routine preventative maintenance is the key to avoiding
premature wear and tear on components that can lead to repair
or premature replacement. Repair and replacement can be costly
and often lead to inconvenient, even unacceptable downtime.
There are situations, such as in hospitals, where unexpected
system downtime is simply not an option for a 24/7 operation. Therefore, it is critical to be aware
of the system’s condition and components, to perform routine cleaning and do minor repairs. This
will extend equipment life and allow for major repair or replacement to be scheduled at a time
when it has less impact on disrupting business. Over time, “dirt” can lead to the demise of an
HVAC system. At a minimum, unwanted contaminants can inflict damage to equipment that leads
to premature wear and tear, increased maintenance costs, increased cleaning costs and lower
operating efficiency.
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When
It is recommended that a regular, routine schedule be established for checking system
components. Some items may need inspection more often than others, so establish a procedure
that indicates when each element should be checked. Periodic inspection of components is critical
to identify and remedy potential problems at the earliest stage when corrective action can be
done in less time and usually at considerably less expense than waiting until failure occurs.
Where
Most of these inspections must be made directly inside the air handler and ductwork. Air handlers
often have access doors for performing inspections, service, repair or replacement. Other areas of
the air handler and ducts are often equipped with small access holes for inspection and taking
duct traverse measurements. These holes are re-sealed with a small plastic plug, which can be
removed for future measurements.
How
Outdoor air is introduced to the air handler through an inlet vent that is typically controlled with
a damper, either manually or mechanically operated. This outdoor air is mixed with the return
air, and this mixed air passes through an air filter. The filtered air may then be conditioned by
heating coils, cooling coils, moisture reduction devices, and humidifiers. The conditioned air is
then passed through a final filter and delivered via ductwork to all the zones of the building.
Damper positioning sensors, temperature controls, volume flow and humidity controls are some
of the measurement parameters that should be continuously monitored to give an indication of
system performance or to signal alarms if any control aspect is outside of acceptable limits. Fan
belt tension, clogged drain pans, dirty heating/cooling coils and fan blades, misaligned filters, and
other mechanical components may require visual inspections, performed on a periodic basis.
Economic implication—too often, the ventilation system is taken for granted until some sort of
mishap occurs. Unforeseen, preventable problems can have serious consequences, including work
stoppage, spoiled inventory, and unexpected equipment service or replacement costs. Many of
these problems can be prevented by implementing and following scheduled maintenance tasks.
What – Air velocity
Why
Fans are used to introduce, distribute, recirculate and
exhaust air in a building. Checking air velocity
periodically at various points assures that air is being
distributed as expected through the ventilation system.
Measurements should be made on both the supply and
return air sides of the system. Air movement or velocity
has an impact on perceived comfort by occupants.
When
Regular “spot” checks should be performed in different
locations throughout the building to be sure that the
system is performing as expected. Special attention
should be paid whenever something in the building changes that may impact the HVAC system’s
performance. Examples include switching over from heating to cooling, remodeling, rearranging a
space, enlarging or reducing the area being served and adding or subtracting people.
Where
Air velocity measurements should be made at diffusers or registers both on the supply and return
sides of the system. Measurements should be made in the ductwork, paying particular attention
to sections close to dampers, transitions, elbows, branches and take-offs to be sure air is moving
as expected throughout the system and that nothing is impeding air movement. For highest
accuracy, measurements should be made in a straight section of duct roughly the equivalent of
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7.5 duct diameters downstream and 3 duct diameters upstream from anything that may cause a
disturbance in air flow.
How
A number of instruments typically called “anemometers” reliably measure air velocity and
calculate air flow or volume. Some types use rotating vanes that measure air speed based on how
fast moving air turns a small windmill-like device. Other styles use thermal anemometer
technology that employ “hot wires” or thermisters that compare small changes in resistance and
display it as an air velocity measurement. Micomanometers are commonly used to measure duct
pressures and can also measure duct velocities when used with a pitot probe. Instruments can be
used to conduct real-time surveys and some instruments allow the data to be recorded so
different locations can be compared or a study can be done over time in a given location to help
assess system performance or occupant comfort.
Economic implication—proper ventilation, air velocity and even distribution are key
contributors to perceived air quality and comfort. People tend to perform better when they are
comfortable and offer fewer distractions to others due to complaints. It is good practice to make
routine checks to ensure the HVAC system is performing as expected in each occupied zone.
What – Ventilation
Why
Ventilation refers to the amount of fresh air supplied throughout the building. In the interest of
energy conservation, air is typically recirculated and mixed with some amount of fresh air at the
air handler. Introducing fresh air helps dilute any airborne contamination and exhausts it out of
the building faster. According to industry studies, over
half of the indoor air quality complaints reported can
be traced to problems in ventilation. ASHRAE Standard
62 offers detailed recommendations pertaining to
ventilation in occupied spaces.
When
Assessment should be done on a regular basis. In
climates with wide shifts in weather conditions, this
analysis should be done at a minimum when the system
is being changed over from heating to cooling and vice
versa. Ventilation should always be checked whenever
an occupant complaint triggers an investigation and
when changes or modifications are made to the HVAC
system or to physical characteristics of a building.
Where
Measurements need to be made in all occupied spaces
within a building. It is important to remember that in
buildings with multiple air handling systems each
system must be evaluated separately, almost like
another building.
How
A good indicator of proper ventilation in a space is the level of CO2, a natural by-product of
respiration, combustion and other processes. Elevated levels of carbon dioxide can be an
indication that additional ventilation or outdoor air may be needed. ASHRAE Standard 62
recommends that indoor levels not exceed roughly 700 ppm more than outside ambient
conditions. Higher levels of CO2 may cause slight drowsiness, enhance odors or give the
impression of stale air. Increased levels are rarely considered a health hazard since
concentrations up to 10,000 ppm can be tolerated by most people in good health without any ill
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effects. Reducing CO2 levels in an occupied space is accomplished by increasing the number of air
exchanges and/or percentage of outdoor air supplied to the conditioned space.
To ensure that a building is properly ventilated, it is important to take CO2 measurements in
occupied areas, air distribution zones, at varying heights and compare them to the outdoor level.
To get accurate data on CO2 levels in an occupied space, data should be logged over a period of
time so any fluctuations can be analyzed. CO2 levels will naturally fluctuate during the work day
based on occupancy and facility usage. During the evening hours, when the building is
unoccupied, CO2 levels generally drop. As the day begins and workers arrive, CO2 levels will tend
to rise.
Keep in mind that recommended guidelines should be followed closely so that too much fresh air
is not introduced unnecessarily. Careful regulation of the introduction of fresh air, which in turn
must be filtered, conditioned and distributed, will help keep energy costs down.
Many commercial systems employ a system control called Variable Air Volume (VAV) or ondemand ventilation. Monitors are placed in the system, usually in the return air duct, to measure
the level of CO2 or temperature or both. When the measured level falls outside some
predetermined “set points”, the monitor triggers an automatically controlled damper to increase
or decrease the amount of outdoor air introduced. Make sure that the system is in a fully
operating mode and not cycling automatically when taking ventilation measurements.
The percentage of outside air can be calculated with the following equation using either
temperature or CO2 levels:
% outside air 
return air measurement* – supplyair measurement*
x 100
return air measurement* – outside air measurement*
* measurement refers to either CO2 or temperature
What – Air volume and number of changes
Why
ASHRAE Standard 62 recommends a certain volume of fresh air be supplied to various areas in a
building, which is dependent on the number of people present and the nature of the activity
taking place. This is typically expressed as cubic feet per minute (cfm), cubic meters per hour
(m3/hr) or liters of air per minute (l/min) per person.
When
Proper volume flows and air exchanges per hour should be verified any time changes or
renovations occur that may affect the HVAC system. Volume flow verification should also be done
when there are increases in occupant complaints, higher than normal operating costs, odors,
abnormal ventilation noise or when changes in building differential pressures create noticeable
conditions such as unexpected drafts and difficulty opening doors. Fresh air volume and air
changes can be compared to recommendations in ASHRAE Standard 62. If measurements
conform to these guidelines, it is a good general indicator that the system is performing properly.
Where
Measuring volume flow can be accomplished in several ways:

Performing duct traverses with a thermoanemometer or micromanometer with pitot probe
and then doing the necessary conversions,

Using a capture hood directly on the supply diffuser or exhaust grille, or

With a micromanometer connected directly to a pressure based flow station or diffuser taps
to calculate flow using Kfactors provided by the manufacturer of the flow station and diffuser.
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How
First, the percentage of outside air being supplied to an area must be determined (see ventilation
section, page 6). Air velocity is rarely uniform in an air duct since the shape of the duct, frictional
forces, bends, branches, dampers and transitions all affect the movement of air. For this reason,
when average air velocity is used to determine volume flow, a special technique called the logTchebycheff method should be employed. As shown in the diagrams below, several velocity
measurements should be taken in the cross-sectional area of a duct to ensure the most accurate
estimate of average velocity is determined. This average velocity can then be multiplied by the
cross-sectional area of the duct (in square feet) to give an estimate of volume based on velocity.
ASHRAE Standard 111 has additional details on measuring air flow in ducts.
Location of measuring points for traversing round or rectangular ducts using the log-Tchebycheff method
Another method of obtaining air flow volume is through the use
of capture hoods which give a quick, direct reading of air volume
at a given location, such as an air diffuser. Capture hoods are also
very useful in balancing an HVAC system to ensure that the
correct amount of air is being supplied to each area and that
proper differential pressure relationships are maintained.
Note: Capture hood flow measurements can be affected by several
ventilation system parameters. Therefore, it is recommended that
capture hood readings be compared with those from a duct
traverse calculation. A properly executed duct traverse is
considered a reliable method for reference in making this
comparison and can be used to characterize system flow at outlet
diffusers. A field correction factor known as a ‘K’ factor can then be
applied to capture hood measurements to compensate for unusual
configurations that may impact the measured flow.
The percent outdoor air calculated in a ventilation assessment
can then be multiplied by the volume of air entering a space to
determine the amount of fresh air being delivered in cubic feet
per minute. Compare this to the recommendations in the tables
provided in ASHRAE Standard 62. The following gives a few
examples taken from Table 2 in the Standard.
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Application
Auditoriums/theaters
Computer lab
Conference rooms
Courtrooms
Dining areas
Hotel rooms
Lecture hall
Libraries
Main entry lobbies
Museums
Office space
Residential living areas
Retail stores (typical)
School classroom
School laboratories
cfm/person
(outdoor air)
10
10
5
5
7.5
5
7.5
5
5
7.5
5
5
7.5
10
10
Air flow can also be used to determine the number of air changes that occur in a space over a
period of one hour. This is accomplished by determining the supply air flow rate in CFH (cubic
feet per hour) and dividing it by the total volume of a given space (length x width x height) to
come up with the number of air exchanges per hour. Likewise, the calculated fresh air percentage
can be applied to this air change calculation to determine changes of fresh air over time in a given
space. The exchange of air between inside and outside is important in diluting and removing
unwanted contaminants.
What – Thermal Comfort
Why
The perception of thermal comfort varies by individual. Thermal
comfort is influenced by a combination of temperature, humidity,
and air flow and can be affected by parameters outside of the
HVAC system such as time of day, activity level, clothing, number
of individuals in a space and other factors. It can have a profound
impact on human concentration and productivity. If people are
uncomfortable, they may also distract other people with their
complaints. ASHRAE Standard 55 recommends temperature
range guidelines perceived as “comfortable” to be 74 to 82F (23
to 28C) during the summer and 68 to 78F (20 to 25.5C) during
winter. Most individuals generally consider an indoor relative
humidity level maintained between 30 and 65 percent to be
comfortable. The Standard suggests a goal of satisfying 80% or
more of the occupants.
A flow of air is created when a differential pressure condition exists between spaces, and a
sensation of draft is perceived when this difference is high enough. Drafts below 40 fpm
(0.20 m/s) are generally not noticed by occupants and, therefore, maintaining levels near this is
recommended. Too little draft may create a sensation of stuffiness or stale air.
When
Periodic checks in different locations throughout the building should be conducted to be sure that
the system is performing as expected. Special attention should be paid whenever something in the
building changes that may impact the HVAC system’s performance. Occupant complaints should
be investigated whenever they occur and appropriate corrective action taken.
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Where
Temperature can vary widely throughout a building and the sensitivity to temperature is
influenced by air movement, proximity to windows and doors, clothing worn and other factors.
Therefore, it will not likely be sufficient to set a temperature goal and adjust the system from one
location. Intermittent measurements should be taken throughout occupied spaces and the system
adjusted accordingly. Likewise, humidity measurements should be taken throughout all occupied
spaces to ensure that the HVAC system is distributing the desired amount of properly conditioned
air to all areas. Complaints of draftiness should be investigated by tracking air currents to their
sources. Remedies for undesirable draft may include redirecting diffuser throw patterns,
installing plastic “draft curtains” in open doorways, rebalancing a zone to get better supply and
exhaust flow correlation, along with other options.
How
As comfort pertains to the ventilation system, the key
comfort parameters involve temperature, relative
humidity, draft and ventilation. Measurements should
be taken in all occupied areas. Portable instruments that
measure these parameters in real-time or record values
over time are very helpful in making accurate
assessments and identifying areas where corrective
action may be needed.
Temperature, humidity, and air flow are often linked
together to provide a measure of thermal comfort.
ASHRAE Standard 55 offers guidelines and the chart
below illustrates thermal comfort ranges for summer
and winter. The objective is to adjust the system to
satisfy at least of 80% of the occupants.
Conditions
Summer (light clothing)
Winter (warm clothing)
Temperature / Humidity Ranges for Comfort
Acceptable Operating Temperatures
Relative Humidity
°C
°F
If 30%, then
24.5 to 28
76 to 82
If 60%, then
23 to 25.5
74 to 78
If 30%, then
20.5 to 25.5
69 to 78
If 60%, then
20 to 24
68 to 75
What – Airborne contaminants as related to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
Why
Some substances can become airborne and pose a threat to individual health, causing symptoms
ranging from temporary irritation to chronic problems and, ultimately, death in extreme cases.
Three basic groups of contaminants are of concern:

Gases or chemical vapors such as CO, NOx, SOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and
radon.

Particles, particularly those less than 4 microns in diameter defined as respirable.

Biologicals, including animal parts, bacteria, viruses and plants such as fungi, mold and
pollen.
While most individuals can tolerate many airborne contaminants, some people have acute
sensitivities to certain substances when they reach a threshold limit. In a group of people, for
example, only one individual may be affected. If complaints occur and it is suspected they may be
air related, they should not be treated lightly. An investigation should be done quickly, the
source(s) identified and remedial action completed in a timely fashion.
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When
Routine checking may be a good proactive measure. Any time a complaint is received and there is
reason to believe that it may be associated with airborne contamination, a complete investigation
is warranted to identify and isolate sources followed by determining and executing proper
corrective action.
Where
Identifying specific sources becomes the challenge in
dealing with airborne contaminants. They are driven by
air movement and differential pressure (high to low), so
often the “problem” is dispersed throughout an area. In
addition to differential air pressure and air movement,
unwanted contamination, including gases and airborne
particles, will migrate from relatively warm to cool
areas.
How
Surveys should be done in real time if possible, and in some cases depending on the contaminant,
it may be necessary to take samples and have them analyzed by an environmental laboratory.
Specific protocol for procedures and transport is usually provided by the laboratory when
conducting sampling for further analysis. In the case of biological substances, it is critical to
control moisture. Before any clean-up or treatment is done, make sure the source of any moisture
from plumbing, condensation or a breach in the exterior envelope is identified and corrected.
Unless the moisture source is removed, other efforts will probably end in vain. In addition to
cleaning the intake air through proper filtration, controlling air movement, differential pressure
and temperature within the building are the primary tools that will allow you to manage the
movement of airborne contaminants.
Economic implication—health insurance premiums increase, potential litigation, increased
absence, increased cleaning and maintenance costs, reduced equipment life, more frequent filter
changes can all have a negative impact on the operating costs of a building.
What – Differential Pressure
Why
Small airborne particles and gases are transported by air movement and will also migrate from
areas of relatively high to low differential pressure as well as from relatively warm to cool areas.
Managing differential pressure between the inside and outside and between different areas of the
building by regulating supply and return air volumes is a key means of controlling the migration
of unwanted contaminants. Verifying and maintaining building pressures is essential in
preventing infiltration of outdoor contaminants and moisture into the building envelope. If the
building is maintained at a negative pressure in relation to the outdoors, then the negative
pressure can “pull in” outdoor contaminants through gaps or cracks in the building structure.
Building pressures can also impact the difficulty of opening or closing doors to the outside, which
is a particular concern to the elderly or handicapped, especially in emergency situations.
When
Proper building pressures should be checked whenever renovation or reconstruction might affect
the HVAC system and alter its performance from the original design. Seasonal changes usually
involve a change over from winter to summer or summer to winter mode. If mixed signals are
sent to the automated controls affecting damper positioning for outdoor air or return air, for
example, then more or less air may be introduced, which could result in varying building
pressures and creating unwanted conditions.
HVAC Assessment Handbook
11
HVAC Assessment Handbook
Where
Monitoring differential pressures between a room and a hallway or anteroom is a common
practice with hospital isolation wards, laboratories, high-tech semiconductor manufacturing
plants and other critical areas. Maintaining a negative differential pressure within a lab or
isolation room helps prevent the spread of contaminants to the rest of the building. Measuring
duct static pressures and comparing them to previous measurements is a quick way of
determining if changes have occurred to the system flow rate. Taking velocity pressure
measurements within HVAC ductwork provides a means of determining how much airflow is
being delivered. This information can be used to balance the system to meet ventilation
specifications, cut down on operating costs and increase efficiency.
How
Pressure measurements are obtained using some type of analog or digital manometer.
Manometers have a positive and a negative pressure port that can be connected to a pitot-static
probe for performing duct velocity pressure measurements. The velocity pressure can then be
converted to velocity or volume flow rates using simple formulas. Most digital models perform
these calculations automatically. Differential pressure measurements between two separate areas
are accomplished by placing the meter with one pressure port open to atmosphere in one area,
connecting a hose to the other port and running it under a door or connecting it to a through-thewall pressure tap to another area.
Economic implication—controlling unwanted migration of contaminants from outside sources
or from within the building will reduce cleaning and maintenance costs. It can be used to help
control the spread of infectious or contagious diseases. Pressure controls will help contain the
migration of other airborne contaminants that may be irritating, harmful or even deadly.
What – System Pressure
Air pressure becomes an issue in the HVAC system itself. Fans or blowers bring outdoor air in,
mix it with some of the return air and then distribute the air to all parts of the area being served
by that system. System pressure actually has three components:

Static Pressure—the driving force to move air

Velocity Pressure—the additional force exerted when air contacts an obstruction

Total Pressure—the sum of static and velocity pressure
Fans are “sized” to meet the requirements of adequate air distribution. Characteristics of the
blower, including size and rotational speed, combined with the resistance of the ductwork
determine how much air is moving and the pressure in the HVAC system (see diagram below for
example of some HVAC components that can affect system pressure).
12
TSI Incorporated
HVAC Assessment Handbook
Why
Each element in a system such as a damper, filter or coil resists air flow, causing a pressure drop.
When the drops across each element are added together in a run, the result is total pressure loss.
Too much drop results in inadequate air volume, affecting the system’s ability to meet design
requirements and resulting in poor ventilation in a building. Another key consideration is that as
debris accumulates in filters or on the surface of other components, their resistance to air
movement increases. This increased resistance also decreases the volume of air supplied.
When
A routine schedule to check pressures across system elements should be established based on the
size of the system, maintenance costs, filter costs and activities in the building. Further testing
should be performed whenever there is a change in the building such as an addition, remodeling
or rearrangement. Variations from system design requirements should be investigated and
corrected before they lead to expensive repairs or replacement.
Where
Access holes in ductwork should be placed on the up and downstream side of components that
affect system pressure by causing a drop. Dampers, filters, and coils are examples of system
components that should be checked periodically.
How
Taking pressure measurements using a portable manometer can be done quickly and easily.
Manometers are equipped with a positive and negative port which can be connected to access
ports in the duct on each side of the element being checked. For supply side measurements, the
positive port should be positioned upstream and the negative, downstream. For return lines,
these should be reversed.
Economic implication—Routine checks along the system will help determine when cleaning is
necessary or filters need to be changed. Proactive monitoring of system pressure measurements
can be vital in reducing maintenance costs, extending the life of the equipment, maximizing filter
efficiency and preventing costly downtime.
HVAC Assessment Handbook
13
HVAC Assessment Handbook
What – Air Filters
Air filter elements capture particles and prevent
them from entering the conditioned air stream.
Filters are available in a wide range of sizes and
configurations depending on the application.
Examples of filter media include paper, sponge
foam, spun glass and pleated woven bags. Other
filters include electrostatic particle arresting
types where the filter media is electrically
charged to make it more effective in attracting
and capturing particles. Activated charcoal filters
are used to address unpleasant odors associated
with vapors or gases, but they should always be
used in conjunction with a particle filter.
Why
Filters are placed ahead of key system components mainly to extend life, reduce maintenance and
repair costs and prevent damage from dirt and other pollutants. A secondary usage for filters is to
prevent contaminants from dispersing throughout the ventilation system and into occupied areas,
which could pose health hazards or create a dirty, dusty environment.
When
It is recommended that filters be thoroughly checked each time they are changed to be sure there
are no tears or breaches and that gaskets are tight. Periodic checks between changes will ensure
that they are functioning properly and prevent unwanted particle contamination from entering
the HVAC system. Overlooking or minimizing the significance that air filters are properly installed
and functioning will decrease the life of system components, increase maintenance costs and
disperse contaminants throughout the building.
Where
Air filters are found in different locations depending on the application. Mechanical equipment
rooms, process and shop areas, storage areas, and warehouses typically have a pre-filter located
at the input of the air handler prior to the juncture of the outdoor and return air ducts. A
secondary filter may also be found after the fan but prior to the main trunk. The main purpose of
this filtration system is to remove larger particles and to protect the heating and cooling coils
from dirt build-up.
Analytical laboratories, cleanrooms, hospitals, pharmaceutical R & D areas and similar facilities
may have two different types of pre-filters at the air handler input, and also at the final filter stage
after the air handler. The pre-filters, having ratings of 75 to 85% arrestance and 25 to 40% dust
spot efficiency, remove a large number of the airborne particles. The final filters would then have
some higher efficiency rating like 98% arrestance and 80 to 85% dust spot efficiency. This type of
setup is very effective on fumes and smoke as well as particles.
How
A filter’s ability to stop particles is a function of several factors, including fiber material and
density, as well as particle characteristics such as size, shape, density, mass, electrical charge and
speed. As filters become loaded with particles, they become more and more effective in blocking
additional particles until they reach a point where they begin to impede air flow and tax the air
moving equipment. That can cause damage and shorten equipment life.
Today, most filters are evaluated based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2 and are assigned a MERV
(minimum efficiency reporting value) rating. This rating represents the resistance to particle
penetration based on ranges of average particle size and also shows a minimum pressure drop
across the filter. See table 2 on page 16.
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HVAC Assessment Handbook
The filter effectiveness ratings are determined by testing a
filter with a known number of particles of a given size at a
known air velocity and comparing the value to the number
of particles exiting the filter. In an actual installation, regular
checks using a particle counting instrument is an effective
means of evaluating filters to be certain they are performing
as they should, have no tears or holes and that gaskets and
support framing are tight.
Measuring the pressure drop across a filter is a cost effective
method for verifying filter and system performance. An air
filter should be changed when the filter fills up with debris and creates an excessive pressure
drop, resulting in reduced airflow through the filter. Periodic visual inspections and monitoring
the pressure drop across the filter with a mechanical or digital manometer is a simple solution for
general ventilation system maintenance.
Applications requiring contaminant-free air such as pharmaceutical labs, biological research labs,
hospital operating and intensive care rooms, isolation areas and some high tech assembly areas
require the use of HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Arresting) filters. These filters trap 99.97%
of all particles and are rated at 0.3 microns in diameter, a size which is among the most difficult
size to stop. The HEPA filter is composed of randomly positioned micro glass fibers woven into a
thick bed of material that may be several inches thick. There is no direct or straight line of flow
through the filter, but a random, twisted path that forces multiple particle impacts with fibers,
greatly increasing the chance of being captured.
Economic implication—optimizing filter usage involves careful monitoring of the filter’s
performance. An air filter’s efficiency actually improves as it traps material since the captured
particles actually help trap additional particles, but this is true only up to the point where the
pressure required to pull or push air through the filter exceeds the system design and may cause
damage to the system. The key is to not change filters too often, thereby adding to filter
replacement costs, but also not too infrequently to the point where air flow is impeded.
HVAC Assessment Handbook
15
HVAC Assessment Handbook
MERV
ASHRAE
52.1
Equivalent
Dust Spot
Efficiency
Composite Average Particle Size
Efficiency (PSE) %
Range 1
0.3 - 3.0 μm
Range 2
3.0 - 10.0 μm
Range 3
1.0 - 3.0 μm
Min. Final
Resistance
(in.wg)
1
N/A
-
-
E3 < 20%
0.3
2
N/A
-
-
E3 < 20%
0.3
3
N/A
-
-
E3 < 20%
4
N/A
-
-
5
N/A
-
6
N/A
7
Typical Controlled
Contaminants
Typical type
of Filter
Typical
Applications
Disposable
Prefilter
Washable
Roughing
0.3
Pollen, moss, insects
Dust mites, sanding
dust
Paint dust, textile
fibers
Roughing
E3 < 20%
0.3
Carpet fibers
-
20 < E3 < 35%
0.6
-
-
35 < E3 < 50%
0.6
N/A
-
-
50 < E3 < 70%
0.6
Powdered milk
Household and
cement dust
Hair spray, fabric
protection
Electrostatic
1" to 3"
Electronic AC
Electronic Air
Cleaner
Electronic
panel
Electrostatic
cartridge
Residential
Light
commercial
8
N/A
-
-
70% < E3
0.6
Pleated
Commercial
9
40 to 45%
-
E2 < 50%
85% < E3
1.0
10
50 to 55%
-
50 < E2 < 65%
85% < E3
1.0
Box filter
Residential
EACs
Paint booths
Heavier
commercial
11
60 to 65%
-
65 < E2 < 80%
85% < E3
1.0
Box filter
Health care
12
70 to 75%
-
85% < E2
90% < E3
1.0
13
80 to 90%
E1 < 75%
90% < E2
90% < E3
1.4
Bag filter
Industrial
EACs
14
90 to 95%
75 < E1 < 85%
90% < E2
90% < E3
1.4
15
> 95%
85 < E1 < 95%
90% < E2
90% < E3
1.4
16
-
95% < E1
95% < E2
95% < E3
1.4
Health care
Smoking
areas
Hospital
labs
Isolation
areas
General
Surgery
Mold spores
Nebulizer drops,
welding fumes
Coal dust, auto
emissions
Lead dust, milled
flour
Legionella,
humidifier dust
Copier toner, face
powder
Insecticide dust,
most smoke
Droplet nuclei
(sneeze) cooking oil
All bacteria, most
tobacco smoke
Box filter
Box filter
Box filter
Residential
Residential
Table 2. MERV 1 - 16 Air Cleaning Devices
Conclusion
Proper system design accounts for building type and size, layout, surrounding area, the nature of
activities taking place, the number of occupants, climate and other factors, making each situation
distinct. A good understanding of the entire HVAC system from the outdoor air intake to the
furthest diffuser is essential for good management.
In optimizing system operation, a number of economic factors must be considered, including fuel
source and cost, electricity consumption, filtration, life of the equipment, maintenance costs and
more. These must be balanced against occupant comfort and special manufacturing or storage
considerations.
Making and analyzing certain key measurements is essential for optimizing the HVAC system
performance. Information collected gives you the tools to make the correct decisions. More
information can be found in the Ventilation Test Instruments brochure that can be viewed on the
TSI web site at http://www.tsi.com/Ventilation-Test-Instruments/.
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TSI Incorporated
HVAC Assessment Handbook
SOURCES FOR INFORMATION RELATING TO
MANAGING MECHANICAL HVAC SYSTEMS
The following is a list of some of the organizations that may be able to offer additional
information on air quality, heating, ventilating and air conditioning issues.
Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) – www.acca.org
Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) – http://www.lightindustries.com/ARI/
Air Diffusion Council (ADC) – www.flexibleduct.org
American Council for Accredited Certification (ACAC) – http://www.acac.org
American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) – www.aiha.org
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – www.ansi.org
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) – www.astm.org
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) –
www.ashrae.org
American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) – www.asse.org
Building Air Quality Alliance (BAQA)
British Occupational Hygiene Society (BOHS) – www.bohs.org
Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) – www.boma.org
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) – www.cdc.gov
Heating, Refrigeration, Air Conditioning Institute of Canada (HRAI) – www.hrai.ca
Healthy Buildings International (HBI) – www.hbi.com.au
Indoor Air Quality Association (IAQA) – www.iaqa.org
International Facility Management Association (IFMA) – www.ifma.org
International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ) – www.isiaq.org
National Air Dust Cleaners Association (NADCA) – www.nadca.com
National Air Filtration Association (NAFA) – www.nafahq.org
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) –
www.cdc.gov/niosh/homepage.html
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) – www.nist.gov
National Institute of Health (NIH) – www.nih.gov
Sheet Metal & Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association (SMACNA) – www.smacna.org
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) – www.hhs.gov
U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) – www.osha.gov
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) – www.energy.gov
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – www.epa.gov
World health Organization (WHO) – www.who.int
There are also numerous seminars, training programs, trade publications, text books, web sites
and other media available that are dedicated to air quality, heating, ventilating and air
conditioning installation, operation, testing and maintenance. There are far too many to
adequately include in this guidebook.
HVAC Assessment Handbook
17
HVAC Assessment Handbook
STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
STANDARD
VALUE *
POLLUTANT
STANDARD
TYPE
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
1-hour Average
35 ppm
Primary
8-hour Average
9 ppm
Primary
100 ppb
Primary
53 ppb
Primary & Secondary
0.075 ppm
Primary & Secondary
0.15 µg/m3
Primary & Secondary
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
1-hour Average
Annual
Ozone (O3)
8-hour Average
Lead (Pb)
Quarterly Average
Particulate (PM 10)
24-hour Average
Particulate (PM 2.5)
24-hour Average
Annual
Particles with diameters of 10 micrometers or less
150 µg/m3
Primary & Secondary
Particles with diameters of 2.5 micrometers or less
35 µg/m3
Primary & Secondary
12
µg/m3
Primary
15
µg/m3
Secondary
1-hour Average
75 ppb
Primary
3-hour Average
0.5 ppm
Secondary
Annual
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
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TSI Incorporated
HVAC Assessment Handbook
Air Quality Guidelines
Parameter
Temperature
Limit/Range
Reference
TSI Instrument
Summer 74 to 82F
(23 to 28C)
Winter 68 to 78F
(20 to 25.5C)
ASHRAE Standard 552010
ISO 7730
Q-Trak
IAQ-Calc
Relative Humidity
30% to 65%
ASHRAE Standard 552010
ISO 7730
Q-Trak
IAQ-Calc
VelociCalc
Air Movement
0.8 ft/s or 0.25 m/s
WHO
ISO 7730
VelociCalc
DP-Calc
AccuBalance
Ventilation (fresh air)
15 to 60 cfm/person
minimum depending on type
of space
ASHRAE Standard 62.12010
Q-Trak
IAQ-Calc
Ventilation (CO2)
About 700 ppm over outdoor
ambient
ASHRAE Standard 62.12010
Q-Trak
IAQ-Calc
Particle Concentration in
Cleaned HVAC Systems
1.0 g/100cm2
NADCA 1992-01
P-Trak
DustTrak
SidePak
Ultrafine Particles
<1.0 micron
N.A.
N.A.
P-Trak
OSHA
NIOSH
EPA
ASHRAE
ACGIH
WHO
Q-Trak
IAQ-Calc
Carbon Monoxide
8 hr. TWA
1 hr. TWA
50 ppm
35 ppm
9 ppm
9 ppm (peak)
25 ppm
9 ppm
–
–
35 ppm
–
–
26 ppm
HVAC Assessment Handbook
VelociCalc
19
HVAC Assessment Handbook
GLOSSARY
20
Absolute Pressure
Pressure referenced to a vacuum or gauge plus atmospheric pressure
Air Handling Unit (AHU)
System elements including air intake, fan (blower), filters, coils and
humidification/dehumidification equipment
Airflow
The movement of air
Back Pressure
Static pressure increase due to restriction of air flow
Balancing
Adjustment of the HVAC system to ensure operation in accordance
with design
Diffuser
An outlet or grill designed to direct air into a desired pattern
Duct Traverse
A method of determining average air velocity in a duct, which can be
multiplied by the duct area (in square feet) to calculate air volume or
flow rate
Face Velocity
Air velocity perpendicular to a fume hood sash opening
Gauge Pressure
Pressure referenced to atmospheric pressure
Manometer
An instrument for measuring pressure
Pitot Tube
A small bent tube which measures velocity by means of differential
pressure
Return
The half of an HVAC system which returns air from various areas of a
building to some type of air handler
Rotating Vane
Anemometer
An instrument for measuring velocity related to revolutions over time
RTD
Resistive temperature device
Static Pressure
Force per area that would be exerted by a moving fluid on an object in
order to move it
Supply
The half of an HVAC system which delivers air from some type of air
handler to various areas of a building
Thermal Anemometry
A means of detecting air velocity using the heat loss of a heated wire
or film
Thermocouple Effect
Voltage developed by joining two dissimilar metals to measure
temperature differential
Thermometer
A device for measuring temperature
Velocity Pressure
Positive pressure caused by moving air; related to air speed squared
TSI Incorporated
HVAC Assessment Handbook
Typical Mechanical Ventilation System
COMMON HVAC SYMBOLS
UNIT HEATER
(PROPELLER)
UNIT HEATER
(CENTRIFICAL+)
UNIT
VENTILATOR
THERMOMETER
FLEXIBLE
CONNECTION
DUCTWORK WITH
ACCOUSTICAL LINING
FIRE DAMPER WITH
ACCESS DOOR
DAMPER
MANUAL VOLUME
DAMPER
AUTOMATIC
VOLUME
DAMPER
EXHAUST, RETURN
OR OUTSIDE AIR
DUCT – SECTION
SUPPLY DUCT
SECTION
CEILING DIFFUSER
SUPPLY OUTLET
CEILING DIFFUSER
SUPPLY OUTLET
FAN AND MOTOR
WITH BELT GUARD
FLOOR
REGISTER
TURNING
VANES
LOUVER
OPENING
LINEAR
DIFFUSER
HVAC Assessment Handbook
DIRECTION
OF FLOW
21
HVAC Assessment Handbook
VTI INSTRUMENTS FROM TSI
VELOCICALC®
Multi-Functional Ventilation Meter
Models 9565, 9565-A, 9565-P, 9565-X

Best-in-class air velocity accuracy

Optional “smart” plug-in probes, including VOC, CO2, and rotating
vane probes

Accommodates up to two K-alloy thermocouples

Large graphic display
o
Displays up to five measurements simultaneously
o
On-screen messages and instructions
o
Program for local language

Intuitive menu structure allows for ease of use and setup

Multiple data logging formats

Bluetooth communications for transferring data or remote polling

Includes TrakPro™ and LogDat2™ downloading software with
USB cable
VELOCICALC®
Rotating Vane Anemometers
Model 5725

Reversible 4-inch (100 mm) head to read supply and exhaust flows

Calculates volumetric flow rate when user inputs duct shape and
size, or area

Sampling function records multiple point measurements

Automatic averaging of air velocity

Simultaneously displays velocity and temperature

Sweep mode for one overall measurement

Optional 36-inch telescopic probe available
 Compatible with optional Aircone flow hoods
Data Logging Features
22

Logs 12,700+ samples with a time and date stamp

Recall, review, store data

LogDat2™ downloading software included
TSI Incorporated
HVAC Assessment Handbook
VELOCICALC®
Air Velocity Meters
Models 9535, 9535-A, 9545, 9545-A
(Model 9545)

Accurate air velocity measurement

Easy to read display

Simple to operate

Calibration certificate included

Simultaneously measure temperature and velocity

Displays up to three measurements simultaneously

Calculates volumetric flow and actual/standard velocity

Data log 12,700+ samples and 100 test IDs

LogDat2™ downloading software included

Articulated probe versions available (9535-A and 9545-A)

Measures humidity (Model 9545 and 9545-A)
ACCUBALANCE®
Air Capture Hood
Models 8371, 8380*
Model 8371:
(Model 8380)
HVAC Assessment Handbook

Variable time constant modes minimize display variations when
measuring fluctuating flows

K factor function enables flexibility for measuring a variety of
diffusers

Variety of hood sizes lets you take readings from most diffusers,
registers or grilles
 Back-lit display is easy to read in poor lighting conditions
Model 8380:

Ergonomic design and ultra light weight for easy, one-person
operation

Automatically senses and displays supply or return flows, saving
time on the job

Back pressure compensation ensures accurate readings

Detachable digital micromanometer offers flexibility to use in
multiple applications

Includes Swirl X Flow Conditioner for use with twist or swirl type
supply air diffusers

Only available outside of North America. Please see the Alnor
EBT731 for availability in North America.
23
HVAC Assessment Handbook
DP-CALCTM
Micromanometers
Models 5815, 5825, 8715*

(Model 8715)
Measure differential and static pressure from -15 to +15 in. H2O
(-3735 to +3735 Pa)
 Calculate and display velocity when using a Pitot tube
Added Features Model 5825:

Calculates flow

Variable time constant

Statistics

Data logging with time and date stamp

Stores 12,700+ samples and 100 test IDs

Includes LogDat2™ downloading software
 Programmable K factors
Features 8715*:

Accurately measures pressure, velocity and flow

Auto-zeroing pressure sensor

Automatic density correction

Intuitive menu structure

Integrated Log-Tchebycheff duct traverse calculations

Bluetooth communications

Includes downloading software with USB cable

Accommodates optional pitot, air flow (straight pitot),
temperature/relative humidity, velocity matrix, or
thermoanemometer probes for use in multiple applications

Large graphic display with backlight offers easy-to-use interface
*Model 8715 is only available outside of North America. Please see the Alnor EBT730 for
availability in North America.
Q-TRAK TM
Indoor Air Quality Monitors
Model 7575

Simultaneously measures CO2, CO, temperature and humidity

Calculates dew point, wet bulb and percent outside air

Large graphic display
Displays up to 5 measurements
o
On-screen messages and instructions
o
Supports 12 different languages
o
24

One instrument with multiple plug-in probe options including VOCs
and air velocity

Store up to 39 days of data collected at one-minute log intervals

TrakPro™ Data Analysis Software provided for data logging, analysis
and documenting results

Bluetooth communications
TSI Incorporated
HVAC Assessment Handbook
IAQ CALCTM
Indoor Air Quality Meters
Models 7515, 7525, 7545

Low-drift NDIR CO2 sensor for stable, accurate readings

Sampling function records multiple point measurements
 Ergonomic, overmolded case design
Models 7525 and 7545:

Temperature and relative humidity measurements help determine
thermal comfort

Calculates percentage outside air from either CO2 or temperature

Directly calculates dew point and wet bulb temperatures

Electrochemical sensor measures CO(Model 7545)

Displays up to three parameters

TSI LogDat2™
software permits
easy transfer of
data to a
computer

Data can be
reviewed onscreen, or
downloaded to a
computer

Statistics
function displays
average,
maximum and
minimum values, and the number of recorded samples
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
Indoor Air Quality Probes
Models 984, 985, 986, 987
HVAC Assessment Handbook

Pre-calibrated plug-and-play accessory probes for TSI Q-Trak
Monitor 7575, VelociCalc Meter 9565, and Airflow Instruments
TA465 Meter

Compact design with ergonomic handle

Four versions available with multiple measurement capability
o Model 984—Low concentration (ppb) VOC and temperature
o Model 985—High concentration (ppm) VOC and temperature
o Model 986—Low concentration (ppb) VOC, temperature, CO2 and
humidity
o Model 987—High concentration (ppm) VOC, temperature CO2 and
humidity
25
HVAC Assessment Handbook
Air Velocity Transducers
Models 8455, 8465, 8475
General Purpose (8455)
Model 8455
Model 8465
Model 8475

Protected probe tip

Rugged ceramic sensor

Wide range of measurement applications
 Fast response time
Windowless (8465)

Less flow blockage

Ideal for measuring in confined spaces
 Fast response time
Omnidirectional (8475)
26

Omnidirectional probe tip

Accurate at low velocities from 10 to 100 ft/min (0.05 to 0.5 m/s)

Ideal for unknown or varying flow direction
TSI Incorporated
HVAC Assessment Handbook
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HVAC Assessment Handbook
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HVAC Assessment Handbook
NOTES
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