Healthy Steps User Manual

Healthy Steps User Manual
User Manual
Healthy Steps
SM
An approach to enhanced primary care
of children from birth to three
Interactive Multimedia
Training & Resource Kit
CLINICAL
STRATEGI
ES
T
hese materials contain the opinions and ideas of their authors. They are sold with the
understanding that neither the publishers nor the funders are engaged in rendering medical,
health, psychological, or any other kind of personal professional services or advice. Physicians should
carefully review any material prior to its distribution to patients or their families to ensure that they are
in agreement with all statements contained therein. The publishers and funders specifically disclaim all
responsibility for any liability, loss, or risk, personal or otherwise, which is incurred as a consequence,
directly or indirectly, of the use and application of any of the contents of these materials.
The Healthy Steps Multimedia Training &
Resource Kit was developed by the Independent
Production Fund, which was primarily responsible
for the videos, in association with Toby Levine
Communications, Inc., which was primarily responsible for the development of the CD-ROM. It is
based on the work of the Healthy Steps Training
Team at the Boston University School of Medicine,
which was supported by The Commonwealth Fund.
© 2000 Independent Production Fund, Toby Levine
Communications, Inc., and the Boston University
School of Medicine Department of Pediatrics
Co-project Directors
Lisa Zbar, Independent Production Fund, New York, New York
Toby Kleban Levine, Toby Levine Communications, Inc.
Boston University School of Medicine Healthy Steps Training Team
Margot Kaplan-Sanoff, Ed.D., and Barry Zuckerman, M.D.,
co-directors
Steven Parker, M.D.
Andrea Bernard, M.A.
Kathleen Fitzgerald Rice, M.Ed.
Tracy Magee, M.S.N., C.P.N.P.
Patricia Lawrence, M.S.N., C.P.N.P.
Additional credits can be
found on page 48.
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION................................... 2
UNIT STUDY GUIDES....................... 11
TARGET AUDIENCES........................... 3
Unit 1. Healthy StepsSM: An Overview..12
WHAT’S
Unit 2. Starting a Healthy
StepsSM Practice........................16
IN THE
KIT?..........................3
The Healthy Steps Videos............3
The Healthy Steps CD-ROM.......3
Unit 3. The Healthy StepsSM
Office Visit.............................20
How the Elements
Work Together...........................5
Unit 4. Healthy StepsSM Home Visits.... 24
ADDITIONAL TRAINING
OPPORTUNITIES...................................5
Unit 5. Teachable Moments:
The First Year........................ 28
CD-ROM USER GUIDE......................6
Unit 6. Teachable Moments:
The Toddler Years...................32
Technical Requirements.............6
Installing the CD-ROM............. 6
Technical Assistance..................6
Getting Started..........................6
Sign-in Screen................... 6
First Use............................6
Subsequent Uses.................6
Overview...........................7
Main Menu....................... 7
Chapter Menus.................. 8
Unit 7. Gauging a Child’s
Development...........................36
Unit 8. Supporting Families:
Challenging Times,
Challenging Situations.............40
Unit 9. Family Factors Affecting
Children: Smoking, Depression,
Violence, and Addiction...........44
Using the Case Studies.............. 8
Accessing Your Notes..........9
Using Healthy Steps Resources.. 9
Printing Resources............10
Closing Adobe Acrobat.... .10
Duplicating Resources........10
Exiting the CD-ROM...............10
Accessing Your Operating System
While Using the CD-ROM.......10
1
INTRODUCTION
This kit is designed to help medical practices adopt a
new approach to primary care for very young children
— the Healthy StepsSM approach.
The enclosed videos and CD-ROM can be
used to introduce the Healthy Steps approach, to serve
as a reference after attending a training institute, to
review developmental milestones, to train new clinical
staff in developmentally oriented pediatrics, to help
pediatric and family medicine residents fulfill their
requirement in behavioral pediatrics, or to help physicians achieve recertification.
Healthy Steps for Young Children is a national initiative that focuses on developmentally oriented
pediatrics from birth to age three. It emphasizes the
importance of a close relationship between health care
professionals and mothers and fathers in addressing
the physical, emotional, and intellectual growth and
development of children in the early years. Healthy
Steps has been supported by The Commonwealth
Fund from the design stage onward, in a collaboration
that has been an unusually productive partnership,
augmented greatly by the active co-sponsorship of the
American Academy of Pediatrics.
These materials will help physicians
individualize the care of each child, with the focus on
the whole child and the whole family, and will help
clinicians and families build a relationship that
will get young children off to a good start. A
Commonwealth Fund survey of parents with young
children has documented the need for this approach.
The survey shows that the number one concern of
parents today is their child’s ability to learn and adapt
to the ever-changing world in which he or she will
live. Moreover, the survey documents that parents
want more information and support to address this
concern and that they listen to what their child’s
physician tells them. But the survey also reports that
clinicians are not discussing with parents their child’s
2
cognitive and emotional development, nor are all
parents routinely engaging in activities that nurture
their child’s healthy development, such as reading to
and playing with their child. Further, the survey found
that many clinicians do not regularly raise behavioral
issues, such as crying or toilet training, nor do they
typically address the clinically important and
troubling association between maternal depression
and daily child-rearing activities, including setting
limits and maintaining routines.
These materials respond to those issues.
They document child-rearing needs from birth to
three years, integrating medical care with behavioral
and psychological information in the context of an
expanded focus on normal growth and development.
They also address such issues as child safety in the
home, breast-feeding, and smoking. Methods include
using “teachable moments” — opportunities when the
practice team can share information that will increase
parents’ understanding about their young child
and about their roles as mothers and fathers. The
issue of maternal depression is addressed by helping
clinicians both recognize depression and encourage
its treatment.
In the Healthy Steps approach, an important
member of the pediatric or family practice team is the
Healthy Steps Specialist. That specialist is a nurse,
child development expert, social worker, or other professional who is particularly capable of sharing child
development information with parents and maintaining effective connections between the family and the
practice. The materials in this kit delineate clearly
how these tasks are accomplished through home and
office visits, telephone contact, and special materials
keyed to each well child visit. Healthy Steps also
stresses the importance of identifying and maintaining
strong relationships with other community resources
so that referrals can be made when necessary.
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
User’s
Views . . .
TARGET AUDIENCES
• Pediatric Nurse Practitioner
Training Programs
• Family Physicians
• Family Medicine Residency Programs
• Practice Administrators
• Family Social Workers
The major audiences for these materials
are as follows:
• Pediatricians
• Pediatric Nurses
• Pediatric Nurse Practitioners
• Early Childhood Specialists
• Pediatric Residency Training
Programs
• Pediatric Nurse Training
Programs
Teaching
observation
skills, tuning in
to what is
happening in
the family life,
and then
expanding on
that point.
Many clinicians pilot-tested parts of this package
as they were being developed. You will find their
reactions throughout this introduction under the
heading User’s Views.
WHAT’S IN THE KIT?
The Healthy Steps CD-ROM
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training &
Resource Kit consists of the following elements:
• 9 videos
• CD-ROM
The Healthy Steps CD-ROM uses text, audio, video
examples, video commentaries, video- and text-based
case studies, still photographs, and an extensive
database of reproducible resources to form an integrated
informational and training package for developmentally
oriented practices.
The Healthy Steps Videos
1. Healthy Steps: An Overview
2. Starting a Healthy Steps
Practice
3. The Healthy Steps
Office Visit
4. Healthy Steps Home Visits
5. Teachable Moments:
The First Year
6. Teachable Moments:
The Toddler Years
7. Gauging a Child’s
Development
8. Supporting Families:
Challenging Times,
Challenging Situations
9. Family Factors Affecting
Children: Smoking,
Depression, Violence, and
Addiction
When asked
what the main
theme of a
video was,
pilot users
said:
User’s Views . . .
The videos . . . showed how to
apply the information to my job.
I think the most important part of
it is that you are actually viewing
some interaction between parents
and the Healthy Steps team so that
you can get a better understanding
and apply [the suggestions] to
the practice.
I liked that . . . you could see how
the other members in the room
were reacting to the interaction of
the Healthy Steps team member as
well as to the child.
Identifying
problem areas
and concerns,
supporting parents about their
decisions, and
recognizing
cultural issues.
Special Features
• 4 Major Sections
• 23 Chapters
• 90 Interactive Case Studies
• 33 Video Commentaries
and Examples
• 45 Professional Readings
• 11 Quick Check Sheets
for Clinicians
• 11 LINKletters for Parents*
• 11 Parent Prompt Sheets*
• 50 Parent Handouts for
use during Year One*
• 30 Parent Handouts for use
during the Toddler Years*
• Child Health and
Development Record*
Respecting
families and
learning to
really listen to
parents.
* in English and Spainish
The [video] showed me how to
create situations where the parents
can tell you what they want from
you rather than answering questions. I felt like it broadened my
understanding and gave me other
ways to use teachable moments.
Introduction
3
User’s Views . . .
For people who are not used to
computers or haven’t had much
experience with computers, the
CD-ROM was very easy to use.
CD-ROM OUTLINE
Managing Healthy Steps
• Getting Ready
Clinical Strategies
• Creating Teachable
Moments
• Gauging a Child’s
Development
• Supporting Families
• Parent Groups
• Family Factors
• Home Visits
Child Development
and Behavior
• Relationships Are the
Key to Development
• The First Year
• The Toddler Years
Milestones from
Birth to Three
Each chapter contains a brief overview
of child development at the target age
and links to all resources on the disk
that relate to that age.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
3–5 Days
2 Weeks
1 Month
2 Months
4 Months
6 Months
9 Months
•
•
•
•
•
•
The narrator gives instructions at
the very beginning of each little
piece, and each heading is broken
down into different steps so that
you can click on exactly
what you want.
It was helpful and very specific.
It is also an important
interactive tool.
You could look at a problem at several levels. You can create your
own objectives and bypass things
that you are not interested in.
What I like best about the
CD-ROM is the ability to be able
to review a section over and over
again. It lays out everything that
Healthy Steps is and you can just
go to a particular section.
RESOURCES: This button
links to all Resources for families
and clinicians and is organized by
type of resource.
Family Resources include LINKletters, Parent
Prompt Sheets, Parent Handouts, and the Child
Health and Development Record. All are available
in both English and Spanish and are presented by
target ages.
12 Months
15 Months
18 Months
24 Months
30 Months
36 Months
Note 1: The immunization chart in the Child
Health and Development Record was last
updated in January 2000.
Note 2: All materials for distribution to families
should be reviewed to ensure that the
messages they present are in agreement
with those used by your practice.
The disk also contains a variety of supporting material
that can be accessed at any time:
OVERVIEW: A 41⁄2-minute presentation sets out the
principles on which Healthy Steps is based and identifies
the major strategies that distinguish a Healthy Steps
practice from other medical practices that serve young
children. The overview plays automatically the first time
an individual uses the CD-ROM. Thereafter, it can be
accessed via the bottom menu bar.
Clinical Resources include Quick Check Sheets
(organized by target age), Video Commentaries and
Examples (organized by topic), and Related
Readings (organized alphabetically by author).
Related Readings are journal and magazine articles
that provide either documentation or additional
information on the topic under study.
CASE STUDIES: This button leads to the complete set
of case studies organized by chapter. Case studies allow
you to see or read about specific behaviors and then
explain how you would use such behavior as a teachable
moment for parents. You can write in your thoughts and
save your responses to a private Notes file. Bear in mind
that these cases seldom have only one right answer or
approach. Discussing your responses with colleagues is an
4
excellent way to further your clinical skills and learn more about how
your colleagues approach various
situations.
In the chapter titled Creating
Teachable Moments under the
topic Teachable Moments from
Birth to Three, you will find
about two dozen video cases that
have an additional button on the
screen: What Others Have Said.
As you build your own clinical
proficiency in analyzing teachable
moments and discussing developmental and behavioral issues
with mothers and fathers, clicking
on What Others Have Said gives
you the benefit of looking in
on how other clinicians have
grappled with these cases.
Contributors to this section
include physicians, early
childhood educators, nurses, and
pediatric nurse practitioners.
CONTENT MAP: This button leads to a complete
outline of all material on the CD-ROM and allows you
to access any topic quickly by clicking on it.
NOTES: This button accesses your personal Notes
file that contains your own responses to all interactive
case studies.
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
HOW THE ELEMENTS
WORK TOGETHER
ADDITIONAL TRAINING
OPPORTUNITIES
All elements can be used individually or together as part
of an integrated learning system. Unit Study Guides
begin on page 11. Each Unit Study Guide contains the
following elements:
While this kit contains a wide variety of resources and
considerable information on implementing the Healthy
Steps approach, practices are encouraged to take advantage of opportunities for face-to-face training with
members of the Boston University School of Medicine
Healthy Steps Training Team. For further information
on how such a program can be tailored to your
needs, contact:
•
•
•
•
An overview of the unit
Unit objectives
Key concepts
A synopsis of the video including the
clinicians seen
• A list of related CD-ROM sections
• Questions for reflection and discussion that can
be used by both individuals and groups to
further learning and reinforce key principles
Healthy Steps—Attention: Margaret LaVoye
MAT Building 5th Floor
Boston Medical Center
1 Boston Medical Center Place
Boston, MA 02118
Telephone: 617-414-3665
The primary purpose of the videos is to show
how a developmentally oriented pediatric
practice looks and to provide developmentally oriented
practices with models they can use to norm their own
decisions and behaviors. Because video is a medium that
is better at telling stories and showing behaviors than it is
at providing didactic information, all aspects of a developmentally oriented practice that are introduced in the
videos are covered in greater detail on the CD-ROM.
The videos range in length from 12 to 25 minutes and are documentary in style. This means that no
actors have been used and all of the people you see and
hear are either members of Healthy Steps teams in developmentally oriented practices or family members who use
those practices.
Video is a good medium to introduce a unit and
to provide an understanding of the Healthy Steps
approach to all members of a practice team. It also can
help introduce Healthy Steps to clinicians who have
joined a practice that has already adopted the Healthy
Steps approach.
The CD-ROM organizes all of the project’s text
and print-based resources and combines them
with video examples and interactive case studies. The
CD-ROM is both an interactive learning tool and a reference work. Each Unit Study Guide indicates which
CD-ROM topics are most closely related to the video
under study. The CD-ROM enables users to go deeper
and deeper into a particular topic as time permits. Users
are encouraged to complete the case studies on the
CD-ROM and to share their
responses with their colleagues
User’s Views . . .
through discussion and case
management meetings.
The video can be useful as part of
a group workshop on a particular
subject, whereas the CD-ROM is
more of a resource that you would
use individually.
Introduction
5
CD-ROM
USER GUIDE
Getting Started
Technical Requirements
For PCs
•
•
•
•
•
•
Windows 95 Operating System or later
166 Pentium II Processor with MMX
32 MB RAM
16 MB hard drive space
8x CD-ROM
Sound Blaster-compatible sound card
with speakers
• SVGA video card
• Color monitor capable of supporting
256 colors
Hint: To maximize color compatibility with the Healthy
Steps program, from the Start menu, choose Settings,
then Control Panel, then Display, then Appearance.
Select Windows Standard from the drop-down menu
under Scheme and dark blue under Color.
For Macintoshes
• Macintosh OS 7.6.1 or higher
• PowerPC Processor (604 optimum)
• 32 MB RAM
• 16 MB hard drive space
• 8x CD-ROM
• 256-color monitor
Hint: To maximize color compatibility with the Healthy
Steps program, select Control Panels from the dropdown Apple menu, then Appearance, then Appearance
again. Set the appearance to Apple Platinum and
choose blue or grey for your Highlight Color and
Variation.
Installing the CD-ROM
Select the disk that is appropriate for your computer’s
operating system. One CD-ROM is for use in Macintosh
systems; the other is for PCs. Put the Healthy Steps CDROM disk in your CD-ROM disk drive and watch your
screen. The disks include an automatic installation program. On the PC, follow on-screen directions. On the
Mac, double click on the Healthy Steps CD-ROM desktop icon and then on the Healthy Steps Installer folder.
Technical Assistance
If you experience difficulty with installing or using the
CD-ROM, first check that your computer meets the
technical requirements for the program. Then close all
other programs, including Healthy Steps. Start Healthy
Steps again and see if you experience an improvement.
If you are still having difficulty, call: 1-800-727-2470.
6
Once you have completed the installation, look for
Healthy Steps in your Program directory. When you
click on Healthy Steps, the program should start
automatically. Healthy Steps will play most efficiently if
all other programs on your computer are closed.
You will first hear a whirring sound on your
CD-ROM drive as the machine prepares to read the disk.
You will know the program is starting when you hear the
Healthy Steps theme music. You can exit from this screen
at any time by clicking anywhere on the screen.
Sign-in Screen
The purpose of this screen is to create a file that saves
your personal notes. The notes will be saved to the hard
drive of the computer on which you are working. To
access them in the future, you need to work on the same
computer. Alternatively, you can transfer your Notes file
to a floppy disk and use it on other computers. The file
will have the name you used to sign in.
First Use
On your first use, select New User.
Enter your First Name.
Press Tab.
Enter your Last Name.
Press Enter.
You may choose to use initials or an identifying code
in place of your name.
You will see two other options on the
New User screen.
Return will take you back to the Sign-in
screen. Use this option if you have made an
error and want to start again or realize that
you already have a file started.
Exit will cause you to leave the
program entirely.
If this is your first time using the program, once you
press Enter, the Overview will start immediately.
Subsequent Uses
On subsequent uses, when the Sign-in screen appears,
choose Current User. This will bring up a list of individuals whose files are stored on the hard drive of the
computer on which you are working.
Click on your name (or the identity you
have chosen).
Click on Enter.
This will take you directly to the Main Menu.
If you do not see your name, click on Return and sign
in as a New User.
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Overview
This multimedia presentation introduces all the elements
that distinguish a developmentally oriented practice from
a traditional pediatric practice. It is approximately
41⁄2-minutes long. The first time you use the program the
Overview will play automatically after you have signed
in. On subsequent uses, you can access the Overview
from the bottom menu bar.
Main Menu
The Main Menu gives you the big picture of everything
that is part of the Healthy Steps CD-ROM and where it
is located. The program has four main sections, each
shown as a cube:
Managing Healthy Steps
Clinical Strategies
Child Development and Behavior
Milestones from Birth to Three
When you roll over a cube with your cursor, all Chapters
associated with a particular Section appear on the right.
For example, if you roll over Clinical Strategies, you will
find the following list of Chapters in that Section:
Creating Teachable Moments
Gauging a Child’s Development
Supporting Families
Parent Groups
Family Factors
Home Visits
Click on any of these Chapters to begin.
• Creating Teachable
Moments
• Gauging a Child’s
Development
• Supporting Families
• Parent Groups
• Family Factors
• Home Visits
CD-ROM User Guide
7
Using the Case Studies
Throughout the program you will find
numerous Case Studies. These are meant
to give you clinical practice in analyzing
particular behaviors and responding to a
variety of situations by using teachable
moments. Some Case Studies are videobased; others are text-based.
CLINICAL
STRATEGIES
You can access Case Studies in three ways:
Finding Teachable Moments
1 From within a Chapter: Each Chapter
includes a Topic named Case Studies. When
you click on it, a list of Case Studies relating
to the content of that chapter will appear.
Teachable Moments
In The Office
2 From the bottom Menu Bar: This
will display all Case Studies on the disk
organized by Chapter.
Chapter Menus
When you click on a Chapter title, the Chapter Menu
appears and an audio narration begins. This narration
provides an overview of what is in the section. All narration can also be read as text. Audio narration is italicized
on screen. Once you have heard the narration, you may
prefer to turn it off. You will find a box on the sign-in
screen that allows you to do so.
The left-hand section of each Chapter Menu
lists all the primary Topics in that chapter. When you
click on a Topic, text will appear on the right.
3 From Milestones: This will display Case Studies
organized by each of 11 age-related milestones from birth
to three. Note that because not every Case Study is associated with children of specific ages — some are management-oriented, for example — this section does not contain a complete list of Case Studies.
Case Studies have a common format and method of use.
To access a particular Case Study, click on the title of
the Case in the box at the left. This will bring up an
upper screen and a lower screen on the right.
Upper Screen: If the Case is text-based, the case
itself will be on the upper
screen. If it is video-based,
you will see a video screen
and video controls. Start
the video by clicking
on ÷. You can make the
video screen larger by
clicking on Maximize; you
can return it to its original
size by clicking on
Minimize. You can stop the
video by clicking on ■.
Lower Screen: The
lower screen contains the
interactive part of the
program. First, you will
see the direction To
Think About. This
direction is followed by
one or more questions.
Each question is followed
by the words Your
Thoughts. When you
click on Your Thoughts,
a dialog box will appear
8
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
in which you can write in your own
responses to each question. If you
wish to save your answer, click on
Save at the lower right before you
go to another section and your
answers will be saved to your personal Notes file.
Hint: Your responses will not be
saved automatically. You must click
on Save before you leave the
screen.
Accessing Your Notes
To review your Notes, you must be working
at the same computer on which you saved
your Notes and you must have signed in
using the same name under which you
worked when you created the notes. Click
on Notes on the bottom menu bar. A screen
will appear that shows every chapter. Click on the
chapter you want to review and your notes will appear.
Hint: If you want to move your notes to a different computer, copy them from the c:\HSteps
directory of Computer A onto a floppy disk and
then copy them from the floppy disk to the
c:\HSteps directory of Computer B. Make sure
that Healthy Steps has been installed on
Computer B first.
CD-ROM User Guide
Using Healthy Steps Resources
To view a Resource, click on the title that interests you
and then click on Open in the lower right-hand corner.
In a few seconds, the Resource that you have chosen will
appear in Adobe Acrobat, a software program that
enables you to view a graphically enhanced page. Adobe
Acrobat is part of the Healthy Steps CD-ROM and does
not need to be purchased or downloaded.
9
You may print the list of available resources by clicking
on Print.
Printing Resources
To print the actual resources, you must be in
Adobe Acrobat. This program will activate as
soon as you click on Open for a particular
resource. Printing in Adobe Acrobat is similar to
printing from other Word Processing and
Graphics software. Click on File on the upper
menu bar and then select Print from the dropdown menu.
Closing Adobe Acrobat
You close Adobe Acrobat the same way in
which you would close other Word Processing or
Graphics software: click on the X in the upper
right-hand corner or select Exit from the dropdown menu under File.
Hint 1: If you want to view several resources in a
row, close each individual file when you complete your review of it but keep Adobe Acrobat
open. This will save loading time.
Hint 2: You can return to the Healthy Steps
screen from Adobe Acrobat by pressing Alt-Tab.
Exiting the CD-ROM
You can exit the program at any time by clicking on
Exit on the right end of the lower menu bar. The program will always ask you: “Do you really want to Exit?”
10
Accessing Your Normal
Operating System While
Using the CD-ROM
You can access your regular computer screen
by pressing Alt-Tab. You need to do this after each use
of a Resource in Adobe Acrobat.
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Healthy StepsSM
UNIT
STUDY
GUIDES
11
UNIT
1
HEALTHY STEPS :
AN OVERVIEW
SM
Unit
Overview
This unit can be used to introduce the Healthy Steps approach to physicians, office administrators, medical office staff, and members of the community. It presents the major themes of the approach: providing mothers and
fathers with information about child development that they want and need;
establishing caring and supportive relationships between the practice and
the family, within the family, and within the practice; building on the belief
that all behavior has meaning and can be used as a teachable moment; consistently seeking opportunities to increase the self-understanding of mothers
and fathers as well as their knowledge of their child’s development and
behavior; and promoting family health and home safety in the interest of
healthy children.
Unit Objectives
After viewing the video and the
Overview portion of the CDROM, users should be able to:
÷ Identify the key Healthy
Steps strategies and tell how
each strategy furthers the goals
of the Healthy Steps approach.
÷ Describe the roles and relationships of various members of
the interdisciplinary Healthy
Steps team.
÷ Discuss how a developmentally oriented practice differs from a
traditional pediatric or family
medicine practice and describe
the ways in which it provides
mothers and fathers with desired
information and services.
12
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Key
Concepts
÷ Healthy Steps is an approach to primary care for children from birth to three
that increases a medical practice’s ability to address children’s behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development during these important early years.
÷ Healthy Steps also looks at the well-being of the whole family in the interest
of the young child.
÷ Healthy Steps practices form a strong bond with mothers and fathers, supporting their desire for greater understanding of their children’s needs at different
stages through information, special services, and access to community resources.
÷ To accomplish its goals, Healthy Steps adds a professional or trains someone
already in the practice. Called a Healthy Steps Specialist, this individual specializes
in issues related to child development and family factors, referring medical questions
to the practice’s doctors and nurses. Healthy Steps Specialists have varied backgrounds including pediatric nursing, early childhood education, and social work.
÷ The seven major strategies of Healthy Steps are:
• Enhanced well child care
• Home visits
• Child development and family health checkups
• Special written materials
• Access to a child development telephone information line
• Links to community resources
• Parent groups
÷ Healthy Steps practices also participate in the national Reach Out
and Read program.
÷ Healthy Steps clinicians frequently use a technique called “teachable
moments.” Teachable moments help parents better understand how behavior is
related to their child’s developmental stage, e.g., why a child who has developed
the concept of object permanence will cry when a parent leaves the room.
÷ Clinicians can learn what issues are important to mothers and fathers and create teachable moments by asking open-ended questions, listening carefully to the
responses, and probing when necessary to be sure that the issue of importance to
the family has been identified.
÷ Healthy Steps provides mothers and fathers with the information and support
that they want and need and helps physicians accomplish the goals that they
established early in their careers.
Unit 1: Healthy Steps: An Overview
13
continued
UNIT
1
HEALTHY
STEPS:
AN
OVERVIEW
The
Video
Healthy StepsSM: An Overview
This video shows Healthy Steps at work in a variety of medical practices in different
parts of the country. Physicians and parents demonstrate the advantages of this developmental approach to primary care for young children. A major focus of the video is
on the addition of a new member of the practice team called a Healthy Steps
Specialist. Healthy Steps Specialists from a variety of academic backgrounds, including nursing, early childhood education, and social work, demonstrate the ways in
which they enhance the work of the practice. The video also shows the seven major
Healthy Steps strategies in action.
The video features the
following clinicians:
• JO ANN ALLEN, R.N.,
Healthy Steps Specialist,
Advocate Bethany Hospital,
Chicago • JENNIFER ALONSO,
R.N., Healthy Steps
Specialist, Cornell Medical
Associates, New York City
• CATALINA ARIZA, M.Ed.,
Healthy Steps Specialist,
Advocate Ravenswood
Maternity Family Health
Center Hospital, Chicago
• ANITA BERRY, R.N., P.N.P.,
Healthy Steps Specialist,
Advocate Good Samaritan
Hospital, Downer’s Grove,
Illinois • T. BERRY
BRAZELTON, M.D.,
Pediatrician, Harvard
Medical School, Boston
The
CD-ROM
14
(Length: 15:18)
• CHRISTOPHER CLEMENS,
M.D., Pediatrician, Cornell
Medical Associates, New York
City • SUSAN CURLEY,
M.S.Ed., Healthy Steps
Specialist, MGH Revere
Health Center, Revere,
Massachusetts • PATRICIA
GARZA, R.N., Healthy Steps
Specialist, South Texas Center
for Pediatric Care, San
Antonio • SCOTT GOVERNO,
R.N., M.S.N., F.N.P., Healthy
Steps Specialist, Pediatric
Associates of Florence, South
Carolina • REBECCA HOBART,
M.S.W., L.C.S.W., Western
Colorado Pediatric Associates,
Grand Junction • MARGOT
KAPLAN-SANOFF, Ed.D., Child
Development Specialist,
Boston University School of
Medicine • STEVEN PARKER,
M.D., Pediatrician, Boston
University School of Medicine
• SABRINA PROVINE, R.N.,
Healthy Steps Specialist,
Advocate Bethany Hospital,
Chicago • CATHY RUTMAN,
R.N., Healthy Steps
Specialist, ABC Family
Pediatricians, Allentown,
Pennsylvania • MICHAEL
SCHWARTZ, M.D., ABC
Family Pediatricians,
Allentown, Pennsylvania
• SILVANA SHLIAPOCHNIK,
M.D., Family Physician,
Advocate Ravenswood
Maternity Family Health
Center, Chicago
• BARRY ZUCKERMAN, M.D.,
Pediatrician, Boston
University School of
Medicine
The Overview on the CD-ROM is the key section to review. The Overview will
play automatically the first time you use the CD-ROM. Thereafter, you can access
this section by clicking on the word “Overview” on the bottom menu bar.
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Questions
for
Discussion
and
Reflection
1. What makes Healthy Steps different from other approaches to primary
care for children?
2. What are the seven key strategies of Healthy Steps?
3. What are some of the advantages that parents see in a Healthy Steps practice?
4. What are some of the advantages that physicians see in a Healthy Steps practice?
5. How do Healthy Steps clinicians view their relationship with mothers and
fathers?
6. What is the role of the Healthy Steps Specialist and why is the addition of this
individual important in a Healthy Steps practice?
7. Child development specialist Margot Kaplan-Sanoff says that Healthy Steps
offers parents many venues in which they can talk about issues that are of concern
to them. What are some of these venues and why is this array of choices important?
8. Dr. Michael Schwartz talks about the value of the extra time that a Healthy
Steps Specialist can spend with a family. How would the addition of a Healthy Steps
Specialist help the families in your practice?
9. What is the value of adding a Reach Out and Read program to your practice?
10. In what ways is a home visit likely to differ from an office visit? Why is this
important?
11. In what ways does
Healthy Steps consider the
health of the whole family in
the interest of a healthy child?
12. Which of the following
Healthy Steps components
does your practice currently
use: a child development telephone information line, home
visits, parent groups, parent
handouts and other special
written material, community
referrals? Which components
would you like to learn
more about?
Unit 1: Healthy Steps: An Overview
15
UNIT
2
STARTING A HEALTHY
STEPS PRACTICE
SM
Unit
Overview
This unit focuses on the process of preparing to become a Healthy Steps practice. Two critical success factors for Healthy Steps concern how well a practice
plans for the changes in staffing and services that it will undergo and how well
everyone on the team is oriented to and trained in the Healthy Steps approach
and strategies. It is vital that someone take charge of this process and ensure
that all members of the team are committed to its success. That person will most
likely be the practice administrator or lead physician.
Unit Objectives
After viewing the video and
completing the related CDROM sections in Managing
Healthy Steps, users should
be able to:
÷ Provide a rationale for
becoming a developmentally
oriented practice.
÷ Determine who will lead the
process of becoming a Healthy
Steps practice.
÷ Identify a step-by-step management approach in terms of
obtaining buy-in from upper
management, providing ongoing leadership, hiring appropriate personnel, providing administrative support (phones,
scheduling system, office space,
etc.), and developing ongoing
systems for interdisciplinary
communication.
16
÷ Discuss the nature of organizational change and how principles of organizational change
can be applied to a practice that
is adopting a developmental
approach to primary care for
young children.
÷ Show how Healthy Steps
fits into and expands upon
other developmentally oriented
efforts in which a practice
may already be involved, e.g.,
parent groups, Reach Out and
Read, distribution of parent
handouts.
÷ Recruit or train someone in
the practice to be a Healthy
Steps Specialist. This team
member should have a background in child development,
the ability to communicate well
with parents, and the sensitivity
to work as part of an interdisci-
plinary team while respecting
individual roles.
÷ Identify the kinds of changes
to the office facility that are
needed to communicate that
the practice is a nurturing and
open environment that supports
the needs of mothers and
fathers and is as interested in
children’s development, behavior, and temperament as it is in
their health.
÷ Determine how physicians
and Healthy Steps Specialists
will structure well child visits.
÷ Identify the impact of
Healthy Steps on personnel and
facility scheduling and develop
a plan for modifying the existing scheduling system to accommodate Healthy Steps.
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Key
Concepts
÷ Change is hard . . . and threatening to some. It takes time, an ongoing
commitment, leadership, and continuous communication among all members
of the team.
÷ Healthy Steps adds a child development specialist to the medical team or
trains someone already on the team. This individual may already be part of your
practice or may need to be recruited. Look for people who are knowledgeable
about child development from birth to three and experienced in working with
families. The number of specialists that a practice will need depends on how
many new babies come into the practice each month.
÷ Training in specific Healthy Steps strategies and more generally about the
Healthy Steps approach to primary care for young children is a key part of the
start-up process. Training is available from the Boston University School of
Medicine and through this package of materials. A practice will need to decide
who will participate in training and the manner in which they will be trained.
÷ Regularly scheduled meetings will help the staff to work as a smoothly functioning interdisciplinary team. Some meetings should include the entire office
staff so that everyone understands and is committed to the same goals.
÷ The right scheduling system can make the difference between chaos and clarity. In developing such a system, consider: the number of people who need to be
available to see the family during a well child visit, e.g., the physician, the pediatric nurse, and the child development specialist; the amount of time each clinician needs with the family and whether these visits will overlap; and when child
development specialists need to be out of the office on home visits.
÷ Some space planning may be necessary to accommodate new staff and new
services. Child development specialists will need office space, computers, files,
materials, and access to typical office services. A room in which Healthy Steps
Specialists can conduct developmental checkups may be needed.
÷ The time to network, survey, and
build relationships
with community
resources is during
the start-up process.
Unit 2: Starting A Healthy Steps Practice
17
continued
UNIT
2
STARTING A
HEALTHY
STEPS
PRACTICE
The
Video
Starting a Healthy StepsSM Practice
(Length: 12:25)
This video visits two medical practices to see how they planned for and successfully
adopted Healthy Steps: ABC Family Pediatricians in Allentown, Pennsylvania, one
of the first Healthy Steps practices in the nation, and Western Colorado Pediatric
Associates in Grand Junction. Clinicians in each location discuss the challenges
that they faced and how they overcame them, stressing the concepts of commitment,
leadership, personnel, training, scheduling, teamwork, communication, and
space planning.
The video features the
following clinicians:
• ABC Family Pediatricians,
Allentown, Pennsylvania:
MiCHAEL SCHWARTZ, M.D.,
Pediatrician; TERRY THOMAS,
The
CD-ROM
M.S., Healthy Steps Specialist
• Western Colorado Pediatric
Associates, Grand Junction:
CATHIE CLARK, R.N., M.S.A.,
Healthy Steps Specialist;
WILLIAM FINDLAY, M.D.,
Pediatrician; CAROL
SCHLAGECK, Practice
Administrator; BARBARA
ZIND, M.D., Pediatrician
• Healthy Steps Chicago:
GAIL WILSON, B.S.N., M.S.,
M.P.H.
The key sections of the CD-ROM that relate to this unit are listed below.
MANAGING HEALTHY STEPS:
Getting Ready
÷ Overview
÷ Understanding Change
The Process of Change
Critical Success Factors
Key Decisions
The Importance of Communication
÷ The Healthy Steps Team
Physician/Pediatric Nurse Practitioner
Healthy Steps Specialist
Nursing Staff
Office Staff
Orienting the Team
÷ Advance Planning
Preparing the Office Suite
Setting Up Equipment
Establishing Community Connections
Planning Time Line
Estimating Costs
÷ Training and Technical Assistance
The Healthy Steps Training Institute
Technical Assistance
Healthy Steps Videos
Healthy Steps CD-ROM
Staff Turnover
÷ Case Studies
18
÷ Related Reading
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Questions
for
Discussion
and
Reflection
Facilitator’s
Note:
In addition to the
questions here, the
Management Case
Studies section of the
Getting Ready for
Healthy Steps chapter
on the CD-ROM
includes a number of
interactive exercises
that can be used as
decision-making tools
in the start-up
process.
1. The practice administrator is key to a successful Healthy Steps practice. What
responsibilities will this individual have in your practice (e.g., developing and implementing a scheduling system; arranging for facilities, equipment, and supplies)? Who
is the best person to fulfill these responsibilities? Does that person have the necessary
authority and access to solve problems as they are identified?
2. Healthy Steps offers a number of ways in which physicians and Healthy Steps
Specialists can work together to enhance a well child visit. What do you think are
the advantages and disadvantages of these clinicians seeing the family together or
seeing the family sequentially? Which method feels as if it would work best for your
practice? Why do you think so? If members of your team will see the family separately for at least some part of the visit, how will they communicate critical information
to one another?
3. One of the challenges for physicians and nurses has been sharing their relationship with a family with other members of the interdisciplinary team. How big a
problem do you think this would be in your practice? What are some methods that
you might use to help everyone become more comfortable with this new system?
4. How much time does your practice typically schedule for a well child visit? How
much information about behavior and development are you able to provide during this
period? What additional information would you like to provide but cannot do so within
the time constraint? How could Healthy Steps help you overcome this barrier?
5. Will all families in your practice receive Healthy Steps services? If not, how will
Healthy Steps families be identified in practice records?
6. How well will your current examination rooms meet the needs of a Healthy
Steps visit? What message do they give to families? Can they accommodate up to
four adults in the room at one time? Is there space for siblings? Do the rooms
encourage moms to breast-feed? Do they send the message that your practice is interested in the whole family and in the child’s emotional and intellectual development
in addition to his or her physical health?
7. Healthy Steps practices have identified the following six factors as critical to success: management commitment/buy-in, teamwork, role clarity, leadership, resources,
and willingness to change. Select the two factors that you think are most critical for
your practice. Determine what you need to achieve success in these areas and how
you will get it.
8. What do you think might impede the successful adoption of Healthy Steps in
your practice? How will you avoid or overcome these factors?
Unit 2: Starting A Healthy Steps Practice
19
UNIT
3
THE HEALTHY STEPS
OFFICE VISIT
SM
Unit
Overview
This unit is directed to all members of the practice team who are likely to be
part of well child office visits — the receptionist, the physician or nurse practitioner, the nurse, and the Healthy Steps Specialist. It looks at the various
ways in which this interdisciplinary team organizes itself during well child
office visits and provides a view of the ways in which such visits are enhanced
by the presence of a Healthy Steps Specialist. The overriding theme of this
unit is that a developmentally oriented practice consistently seeks opportunities to increase both the self-understanding of mothers and fathers and their
knowledge and understanding of their child’s behavior and development. A
second important theme is that caring and supportive relationships between
the practice and the family contribute to healthy child development and are
key to a developmentally oriented practice.
Unit Objectives
After viewing the video and
completing the related CDROM sections in Managing
Healthy Steps, users should be
able to:
÷ Describe a typical Healthy
Steps enhanced well child
office visit.
÷ Differentiate between joint
visits and linked visits and
determine which would work
best in your practice.
÷ Discuss the roles of the
receptionist, physician, nurse
practitioner, nurse, and Healthy
Steps Specialist in a well child
visit and tell how these roles
relate to one another in a
developmentally oriented
practice.
20
÷ Determine how such
Healthy Steps materials as
Quick Check Sheets, Parent
Prompt Sheets, and parent
handouts will be used in a
well child visit.
÷ Identify how traditional well
child visits differ from Healthy
Steps well child visits.
÷ Plan the addition of a Reach
Out and Read program for their
practice.
÷ Discuss ways in which the
interdisciplinary team works
together and show communication across roles.
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Key
Concepts
÷ Healthy Steps follows the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics
for well child visits.
÷ Enhanced well child office visits are a key Healthy Steps strategy. They
involve an interdisciplinary team and support mothers and fathers around issues
of behavior and development in addition to meeting the child’s health needs.
÷ Healthy Steps enhanced well child office visits are characterized as either
joint visits or linked visits. In a joint visit, the Healthy Steps Specialist typically
spends some time alone with the family and then stays in the examination room
with the physician or nurse practitioner (PNP). In a linked visit, the physician
or nurse practitioner and the Healthy Steps Specialist see the family separately.
In this model, the Healthy Steps Specialist typically will see the family first and
may return after the physician or PNP has completed the health part of the visit.
In either case, if the Healthy Steps Specialist has spent time with the family
before the physician or PNP arrives, it is important for the specialist to engage
parents in helping to set the agenda for the visit, strengthen the practice’s relationship with the family, and brief the physician or nurse practitioner on what
he or she has learned and observed in the early part of the visit.
÷ Many practices use variations of these approaches, but the essential outcome
is that the Healthy Steps Specialist can spend additional time with the family
and focus specifically on issues relating to development and behavior.
÷ During enhanced well child visits, both the Healthy Steps Specialist and the
physician may conduct developmental checkups, take advantage of teachable
moments, provide anticipatory guidance to the family on upcoming developmental changes, and provide additional information on topics that parents have
asked about. Some of this information may come in the form of Healthy Steps
parent handouts.
÷ Healthy Steps practices participate in the national Reach Out and Read
program. In this program, physicians give children books at each well child visit
starting when a child is six months old and model ways in which mothers and
fathers can use these books to help support their child’s early learning
experiences.
÷ All members of the Healthy Steps practice team strive to end each visit on a
positive note, praising mothers and fathers for their successes and building their
self-confidence.
Unit 3: The Healthy Steps Office Visit
21
continued
UNIT
3
THE
HEALTHY
STEPS
OFFICE
VISIT
The
Video
The Healthy StepsSM Office Visit
(Length: 14:14)
This video looks at two enhanced well child visits. Each uses members of the interdisciplinary team somewhat differently. The first visit takes place in Grand Junction,
Colorado, and features Dr. Mike Whistler and Healthy Steps Specialist Rebecca
Hobart, who is a licensed social worker. The video shows what such a joint visit looks
like, starting when the family arrives for a visit, and provides an important opportunity
to see how members of the interdisciplinary team work together. It also illustrates how
the Healthy Steps Specialist engages the parents in setting the agenda for the visit. The
second segment shows a visit at Cornell Medical Associates in New York City. Healthy
Steps Specialist Teresa Wilson, who has a background in pediatric nursing, conducts
part of a Denver II Developmental Screening Test and relays her findings to Dr.
Christopher Clemens, who then completes the visit with the mother and child.
The video features the
following clinicians:
• T. BERRY BRAZELTON, M.D.,
Pediatrician, Harvard Medical
School, Boston
• CHRISTOPHER CLEMENS,
M.D., Pediatrician, Cornell
Medical Associates, New York
City • WILLIAM FINDLAY,
M.D., Pediatrician, Western
Colorado Pediatrics, Grand
Junction • REBECCA HOBART,
The
CD-ROM
M.S.W., L.C.S.W, Healthy
Steps Specialist, Western
Colorado Pediatrics, Grand
Junction • MARGOT KAPLANSANOFF, Ed.D., Child
Development Specialist,
Boston University School of
Medicine • STEVEN PARKER,
M.D., Pediatrician, Boston
University School of
Medicine • ANDY PHAN,
M.D., Pediatric Resident,
Advocate Ravenswood
Hospital, Chicago • JENNIFER
PROZUMENT, M.Ed., Healthy
Steps Specialist, Advocate
Ravenswood Hospital,
Chicago • TERESA WILSON,
R.N., Healthy Steps
Specialist, Cornell Medical
Associates, New York City
• BARRY ZUCKERMAN, M.D.,
Pediatrician, Boston
University School of
Medicine
The key sections of the CD-ROM that relate to this unit
are listed below.
MANAGING HEALTHY STEPS:
Getting Ready
÷ Case Studies
÷ Overview
RESOURCES (Clinical)
Quick Check Sheets
÷ The Healthy Steps Team
Physician/Pediatric Nurse Practitioner
Healthy Steps Specialist
Nursing Staff
Office Staff
÷ Understanding Change
The Process of Change
Key Decisions
The Importance of Communication
22
÷ Related Reading
RESOURCES (Family)
LINKletters
Parent Prompt Sheets
Parent Handouts
Child Health and Development Record
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Questions
for
Discussion
and
Reflection
Facilitator’s
Note:
In addition to the
questions here, the
interactive case
studies on the
CD-ROM can be
used for small-group
discussion.
1. Healthy Steps Specialists have varied backgrounds. Some are early childhood
educators, others are social workers, and still others are pediatric nurses. What
background would you seek in a Healthy Steps Specialist to best complement the
existing skills in your practice?
2. Which makes more sense to you for the dynamics of your practice — a joint
visit or a linked visit? What makes your choice attractive?
3. Why is good communication among team members critical in a
Healthy Steps practice?
4. What impact would the addition of a Healthy Steps Specialist to an office
visit have on your scheduling procedures?
5. Who will take responsibility in your practice for establishing a Reach Out and
Read program?
6. Why do you think Reach Out and Read recommends that the physician be
the one to distribute books to children?
7. Where do you see teachable moments used in the video?
8. What approaches do the various clinicians in the video use to help parents
articulate what they want to get out of the visit? Why is this collaborative agenda
setting important?
9. What strategies do you see used for providing parents with answers to their
questions?
10. In the video, pediatrician Steven Parker says that he thinks it would be very
difficult to fulfill the goals of Healthy Steps without a Healthy Steps Specialist.
What do you think the Healthy Steps Specialist adds to a practice?
11. What do you think parents gain
from a Healthy Steps enhanced well
child visit that might not be possible
from a more traditional well child visit?
12. What do you think the physician
gains from this arrangement that would
not be a product of a traditional well
child visit?
Unit 3: The Healthy Steps Office Visit
23
UNIT
4
HEALTHY STEPS
HOME VISITS
SM
Unit
Overview
Healthy Steps home visits provide a special opportunity for the Healthy Steps
Specialist to get to know mothers, fathers, and children in an informal and
relaxed atmosphere apart from the medical office. Such visits typically present
numerous teachable moments, allow time to conduct a variety of developmental checkups, and offer many opportunities to provide anticipatory guidance. Home visits supplement the guidance on development and behavior
that is given at office visits and strengthen the relationship between the family
and the practice. During infancy, home visits typically focus on general health,
nutrition, breast-feeding, sleep, and strategies for comforting babies. As the
child grows, the emphasis typically shifts to home safety, issues of toddler
autonomy, and managing such behavioral and developmental concerns as
limit setting, early learning and stimulation, eating, and toilet training.
Unit Objectives
After viewing the video and
completing the related CD-ROM
sections, users should be able to:
÷ Provide a rationale for medical practices that serve young
children to offer home visits.
÷ Differentiate home visits from
office visits in terms of goals, timing, agendas, and strategies.
÷ Describe an ideal schedule
for home visiting and tell why
they have chosen it.
÷ Identify ways in which a
Healthy Steps Specialist can
support the continuation of
breast-feeding.
÷ Explain why 9-month and
24
24-month home visits are important in terms of the developmental changes that children are
poised to undergo at these points
and discuss the related adjustments in parent thinking and
behavior that may be needed.
÷ Use Quick Check Sheets to
prepare for a home visit.
÷ Describe strategies that a
Healthy Steps Specialist might
use to help mothers and fathers
identify their own goals for their
child’s behavior and how they
will achieve them.
÷ Model behaviors that parents
can use to guide and set limits
for their child.
÷ Demonstrate how a Healthy
Steps Specialist might conduct a
home safety assessment in the
home of a nine-month-old child.
÷ Define methods for communicating back to the rest of the
medical team what has been
learned at a home visit.
÷ Develop guidelines on how
Healthy Steps Specialists should
behave at home visits, including
ways of showing respect for cultural differences, and discuss issues
of safety, providing concrete
strategies that Healthy Steps
Specialists can use in scheduling,
traveling to, and communicating
about home visits.
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Key
Concepts
÷ Home visits are part of an integrated approach to supporting mothers, fathers,
and children from birth to age three. Home visits complement office visits and
enhance the practice’s understanding of the family and the home’s influence on
the child’s development and behavior.
÷ Home visits focus on child development, temperament, family health, and
home safety and offer an ideal time to use such developmental checkups as the
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and the Denver II Developmental
Screening Test, both of which are designed to help mothers and fathers better
understand their child’s development and behavior.
÷ Home visits sometimes help the practice to know about and act on situations
long before they affect a child’s development, e.g., postpartum depression,
smoking, and domestic stress.
÷ Home visits give Healthy Steps Specialists opportunities to take advantage of
teachable moments and provide anticipatory guidance. Specialists can model
behavior for parents — such as distracting the child, limit setting, or reading —
and allow time for discussions that help mothers and fathers understand their
own goals for their child’s development and behavior.
÷ It is vital that Healthy Steps Specialists communicate what they have learned
at home visits to their colleagues in the practice and to tell parents that they will
be doing this.
Unit 4: Healthy Steps Home Visits
25
continued
UNIT
4
HEALTHY
STEPS
HOME
VISITS
The
Video
Healthy StepsSM Home Visits
The video features the
following clinicians:
• JO ANN ALLEN, R.N.,
Healthy Steps Specialist,
Advocate Bethany Hospital,
Chicago • JENNIFER ALONSO,
R.N., Healthy Steps
Specialist, Cornell Medical
Associates, New York City
• ANITA BERRY, R.N., P.N.P.,
The
CD-ROM
Healthy Steps Specialist,
Advocate Good Samaritan
Hospital, Downer’s Grove,
Illinois • JACQUELINE
GOVERNO, B.A., Healthy
Steps Specialist, Pediatric
Associates of Florence, South
Carolina • CHARLES JORDAN,
M.D., Pediatrician, Pediatric
Associates of Florence, South
Carolina • MARGOT KAPLAN-
SANOFF, Ed.D., Child
Development Specialist,
Boston University School of
Medicine • JENNIFER LISKE,
M.A., Healthy Steps
Specialist, MGH Revere
Health Center, Revere,
Massachusetts • STEVEN
PARKER, M.D., Pediatrician,
Boston University School
of Medicine
The key sections of the CD-ROM that relate to this unit
are listed below.
CLINICAL STRATEGIES:
Home Visits
÷ Overview
÷ Importance
Relationship Building
Natural Appeal to Parents
Unique Position of Medical Team
÷ Schedule and Activities
3-5 Days
18 Months
24 Months
9 Months
12 Months 30 Months
26
(Length: 16:31)
This video depicts home visits with parents and children from birth through the toddler years in which Healthy Steps Specialists conduct developmental checkups and
address such issues as child development and behavior, temperament, family health,
and home safety. The video establishes the importance to both the practice and the
family of conducting home visits. It also discusses the respect, sensitivity, and attention to the family’s routines and traditions that are required of a home visitor. Several
home visits illustrate various approaches that Healthy Steps Specialists take to raise
issues of discipline and limit setting, and demonstrate how easily teachable moments
emerge in this context. The video also shows strategies that Healthy Steps Specialists
use to address family health issues and review age-appropriate home safety guidelines.
÷ Making Arrangements
Prepare a Brief Introduction
Call in Advance
The Day of the Visit
Arranging Subsequent Visits
Common Pitfalls
÷ Case Studies
÷ Related Reading
RESOURCES (Clinical)
Quick Check Sheets
RESOURCES (Family)
Parent Handouts
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Questions
for
Discussion
and
Reflection
1. What are some advantages of home visiting for both the practice
and the family?
2. Who will conduct home visits in your practice?
3. What home visit schedule will your practice follow? How will you determine
the particular needs of specific families with regard to home visits?
4. How will you ensure the safety of staff members who conduct home visits, and
how will everyone’s whereabouts be communicated within the practice?
5. Although Mrs. Tejada seems to be breast-feeding quite successfully, some
mothers need assistance in this area. Is a lactation specialist associated with your
practice? If not, what community resources can you recommend to a mother who
needs information about and support for breast-feeding?
6. Mrs. Tejada seems quite attuned to the possibility of postpartum depression
and talks easily with Jennifer about her feelings. How might you encourage a
mother who is less verbal than Mrs. Tejada to discuss this issue? What signs of
depression would you look for? What resources are available in your community
to help a depressed parent?
7. What behaviors do you observe on the part of the Healthy Steps Specialists
in this video that indicate their respect for the families they are visiting?
8. From your observations of the families in these home visits, how typical do
you think these days are for the families involved? On what observations do you
base your judgment?
9. Anita Berry conducts part of the Denver II Developmental Screening Test
while she is visiting the Kohls. What are your observations of Cassidy Kohl’s
development? How would you discuss your impressions with her parents?
10. One function of Healthy Steps is to help mothers and fathers understand
their own goals for their child’s behavior. Where do you see this occurring in the
video and what else might you have done in similar circumstances?
11. What would you do if you went on a home visit and noticed clear signs of
smoking in the household even though you had been told that no one smokes?
12. What are the advantages of seeing all members of the family together?
Unit 4: Healthy Steps Home Visits
27
UNIT
5
TEACHABLE MOMENTS:
THE FIRST YEAR
The concept of teachable moments is at the heart of the Healthy Steps approach and is a
Unit
Overview major aspect of providing enhanced well child care. This unit focuses on the skills of recognizing and using teachable moments and provides numerous examples of its application
with children from birth to 12 months. Unit 6 addresses teachable moments with toddlers.
The overriding theme of the unit is that all behavior has meaning and that clinicians’ and parents’ shared observations of children’s behavior create teachable moments
— instances when clinicians can draw on their observations of the child’s actual behavior to communicate developmental information at a moment when parents’ natural
interest is high. Parents’ questions and behavior also stimulate teachable moments. Like
all Healthy Steps strategies, the use of teachable moments both is a part of and is
enhanced by the development of an ongoing relationship between the practice and the
family. Teachable moments consistently increase mothers’ and fathers’ self-understanding, along with their understanding of their child’s behavior and development.
Listening and observation are stressed throughout as the key skills physicians and
Healthy Steps Specialists need to succeed in using teachable moments.
Unit Objectives
After viewing the video and
completing the Creating
Teachable Moments portion of
the CD-ROM, users should be
able to:
÷ Recognize and describe
examples of teachable moments
that concern a behavioral or
developmental issue.
÷ Differentiate between teachable moments and anticipatory
guidance.
÷ Explain why taking advantage
of teachable moments is impor-
28
tant and how the use of this
strategy enhances well child care.
which clinicians can create
teachable moments.
÷ Be able to identify and use at
least five different types of
encounters with parents and/or
children in which clinicians
have opportunities to take
advantage of teachable
moments.
÷ Discuss examples from their
own clinical experience of
missed opportunities to take
advantage of teachable
moments.
÷ Give examples of at least
three different types of situations in which teachable
moments are addressed.
÷ Show the role of observation
and listening in identifying and
taking advantage of teachable
moments.
÷ Give an example of a
“sometimes” statement.
÷ Demonstrate various ways in
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Key
Concepts
÷ Teachable moments provide a rich way to communicate with mothers
and fathers.
÷ Opportunities for teachable moments occur in many ways, including when a
parent asks a question or makes a comment about information you are giving or
expresses a particular concern, when the child behaves in a particular way that
may be of interest or concern to the family, and when the team observes something noteworthy either on the part of the child or in the interaction among
family members.
÷ Teachable moments techniques include: eliciting a particular behavior from the
child that points to a general developmental change or process that you can
describe, observing the baby’s behavior and interpreting it with the parents, modeling constructive interactions with the child, reframing the child’s behavior in
developmental terms to help the parents better understand their child’s temperament and behavior, offering “sometimes” statements to give parents optional interpretations of a particular behavior as a means of helping them clarify their own
intent, and asking evocative questions that give parents the opportunity to further
explore or gain insight into an issue.
÷ Teachable moments occur in all the situations in which you are likely to
encounter the family: in the office, at home visits, in parent groups, and on the
Child Development Telephone Information Line.
÷ Anticipatory guidance is a form of teachable moment that looks to the future,
offering parents information about what to expect from their young children as
they develop, along with ideas about how to meet parenting challenges that are
likely to arise.
÷ Missed opportunities are situations that occur when you are with a family, but
that you neglect or decline to pursue as teachable moments. Sometimes letting a
particular teachable moment go by is a deliberate clinical decision that you make
because you know that the parents cannot process additional information at this
time or that they are not ready to consider the problem that you have noticed.
÷ Many specific examples of teachable moments can be found in the Creating
Teachable Moments section of the CD-ROM, which also contains the following
print materials: the Child Health and Development Record, LINKletters, Parent
Prompt Sheets, and Quick Check Sheets.
Unit 5: Teachable Moments: The First Year
29
continued
UNIT
5
The
Video
Teachable Moments: The First Year
This video presents many examples of teachable moments in practice. It shows office
visits with several children: a two-month-old whose father is the sole daytime
caregiver for the first time that day; a six-month-old taking part in a Denver II
Developmental Screening Test, which provides numerous opportunities for teachable
moments and anticipatory guidance; and a nine-month-old whose mother raises a
variety of issues about the child’s increasing demands. Teachable moments strategies
also are shown at a home visit that focuses on the relationship between a nine-monthold girl and her two-year-old brother, and a one-year office visit in which issues of
autonomy and limit setting begin to emerge. Strategies shown include reframing the
child’s behavior in developmental terms, observing and interpreting the child’s behavior, asking evocative questions, eliciting and then discussing specific behaviors, and
modeling specific interactions with the child.
TEACHABLE
MOMENTS:
THE
FIRST
YEAR
The video features the
following clinicians:
• CHRISTOPHER CLEMENS, M.D., Cornell
Medical Associates, New York City • SUSAN
CURLEY, M.S.Ed., Healthy Steps Specialist,
MGH Revere Health Center, Revere,
The
CD-ROM
Massachusetts • MARGOT KAPLAN-SANOFF,
Ed.D., Child Development Specialist,
Boston University School of Medicine •
JENNIFER LISKE, M.A., Healthy Steps
Specialist, MGH Revere Health Center,
Revere, Massachusetts • AMY OH., M.D.,
Pediatrician, MGH Revere Health Center,
Revere, Massachusetts • STEVEN PARKER,
M.D., Pediatrician, Boston University
School of Medicine • TERESA WILSON,
R.N., Healthy Steps Specialist, Cornell
Medical Associates, New York City • BARRY
ZUCKERMAN, M.D., Pediatrician, Boston
University School of Medicine
The key sections of the CD-ROM that relate to this unit are listed below.
CLINICAL STRATEGIES:
Creating Teachable
Moments
÷ Overview
÷ Introduction
Teachable Moments
Anticipatory Guidance
Missed Opportunities
÷ Using Teachable Moments
Techniques
Creating Teachable Moments
Finding Teachable Moments
÷ Teachable Moments
in the Office
At a One-year Visit
÷ Teachable Moments
from Birth to Three
Newborn
4 Months
12 Months
1 Month
6 Months
2 Months
9 Months
30
(Length: 18:07)
÷ Case Studies
÷ How Children Cope
Self-regulation
Mutual Regulation
÷ Related Reading
÷ Case Studies
CHILD DEVELOPMENT
& BEHAVIOR:
The First Year
÷ Related Reading
MILESTONES FROM
BIRTH TO THREE
÷ Overview
÷ Early Brain Developemnt
÷ Concepts in Child
Development
Endowment
Maturation
Temperament
÷ Developmental Processes
Motor Control
Communication Skills
Social Development
Cognitive Development
Review of Developmental Milestones
3-5 Days
2 Weeks
1 Month
2 Months
4 Months
6 Months
9 Months
12 Months
RESOURCES (Clinical)
Quick Check Sheets
RESOURCES (Family)
LINKletters
Parent Prompt Sheets
Parent Handouts
Child Health and Development Record
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Questions
for
Discussion
and
Reflection
Facilitator’s
Note:
In addition to the
questions here, the
interactive case
studies on the
CD-ROM can be
used for small-group
discussion.
1. Review the video section in which Dr. Barry Zuckerman talks with Mrs.
Valiuddin as her nine-month-son, Hussain, plays on the examining table. In what
way does Dr. Zuckerman model ways of interacting with Hussain?
2. Dr. Zuckerman asks Mrs. Valiuddin a number of questions about her current
life. Why do you think he does this? What does he learn in so doing? What are
some open-ended questions that you find helpful in your practice?
3. Describe how Dr. Zuckerman helps Mrs. Valiuddin understand Hussain’s
clinginess in developmental terms. Why is this “reframing” important?
4. What do you observe about Hussain’s behavior in this office visit? How might
you describe and interpret your observations to his mother?
5. How might Dr. Zuckerman have involved the child development specialist in
this visit? Why might it be important for the child development specialist to
observe the family?
6. What techniques does child development specialist Margot Kaplan-Sanoff use
to find out more about Mrs. Valiuddin’s child-rearing preferences?
7. Review the portion of the video in which Healthy Steps Specialist Jennifer
Liske conducts a home visit with Stephanie Emmons and her two children, ages
nine months and two years. What teachable moments do you observe in this
scene? How would you take advantage of them?
8. What are the three most likely developmental issues to come up at the
following visits: two months, six months, nine months, twelve months?
9. What would you expect to be the key teachable moments in a
four-month-old’s well child visit?
10. How would you encourage parents to support a child’s emerging independence toward the
end of the first year? What anticipatory guidance
would you give?
11. How can you create situations in which
teachable moments will emerge?
12. In thinking about your clinical interactions
over the last few days, cite some examples of
teachable moments that you took advantage of
and some missed opportunities to do so.
Unit 5: Teachable Moments: The First Year
31
UNIT
6
TEACHABLE MOMENTS:
THE TODDLER YEARS
Unit
Overview
This unit extends the concept of teachable moments to the toddler
years. It provides a basic understanding of the big issues that parents of
toddlers face — autonomy, separation, power, and control — and shows
how these issues are played out behaviorally in everyday events. The
unit also addresses how clinicians in developmentally oriented
practices help mothers and fathers understand toddlers’ behavior in
developmental terms and use effective and developmentally appropriate
parenting strategies.
Unit Objectives
After viewing the video and
completing the CD-ROM sections on Creating Teachable
Moments and The Toddler
Years, users should be able to:
÷ Identify the major challenges
parents face during the toddler
years.
÷ Use open-ended questions to
develop teachable moments.
÷ Create a “sometimes statement” for a situation in which a
parent’s motivation is not clear.
÷ Help parents understand the
role of discipline, establish clear
and consistent discipline goals,
and use a variety of strategies
that set limits for their toddlers.
÷ Give examples of specific
developmental changes during
the toddler years in terms of
cognitive development, motor
control, communication skills,
and social development.
÷ View and interpret toddler
behavior in developmental
terms.
32
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Key
Concepts
÷ Teachable moments can be found in all Healthy StepsSM interactions with families — office visits,
home visits, parent groups, telephone calls, and so forth.
÷ Because the toddler period can be so difficult, supporting parents though this time is particularly
helpful for Healthy Steps practices to do.
÷ Throughout the toddler years, children move back and forth between dependence and
independence and seek power and control over their environment and activities.
÷ Typical toddler issues include activity repetition, interest in genitals, toilet training, limit setting,
consistency among caregivers, biting, the effect of new siblings on behavior, issues of independence
and control, the need for reassurance, and parents’ adjustment to the end of infancy.
÷ Using teachable moments can help parents understand typical developmental changes, reframe a
child’s challenging behavior in positive terms, increase parents’ confidence, help parents understand
why they make certain parenting choices, help parents articulate their goals, and improve the goodness-of-fit between a child’s temperament and the parents’ expectations.
÷ Not every teachable moment needs to be addressed immediately. Sometimes it is better to think
about a situation, consult with colleagues, and wait for an opening to come up again. It almost always
will if the issue is important to the mother and father.
The
Video
Teachable Moments: The Toddler Years
(Length: 17:15)
The video features four stories. The first segment shows a 24-month well child checkup and is an
excellent illustration of teamwork between a physician and a Healthy Steps Specialist. In this visit
the child’s behavior and the mother’s comments provide numerous opportunities for teachable
moments. The second segment shows part of a well child visit in which the Healthy Steps Specialist
is following up with a mother on an issue that had arisen earlier in the visit: Why does she always
wind up yelling at her two-year-old daughter and what else could she be doing? The third segment
shows an 18-month home visit. Here, too, the major issue is discipline. In this family, however, it
soon becomes evident that the mother and father have very different approaches to discipline and
limit setting. The Healthy Steps Specialist helps them understand their own “ghosts in the nursery”
and begins the process of helping them set common goals. The fourth segment shows how teachable
moments emerge in a parent group in which toddlers are present.
The video features the
following clinicians:
• CATHIE CLARK, R.N., M.S.A.,
Healthy Steps Specialist, Western
Colorado Pediatric Associates,
Grand Junction • REBECCA HOBART,
Unit 6: Teachable Moments: The Toddler Years
M.S.W., L.C.S.W., Healthy Steps
Specialist, Western Colorado
Pediatric Associates, Grand Junction
• MARGOT KAPLAN-SANOFF, Ed.D.,
Child Development Specialist,
Boston University Medical Center •
STEVEN PARKER, M.D., Pediatrician,
Boston University Medical Center
• SABRINA PROVINE, R.N., Healthy
Steps Specialist, Advocate Bethany
Hospital, Chicago • MICHAEL
WHISTLER, M.D., Pediatrician,
Western Colorado Pediatric
Associates, Grand Junction
33
continued
UNIT
6
TEACHABLE
MOMENTS:
THE
TODDLER
YEARS
The
CD-ROM
The key sections in the CD-ROM that relate to this unit
are listed below.
CLINICAL STRATEGIES:
Creating Teachable Moments
÷ Overview
÷ Introduction
Teachable Moments
Anticipatory Guidance
Missed Opportunities
÷ Using Teachable Moments
Techniques
Creating Teachable Moments
Finding Teachable Moments
÷ Teachable Moments in the Office
At Toddler Visits
÷ Teachable Moments from
Birth to Three
15 Months
30 Months
18 Months
36 Months
24 Months
÷ Case Studies
÷ Related Reading
RESOURCES (Clinical)
Quick Check Sheets
RESOURCES (Family)
LINKletters
Parent Prompt Sheets
Parent Handouts
Child Health and Development Record
CLINICAL STRATEGIES:
The Toddler Years
÷ Overview
÷ Developmental Domains
Cognitive Development
Motor Development
Communication Development
Social Development
Review of Developmental Milestones
÷ Limit Setting and Discipline
What is Discipline?
Discipline in the Context of Parent-Child
Relationships
Discussing Discipline with Parents
Predisposing Behaviors to Discipline Problems
÷ Healthy Steps Strategies
Working with Parents
Limit Setting
The ABC Approach
Discipline Techniques to Avoid
÷ Other Toddler Issues
Feeding
Toilet Training
Sleeping
÷ Case Studies
÷ Related Reading
MILESTONES FROM
BIRTH TO THREE
15 Months
18 Months
24 Months
34
30 Months
36 Months
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Questions
for
Discussion
and
Reflection
1. Pediatrician Steven Parker talks about why parents are so open to advice during their child’s toddler years. What are some of the reasons he gives? Why do
you think this is such a critical time in the relationship between the practice and
the family?
2. How does Healthy Steps Specialist Cathie Clark get Jordan Newton’s mother
to talk about what she does when she needs a break from Jordan’s persistent
behavior? How else might you have tried to get Mrs. Newton to talk about some
of the stresses of parenting a toddler? What are some other strategies you might
have recommended to Mrs. Newton for days when being the parent of a toddler
is really tough?
3. Mrs. Newton says she distracts Jordan by telling him to look for his sister or
dad. Suppose she had said instead, “I put him in a playpen and I go to my bedroom,” or “If he won’t stop when I tell him to, I spank his fanny.” What would
you consider before responding? How would you respond?
4. From what you can see of Jordan’s behavior, what can you say about his
development?
5. What is Cathie Clark’s role during Dr. Whistler’s medical examination
of Jordan?
6. How does Dr. Whistler reframe Jordan’s persistent behavior in positive terms?
7. How would you respond to a parent who says, “My child is into everything all
the time. He is driving me crazy.”
8. In the scene with Tricia and Margot Kaplan-Sanoff, Dr. Kaplan-Sanoff uses a
“sometimes statement” to probe why Tricia yells at her daughter. How would you
use a “sometimes statement” with a parent who is worried about a toddler who is
not eating?
9. How would you characterize Mr. and Mrs. Gibbs’s approach to discipline?
How would you help them find some strategies that are comfortable for both
of them?
10. How would you help parents establish limit-setting goals for their toddler?
11. What does “ghosts in the nursery” mean? Give an example of how this issue
might affect a family with whom you are working.
12. In meeting with Ms. Bishop, Margot Kaplan-Sanoff relates the struggles of
parenting a toddler to those of parenting an adolescent. What does she mean?
Unit 6: Teachable Moments: The Toddler Years
35
UNIT
7
GAUGING A CHILD’S
DEVELOPMENT
Healthy StepsSM uses a variety of developmental checkups to help parents understand their
Unit
Overview young child’s growth and development. The use of these checkups has two purposes: to
stimulate ways of discussing children’s development and behavior with their mothers and
fathers and to screen for potential developmental problems. The video in this unit presents
five checkups that Healthy Steps practices can use to gauge a child’s development: the
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), the Temperament Scale,
BABES (Behavioral Assessment of Baby’s Emotional and Social Style), the Denver II
Developmental Screening Test, and the MacArthur Communicative Development
Inventory. The CD-ROM presents more information on these tools and also includes information on psychosocial checkups. As part of its philosophy of looking at the whole child
and the whole family, Healthy Steps also looks at the potential impact of family history on
the child. Unit 9 — Family Factors Affecting Children: Smoking, Depression, Violence,
and Addiction — considers the important other side of this two-generational checkup.
Unit Objectives
After viewing the video and
completing the related sections
of the CD-ROM, users should
be able to:
÷ Put the process of gauging a
child’s developmental progress
into context, noting that such
tools are used primarily to provide teachable moments and to
screen children for potential
developmental problems.
÷ Understand that such developmental checkups are accomplished
in the context of an ongoing relationship between the Healthy
Steps team and the family.
÷ Develop and maintain a
schedule for administering
36
developmental checkups.
÷ Be able to administer a modified version of the NBAS, either
while the newborn is still at the
hospital or during the first home
or office visit.
÷ Help parents use and
understand the purpose of the
Temperament Scale.
÷ Use BABES to help mothers
and fathers think about and
understand their child’s temperament and to identify specific
behaviors about which they
would like guidance from the
Healthy Steps team.
÷ Demonstrate the use of the
Denver II Developmental
Screening Test to assess a child’s
development in four domains:
gross motor skills, language development, fine motor-adaptive
skills, and personal social skills.
÷ Explain to parents how to use
the MacArthur Communicative
Development Inventory to gauge
children’s emerging language
skills and help them develop
additional vocabulary.
÷ Provide examples of how the
Healthy Steps team gives bad
news to mothers and fathers,
stressing the ongoing support
available from the Healthy
Steps team.
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Key
Concepts
÷ The NBAS is a running dialogue between the clinician and the mother and father
about the baby’s behavioral and neurological response to the people and events in his or
her environment. The clinician should conduct at least one assessment in each of the
following clusters: response decrement, state range and regulation, motor organization,
neurological response, social organization, and physiological regulation. Note that
administration of the NBAS is a key first step in developing a relationship with the
family, instilling confidence in the mother and father, and helping the parents understand the innate temperament of their new child. Healthy Steps Specialists — unless
they are specially trained and certified — typically use a modified version of the NBAS
that takes 10 to 15 minutes to administer.
÷ The Temperament Scale focuses on the baby’s activity level, adaptability, persistence, and mood. It helps parents identify which aspects of a child’s temperament might
present the greatest problems for the family and opens the door to assist parents in
adjusting to various temperamental differences between the parents and the child. The
Temperament Scale raises parents’ awareness of whether their expectations for the
baby’s behavior match the baby’s temperamental style. With this awareness, mothers
and fathers are better able to adapt their parenting style to their child’s temperament to
create what is called goodness-of-fit.
÷ The Denver II Developmental Screening Test is administered at six-month
intervals beginning at six months of age. It provides a simple method for the early
identification of children at risk for developmental problems. Many Healthy Steps
Specialists find this assessment easiest to administer during a home visit, both
because of time constraints in office visits and because they find that children are
more relaxed and thus more likely to complete tasks successfully. It is important to
note that this tool may indicate a possible developmental problem but is not sufficient in and of itself to provide a diagnosis.
÷ Many practices that find they do not have time to administer the Denver, ask parents to fill out such questionnaires as the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) or
the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Stages (PEDS). This maeks good use of
waiting room time and provides results that can be shared with the team
÷ BABES is a short checklist of social and emotional behaviors that is often used at
the 12- and 18-month visits. Parents answer questions about their child with regard
to eating, sleeping, cuddling, playing, and toilet habits. Their answers help the
Healthy Steps team identify any areas of potential difficulty and lay the groundwork
for future discussions.
÷ The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory is a questionnaire
designed to provide parents with a sense of whether their children’s language skills
are developing on target. To help determine the child’s developing receptive and
expressive language skills, language screening tools such as the Early Language
Milesone Scale (ELMS) are very helpful.
Unit 7: Gauging a Child’s Developement
37
continued
UNIT
7
The
Video
Gauging a Child’s Development
(Length: 19:50)
This video focuses on the five child development checkups used by Healthy Steps
practices. In the first segment, a physician conducts an NBAS with a four-day-old
baby and her mother. Next we see a Healthy Steps Specialist introduce the
Temperament Scale to the mother of a four-month-old at a well child checkup. The
third segment features a Healthy Steps Specialist informally using BABES to begin a
discussion with the mother of a one-year-old on such topics as eating, sleeping, cuddling, activity level, playing, and toileting. The fourth segment demonstrates the
Denver II Developmental Screening Test being used by a pediatric clinician with an
18-month-old and the ensuing discussion of her findings with the child’s father.
Finally, the video concludes with a brief commentary on the importance of using the
MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory and a discussion of strategies for
telling parents what they can learn from these checkups.
GAUGNG A
CHILD’S
DEVELOPMENT
The video features the
following clinicians:
• CATALINA ARIZA, M.Ed., Healthy
Steps Specialist, Advocate
Ravenswood Maternity Family Health
Center, Chicago • ANITA BERRY,
R.N., P.N.P., Healthy Steps Specialist,
Advocate Good Samaritan Hospital,
Dower’s Grove, Illinois • T. BERRY
BRAZELTON, M.D., Pediatrician,
Harvard Medical School
• CHRISTOPHER CLEMENS, M.D., Cornell
The
CD-ROM
Medical Associates, New York City
• PATRICIA GARZA, R.N., Healthy
Steps Specialist, South Texas Center
for Pediatric Care, San Antonio
• MARGOT KAPLAN-SANOFF, Ed.D.,
Child Development Specialist, Boston
University School of Medicine
• PATRICIA LAWRENCE, R.N., M.S.N.,
P.N.P., Pediatric Clinician, Boston
University Medical Center • SUSAN
O’BRIEN, M.D., Pediatrician, Boston
University Medical Center • STEVEN
PARKER, M.D, Pediatrician, Boston
University School of Medicine
• SABRINA PROVINE, R.N., B.S.N.,
Healthy Steps Specialist, Advocate
Bethany Hospital, Chicago
• VALENTINA VIELMA, M.D.,
Pediatrician, South Texas Center
for Pediatric Care, San Antonio
• TERESA WILSON, R.N., Healthy
Steps Specialist, Cornell Medical
Associates, New York City
• BARRY ZUCKERMAN, M.D.,
Pediatrician, Boston University
School of Medicine
The key sections in the CD-ROM that relate to this unit
are listed below.
CLINICAL STRATEGIES: Gauging
a Child’s Development
÷ Overview
÷ The Process
Getting Started
Observing the Family
Using Appropriate Tools
Interpreting Findings
Providing Feedback to Families
Providing Feedback to the Team
÷ The Tools
NBAS
Temperament Scale
BABES
Denver II
MacArthur
÷ Psychosocial Checkups
Importance
How the Tool Was Developed
About the Checklist
The Age Range
÷ Case Studies
÷ Related Reading
38
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Questions
for
Discussion
and
Reflection
1. Why is a good relationship between the practice and the family essential to
the proper use of these resources?
2. Select and describe specific instances in the video that illustrate ways in
which a developmental checkup is used as a teachable moment.
Facilitator’s
Note:
3. How can the NBAS be used to help new mothers and fathers anticipate how
their baby will react to various stimuli in its first few weeks? What are some of the
techniques that you see Sue O’Brien and Jennifer Alonso using in the video?
In addition to the
questions here, the
case studies on the
CD-ROM can be
used for small-group
discussion.
4. What would you expect to be your biggest challenge in administering the
NBAS? How will you meet this challenge? When would it make the most sense
for you to do the NBAS: at the hospital, at the first office visit, or at the first
home visit? Why?
5. What does the term “goodness-of-fit” mean in looking at the relationship
between a child’s temperament and a parent’s expectations? Give an example of
how a parent’s expectations and a child’s temperament are not in agreement and
what situations you would expect to result from the difference.
6. Have you reviewed other early language screening tools such as the Early
Language Milestone Scale (ELMS)?
7. Pick a partner to play the parent. Practice explaining what you learn from
doing a Denver II and how you interpret your findings. Switch roles.
8. In the video, you see parts of the Denver II being administered to two
children — a one-year-old and an 18-month-old. What are some ways in which
Patricia Lawrence draws Mr. Alobwede into the conversation to check out some
Denver items? Replay this segment and describe how Ms. Lawrence uses the
occasion for teachable moments.
9. Have you reviewed other early developmental scales that rely on parental
report, such as the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) or the Parents
Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS)?
10. Dr. Parker talks about how he would approach a situation in which he felt
a child might have a developmental lag. Using this approach, role-play with a
partner exactly what you would say to Sara’s parents.
11. Working with your team members, determine which developmental checkups the practice will use and on what schedule, and develop a system for sharing
with other members of the team the results of these checkups. Consider also
whether the individuals who will be administering these checkups will require
any specialized training (neither the video nor the CD-ROM would fully prepare
an individual to administer the complete instrument, but intensive training is
available for both the NBAS and the Denver for practices that want to pursue
such options).
Unit 7: Gauging a Child’s Developement
39
UNIT
8
SUPPORTING FAMILIES:
CHALLENGING TIMES,
CHALLENGING SITUATIONS
This unit focuses on two of the principal elements of developmentally oriented practices
Unit
Overview that differentiate them from other medical practices: fostering strong personal relationships with mothers and fathers and using numerous strategies to help mothers and fathers
better understand their parenting decisions and weather challenging family situations.
The video visits three families experiencing different kinds of stress that can often occur:
moving, having a baby, and adjusting to a child with a challenging temperament that is
poorly matched to her parents’ expectations. It shows the variety of strategies and materials that Healthy StepsSM practices use to support the families and the strong relationships
that make possible these various forms of assistance. The CD-ROM offers practical guidance about how to create and maintain such relationships, emphasizes the role of the
Healthy Steps Specialist in this process, discusses the use of various Healthy Steps print
materials, and examines in detail some particularly stressful situations that families often
face. It also provides tools and suggestions for setting up parent groups in your practice.
Unit Objectives
After viewing the video and
completing the Supporting
Families and Parent Groups sections of the CD-ROM, users
should be able to:
÷ Identify strategies that members of the Healthy Steps team
use to form strong relationships
with mothers and fathers.
÷ Use techniques that are likely to further the development of
relationships with mothers and
fathers.
÷ Be able to offer mothers and
fathers concrete strategies for
dealing with stressful periods
and situations.
40
÷ Be familiar with and know
how and when to use the following Healthy Steps materials:
LINKletters, Parent Prompt
Sheets, parent handouts, and
the Child Health and
Development Record.
÷ Develop strategies for
encouraging breast-feeding.
÷ Determine how to set up a
Reach Out and Read program
in a Healthy Steps practice.
÷ Understand the boundaries
of the relationship between
Healthy Steps clinicians and
families and know when it is
necessary to refer a family to an
outside agency.
÷ Establish a means of providing clinical supervision to
Healthy Steps Specialists.
÷ Identify likely times of stress
for families and develop ways to
support such families during
these difficult periods.
÷ Plan a parent group program
for their practice.
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Key
Concepts
÷ Building a caring, informed, and supportive relationship with mothers and fathers is
one of the most important services that Healthy Steps practices can offer. It is at the
root of all Healthy Steps components and strategies.
÷ From time to time, every family faces stress. The stressors need not be extreme to
affect a child’s development and behavior. In fact, the most common problems emerge
from everyday situations over which we may have little control, such as moving or life
cycle changes. Because of the strong relationships that Healthy Steps Specialists form
with mothers and fathers, the Healthy Steps practice has an important role to play at
times of family stress and may be the only place to which parents can go for information and guidance.
÷ Among the potential consequences of stress on children are such behavioral
changes as acting out or withdrawing and such physical symptoms as headaches or
stomachaches. Parents may experience difficulties in relationships and parenting as a
result of stress.
÷ Healthy Steps recommends many different strategies for providing information and
supporting both the everyday and extraordinary needs of families. These strategies
include a Child Development Telephone Information Line, parent groups, and home
visits by a Healthy Steps Specialist.
÷ To give parents ready access to needed information on child development and
behavior, Healthy Steps uses varied print materials. These include LINKletters, Parent
Prompt Sheets, parent handouts on dozens of topics, and a Child Health and
Development Record.
÷ Reach Out and Read is another important service that developmentally oriented
practices can offer. It combines several activities: physicians give books to children at
each well child visit, beginning at six
months, and show parents how they
can use the books to help build their
child’s love of learning and promote
learning readiness. In addition,
volunteers read books to children
in the waiting room.
÷ Healthy Steps practices also have
an important role to play in encouraging mothers to breast-feed; some
practices are now adding prenatal
visits to their services to help get
breast-feeding mothers and their
babies off to a good start.
Unit 8: Supporting Families: Challenging Times, Challenging Situations
41
continued
UNIT
8
The
Video
Supporting Families:
Challenging Times, Challenging Situations
(Length: 17:37)
The video has three stories. The first features the Helton family. The Heltons have moved four
times in two years, most recently into Preston Helton’s parents’ home. We meet the Heltons at
a home visit and also see them in a parent group. Both settings show how the family’s Healthy
Steps Specialist has supported them through numerous periods of stress and what techniques
she has used to help Tracy Helton adjust to parenting. The second story is about the Ortega
family. They are expecting their second child soon and ask their physician and Healthy Steps
Specialist during a well child visit how they can prepare their young daughter for this life cycle
change. The third story features the Jeters. The Jeters’s situation is not typically found on lists
of common stressors: they have a child with a challenging temperament that is not well
matched to their expectations. The Jeters have received considerable guidance and information from their Healthy Steps Specialist, including a referral for couples counseling when the
strain of parenting seemed to be taking a toll.
SUPPORTING
FAMILIES:
CHALLENGING
TIMES
CHALLENGING
SITUATIONS
The video features the
following clinicians:
• CATALINA ARIZA, M.Ed.,
Healthy Steps Specialist,
Advocate Ravenswood
Maternity Family Health Center,
Chicago • CATHIE CLARK, R.N.,
M.S.A., Healthy Steps Specialist,
Western Colorado Pediatric
Associates, Grand Junction
The
CD-ROM
• JACQUELINE GOVERNO, B.A.,
Healthy Steps Specialist,
Pediatric Associates of Florence,
South Carolina • SCOTT
GOVERNO, R.N., Healthy Steps
Specialist, Pediatric Associates
of Florence, South Carolina
• MARGOT KAPLAN-SANOFF,
Ed.D., Child Development
Specialist, Boston University
School of Medicine • STEVEN
The key sections in the CD-ROM that relate to this unit are listed below.
CLINICAL STRATEGIES:
Supporting Families
÷ Overview
÷ The Practice and the
Family
÷ Building Relationships
Set Agendas Collaboratively
Use the Right Tone
Interviewing Techniques
Use Teachable Moments
Consider the Family’s
Background
Understand Boundaries
÷ Other Services
Prenatal Care
Child Development Telephone
Information Line
Reach Out and Read
÷ Special Times of Stress
Breast-feeding
Separation, Divorce, Remarriage
The Arrival of Siblings
Other Difficult Times
÷ Case Studies
÷ Related Reading
÷ Why Offer Parent Groups?
The Research View
Parents’ Views
÷ Types of Parent Groups
Purposes of Groups
Structure and Format
÷ Marketing Concerns
Market Research
Session Planning
Selecting a Time and Place
Effective Promotion
÷ What Makes a Good
Leader?
÷ Healthy Steps Materials
÷ Case Studies
CLINICAL STRATEGIES:
Parent Groups
÷ Overview
42
PARKER, Pediatrician, Boston
University School of Medicine
• SILVANA SHLIAPOCHNIK, M.D.,
Family Physician, Advocate
Ravenswood Maternity Family
Health Center, Chicago
• BARRY ZUCKERMAN, M.D.,
Pediatrician, Boston University
School of Medicine
÷ Related Reading
RESOURCES (Families)
Parent Handouts
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Questions
for
Discussion
and
Reflection
1. Why is the Healthy Steps practice a natural place for mothers and fathers to
turn during times of stress?
2. What elements of Healthy Steps make it more likely that clinicians will
know when a family is in a particularly stressful situation?
3. Give some specific examples of ways in which a family’s stress might affect a
child’s development and behavior.
4. Tracy Helton expresses a common concern of new parents: that they cannot
simply get up and go out the way they used to. What stress-relieving strategies
might you suggest to Tracy and mothers like her?
5. Name some problems that you might anticipate if you learn that a family is
moving in with in-laws. What anticipatory guidance could you provide?
6. Offering reassurance and building Tracy’s confidence are two strategies that
Cathie Clark used to help Tracy adjust to being a parent. What could you say specifically to parents in similar situations? What additional Healthy Steps strategies might
be helpful here, and how would you use them?
7. What role does the parent group play for Tracy Helton? What role does
Cathie play in the group? What role do the other parents play?
8. How would you respond to the Heltons’ disclosure that they use physical
punishment to discipline their son?
9. Where would you turn for personal guidance and support if you were working
with a family that was faced with a particularly challenging situation?
10. What strategies do Dr. Silvana Shliapochnik and Healthy Steps Specialist
Catalina Ariza use to help the Ortega family anticipate the effects of a new sibling on 15-month-old Nashla? In what areas do they provide anticipatory guidance? What effects might you anticipate in addition to the ones discussed?
11. Have you explored the availability of parent groups currently offered in
your community?
12. How can your practice provide lactation consultation?
13. Why is it important to set an agenda collaboratively with parents during
well child and home visits?
14. How would you explain temperament and goodness-of-fit to a family?
15. What Healthy Steps strategies does Scott Governo use to provide
information and support to the Jeter family?
Unit 8: Supporting Families: Challenging Times, Challenging Situations
43
UNIT
9
FAMILY FACTORS
AFFECTING CHILDREN:
SMOKING, DEPRESSION,
VIOLENCE, AND ADDICTION
This unit focuses on family factors that have the potential to impact negatively on a child’s
Unit
Overview health and development. The two overriding themes of the unit are that healthy child
development depends on many factors, at least some of which concern parental behavior, and
that developing a caring and supportive relationship between the Healthy StepsSM team and
mothers and fathers creates an environment in which family health issues can be addressed.
A practice’s ability to help parents will depend as well on the research that it has done in the
community to identify appropriate resources and on its ability to operate as a team.
Unit Objectives
After viewing the video and
completing the related sections
of the CD-ROM, users should
be able to:
÷ Understand that involvement in family health grows out
of a caring and supportive relationship between the practice
and the family and is part of providing enhanced well child care.
÷ Discuss why family factors
are important to a child’s
healthy growth and development.
÷ Be able to cite the potential
negative effects on a child’s
development of the family factors highlighted in this unit.
÷ Be able to conduct a family
history in which appropriate
44
questions about these factors
are asked.
÷ Respond appropriately to
family members who disclose
involvement with these
behaviors.
÷ Explain the Stages of
Change model, and tell what
support would be appropriate
for individuals at each stage.
÷ Tell how you would differentiate a woman with “baby
blues” from one who is
clinically depressed.
÷ Without overstepping
therapeutic boundaries, identify
specific kinds of support that
a Healthy Steps Specialist
might offer a family in which
either addiction or domestic
violence is present.
÷ Help parents understand the
relationship between their own
upbringing and the parenting
style that they want to be able
to offer their own children.
÷ Develop and implement a
plan for identifying community
resources that can be accessed
for assistance on these issues,
and put in place a plan to keep
this information current.
÷ Determine what clinical
supervision is available to Healthy
Steps Specialists.
÷ Plan a way to help a family
develop a safety plan in case of
domestic violence.
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Key
Concepts
÷ Children’s health is determined by many factors, including family, social, psychological, and biological issues. The following family factors are known to have a negative impact on a child’s health, development, and behavior: smoking, depression, alcoholism and drug addiction, domestic violence, and parents’ own difficult childhoods.
These issues are more likely to affect a child’s well-being negatively than most viruses
ever will. Failure to recognize them and their impact on children is a missed opportunity to provide a real service to children and families.
÷ Family and psychosocial problems are not confined to any one economic level or
geographic area. Limiting your assessments to settings that are typically considered
high risk actually misses the majority of families with these problems. Only universal
screening can improve detection markedly.
÷ It is important to raise these issues regularly and in a sensitive fashion. The most sensitive questions are best discussed when a relationship has been established, unless there
are specific physical indications that immediate discussion is necessary — if, for example,
a mother has a bruised face or a black eye.
÷ Secondhand smoke has very negative effects on a child’s health. Healthy Steps practices can work with family members who smoke, using a five-stage change model (precontemplation, contemplation, readiness for action, action, maintenance).
÷ Depression affects 5 to 10 percent of all adult women and can seriously affect a person’s ability to parent. Because depression is treatable, however, the effort of Healthy
Steps practices to identify and refer depressed parents is all the more imperative.
÷ Parental addiction to alcohol and/or drugs also poses a serious problem for children.
Healthy Steps teams need to know how to talk with families who disclose substance
abuse, what treatment programs are available in their community, how effective they are,
and what procedures an individual must follow to obtain treatment.
÷ By the time they become parents, mothers and fathers usually are long past their
own early childhood experiences. Yet these experiences echo, sometimes loudly, in the
parents’ own caregiving style. Helping parents understand how their own childhood
experiences relate to the kind of parenting they want to offer their children is a positive role that Healthy Steps teams can play.
÷ Domestic violence refers to acts of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and psychological
maltreatment; chronic situations in which one person controls or intends to control
another person’s behavior; and misuse of power that may result in injury or harm to the
psychological, social, economic, sexual, or physical well-bring of family members.
Children who are exposed to domestic conflict suffer psychological trauma. Knowledge
of how to develop a safety plan with a family and what community programs are available can enable you to respond rapidly and positively to families in crisis.
÷ The Healthy Steps team can help support families with problems — and one another
— but is not expected to be able to solve all family problems. Healthy Steps teams need
to be able to acknowledge the need for and obtain clinical supervision.
Unit 9: Family Factors Affecting Children: Smoking, Depression, Violence, and Addiction
45
continued
UNIT
9
The
Video
Family Factors Affecting Children:
Smoking, Depression, Violence, and Addiction
This video shows Healthy Steps clinicians brainstorming strategies for working with families
around issues that have the potential to impact negatively on their children’s development. The
meeting is led by Margot Kaplan-Sanoff, Ed.D., who is co-director of the Healthy Steps
Training Team at the Boston University School of Medicine. The group first examines a case in
which a child is being exposed to domestic violence. The group discusses the many ways in
which they learn about families at risk, the boundaries of their roles, issues of confidentiality,
and strategies for responding to this particular situation. Other issues discussed include the
impact of parents’ own upbringing on the ways in which they discipline their child; Healthy
Steps’ whole child/whole family approach to primary care, the role of community resources; and
the challenge of families with multiple problems. Throughout, the video suggests the questions
to ask, and Healthy Steps team members discuss their very personal reactions to providing this
kind of support to families.
FAMILY
FACTORS
AFFECTING
CHILDREN:
SMOKING,
DEPRESSION,
VIOLENCE,
AND
ADDICTION
The video features the
following clinicians:
• JO ANN ALLEN, R.N., Healthy
Steps Specialist, Advocate
Bethany Hospital, Chicago
• CATALINA ARIZA, M.Ed.,
Healthy Steps Specialist,
Advocate Ravenswood
Maternity Family Health Center,
Chicago • ANITA BERRY, R.N.,
P.N.P., Healthy Steps Specialist,
Advocate Good Samaritan
Hospital, Downer’s Grove,
The
CD-ROM
Illinois • SCOTT BRENNER, M.D.,
Pediatrician, ABC Family
Pediatricians, Allentown,
Pennsylvania • SUSAN CURLEY,
M.S.Ed., Healthy Steps
Specialist, MGH Revere Medical
Center, Revere, Massachusetts
• PATRICIA GARZA, R.N.,
Healthy Steps Specialist, South
Texas Center for Pediatric Care,
San Antonio • MARGOT
KAPLAN-SANOFF, Ed.D., Child
Development Specialist, Boston
University School of Medicine
• MARY MORTLOCK, R.N.,
C.P.N.P., Healthy Steps
Specialist, Advocate Good
Samaritan Hospital, Downer’s
Grove, Illinois • JERRY
NIEDERMAN, M.D., Pediatrician,
The University of IllinoisChicago • STEVEN PARKER,
M.D., Pediatrician, Boston
University School of Medicine
• ROGER PASINSKI, M.D.,
Pediatrician, MGH Revere
Medical Center, Revere,
Massachusetts • SABRINA
PROVINE, R.N., Healthy Steps
Specialist, Advocate Bethany
Hospital, Chicago • JENNIFER
PROZUMENT, M.Ed., Healthy
Steps Specialist, Advocate
Ravenswood Maternity Family
Health Center, Chicago •
SILVANA SHLIAPOCHNIK, M.D.,
Family Physician, Advocate
Ravenswood Maternity Family
Health Center, Chicago • BARRY
ZUCKERMAN, M.D., Pediatrician,
Boston University School of
Medicine
The key sections in the CD-ROM that relate to this unit are listed below.
CLINICAL ISSUES:
Family Factors
÷ Overview
÷ Parent-Child Relationships
Barriers to Attachment
Biological Effects on Attachment
Scenes from the Nursery
÷ Making Referrals
÷ Case Studies
÷ Related Reading
÷ Universal Screening
÷ Child-Child Relationships
÷ How to Begin
÷ The Role of the Practice
÷ The Five Factors
Smoking
Depression
Alcoholism/Drug Addiction
Parents’ Childhoods
Domestic Conflict
46
(Length: 25:27)
CHILD DEVELOPMENT
AND BEHAVIOR:
Relationships Are the
Key to Development
÷ Overview
÷ Influences on Relationships
Ghosts in the Nursery
The Extended Family
Other Influences
÷ Case Studies
÷ Related Reading
÷ Parent-Parent Relationships
The Effects of Discord
The Role of Fathers
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Questions
for
Discussion
and
Reflection
Facilitator’s
Note:
In addition to the
questions here, the
case studies on the
CD-ROM may be
used to stimulate
small-group
discussion.
1. What do you fear most about discussing difficult or sensitive issues with a
family? How realistic is your fear? How can your colleagues help you overcome it?
2. In the video, Dr. Zuckerman talks about the limitations of a biomedical model.
How does this concept apply to Healthy Steps?
3. The video shows a Healthy Steps team talking about difficult cases and how to
respond to them. How could you create such a team meeting in your practice?
What are the advantages of approaching family factors in this way?
4. What kinds of clinical support are available to the Healthy Steps Specialists in
your practice?
5. In the video, Dr. Kaplan-Sanoff says that “it often strikes me that when parents
want us to know something, they will sometimes figure out a way to tell us.” What
experiences have you had in which you learned something about a family in an
indirect way? Did you recognize the significance of the situation at the time? How
did you handle it? Would you handle it differently today? In what way?
6. Dr. Kaplan-Sanoff describes a “sometimes statement” as a way of laying out the
options in a particular situation. Imagine that a child disclosed to you that he or
she had seen Daddy hit Mommy and you were about to discuss this revelation with
the mother. Frame a “sometimes statement.”
7. If parents came to you with their concerns about the effects of their upbringing
on their own parenting style, how would you respond?
8. Some Healthy Steps Specialists find it difficult to ask parents to stop smoking
even though it is in their child’s best interest that they not smoke. What questions
might you ask to determine a parent’s stage of change? If you determined that the
parent was in the contemplation stage, what actions could you take to move him
or her to action?
9. What signs would you look for to determine whether a parent is depressed?
How would you differentiate between a new mom with “baby blues” and a
clinically depressed woman?
10. Suppose you were working with the family described at the end of the video.
Identify the various family factors that you see in this situation, and brainstorm
possible ways of responding.
11. Under what circumstances might it be appropriate to meet with members of
the extended family or key adults in a child’s life other than the parents?
12. What is the status of your community referral book? How comprehensive is
it? How current is the information? When was it last updated?
Unit 9: Family Factors Affecting Children: Smoking, Depression, Violence, and Addiction
47
Editorial and Research Staff
Managing Editor
Communications Manager
Editorial Associate
Project Assistant
Researchers
Video Production Staff
Executive Producer
Senior Producer
Producer
Associate Producer
Editors
Additional Editing
Production Assistant
Toby Kleban Levine
Kelley McDonald
Joan Seidman Welsh
Jeannette Boline
Bryan Elrod, Kirsten
Hawkins, Hana Rab
Alvin H. Perlmutter
Lisa Zbar
Pamela Wheaton
Andrea Holmes
Dina Potocki, Girish
Barghava
Erick Jean-Baptiste
Erick Jean-Baptiste
Other Contributors
Ann Adalist-Estrin, M.S., Parent
Resource Association,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Marilyn Augustyn, M.D., Boston
University School of Medicine
Michael C. Barth and Juliet Fried,
ICF Consulting, Fairfax, Virginia
Emily Fenichel, Claire Lerner, Jeree
Paul, and G. Gordon Williamson,
Zero to Three, The National
Center for Infants, Toddlers and
Families, Washington, D.C.
Kathryn Taaffe McLearn, The
Commonwealth Fund
Reach Out and Read, Boston
University School of Medicine
Phyllis Cokin Sonnenschein, Ed.D.,
Center for Parenting Studies and
Families First, Wheelock College,
Boston
48
CD-ROM Design and Programming
Programmers
Tom Cheyney, Travis
Lynch, Sam Miller, Hilda
Smith, Lynn Whiteley
Design Directors
Jennifer Kirby, Jerome
Lukas, Carol Parry
Artists
Brian Baker, Jason Hickey,
Lakeshia McCoy, Dan
Rodriguez, Joanie White
Narrator
Josh Cohen
Special Thanks
John Carney, Mary White,
Brett Wilson,
Candee Wilson
Packaging and User Manual
Graphic Design
The Healthy Steps Multimedia
Interactive Training & Resource Kit
was funded by:
The Commonwealth Fund
The John D. and Catherine T.
MacArthur Foundation
The Robert Wood Johnson
Foundation
The Colorado Trust
The Fan Fox and Leslie R. Samuels
Foundation
The Kansas Health Foundation
The Gordon Russell Fund at the
Peninsula Community
Foundation
The Jewish Healthcare Foundation
DRPollard & Associates,
Vienna, Virginia
The Healthy Steps Multimedia Team
and the Healthy Steps Training Team at
Boston University School of Medicine
wish to express appreciation to the following for their advice and guidance
throughout the project:
Kathryn Taaffe McLearn, Healthy
Steps National Program
Coordinator and Assistant Vice
President, The Commonwealth
Fund
Margaret E. Mahoney, Chairman of
the Healthy Steps National
Advisory Committee and
President, MEM Associates, Inc.
Michael C. Barth, Healthy Steps
Program Director and Executive
Vice President, ICF Consulting
and the many Healthy Steps physicians, specialists, and administrators
who have reviewed this material at
various stages and contributed their
thoughts, expertise, and experience
toward making these materials an outstanding source of information on
Healthy Steps. We thank also the
Healthy Steps families who allowed us
to bring video cameras into their lives.
The Healthy Steps Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
Multimedia Training Kit Technical
Advisory Committee
Marilyn Augustyn, M.D., Boston
University School of Medicine
Andrea Bernard, M.A., Boston
University School of Medicine
Michael C. Barth, ICF Consulting
Henry Bernstein, O.D., Bright
Futures, Harvard University
Linda Eggbeer, M.Ed., Zero to Three,
The National Center for Infants,
Toddlers and Families
Margot Kaplan-Sanoff, Ed.D., Boston
University School of Medicine
Margaret Mahoney, MEM Associates
Tracy Magee, M.S.N., C.P.N.P.,
Boston University School of
Medicine
Kathryn Taaffe McLearn, Assistant
Vice President, The
Commonwealth Fund
Gerald Mettner, MEM Associates
Susan O’Brien, M.D., Boston
University School of Medicine
Steven Parker, M.D., Boston
University School of Medicine
Kathleen Fitzgerald Rice, Boston
University School of Medicine
Michele Yellowitz Shapiro, The
Commonwealth Fund
Barry Zuckerman, M.D., Boston
University School of Medicine
Multimedia Training Kit Health Care
Leaders Advisory Committee
Joel J. Alpert, M.D., Professor of
Pediatrics, Department of
Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center
Ann Segal, Deputy Assistant
Secretary for Policy Initiatives,
U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services
Kathryn E. Barnard, Ph.D., R.N.,
Professor of Nursing and
Associate Dean for Academic
Programs, Center for Human
Development and Disability,
University of Washington School
of Nursing
Howard Berman, President and
Chief Executive Officer, Finger
Lakes Blue Cross and Blue Shield,
Rochester
Laurel Cutler, Member, Board of
Directors, Fallon McElligott
Robert Haggerty, M.D., Professor of
Pediatrics Emeritus, University of
Rochester School of Medicine
David Heppel, M.D., Director,
Division of Maternal Infant Child
Care and Adolescent Health,
Maternal and Child Health
Bureau, U.S. Health Resources
and Services Administration
Matthew E. Melmed, Executive
Director, Zero to Three, The
National Center for Infants,
Toddlers and Families
Robert J. Nolan, M.D., Department
of Pediatrics, University of Texas
Medical School
Scott Serota, Executive Vice
President and Chief Operating
Officer, Blue Cross Blue Shield
Association, Chicago
James A. Stockman III, M.D.,
President, The American
Board of Pediatrics
Tom Tonniges, M.D., Director,
Department of Community
Pediatrics, American Academy of
Pediatrics
Healthy Steps National Advisory
Committee
Margaret E. Mahoney, Chair
Howard Berman
T. Berry Brazelton
Peter Budetti
Katie Couric
Barbara A. DeBuono
Fernando Guerra
Robert Haggerty
Myron A. Hofer
Judith B. Igoe
Nancy Kassebaum Baker
David Lawrence
Charlene Rydell
Ruth J. Simmons
Edward Zigler
Healthy Steps
SM
Professional Development
Opportunities
Users of the Healthy Steps for Young Children
Interactive Multimedia Training & Resource Kit
may qualify for Continuing Medical Education
credit for physicians through Boston University
School of Medicine and Contact Hours for Nurses
through Advocate Health Care. Boston
University School of Medicine is accredited by
the Accreditation Council for Continuing
Medical Education to provide continuing medical
education for physicians. Advocate Health Care is
an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the Illinois Nurses Association, an
accredited approver by the American Nurses
Credentialing Center’s Commission on
Acrreditation.
For further information, please contact:
For CME:
Boston University School of Medicine
Department of Continuing Medical Education
714 Albany Street, A305
Boston, MA 02118-2526
For Contact Hours:
Advocate Health Care
Healthy Steps for Young Children
205 W. Touhy, Suite 125
Park Ridge, IL 60068
www.healthysteps.org
ISBN 1-930783-11-6
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