E-PAGE

E-PAGE
E-PAGE Technical Guide
General information and protocols for using
E-PAGE Gels
Rev. date: 9 December 2010
Manual part number 25-0644
MAN0000374
User Manual
INV-081 INVIT MAN 8.5x11 1color bylife 26May2010.indd 1
10/21/2010 10:04:35 AM
Contents
Product Contents........................................................................................................................................ iv
Introduction .................................................................................................................................1
E-PAGE™ Protein Electrophoresis System ................................................................................................1
E-PAGE™ System Components ..................................................................................................................4
Methods .......................................................................................................................................9
Electrophoresis of E-PAGE™ Gels.........................................................................................9
Guidelines for Sample Preparation............................................................................................................9
Guidelines for Loading E-PAGE™ Gels by Automated Liquid Handling ..........................................14
Loading E-PAGE™ Gels .............................................................................................................................16
Using E-Holder™ Platform ........................................................................................................................20
Running E-PAGE™ Gels.............................................................................................................................21
Opening the E-PAGE™ Cassette ...............................................................................................................25
Blotting E-PAGE™ Gels.........................................................................................................26
Blotting E-PAGE™ Gels with the iBlot® Device ......................................................................................26
Semi-Dry Blotting of E-PAGE™ Gels........................................................................................................32
Semi-Wet Blotting of E-PAGE™ Gels .......................................................................................................36
Visualizing and Staining of E-PAGE™ Gels ........................................................................39
Visualizing Lumio Fusion Proteins .......................................................................................................39
SYPRO® Ruby Staining Protocol ..............................................................................................................40
Coomassie® Staining ..................................................................................................................................41
SimplyBlue™ SafeStain ...............................................................................................................................43
Silver Staining Methods.............................................................................................................................45
InVision™ His-tag Protein Gel Stain.........................................................................................................48
Drying of E-PAGE™ Gels ......................................................................................................49
Gel Drying ...................................................................................................................................................49
Analysis and Troubleshooting ............................................................................................51
Molecular Weight Calibration ..................................................................................................................51
Expected Results.........................................................................................................................................53
Using E-Editor™ 2.02 Software..................................................................................................................60
Troubleshooting..........................................................................................................................................61
Appendix....................................................................................................................................63
Additional Staining Protocols...................................................................................................................63
Product Specifications................................................................................................................................67
Accessory Products ....................................................................................................................................70
Technical Support.......................................................................................................................................72
Purchaser Notification ............................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
iii
Product Contents
Purpose of the
Guide
The E-PAGE™ Technical Guide contains information about E-PAGE™ Gels and
is intended to supplement the manuals supplied with E-PAGE™ Gels. Details
for sample preparation, electrophoresis conditions, blotting, and staining are
included in this guide.
Types of Kits
E-PAGE™ gels are designed for use with the E-Base™ Electrophoresis Device,
and are available in 48-well or 96-well formats. See pages 4–5 for further
specifications. See page 71 for ordering information.
Product
E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gels
™
E-PAGE 96 6% Gels
Kit Contents
Catalog no.
8-pack
EP048-08
8-pack
EP096-06
Each pack of E-PAGE™ Gels contain the following contents:
E-PAGE™ Gel 8-Pack Contents
E-PAGE Gels

E-PAGE Loading Buffer 1 (4X)
Butterfly Opener

E-PAGE Blotting Pad
Shipping and
Storage
Quantity
Quantity
8 gels
4.5 mL
1
1
The E-PAGE™ 48 and 96 Gels, E-PAGE Blotting Pad and Mother E-Base™ are
shipped and stored at room temperature.
Do not allow the temperature to drop below 4C or rise above 40C when
storing the gels.
The E-PAGE Loading Buffer is shipped at room temperature. Store the
E-PAGE™ Loading Buffer 1 (4X) at room temperature or at 4C.
Intended Use
iv
For research use only. Not intended for any human or animal diagnostic or
therapeutic uses.
Introduction
E-PAGE™ Protein Electrophoresis System
About the
E-PAGE™ Protein
Electrophoresis
System
The E-PAGE™ Protein Electrophoresis System is designed for fast, medium-tohigh-throughput protein electrophoresis in a horizontal format.
The self-contained E-PAGE™ 48 or 96 Pre-cast Gels consist of a buffered gel
matrix and electrodes packaged inside a disposable, UV-transparent cassette.
The gels can be loaded by multichannel pipetter or automated loading system.
Electrophoresis of the samples is performed with the E-Base™ Electrophoresis
Device. The E-Base™ Electrophoresis Device consists of a base for
electrophoresis, and an integral power supply. After electrophoresis is
completed, the cassette can be opened with the Butterfly Opener to perform
downstream applications such as western blotting or staining.
The E-Editor™ 2.02 software allows digital images of the E-PAGE™ Gels to be
reconfigured into a side-by-side format for easy comparison and analysis.
Applications
Advantages
The E-PAGE™ Protein Electrophoresis System is ideal for screening protein
samples using the following applications:

In-gel staining with Lumio™ Green Reagent

Western blotting

Staining (Coomassie®, silver, or fluorescent stains)

Functional assays
Using E-PAGE™ Gels for protein analysis offers the following advantages:

Produces fast, safe, and consistent electrophoresis

Eliminates the need to prepare gels and buffers

Compatible with most commercially available automated liquid handling
systems for high-throughput electrophoresis

Available in two well formats to suit your applications

Easy to open gel cassettes facilitate downstream staining and blotting
applications

Ability to track samples during electrophoresis of multiple gels using an
individual barcode on each gel cassette
Continued on next page
1
E-PAGE™ Protein Electrophoresis System, Continued
Choosing a Gel
for your
Application
To obtain the best results for your application it is important to choose the
correct E-PAGE™ Gel. The table below describes the major features of each
format. For specifications and separation range of each gel type, see page 67–68.
E-PAGE™ Gel
No. Rows
No. Wells
Well Volume
Run
Length
Run
Time
48 Gel
2*
48 sample
4 marker
15 μL
15 μL
3.2 cm
27 min.
96 Gel
8*
96 sample
8 marker
25 μL
25 μL
1.6 cm
14 min.
*Wells compatible for loading with a multichannel pipetter or with an automated
liquid handling system.
Western Blotting
of E-PAGE™ Gels
E-PAGE™ Gels are suitable for western blotting. The iBlot® Gel Transfer Device
is recommended method for blotting E-PAGE™ Gels (page 26). Semi-dry
blotting (page 26), and semi-wet blotting may also be performed (page 36).
Tank blotting is not recommended, but can be performed if even pressure is
maintained between the gel and the membrane, and cooling is provided.
Staining E-PAGE™
Gels
E-PAGE™ Gels are compatible with many standard Coomassie®, silver, or
fluorescent staining protocols. E-PAGE™ Gels are thicker than most SDS-PAGE
mini-gels, so additional time may be required for staining and destaining steps.
We recommend the following stains for E-PAGE™ Gels. Detailed staining
protocols are described on pages 39–48.
Total Protein Stains:

SYPRO® Ruby Protein Gel Stain (page 39)

Coomassie® Stain (page 41)

SimplyBlue™ SafeStain (page 43)

SilverQuest™ Silver Staining Kit (page 46)

SilverXpress® Silver Staining Kit (page 47)
Specific Protein Stains:

Lumio™ Green Detection Reagent for detecting Lumio fusion proteins
(page 39)

In Vision™ His-tag In-Gel Stain for detecting 6X His-tagged proteins
(blotting recommended first, page 48)
Continued on next page
2
E-PAGE™ Protein Electrophoresis System, Continued
Choosing a
Staining Protocol
A summary of the time needed and sensitivity obtained with E-PAGE™ gels
using various staining protocols is described below. Based on the starting
material and your requirements for sensitivity and background, choose an
appropriate staining protocol.
For background: ++++ (very low background) +++ (low background) ++
(moderate background).
Protocol
™
Time
Sensitivity
Background
Lumio Green
Detection Reagent
Pre-label proteins
1–5 pmole
during sample
preparation, run the gel,
and visualize
(total time: ~1 hour).
++++
SYPRO® Ruby Protein
Gel Stain
Fix: 0.5 h
Stain: 1.5 h
Destain: 2 h-overnight
1–2.5 ng
++++
Coomassie® R-250
Stain
Stain: 1.5 h
Destain: overnight
20 ng
+++
Coomassie® R-250
Stain Microwave
Protocol
Stain: 0.5 h
Destain: overnight
20 ng
+++
SimplyBlue™ SafeStain
Fix: 0.5 h
Stain: 0.5 h–2 h
Destain: 3 h-overnight
20 ng
+++
SilverQuest™ Silver
Stain
Total: 4.5 h
10 ng
++++
SilverXpress® Silver
Stain
Total: 6.5 h
1 ng
++
InVision™ His-tag
In-Gel Stain
Blot: 7–8 min
Rinse: 2 min
Stain: 20 min
40 ng
His-tagged
protein
+++
3
E-PAGE™ System Components
Introduction
The E-PAGE™ Protein Electrophoresis System consists of the following
components:

E-PAGE™ 48 or 96 Pre-cast Gels

E-Base™ Electrophoresis Device

E-Holder™ Platform

E-PAGE™ Loading Buffer 1 (4X)

E-PAGE™ Blotting Pad

Butterfly Opener

E-Editor™ 2.02 Software
Details on each system component are described in this section.
E-PAGE 48 Gels

E-PAGE™ 48 Gels are self-contained, pre-cast gels that include a buffered
gel matrix and electrodes packaged inside a disposable, UV-transparent
cassette.

Each E-PAGE™ 48 Gel contains 48 sample lanes and 4 marker lanes. This
configuration provides a 3.2 cm run length. The wells of E-PAGE™ 48 Gels
are compatible for loading with a multichannel pipetter in alternating lanes
or with an automated liquid handling system (see page 14 for automation
specifications).

After electrophoresis, the E-PAGE™ 48 cassette is easily opened with the
included Butterfly Opener to remove the gel for staining or blotting
applications.

Each E-PAGE™ 48 cassette is labeled with an individual barcode to facilitate
identification of the gel using commercial barcode readers (page 16).
See page 67 for E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel specifications.
Diagram of an
E-PAGE 48
Cassette
A diagram of the E-PAGE™ 48 Gel cassette is shown below.
copper
electrode (-)
Tabs for opening
gel cassette
barcode
copper
electrode (+)
Continued on next page
4
E-PAGE™ System Components, Continued
E-PAGE 96 Gels

E-PAGE™ 96 Gels are self-contained, pre-cast gels that include a buffered
gel matrix and electrodes packaged inside a disposable, UV-transparent
cassette.

Each E-PAGE™ 96 Gel contains 96 sample lanes and 8 marker lanes in a
patented staggered well format that provides a 1.6 cm run length. The wells
of the E-PAGE™ 96 gels are compatible for loading with a multichannel
pipetter or with an automated liquid handling system (See page 14 for
automation specifications).

After electrophoresis, the E-PAGE™ cassette is easily opened with the
included Butterfly Opener to remove the gel from the cassette for staining
or blotting applications.

Each E-PAGE™ 96 cassette is labeled with an individual barcode to facilitate
identification of the gel using commercial barcode readers (page 16).
See page 67 for E-PAGE™ 96 6% Gel specifications
Diagram of an
E-PAGE™ 96
Cassette
A diagram of the E-PAGE™ 96 Gel cassette is shown below.
copper
electrode (-)
staggered
well-format
tabs for opening gel
cassette
barcode
copper
electrode (+)
Continued on next page
5
E-PAGE™ System Components, Continued
E-Base
Electrophoresis
Device
Important
Mother E-Base™
E-PAGE™ Gels are used with a specially designed electrophoresis device that
combines a base and a power supply. Two types of devices are available from
Invitrogen:

The Mother E-Base™ (Cat. no. EB-M03) has an electrical plug that can be
connected directly to an electrical outlet and is used for electrophoresis of
one E-PAGE™ Gel. The Mother E-Base™ has been tested for electrophoresis
with up to three Daughter E-Bases™ connected at one time.

The Daughter E-Base™ (Cat. no. EB-D03) connects to the Mother E-Base™,
and together they can be used for the independent electrophoresis of 2 or
more E-PAGE™ Gels. The Daughter E-Base™ does not have an electrical plug
and cannot be used without a Mother E-Base™.
E-PAGE™ Gels are not compatible with the E-Gel® 96 bases
(cat nos. G7100-01/G7200-01) previously available from Invitrogen. The older
E-Gel® 96 bases do not have the ‘E-Base™’ inscription on the platform.
Each Mother E-Base™ has a pwr/prg (power/program) button (right side) and a
time button (left side) on the lower right side of the base. The lower left side of
each Mother E-Base™ contains a light LED and a digital display. The gel cassette
is inserted into the two electrode connections. The Mother E-Base™ is connected
to an electrical outlet with the electrical plug.
The E-Base™ EP program is set to 14 minutes default time. See page 18 to adjust
time as recommended.
Mother E-Base
(–)
to electrical outlet
(+)
pwr/prg button
time button
digital
display
light LED
Continued on next page
6
E-PAGE™ System Components, Continued
Daughter E-Base™
The Daughter E-Base™ is similar to the Mother E-Base™ except the Daughter
E-Base™ does not have an electrical cord and cannot be connected to an electrical
outlet.
The Daughter E-Base™ is connected to a Mother E-Base™ or to another Daughter
E-Base™ (already connected to a Mother E-Base™). Once connected to a Mother
E-Base™, each Daughter E-Base™ is designed to function independently of the
Mother E-Base™ or other Daughter E-Bases™
Mother E-Base™/Daughter E-Base™
Mother
E-Base™
Daughter
™
E-Base
Continued on next page
7
E-PAGE™ System Components, Continued
E-PAGE™ Loading
Buffer
E-PAGE™ Gels are supplied with E-PAGE™ Loading Buffer 1 (4X), which is
optimized for E-PAGE™ Gels, and is recommended for routine SDS-PAGE and
staining or blotting applications. It is not recommended to use any other
SDS-PAGE sample buffer. See page 11 for more information about loading
buffers.
E-Holder™
Platform
The E-Holder™ Platform is designed to hold E-PAGE™ Gels during loading. Use
the E-Holder™ when you need to load multiple gels while other gels are running
on the E-Base™.
Note: The E-Holder™ is not a power supply unit, cannot be connected to an
electrical outlet, and cannot be used to run gels.
See page 20 for more information about the E-Holder™ Platform.
E-PAGE™ Blotting
Pad
The E-PAGE™ Blotting Pad is supplied with the E-PAGE™ Gels and E-PAGE™
Starter Kits. It is necessary to use the pad during semi-dry blotting to ensure a
good transfer. The pad is reusable as long as the pad retains porosity and liquid
retaining capacity.
E-PAGE™ Butterfly
Opener
The red plastic Butterfly Opener is used to open the E-PAGE™ Gel cassette, and
trim the gel after electrophoresis.
E-Editor™ 2.02
Software
The E-Editor™ 2.02 software allows you to quickly reconfigure digital images of
E-PAGE Gel results for analysis and documentation.
Capture an image of the gel and use the E-Editor™ 2.02 software to:

Align and arrange the lanes in the image

Save the reconfigured image for further analysis

Copy and paste selected lanes or the entire image into other applications for
printing, saving, emailing, and/or publishing.
The E-Editor™ 2.02 software can be downloaded FREE at www.invitrogen/epage.
Follow the instructions to download the software and user manual.
8
Methods
Electrophoresis of E-PAGE™ Gels
Guidelines for Sample Preparation
MEND
ION
AT
RECOM
Introduction
Materials Needed
For optimal results using the E-PAGE™ System, follow the guidelines for
preparing your protein samples as described in this section.
We recommend that you read this section before preparing your samples. Use
the sample preparation method and loading buffer appropriate for your
detection method:
Application
Method
Loading Buffer
Routine staining and
western blotting
1 (page 12)
Loading Buffer 1
Lumio Green Detection
2 (page 13)
Lumio™ Gel Sample Buffer
The following items are needed for sample preparation. See page 71 for
ordering information.

Protein sample

NuPAGE® Sample Reducing Agent (10X)

E-PAGE™ Loading Buffer 1 (4X) included in the kit

Deionized water

Heating block set at 70C

Molecular weight markers (page 11)

(Optional) Lumio™ Green Detection Kit for detection of Lumio™ fusion
proteins (page 13)
E-PAGE™ Gels contain SDS and are designed for performing electrophoresis
under denaturing conditions.
To obtain the best results, we recommend performing SDS-PAGE under
reducing conditions. If you need to perform SDS-PAGE under non-reducing
conditions, do not add NuPAGE® Sample Reducing Agent (10X) during
sample preparation.
Continued on next page
9
Guidelines for Sample Preparation, Continued
Total Sample
Volume
For best results, avoid loading less than 5 μL of sample in wells, and maintain a
uniform loading volume. If you do not have enough samples to load all the wells
of the gel, load an equal volume of deionized water into any empty wells.
E-PAGE™ Gel Type
Recommended Loading Volume
MEND
ION
AT
RECOM
™
Amount of Protein
E-PAGE 96 6% Gel
15 μL
E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel
20 μL
We recommend loading 5–10 μL of deionized water into all wells of the
E-PAGE™ Gel prior to loading samples or molecular weight markers.
Load up to 20 μg of protein per well of the E-PAGE™ Gel. The amount of protein
required depends on the staining or western detection method used for
visualization. If you are unsure of how much protein to use, test a range of
concentrations to determine the optimal concentration for your sample.
Note: To ensure a proper LDS (lithium dodecyl sulfate from Loading Buffer 1)
to protein ratio, limit sample protein or lipid (from the sample) amount to
2 μg/μL of the final sample volume. Excess protein will cause poor resolution.
High Salt or
Detergent
Samples
Samples containing high salt or detergents result in loss of resolution on
E-PAGE™ Gels. Dilute the samples such that the final concentration of the salt or
detergent in the sample is as described below. NT= not tested.
Detergent or Salt
Final Concentration for
E-PAGE™ 48
Final Concentration for
E-PAGE 96
Triton® X-100
<0.3%
<0.5%
®
Tween 20
<0.3%
<0.5%
CHAPS
<0.3%
NT
NP-40
<0.3%
NT
RIPA
<0.25X
NT
SDS
<2% (already in loading buffer)
<4%
Tris
<300 mM
<200 mM
NaCl
<300 mM
<250 mM
Ammonium
sulfate
<100 mM
NT
Sodium acetate
<200 mM
NT
EDTA
<20 mM
NT
MES
Not recommended
NT
DTT, Glycine,
Urea, Imidazole
No effect seen up to 500 mM
NT
Continued on next page
10
Guidelines for Sample Preparation, Continued
Loading Buffer
Molecular Weight
Standards
Based on your application, use the appropriate loading buffer as described
below:

SDS-PAGE and routine staining (Method 1, page 12)
For SDS-PAGE and routine staining or blotting, use the E-PAGE™ Loading
Buffer 1 (4X) included in the kit for preparing samples. The E-PAGE™
Loading Buffer 1 (4X) is optimized for E-PAGE™ Gels. Do not use any other
types of SDS-PAGE sample buffer.

SDS-PAGE and detection of Lumio™ Fusion Proteins (Method 2, page 13)
For in-gel detection of Lumio™ fusion proteins with the Lumio™ Green
Detection Kit, use the Lumio™ Gel Sample Buffer (4X) included with the
Lumio™ Green Detection Kit. This buffer is specifically formulated to
provide optimal results with the Lumio™ Green Detection Reagent. Do not
use the E-PAGE™ Loading Buffer 1 (4X) or any other type of SDS-PAGE
buffer to prepare samples for Lumio™ Green detection.
The following protein molecular weight standards and loading volumes are
recommended for E-PAGE™ Gels. Because molecular weight standards have
different migration patterns in different gel systems, see page 51 for apparent
molecular weight calibration on E-PAGE™ Gels. See page 71 for ordering
information.
Gel Type
™
E-PAGE
48 8% Gel
E-PAGE™
96 6% Gel
Standard
Amount
Application
®
SeeBlue Plus2 Prestained Standard
5 μL
Electrophoresis
MagicMark™ XP Western
Protein Standard
10 μL
Electrophoresis,
followed by staining
MagicMark™ XP Western
Protein Standard
5 μL
Western blotting
BenchMark™ Fluorescent
Protein Standard
5 μL
Fluorescent
Detection
E-PAGE™ SeeBlue®
Pre-stained Protein
Standard
10 μL
Electrophoresis
E-PAGE™ MagicMark™
Unstained Protein
Standard
10 μL
Electrophoresis,
followed by staining
E-PAGE™ MagicMark™
Unstained Protein
Standard
5 μL
Western blotting
BenchMark™ Fluorescent
Protein Standard
5 μL
Fluorescent
Detection
Continued on next page
11
Guidelines for Sample Preparation, Continued
Method 1: Routine Use this protocol if you are performing SDS-PAGE followed by routine staining
or blotting.
Staining and
Blotting
If the E-PAGE™ Loading Buffer 1 (4X) is stored at 4C, bring the buffer to room
temperature and mix briefly prior to use.
1.
Prepare your samples in a total volume of 10 μL in the E-PAGE™ Loading
Buffer 1 (4X) as described below. If you need to prepare samples in a volume
of 5–15 μL, adjust the volumes accordingly.
Reagent
Protein Sample
Reduced
Non-reduced
x μL
x μL
2.5 μL
2.5 μL
1 μL
—
to 10 μL
to 10 μL
™
E-PAGE Loading Buffer 1
(4X)
NuPAGE® Sample
Reducing Agent (10X)
Deionized Water
2.
Incubate the samples at 70C for 10 minutes.
3.
Proceed to Loading E-PAGE™ Gels, page 19.
Continued on next page
12
Guidelines for Sample Preparation, Continued
Method 2: Lumio™
Detection
A brief protocol to prepare samples for specific detection of Lumio™ fusion
proteins using the Lumio™ Green Detection Kit is described below.
For details on the Lumio™ Green Detection Kit, refer to the manual available at
www.invitrogen.com or contact Technical Support (page 72).
1.
Refer to the Lumio Detection manual for details on each type of protein.
Prepare protein samples as follows:
Protein Sample
Sample
Volume
Lumio™ Gel Sample Buffer (4X)
Volume
Bacterial samples
7.5 μL
2.5 μL
Mammalian lysate
7.5 μL
2.5 μL
Partially purified
sample
7.5 μL
2.5 μL
Purified sample
7.5 μL
2.5 μL
In vitro expressed
10 μL
Not needed*
*There is no need to add Lumio™ Gel Sample Buffer (4X), as the sample is
already prepared in this buffer.
2.
Thaw the Lumio™ Green Detection Reagent and mix well.
3.
Add 0.1 μL Lumio™ Green Detection Reagent to the protein samples from
Step 1 in a fume hood. Mix well. Return the Lumio™ Green Detection
Reagent to –20C immediately after use.
4.
Incubate the samples at 70C for 10 minutes.
5.
Allow samples to cool for 1–2 minutes and centrifuge briefly at maximum
speed in a microcentrifuge.
6.
Thaw the Lumio™ In-Gel Detection Enhancer and mix well. Add 1 μL of
Lumio™ In-Gel Detection Enhancer to the samples.
7.
Mix well and incubate the samples at room temperature for 5 minutes.
Return the Lumio™ In-Gel Detection Enhancer to –20C immediately after
use.
8.
Proceed to Loading E-PAGE Gels, page 16.
When performing electrophoresis of Lumio™ fusion proteins, we recommend
extending the run time of the gel for an additional 2 minutes to prevent the
formation of a fluorescent dye front.
13
Guidelines for Loading E-PAGE™ Gels by Automated Liquid
Handling
Introduction
E-PAGE 48 and 96 Gels are designed for automated loading using standard SBS
(Society for Biomolecular Screening)-compatible liquid handling systems with an
8, 12, or 96-tip robotic loading apparatus. In general, follow the manufacturer
instructions for your automated loading system. Specific guidelines for loading
each gel format are described in the section below.
To download programming scripts for your automated liquid handling system,
go to www.invitrogen.com/epage.
Automated
Loading of
E-PAGE™ 96 Gels
The wells of the E-PAGE™ 96 Gel are staggered to provide maximum run length
(see Figure 1, below). For proper loading of samples, it is important to program
your automated liquid handling system to set the A1 tip of the 8, 12 or 96-tip
robotic head over the E-PAGE™ 96 Gel cassette as described below.
Set the position of the first tip approximately 1 mm above the slope of the A1
well (see Figure 2, below). This ensures that the remaining tips are aligned above
the slopes of the remaining wells. Refer to the manufacturer’s manual of your
automated liquid handling system to program this setting. After programming
the setting, load your samples. During loading, the samples drop onto the slopes
of the wells and are drawn into the wells by capillary force.
Figure 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11
12
M
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Figure 2
1
A
B
2
Well
Well
1 mm
Well
Well
Continued on next page
14
Guidelines for Loading E-PAGE™ Gels by Automated Liquid
Handling, Continued
Automated
Loading of
E-PAGE™ 48 Gels
E-PAGE 48 Gels are compatible with any automated liquid handling system
that has an 8-span loading head with either fixed (9mm) or variable distance
between the loading heads. These loading patterns are described below.
To download programming scripts for your automated liquid handling system,
go to www.invitrogen.com/epage.
Important
For automated loading of E-PAGE™ 48 Gels, position the plate in the “Portrait”
orientation rather than the “Landscape” position, as shown below:
“Portrait”
“Landscape”
This orientation is available for some automation systems with the use of a 90°
adapter. If your system does not have an adapter that allows the “Portrait”
configuration, please contact Technical Support (page 72) to obtain a 90° adapter.
Loading Patterns
for E-PAGE 48
Loading E-PAGE 48 Gels requires one of the following loading patterns,
depending on your machine:
Fixed Tip (4 movements per row: 8+8+4+4)
Variable Tip (3 movements per row: 8+8+8)
15
Loading E-PAGE™ Gels
Introduction
After preparing your samples, you are ready to load E-PAGE™ Gels. This section
describes the procedure for loading protein samples and molecular weight
standards.
The Mother E-Base™ and Daughter E-Base™ Electrophoresis Devices are designed
to fit most robotic platforms allowing you to load and run E-PAGE™ Gels
directly on the automated liquid handling system.
If you need to load multiple gels on a robotic platform while other gels are
running on the E-Base™ Electrophoresis Devices, use an E-Holder™ Platform
(page 20).
If you are using an automated liquid handling device, it is important to align the
robotic tip loading assembly to the proper setting prior to loading samples on the
E-PAGE™ 48 or 96 Gels. This ensures proper loading of samples into the wells.
See page 14 for automation guidelines.

Dispose of gels as hazardous waste.

Avoid touching the gel while the gel is running.
Using the Barcode Each E-PAGE™ 48 and 96 Gel cassette is labeled with an individual barcode. The
barcode facilitates the identification of each gel cassette during electrophoresis of
multiple gels. Each E-PAGE™ cassette contains an EAN 39 type of barcode, which
is recognized by the majority of commercially available barcode readers. Refer to
the manufacturer’s instructions to set up the barcode reader.
Note: When capturing an image of an E-PAGE™ Gel, note that the barcode label
is easily overexposed. To ensure that the barcode label is distinct and readable in
the image, experiment with different shutter settings for your particular camera.
Continued on next page
16
Loading E-PAGE™ Gels, Continued
Important
Method of
Loading Samples

E-PAGE™ Gels can only be used once. Do not re-use.

To obtain the best results, run the E-PAGE™ Gel immediately after removal
from the pouch and loading.

Store and run E-PAGE™ Gels at room temperature.

Always load 5–10 μL deionized water first into all wells prior to loading
sample or molecular weight standard.

For optimal results, we do not recommend running reduced and
non-reduced samples on the same gel. If you do choose to run these samples
on the same gel, avoid running reduced and non-reduced samples in
adjacent lanes as the reducing agent may have a carry-over effect on the
non-reduced samples.

Avoid running samples containing different salt or protein concentrations in
adjacent lanes.

E-PAGE™ 48 and 96 Gels are not compatible with the E-Gel® 96 Mother and
Daughter Bases (cat nos. G7100-01/G7200-01) available previously from
Invitrogen. The older E-Gel® 96 bases do not have the ‘E-Base™’ inscription
on the platform.
We recommend the following methods of sample loading based on the gel type.
Use short, rigid tips for loading E-PAGE™ Gels.
Gel Type
E-PAGE™ 48
Method of Loading
Manual pipetter, multichannel pipetter (load samples
into alternate wells of the gel followed by a second round
of loading into the remaining wells), or automated liquid
handling devices (8- or 12-tip).
See page 14 for automated liquid handling system
guidelines.
E-PAGE™ 96
Manual pipetter, multichannel pipetter, or automated
liquid handling devices (8-, 12-, or 96-tip).
See page 14 for automated liquid handling system
guidelines.
Continued on next page
17
Loading E-PAGE™ Gels, Continued
Selecting a
Program on the
E-Base™ Device
The recommended program for E-PAGE™ Gels is EP. Select program EP prior
to inserting a gel into the base.
Brief instructions for using the E-Base™ Device are included in this manual. For
details, refer to the E-Base™ manual.
1.
Plug Mother E-Base™ Device into an electrical outlet using the electrical
plug on the base. Connect the Daughter E-Base™ Device to a Mother EBase™ Device or another Daughter E-Base™ Device connected to a Mother
E-Base™ Device.
2.
The display shows EP or last program used (EG or EP).
3.
Press and release the pwr/prg (power/program) button to select the
program EP. The default run time for program EP is 14 minutes.
4.
To manually change the default run time, press and release the time button
located on the lower right corner of the base to view the time setting.
5.
Press and hold the time button to increase the time to the desired run time.
If the time button is not released, the time setting increases until it reaches
00. To begin cycling through the numbers again, starting from 00, press the
time button again.
Gel Type
E-PAGE™ 48 8%
Time in Minutes
27 minutes
E-PAGE™ 96 6%
14 minutes (default run time for program EP)
Do not run an E-PAGE 96 Gel for more than 25 minutes, or an E-PAGE
48 Gel for more than 30 minutes.

When performing electrophoresis of Lumio™ fusion proteins, we
recommend extending the run time of the gel for an additional 2 minutes
to prevent the formation of a fluorescent dye front.

If your sample contains high salt or detergent concentrations, you may
need to manually increase the run time.

To increase the run time when a cassette is inserted, press and release the
time button to increase the time setting by 1-minute intervals or press and
hold the time button to increase the time continuously.

To increase the run time while a run is in progress, see next page. To
manually interrupt or stop a run, see page 22.
Continued on next page
18
Loading E-PAGE™ Gels, Continued
Loading Gels
Each E-PAGE™ Gel is individually wrapped and ready for use.
Refer to pages 14–15 for automated liquid handling system guidelines for
loading E-PAGE™ Gels. To load your samples on the gels using the E-Holder™
Platform, refer to page 20 for detailed instructions.
To load E-PAGE™ Gels on the E-Base Device:
1.
Open the package and remove the gel.
2.
Remove the plastic comb from the gel.
3.
Slide the gel into the two electrode connections on the Mother E-Base™
Device or Daughter E-Base™ Device. The two copper electrodes on the right
side of the gel cassette must be in contact with the two electrode
connections on the base, as shown below.
When the gel is properly inserted into the base, a fan in the base begins
running, and a red light illuminates at the lower left corner of the base. The
digital display shows the appropriate time for a selected program or the last
time setting (Ready Mode).
Note: If a cassette is inserted into the base before selecting program EP,
remove the cassette, select program EP, and reinsert the cassette.
4.
Load deionized water to each well of the E-PAGE™ Gel prior to loading
your samples or protein molecular weight standard. There should be a
uniform volume of liquid in each well. Load samples into the gels using a
multichannel pipetter or an automated liquid handling system as described
below:
E-PAGE™ Gel Type
E-PAGE™ 48 Gel
™
E-PAGE 96 Gel
Deionized Water
Sample in Loading
Buffer
5–10 μL
10–5 μL
10–20 μL
15–5 μL
5.
Load the appropriate protein molecular weight standards in the marker
wells of the gel. See page 11 for recommended molecular weight standards.
6.
Proceed immediately to Running E-PAGE Gels, page 21.
19
Using E-Holder™ Platform
The E-Holder™ Platform is designed to hold E-PAGE™ Gels during loading. You
can use the E-Holder™ Platform when you need to load multiple gels while other
gels are running on the E-Base™
Introduction
Note: The E-Holder™ Platform is not a power supply unit, cannot be connected
to an electrical outlet, and cannot be used to run E-PAGE™ 48 or 96 Gels.
To obtain the best results, run E-PAGE™ Gels on the Mother E-Base™ Device or
Daughter E-Base™ Device within 15 minutes after loading on E-Holder™
Platform.
The E-PAGE Gels will not fit on the E-Gel 96 Holder previously available
from Invitrogen.
Important
Using E-Holder
1.
Open the package and remove the E-PAGE™ Gel.
2.
Remove comb from the E-PAGE™ cassette.
3.
Place the E-PAGE™ cassette in the E-Holder™ Platform. Align the bottom left
end of the cassette in the lower left alignment corner of the E-Holder™
Platform as shown in the figure below. Proceed to loading the gel or to Step 4
below for automated liquid handling system loading.
E-PAGE™ 96 Gel
Alignment
corner
4.
20
E-Holder
Platform
™
Optional: Set up your automated liquid handling system to load samples
into the E-PAGE™ 48 or 96 Gel placed on an E-Holder™ Platform. Program
your automated liquid handling system to load the samples approximately
5 minutes before the previous electrophoresis run is complete. This ensures
that the loaded gel from the E-Holder™ Platform is placed onto an E-Base™
Device within the recommended time of 15 minutes.
Running E-PAGE™ Gels
Introduction
After loading your protein samples on the E-PAGE™ Gels, proceed immediately
to electrophoresis using the E-Base™ Device. Refer to page 23 for the E-Base™
Quick Reference Guide.
Using E-Base™
Instructions for running E-PAGE™ Gels on the Mother E-Base™ Device or
Daughter E-Base™ Device are provided below.
Note: It is not necessary to have a gel in the Mother E-Base™ Device if you are
using a Daughter E-Base™ Device. However, the Mother E-Base™ Device must be
plugged into an electrical outlet.
1.
To begin electrophoresis, press and release the pwr/prg button located on
the lower right corner of the Mother E-Base™ Device.
The red light changes to a green light and the digital display shows the
count down time while the run is in progress.
™
E-PAGE 96 Gel
Mother E-Base™
Digital
display
2.
Time button
If you are using a Daughter E-Base™ Device, press and release the pwr/prg
button located on the lower right corner of the Daughter E-Base™ Device.
Mother E-Base™
Daughter E-Base™
To add to the run time while the run is in progress, press the time button to
select the desired time and then release the time button.
Do not run an E-PAGE™ 96 Gel for more than 25 minutes or an E-PAGE™
48 Gel for more than 30 minutes.
To interrupt or stop a run in progress, see page 22.
Continued on next page
21
Running E-PAGE™ Gels, Continued
Using E-Base™,
Continued
3.
The Mother E-Base™ Device or Daughter E-Base™ Device signals the end of
the run with a flashing red light and rapid beeping for 2 minutes followed
by a single beep every minute.
At the end of the run, the digital display shows the original time setting
(not any time change that was made during the electrophoresis). The digital
display also shows the elapsed time (up to 19 minutes with a negative sign)
since the end of the run.
4.
Press and release the pwr/prg button to stop the beeping. The light turns
to a steady red and the digital display shows the last time setting.
5.
Remove the gel cassette from the Mother E-Base™ Device or Daughter
E-Base™ Device.
6.
For visualizing Lumio™ fusion proteins, see page 39. For opening the
E-PAGE™ cassette, see page 25.
Note: The bands in the gel will diffuse within 40 minutes.
Interrupting an
Electrophoresis
Run
You can interrupt an electrophoresis run at any time by pressing and releasing
the pwr/prg button to stop the current. The stopped current is indicated by a
steady red light and the digital display will flash to indicate that the run was
interrupted.
You can remove the gel from the E-Base™ Device to check the progress of the run.
Then:

To continue the run from the point at which it was stopped, reinsert the gel
and press and release the pwr/prg button. The light changes to steady green
and the digital display shows the count down time.

To cancel the rest of the interrupted run, press and hold the pwr/prg button
for a few seconds. The digital display will reset and the base will return to
Ready Mode. If desired, you can then program a new run time as described
on page 18 and rerun the gel.
In case of an external power failure (loss of electricity or the electrical cord is
accidentally removed from the outlet), the run will continue when the power
resumes. The Mother E-Base™ Device or Daughter E-Base™ Device signals the end
of the run as described on the previous page, except the light will be an
alternating red/green to indicate that an external power failure had occurred
during the run.
We recommend that you disconnect the Mother E-Base™ Device from the
electrical outlet when not in use for a prolonged period of time.
Maintaining
E-Base™
22
Keep the surfaces of the Mother E-Base™ Device and Daughter E-Base™ Device
free of contaminants. To clean, disconnect bases from power source and wipe
with a dry cloth. Do not attempt to open or service the bases. To honor the
warranty, bases should only be opened and serviced by Invitrogen.
E-Base™ Quick Reference Guide
Introduction
Mode
A quick reference guide for operating the Mother E-Base™ Device and Daughter
E-Base™ Device is provided below. Operating modes and electrophoresis runs
are described.
Action
Sound
Light
Digital Display
No light if a
cassette is not
inserted, or red
light if a cassette is
inserted
Without gel cassette last program used
(EP or EG)
With gel cassette in last time setting
Base plugged in
Mother
E-Base™
connected to
an electrical
outlet
Ready (with no
current flowing
through gel)
Gel cassette
inserted into a
base
—
Steady red
Default time setting
(12 minutes for EG,
14 minutes for EP, or
last time setting)
Run
Press and
release the
pwr/prg
button
—
Steady green
Count down time
Automatic
Continuous
beeping for
2 minutes
followed by a
single beep
every minute
Flashing red until
the time button is
pressed
Negative time
display (00 to
-19 minutes)
Run ends after an
external power
failure
Automatic
Continuous
beeping for
2 minutes
followed by a
single beep
every minute
Alternating red
and green
Negative time
display (00 to
-19 minutes)
Pause (manually end
the run)
Press and
release the
pwr/prg
button during
the run
With gel cassette in
- steady red
Without gel
cassette - no light
Flashing time display
End of run
1 beep
—
Continued on next page
23
E-Base™ Quick Reference Guide, Continued
Mode
Action
Sound
Light
Digital Display
Return to Ready
mode after an
automatic stop
Press and release
the pwr/prg
button
—
Steady red
Last time setting
Restart after a manual
stop
Press and release
the pwr/prg
button
—
Steady green
Count down time
—
With gel cassette
in – steady red
Without gel
cassette – no
light
With gel cassette in –
last time setting
Without gel cassette
- last program
setting
Return to Ready
mode after a manual
stop
Press and hold the
pwr/prg button
Failure
Press and hold
pwr/prg button
for 2 seconds and
remove gel from
the base
No cassette
Continuous
loud beeping
—
With gel cassette
in - Press and
release the time
button
Time setting
Program setting
24
With and without
gel cassette - Press
and hold the time
button
Press and release
the pwr/prg
button when no
cassette is inserted
into the E-Base™ to
select the desired
program
1 beep
—
Flashing “ER”
—
—
EP, last program
used (EP or EG)
—
With gel cassette
– steady red
Time increases by
1 minute increments
—
With gel cassette
in – steady red
Without gel
cassette – no
light
Time increases
continuously and
automatically stops
at 00
No light
Selected program EP
or EG
Opening the E-PAGE™ Cassette
Opening the
Cassette
To remove the E-PAGE™ Gel from the cassette for blotting or staining, use the
red plastic Butterfly Opener to open the cassette.
1.
Insert the wide side of the red Butterfly Opener (included in the kit)
between the tabs at the edge of the E-PAGE™ cassette and twist to separate
the two halves of the cassette.
2.
Gently pull apart the cassette halves with your hands until the cassette
halves are completely separated and the gel is exposed.
3.
Carefully remove the gel from the cassette.
4.
Using the wide side of the Butterfly Opener or a gel knife, trim the top and
bottom electrode areas of the gel.
5.
Proceed to blotting (pages 26–38) or staining (pages 39–48).
Small pieces of gel material may remain in the wells of an E-PAGE™ Gel after
removal of the gel from the cassette. To obtain the best staining or blotting
results, remove any small pieces of gel material in the wells of the gel by gently
rubbing a gloved hand over the well side of the gel.
25
Blotting E-PAGE™ Gels
Blotting E-PAGE™ Gels with the iBlot® Device
Introduction
Instructions are provided in this section to assemble the iBlot® Gel Transfer
Device with the De-Bubbling Roller for blotting E-PAGE™ Gels. The
recommended program for blotting E-PAGE™ Gels is Program P3 at 20 volts
for 7–8 minutes.
Materials Needed
You will need the following items:
Removing the Gel

Pre-run E-PAGE™ gel containing your protein samples and standards

iBlot® Gel Transfer Stack, Regular (page 70)
Remove the gel from the cassette for transfer after completion of electrophoresis
as described on page 26.

There is no need for any pretreatment of the gel after electrophoresis.
Wash the E-PAGE™ gel briefly in deionized water to remove any small gel
pieces attached to the gel.

The transfer membrane is supplied in a ready-to-use format in the stacks
without any need for pretreatment. Do not treat the PVDF membrane with
methanol as the PVDF membrane is preactivated prior to assembly with
the transfer stack.

To obtain the best blotting results with the E-PAGE™ gels, we recommend
that you use the De-bubbling Roller. For an alternative protocol using the
Blotting Roller, refer to the manual for the iBlot® Dry Blotting System.
Continued on next page
26
Using the iBlot® Device with the De-Bubbling Roller, Continued
Assembling the
iBlot® Device
1. Open the lid of the device and pull up the Metal Spacers 1 and 2. If you
have attached the De-bubbling Roller to the device, then remove the roller
as shown in the figure below.
Spacer 2
Roller
2. Remove the package labeled iBlot® Anode Stack, Bottom from the iBlot® Gel
Transfer Stacks Box. Remove the laminated sealing of the iBlot® Anode
Stack, Bottom and keep the stack in the transparent plastic tray.
Tab
3. Place the iBlot® Anode Stack, Bottom stack with the tray to the left of the
blotting surface area such that the tab on the tray is on the right side of the
De-bubbling Roller, as shown below. Slide the bottom stack to the left until
the stack is blocked by the Gel Barriers present on the left side of the device.
Note: Handle the iBlot® Anode Stack, Bottom using the plastic tray to avoid
disturbing the gel and membrane layers in the stack. Do not touch the
transfer membrane on the stack.
Tab
Continued on next page
27
Using the iBlot® Device with the De-Bubbling Roller, Continued
Assembling the
iBlot® Device,
continued
4. Clean the Metal Spacer 1 with a damp cloth or tissue and place the spacer
on the membrane as shown below.
Spacer 1
5. Place the prerun gel containing your protein samples on Metal Spacer 1
such that the gel is aligned to the lower right corner of the bottom stack
with the wells of the E-PAGE™ gel facing up.
6. Clean the Metal Spacer 2 with a damp cloth or tissue and place the spacer
over the gel as shown below.
Spacer 2
7. Remove the package labeled iBlot® Cathode Stack, Top from the iBlot® Gel
Transfer Stacks Box. Remove the iBlot® Cathode Stack, Top from the
package.
Continued on next page
28
Using the iBlot® Device with the De-Bubbling Roller, Continued
Assembling the
iBlot® Device,
continued
8. Insert the steel iBlot® E-PAGE™ Tab in the plastic tray groove with the tab
teeth facing up (figure A). Gently press the iBlot® Cathode Stack over the
teeth to allow the teeth to penetrate into the copper electrode (figure B).
Remove the iBlot® Cathode Stack, Top from the red plastic tray using the
iBlot® E-PAGE™ Tab (figure C).
A
B
C
9. Place the iBlot® Cathode Stack, Top without the tray on top of Metal
Spacer 2 with the copper electrode side facing up (and agarose side facing
down). Ensure that all layers are aligned to the right to perform efficient
de-bubbling.
10. Insert the De-bubbling Roller into the two grooves and lower the
roller to its lowest location while holding the pull tab. The resulting
assembly consists of the gel, and cathode and anode stacks placed
between two Metal Spacers 1 and 2 with the De-bubbling Roller on
top of the assembly as shown below.
Continued on next page
29
Using the iBlot® Device with the De-Bubbling Roller, Continued
Assembling the
iBlot® Device,
continued
11. Hold the iBlot® E-PAGE™ Tab and plastic tab on the iBlot® Anode Stack,
Bottom together and pull the assembly (anode and cathode stacks, and gel)
together through the De-bubbling Roller towards the blotting surface, in
one smooth, uninterrupted movement until the assembly reaches the Gel
Barriers on the blotting surface (figure A). At the end of de-bubbling, all
layers are aligned to the right as shown below (figure B).
A
B
12. Place the iBlot® Disposable Sponge on the inner side of the lid (between the
small protrusions on the lid that hold the sponge in its place) such that the
metal contact is to the top right.
Contact
The sponge absorbs any excess liquid generated during blotting and exerts
an even pressure on the stack surface.
Performing
Blotting
After assembling the iBlot® Gel Transfer Device, perform blotting within
15 minutes of assembling the stacks with the gel as described below.
1.
Close the iBlot® Lid and secure the latch. The red light is on indicating a
closed circuit. Ensure the correct program is selected (Program P3 at 20 volts
for 7–8 minutes).
2.
Press the Start/Stop button to start the transfer. The red status light changes
to green. The transfer continues using the programmed parameters.
3.
At the end of the transfer, current automatically shuts off and the iBlot® Gel
Transfer Device signals the end of transfer with repeated beeping sounds,
and flashing red light and digital display.
Note: Previous versions of the iBlot® Gel Transfer Device (firmware versions
prior to 2.7.9), signaled the end of transfer with repeated beeping sounds,
and flashing green light (instead of red light) and digital display.
4.
Press and release the Start/Stop button to stop the beeping. The light turns
to a steady red light.
Continued on next page
30
Using the iBlot® Device with the De-Bubbling Roller, Continued
Disassembling the
iBlot® Gel Transfer
Device
To obtain good transfer and detection results, disassemble the device and stacks
within 30 minutes of ending the blotting procedure.
1.
Open the lid of the iBlot® Device.
2.
Remove the iBlot® E-PAGE™ Tab (used for blotting E-PAGE™ gels only).
Rinse the tab with deionized water and store in a dry place for future use.
Do not discard the iBlot® E-PAGE™ Tab.
3.
Discard the iBlot® Disposable Sponge and iBlot® Cathode Stack, Top.
4.
Carefully remove and discard the gel and filter paper (if used) as shown
below. Remove the transfer membrane from the stack and proceed with the
blocking procedure or stain the membrane (see next page for details).
Note: If you are using PVDF membranes, place the membrane immediately
into water, as PVDF membranes dry quickly. If the PVDF membrane is
dried, re-wet the membrane with methanol and rinse with deionized water a
few times before use. Transfer the membrane to your blocking or staining
solution only after you are sure that is completely wet, because reactivating
after the membrane is exposed to the blocking solution may be problematic.
Important
5.
Discard the iBlot® Anode stack, Bottom.
6.
At this point, the iBlot® Gel Transfer Device is ready for another run (no
cooling period is required). If you are not using the device, turn off the
power switch located on the back of the iBlot® Gel Transfer Device.
Do not reuse the iBlot® Disposable Sponge, iBlot® Filter Paper, and iBlot®
Cathode and Anode Stacks after blotting. Discard after each use.
31
Semi-Dry Blotting of E-PAGE™ Gels
Introduction
A semi-dry blotting procedure for blotting E-PAGE™ Gels is described in this
section. You will need a semi-dry transfer apparatus that is capable of
accommodating the dimensions of an E-PAGE™ Gel (8.6 cm x 13.5 cm) and a
power supply.
Materials Needed
You will need the following items. See page 71 for ordering information.

Semi-dry blotter

Methanol (for transfer of E-PAGE™ 48 Gels)

NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (20X)

NuPAGE® Antioxidant

Blotting membranes: Invitrolon™/Filter Paper Sandwiches or Nitrocellulose
Membrane/Filter Paper Sandwiches

E-PAGE™ Blotting Pad (supplied with E-PAGE™ Gels or available
separately)

4 pieces of 2.5 mm Blotting Filter Paper

Blotting Roller

Incubation Tray
Continued on next page
32
Semi-Dry Blotting of E-PAGE Gels, Continued
E-PAGE 48
Transfer Buffer
We recommend using 2X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer with 15% methanol and
NuPAGE® Antioxidant for the transfer of most proteins from E-PAGE™ 48 Gels.
When the complete transfer of higher molecular weight proteins (>150 kDa) is
desired, reduce methanol to 10%.
For one gel, prepare 500 mL of 2X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer as follows:
E-PAGE 96
Transfer Buffer
Buffer Component
Transfer Buffer with
15% Methanol
Transfer Buffer with
10% Methanol
NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer
(20X)
50 mL
50 mL
NuPAGE® Antioxidant
0.5 mL
0.5 mL
Methanol
75 mL
50 mL
Deionized Water
to 500 mL
to 500 mL
We recommend using 2X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer with NuPAGE®
Antioxidant without methanol for the transfer of most proteins from E-PAGE™
96 Gels.
For one gel, prepare 500 mL of 2X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer as follows:
Buffer Component
Transfer Buffer without Methanol
NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (20X)
50 mL
NuPAGE® Antioxidant
0.5 mL
Deionized Water
to 500 mL
33
Semi-Dry Blotting of E-PAGE™ Gels, Continued
Equilibrating the
Gel
Preparing Blotting
Membrane
Equilibration of the gel in 2X Transfer Buffer results in removal of salts that
may increase conductivity and heat during transfer. Perform equilibration for
the recommended time, as longer equilibration results in protein diffusion.
1.
After electrophoresis, remove the gel from the cassette as described on
page 25.
2.
Using the Butterfly Opener or a gel knife, trim off the top and bottom
electrode areas of the gel.
3.
Equilibrate the E-PAGE™ gel in 200 mL 2X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (see
previous page) for 30 minutes. Perform this equilibration on a shaker.
Nitrocellulose
1. Use pre-cut Nitrocellulose/Filter Paper Sandwich or cut nitrocellulose
membrane to the appropriate size (8.6 cm x 13.5 cm).
2.
Soak the membrane in 2X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (see previous page) for
several minutes in the Incubation Tray.
PVDF
1. Use pre-cut Invitrolon™/Filter Paper Sandwich or cut PVDF membrane to
the appropriate size (8.6 cm x 13.5 cm).
Guidelines for
Semi-Dry Blotting
2.
Pre-wet the membrane for 30 seconds in methanol, ethanol, or isopropanol.
Briefly rinse in deionized water.
3.
Soak the membrane in 2X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (see previous page) for
several minutes in the Incubation Tray.

Use the correct 2X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer as described on the previous
page based on the E-PAGE™ Gel type.

Equilibrate the gel as described above.

To ensure a good transfer, it is necessary to use the E-PAGE™ Blotting Pad
and 2.5 mm Blotting Filter Paper.

Remove any trapped bubbles by using the Blotting Roller at each step of
creating the blot sandwich.

Since the E-PAGE™ Gel is thick and easily compressed, avoid applying any
off-center pressure that may deform the blot sandwich, cause bubble
formation, or break the contact between the gel and membrane resulting in
poor transfer.

If the blot sandwich is disturbed during assembly, we recommend
disassembling the sandwich and re-assembling it again.
Continued on next page
34
Semi-Dry Blotting of E-PAGE™ Gels, Continued
Semi-Dry Blotting
Protocol
1.
In a clean container or Incubation Tray, soak 4 pieces of 2.5 mm Blotting
Filter Paper (8.6 cm x 13.5 cm) in 2X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (see
page 33). Remove any air bubbles trapped between filter paper sheets using
the Blotting Roller while the paper is still submerged in buffer.
2.
In a clean container or Incubation Tray, soak the E-PAGE™ Blotting Pad in
2X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (see page 33). Inspect both sides of the pad for
air bubbles. Press the pad to ensure the elimination of any visible air
bubbles.
Note: The Blotting Pad has no specific orientation (either side may be facing
toward the gel).
3.
Place 2 pieces of pre-soaked 2.5 mm Blotting Filter Paper from Step 1 on the
anode plate of a semi-dry blotting apparatus. Ensure that all filter paper
sheets are aligned properly and remove any air bubbles with the Blotting
Roller.
4.
Place the pre-soaked blotting membrane (see page 33) on top of the filter
paper stack and remove any air bubbles with the Blotting Roller.
5.
Remove the gel from the transfer buffer. Gently rub a gloved finger over the
well side of the gel to remove small gel pieces from the gel surface. Resubmerge the gel in transfer buffer to remove any gel pieces from the gel, as
they can cause air bubbles and field distortion during transfer.
6.
Place the flat side of the gel on top of the blotting membrane (well side up),
and remove any air bubbles with the Blotting Roller. Fill the wells of the gel
with 2X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (see page 33).
7.
Place the pre-soaked E-PAGE™ Blotting Pad on the gel and gently roll out
air bubbles with the Blotting Roller.
8.
Place 2 pieces of pre-soaked 2.5 mm Blotting Filter Paper from Step 1 on top
of the Blotting Pad. Ensure that all filter paper sheets are aligned properly
and flush with the gel/membrane sandwich. Remove any air bubbles
trapped between filter paper sheets using the Blotting Roller.
9.
Place the cathode plate on the stack without disturbing the blot sandwich.
Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to further assemble the semi-dry
blotting apparatus.
10. Transfer at 25 V for 1 h (~19 V/cm). You may need to optimize the transfer
conditions for your specific proteins or semi-dry blot apparatus. See
page 53 for results obtained with semi-dry blotting of E-PAGE™ Gels.
35
Semi-Wet Blotting of E-PAGE™ Gels
Introduction
Semi-Wet
Transfer
Apparatus
Important
A semi-wet blotting procedure using an XCell II™ Blot Module for transfer of
proteins from E-PAGE™ Gels is described below.
Two XCell II™ Blot Module units are required to transfer one E-PAGE™ Gel.
To obtain the best transfer, we recommend transferring only one half of an
E-PAGE™ Gel in one XCell II™ Blot Module. Inefficient transfer may occur if you
transfer 2 halves of the E-PAGE™ Gel in one blot module at the same time, as the
E-PAGE™ Gel is thicker than regular mini-gels.
If you are using the XCell II™ Blot Module for transferring one E-PAGE™ Gel, we
recommend that you have two XCell II™ Blot Modules on hand before
proceeding for transfer.
Other semi-wet transfer apparatus that can accommodate an E-PAGE™ Gel
(8.6 cm x 13.5 cm) may be used. However you may get sub-optimal results if
your blotting apparatus is prone to transfer distortion when accommodating
thick gels. It may be necessary to optimize your semi-wet blotting procedure
based on the protocol below, or it may be necessary to use a semi-dry blotting
apparatus to obtain optimal results.
Note: Using the Criterion Blotter module from BioRad (BioRad Cat. no.
170-4070) is not recommended.
Materials Needed
You will need the following items. Ordering information is on page 71.

XCell II™ Blot Module (2 units required for transfer of 1 E-PAGE™ Gel)

XCell SureLock™ Mini-Cell

Power supply (1–2 amps)

Methanol

NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (20X)

NuPAGE® Antioxidant

Invitrolon™ or Nitrocellulose Membrane/Filter Paper Sandwiches

Blotting Roller

Incubation Tray
Note: Use the blotting pads that fit the XCell II™ Blot Module. Do not use the
E-PAGE Blotting Pads for semi-wet transfer.
Continued on next page
36
Semi-Wet Blotting of E-PAGE™ Gels, Continued
Preparing 1X
Transfer Buffer
We recommend using 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer with NuPAGE®
Antioxidant and 10% methanol for semi-wet transfer of proteins from the
E-PAGE™ Gel.
Note: If a large amount of heat is produced during the transfer, use a cooling
unit or perform transfer with cold buffer.
For one blot module, prepare 1000 mL of 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer as
follows:
Buffer Component
50 mL
®
NuPAGE Antioxidant
1 mL
Methanol
100 mL
Deionized Water
849 mL
NuPAGE Transfer Buffer (20X)
Preparing
Blotting Pads,
Membrane, and
Gel
Transfer Buffer with 10% Methanol
®
1.
2.
3.
Use ~ 700 mL 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (see previous page) to soak the
blotting pads of the blot module until saturated. Remove air bubbles by
squeezing the blotting pads while they are submerged in buffer.
Note: Use the blotting pads that fit the XCell II™ Blot Module. Do not use
the E-PAGE Blotting Pads for semi-wet transfer.
Prepare pre-cut membrane/filter paper sandwiches as described below.
 PVDF membrane: Pre-wet the PVDF membrane for 30 seconds in
methanol, ethanol, or isopropanol. Briefly rinse in deionized water and
place the membrane in a shallow dish containing 50–100 mL
1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (see previous page) for several minutes.
 Nitrocellulose membrane: Place the membrane directly into a tray
containing 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (see previous page) for several
minutes.
 Filter paper: Soak briefly in 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (see previous
page) before using.
Transfer the E-PAGE™ Gel immediately following electrophoresis. You will
need to cut the gel in half so it can fit into the XCell II Blot Module. Do not
soak the E-PAGE™ Gel in transfer buffer.
Continued on next page
37
Semi-Wet Blotting of E-PAGE™ Gels, Continued
Semi-Wet
Blotting
Procedure
1.
Remove any small pieces of gel from the well areas by gently rubbing a
gloved finger over the well side of the gel. The gel pieces on the gel may
cause air bubbles and field distortion during transfer.
2. Lay the gel on a flat surface, well side up, in a suitable container and pour
sufficient 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (see previous page) over the gel to
fill all wells.
3. Place a piece of pre-soaked filter paper on top of the gel and remove any
trapped air bubbles by gently rolling the Blotting Roller over the filter
paper. Turn the gel over so the filter paper and gel and are facing
downwards over a gloved hand or clean flat surface
4. Place a pre-soaked membrane on the gel and remove any trapped air
bubbles with the Blotting Roller.
5. Place another pre-soaked filter paper on top of the membrane and remove
any trapped air bubbles with the Blotting Roller.
6. Place two pre-soaked blotting pads into the cathode core of the blot module.
Note: Use the blotting pads that fit the XCell II™ Blot Module. Do not use
the E-PAGE Blotting Pads for semi-wet transfer.
7. Place the gel/membrane assembly on the blotting pads, such that the gel is
closest to the cathode core.
8. Add another pre-soaked blotting pad on top of the membrane assembly.
Remove air bubbles with the Blotting Roller.
9. Add enough pre-soaked blotting pads to rise to 0.5 cm over the rim of the
cathode core. Place the anode (+) core on top of the pads.
10. Hold the blot module together firmly and slide it into the guide rails on the
lower buffer chamber.
11. Insert the gel tension wedge into the lower buffer chamber and lock the
wedge into position.
12. Fill the blot module with 1X NuPAGE® Transfer Buffer (see previous page)
until the gel/membrane assembly is just covered.
13. Fill the outer buffer chamber with 650 mL deionized water.
14. Place the lid on the unit and connect electrical leads to the power supply.
15. Perform transfer for nitrocellulose or PVDF membranes using 35 V constant
for 1 hour. The expected starting current is about 170 mA.
38
Visualizing and Staining of E-PAGE™ Gels
Visualizing Lumio Fusion Proteins
Introduction
The steps involved in detecting Lumio™ fusion proteins run on an E-PAGE™ Gel
are described below.
To visualize Lumio™ fusion protein bands after electrophoresis, you will need a
UV transilluminator or a laser-based scanner (see below). For further details on
imaging Lumio™ fusion proteins, refer to the product manual available at
www.invitrogen.com or contact Technical Support (page 72)
Visualizing
Lumio™ Fusion
Proteins
After electrophoresis is complete, immediately visualize and image the gel as
described below. There is no need to remove the E-PAGE™ Gel from the
cassette to visualize Lumio™ fusion proteins.
1.
Place the gel cassette on a UV transilluminator equipped with a camera and
select the ethidium bromide or SYBR® Green filter on the camera.
You may also use a laser-based scanner with a laser line that falls within the
excitation maxima of the stain (500 nm), and a 535 nm long pass filter or a
band pass filter centered near the emission maxima of 535 nm.
Note: Adjust the settings on the camera prior to turning on the UV
transilluminator. Avoid exposing the gel to UV light for long periods of time.
2.
Image the gel with a suitable camera with the appropriate filters using a 4–
10 second exposure. You may need to adjust the brightness and contrast to
reduce any faint non-specific bands.
You should see fluorescent bands of Lumio™ fusion proteins and the gel should
have minimal background, as shown on page 54.
39
SYPRO® Ruby Staining Protocol
Introduction
Materials Needed
Instructions for staining E-PAGE™ Gels using SYPRO® Ruby Protein Gel Stain is
described in this section. To visualize protein bands after electrophoresis using
SYPRO® Ruby, you will need a UV transilluminator or a laser-based scanner (see
below). For further details on imaging SYPRO® Ruby proteins, refer to the
product manual available at www.invitrogen.com or contact Technical Support
(page 72). Total staining time is 4 hours, with optional destaining overnight.
You will need the following items for staining one E-PAGE Gel. See page 71
for ordering information.

SYPRO® Ruby Protein Gel Stain (see note below)

Fixing solution (20% acetic acid, see note below)

Destaining solution (10% methanol, 7% acetic acid, see note below)

Incubation Trays

Rotary shaker

UV transilluminator equipped with a standard camera or an appropriate
laser scanner (see note below)
The volume of fixing, staining and destaining solutions will depend on the
volume of your staining container. To obtain good results, the volume of solution
must be sufficient to cover the gel completely and to allow the gel to move freely
during all of the steps.
Staining Protocol
1. After electrophoresis, remove the gel from the cassette (page 25) and place
the gel in a clean Incubation Tray.
2. Fix the gel in 20% acetic acid for 30 minutes on an orbital shaker.
3. Stain the gel in undiluted SYPRO® Ruby Protein Gel Stain for 1.5 hours on an
orbital shaker.
4. Transfer the gel to a clean Incubation Tray and destain in 10% methanol, 7%
acetic acid for 2 hours. If complete removal of background is desired,
perform the destaining step overnight.
5. Place the gel on a UV transilluminator equipped with a standard camera and
select the ethidium bromide filter on the camera.
You may also use a laser-based scanner with a laser line that falls within the
excitation maxima of the stain (610 nm).
6. Image the gel with a suitable camera with the appropriate filters using a
1–4 second exposure. You may need to adjust the brightness and contrast to
reduce any faint non-specific bands.
You should see fluorescent protein bands and the gel should have minimal
background as shown on page 55.
40
Coomassie® Staining
Introduction
Instructions for staining E-PAGE™ Gels using Coomassie® R-250 are described in
this section.
To obtain maximum sensitivity, the total staining time for Coomassie® R-250
staining is 1.5 h plus overnight destaining. The use of the Coomassie® R-250
microwave protocol reduces the amount of time needed for staining and
destaining, however for minimal background, overnight destaining is
recommended.
Materials Needed
You will need the following items for staining one E-PAGE™ Gel:

Clean staining containers or incubation trays (if using the Coomassie® R-250
microwave protocol, make sure the container is microwave safe. Do NOT
use the Incubation Tray cat no. LC2102)

Rotary shaker
For Coomassie® R-250 Staining

Coomassie® R-250 Stain (see note below)

Destaining solution (8% acetic acid in deionized water, see note below)

Methanol (regular protocol only)

Ethanol (microwave protocol only)

2 pieces of nylon membrane (microwave protocol only)
The volume of fixing, staining and destaining solutions will depend on the
volume of your staining container. To obtain good results, the volume of solution
must be sufficient to cover the gel completely and to allow the gel to move freely
during all of the steps.
Important
When using the Coomassie® R-250 microwave staining protocol, warm the
Coomassie® R-250 stain and destaining solution to 50°C without boiling. It is
important NOT to boil the solutions.
Since microwave ovens differ significantly, we recommend testing various times
(10 second intervals) and power settings of your microwave oven to achieve a
temperature of 50°C in the volume of solution required for your particular
staining container. Perform these steps without the gel.
Once you have optimized the time and settings for your microwave, use these
settings for staining.
Continued on next page
41
Coomassie® Staining, Continued
The staining solutions for the Coomassie R-250 staining protocol and the
microwave staining protocol are different. Be sure to use the correct stain for the
correct protocol.
Coomassie®
R-250 Staining
Protocol
Coomassie®
R-250 Staining
Microwave
Protocol
For all staining and destaining steps described below, be sure to use sufficient
reagents to completely cover the gel using a suitable container such that the gel
moves freely during the staining and destaining steps.
1.
After electrophoresis, remove the gel from the cassette (page 25) and place
the gel in a clean incubation tray.
2.
Prepare Coomassie® stain (0.03% Coomassie® R-250 in 30% methanol and
10% acetic acid). See note on previous page.
3.
Stain the gel in the prepared stain for 1.5 hours at room temperature with
gentle shaking.
4.
Destain the gel in destaining solution (see previous page) at room
temperature with gentle shaking with intermittent changes of solution until
the bands are visible or overnight for maximum sensitivity and clear
background.
For all staining and destaining steps described below, be sure to use sufficient
reagents to completely cover the gel in a microwave safe container such that the
gel moves freely during the staining and destaining steps.
1.
After electrophoresis, remove the gel from the cassette (page 25) and place
the gel in a clean microwave safe container.
2.
Prepare Coomassie® stain (0.015% Coomassie® R-250 in 30% ethanol and
10% acetic acid). See note on previous page.
3.
Add enough stain to completely cover the gel in the microwave safe
container.
4.
Warm the gel and solution to about 50°C in a microwave oven (see previous
page). Note: Do NOT boil the solution.
5.
Incubate the gel in the warmed staining solution for 30 minutes on an
orbital shaker at room temperature.
6.
Discard the stain, rinse the gel briefly with water and discard the water.
7.
Add enough destaining solution (see previous page) to cover the gel during
incubation
8.
Place two pieces of positively charged nylon membrane on top of the
destaining solution to speed up the destaining process.
9.
Warm the destaining solution, gel and nylon membrane to 50°C in a
microwave oven (see previous page). Note: Do NOT boil the solution.
10. Incubate the gel in the warm destaining solution on an orbital shaker at
room temperature until the desired background is achieved.
Note: To obtain a clear background, perform destaining overnight. Results
obtained with Coomassie® stain are shown on page 56.
42
SimplyBlue™ SafeStain
Introduction
Instructions for staining E-PAGE™ Gels using SimplyBlue™ SafeStain are
described in this section. For further details, refer to the product manual available
at www.invitrogen.com or contact Technical Support (page 72). The total
staining time for SimplyBlue™ SafeStain is 0.5–3 h plus overnight destaining.
Results obtained with SimplyBlue™ SafeStain are shown on page 57.
Materials Needed
You will need the following items for staining one E-PAGE™ Gel:

Clean Incubation Tray

Rotary shaker

SimplyBlue™ SafeStain (see note below)

Fixing solution: (see note below)


For E-PAGE 48: 10% acetic acid/30% methanol in deionized water

For E-PAGE  96: 20% acetic acid in deionized water
Wash solution: (see note below)

For E-PAGE 48: 2% NaCl in deionized water

For E-PAGE  96: Deionized water
The volume of fixing, staining and destaining solutions will depend on the
volume of your staining container. To obtain good results, the volume of solution
must be sufficient to cover the gel completely and to allow the gel to move freely
during all of the steps.
E-PAGE 48 and E-PAGE 96 Gels require different staining protocols. Be sure to
use the correct protocol for your gel.
E-PAGE 48 Gels
E-PAGE 48 Gel Staining Protocol:
1. After electrophoresis, remove the gel from the cassette (page 25) and place
the gel in a clean incubation tray.
2.
Fix the gel in fixing solution (10% acetic acid/30% methanol in deionized
water) for 1 hour with gentle shaking at room temperature. Decant the
fixing solution.
3.
Stain the gel with sufficient SimplyBlue™ SafeStain to cover the gel. Incubate
at room temperature for 2 h with gentle shaking. Decant the stain.
4.
Wash the gel briefly with deionized water.
5.
Wash the gel with 2% NaCl solution with gentle shaking at room
temperature with intermittent changes of wash solution until the bands are
visible or overnight for maximum sensitivity and clear background.
Continued on next page
43
SimplyBlue™ SafeStain, Continued
E-PAGE 96 Gels
For routine staining of E-PAGE 96 Gels, use Protocol A. To obtain the clearest
background for imaging, use Protocol B, which includes a 12–24 h washing step
to improve the background.
Protocol A
1. After electrophoresis, remove the gel from the cassette (page 25) and place
the gel in a clean incubation tray.
2.
Rinse the gel 3 times for 5 minutes each with deionized water to remove SDS
and buffer salts.
3.
Stain the gel with sufficient SimplyBlueSafeStain to cover the gel. Incubate
at room temperature for 1.5 h with gentle shaking. Decant the stain.
4.
Wash the gel with deionized water for 3 h with intermittent water changes.
Protocol B
1. After electrophoresis, remove the gel from the cassette (page 25) and place
the gel in a clean incubation tray.
44
2.
Fix the gel in 20% acetic acid for 30 minutes at room temperature. Decant the
solution.
3.
Stain the gel with sufficient SimplyBlueSafeStain to cover the gel. Incubate
at room temperature for 30 minutes with gentle shaking. Decant the stain.
4.
Rinse the gel briefly with deionized water. Wash the gel in deionized water
for 12–24 h at room temperature, changing the water at least once.
Silver Staining Methods
Introduction
Instructions for staining E-PAGE™ Gels using SilverQuest™ Silver Staining Kit
or SilverXpress® Silver Staining Kit are described in this section.
Total staining time with SilverQuest™ Silver Staining Kit is 4.5 h and
SilverXpress® Silver Staining Kit is 6.5 h.
Materials Needed
You will need the following items for staining one E-PAGE  Gel. See page 71
for ordering information.

Ultrapure water (>18 megohm/cm resistance recommended, see below)

Clean staining containers (if using the SilverQuest™ Silver Staining Kit,
make sure the container is microwave safe. Do NOT use the Incubation
Tray cat no. LC2102 for this purpose)

Rotary shaker

Clean glass bottles for reagent preparation
For SilverQuest™ Silver Staining

SilverQuest™ Silver Staining Kit

Microwave oven (700–1000 watts)

30% ethanol (made with ultrapure water)

100% ethanol

Fixative (40% ethanol, 10% acetic acid, made with ultrapure water)
For SilverXpress® Silver Staining

SilverXpress® Silver Staining Kit

Methanol

Acetic acid

Always use ultrapure water of >18 megohm/cm resistance for preparing all
solutions and rinsing gels and containers. Poor water quality may increase
the background or impair band development.

To achieve best results, be sure to keep the volume of all solutions and
incubation time of all steps exactly as given in the protocol. Changes in the
protocol can result in high background or poor band development.

When using a microwave oven for staining E-PAGE™ Gels with the
SilverQuest™ Silver Staining Kit, always use the microwave oven at full
power setting. Always use a large volume of buffer (2-fold) and a
microwave safe container. Avoid microwaving the E-PAGE™ Gel for more
than 45 seconds because gel decomposition can occur.
Important
Continued on next page
45
Silver Staining Methods, Continued
SilverQuest™
Silver Staining
Protocol
A brief protocol for staining one E-PAGE™ Gel with the SilverQuest™ Silver
Staining Kit is described below. For details, refer to the product manual
available at www.invitrogen.com or contact Technical Support (page 72).
After electrophoresis, remove the gel from the cassette (page 25). For all
staining and washing steps described below, be sure to use sufficient volume of
reagent to completely cover the gel in a microwave safe container such that the
gel moves freely during all staining and washing steps.
Results obtained with SilverQuest™ Silver Staining Kit are shown on page 58.
Step
Reagent
Fast Procedure
Fix
Ethanol
Acetic Acid
Ultrapure water
Final Volume
80 mL
20 mL
100 mL
200 mL
Add 150 mL, microwave for
45 seconds.
Agitate the gel for 1.5 hours.
Wash
Ethanol
Ultrapure water
Final Volume
60 mL
140 mL
200 mL
Add 150 mL, microwave for
45 seconds.
Agitate the gel for 10 minutes.
Sensitize
Ethanol
Sensitizer
Ultrapure water
Final Volume
30 mL
10 mL
60 mL
100 mL
Add 100 mL, microwave for
30 seconds.
Agitate the gel for 15 minutes.
First
Wash
Ultrapure water
150 mL
Add 150 mL, microwave for
45 seconds.
Agitate the gel for 10 minutes.
Second
Wash
Ultrapure water
150 mL
Add 150 mL, microwave for
45 seconds.
Agitate the gel for 10 minutes.
Stain
Stainer
Ultrapure water
Final Volume
1 mL
99 mL
100 mL
Add 100 mL, microwave for
30 seconds.
Agitate the gel for 1.5 hours.
Wash
Ultrapure water
100 mL
Add 100 mL, 1 minute.
Develop
Developer
10 mL
Developer Enhancer 1 drop
Ultrapure water
90 mL
Final Volume
100 mL
Add 100 mL, 8–10 minutes.
Stop
Stopper
Add 10 mL directly to Developing
solution, 10 minutes.
Wash
Ultrapure water
10 mL
100 mL
Add 100 mL, 10 minutes.
Continued on next page
46
Silver Staining Methods, Continued
SilverXpress®
Silver Staining
Protocol
A brief protocol for staining one E-PAGE™ Gel with the SilverXpress® Silver
Staining Kit is described below. For details, refer to the product manual available
at www.invitrogen.com or contact Technical Support (page 72).
After electrophoresis, remove the gel from the cassette (page 25). For all staining
and washing steps described below, be sure to use sufficient volume of reagent
to completely cover the gel in a suitable container such that the gel moves freely
during all staining and washing steps.
Results obtained with SilverXpress® Silver Staining Kit are shown on page 59.
Note: The final volumes of solutions containing both methanol and water reflect
a volume shrinkage that occurs when these two reagents are mixed. Do not
adjust volumes of components or final volume.
Step
Reagent
Procedure
Fix
Ultrapure water
Methanol
Acetic Acid
Final Volume
(see note above)
270 mL
300 mL
60 mL
600 mL
Fix the gel in 3 changes (~200 mL
each) of fixing solution for 90
minutes. Change the fixing
solution every 30 minutes.
Sensitize
Ultrapure water
Methanol
Sensitizer
Final Volume
(see note above)
105 mL
100 mL
5 mL
200 mL
Incubate the gel in 2 changes of
Sensitizing Solution for 1 h, each.
Decant the solution.
Wash
Ultrapure water
200 mL
Wash the gel twice with ultrapure
water for 15 minutes each.
Stain
Stainer A
Stainer B
Ultrapure water
Final Volume
5 mL
5 mL
90 mL
100 mL
Incubate the gel in Staining
Solution for 30 minutes. Decant
the solution.
Wash
Ultrapure water
200 mL
Wash the gel twice with ultrapure
water for 10 minutes each.
Develop
Developer
Ultrapure water
Final Volume
5 mL
95 mL
100 mL
Incubate the gel in Developing
Solution for 1–5 minutes.
Stop
Stopping Solution
5 mL
Add the Stopping Solution
directly to the Developing
Solution when the desired
staining intensity is reached.
Incubate the gel in Stopping
solution for 20 minutes. Decant
the solution.
Wash
Ultrapure water
Wash the gel three times with
ultrapure water for 20 minutes
each.
200 mL
47
InVision™ His-tag Protein Gel Stain
Introduction
Foe detection of His-tagged proteins, use the following protocol. Due to the
thickness of E-PAGE Gels, we recommend transferring proteins onto
nitrocellulose membrane (see pages 26-38) and then detecting them using
InVision™ His-tag In-Gel Stain. For details, refer to the product manual
available at www.invitrogen.com or contact Technical Support (page 72)
Note: This procedure is not recommended for staining PVDF membranes.
Materials Needed
Staining
Procedure
You will need the following items for staining one E-PAGE Gel. See page 71
for ordering information.

InVision™ His-tag In-gel Stain

Ultrapure water (>18 megohm/cm resistance recommended)

Incubation Tray

Rotary shaker

UV transilluminator equipped with a standard camera, or laser-based
scanner.
1. After electrophoresis, remove the gel from the cassette (page 25) and blot
proteins onto nitrocellulose membrane (page 26).
2. Rinse the nitrocellulose membrane (containing the transferred proteins) with
deionized water for 2 minutes.
3. Stain the nitrocellulose membrane with 20 mL of ready-to-use
InVision™ His-tag In-gel Stain for 20 minutes at room temperature.
4. Rinse the membrane briefly with ultrapure water.
5. Place the membrane on a UV transilluminator equipped with a camera.
Visualize and image the membrane by exposing the membrane to UV light
form the bottom or from the top (you may place the UV transilluminator on
its side to illuminate the blot or use epi-illumination) for 4–8 seconds.
You may also use a laser-based scanner with the appropriate filters to visualize
and image the membrane.
48
Drying of E-PAGE™ Gels
Gel Drying
Introduction
We recommend drying E-PAGE™ Gels using passive air-drying methods such
as the Large Gel Drying Kit. Due to the thickness of E-PAGE™ Gels, vacuum
drying is not recommended and may cause the gel to crack.
Materials Needed
You will need the following items for drying one E-PAGE Gel. See page 71 for
ordering information.
Gel Drying
Protocol

Large Gel Drying Kit

Gel-Dry™ Drying Solution (or prepare your own gel drying solution
containing 30% methanol and 5% glycerol)

Rotary shaker

Staining Tray
A brief gel drying protocol using the Large Gel Drying Kit is provided below.
For more details on this system, refer to the Large Gel Drying Kit manual
available at www.invitrogen.com or contact Technical Support (page 72).
1. At the end of all staining and destaining steps, wash the E-PAGE™ Gel three
times for two minutes each time in deionized water (100 mL) on a rotary
shaker.
2. Decant the water and add fresh Gel-Dry™ Drying Solution (100 mL per
E-PAGE™ gel).
3. Equilibrate the gel in the Gel-Dry™ Drying Solution by shaking the gel for
15–20 minutes in the staining container. Note: Do not equilibrate gels
stained with Coomassie® R-250 in the Gel-Dry™ Drying Solution for more
than 5 minutes to avoid losing band intensity.
4. Cut any rough edges off the gel (including the wells and the gel foot) using
the Butterfly Opener or a gel knife.
5. Remove 2 pieces (per gel) of cellophane from the package.
6. Immerse one sheet at a time in the Gel-Dry™ Drying Solution. Allow
10 seconds for complete wetting before adding additional sheets. Do not
soak the cellophane for more than 2 minutes.
Continued on next page
49
Gel Drying, Continued
Gel Drying
Protocol,
continued
7. Place the solid square of the Large Gel Drying Frame on a paper towel with the
corner pins facing up.
8. Lay a piece of pre-wetted cellophane from Step 5 over the frame carefully
without trapping any air bubbles.
9. Lay the E-PAGE™ Gel on the center of the cellophane sheet making sure no
bubbles are trapped between the gel and the cellophane. Add some Gel-Dry™
Drying Solution to the surface of the cellophane, if necessary.
10. Carefully lay the second sheet of cellophane over the gel so that no bubbles are
trapped between the cellophane and the gel. Add some Gel-Dry™ Drying
Solution if necessary. Gently smooth out any wrinkles in the assembly with a
gloved hand or pipette.
11. Place the plastic frame, beveled side up, on top of the cellophane. Push the
plastic clamps onto three edges of the frame. Tilt the frame up on the
remaining unclamped edge to drain excess solution, and then install the final
clamp.
12. Lay the gel dryer assembly flat on a bench top where it will be undisturbed. Be
careful to avoid drafts as they can cause an uneven rate of dying which leads
to cracking. Drying will take between 4–5 days.
13. When the cellophane covering the gel is dry to the touch, remove the
gel/cellophane sandwich from the drying frame. Trim off the excess
cellophane.
14. Press the dried gel(s) between the pages of a notebook under light pressure for
approximately 2 days. Gels will then remain flat for scanning, photography,
display, and overhead projection.
50
Analysis and Troubleshooting
Molecular Weight Calibration
Molecular Weight
Calibration
The molecular weight of a protein can be determined based upon its relative
mobility by constructing a standard curve with protein standards of known
molecular weights.
The protein mobility in SDS gels is dependent on:

Length of the protein in its fully denatured state

Secondary structure of the protein

Buffer system used
An identical molecular weight standard may have slightly different mobility
resulting in different apparent molecular weight when run in different gel
buffer systems.
If you are using molecular weight standards from Invitrogen, see the apparent
molecular weights of these standards on E-PAGE™ Gels listed below and on the
following page to determine the apparent molecular weight of your protein.
You may need to generate calibration curves in your lab with any other
manufacturer’s standards.
Assigned
Apparent
Molecular Weights
The apparent molecular weight values shown below are derived from the
construction of a calibration curve in the E-PAGE™ 48 and 96 buffer systems.
Use the values listed in the tables below and on the next page for the most
accurate calibration of your protein on an E-PAGE Gel.
SeeBlue® Plus2 Pre-stained Standard
Molecular Weight on E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel
1
2
3
4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Myosin (215 kDa)
Phosphorylase (146 kDa)
BSA (78 kDa)
Glutamic Dehydrogenase (56 kDa)
Alcohol Dehydrogenase (39 kDa)
Carbonic Anhydrase (25 kDa)
Myoglobin Red (19 kDa)
Lysozyme (16 kDa)
5
6
7
8
Continued on next page
51
Molecular Weight Calibration, Continued
Assigned Apparent
Molecular Weights,
Continued
MagicMark™XP Western Protein Standard
Molecular Weight on E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel
1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
2
3
4
5
6
7
209 kDa
130 kDa
114 kDa
84 kDa
64 kDa
51 kDa
39 kDa
28 kDa
19 kDa
8
9
E-PAGE™ SeeBlue® Pre-stained
Protein Standard Molecular Weight
on E-PAGE™ 96 6% Gel
1
2
3
4
5
52
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
261 kDa
173 kDa
97 kDa
42 kDa
21 kDa
E-PAGE™ MagicMark™ Western
Protein Standard Molecular Weight
on E-PAGE™ 96 6% Gel
1
2
3
4
5
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
220 kDa
120 kDa
60 kDa
40 kDa
20 kDa
Expected Results
Western Blotting
Results obtained using an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel that was blotted using the semi-dry
protocol described in this manual are shown below.
MagicMark™XP Western Protein Standard (5 μL) was loaded in all sample and
marker wells. The gel was electrophoresed for 23 minutes using standard
conditions. Proteins were transferred to a 0.45 μm nitrocellulose membrane using
the semi-dry blotting protocol described in the manual.
Detection was performed with WesternBreeze® Anti-Mouse Immunodetection Kit
using a 1:1000 dilution of Anti-Xpress primary antibody from Invitrogen. Both
top and bottom rows are identical.
209 kDa
19 kDa
Continued on next page
53
Expected Results, Continued
Lumio™ Green
Detection
Results obtained with an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel using the Lumio™ Green Detection
Kit are shown below.
Various concentrations of a Lumio™ fusion protein were labeled with Lumio™
Green Detection Kit and run on an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel as described in this
manual.
The gel contains the following samples (lanes not indicated are blank):
Lane
Sample
M
BenchMark Fluorescent Marker (5 μL)
2, 8, 13, 19,
26, 32, 37, 43
Human kinase Lumio™ fusion protein (10 μL)
3, 9, 14, 20,
27, 33, 38, 44
E. coli CAT Lumio™ fusion protein (10 μL)
4, 10, 15, 21,
28, 34, 39, 45
E. coli GUS Lumio™ fusion protein (10 μL)
5, 11, 16, 22,
29, 35, 40, 46
E. coli calmodulin Lumio™ fusion protein (10 μL)
6, 12, 17, 23,
30, 36, 41, 47
E. coli kinase D Lumio™ fusion protein (10 μL)
Continued on next page
54
Expected Results, Continued
SYPRO® Ruby
Protein Gel Stain
Results obtained using an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel stained with SYPRO® Ruby are
shown below.
BSA (2.5 - 1000 ng) was run on an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel and stained with
SYPRO® Ruby Protein Gel Stain as described in this manual.
1
2
3
4 5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
M
The gel contains the following samples: (lanes not indicated are blank)
Lane
1, 2
Amount of BSA
2.5 ng
3, 4
5.0 ng
5, 6
10 ng
7, 8
25 ng
9, 10
50 ng
11, 12
100 ng
13, 14
250 ng
15, 16
500 ng
17, 18
1000 ng
M
BenchMark Fluorescent Marker (5 μL)
Continued on next page
55
Expected Results, Continued
Coomassie® R-250
Stain
Results obtained using an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel stained with Coomassie® R-250
Stain are shown below.
Samples were run on an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel and stained with
Coomassie® R-250 Stain using the microwave protocol as described in this
manual.
M 1 2
3
4
5 6 7
8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 M
M 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 M
The gel contains the following samples: (lanes not indicated are blank)
Lane
M
Sample
SeeBlue® Plus2 Pre-stained Standard (5 μL)
2, 4, 21, 23
26, 28, 45, 47
MagicMark™ XP Western Protein Standard (10 μL)
6, 19, 30, 45
BenchMark™ His-tagged Protein Standard
(10 μL, diluted 1:5)
8, 32
Lysozyme (200 ng)
10, 34
Carbonic anhydrase (200 ng)
12, 36
BSA (100 ng)
15, 17, 39, 41
E. coli lysate (5 μL)
Continued on next page
56
Expected Results, Continued
SimplyBlue™
SafeStain
Results obtained using an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel stained with SimplyBlue™
SafeStain are shown below.
Samples were run on an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel and stained with
SimplyBlue™ SafeStain as described in this manual.
M 1 2
3
4
5 6 7
8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 M
M 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 M
The gel contains the following samples: (lanes not indicated are blank)
Lane
M
Sample
SeeBlue® Plus2 Pre-stained Standard (5 μL)
2, 4, 21, 23
26, 28, 45, 47
MagicMark™ XP Western Protein Standard (10 μL)
6, 19, 30, 45
BenchMark™ His-tagged Protein Standard
(10 μL, diluted 1:5)
8, 32
Lysozyme (200 ng)
10, 34
Carbonic anhydrase (200 ng)
12, 36
BSA (100 ng)
15, 17, 39, 41
E. coli lysate (5 μL)
Continued on next page
57
Expected Results, Continued
SilverQuest™
Silver Staining Kit
Results obtained using an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel stained with the SilverQuest™
Silver Staining Kit with are shown below.
BSA (0.5 - 1000 ng) was run on an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel and stained with the
SilverQuest™ Silver Staining Kit as described in this manual.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11
The gel contains the following samples:
Lane
1
Amount of BSA
5 ng
2
5 ng
3
10 ng
4
10ng
5
20 ng
6
20 ng
7
50 ng
8
50 ng
9
100 ng
10
100 ng
11
200 ng
Continued on next page
58
Expected Results, Continued
SilverXpress™
Silver Staining Kit
Results obtained using an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel stained with the
SilverXpress™ Silver Staining Kit with are shown below.
Samples were run on an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel and stained with the
SilverXpress™ Silver Staining Kit as described in this manual.
M 1 2 3
4 5
6
7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 M
M 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 M
The gel contains the following samples: (lanes not indicated are blank)
Lane
M
Sample
SeeBlue® Plus2 Pre-stained Standard (5 μL)
2, 4, 21, 23
26, 28, 45, 47
MagicMark™ XP Western Protein Standard (10 μL)
6, 19, 30, 43
BenchMark™ His-tagged Protein Standard
(10 μL, diluted 1:5)
8, 32
Lysozyme (200 ng)
10, 34
Carbonic anhydrase (200 ng)
12, 36
BSA (100 ng)
15, 17, 38, 40
E. coli lysate (5 μL)
59
Using E-Editor™ 2.02 Software
Introduction
The E-Editor™ 2.02 software for Windows® allows you to reconfigure digital
images of E-PAGE Gels for analysis and documentation. E-Editor™ 2.02
software reconfigures the wells of the E-PAGE Gels into a side-by-side format
for easy comparison and analysis.
You can reconfigure gels that were scanned in the original gel cassette, or gels
that were removed from the cassette. You can also group the images of multiple
gels loaded from a 384-well microtiter plate into a single image with a layout
corresponding to that of the original plate.
Capture an image of the gel as described below and then use the E-Editor™ 2.02
software to:

Align and arrange the lanes in the image

Save the reconfigured image for further analysis

Copy and paste selected lanes or the entire reconfigured image into other
applications for printing, saving, emailing, and/or publishing
Imaging the Gel
Use an appropriate gel documentation system to capture a digital image of the
gel. When imaging, the gel should be properly aligned (i.e., not at an angle) and
gel features should be clear and distinct. Proceed to Downloading Software.
Downloading
Software
E-Editor™ 2.02 software can be downloaded FREE from our website. Go to
www.invitrogen.com/epage and follow the instructions to download the
software and user manual.
60
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
Observation
The table below provides some solutions to possible problems you might
encounter during the electrophoresis of E-PAGE™ Gels. For issues with protein
transfer, refer to the manual for the iBlot® Gel Transfer Device.
Cause
™
Solution
No current
Daughter E-Base Device used
without a Mother E-Base™
Device
Do not use the Daughter E-Base™ Device
without a Mother E-Base™ Device. The
Daughter E-Base™ Device does not have an
electrical plug to connect to an electrical
outlet.
No electric contact (no
red light when
cassette is inserted) or
run does not start (no
green light)
Copper contacts in the base are
damaged due to improper use
Make sure that the copper contacts in the base
are intact.
Expired or defective gel cassette
used
Use properly stored gels before the specified
expiration date.
E-PAGE™ cassette is not
correctly inserted into base
Remove cassette and reinsert. When the
cassette is correctly inserted and power is on,
a fan in the base begins to run and a steady
red light illuminates on the base (page 21)
Sample leaking from
the wells
Sample is overloaded or wells
are damaged
Be sure to load the recommended volume of
sample per well (page 19).
Remove the comb carefully without
damaging the wells.
Poor resolution or
smearing of bands
Sample is overloaded
Do not load more than 20 μg of protein
sample per well.
Very low volumes of sample
were loaded
Do not load less than 5 μL of sample. Always
load 10–20 μL deionized water in all wells
prior to sample loading.
For proper band separation, we recommend
keeping sample volumes uniform and
loading deionized water into empty wells.
Incorrect loading buffer used
Make sure that protein sample is in one of
Use the recommended loading buffers as
described on page 11.
Electrophoresis was not started
immediately after sample
loading
For best results, the gel should be run within
15 minutes of sample loading.
Continued on next page
61
Troubleshooting, Continued
Observation
Poor resolution or
smearing of bands
Cause
Solution
High salt or detergent concentration
in samples
Be sure the final concentration of salt or
detergent in the sample is as described
on page 10. You may need to manually
increase the run time for high salt or
detergent samples to obtain optimal
results.
A1 tip not aligned
Be sure to align the A1 tip properly prior
to automated loading of E-PAGE™ 96 Gel
(page 14).
Expired gel used
Use properly stored gels before the
specified expiration date.
Over-run the gel or
need more time to run
gel
Accidentally selected an incorrect
program
Select program EP for E-PAGE™ Gels.
If you accidentally selected an incorrect
program and are at the beginning of the
run, stop the run and select the desired
program.
If you are well into the run, check the gel
to see where the loading dye is running.
Estimate the amount of time remaining
and then manually stop the run.
Protein bands
distorted on
membrane after semidry blotting
Non-uniform electric field created
around wells
Be sure that the E-PAGE™ Blotting Pad is
used correctly.
Incorrect gel orientation
Be sure that the well side of the gel is not
facing the membrane.
Weak transfer of high
molecular weight
samples during semidry blotting
Not enough SDS in sample
Reduce methanol concentration in
transfer buffer from 15% to 10% if
transferring E-PAGE 48.
Make sure transfer buffer contains no
methanol if transferring E-PAGE 96.
Weak transfer of low
molecular weight
samples
Use of large pore membranes allow
small proteins to “blow through”
Use 0.2 μm nitrocellulose membrane for
optimal capture of small proteins.
Uneven transfer of
proteins and edge
lanes during semi-dry
blotting of E-PAGE
48 Gel
No methanol in transfer buffer
Use 10–15% methanol in the transfer
buffer.
Weak transfer of
proteins during semiwet blotting
No methanol in transfer buffer
Use 10% methanol in the transfer buffer.
62
Appendix
Additional Staining Protocols
Pro-Q® Diamond
Phosphoprotein
Gel Stain
Instructions for specific staining of phosphoproteins on E-PAGE™ Gels using
Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain is described in this section.
The total staining time is ~5 h.
Due to the thickness of E-PAGE™ Gels, the Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein
Gel Stain may not be optimally sensitive for your particular staining
application.
Materials Needed
You will need the following items for staining one E-PAGE Gel:

Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain

Fixing solution (50% methanol, 10% acetic acid, made with deionized
water)

Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Destaining solution (or use 50 mM
sodium acetate pH 4.0 containing 20% acetonitrile as destaining solution)

Deionized water

Microwave safe staining tray

Rotary shaker

Microwave oven (700–1000 watts)

UV transilluminator equipped with a standard camera or laser scanners
See page 71 for ordering information.
Phosphoprotein
Staining Protocol
For all steps described below, be sure to use sufficient volume of reagent to
completely cover the gel using a suitable container such that the gel moves
freely.
1.
After electrophoresis, remove gel from the cassette (page 25) and place the
gel in a clean microwave safe staining container.
2.
Fix the gel in fixing solution (50% methanol, 10% acetic acid in deionized
water) for 45 minutes at room temperature with gentle shaking. Decant the
fixing solution and add fresh fixing solution to the container and repeat the
fixing step again for 45 minutes at room temperature. Decant the fixing
solution.
3.
Add deionized water to the gel and microwave at high power for
45 seconds. Remove the gel from the microwave and wash the gel for
10 minutes at room temperature with gentle shaking. Decant the water and
repeat the wash step again with deionized water. Decant the water.
4.
Stain the gel with Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain. Incubate the
gel in the DARK for 1–2 h at room temperature with gentle shaking. Decant
the stain.
Continued on next page
63
Additional Staining Protocols, Continued
Phosphoprotein
Staining Protocol,
Continued
5.
Destain the gel with Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel destaining
solution twice for 30 minutes each time at room temperature with gentle
shaking. You may wash the gel overnight to improve sensitivity and obtain
clear background.
6.
Place the gel on a UV transilluminator equipped with a standard camera
and select an appropriate filter on the camera (stain emission maxima is
555–580 nm).
You may also use a laser-based scanner with a laser line that falls within the
excitation maxima of the stain (580 nm).
7.
Results
Image the gel with a suitable camera with the appropriate filters using a
3–4 second exposure.
Results obtained using an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel stained with Pro-Q® Diamond
Phosphoprotein Gel Stain are shown below.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
The gel contains the following samples: (lanes not indicated are blank)
Lane
1
Sample
SeeBlue® Plus2 Pre-stained Standard (5 μL)
2, 3, 4, 5
1, 2.5, 5, and 10 μL, respectively, of BenchMark™
Fluorescent Protein Standard
6, 7, 8, 9, 10
E. coli lysate containing His-tagged urate oxidase protein,
35 kDa (0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg)
Negative control (E. coli lysate with non-His-tagged urate
oxidase 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg)
11, 12, 13, 14, 15
Continued on next page
64
Additional Staining Protocols, Continued
Pro-Q® Sapphire
532 Oligohistidine
Gel Stain
Instructions for specific staining His-tagged proteins on E-PAGE™ Gels using
Pro-Q® Sapphire 532 Oligohistidine Gel Stain is described in this section.
The total staining time is ~5 h.
Due to the thickness of E-PAGE™ Gels, the Pro-Q® Sapphire 532 Oligohistidine
Gel Stain may not be optimally sensitive for your particular staining
application. To visualize His-tagged proteins on E-PAGE Gels, we
recommend the InVision™ His-tag In-Gel Stain (page 48).
Materials Needed
Oligohistidine
Staining
Procedure
You will need the following items for staining one E-PAGE Gel:

Pro-Q® Sapphire 532 Oligohistidine Gel Stain

Fixing solution (50% ethanol, 10% acetic acid, made with deionized water)

Deionized water

Microwave safe staining tray

Rotary shaker

Microwave oven (700–1000 watts)

UV transilluminator equipped with a standard camera or laser scanners
For all steps described below, be sure to use sufficient volume of reagent to
completely cover the gel using a suitable container such that the gel moves freely
1.
After electrophoresis, remove the gel from the cassette (page 25) and place the
gel in a clean microwave safe staining container.
2.
Fix the gel in fixing solution (50% ethanol, 10% acetic acid in deionized water)
for 45 minutes at room temperature with gentle shaking. Decant the fixing
solution and add fresh fixing solution to the container and repeat the fixing
step again for 45 minutes at room temperature. Decant the fixing solution.
3.
Add deionized water to the gel and microwave at high power for 45 seconds.
Remove the gel from the microwave and wash the gel for 10 minutes at room
temperature with gentle shaking. Decant the water and repeat the wash step
for another 10 minutes again with deionized water. Decant the water.
4.
Stain the gel with Pro-Q® Sapphire 532 Oligohistidine Gel Stain. Incubate the
gel in the DARK for 30–60 minutes at room temperature with gentle shaking.
Decant the stain.
5.
Wash the gel with deionized water twice for 1 hour each time at room
temperature with gentle shaking. You may wash the gel overnight to improve
sensitivity and to obtain clear background.
Continued on next page
65
Additional Staining Protocols, Continued
Oligohistidine
Staining
Procedure,
Continued
7.
Place the gel on a UV transilluminator equipped with a standard camera and
select an appropriate filter on the camera (stain emission maxima is 572 nm).
You may also use a laser-based scanner with a laser line that falls within the
excitation maxima of the stain (532 nm).
8. Image the gel with a suitable camera with the appropriate filters using a
1–4 second exposure.
Results
Results obtained using an E-PAGE™ 48 8% Gel stained with Pro-Q® Sapphire
532 Oligohistidine Gel Stain are shown below.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 13
14
15
16 17
The gel contains the following samples: (lanes not indicated are blank)
66
Lane
1
Sample
SeeBlue®Plus2 Pre-stained Standard (10 μL)
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Purified ovalbumin phosphoprotein, 35 kDa
(5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 ng)
10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17
Negative control, lysozyme
(5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 ng)
Product Specifications
E-PAGE™ 48 Gel
Specifications
Each E-PAGE™ 48 gel contains 48 sample wells and 4 marker wells (M).
Cassette Size:
13.5 cm (l)  10.8 cm (w)  0.67 cm (thick)
Gel Thickness:
3.7 mm
Gel Volume:
50 mL
Gel Formulation:
Proprietary, operating at a neutral pH
Well Depth:
3 mm
Well Volume:
15 μL
Well Opening:
3.6 mm (l) x 2.2 mm (w)
Running Distance:
(one well to the next)
3.2 cm
Space between Wells:
4.5 mm

Note: E-PAGE 48 8% Gels have a unique separation profile, which gives protein
resolution similar to that of a 4–12% Tris-Glycine gel.
E-PAGE™ 96 Gel
Specifications
Each E-PAGE™ 96 gel contains 96 sample wells and 8 marker wells (M).
Cassette Size:
13.5 cm (l)  10.8 cm (w)  0.67 cm (thick)
Gel Thickness:
3.7 mm
Gel Volume:
50 mL
Gel Formulation:
Proprietary, operating at a neutral pH
Well Depth:
3 mm
Well Volume:
25 μL
Well Opening:
3.8 mm x 1.8 mm
Running Distance:
(one well to the next)
1.6 cm
Space between Wells:
9 mm
Continued on next page
67
Product Specifications, Continued
E-PAGE™ Gel
Separation Range
E-Base™
Specifications
The migration and resolution range of
proteins run on E-PAGE 48 8% Gels
and E-PAGE 96 6% Gels are shown.
The specifications for the Mother E-Base™ and Daughter E-Base™ are listed
below.
Dimensions:
14.6 cm (l) x 15 cm (w) x 5.3 cm (h)
Weight:
Mother E-Base™- 370 g
Daughter E-Base™- 271 g
Safety:
Double Insulation, UL listed, and CE certified
Temperature:
Ambient 15C to 40°C
Built-in Features:
Digital time display (00–99 minutes), alarm,
light LED
The SBS (Society for Biomolecular Screening) standard 96-well plate format of
the E-Base™ fits on most robotic platforms allowing the loading and
electrophoresis of gels on the E-Base™ directly on the automated liquid handling
system. See page 67 for an explanation of symbols and warnings used on the
E-Base™.
68
Explanation of Symbols and Warnings
E-Base™
E189045
The Mother E-Base™ and Daughter E-Base™ comply with the Underwriters
Laboratories Inc. regulation and the European Community Safety requirements.
Operation of the E-PAGE bases is subject to the following conditions:

Indoor use.

Altitude below 2,000 meters.

Temperature range: 5 to 40 C.

Maximum relative humidity: 80%.

Installation categories (over voltage categories) II; Pollution degree 2

Mains supply voltage fluctuations not to exceed 10% of the nominal voltage
(100–240V, 50/60Hz, 1500 mA).

The Mother E-Base™ has been tested with up to 3 Daughter E-Bases™
connected at one time.

Main plug is a disconnect device and must be easily accessible.

Do not attempt to open E-Base™ devices. To honor the warranty, E-Base™
can only be opened and serviced by Invitrogen.

The protection provided by the equipment may be impaired if the
equipment is used in a manner not specified by Invitrogen.
Life Technologies Israel Ltd.., is the manufacturer and owner of the UL file. For
more information, contact:
Life Technologies Israel Ltd.
12 Hamada St.
P.O. Box 4035
Rehovot, Israel 74103
Caution
Double Insulation
The Caution symbol denotes a risk of safety hazard. Refer to accompanying
documentation.
Class II product
69
Accessory Products
E-PAGE™ Gels
The following E-PAGE™ Gel kits are available from Invitrogen.
Product
Quantity
Catalog no.
E-PAGE 48 8% Gels
8-pack
EP048-08
E-PAGE™ 96 6% Gels
8-pack
EP096-06
™
Electrophoresis
Bases
The following electrophoresis bases are available from Invitrogen for running
E-PAGE™ gels.

The Mother E-Base™ (Cat. no. EB-M03) is used for electrophoresis of one
E-PAGE™ Gel

The Daughter E-Base™ (Cat. no. EB-D03) attaches to the Mother E-Base™ and
together are used for the independent electrophoresis of two or more
E-PAGE™ Gels.
E-Holder™
The E-Holder™ Platform is used to hold an E-PAGE™ Gel in place while loading.
Ordering information can be found on the following page.
E-Editor™ 2.02
Software
The E-Editor™ 2.02 software is available FREE with the purchase of any
E-PAGE™ Gels or related equipment. The software may be downloaded from
www.invitrogen.com/epage.
iBlot® Gel
Transfer Device
The iBlot® Gel Transfer Device is available from Invitrogen for transfer of
proteins from E-PAGE™ gels to nitrocellulose or PVDF membranes.
Product
Quantity
Catalog no.
iBlot Gel Transfer Device
1 unit
IB1001,
IB1001UK,
IB1001EU
iBlot® Gel Transfer Stack, Nitrocellulose, Regular
10-pack
IB3010-01
10-pack
IB4010-01
®
®
iBlot Gel Transfer Stack, PVDF, Regular
Continued on next page
70
Accessory Products, Continued
The following products for use with E-PAGE™ gels are available separately from
Invitrogen:
Additional
Products
Product
Quantity
Catalog no.
SeeBlue® Plus2 Pre-Stained Standard
500 μL
LC5925
E-PAGE™ SeeBlue® Pre-stained Protein Standard
500 μL
LC5700
250 μL
LC5602
250 μL
LC5701
125 μL
LC5928
1 kit
LC6090
SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel Stain
1L
S-12000
SimplyBlue™ SafeStain
1L
LC6060
SilverQuest™ Silver Staining Kit
1 kit
LC6070
1 kit
LC6100
™
MagicMark XP Western Standard
™
™
E-PAGE MagicMark Unstained Protein Standard
™
BenchMark Fluorescent Protein Standard
™
Lumio Green Detection Kit
®
®
SilverXpress Silver Staining Kit
™
InVision His-tag In-gel Stain
500 mL
LC6030
®
125 mL
NP0006
®
NuPAGE Antioxidant
15 mL
NP0005
NuPAGE® Sample Reducing Agent (10X)
10 mL
NP0009
Nitrocellulose/Filter Paper Sandwich 0.45 μm
16/pk
LC2006
Nitrocellulose/Filter Paper Sandwich 0.2 μm
16/pk
LC2009
Invitrolon PVDF/Filter Paper Sandwich 0.45 μm
16/pk
LC2007
Blotting Filter Paper (2.5 mm)
50/pk
LC2008
E-PAGE Blotting Pad
4/pk
LC2101
Blotting Roller
1
LC2100
Incubation Tray
8/pk
LC2102
Large Gel Drying Kit
1 kit
NI2207
500 mL
LC4025
WesternBreeze Chromogenic Kit
Anti-Mouse
Anti-Rabbit
Anti-Goat
1 kit
1 kit
1 kit
WB7103
WB7105
WB7107
WesternBreeze® Chemiluminescent Kit
Anti-Mouse
Anti-Rabbit
Anti-Goat
1 kit
1 kit
1 kit
WB7104
WB7106
WB7108
Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain
1L
P-33300
Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Destain Solution
1L
P-33310
Pro-Q® Sapphire 532 Oligohistidine Gel Stain
500 mL
P-33354
NuPAGE Transfer Buffer (20X)
™
™
™
Gel-Dry Drying Solution (1X)
®
71
Technical Support
Web Resources
Contact Us
Visit the Invitrogen website at www.invitrogen.com for:

Technical resources, including manuals, vector maps and sequences, application
notes, SDSs, FAQs, formulations, citations, handbooks, etc.

Complete technical support contact information

Access to the Invitrogen Online Catalog

Additional product information and special offers
For more information or technical assistance, call, write, fax, or email. Additional
international offices are listed on our website (www.invitrogen.com).
Corporate Headquarters:
5791 Van Allen Way
Carlsbad, CA 92008 USA
Tel: 1 760 603 7200
Tel (Toll Free): 1 800 955 6288
Fax: 1 760 602 6500
E-mail: [email protected]
Japanese Headquarters:
LOOP-X Bldg. 6F
3-9-15, Kaigan
Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0022
Tel: 81 3 5730 6509
Fax: 81 3 5730 6519
E-mail: [email protected]
European Headquarters:
Inchinnan Business Park
3 Fountain Drive
Paisley PA4 9RF, UK
Tel: +44 (0) 141 814 6100
Tech Fax: +44 (0) 141 814 6117
E-mail: [email protected]
SDS
Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) are available at www.invitrogen.com/sds.
Certificate of
Analysis
The Certificate of Analysis provides detailed quality control and product
qualification information for each product. Certificates of Analysis are available on
our website. Go to www.invitrogen.com/support and search for the Certificate of
Analysis by product lot number, which is printed on the box.
Product
Qualification
E-PAGE™ 96 Gels are qualified by running E-PAGE™ SeeBlue® Pre-Stained Protein,
SeeBlue® Plus2 Pre-Stained Standard, or BSA under standard running conditions as
described in this manual. Gels are visualized for proper resolution and migration of
bands. Visual inspection is also performed to ensure that the gels are free from
bubbles, spots, and any gel residues.
E-PAGE™ 48 Gels are qualified by running SeeBlue® Plus2 Pre-stained Standard and
BSA under standard running conditions as described in this manual. Gels are
visualized for proper resolution and migration of bands. Visual inspection is also
performed to ensure that the gels are free from bubbles, spots, and any gel residues.
The E-PAGE SeeBlue® Pre-Stained Standard must show 5 distinct bands when
separated by electrophoresis on an E-PAGE 96 Gel.
Continued on next page
72
Technical Support, Continued
Limited Warranty
Invitrogen (a part of Life Technologies Corporation) is committed to providing
our customers with high-quality goods and services. Our goal is to ensure that
every customer is 100% satisfied with our products and our service. If you should
have any questions or concerns about an Invitrogen product or service, contact
our Technical Support Representatives.
All Invitrogen products are warranted to perform according to specifications
stated on the certificate of analysis. The Company will replace, free of charge, any
product that does not meet those specifications. This warranty limits the
Company’s liability to only the price of the product. No warranty is granted for
products beyond their listed expiration date. No warranty is applicable unless all
product components are stored in accordance with instructions. The Company
reserves the right to select the method(s) used to analyze a product unless the
Company agrees to a specified method in writing prior to acceptance of the order.
Invitrogen makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of its publications, but
realizes that the occasional typographical or other error is inevitable. Therefore
the Company makes no warranty of any kind regarding the contents of any
publications or documentation. If you discover an error in any of our publications,
report it to our Technical Support Representatives.
Life Technologies Corporation shall have no responsibility or liability for any
special, incidental, indirect or consequential loss or damage whatsoever. The
above limited warranty is sole and exclusive. No other warranty is made,
whether expressed or implied, including any warranty of merchantability or
fitness for a particular purpose.
73
Purchaser Notification
E-PAGE
Equipment
Warranty
Invitrogen warrants that Mother E-Base™, Daughter E-Base™, and E-Holder™
will be free from defects in material and workmanship for a period of one (1)
year from date of purchase. If a defect is present, Invitrogen will, at its option,
repair, replace, or refund the purchase price of this product at no charge to you,
provided it is returned during the warranty period. This warranty does not
apply if the product has been damaged by accident, abuse, misuse or
misapplication, or from ordinary wear and tear. This warranty shall be limited
to the replacement of defective products. It is expressly agreed that this
warranty will be in lieu of all warranties of fitness and in lieu of the
warranty of merchantability.
Limited Use Label
License No. 358:
Research Use
Only
The purchase of this product conveys to the purchaser the limited, nontransferable right to use the purchased amount of the product only to perform
internal research for the sole benefit of the purchaser. No right to resell this
product or any of its components is conveyed expressly, by implication, or by
estoppel. This product is for internal research purposes only and is not for use
in commercial services of any kind, including, without limitation, reporting the
results of purchaser’s activities for a fee or other form of consideration. For
information on obtaining additional rights, please contact
[email protected] or Out Licensing, Life Technologies, 5791 Van Allen
Way, Carlsbad, California 92008.
©2010 Life Technologies Corporation. All rights reserved.
The trademarks mentioned herein are the property of Life Technologies Corporation or their
respective owners.
Coomassie® is a registered trademark of Imperial Chemical Industries, PLC.
Triton® X-100 is a registered trademark of Rohm & Haas, Co.
Tween® 20 is a registered trademark of Atlas Chemical Co.
Windows® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
74
Corporate Headquarters
5791 Van Allen Way
Carlsbad, CA 92008
T: 1 760 603 7200
F: 1 760 602 6500
E: [email protected]
For country-specific contact information, visit our web site at www.invitrogen.com
INV-081 INVIT MAN 8.5x11 1color bylife 26May2010.indd 2
10/21/2010 10:04:35 AM
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